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Sample records for adjustable adaptive compact

  1. Adjustable adaptive compact fluidic phoropter with no mechanical translation of lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Randall; Mathine, David L.; Peyman, Gholam; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact optical phoroptor consisting of adjustable astigmatic and defocus lenses. The lenses are fluidically controlled and allow for an arbitrary refractive error to be corrected without mechanically moving lenses. Shack–Hartmann measurements were used to characterize the optical properties of the individual lenses. The lenses were then assembled into the phoropter and controlled with three separate fluid controls. The phoroptor was verified by correcting the vision of a mod...

  2. Compact 6-DOF Stage for Optical Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaat, Syed; Chang, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) stage for mechanical adjustment of an optical component. The six degrees of freedom are translations along the Cartesian axes (x, y, and z) and rotations about these axes (theta x, theta y, and theta z, respectively). Relative to prior such stages, this stage offers advantages of compactness, stability, and robustness, plus other advantages as described below. The stage was designed specifically as part of a laser velocimeter and altimeter in which light reflected by a distant object is collected by a Cassegrainian telescope and focused into a single-mode, polarization-maintaining optical fiber. The stage is used to position and orient the input end of the optical fiber with respect to the focal point of the telescope. Stages like this one can also be adapted for use in positioning and orienting other optical components, including lenses, prisms, apertures, and photodetectors.

  3. Adaptive Feature Based Control of Compact Disk Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Vidal, Enrique Sanchez

    2005-01-01

    -players playing CDs with surface fault is derived and described. This feature based control scheme uses precomputed base to remove the surface fault influence from the position measurements. In this paper an adaptive version of the feature based control scheme is proposed and described. This adaptive scheme can...... result that the adaptive scheme clearly adapts better to the given faults compared with the non-adaptive version of the feature based control scheme.......Many have experienced the problem that their Compact Disc players have difficulties playing Compact Discs with surface faults like scratches and fingerprints. The cause of this is due to the two servo control loops used to keep the Optical Pick-up Unit focused and radially on the information track...

  4. Apparatus for a compact adjustable passive compliant mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael

    2015-03-17

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an adjustable compliance apparatus. The adjustable compliance apparatus includes a shaft, a sleeve element, and a torsion spring. The sleeve element includes a bore there through, where the shaft is positioned through the bore of the sleeve element. Further, the torsion spring includes a plurality of coils, where the shaft is positioned through the plurality of coils. Moreover, the sleeve element is slidable in an axial direction along the shaft between the torsion spring and the shaft. Accordingly, compliance of the adjustable compliance apparatus is adjustable based on a number of the plurality of coils in contact with the sleeve element as positioned along the shaft within the torsion spring.

  5. Using the Bootstrap Concept to Build an Adaptable and Compact Subversion Artifice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lack, Lindsey

    2003-01-01

    .... Early tiger teams recognized the possibility of this design and compared it to the two-card bootstrap loader used in mainframes since both exhibit the characteristics of compactness and adaptability...

  6. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  7. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  8. Compact Ocean Models Enable Onboard AUV Autonomy and Decentralized Adaptive Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ocean modeling and assimilation system that can be deployed on-board of an underwater vehicle. The developed system estimates a synoptic picture of...Award Number: N00014-10-1-0424 LONG-TERM GOALS Improve synoptic observations and enhance ocean prediction through development of new...ability of mobile agents to respond adaptively by providing them with a synoptic realization of the environment in the form of compact models of the

  9. Compact MEMS-based Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Zawadzki, R; Evans, J; Choi, S; Werner, J

    2008-02-04

    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of the trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  10. Compact MEMS-based adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones, Steven M.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Evans, Julia W.; Choi, Stacey S.; Werner, John S.

    2008-02-01

    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of limitations on current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we incorporate an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminates the tedious process of using trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  11. Coping with a changing soundscape: avoidance, adjustments and adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Dominique A

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrial age, background anthropogenic noise has become a pervasive feature of many habitable environments. This relatively recent environmental feature can be particularly challenging for organisms that use acoustic forms of communication due to its propensity for masking and decreasing the potential acoustic space of signals. Furthermore, anthropogenic noise may affect biological processes including animal interactions, physiological and behavioural responses to stimuli and cognitive development. However, animals' cognitive abilities may enable them to cope with high levels of anthropogenic noise through learning, the employment of acoustic and behavioural flexibility as well as the use of multi-modal sensory systems. We are only just beginning to understand how neural structures, endocrine systems and behaviour are mechanistically linked in these scenarios, providing us with information we can use to mitigate deleterious effects of pervasive noise on wildlife, along with highlighting the remarkable adaptability of animals to an increasingly anthropogenic world. In this review, I will focus mainly on birds, due to the amount of literature on the topic, and survey recent advancements made in two main spheres: (1) how anthropogenic noise affects cognitive processes and (2) how cognition enables animals to cope with increasingly noisy environments. I will be highlighting current gaps in our knowledge, such as how noise might impact behavioural traits such as predation, as well as how noise causes physical damage to neurotransmitters and affects stress levels, in order to direct future studies on this topic.

  12. Black and White Dementia Caregivers: A Comparison of Their Adaptation, Adjustment, and Service Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Ramirez, Mildred

    1992-01-01

    Compared African-American (n=33) and white (n=119) family caregivers of dementia patients on adaptation, adjustment, and utilization of support services. Found African-American and white caregivers differed most notably on marital and financial/insurance status, but there were few differences in adaptation to dementia responsibilities.…

  13. Adaptation as a political process: adjusting to drought and conflict in Kenya's drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Siri; Lind, Jeremy

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we argue that people's adjustments to multiple shocks and changes, such as conflict and drought, are intrinsically political processes that have uneven outcomes. Strengthening local adaptive capacity is a critical component of adapting to climate change. Based on fieldwork in two areas in Kenya, we investigate how people seek to access livelihood adjustment options and promote particular adaptation interests through forming social relations and political alliances to influence collective decision-making. First, we find that, in the face of drought and conflict, relations are formed among individuals, politicians, customary institutions, and government administration aimed at retaining or strengthening power bases in addition to securing material means of survival. Second, national economic and political structures and processes affect local adaptive capacity in fundamental ways, such as through the unequal allocation of resources across regions, development policy biased against pastoralism, and competition for elected political positions. Third, conflict is part and parcel of the adaptation process, not just an external factor inhibiting local adaptation strategies. Fourth, there are relative winners and losers of adaptation, but whether or not local adjustments to drought and conflict compound existing inequalities depends on power relations at multiple geographic scales that shape how conflicting interests are negotiated locally. Climate change adaptation policies are unlikely to be successful or minimize inequity unless the political dimensions of local adaptation are considered; however, existing power structures and conflicts of interests represent political obstacles to developing such policies.

  14. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  15. High-speed, compact, adaptive lenses using in-line transparent dielectric elastomer actuator membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shian, Samuel; Diebold, Roger M.; Clarke, David R.

    2013-04-01

    Electrically tunable adaptive lenses provide several advantages over traditional lens assemblies in terms of compactness, speed, efficiency, and flexibility. We present an elastomer-liquid lens system which makes use of an in-line, transparent electroactive polymer actuator. The lens has two liquid-filled cavities enclosed within two frames, with two passive outer elastomer membranes and an internal transparent electroactive membrane. Advantages of the lens design over existing systems include large apertures, flexibility in choosing the starting lens curvature, and electrode encapsulation with a dielectric liquid. A lens power change up to 40 diopters, corresponding to focal length variation up to 300%, was recorded during actuation, with a response time on the order of tens of milliseconds.

  16. Exploring the Influence of Student Affairs on Adjustment and Adaptation for Indonesian Graduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Nguyen; Jay B. Larson

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the influence of student affairs on academic adjustment and adaptation for 10 Indonesian graduate students at a single campus. Semi-structured interviews explored student affairs’ role in adaptation and transition to collegiate life in the United States. Analyses illuminated ways in which participants experienced disequilibrium attending U.S. institutions arising from pre-arrival constructed images of college life in the United States. Student affairs functiona...

  17. Towards an Integrated Conceptual Model of International Student Adjustment and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartner, Alina; Young, Tony Johnstone

    2016-01-01

    Despite a burgeoning body of empirical research on "the international student experience", the area remains under-theorized. The literature to date lacks a guiding conceptual model that captures the adjustment and adaptation trajectories of this unique, growing, and important sojourner group. In this paper, we therefore put forward a…

  18. Adolescent Attachment, Identity, and Adjustment to College: Implications for the Continuity of Adaptation Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined concurrent relationship between late adolescent attachment to parents and peers and two broad indices of adolescent adaptation (personal and social identity and adjustment to college) in college freshmen (N=130) and upperclassmen (N=123). Found attachment variables were significant predictors of personal and social identity. (Author/ABL)

  19. Characterization of a tunable astigmatic fluidic lens with adaptive optics correction for compact phoropter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Huang, Chieh-Tse

    2014-07-01

    Fluidically controlled lenses which adaptively correct prescribed refractive error without mechanically moving parts are extensively applied in the ophthalmic applications. Capable of variable-focusing properties, however, the associated aberrations due to curvature change and refractive index mismatch can inherently degrade image quality severely. Here we present the experimental study of the aberrations in tunable astigmatic lens and use of adaptive optics to compensate for the wavefront errors. Characterization of the optical properties of the individual lenses is carried out by Shack-Hartmann measurements. An adaptive optics (AO) based scheme is demonstrated for three injected fluidic volumes, resulting in a substantial reduction of the wavefront errors from -0.12, -0.25, -0.32 to 0.01, -0.01, -0.20 μm, respectively, corresponding to the optical power tenability of 0.83 to 1.84 D. Furthermore, an integrated optical phoroptor consisting of adjustable astigmatic lenses and AO correction is demonstrated such that an induced refraction error of -1 D cylinder at 180° of a model eye vision is experimentally corrected.

  20. Adjusting Felder-Silverman learning styles model for application in adaptive e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Đorđe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for adjusting Felder-Silverman learning styles model for application in development of adaptive e-learning systems. Main goal of the paper is to improve the existing e-learning courses by developing a method for adaptation based on learning styles. The proposed method includes analysis of data related to students characteristics and applying the concept of personalization in creating e-learning courses. The research has been conducted at Faculty of organizational sciences, University of Belgrade, during winter semester of 2009/10, on sample of 318 students. The students from the experimental group were divided in three clusters, based on data about their styles identified using adjusted Felder-Silverman questionnaire. Data about learning styles collected during the research were used to determine typical groups of students and then to classify students into these groups. The classification was performed using data mining techniques. Adaptation of the e-learning courses was implemented according to results of data analysis. Evaluation showed that there was statistically significant difference in the results of students who attended the course adapted by using the described method, in comparison with results of students who attended course that was not adapted.

  1. Regularized logistic regression with adjusted adaptive elastic net for gene selection in high dimensional cancer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algamal, Zakariya Yahya; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-12-01

    Cancer classification and gene selection in high-dimensional data have been popular research topics in genetics and molecular biology. Recently, adaptive regularized logistic regression using the elastic net regularization, which is called the adaptive elastic net, has been successfully applied in high-dimensional cancer classification to tackle both estimating the gene coefficients and performing gene selection simultaneously. The adaptive elastic net originally used elastic net estimates as the initial weight, however, using this weight may not be preferable for certain reasons: First, the elastic net estimator is biased in selecting genes. Second, it does not perform well when the pairwise correlations between variables are not high. Adjusted adaptive regularized logistic regression (AAElastic) is proposed to address these issues and encourage grouping effects simultaneously. The real data results indicate that AAElastic is significantly consistent in selecting genes compared to the other three competitor regularization methods. Additionally, the classification performance of AAElastic is comparable to the adaptive elastic net and better than other regularization methods. Thus, we can conclude that AAElastic is a reliable adaptive regularized logistic regression method in the field of high-dimensional cancer classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive compensation control for attitude adjustment of quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhankui; Sun, Kaibiao

    2017-07-01

    A compensation control strategy based on adaptive back-stepping technique is presented to address the problem of attitude adjustment for a quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (QR- UAV) with inertia parameter uncertainties, the limited airflow disturbance and the partial loss of rotation speed effectiveness. In the design process of control system, adaptive estimation technique is introduced into the closed loop system in order to compensate the lumped disturbance term. More specifically, the designed controller utilizes "prescribed performance bounds" method, and therefore guarantees the transient performance of tracking errors, even in the presence of the lumped disturbance. Adaptive compensation algorithms under the proposed closed loop system structure are derived in the sense of Lyapunov stability analysis such that the attitude tracking error converge to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A personalised and adaptive intelligent system to adjust circadian lighting for elderly housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvholm, Anton; Sen, Sumit; Xylakis, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid population ageing in Europe and in Denmark, there is an increasing interest in technologies and designs that can support the elderly citizens in sustaining well-being and health along with preventing functional decline [1]. To date, the designs of lighting systems in elderly housing...... the development of a personalised and adaptive intelligent system [4] to adjust the lighting design in order to improve well-being and comfort levels, as well as to meet the needs of elderly people at home. To this goal, circadian adjusted LED-based (CaLED) lighting is used, which can reflect the rhythm of out......-door daylight. CaLED lighting seems that may positively influence age-related needs, mood, cognition, alertness, sleep and improve well-being in general [5][6]. To build this intelligent system 3 different types of data are considered and cross-checked: a) medical (biofactors), b) sensor-based (activity...

  4. Adaptive projection intensity adjustment for avoiding saturation in three-dimensional shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Gao, Nan; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-03-01

    Phase-based fringe projection methods have been commonly used for three-dimensional (3D) measurements. However, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. Existing solutions are complex. This paper proposes an adaptive projection intensity adjustment method to avoid image saturation and maintain good fringe modulation in measuring objects with a high range of surface reflectivities. The adapted fringe patterns are created using only one prior step of fringe-pattern projection and image capture. First, a set of phase-shifted fringe patterns with maximum projection intensity value of 255 and a uniform gray level pattern are projected onto the surface of an object. The patterns are reflected from and deformed by the object surface and captured by a digital camera. The best projection intensities corresponding to each saturated-pixel clusters are determined by fitting a polynomial function to transform captured intensities to projected intensities. Subsequently, the adapted fringe patterns are constructed using the best projection intensities at projector pixel coordinate. Finally, the adapted fringe patterns are projected for phase recovery and 3D shape calculation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high measurement accuracy even for objects with a high range of surface reflectivities.

  5. Dynamic adjustments of cognitive control: oscillatory correlates of the conflict adaptation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastötter, Bernhard; Dreisbach, Gesine; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2013-12-01

    It is a prominent idea that cognitive control mediates conflict adaptation, in that response conflict in a previous trial triggers control adjustments that reduce conflict in a current trial. In the present EEG study, we investigated the dynamics of cognitive control in a response-priming task by examining the effects of previous trial conflict on intertrial and current trial oscillatory brain activities, both on the electrode and the source level. Behavioral results showed conflict adaptation effects for RTs and response accuracy. Physiological results showed sustained intertrial effects in left parietal theta power, originating in the left inferior parietal cortex, and midcentral beta power, originating in the left and right (pre)motor cortex. Moreover, physiological analysis revealed a current trial conflict adaptation effect in midfrontal theta power, originating in the ACC. Correlational analyses showed that intertrial effects predicted conflict-induced midfrontal theta power in currently incongruent trials. In addition, conflict adaptation effects in midfrontal theta power and RTs were positively related. Together, these findings point to a dynamic cognitive control system that, as a function of previous trial type, up- and down-regulates attention and preparatory motor activities in anticipation of the next trial.

  6. Covariate-adjusted response-adaptive designs for longitudinal treatment responses: PEMF trial revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Atanu; Park, Eunsik; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2012-08-01

    Response-adaptive designs have become popular for allocation of the entering patients among two or more competing treatments in a phase III clinical trial. Although there are a lot of designs for binary treatment responses, the number of designs involving covariates is very small. Sometimes the patients give repeated responses. The only available response-adaptive allocation design for repeated binary responses is the urn design by Biswas and Dewanji [Biswas A and Dewanji AA. Randomized longitudinal play-the-winner design for repeated binary data. ANZJS 2004; 46: 675-684; Biswas A and Dewanji A. Inference for a RPW-type clinical trial with repeated monitoring for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Biometr J 2004; 46: 769-779.], although it does not take care of the covariates of the patients in the allocation design. In this article, a covariate-adjusted response-adaptive randomisation procedure is developed using the log-odds ratio within the Bayesian framework for longitudinal binary responses. The small sample performance of the proposed allocation procedure is assessed through a simulation study. The proposed procedure is illustrated using some real data set.

  7. Infrared image gray adaptive adjusting enhancement algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zi-long; Liu, Yong; Chen, Ruo-wang

    2016-11-01

    In view of the histogram equalizing algorithm to enhance image in digital image processing, an Infrared Image Gray adaptive adjusting Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gray Redundancy Histogram-dealing Technique is proposed. The algorithm is based on the determination of the entire image gray value, enhanced or lowered the image's overall gray value by increasing appropriate gray points, and then use gray-level redundancy HE method to compress the gray-scale of the image. The algorithm can enhance image detail information. Through MATLAB simulation, this paper compares the algorithm with the histogram equalization method and the algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique , and verifies the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  8. Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Yong Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs. Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems.

  9. Design of adaptive control systems by means of self-adjusting transversal filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The design of closed-loop adaptive control systems based on nonparametric identification was addressed. Implementation is by self-adjusting Least Mean Square (LMS) transversal filters. The design concept is Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). Major issues are to preserve the linearity of the error equations of each LMS filter, and to prevent estimation bias that is due to process or measurement noise, thus providing necessary conditions for the convergence and stability of the control system. The controlled element is assumed to be asymptotically stable and minimum phase. Because of the nonparametric Finite Impulse Response (FIR) estimates provided by the LMS filters, a-priori information on the plant model is needed only in broad terms. Following a survey of control system configurations and filter design considerations, system implementation is shown here in Single Input Single Output (SISO) format which is readily extendable to multivariable forms. In extensive computer simulation studies the controlled element is represented by a second-order system with widely varying damping, natural frequency, and relative degree.

  10. Compact, single-frequency, doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped in an achromatic phase-adapted double-pass geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, B; Berrou, A; Guilbaud, S; Raybaut, M; Godard, A; Lefebvre, M

    2011-03-01

    We report on a nested-cavity, doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (NesCOPO) architecture for widely tunable, mid-IR, single-frequency generation. By use of an achromatic phase-adapted double-pass pumping scheme, this new, low-threshold, semimonolithic architecture only requires two free-standing cavity mirrors and a nonlinear crystal with a mirror coating deposited on its input facet while the other facet is antireflection coated. It is thus as simple and compact as any basic linear optical parametric oscillator cavity, is easily tunable, and displays low sensitivity to mechanical vibrations. Using a high-repetition-rate (4.8 kHz) microlaser as the pump source of the NesCOPO, we demonstrate a compact source that provides pulsed, stable single-frequency output over a wide spectral range (3.8-4.3 μm) with a high peak power (up to 50 W), which are properties well suited for practical gas sensing applications.

  11. Transmission History Based Distributed Adaptive Contention Window Adjustment Algorithm Cooperating with Automatic Rate Fallback for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masakatsu; Hiraguri, Takefumi; Nishimori, Kentaro; Takaya, Kazuhiro; Murakawa, Kazuo

    This paper proposes and investigates a distributed adaptive contention window adjustment algorithm based on the transmission history for wireless LANs called the transmission-history-based distributed adaptive contention window adjustment (THAW) algorithm. The objective of this paper is to reduce the transmission delay and improve the channel throughput compared to conventional algorithms. The feature of THAW is that it adaptively adjusts the initial contention window (CWinit) size in the binary exponential backoff (BEB) algorithm used in the IEEE 802.11 standard according to the transmission history and the automatic rate fallback (ARF) algorithm, which is the most basic algorithm in automatic rate controls. This effect is to keep CWinit at a high value in a congested state. Simulation results show that the THAW algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms in terms of the channel throughput and delay, even if the timer in the ARF is changed.

  12. Psychosocial Adjustment over a Two-Year Period in Children Referred for Learning Problems: Risk, Resilience, and Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Lisa G.; Forbes, Peter W.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Weiler, Michael D.; Mitchell, William M.; Waber, Deborah P.

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year study evaluated the relationship among psychosocial adjustment, changes in academic skills, and contextual factors in 100 children (ages 7-11) with learning problems. Contextual variables were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation, including the effectiveness of the clinical assessment, extent of academic support, and the…

  13. Adjusted adaptive Lasso for covariate model-building in nonlinear mixed-effect pharmacokinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haem, Elham; Harling, Kajsa; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Zare, Najaf; Karlsson, Mats O

    2017-02-01

    One important aim in population pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics is identification and quantification of the relationships between the parameters and covariates. Lasso has been suggested as a technique for simultaneous estimation and covariate selection. In linear regression, it has been shown that Lasso possesses no oracle properties, which means it asymptotically performs as though the true underlying model was given in advance. Adaptive Lasso (ALasso) with appropriate initial weights is claimed to possess oracle properties; however, it can lead to poor predictive performance when there is multicollinearity between covariates. This simulation study implemented a new version of ALasso, called adjusted ALasso (AALasso), to take into account the ratio of the standard error of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to the ML coefficient as the initial weight in ALasso to deal with multicollinearity in non-linear mixed-effect models. The performance of AALasso was compared with that of ALasso and Lasso. PK data was simulated in four set-ups from a one-compartment bolus input model. Covariates were created by sampling from a multivariate standard normal distribution with no, low (0.2), moderate (0.5) or high (0.7) correlation. The true covariates influenced only clearance at different magnitudes. AALasso, ALasso and Lasso were compared in terms of mean absolute prediction error and error of the estimated covariate coefficient. The results show that AALasso performed better in small data sets, even in those in which a high correlation existed between covariates. This makes AALasso a promising method for covariate selection in nonlinear mixed-effect models.

  14. Design of a Compact, Bimorph Deformable Mirror-Based Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Deng, Guohua; Wei, Ling; Li, Xiqi; Yang, Jinsheng; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and tested an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) using a bimorph mirror. The simulated AOSLO system achieves diffraction-limited criterion through all the raster scanning fields (6.4 mm pupil, 3° × 3° on pupil). The bimorph mirror-based AOSLO corrected ocular aberrations in model eyes to less than 0.1 μm RMS wavefront error with a closed-loop bandwidth of a few Hz. Facilitated with a bimorph mirror at a stroke of ±15 μm with 35 elements and an aperture of 20 mm, the new AOSLO system has a size only half that of the first-generation AOSLO system. The significant increase in stroke allows for large ocular aberrations such as defocus in the range of ±600° and astigmatism in the range of ±200°, thereby fully exploiting the AO correcting capabilities for diseased human eyes in the future.

  15. High Gene Family Turnover Rates and Gene Space Adaptation in the Compact Genome of the Carnivorous Plant Utricularia gibba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Librado, Pablo; Chang, Tien-Hao; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Rozas, Julio; Albert, Victor A

    2015-05-01

    Utricularia gibba is an aquatic carnivorous plant with highly specialized morphology, featuring fibrous floating networks of branches and leaf-like organs, no recognizable roots, and bladder traps that capture and digest prey. We recently described the compressed genome of U. gibba as sufficient to control the development and reproduction of a complex organism. We hypothesized intense deletion pressure as a mechanism whereby most noncoding DNA was deleted, despite evidence for three independent whole-genome duplications (WGDs). Here, we explore the impact of intense genome fractionation in the evolutionary dynamics of U. gibba's functional gene space. We analyze U. gibba gene family turnover by modeling gene gain/death rates under a maximum-likelihood statistical framework. In accord with our deletion pressure hypothesis, we show that the U. gibba gene death rate is significantly higher than those of four other eudicot species. Interestingly, the gene gain rate is also significantly higher, likely reflecting the occurrence of multiple WGDs and possibly also small-scale genome duplications. Gene ontology enrichment analyses of U. gibba-specific two-gene orthogroups, multigene orthogroups, and singletons highlight functions that may represent adaptations in an aquatic carnivorous plant. We further discuss two homeodomain transcription factor gene families (WOX and HDG/HDZIP-IV) showing conspicuous differential expansions and contractions in U. gibba. Our results 1) reconcile the compactness of the U. gibba genome with its accommodation of a typical number of genes for a plant genome, and 2) highlight the role of high gene family turnover in the evolutionary diversification of U. gibba's functional gene space and adaptations to its unique lifestyle and highly specialized body plan. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Multiple pathways of maternal effects in black-headed gull eggs : Constraint and adaptive compensatory adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, T. G. G.; Eising, C. M.; Blount, J. D.; Surai, P.; Apanius, V.; Dijkstra, C.; Mueller, Wendt

    We investigated in the black-headed gull whether female deposition of antioxidants and immunoglobulins (enhancing early immune function), and testosterone (suppressing immune function and increasing early competitive skills) correlate suggesting that evolution has favoured the mutual adjustment of

  17. Social Capital Practices as Adaptive Drivers for Local Adjustment of New Public Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    New public management (NPM) reforms have typically undermined teachers' autonomy, values, and status in society. This article questions whether such reforms automatically have these outcomes or whether and how possibilities for local adjustment of such reforms may prevent negative outcomes. Drawing on empirical case studies from two Danish…

  18. Social capital practices as adaptive drivers for local adjustment of new public management in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    New public management (NPM) reforms have typically undermined teachers’ autonomy, values, and status in society. This article questions whether such reforms automatically have these outcomes or whether and how possibilities for local adjustment of such reforms may prevent negative outcomes. Drawi...

  19. Social daydreaming and adjustment: An experience-sampling study of socio-emotional adaptation during a life transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Lara Poerio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation.

  20. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  1. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design – analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany – to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  2. A longitudinal study of emotional adjustment, quality of life and adaptive function in attenuated MPS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa G. Shapiro

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Attenuated MPS II patients have increasing somatic disease burden and poor physical quality of life as they develop as well as decreasing self-esteem and sense of adequacy. Psychosocial quality of life, adaptive skills, and attention improve. Recognition of and intervention around these issues will be beneficial to MPS II attenuated patients who have the resources to use such assistance to improve their long-term outcomes.

  3. A longitudinal study of emotional adjustment, quality of life and adaptive function in attenuated MPS II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Elsa G; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Steiner, Robert D; Delaney, Kathleen A; Yund, Brianna; King, Kelly; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Eisengart, Julie; Whitley, Chester B

    2016-06-01

    The behavioral, adaptive and quality of life characteristics of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) have not been well studied. Understanding changes over time in the attenuated phenotype may assist in helping achieve better outcomes in long-term function. This longitudinal study investigates these outcomes in relation to age, somatic disease burden, and IQ. Specifically, somatic disease burden is a major challenge for these patients, even with treatment with enzyme replacement therapy. 15 patients, 10 between ages 6 and decreased while psychosocial quality of life increased with age. Although other adaptive skills were in the broad average range, daily living skills were low at baseline relative to normative data and decreased over time. Behavior ratings indicated improvement in attention and hyperactivity over time. No patient had severe psychopathology, but older children reported an increasing sense of inadequacy and low self-esteem on self-report, presumably due to increasing awareness of differences from peers over time. Attenuated MPS II patients have increasing somatic disease burden and poor physical quality of life as they develop as well as decreasing self-esteem and sense of adequacy. Psychosocial quality of life, adaptive skills, and attention improve. Recognition of and intervention around these issues will be beneficial to MPS II attenuated patients who have the resources to use such assistance to improve their long-term outcomes.

  4. Need for risk adjustment in adapting episode grouping software to Medicare data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaCurdy, Thomas; Kerwin, Jason; Theobald, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Episode grouper software offers a potential framework for developing important components of a pay-for-performance system for healthcare providers. If the costs for treating health conditions can be computed, then policymakers can in principle benchmark different providers' cost distributions and reward the most efficient. This article applies two of the most prominent commercial groupers and examines the properties of the cost distributions calculated for their constructed episodes. The analysis reveals that episode cost distributions exhibit substantial variation and skewness, suggesting the need for innovative risk adjustment methods prior to utilizing groupers for the purpose of physician profiling.

  5. Adjusting for cross-cultural differences in computer-adaptive tests of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, C J; Skevington, S M

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies using the WHOQOL measures have demonstrated that the relationship between individual items and the underlying quality of life (QoL) construct may differ between cultures. If unaccounted for, these differing relationships can lead to measurement bias which, in turn, can undermine the reliability of results. We used item response theory (IRT) to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in WHOQOL data from diverse language versions collected in UK, Zimbabwe, Russia, and India (total N = 1332). Data were fitted to the partial credit 'Rasch' model. We used four item banks previously derived from the WHOQOL-100 measure, which provided excellent measurement for physical, psychological, social, and environmental quality of life domains (40 items overall). Cross-cultural differential item functioning was assessed using analysis of variance for item residuals and post hoc Tukey tests. Simulated computer-adaptive tests (CATs) were conducted to assess the efficiency and precision of the four items banks. Splitting item parameters by DIF results in four linked item banks without DIF or other breaches of IRT model assumptions. Simulated CATs were more precise and efficient than longer paper-based alternatives. Assessing differential item functioning using item response theory can identify measurement invariance between cultures which, if uncontrolled, may undermine accurate comparisons in computer-adaptive testing assessments of QoL. We demonstrate how compensating for DIF using item anchoring allowed data from all four countries to be compared on a common metric, thus facilitating assessments which were both sensitive to cultural nuance and comparable between countries.

  6. Design and Experimental Development of a Pneumatic Stiffness Adjustable Foot System for Biped Robots Adaptable to Bumps on the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xizhe Zang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Walking on rough terrains still remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for biped robots because the unevenness on the ground can easily disrupt the walking stability. This paper proposes a novel foot system with passively adjustable stiffness for biped robots which is adaptable to small-sized bumps on the ground. The robotic foot is developed by attaching eight pneumatic variable stiffness units to the sole separately and symmetrically. Each variable stiffness unit mainly consists of a pneumatic bladder and a mechanical reversing valve. When walking on rough ground, the pneumatic bladders in contact with bumps are compressed, and the corresponding reversing valves are triggered to expel out the air, enabling the pneumatic bladders to adapt to the bumps with low stiffness; while the other pneumatic bladders remain rigid and maintain stable contact with the ground, providing support to the biped robot. The performances of the proposed foot system, including the variable stiffness mechanism, the adaptability on the bumps of different heights, and the application on a biped robot prototype are demonstrated by various experiments.

  7. Clinal population divergence in an adaptive parental environmental effect that adjusts seed banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampei, Christian; Metz, Johannes; Tielbörger, Katja

    2017-05-01

    Bet-hedging via between-year seed dormancy is a costly strategy for plants in unpredictable environments. Theoretically, fitness costs can be reduced through a parental environmental effect when the environment is partly predictable. We tested whether populations from environments that differ in predictability diverged in parental effects on seed dormancy. Common garden-produced seeds of the two annual plant species Biscutella didyma and Bromus fasciculatus collected along an aridity gradient were grown under 12 irrigation treatments. Offspring germination was evaluated and related to environmental correlations between generations and their fitness consequences at the four study sites. One species exhibited strong seed dormancy that increased with unpredictability in seasonal precipitation. The parental effect on seed dormancy also increased proportionally with the environmental correlation between precipitation in the parental season and seedling density in the following season; this correlation increased from mesic to arid environments. Because fitness was negatively related to density, this parental effect may be adaptive. However, the lack of dormancy in the second species indicates that bet-hedging is not the only strategy for annual plants in arid environments. Our results provide the first evidence for clinal variation in the relative strength of parental effects along environmental gradients. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-08-28

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N₀) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N₀. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N₀. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  9. The compact genome of the plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae is adapted to intracellular interactions with host Brassica spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Stephen A; Strelkov, Stephen E; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Wayne E; Robinson, Stephen J; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Malinowski, Robert; Haddadi, Parham; Kagale, Sateesh; Parkin, Isobel A P; Taheri, Ali; Borhan, M Hossein

    2016-03-31

    The protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil-borne pathogen of cruciferous species and the causal agent of clubroot disease of Brassicas including agriculturally important crops such as canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus). P. brassicae has remained an enigmatic plant pathogen and is a rare example of an obligate biotroph that resides entirely inside the host plant cell. The pathogen is the cause of severe yield losses and can render infested fields unsuitable for Brassica crop growth due to the persistence of resting spores in the soil for up to 20 years. To provide insight into the biology of the pathogen and its interaction with its primary host B. napus, we produced a draft genome of P. brassicae pathotypes 3 and 6 (Pb3 and Pb6) that differ in their host range. Pb3 is highly virulent on B. napus (but also infects other Brassica species) while Pb6 infects only vegetable Brassica crops. Both the Pb3 and Pb6 genomes are highly compact, each with a total size of 24.2 Mb, and contain less than 2 % repetitive DNA. Clustering of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Pb3, Pb6 and three additional re-sequenced pathotypes (Pb2, Pb5 and Pb8) shows a high degree of correlation of cluster grouping with host range. The Pb3 genome features significant reduction of intergenic space with multiple examples of overlapping untranslated regions (UTRs). Dependency on the host for essential nutrients is evident from the loss of genes for the biosynthesis of thiamine and some amino acids and the presence of a wide range of transport proteins, including some unique to P. brassicae. The annotated genes of Pb3 include those with a potential role in the regulation of the plant growth hormones cytokinin and auxin. The expression profile of Pb3 genes, including putative effectors, during infection and their potential role in manipulation of host defence is discussed. The P. brassicae genome sequence reveals a compact genome, a dependency of the pathogen on its host for some

  10. A case study of intelligent compaction used in road upgrades

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leyland, R

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available is that of intelligent compaction (IC) systems. As a whole such systems are said to provide numerous advantages including increased productivity, proactive compaction process adjustment, reduced spatial variations in compaction and greater data coverage compared...

  11. Could changes in reported sex ratios at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine support the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Reimondos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis suggests that when mothers are in poor conditions the sex ratio of their offspring will be biased towards females. Major famines provide opportunities for testing this hypothesis because they lead to the widespread deterioration of living conditions in the affected population. Objective: This study examines changes in sex ratio at birth before, during, and after China's 1958-1961 famine, to see whether they provide any support for the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis. Methods: We use descriptive statistics to analyse data collected by both China's 1982 and 1988 fertility sample surveys and examine changes in sex ratio at birth in recent history. In addition, we examine the effectiveness of using different methods to model changes in sex ratio at birth and compare their differences. Results: During China's 1958-1961 famine, reported sex ratio at birth remained notably higher than that observed in most countries in the world. The timing of the decline in sex ratio at birth did not coincide with the timing of the famine. After the famine, although living conditions were considerably improved, the sex ratio at birth was not higher but lower than that recorded during the famine. Conclusions: The analysis of the data collected by the two fertility surveys has found no evidence that changes in sex ratio at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine and the post-famine period supported the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis.

  12. Adaptation to a warming-drying trend through cropping system adjustment over three decades: A case study in the northern agro-pastural ecotone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingting; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Hao, Baozhen; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xuebiao; Xue, Qingwu

    2015-06-01

    Long-term field monitoring data and historical crop data are useful to assess the impacts of climate change and to manage cropping systems. The objectives of this study are to understand the cropping system response to a warming-drying trend in the northern agro-pastural ecotone (NAE) of China and to document how farmers can adapt to the warming-drying trend by changing cropping system structure and adjusting planting date. The results indicate that a significant warming-drying trend existed in the NAE from 1980 to 2009, and this trend significantly decreased crop (spring wheat, naked oat, and potato) yields. Furthermore, the yield decreased by 16.2%-28.4% with a 1°C increase in maximum temperature and decreased by 6.6%-11.8% with a 10% decrease in precipitation. Considering food security, water use efficiency, and water ecological adaptability in the semi-arid NAE, cropping system structure adjustment (e.g., a shift from wheat to potato as the predominant crop) and planting date adaptation (e.g., a delay in crop planting date) can offset the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE. Based on the successful offsetting of the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE, we conclude that farmers can reduce the negative effects of climate change and minimize the risk of crop failure by adapting their cropping system structure at the farming level.

  13. A longitudinal examination of the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: predicting child and adolescent adjustment over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Rindlaub, Laura; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Rienks, Shauna; Bianco, Hannah; Markman, Howard J

    2013-01-01

    This study tests key tenets of the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model. This model (Wadsworth, Raviv, Santiago, & Etter, 2011 ) builds on Conger and Elder's family stress model by proposing that primary control coping and secondary control coping can help reduce the negative effects of economic strain on parental behaviors central to the family stress model, namely, parental depressive symptoms and parent-child interactions, which together can decrease child internalizing and externalizing problems. Two hundred seventy-five co-parenting couples with children between the ages of 1 and 18 participated in an evaluation of a brief family strengthening intervention, aimed at preventing economic strain's negative cascade of influence on parents, and ultimately their children. The longitudinal path model, analyzed at the couple dyad level with mothers and fathers nested within couple, showed very good fit, and was not moderated by child gender or ethnicity. Analyses revealed direct positive effects of primary control coping and secondary control coping on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms. Decreased economic strain predicted more positive father-child interactions, whereas increased secondary control coping predicted less negative mother-child interactions. Positive parent-child interactions, along with decreased parent depression and economic strain, predicted child internalizing and externalizing over the course of 18 months. Multiple-group models analyzed separately by parent gender revealed, however, that child age moderated father effects. Findings provide support for the adaptation to poverty-related stress model and suggest that prevention and clinical interventions for families affected by poverty-related stress may be strengthened by including modules that address economic strain and efficacious strategies for coping with strain.

  14. Cognitive adaptation theory as a predictor of adjustment to emerging adulthood for youth with and without type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Reynolds, Kerry A; Siminerio, Linda M; Becker, Dorothy J; Escobar, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether resilience, defined by cognitive adaptation theory, predicted emerging adulthood outcomes among youth with and without type 1 diabetes. Youth with (n=118) and without type 1 diabetes (n=122), who were part of a previous longitudinal study during adolescence, completed on-line questionnaires during their senior year of high school and one and two years later. They were average age 18, 53% female, and 93% white. Questionnaires assessed cognitive adaptation theory (CAT) indicators (self-esteem, mastery, optimism) and psychological, relationship, behavioral, vocational, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. The CAT index at baseline predicted reduced psychological distress, enhanced psychological well-being, increased friend support, reduced friend conflict, the presence of romantic relationships, reduced likelihood of romantic breakups, higher GPA, higher work satisfaction, and lower work stress during the transition to emerging adulthood. Among those with diabetes, the CAT index predicted better self-care behavior and revealed a marginal relation to better glycemic control. Analyses controlled for baseline levels when appropriate. Findings were stronger one year than two years post high school graduation, and findings were stronger for those with than without diabetes. Youth with diabetes also scored lower on the CAT index than youth without diabetes. These findings suggest that the implications of CAT include not only psychological health but also relationship, vocational, and diabetes outcomes. Those who score lower on CAT indicators should be identified as children so that interventions designed to enhance resilience can be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. Compact vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)

  17. The arginine deiminase system facilitates environmental adaptability of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus through pH adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Xinyi; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Zhe; Lin, Huixing; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-06-01

    The arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a secondary metabolic system found in many different bacterial pathogens and it is often associated with virulence. Here, a systematic study of ADS functions in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) was performed. Transcriptional levels of ADS operon genes were observed to be significantly increased when SEZ was grown under acidic conditions. We constructed arcA and arcD deletion mutants (SEZ ΔarcA and SEZ ΔarcD, respectively) and found that SEZ ΔarcA was unable to metabolize arginine and synthesize ammonia; however, arcD deletion resulted in an initial decrease in arginine consumption and ammonia production, followed by recovery to the levels of wild-type SEZ after 24 h of cultivation. Cell extracts of SEZ ΔarcA showed no arginine deiminase (AD) activity, whereas no difference in AD activity between SEZ ΔarcD and wild-type SEZ was observed. SEZ survival tests demonstrated a significant decrease in survival for SEZ ΔarcA, when compared with wild-type SEZ, under acidic conditions and in epithelial cells. These findings indicate that ADS in SEZ contributes to environmental adaptability via ammonia synthesis to reduce pH stress. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Dar es Salaam. Durban. Bloemfontein. Antananarivo. Cape Town. Ifrane ... program strategy. A number of CCAA-supported projects have relevance to other important adaptation-related themes such as disaster preparedness and climate.

  19. On-board adaptive model for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on Kalman filter with proportional integral-based error adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of battery-powered electric vehicles, the lithium-ion battery plays a critical role in the reliability of vehicle system. In order to provide timely management and protection for battery systems, it is necessary to develop a reliable battery model and accurate battery parameters estimation to describe battery dynamic behaviors. Therefore, this paper focuses on an on-board adaptive model for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a first-order equivalent circuit battery model is employed to describe battery dynamic characteristics. Then, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide good initial values of model parameters to ensure filter stability and reduce the convergence time. Thirdly, an extended-Kalman-filter (EKF) is applied to on-line estimate battery SOC and model parameters. Considering that the EKF is essentially a first-order Taylor approximation of battery model, which contains inevitable model errors, thus, a proportional integral-based error adjustment technique is employed to improve the performance of EKF method and correct model parameters. Finally, the experimental results on lithium-ion batteries indicate that the proposed EKF with proportional integral-based error adjustment method can provide robust and accurate battery model and on-line parameter estimation.

  20. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  1. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nairobi, Kenya. 28 Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge. Cap Verde, Gambia,. Guinea, Guinea Bissau,. Mauritania and Senegal. Environment and Development in the Third World. (ENDA-TM). Dakar, Senegal. 29 Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk ...

  2. [Adaptive adjustment of rhizome and root system on morphology, biomass and nutrient in Phyllostachys rivalis under long-term waterlogged condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-fang; Chen, Shuang-lin; Li Ying-chun; Guo, Zi-wu; Li, Ying-chun; Yang, Qing-ping

    2015-12-01

    The research was to approach the growth strategy of rhizome and roots based on the morphology, biomass and nutrient in Phyllostachys rivalis under long-term waterlogged conditions, and provided a theoretical basis for its application for vegetation restoration in wetland and water-level fluctuation belts. The morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical indexes of annual bamboo rhizome and roots were investigated with an experiment using individually potted P. rivalis which was treated by artificial water-logging for 3, 6, and 12 months. Accordingly the morphological characteristics, biomass allocation, nutrient absorption and balance in rhizome and roots of P. rivalis were analyzed. The results showed that there was no obvious impact of long-term water-logging on the length and diameter of rhizomes, diameter of roots in P. rivalis. The morphological characteristics of rhizome had been less affected generally under water-logging for 3 months. And less rhizomes were submerged, while the growth of roots was inhibited to some extent. Furthermore, with waterlogging time extended, submerged roots and rhizomes grew abundantly, and the roots and rhizomes in soil were promoted. Moreover for ratios of rhizome biomass in soil and water, there were no obvious variations, the same for the root biomass in soil to total biomass. The ratio of root biomass in water to total biomass and the ratio of root biomass in water to root biomass in soil both increased significantly. The results indicated that P. rivalis could adapt to waterlogged conditions gradually through growth regulation and reasonable biomass distribution. However, the activity of rhizome roots in soil decreased and the nutrient absorption was inhibited by long-term water-logging, although it had no effect on stoichiometric ratios of root nutrient in soil. The activity of rhizome root in water increased and the stoichiometric ratios adjusted adaptively to waterlogged conditions, the ratio of N

  3. Meditation-induced cognitive-control states regulate response-conflict adaptation: Evidence from trial-to-trial adjustments in the Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Here we consider the possibility that meditation has an immediate impact on information processing. Moreover, we were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional input control, as previous observations suggest, or the handling of response conflict. Healthy adults underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a Simon task-which assesses conflict-resolution efficiency. While the size of the Simon effect (reflecting the efficiency of handling response conflict) was unaffected by type of meditation, the amount of dynamic behavioral adjustments (i.e., trial-to-trial variability of the Simon effect: the Gratton effect) was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in meditation instantly creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on conflict-driven control adaptations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wall adjustment strategy software for use with the NASA Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel adaptive wall test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1988-01-01

    The Wall Adjustment Strategy (WAS) software provides successful on-line control of the 2-D flexible walled test section of the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. This software package allows the level of operator intervention to be regulated as necessary for research and production type 2-D testing using and Adaptive Wall Test Section (AWTS). The software is designed to accept modification for future requirements, such as 3-D testing, with a minimum of complexity. The WAS software described is an attempt to provide a user friendly package which could be used to control any flexible walled AWTS. Control system constraints influence the details of data transfer, not the data type. Then this entire software package could be used in different control systems, if suitable interface software is available. A complete overview of the software highlights the data flow paths, the modular architecture of the software and the various operating and analysis modes available. A detailed description of the software modules includes listings of the code. A user's manual is provided to explain task generation, operating environment, user options and what to expect at execution.

  5. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  6. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  7. Model Compaction Equation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrophysical, Decompaction and Linear Regression techniques were used to investigate overpressure, degree of compaction and to derive a model compaction equation for. -1. -1 hydrostatic sandstones. Compaction coefficients obtained range from 0.0003 - 0.0005 m (averaging 0.0004 m ) and percentage compaction ...

  8. Servohydraulic compaction simulators, an overview of the state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    LeFloch, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Servohydraulic compaction simulators have been available to the Pharmaceutical industry and Academia since the 1980s and have contributed extensively to the advance of compaction physics and tableting manufacturing research. Servohydraulic simulators support die compaction, roll compaction, and can also be adapted to support capsule compaction. The introduction of 3D-generation equipment and the drive toward rational formulation of simple and complex compacts (multilayers) in a material-spari...

  9. FAMECE Compaction Study - Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    apparatus chosen for the compaction study is model CN-992, manufactured by Soiltest. In(c., of’ Evanston, Illinois. This model is part of the Army Soill...Figure 17) is model CL-700, nmanufactured by Soiltest, Inc.. of Evanston, Illinois. It has a foot adapter (CL-701) for low-shear-strength soils. It will be...moderate plasticity. 12. Soil Characteristics. Samples of’ thc three soil types were analyzed -with stand- ardl soils testinig eq(uipmlent. Sieve, or

  10. Perfectionsism, Coping, and Emotional Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2001-01-01

    Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…

  11. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  12. Fuzzy Inverse Compactness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halis Aygün

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce definitions of fuzzy inverse compactness, fuzzy inverse countable compactness, and fuzzy inverse Lindelöfness on arbitrary -fuzzy sets in -fuzzy topological spaces. We prove that the proposed definitions are good extensions of the corresponding concepts in ordinary topology and obtain different characterizations of fuzzy inverse compactness.

  13. Compact analyzer: an interactive simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Colley, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Compact Analyzer is a computer system that combines dynamic simulation models with interactive and color graphics user interface functions to provide a cost-effective simulator for dynamic analysis and evaluation of power plant operation, with engineering and training applications. Most dynamic simulation packages such as RETRAN and TRAC are designed for a batch-mode operation. With advancements in computer technology and man/machine interface capabilities, it is possible to integrate such codes with interactive and graphic functions into advanced simulators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored development of plant analyzers with such characteristics. The Compact Analyzer is an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-sponsored project, which currently utilizes the EPRI modular modeling system (MMS) for process simulation, and uses an adaptable color graphic package for dynamic display of the simulation results

  14. Cognitive control adjustments in healthy older and younger adults: Conflict adaptation, the error-related negativity (ERN), and evidence of generalized decline with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Keith, Cierra M; Hunt, Isaac J; Hedges, Dawson W; Nielsen, Brent L; Call, Vaughn R A

    2016-03-01

    Older adults display alterations in neural reflections of conflict-related processing. We examined response times (RTs), error rates, and event-related potential (ERP; N2 and P3 components) indices of conflict adaptation (i.e., congruency sequence effects) a cognitive control process wherein previous-trial congruency influences current-trial performance, along with post-error slowing, correct-related negativity (CRN), error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) amplitudes in 65 healthy older adults and 94 healthy younger adults. Older adults showed generalized slowing, had decreased post-error slowing, and committed more errors than younger adults. Both older and younger adults showed conflict adaptation effects; magnitude of conflict adaptation did not differ by age. N2 amplitudes were similar between groups; younger, but not older, adults showed conflict adaptation effects for P3 component amplitudes. CRN and Pe, but not ERN, amplitudes differed between groups. Data support generalized declines in cognitive control processes in older adults without specific deficits in conflict adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chiropractic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Results Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only a modest benefit — similar to the results of more conventional treatments. Some studies suggest that spinal manipulation also may ...

  16. Chiropractic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How you prepare No special preparation is required before a chiropractic adjustment. Chiropractic treatment may require a series of visits to your chiropractor. Ask your care provider about the frequency of visits and be ...

  17. Efficient and Compact Semiconductor Laser Transmitter Modules, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continue development of a Compact Transmitter Module (CTM). Modules will be voltage controlled to adjust wavlength using temperature and drive current settings. The...

  18. Compaction behaviour of soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kurucuk, Nurses

    2017-01-01

    Soil compaction is widely applied in geotechnical engineering practice. It is used to maximise the dry density of soils to reduce subsequent settlement under working loads or to reduce the permeability of soils. The durability and stability of structures are highly related to the appropriate compaction achievement. The structural failure of roads and airfields, and the damage caused by foundation settlement can often be traced back to the failure in achieving adequate compaction. For that rea...

  19. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  20. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    "Revised to reflect modern pharmaceutical compacting techniques, this Second Edition guides pharmaceutical engineers, formulation scientists, and product development and quality assurance personnel...

  1. Compact Polarimetry Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  2. Principles of control automation of soil compacting machine operating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatoly Fedorovich, Tikhonov; Drozdov, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of the qualitative compaction of soil bases in the erection of embankment and foundations in building and structure construction is given.The quality of the compactible gravel and sandy soils provides the bearing capability and, accordingly, the strength and durability of constructed buildings.It has been established that the compaction quality depends on many external actions, such as surface roughness and soil moisture; granulometry, chemical composition and degree of elasticity of originalfilled soil for compaction.The analysis of technological processes of soil bases compaction of foreign and domestic information sources showed that the solution of such important problem as a continuous monitoring of soil compaction actual degree in the process of machine operation carry out only with the use of modern means of automation. An effective vibrodynamic method of gravel and sand material sealing for the building structure foundations for various applications was justified and suggested.The method of continuous monitoring the soil compaction by measurement of the amplitudes and frequencies of harmonic oscillations on the compactible surface was determined, which allowed to determine the basic elements of facilities of soil compacting machine monitoring system of operating, etc. mechanisms: an accelerometer, a bandpass filter, a vibro-harmonics, an on-board microcontroller. Adjustable parameters have been established to improve the soil compaction degree and the soil compacting machine performance, and the adjustable parameter dependences on the overall indexhave been experimentally determined, which is the soil compaction degree.A structural scheme of automatic control of the soil compacting machine control mechanism and theoperation algorithm has been developed.

  3. Adjusting with care. Building blocks for an integral vision on climate adaptation; Aanpassen met beleid. Bouwstenen voor een integrale visie op klimaatadaptatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligtvoet, W.; Van Bree, L. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Van Dorland, R. [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    This study aims to: (a) to give a state-of-the-art of climate change knowledge in the Netherlands (Chapter 2); (b) to map the knowledge on the sensitivity of the focus areas which are outside the field of Delta Programme (Chapter 3); (c) to picture the current policy focus (Chapter 4); (d) to consider the planned Climate Agenda ('Klimaatagenda') with respect to the recently published adaptation strategy of the European Union (Chapter 5); (e) to describe briefly the possible steps to be taken to organize the new adaptation strategy and the required knowledge (chapter 6) [Dutch] Deze studie heeft tot doel: (a) de huidige stand van zaken in beeld te brengen rond de kennis over de klimaatverandering (hoofdstuk 2); (b) de kennis in beeld te brengen over de gevoeligheid van de aandachtsvelden die buiten het domein van het Deltaprogramma vallen (hoofdstuk 3); (c) de huidige beleidsaandacht in beeld te brengen (hoofdstuk 4); (d) de beoogde Klimaatagenda te bezien in het licht van de recent gepubliceerde adaptatiestrategie van de Europese Unie (hoofdstuk 5); (e) een korte beschouwing te geven over de mogelijke stappen die moeten worden gezet voor de organisatie van de nieuwe adaptatiestrategie en de hiervoor benodigde kennisopbouw (hoofdstuk 6)

  4. Faba Bean Can Adapt to Chocolate Spot Disease by Pretreatment with Shikimic and Salicylic Acids through Osmotic Adjustment, Solutes Allocation and Leaf Turgidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of shikimic and salicylic acids at the concentrations of 0.4 and 0.7 mM, respectively, or their combination as phenolic compounds and Ridomil MZ at the concentration of 250 g/100 L as a fungicide on osmotic pressure (OP, solutes allocation, organic acids, inorganic ions and relative water content were quantified in Vicia faba leaves infected by Botrytis fabae. Pathogen induced noticeable decrease in osmotic pressure, total soluble sugar (TSS and inorganic osmolytes (i.e. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- while caused obvious increase in proline, total soluble nitrogen (TSN and organic acids (i.e. Keto and citric acids in water extract of the leaf of faba bean plants. Furthermore, pathogen caused marked decrease in relative water content (RWC of infected leaves and as a consequence the saturation water deficit (SWD was increased. Exogenous application of shikimic acid, salicylic acid or their combination could counteract the adverse effects of B. fabae on osmotic adjustment by inducing additional increase in proline, total soluble sugars, total soluble nitrogen and organic acids which in turn increase the osmotic pressure as well as relative water content in leaves of infected plants. Recovery of osmotic adjustment as well as leaf turgidity of infected host by using these chemical inducers may encourage the using of them as protective control means. The results of the present study showed also that the application of chemical inducers such as shikimic and salicylic acids or their interaction increased the resistance of Vicia faba against the chocolate spot disease.

  5. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  6. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  7. Shaft adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  8. Adjustable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Covic, J.; Leininger, G.

    1981-01-01

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  9. Rumen ciliated protozoa decrease generation time and adjust 18S ribosomal DNA copies to adapt to decreased transfer interval, starvation, and monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, J T; Karnati, S K R; Dehority, B A; Morrison, M; Smith, G L; St-Pierre, N R; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Defaunation studies have documented decreased ammonia concentrations associated with reduced microbial protein recycling and wastage of dietary protein, whereas many methods to suppress protozoa can reduce feed intake or depress ruminal organic matter or fiber digestibility. Therefore, more research is needed to optimize dietary conditions that improve protozoal growth and ruminal outflow relative to autolysis and recycling. Response in growth rate to ruminal outflow was simulated by abrupt changes in transfer interval of batch cultures, and substrate availability was evaluated by feeding without or with abrupt addition of monensin, which was postulated to inhibit digestive vacuole function. In experiment 1, Entodinium caudatum, a mix of Entodinium species, Epidinium caudatum, or Ophryoscolex caudatus cultures rapidly adjusted their generation times to approach respective changes in transfer interval from 3 to 2 or 1 d (cultures were always fed at 24-h intervals). Monensin (0.25 microM) consistently delayed this response. To evaluate a metabolic upshift associated with feeding or a downshift associated with substrate depletion, experiment 2 used real-time PCR to quantify protozoal 18S rRNA gene (rDNA) copies that were expressed relative to cell numbers or to the cellular constituents N and nucleic acids after feeding without or with monensin (0.5 microM). The 18S rDNA copies per milligram of nucleic acids were least for Ophryoscolex compared with the other cultures. When averaged over cultures (no culture x treatment interaction), 18S rDNA copies per unit of nucleic acids decreased at 16 h when cultures were starved but increased with feeding unless monensin uncoupled availability of consumed substrate. Rumen protozoal growth increased in response to decreased transfer interval in experiment 1. Substrate availability appeared to initiate metabolic responses preparing for cell growth, explaining how cultures could rapidly adjust to decreasing transfer interval in

  10. Adaptive upstream rate adjustment by RSOA-ONU depending on different injection power of seeding light in standard-reach and long-reach PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Shih, F. Y.; Pan, C. L.

    2012-08-01

    The wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing (WDM-TDM) passive optical network (PON) using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based colorless optical networking units (ONUs) is considered as a promising candidate for the realization of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). And this architecture is actively considered by Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for the realization of FTTH in Taiwan. However, different fiber distances and optical components would introduce different power budgets to different ONUs in the PON. Besides, due to the aging of optical transmitter (Tx), the power decay of the distributed optical carrier from the central office (CO) could also reduce the injection power into each ONU. The situation will be more severe in the long-reach (LR) PON, which is considered as an option for the future access. In this work, we investigate a WDM-TDM PON using RSOA-based ONU for upstream data rate adjustment depending on different continuous wave (CW) injection powers. Both standard-reach (25 km) and LR (100 km) transmissions are evaluated. Moreover, a detail analysis of the upstream signal bit-error rate (BER) performances at different injection powers, upstream data rates, PON split-ratios under stand-reach and long-reach is presented.

  11. An iteratively reweighted least-squares approach to adaptive robust adjustment of parameters in linear regression models with autoregressive and t-distributed deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargoll, Boris; Omidalizarandi, Mohammad; Loth, Ina; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Alkhatib, Hamza

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a linear regression time series model of possibly outlier-afflicted observations and autocorrelated random deviations. This colored noise is represented by a covariance-stationary autoregressive (AR) process, in which the independent error components follow a scaled (Student's) t-distribution. This error model allows for the stochastic modeling of multiple outliers and for an adaptive robust maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of the unknown regression and AR coefficients, the scale parameter, and the degree of freedom of the t-distribution. This approach is meant to be an extension of known estimators, which tend to focus only on the regression model, or on the AR error model, or on normally distributed errors. For the purpose of ML estimation, we derive an expectation conditional maximization either algorithm, which leads to an easy-to-implement version of iteratively reweighted least squares. The estimation performance of the algorithm is evaluated via Monte Carlo simulations for a Fourier as well as a spline model in connection with AR colored noise models of different orders and with three different sampling distributions generating the white noise components. We apply the algorithm to a vibration dataset recorded by a high-accuracy, single-axis accelerometer, focusing on the evaluation of the estimated AR colored noise model.

  12. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  13. A Compact UWB Diversity Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact printed ultrawideband (UWB diversity antenna with a size of 30 mm × 36 mm operating at a frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz is proposed. The antenna is composed of two semielliptical monopoles fed by two microstrip lines. Two semicircular slots, two rectangular slots, and one stub are introduced in the ground plane to adjust the impedance bandwidth of the antenna and improve the isolation between two feeding ports. The simulated and measured results show that impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna can cover the whole UWB band with a good isolation of < −15 dB. The radiation patterns, peak antenna gain, and envelope correlation coefficient are also measured and discussed. The measured results show that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for some portable MIMO/diversity UWB applications.

  14. Spiral Inflector For Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Karamysheva, G A

    2004-01-01

    Compact cyclotron for explosives detection by nuclear resonance absorption of γ-rays in nitrogen is under development [1] Cyclotron will be equipped with the external ion source. The injection system consists of a double-drift beam bunching system, a spiral inflector, beam diagnostics, focusing and adjustment elements [2]. The spiral inflector for ion bending from axial to median plane is used. Computer model of spiral inflector for the Customs cyclotron is developed. 3D electrostatic field calculations of the designed inflector are performed. Calculated electric field map and magnetic field map of the cyclotron [3] are used for beam dynamic simulations. Numeric simulations are carried out for 500 particles using code for calculation of particle dynamics by integration of differential equations in Cartesian coordinate system written in MATLAB. Direct Coulomb particle-to-particle method is used to take into account space-charge effects.

  15. Compaction of FGD-gypsum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, B.T.J.; Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to produce compacted gypsum with a low porosity and a high strength on a laboratory scale by uniaxial compaction of flue gas desulphurization (FGD-) gypsum powder. Compacted FGD-gypsum cylinders were produced at a compaction pres-sure between 50 and 500 MPa yielding

  16. Frequency-Adaptive Modified Comb-Filter-Based Phase-Locked Loop for a Doubly-Fed Adjustable-Speed Pumped-Storage Hydropower Plant under Distorted Grid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Luo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The control system of a doubly-fed adjustable-speed pumped-storage hydropower plant needs phase-locked loops (PLLs to obtain the phase angle of grid voltage. The main drawback of a comb-filter-based phase-locked loop (CF-PLL is the slow dynamic response. This paper presents a modified comb-filter-based phase-locked loop (MCF-PLL by improving the pole-zero pattern of the comb filter, and gives the parameters’ setting method of the controller, based on the discrete model of MCF-PLL. In order to improve the disturbance resistibility of MCF-PLL when the power grid’s frequency changes, this paper proposes a frequency-adaptive modified, comb-filter-based, phase-locked loop (FAMCF-PLL and its digital implementation scheme. Experimental results show that FAMCF-PLL has good steady-state and dynamic performance under distorted grid conditions. Furthermore, FAMCF-PLL can determine the phase angle of the grid voltage, which is locked when it is applied to a doubly-fed adjustable-speed pumped-storage hydropower experimental platform.

  17. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...

  18. Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.

  19. Real Compact Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The classification of real compact surfaces is a main result which is at the same time easy to understand and non- trivial, simple in formulation and rich in consequences. The aim of this article is to explain the theorem by means of many drawings. It is an invitation to a visual approach of mathematics. First Definitions and ...

  20. Hadrons in compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 817–825. Hadrons in compact stars. DEBADES BANDYOPADHYAY. Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064, India ... There is a growing interplay between the physics of dense matter in relativistic .... Kaplan and Nelson [7] first showed in a chiral SU(3)L × SU(3)R model that.

  1. Soft b-compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkan Özkan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of generalized soft open sets in soft generalized topological spaces as a generalization of compact spaces, called soft b-compact spaces, is introduced and studied. A soft generalized topological space is soft b-compact if every soft b-open soft cover of (F,E contains a finite soft subcover. We characterize soft b-compact space and study some of their basic properties.

  2. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  3. Analysis of laboratory compaction methods of roller compacted concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtík, Tomáš; Chylík, Roman; Bílý, Petr; Fládr, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is an ordinary concrete poured and compacted with machines typically used for laying of asphalt road layers. One of the problems connected with this technology is preparation of representative samples in the laboratory. The aim of this work was to analyse two methods of preparation of RCC laboratory samples with bulk density as the comparative parameter. The first method used dynamic compaction by pneumatic hammer. The second method of compaction had a static character. The specimens were loaded by precisely defined force in laboratory loading machine to create the same conditions as during static rolling (in the Czech Republic, only static rolling is commonly used). Bulk densities obtained by the two compaction methods were compared with core drills extracted from real RCC structure. The results have shown that the samples produced by pneumatic hammer tend to overestimate the bulk density of the material. For both compaction methods, immediate bearing index test was performed to verify the quality of compaction. A fundamental difference between static and dynamic compaction was identified. In static compaction, initial resistance to penetration of the mandrel was higher, after exceeding certain limit the resistance was constant. This means that the samples were well compacted just on the surface. Specimens made by pneumatic hammer actively resisted throughout the test, the whole volume was uniformly compacted.

  4. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  5. Compact spreader schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J.-Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C., E-mail: csun@lbl.gov

    2014-12-21

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  6. Compact stellarators as reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Valanju, P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Hirshman, S.; Spong, D.A.; Strickler, D.; Williamson, D.E.; Ware, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of compact stellarators are examined as reactors: two- and three-field-period (M=2 and 3) quasi-axisymmetric devices with volume-average =4-5% and M=2 and 3 quasi-poloidal devices with =10-15%. These low-aspect-ratio stellarator-tokamak hybrids differ from conventional stellarators in their use of the plasma-generated bootstrap current to supplement the poloidal field from external coils. Using the ARIES-AT model with B max =12T on the coils gives Compact Stellarator reactors with R=7.3-8.2m, a factor of 2-3 smaller R than other stellarator reactors for the same assumptions, and neutron wall loadings up to 3.7MWm -2 . (author)

  7. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  8. Compact SAW aerosol generator

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, A.; Harazim, S.; Collins, D.J.; Br?nig, R.; Schmidt, H.; Menzel, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we discuss and demonstrate the principle features of surface acoustic wave (SAW) aerosol generation, based on the properties of the fluid supply, the acoustic wave field and the acoustowetting phenomena. Furthermore, we demonstrate a compact SAW-based aerosol generator amenable to mass production fabricated using simple techniques including photolithography, computerized numerical control (CNC) milling and printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. Using this device, we present ...

  9. Ranking of XML Files by Compiler Based Adaptive Search

    OpenAIRE

    Varun Varma Sangaraju; Mary Posonia

    2014-01-01

    The Ranking of XML files can be performed by using Adaptive keyword search and Reverse indexing of the XML data within which critical metrics are weighed and assigned to the XML data. Compiler for correcting search words will act as an added benefit. This proposed system can act as an upgrade to the existing XML keyword searching pattern. The search results obtained in LCA based systems are non-adjustable and some important features like compactness and size are missed. So this proposed syste...

  10. A method for manufacturing compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baschwitz, Robert; Raymond, Jean.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a method for preparing compacts with high matrix density. The method is characterized by the steps of forming the mixture by simultaneously pouring the components directly into a compacting matrix comprising coated particles and a graphite binder mixture in the granular form, then compressing the compact after having brought the material to be compacted to a temperature at which the binder is in the fluid state. The method can be applied to the manufacture of compacts for high temperature nuclear reactors [fr

  11. Diffusion through statically compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.L.; Shebl, M.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the effect of compaction on contaminant flow through clay liners. The experimental program included evaluation of soil properties, compaction, permeability and solute diffusion. A permeameter was built of non reactive materials to test samples compacted at different water contents and compactive efforts. The flow of a permeating solute, LiCl, was monitored. Effluent samples were collected for solute concentration measurements. The concentrations were measured by performing atomic adsorption tests. The analyzed results showed different diffusion characteristics when compaction conditions changed. At each compactive effort, permeability decreased as molding water content increased. Consequently, transit time (measured at relative concentration 50%) increased and diffusivity decreased. As compactive effort increased for soils compacted dry of optimum, permeability and diffusion decreased. On the other hand, as compactive effort increased for soils compacted wet of optimum, permeability and diffusivity increased. Tortuosity factor was indirectly measured from the diffusion and retardation rate. Tortuosity factor also decreased as placement water content was increased from dry of optimum to wet of optimum. Then decreases were more pronounced for low compactive effort tests. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Compact dynamic microfluidic iris array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmle, Christina; Doering, Christoph; Steuer, Anna; Fouckhardt, Henning

    2011-09-01

    A dynamic microfluidic iris is realized. Light attenuation is achieved by absorption of an opaque liquid (e.g. black ink). The adjustment of the iris diameter is achieved by fluid displacement via a transparent elastomer (silicone) half-sphere. This silicone calotte is hydraulically pressed against a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate as the bottom window, such that the opaque liquid is squeezed away, this way opening the iris. With this approach a dynamic range of more than 60 dB can be achieved with response times in the ms to s regime. The design allows the realization of a single iris as well as an iris array. So far the master for the molded silicone structure was fabricated by precision mechanics. The aperture diameter was changed continuously from 0 to 8 mm for a single iris and 0 to 4 mm in case of a 3 x 3 iris array. Moreover, an iris array was combined with a PMMA lens array into a compact module, the distance of both arrays equaling the focal length of the lenses. This way e.g. spatial frequency filter arrays can be realized. The possibility to extend the iris array concept to an array with many elements is demonstrated. Such arrays could be applied e.g. in light-field cameras.

  13. Determinants of intercultural adjustment among expatriate spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Anees; Van der Zee, K.I.; Sanders, Geert

    The adaptation of expatriate families to a host country seems crucial to successful fulfilment of international business assignments. The present study focused on personality, family characteristics and characteristics of expatriates' work life as determinants of the intercultural adjustment of

  14. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.; Lin, Y.; Chen, S.; He, W.; Hu, Y.; Li, Q.

    1985-01-01

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  15. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  16. Compact Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Losano, L.; Marques, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Rocha, R. da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil)

    2016-07-10

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space–time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  17. Compact synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weihreter, Ernst

    1996-01-01

    This book covers a new niche in circular accelerator design, motivated by the promising industrial prospects of recent micromanufacturing methods - X-ray lithography, synchrotron radiation-based micromachining and microanalysis techniques. It describes the basic concepts and the essential challenges for the development of compact synchrotron radiation sources from an accelerator designer's point of view and gives an outline of the actual state of the art. The volume is intended as an introduction and as a reference for physicists, engineers and managers involved in this rapidly developing fiel

  18. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  19. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  20. Advances in compact torus research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    A compact torus is a low aspect ratio, axisymmetric, closed magnetic field line configuration with no vessel wall or magnetic field coils linking the hole in the plasma toroid. This concept offers reactor advantages such as simplicity, high β, and the possibility of translation. Several methods have been used to generate compact toroids, including plasma guns, high energy particle rings, and field-reversed theta pinches. This document summarizes the results of recent work on compact toroids, presented at the first IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Compact Torus Research held in Sydney, Australia from 4 to 7 March 1985

  1. High Impact Technology Compact Combustion (HITCC) Compact Core Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    were combusted in a vitiated stream. The molecular weight and hydrogen -to-carbon ratios of these fuels were measured by Princeton University [17...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0010 HIGH IMPACT TECHNOLOGY COMPACT COMBUSTION (HITCC) COMPACT CORE TECHNOLOGIES Andrew W. Caswell Combustion ...ANDREW W. CASWELL CHARLES J. CROSS, Branch Chief Program Engineer Combustion Branch Combustion Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine

  2. Isometric coactions of compact quantum groups on compact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose a notion of isometric coaction of a compact quantum group on a compact quantum metric space in the framework of Rieffel, where the metric structure is given by a Lipnorm. Within this setting we study the problem of the existence of a quantum isometry group.

  3. The Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses his lab's plan for completing the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) conceptual design during calendar year 1987. Around July 1 they froze the subsystem envelopes on the device to continue with the conceptual design. They did this by formalizing a general requirements document. They have been developing the management plan and submitted a version to the DOE July 10. He describes a group of management activities. They released the vacuum vessel Request For Proposals (RFP) on August 5. An RFP to do a major part of the system engineering on the device is being developed. They intend to assemble the device outside of the test cell, then move it into the the test cell, install it there, and bring to the test cell many of the auxiliary facilities from TFTR, for example, power supplies

  4. Compacting spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus for compacting spent fuel rods comprises transferring the rods from a nuclear fuel rod assembly into a different nuclear fuel rod container having a smaller cross section than the assembly. The individual rods are moved from a fuel assembly and through a transition funnel by movable grippers at opposite ends of the funnel. One movable gripper reciprocates between gripping and release positions in a gap between the fuel assembly and the transition funnel. All of the fuel rods are withdrawn concurrently and are merged towards one another into a tighter array within the transition funnel and emerge as a bundle. A movable and a stationary bundle gripper are provided between the funnel and the storage container to advance the bundle of fuel rods into the container. (author)

  5. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  6. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  7. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  8. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  9. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  10. COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF IGUMALE SHALE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    In 1933 Proctor first conducted tests on compaction for application to construction of earth fill dams in California. Results published by. Proctor (1933) showed that with a given amount of compaction, there exists for each soil a moisture content, termed the optimum moisture content (OMC) at which a maximum dry density.

  11. Roller-compacted concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to help compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional con...

  12. Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Mariko; Kuno, Yoshio; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-07-01

    Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite was investigated. Na-type bentonite containing 30wt% of quartz sand was compacted in a column and the dry density was adjusted to be 1.6 g/cm 3 . Polyacrylic acid solution (including three types of polyacrylic acid, average molecular weight 2,100, 15,000 and 450,000) was prepared and was passed through the compacted bentonite. Molecular weight distributions of polyacrylic acid in the effluent solution were analysed by GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). A batch type experiment was also carried out in order to examine a sorption behavior of these organic substances onto the surfaces of grains of the bentonite. The results indicated that the smaller size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight < 100,000) was passed through the compacted bentonite. On the other hand, the larger size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight ≥100,000) was mostly filtrated by the compacted bentonite. The batch type sorption tests clarified that the polyacrylic acid did not sorb onto the surfaces of minerals constituting the bentonite. Therefore it was suggested that the larger size molecules (≥100,000) of organic substances could be predominantly filtrated by the microstructure of the compacted bentonite. (author)

  13. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  14. Compact stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  15. Compact neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  16. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  17. Good environmental performance from Compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    1996-01-01

    For Rovaniemi and the designers of the town's new Suosiola power plant, it was clear from the start that it would be based on atmospheric-pressurized fluidized bed technology. In a bid to keep environmental emissions to a minimum, the decision fell to Foster Wheeler's new Compact CFB boiler. Work on developing the Compact boiler has been carried out since 1989. Flow models and cold air and hot air tests were completed in 1990. The first Compact boiler, an 18 MW unit, was commissioned at Kuhmo in 1993; this was followed by one at Kokkola in 1994

  18. The United Nations Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations......, an operational perspective discussing the composition and impact of its participants, as well as a governance perspective discussing the constraints and opportunities of the initiative as an institutionalized arena for addressing global governance gaps. The authors contrast these three perspectives and identify...

  19. COMPACTNESS IN INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY MULTISET TOPOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Kunnambath, Shinoj Thekke; John, Sunil Jacob

    2017-01-01

    – In this paper, we discussVarious properties of Compact and Homeomorphic Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiset Topological spacesarious properties of Compact and Homeomorphic Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiset Topological spaces

  20. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  1. What Is Business's Social Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)

  2. Compact, Ultrasensitive Formaldehyde Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a compact UV laser ?based sensor for Earth science and planetary atmosphere exploration....

  3. Compaction with Automatic Jog Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    conserve area. For these reasons, compaction algorithms have gained widespread attention in the VLSI literature S ,[4, 5, 9, 111, and have been incorporated...graph is (V,E), then Dijkstra’s algorithm runs in time 6 (IEl - IVI log IV!) using Fibonacci heaps [3]. In contrast, the longest- path algorithm of...however, so that hierarchical compaction can alleviate much of the resource -. 33 pa. .1 N’, problem. It also may be suited to use in channel routing

  4. Adaptation and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Kenneth E. Skog; Duncan C. McKinley; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher W. Swanston; Sarah J. Hines; Christopher W. Woodall; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; David L. Peterson; James M. Vose

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems respond to natural climatic variability and human-caused climate change in ways that are adverse as well as beneficial to the biophysical environment and to society. Adaptation refers to responses or adjustments made—whether passive, reactive, or anticipatory—to climatic variability and change (Carter et al. 1994). Many adjustments occur whether...

  5. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  6. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ou

    conducted in a stoke boiler. A separate burning test was also carried out by burning biomass logs alone in an outdoor hot-water furnace for heating a building. Based on a previous coal compaction study, the process of biomass compaction was studied numerically by use of a non-linear finite element code. A constitutive model with sufficient generality was adapted for biomass material to deal with pore contraction during compaction. A contact node algorithm was applied to implement the effect of mold wall friction into the finite element program. Numerical analyses were made to investigate the pressure distribution in a die normal to the axis of compaction, and to investigate the density distribution in a biomass log after compaction. The results of the analyses gave generally good agreement with theoretical analysis of coal log compaction, although assumptions had to be made about the variation in the elastic modulus of the material and the Poisson's ratio during the compaction cycle.

  7. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  8. Compact magnetic confinement fusion: Spherical torus and compact torus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The spherical torus (ST and compact torus (CT are two kinds of alternative magnetic confinement fusion concepts with compact geometry. The ST is actually a sub-category of tokamak with a low aspect ratio; while the CT is a toroidal magnetic configuration with a simply-connected geometry including spheromak and field reversed pinch. The ST and CT have potential advantages for ultimate fusion reactor; while at present they can also provide unique fusion science and technology contributions for mainstream fusion research. However, some critical scientific and technology issues should be extensively investigated.

  9. Co-compact Gabor Systems on Locally Compact Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    In this work we extend classical structure and duality results in Gabor analysis on the euclidean space to the setting of second countable locally compact abelian (LCA) groups. We formulate the concept of rationally oversampling of Gabor systems in an LCA group and prove corresponding characteriz......In this work we extend classical structure and duality results in Gabor analysis on the euclidean space to the setting of second countable locally compact abelian (LCA) groups. We formulate the concept of rationally oversampling of Gabor systems in an LCA group and prove corresponding...

  10. The College Adjustment Questionnaire: A Measure of Students' Educational, Relational, and Psychological Adjustment to the College Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Maeve B.; Shirley, Lauren A.; Park, Stacey S.; Nolen, Julian P.; Gibbons, Alyssa M.; Rosén, Lee A.

    2018-01-01

    Several instruments exist to measure college adjustment: the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ; Baker & Siryk, 1989), the College Adjustment Rating Scale (Zitzow, 1984), and the College Adjustment Scales (Anton & Reed, 1991). Of these, the SACQ is the most widely used and takes a multifaceted approach to measuring college…

  11. Analysis and control of the compaction force in the composite prepreg tape winding process for rocket motor nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the process of composite prepreg tape winding, the compaction force could influence the quality of winding products. According to the analysis and experiments, during the winding process of a rocket motor nozzle aft exit cone with a winding angle, there would be an error between the deposition speed of tape layers and the feeding speed of the compaction roller, which could influence the compaction force. Both a lack of compaction and overcompaction related to the feeding of the compaction roller could result in defects of winding nozzles. Thus, a flexible winding system has been developed for rocket motor nozzle winding. In the system, feeding of the compaction roller could be adjusted in real time to achieve an invariable compaction force. According to experiments, the force deformation model of the winding tape is a time-varying system. Thus, a forgetting factor recursive least square based parameter estimation proportional-integral-differential (PID controller has been developed, which could estimate the time-varying parameter and control the compaction force by adjusting the feeding of the compaction roller during the winding process. According to the experimental results, a winding nozzle with fewer voids and a smooth surface could be wounded by the invariable compaction force in the flexible winding system.

  12. Accommodation of repetitive sensor faults - applied to surface faults on compact discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    Surface defects such as scratches and fingerprints on compact discs (CDs) can cause CD players to lose focus and tracking on the discs. A scheme for handling these defects has previously been proposed. In this brief, adaptive and predictive versions of this scheme are developed. The adaptive sche...

  13. Compact Chern–Simons vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazeia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and investigate new models of the Chern–Simons type in the three-dimensional spacetime, focusing on the existence of compact vortices. The models are controlled by potentials driven by a single real parameter that can be used to change the profile of the vortex solutions as they approach their boundary values. One of the models unveils an interesting new behavior, the tendency to make the vortex compact, as the parameter increases to larger and larger values. We also investigate the behavior of the energy density and calculate the total energy numerically.

  14. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  15. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  16. Isometric coactions of compact quantum groups on compact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a compact quantum metric space in the framework of Rieffel, where the metric structure is given by a ... For finite classical metric spaces, this problem was studied by Banica [2]. He has given a definition for a quantum symmetry of a classical finite metric space. With this ..... The graph theory we need concerns flow networks.

  17. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillard François

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  18. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, François; Golshan, Pouya; Shen, Luming; Valdès, Julio R.; Einav, Itai

    2017-06-01

    Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  19. The classification of 2-compact groups

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kasper K. S.; Grodal, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We prove that any connected 2-compact group is classified by its 2-adic root datum, and in particular the exotic 2-compact group DI(4), constructed by Dwyer-Wilkerson, is the only simple 2-compact group not arising as the 2-completion of a compact connected Lie group. Combined with our earlier work with Moeller and Viruel for p odd, this establishes the full classification of p-compact groups, stating that, up to isomorphism, there is a one-to-one correspondence between connected p-compact gr...

  20. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  1. Compactness in fuzzy function spaces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In [3] we defined a notion of compactness in FCS, the category of fuzzy convergence spaces as defined by Lowen/Lowen/Wuyts [8]. In their paper the latter also introduced a fuzzy convergence structure c-lim for fuzzy function spaces thus proving that FCS is a topological quasitopos. In this paper we start the investigation of ...

  2. Permeation characteristics of compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, Katsunori; Nishi, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Bentonite has properties such as impermeability, hygroscopic swelling, which seem to make it a promising water cut-off material. In this research, performance tests were conducted with various types of compacted bentonite toward the application of bentonite to cut-off technology. (author)

  3. Learning from the Jordan Compact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lenner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the implementation of the Jordan Compact offers three key lessons: governmental approval is important but not sufficient, the incorporation of critical voices is crucial, and meeting numeric targets is not the same as achieving underlying goals.

  4. Mesoscale Simulations of Power Compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomov, I; Fujino, D; Antoun, T; Liu, B

    2009-08-06

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line also observed in experiments. They found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations.

  5. Engineering aspects of compact stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.E.; Benson, R.D.; Brooks, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compact stellarators could combine the good confinement and high beta of a tokamak with the inherently steady state, disruption-free characteristics of a stellarator. Two U.S. compact stellarator facilities are now in the conceptual design phase: the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and the Quasi- Poloidal Stellarator (QPS). NCSX has a major radius of 1.4 m and a toroidal field up to 2 T. The primary feature of both NCSX and QPS is the set of modular coils that provide the basic magnetic configuration. These coils represent a major engineering challenge due to the complex shape, precise geometric accuracy, and high current density of the windings. The winding geometry is too complex for conventional hollow copper conductor construction. Instead, the modular coils will be wound with flexible, multi strand cable conductor that has been compacted to a 75% copper packing fraction. Inside the NCSX coil set and surrounding the plasma is a highly contoured vacuum vessel. The vessel consists of three identical, 120 deg. segments that are bolted together at double sealed joints. The QPS device has a major radius of 0.9 m, a toroidal field of 1 T, and an aspect ratio of only 2.7. Instead of an internal vacuum vessel, the QPS modular coils will operate in an external vacuum tank. (author)

  6. Compactness of eventually different families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    We show that there is an effectively closed maximal eventually different family in spaces of the form ∏ An with each An countable and discrete (for example, Baire space) and give an exact criterion for when there exists an effectively compact such family. The proof generalizes and simplifies...

  7. DNA compaction by nonbinding macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Compaction of DNA by nonbinding macromolecules such as uncharged flexible polymer chains and negatively charged globular proteins is thought to have various applications in biophysics, for example in the formation of a nucleoid structure in bacteria. A simple experimental model that has been very

  8. Compact He-Ne lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, N. I.; Ischenko, P. I.; Kozel, Stanislav M.; Kaplitsky, V. E.; Kononenko, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    The presented laser is a brand new elaboration of the compact gas laser with longitudinal excitation. This development has no analogues and is protected by the patent of Russia. Its main features are: monoblock construction of the had, internal mirrors, optical contact, small size and weight, long term of work and storage.

  9. Dynamic compaction of ceramic powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.F.

    1982-06-10

    Dynamic consolidation is a technique for densifying powder ensembles to near theoretical with or without external application of heat. The technique itself is simple: the confined powder, initially at a green density of approx. 50% encounters a high pressure shock wave which exceeds the yield strength and densifies as the wave proceeds through the compact. The time scales and pressure range from 1-10's of microseconds and 10-100's of kilobars (10 Kb = 1 GPa). The short time scale of the pressure pulse during the compaction stage inhibits kinetic processes which have longer time constants. The pressure pulse can be delivered to the green compact by a number of techniques, i.e. high explosive, projectile. The methods differ in the degree that one can control the amplitude, duration, and nature of the pressure pulse. The lecture compares powders compacted by explosive and light gas guns and when possible characterize their resulting structures and properties, using AlN as example. 14 figures.

  10. Psychological adjustment to chronic disease and rehabilitation - an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Joost; de Groot, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Psychological adjustment has a major impact on chronic disease health outcomes. However, the classification of psychological adjustment is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We aim (i) to characterize the process of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, and (ii) to analyze how various categories of the psychological adjustment process could be incorporated into the ICF. We provide a summary of models of psychological adjustment to chronic disease. We also evaluate various options for incorporating categories of psychological adjustment into the ICF. Acute and ongoing illness stressors; emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses; personal background; and social and environmental background are major categories in the adjustment process. These categories could, in principle, be integrated with various components of the ICF. Any future revision of the ICF should explicitly incorporate psychological adjustment and its (sub)categories. The ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications will be required. Implications for Rehabilitation In the context of an ageing society and large numbers of people living with chronic diseases, it is essential to understand psychological adjustment to chronic disease. However, the classification of psychological adjustment to chronic disease is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We demonstrate that the ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications would first be required. We suggest that these adaptations and clarifications should be considered in any future revision of the ICF.

  11. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  12. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  13. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and

  14. Sequential normal compactness versur topological normal compactness in variational analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Mordukhovich, B. S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2003), s. 1057-1067 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/1198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : variational analysis * sequential and topological normal compactness * Banach spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2003

  15. UV written compact broadband optical couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the first demonstration of compact asymmetric directional couplers made by UV writing is presented. The combined performance in terms bandwidth, loss and compactness exceeds that reported using other, more elaborate fabrication techniques.......In this paper the first demonstration of compact asymmetric directional couplers made by UV writing is presented. The combined performance in terms bandwidth, loss and compactness exceeds that reported using other, more elaborate fabrication techniques....

  16. Adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Barbulescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis was the factor that triggered the adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances accumulated in Romania. The current account deficit and budget deficit were two major structural imbalances that have created a high vulnerability for the economy and explained the extent of economic contraction in Romania during the economic crisis. This article identifies the main causes that lead to the need for fiscal adjustment both in the EU and in Romania, as well as main effects of adjustments in respect of their experience in recent years. The article deals with this topic, because the current topical debate in the field of fiscal adjustments implemented both in the EU and our country, and their need for economic activity aimed at economic recovery.

  17. Price adjustment clauses : report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Price adjustment mechanisms exist to account for fluctuations in commodity or labor prices and have : been used for highway construction in 47 states. They are useful in stabilizing bid prices in times of : economic uncertainty and preventing default...

  18. Equationally Compact Acts : Coproducts / Peeter Normak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normak, Peeter

    1998-01-01

    In this article equational compactness of acts and its generalizations are discussed. As equational compactness does not carry over to coproducts a slight generalization of c-equational campactness is introduced. It is proved that a coproduct of acts is c-equationally compact if and only if all components are c-equationally campact

  19. Invariant subsets under compact quantum group actions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huichi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate compact quantum group actions on unital $C^*$-algebras by analyzing invariant subsets and invariant states. In particular, we come up with the concept of compact quantum group orbits and use it to show that countable compact metrizable spaces with infinitely many points are not quantum homogeneous spaces.

  20. Probability on compact Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Applebaum, David

    2014-01-01

    Probability theory on compact Lie groups deals with the interaction between “chance” and “symmetry,” a beautiful area of mathematics of great interest in its own sake but which is now also finding increasing applications in statistics and engineering (particularly with respect to signal processing). The author gives a comprehensive introduction to some of the principle areas of study, with an emphasis on applicability. The most important topics presented are: the study of measures via the non-commutative Fourier transform, existence and regularity of densities, properties of random walks and convolution semigroups of measures, and the statistical problem of deconvolution. The emphasis on compact (rather than general) Lie groups helps readers to get acquainted with what is widely seen as a difficult field but which is also justified by the wealth of interesting results at this level and the importance of these groups for applications. The book is primarily aimed at researchers working in probability, s...

  1. Compact sources for eyesafe illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Nadia; Pu, Rui; Stebbins, Kenneth; Bystryak, Ilya; Rayno, Michael; Ezzo, Kevin; DePriest, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Q-peak has demonstrated a compact, pulsed eyesafe laser architecture operating with >10 mJ pulse energies at repetition rates as high as 160 Hz. The design leverages an end-pumped solid-state laser geometry to produce adequate eyesafe beam quality (M2˜4), while also providing a path toward higher-density laser architectures for pulsed eyesafe applications. The baseline discussed in this paper has shown a unique capability for high-pulse repetition rates in a compact package, and offers additional potential for power scaling based on birefringence compensation. The laser consists of an actively Q-switched oscillator cavity producing pulse widths designed to fit within a volume of 3760 cm3. We will discuss details of the optical system design, modeled thermal effects and stress-induced birefringence, as well as experimental advantages of the end-pumped laser geometry, along with proposed paths to higher eyesafe pulse energies.

  2. Strange matter in compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Thomas; Blaschke, David B.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations) remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.

  3. Durability of Self Compacting Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmarce, A.; Boudjehem, H.; Bendjhaiche, R.

    2011-01-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) seem to be a very promising materials for construction thanks to their properties in a fresh state. Studying of the influence of the parameters of specific designed mixes to their mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics in a state hardened is an important stage so that it can be useful for new-to-the-field researchers and designers (worldwide) beginning studies and work involving self compacting concrete. The objective of this research is to study the durability of self compacting concrete. The durability of concrete depends very much on the porosity; the latter determines the intensity of interactions with aggressive agents. The pores inside of concrete facilitate the process of damage, which began generally on the surface. We are interested to measure the porosity of concrete on five SCC with different compositions (w/c, additives) and vibrated concrete to highlight the influence of the latter on the porosity, thereafter on the compressive strength and the transfer properties (oxygen permeability, chloride ion diffusion, capillary absorption). (author)

  4. Advanced radioactive waste compaction techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodzko, M.; McGrath, R.N.; Kinsman, J.F.; Palo, W.J.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this test program is to provide definitive information on the volume reduction capabilities of conventional compactors used in the nuclear industry for the treatment of dry active waste and the effects of preshredding on compaction. The test program presents comprehensive data on compacted densities of dry active waste collected at five facilities generating this waste and using conventional compactors. Waste materials presently classified as ''non-compactable'' which would lend themselves to preshredding and compaction are identified. An ALARA evaluation of shredding operations and an economic evaluation of preshredding prior to compaction are also presented. 32 figs., 72 tabs

  5. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy β-Almost Compactness and β-Nearly Compactness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, R; Seenivasan, V

    2015-01-01

    The concept of intuitionistic fuzzy β-almost compactness and intuitionistic fuzzy β-nearly compactness in intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces is introduced and studied. Besides giving characterizations of these spaces, we study some of their properties. Also, we investigate the behavior of intuitionistic fuzzy β-compactness, intuitionistic fuzzy β-almost compactness, and intuitionistic fuzzy β-nearly compactness under several types of intuitionistic fuzzy continuous mappings.

  6. Numerical simulation of intelligent compaction technology for construction quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Intelligent compaction (IC) technique is a fast-developing technology for compaction quality control and acceptance. Proof rolling using the intelligent compaction rollers after completing compaction can eectively identify : the weak spots and sig...

  7. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  8. Control of noise - systems for compact HVAC units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses noise control systems for implementation in compact HVAC units. The control of low-frequency noise presents different problems than at higher frequencies. This is mainly related to the long wavelength, which means that passive solutions require a significant volume of space......, often not available in compact HVAC units. Active control can provide attenuation over a significant frequency range, including low frequencies, while requiring a more limited space. While the concept of active noise control is simple, a number of limitations in the acoustical, electrical and control...... systems affect the performance of implementations. The source pressure and the impedance of a centrifugal fan were measured, and a number of configurations for noise control were investigated. The performance of a simple analogue feedback control was tested in a physical prototype. An adaptive digital...

  9. Wavelet Packet based Detection of Surface Faults on Compact Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the detection of faults on the surface of a compact disc is addressed. Surface faults like scratches and fingerprints disturb the on-line measurement of the pick-up position relative to the track. This is critical since the pick-up is focused on and tracked at the information track...... based on these measurements. A precise detection of the surface fault is a prerequisite to a correct handling of the faults in order to protect the pick-up of the compact disc player from audible track losses. The actual fault handling which is addressed in other publications can be carried out...... by the use of dedicated filters adapted to remove the faults from the measurements. In this paper detection using wavelet packet filters is demonstrated. The filters are designed using the joint best basis method. Detection using these filters shows a distinct improvement compared to detection using ordinary...

  10. Compact, open-architecture computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Lim, A.; Kangarloo, H.; Eldredge, S.; Loloyan, M.; Chuang, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) was introduced in 1982, and its basic system design has not changed. Current CR systems have certain limitations: spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratios are lower than those of screen-film systems, they are complicated and expensive to build, and they have a closed architecture. The authors of this paper designed and implemented a simpler, lower-cost, compact, open-architecture CR system to overcome some of these limitations. The open-architecture system is a manual-load-single-plate reader that can fit on a desk top. Phosphor images are stored in a local disk and can be sent to any other computer through standard interfaces. Any manufacturer's plate can be read with a scanning time of 90 second for a 35 x 43-cm plate. The standard pixel size is 174 μm and can be adjusted for higher spatial resolution. The data resolution is 12 bits/pixel over an x-ray exposure range of 0.01-100 mR

  11. Diffeomorphic image registration with automatic time-step adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Klein, S.; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated Euler's time-step adjustment scheme for diffeomorphic image registration using stationary velocity fields (SVFs). The proposed variational problem aims at bounding the inverse consistency error by adaptively adjusting the number of Euler's step required to r...... accuracy as a fixed time-step scheme however at a much less computational cost....

  12. Portable compact multifunction IR calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, C.L.; Jacobsen, L.; Steed, A.

    1988-01-01

    A compact portable multifunction calibrator designed for future sensor systems is described which enables a linearity calibration for all detectors simultaneously using a near small-area source, a high-resolution mapping of the focal plane with 10 microrad setability and with a blur of less than 100 microrad, system spectral response calibration (radiometer) using a Michelson interferometer source, relative spectral response (spectrometer) using high-temperature external commercial blackbody simulators, and an absolute calibration using an internal low-temperature extended-area source. 5 references

  13. Simplified compact containment BWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Tsutagawa, M.; Hiraiwa, K.; Arai, K.; Hida, T.

    2004-01-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR), which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, is expected to prove attractive in the world energy markets due to its flexibility in regard to both energy demands and site conditions, its high potential for reducing investment risk and its safety features facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's small power output of 300 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). CCR is expected to be attractive from view point of investment due to its simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, internal upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified ECCS system with high pressure containment concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps and the maintenance of such pumps. The internal upper entry CRDs reduce the height of the reactor vessel (RPV) and consequently reduce the height of the primary containment vessel (PCV). The safety features mainly consist of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), passive auto catalytic recombiner and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in the case of design-base accidents, including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. The recombiner decreases hydrogen concentration in the PCV in the case of a severe accident. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. The feasibility of CCR safety system has been confirmed by LOCA

  14. Compact objects in Horndeski gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hector O.; Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of GR in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs)) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating BHs and present some new results on slowly rotating NSs.

  15. Matter in compact binary mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jocelyn; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Scientific Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Mergers of binary neutron stars or neutron-star/black-hole systems are promising targets for gravitational-wave detection. The dynamics of merging compact objects, and thus their gravitational-wave signatures, are primarily determined by the mass and spin of the components. However, the presence of matter can make an imprint on the final orbits and merger of a binary system. I will outline efforts to understand the impact of neutron-star matter on gravitational waves, using both theoretical and computational input, so that gravitational-wave observations can be used to measure the properties of source systems with neutron-star components.

  16. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...

  17. Compact Radiometers Expand Climate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, NASA plans to embark on the Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission in 2015. To prepare, Goddard Space Flight Center provided Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to ProSensing Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, to develop a compact ultrastable radiometer for sea surface salinity and soil moisture mapping. ProSensing incorporated small, low-cost, high-performance elements into just a few circuit boards and now offers two lightweight radiometers commercially. Government research agencies, university research groups, and large corporations around the world are using the devices for mapping soil moisture, ocean salinity, and wind speed.

  18. Adjustable continence balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Line; Fode, Mikkel; Nørgaard, Nis

    2012-01-01

    . Fourteen patients (12%) ended up with an artificial sphincter or a urethral sling. Sixty patients (63%) experienced no discomfort and 58 (61%) reported being dry or markedly improved. Overall, 50 patients (53%) reported being very or predominantly satisfied. Conclusions. Adjustable continence balloons seem...

  19. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  20. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  1. A Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment of International Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chavoshi, Saeid; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dentakos, Stella; Wright, Lorna

    2017-01-01

    The current study proposes a Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment and uses a multifaceted measure, including academic, social and psychological adjustment, to examine factors predictive of undergraduate international student adjustment. A hierarchic regression model is carried out on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire to examine theoretically pertinent predictors arranged in a developmental sequence in determining adjustment outcomes. This model...

  2. Adaptive signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 ..mu..sec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed.

  3. Adaptive signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  4. Compact Visualisation of Video Summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Ćalić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for compact and intuitive video summarisation aimed at both high-end professional production environments and small-screen portable devices. To represent large amounts of information in the form of a video key-frame summary, this paper studies the narrative grammar of comics, and using its universal and intuitive rules, lays out visual summaries in an efficient and user-centered way. In addition, the system exploits visual attention modelling and rapid serial visual presentation to generate highly compact summaries on mobile devices. A robust real-time algorithm for key-frame extraction is presented. The system ranks importance of key-frame sizes in the final layout by balancing the dominant visual representability and discovery of unanticipated content utilising a specific cost function and an unsupervised robust spectral clustering technique. A final layout is created using an optimisation algorithm based on dynamic programming. Algorithm efficiency and robustness are demonstrated by comparing the results with a manually labelled ground truth and with optimal panelling solutions.

  5. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shakeran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  6. Spectrometers for compact neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J.; Böhm, S.; Dabruck, J. P.; Rücker, U.; Gutberlet, T.; Brückel, T.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the potential for neutron spectrometers at novel accelerator driven compact neutron sources. Such a High Brilliance Source (HBS) relies on low energy nuclear reactions, which enable cryogenic moderators in very close proximity to the target and neutron optics at comparably short distances from the moderator compared to existing sources. While the first effect aims at increasing the phase space density of a moderator, the second allows the extraction of a large phase space volume, which is typically requested for spectrometer applications. We find that competitive spectrometers can be realized if (a) the neutron production rate can be synchronized with the experiment repetition rate and (b) the emission characteristics of the moderator can be matched to the phase space requirements of the experiment. MCNP simulations for protons or deuterons on a Beryllium target with a suitable target/moderator design yield a source brightness, from which we calculate the sample fluxes by phase space considerations for different types of spectrometers. These match closely the figures of todays spectrometers at medium flux sources. Hence we conclude that compact neutron sources might be a viable option for next generation neutron sources.

  7. High flux compact neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, J.; Lou, T.-P.; Tolmachoff, B.; Leung, K.-N.; Verbeke, J.; Vujic, J.

    2001-01-01

    Compact high flux neutron generators are developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutron production is based on D-D or D-T reaction. The deuterium or tritium ions are produced from plasma using either a 2 MHz or 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) discharge. RF-discharge yields high fraction of atomic species in the beam which enables higher neutron output. In the first tube design, the ion beam is formed using a multiple hole accelerator column. The beam is accelerated to energy of 80 keV by means of a three-electrode extraction system. The ion beam then impinges on a titanium target where either the 2.4 MeV D-D or 14 MeV D-T neutrons are generated. The MCNP computation code has predicted a neutron flux of ∼10 11 n/s for the D-D reaction at beam intensity of 1.5 A at 150 kV. The neutron flux measurements of this tube design will be presented. Recently new compact high flux tubes are being developed which can be used for various applications. These tubes also utilize RF-discharge for plasma generation. The design of these tubes and the first measurements will be discussed in this presentation

  8. Quark matter in compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, H., E-mail: harg@cefet-rj.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Maracana 249, 20271-110, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B., E-mail: sbd@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, J.C.T., E-mail: jcto@cbpf.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus do Paricarana s/n, 69310-270, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    Recently reported massive compact stars (Mapprox2M{sub o}) have provided strong constraints on the properties of the ultradense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. Therefore, realistic quark or hybrid star models must be compatible with these observational data. Some used equations of state (EoS) describing quark matter are in general too soft and hence are not suitable to explain the stability of high compact star masses. In this work, we present the calculations of static spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state which takes into account the superconducting colour-flavour locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. We discuss the influence of the obtained quark matter equation of state on the mass-radius relationship of quark stars. Massive quark stars are found due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when reasonable values of the superconducting gap, taken as a free parameter, are used.

  9. A compact quadrupole ion filter for helium detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A compact quadrupole ion filter was conceived and constructed for optimum performance at the mass four region of the mass spectra. It was primarely designed for geological applications in the measurements of helium of soil-gases. The whole ion filter structure is 15 cm long by 3.5 cm diameter, including ion source and collecting plate. The sensitivity to helium is of the order of 10 - 2 A.torr - 1 measured at a total pressure of 6x10 - 6 torr and resolution 6. The system can be easily adapted to work as a dynamic residual gas analyser for other purposes. (Author) [pt

  10. [Should doses of antibiotics be adjusted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lastours, V

    2018-03-01

    While we are confronted with the major increase in antibiotic resistance, the preservation of existing antibiotics has become an absolute necessity both to achieve therapeutic success and to limit the risks of the emergence of resistance. The optimization of antibiotic use and dosages must have a threefold objective: guarantee antibacterial efficacy, limit toxicities and limit emergence of resistant strains. However, with the increase in the number of multipathological patients, particularly those with renal or hepatic impairment, the increase in the number of patients with extreme weights and the use of antibiotics with narrower therapeutic margins, the adaptation of antibiotic dosages is becoming increasingly important. By reminding some principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics (PK/PD), the necessary objectives for clinical effectiveness of most antibiotic classes are reviewed and several examples of situations where dosage adjustments are necessary will be given. In particular, adjustment of antibiotic dosages in obese patients will be discussed. Adaptation is not limited to the adaptation of the total daily dose. The PK/PD parameters also tell us that the mode of administration (intermittent versus continuous, number of injections per day, etc.) is also an essential point to consider. By taking examples concerning some molecules, infections and difficult clinical situations, we review situations in which dosage adjustments appear necessary. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  12. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, James E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  13. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  14. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T.T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    1999-07-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  15. Self-compacting concrete: the role of the particle size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.; Radix, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses experiments and theories on Self-Compacting Concrete. The “Chinese Method”, as developed by Su et al. [1] and Su and Miao [2] and adapted to European circumstances, serves as a basis for the development of new concrete mixes. Mixes, consisting of slag blended cement, gravel

  16. (U) Influence of Compaction Model Form on Planar and Cylindrical Compaction Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carney, Theodore Clayton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fichtl, Christopher Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The dynamic compaction response of CeO2 is examined within the frameworks of the Ramp and P-a compaction models. Hydrocode calculations simulating the dynamic response of CeO2 at several distinct pressures within the compaction region are investigated in both planar and cylindrically convergent geometries. Findings suggest additional validation of the compaction models is warranted under complex loading configurations.

  17. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  18. Experimental studies of compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Berkeley Compact Toroid Experiment (BCTX) device is a plasma device with a Marshall-gun generated, low aspect ratio toroidal plasma. The device is capable of producing spheromak-type discharges and may, with some modification, produce low-aspect ratio tokamak configurations. A unique aspect of this experimenal devie is its large lower hybrid (LH) heating system, which consists of two 450MHz klystron tubes generating 20 megawatts each into a brambilla-type launching structure. Successful operation with one klystron at virtually full power (18 MW) has been accomplished with 110 μs pulse length. A second klystron is currently installed in its socket and magnet but has not been added to the RF drive system. This report describes current activities and accomplishments and describes the anticipated results of next year's activity

  19. Compact Digital High Voltage Charger

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ge

    2005-01-01

    The operation of classical resonant circuit developed for the pulse energizing is investigated. The HV pulse or generator is very compact by a soft switching circuit made up of IGBT working at over 30 kHZ. The frequencies of macro pulses andμpulses can be arbitrarily tuned below resonant frequency to digitalize the HV pulse power. Theμpulses can also be connected by filter circuit to get the HVDC power. The circuit topology is given and its novel control logic is analyzed by flowchart. The circuit is part of a system consisting of a AC or DC LV power supply, a pulse transformer, the pulse generator implemented by LV capacitor and leakage inductance of the transformer, a HV DC or pulse power supply and the charged HV capacitor of the modulators.

  20. Quasistatic evolution of compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgro, A.G.; Spencer, R.L.; Lilliequist, C.

    1981-01-01

    Some results are presented of simulations of the post formation evolution of compact toroids. The simulations were performed with a 1-1/2 D transport code. Such a code makes explicit use of the fact that the shapes of the flux surfaces in the plasma change much more slowly than do the profiles of the physical variables across the flux surfaces. Consequently, assuming that the thermodynamic variables are always equilibrated on a flux surface, one may calculate the time evolution of these profiles as a function of a single variable that labels the flux surfaces. Occasionally, during the calculation these profiles are used to invert the equilibrium equation to update the shapes of the flux surfaces. In turn, these shapes imply certain geometric cofficients, such as A = 2 >, which contain the geometric information required by the 1-D equations

  1. Magnetohydodynamics stability of compact stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Cooper, W.A.; Hirshman, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Recent stability results of external kink modes and vertical modes in compact stellarators are presented. The vertical mode is found to be stabilized by externally generated poloidal flux. A simple stability criterion is derived in the limit of large aspect ratio and constant current density. For a wall at infinite distance from the plasma, the amount of external flux needed for stabilization is given by Fi = (k2 minus k)=(k2 + 1), where k is the axisymmetric elongation and Fi is the fraction of the external rotational transform. A systematic parameter study shows that the external kink mode in QAS can be stabilized at high beta (approximately 5%) without a conducting wall by magnetic shear via 3D shaping. It is found that external kinks are driven by both parallel current and pressure gradient. The pressure contributes significantly to the overall drive through the curvature term and the Pfirsch-Schluter current

  2. Optimal shapes of compact strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maritan, A.; Micheletti, C.; Trovato, A.; Banavar, J.R.

    2000-07-01

    Optimal geometrical arrangements, such as the stacking of atoms, are of relevance in diverse disciplines. A classic problem is the determination of the optimal arrangement of spheres in three dimensions in order to achieve the highest packing fraction; only recently has it been proved that the answer for infinite systems is a face-centred-cubic lattice. This simply stated problem has had a profound impact in many areas, ranging from the crystallization and melting of atomic systems, to optimal packing of objects and subdivision of space. Here we study an analogous problem-that of determining the optimal shapes of closely packed compact strings. This problem is a mathematical idealization of situations commonly encountered in biology, chemistry and physics, involving the optimal structure of folded polymeric chains. We find that, in cases where boundary effects are not dominant, helices with a particular pitch-radius ratio are selected. Interestingly, the same geometry is observed in helices in naturally-occurring proteins. (author)

  3. General Relativity&Compact Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-08-16

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10{sup 14} times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed.

  4. Compact autonomous navigation system (CANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. C.; Ying, L.; Xiong, K.; Cheng, H. Y.; Qiao, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous navigation of Satellite and constellation has series of benefits, such as to reduce operation cost and ground station workload, to avoid the event of crises of war and natural disaster, to increase spacecraft autonomy, and so on. Autonomous navigation satellite is independent of ground station support. Many systems are developed for autonomous navigation of satellite in the past 20 years. Along them American MANS (Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System) [1] of Microcosm Inc. and ERADS [2] [3] (Earth Reference Attitude Determination System) of Honeywell Inc. are well known. The systems anticipate a series of good features of autonomous navigation and aim low cost, integrated structure, low power consumption and compact layout. The ERADS is an integrated small 3-axis attitude sensor system with low cost and small volume. It has the Earth center measurement accuracy higher than the common IR sensor because the detected ultraviolet radiation zone of the atmosphere has a brightness gradient larger than that of the IR zone. But the ERADS is still a complex system because it has to eliminate many problems such as making of the sapphire sphere lens, birefringence effect of sapphire, high precision image transfer optical fiber flattener, ultraviolet intensifier noise, and so on. The marginal sphere FOV of the sphere lens of the ERADS is used to star imaging that may be bring some disadvantages., i.e. , the image energy and attitude measurements accuracy may be reduced due to the tilt image acceptance end of the fiber flattener in the FOV. Besides Japan, Germany and Russia developed visible earth sensor for GEO [4] [5]. Do we have a way to develop a cheaper/easier and more accurate autonomous navigation system that can be used to all LEO spacecraft, especially, to LEO small and micro satellites? To return this problem we provide a new type of the system—CANS (Compact Autonomous Navigation System) [6].

  5. General Relativity and Compact Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10 14 times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed

  6. Physics of Compact Advanced Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Berry, L.A.; Brooks, A.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.-Y.; Hirshman, S.; Hudson, S.; Ku, L.-P.; Lazarus, E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Monticello, D.; Neilson, G.H.; Pomphrey, N.; Reiman, A.; Spong, D.; Strickler, D.; Boozer, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Goldston, R.; Hatcher, R.; Isaev, M.; Kessel, C.; Lewandowski, J.; Lyon, J.; Merkel, P.; Mynick, H.; Nelson, B.E.; Nuehrenberg, C.; Redi, M.; Reiersen, W.; Rutherford, P.; Sanchez, R.; Schmidt, J.; White, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Compact optimized stellarators offer novel solutions for confining high-beta plasmas and developing magnetic confinement fusion. The 3-D plasma shape can be designed to enhance the MHD stability without feedback or nearby conducting structures and provide drift-orbit confinement similar to tokamaks. These configurations offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio 4-4.4 and average elongation of approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for beta > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at beta = 4% (the rest is from the coils), thus the equilibrium is much less nonlinear and is more controllable than similar advanced tokamaks. The enhanced stability is a result of ''reversed'' global shear, the spatial distribution of local shear, and the large fraction of externally generated transform. Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties

  7. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    . As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...... formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  8. Downhole adjustable bent assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes downhole adjustable apparatus for creating a bend angle in order to affect the inclination of a drilled borehole. It comprises an upper tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; lower tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; one of the portions being received within the other for relative rotational movement about an axis that is inclined with respect to the the longitudinal axes of the members, whereby in a first rotational position the longitudinal axes have one geometrical relationship, and in a second rotational position the longitudinal axes have a second, different geometrical relationship

  9. Primary length standard adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Robert; Guttenová, Jana

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with problems and techniques connected with primary length standard adjusting, which includes disassembling of the device and by use of the secondary laser with collimated beam and diffraction laws successively reassembling of the laser. In the reassembling process the device was enhanced with substituting the thermal grease cooling of cold finger by copper socket cooler. This improved external cooling system enables more effective cooling of molecular iodine in the cell, which allows better pressure stability of iodine vapor and easier readjustment of the system.

  10. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  11. Ultrasonic compaction of granular geological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Andrew; Sikaneta, Sakalima; Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    It has been shown that the compaction of granular materials for applications such as pharmaceutical tableting and plastic moulding can be enhanced by ultrasonic vibration of the compaction die. Ultrasonic vibrations can reduce the compaction pressure and increase particle fusion, leading to higher strength products. In this paper, the potential benefits of ultrasonics in the compaction of geological granular materials in downhole applications are explored, to gain insight into the effects of ultrasonic vibrations on compaction of different materials commonly encountered in sub-sea drilling. Ultrasonic vibrations are applied, using a resonant 20kHz compactor, to the compaction of loose sand and drill waste cuttings derived from oolitic limestone, clean quartz sandstone, and slate-phyllite. For each material, a higher strain for a given compaction pressure was achieved, with higher sample density compared to that in the case of an absence of ultrasonics. The relationships between the operational parameters of ultrasonic vibration amplitude and true strain rate are explored and shown to be dependent on the physical characteristics of the compacting materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders by a simple linear relationship between the diametral compressive strength of tablets and the applied compaction pressure. The mechanical strength of the tablets is characterized as the crushing...

  13. The double explosive layer cylindrical compaction method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Verbeek, H.J.; Carton, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    The standard cylindrical configuration for shock compaction is useful for the compaction of composite materials which have some plastic behavior. It can also be used to densify hard ceramics up to about 85% of the theoretical density (TMD), when low detonation velocity explosives (2-4 km s-1) are

  14. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  15. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use...

  16. Compact heat exchanger for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-01-01

    Vahterus Oy, located at Kalanti, has manufactured heat exchangers since the beginning of 1990s. About 90% of the equipment produced are exported. In the PSHE (Plate and Shell) solution of the Vahterus heat exchanger the heat is transferred by round plated welded to form a compact package, which is assembled into a cylindrical steel casing. The heat exchanger contains no gaskets or soldered joints, which eliminates the leak risks. Traditional heat exchanges are usually operated at higher temperatures and pressures, but the heat transfer capacities of them are lower. Plate heat exchangers, on the other hand, are efficient, but the application range of them is narrow. Additionally, the rubber gasket of the heat exchange plates, sealing the joints of the heat exchanging plates, does not stand high pressures or temperatures, or corroding fluids. The new welded plate heat exchanger combine the pressure and temperature resistance of tube heat exchangers and the high heat exchange capacity of plate heat exchangers. The new corrosion resisting heat exchanger can be applied for especially hard conditions. The operating temperature range of the PSHE heat exchanger is - 200 - 900 deg C. The pressure resistance is as high as 100 bar. The space requirement of PSHE is only one tenth of the space requirement of traditional tube heat exchangers. Adjusting the number of heat exchanging plates can change the capacity of the heat exchanger. Power range of the heat exchanger can be as high as 80 MW. Due to the corrosion preventive construction and the small dimension the PSHE heat exchanger can be applied for refrigerators using ammonia as refrigerant. These kinds of new Vahterus heat exchangers are in use in 60 countries in more than 2000 refrigerators

  17. Compact imaging Bragg spectrometer for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, G.; Biel, W.; Jaegers, H.; Marchuk, O.

    2004-01-01

    A compact imaging x-ray spectrometer has been designed for tokamaks and stellarators to measure the plasma parameters at different spatial chords. It has been optimized for high spectral resolution and high sensitivity. High spectral resolution is obtained by using solid state detectors and minimizing the imaging errors of the spherical crystals. It is shown, that using spherical crystals the solid angle and hence the throughput can be increased significantly, without compromising the spectral resolution. The design is useful for the measurement of the spectra of He- and H-like ions from Si to Kr. The spectral resolution is sufficient for the measurement of plasma parameters. The temporal resolution is high enough for transport studies by gas puff and laser ablation experiments. The design is based on a modified Johann spectrometer mount, utilizing a spherically bent crystal instead of the cylindrically bent crystal in the traditional Johann mount. The astigmatism of the wavelength selective reflection on the spherical crystal is applied to obtain imaging of an extended plasma source on a two-dimensional detector. For each element, a separate crystal is required, only in few cases, a crystal can be used for the spectra of two elements. For the spectra of most of the He-like ions from Si up to Kr, suitable crystal cuts have been found on quartz, silicon and germanium crystals with Bragg angles in a small interval around the design value of 53.5 deg. All of the crystals have the same radius. They are fixed on a rotational table. The distance to the detector is adjusted by an x-y table to fit to the Rowland circle

  18. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  19. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  20. Potential adjustments to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    There are three basic approaches to the problem of climate change: prevention through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, repair of damages by offsetting the effects of the gases, or learning to live with the climatic changes. Delaying greenhouse warming does not seem possible, at least not without substantial, unsupportable costs. A number of strategies to counter the effects of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases have been proposed, but few have been given serious attention. Alternatives include additions of particulate matter to the atmosphere, altering land use to change the earth's reflectivity, cultivating carbon-eating organisms in the ocean, and injecting sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere to absorb visible sunlight. A contrasting response to the aggravated greenhouse effect is to require the world to adjust. Before potential adaptation strategies can be identified, regional and sectoral impacts of climate change must be understood, but few studies to date are convincing. It is suggested that the best response may be to delay any action on climatic warming, except in those cases where action can be justified on the basis of immediate or non-climate related benfits. 10 refs

  1. On compact galaxies in the UGC catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogoshvili, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    A problem of separation of compact galaxies in the UGC Catalogue is considered. Value of surface brightness equal to or less than 21sup(m) was used as compactness criterion from a square second of arc. 96 galaxies, which are brighter than 14sup(m)5 satisfy this criterion. Among compact galaxies discovered in the UGC Catalogue 7% are the Zwicky galaxies, 15% belong to the Markarian galaxies and 27% of galaxies are part of a galaxy list with high surface brightness. Considerable divergence in estimates of total share of compact galaxies in the B.A. Worontsov-Veljaminov Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies (MCG) and the UGC Catalogue is noted. This divergence results from systematical underestimation of visible sizes of compact galaxies in the MCG Catalogue as compared with the UGC Catalogue [ru

  2. Improvements of Spiers model for compaction creep of crushed rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, A.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a number of improvements to the existing model for the process of compaction creep of rock salt developed by Spiers and co-workers. The process of compaction creep determines the behaviour of the seals of crushed rock salt, the last engineered barriers of a repository in rock salt for (radioactive) wastes. In Chapter 2 the derivation of the original model of Spiers and co-workers is followed except for some simplifying approximations. A comparison of the model results is made with experimental data and a number of model adjustments are suggested. In Chapter 3 one of these suggested model adjustments is explored, and an alternative model is developed. The results obtained with this model compare favourably with the experimental data without the use of adjustable shape functions as for the original model. Preliminary investigations of the impact of the new model on estimated releases to the geosphere of radionuclides form a repository in rock salt revealed striking differences: with the new model the compaction of the rock salt seals was so rapid that no releases could occur. The striking differences between the results - in terms of releases form a rock salt repository to the geosphere after groundwater intrusion - obtained using the two models clearly indicate the need for further experimental research into the end-compaction behaviour of rock salt backfill. (orig.)

  3. Compact Microscope Imaging System with Intelligent Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a compact microscope imaging system (CMIS) that includes a miniature video microscope, a Cartesian robot (a computer- controlled three-dimensional translation stage), and machine-vision and control subsystems. The CMIS was built from commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and custom machine-vision software. The machine-vision and control subsystems include adaptive neural networks that afford a measure of artificial intelligence. The CMIS can perform several automated tasks with accuracy and repeatability . tasks that, heretofore, have required the full attention of human technicians using relatively bulky conventional microscopes. In addition, the automation and control capabilities of the system inherently include a capability for remote control. Unlike human technicians, the CMIS is not at risk of becoming fatigued or distracted: theoretically, it can perform continuously at the level of the best human technicians. In its capabilities for remote control and for relieving human technicians of tedious routine tasks, the CMIS is expected to be especially useful in biomedical research, materials science, inspection of parts on industrial production lines, and space science. The CMIS can automatically focus on and scan a microscope sample, find areas of interest, record the resulting images, and analyze images from multiple samples simultaneously. Automatic focusing is an iterative process: The translation stage is used to move the microscope along its optical axis in a succession of coarse, medium, and fine steps. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the image is computed at each step, and the FFT is analyzed for its spatial-frequency content. The microscope position that results in the greatest dispersal of FFT content toward high spatial frequencies (indicating that the image shows the greatest amount of detail) is deemed to be the focal position.

  4. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  5. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state......) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...

  6. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbæk explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances......’ of newcomers enacting the organizational emergent. The study throws light on the informal socialization in work-related interactions between newcomers and veterans and reveals professional relational histories, as well as the relationship between veteran coworker and hiring manager, to be important aspects...

  7. A compact tritium AMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Hamm, R.W.; Dingley, K.H.; Chiarappa-Zucca, M.L.; Love, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological and environmental research. For biological research, 3 H is generally quantified by liquid scintillation counting requiring gram-sized samples and counting times of several hours. For environmental research, 3 H is usually quantified by 3 He in-growth which requires gram-sized samples and in-growth times of several months. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can be used to quantify 3 H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 to 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact on the biological and environmental research community. However, in order to make the 3 H AMS technique more broadly accessible, smaller, simpler, and less expensive AMS instrumentation must be developed. To meet this need, a compact, relatively low cost prototype 3 H AMS system has been designed and built based on an LLNL ion source/sample changer and an AccSys Technology radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. With the prototype system, 3 H/ 1 H ratios ranging from 1x10 -10 to 1x10 -13 have be measured from milligram-sized samples. With improvements in system operation and sample preparation methodology, the sensitivity limit of the system is expected to increase to approximately 1x10 -15

  8. Compact, Pneumatically Actuated Filter Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighy, Bradley D.

    2003-01-01

    A compact, pneumatically actuated filter shuttle has been invented to enable alternating imaging of a wind-tunnel model in two different spectral bands characteristic of the pressure and temperature responses of a pressure and temperature-sensitive paint. This filter shuttle could also be used in other settings in which there are requirements for alternating imaging in two spectral bands. Pneumatic actuation was chosen because of a need to exert control remotely (that is, from outside the wind tunnel) and because the power leads that would be needed for electrical actuation would pose an unacceptable hazard in the wind tunnel. The entire shuttle mechanism and its housing can be built relatively inexpensively [camera used for viewing the wind-tunnel model. The mechanism includes a pneumatic actuator connected to a linkage. The linkage converts the actuator stroke to a scissor-like motion that places one filter in front of the camera and the other filter out of the way. Optoelectronic sensors detect tabs on the sliding panels for verification of the proper positioning of the filters.

  9. Cooling of hypernuclear compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduta, Adriana R.; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

    2018-04-01

    We study the thermal evolution of hypernuclear compact stars constructed from covariant density functional theory of hypernuclear matter and parametrizations which produce sequences of stars containing two-solar-mass objects. For the input in the simulations, we solve the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer gap equations in the hyperonic sector and obtain the gaps in the spectra of Λ, Ξ0, and Ξ- hyperons. For the models with masses M/M⊙ ≥ 1.5 the neutrino cooling is dominated by hyperonic direct Urca processes in general. In the low-mass stars the (Λp) plus leptons channel is the dominant direct Urca process, whereas for more massive stars the purely hyperonic channels (Σ-Λ) and (Ξ-Λ) are dominant. Hyperonic pairing strongly suppresses the processes on Ξ-s and to a lesser degree on Λs. We find that intermediate-mass 1.5 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 1.8 models have surface temperatures which lie within the range inferred from thermally emitting neutron stars, if the hyperonic pairing is taken into account. Most massive models with M/M⊙ ≃ 2 may cool very fast via the direct Urca process through the (Λp) channel because they develop inner cores where the S-wave pairing of Λs and proton is absent.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of friction loss and compactability of asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to develop prediction models for friction loss and laboratory compaction of asphalt : mixtures. In addition, the study evaluated the effect of compaction level and compaction method of skid : resistance and the internal structure of ...

  11. Implementation of intelligent compaction technologies for road constructions in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Conventional test methods for roadway compaction cover less than 1% of roadway; whereas, intelligent : compaction (IC) offers a method to measure 100% of a roadway. IC offers the ability to increase : compaction uniformity of soils and asphalt paveme...

  12. Nuclear Activity of Compact Group Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubee, Sohn; Hwang, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Lee, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a study on nuclear activities of compact group galaxies in the local universe. The triggering mechanism of AGN is an intriguing proble, and one of the suggested AGN triggering mechanism is galaxy interaction. In this regard, compact groups are a great laboratory to study the connection between galaxy interaction and nuclear activities. To study the environmental effects on nuclear activity, we estimate the fraction of AGN-host galaxies for a spectroscopic sample of 238 member galaxies in 59 compact groups from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using the emission-line ratio diagnostic diagrams in comparison with field and cluster regions. We derive the 17-42% of AGN fraction of the compact groups depending on the AGN classification methods. The AGN fraction of compact groups is not the highest among the galaxy environments for both early and late type galaxies. We also examine the environmental dependence of nuclear activity using the surface galaxy number density. For early type galaxies, the AGN fraction decreases with increasing galaxy number density, while the AGN fraction of late-type galaxies barely changes. Moreover, we do not find any mid-infrared detected AGN-host compact group galaxies in our sample using WISE photometry. These results imply that the compact group galaxies is not stronngly active because of lack of gas supply, in contrast to the expectation that they may experience frequent galaxy-galaxy interactions.

  13. Does soil compaction increase floods? A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Rogger, Magdalena; Peth, Stephan; Blöschl, Günter

    2018-02-01

    Europe has experienced a series of major floods in the past years which suggests that flood magnitudes may have increased. Land degradation due to soil compaction from crop farming or grazing intensification is one of the potential drivers of this increase. A literature review suggests that most of the experimental evidence was generated at plot and hillslope scales. At larger scales, most studies are based on models. There are three ways in which soil compaction affects floods at the catchment scale: (i) through an increase in the area affected by soil compaction; (ii) by exacerbating the effects of changes in rainfall, especially for highly degraded soils; and (iii) when soil compaction coincides with soils characterized by a fine texture and a low infiltration capacity. We suggest that future research should focus on better synthesising past research on soil compaction and runoff, tailored field experiments to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the coupled mechanical and hydraulic processes, new mapping methods of soil compaction that combine mechanical and remote sensing approaches, and an effort to bridge all disciplines relevant to soil compaction effects on floods.

  14. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  15. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  16. Compaction of PDMS due to proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilasi, S.Z.; Huszank, R.; Rajta, I.; Kokavecz, J.

    2011-01-01

    that at low fluences the surface topography does not follow the phase change that corresponds to the irradiation pattern. At higher fluences the surface topography follows the irradiation pattern, i.e. the phase change, quite well but not perfectly. The irradiated regions are compacted significantly but their bottom is not flat. Between the irradiated regions, the unirradiated areas show a regular curved surface. This can be explained with the developed stress caused by compaction due to irradiation. During irradiation the irradiated areas start to shrink while the unirradiated areas try to remain unchanged. The topographical transition between the two phases is not a step function, but it is continuous due to the rubbery nature of PDMS. The PBW technique, that utilizes a focused MeV ion beam, is capable of the production of devices in PDMS, which have curved-edge relatively shallow, a couple of microns deep, structures on the surface. The curvature of the surface and the degree of compaction can be adjusted with the applied ion fluence and with the distance of the structures. By choosing the proper irradiation parameters short or even long range symmetrical surface curvatures can be achieved.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  18. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2016-12-15

    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)

  19. Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.D.; Lancia, G.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lovasz and Schrijver, we state the equivalence of compact separation and compact optimization. Among the examples used to illustrate our technique, we introduce a new formulation for the Traveling Salesman Problem, whose relaxation we show equivalent to the subtour elimination relaxation.

  20. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  1. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  2. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, J.

    1999-03-01

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, K d , unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.)

  3. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  4. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, P; Constantinou, P; Roy, S; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators. (paper)

  5. Adjustable magnification anamorphic beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, S. R.

    1990-08-01

    A visible laser diode package is proposed to substitute a Krpton-Ion laser for alignment purposes. The proposed system uses 5 Melles Griot AR coated stock lenses. Tests performed to the optics reveal some undesirable properties, such as, astigmatism and spherical aberration; however, the interference pattern and star test reveals what seems to be a good quality wavefront. The interference fringes seem to be very good, but there still is a small presence of a comalike aberration at the fringes extreme. The star test revealed the system to be about 3 times diffraction limited. The system has yet to be tested in an alignment situation. As for now, it is ready to be tested with some minor alignment adjustments necessary for a good wavefront quality. A safety memo was written for testing the prototype system at the alignment lab. The initial laser diode system alignment method suggested, uses a reverse alignment procedure. In this procedure, the expected output (30 mm diameter beam) is input into the system output and alignment is performed by moving the components until the desired system input is found; an elliptical beam with 1 mm in the horizontal axis and 4 mm in the vertical axis. Once this reverse alignment procedure is completed the laser diode is placed at the system input. Fine alignment is done with the help of shear plate interference patterns in both, the 1 mm axis and 4 mm axis. The proposed final opto-mechanical packaging of this system is formed with squared adapter plates that are connected by means of four support rods where the center of the plate becomes the optical axis. These components are commercially available and provide high mechanical stability.

  6. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, B.C.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Neilson, H.; Takahashi, H.; Zarnstorf, M.; Cole, M.; Goranson, P.; Lazarus, E.; Nelson, B.

    2003-01-01

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation

  7. New geometrical compactness measures for zones design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfredo Rincón-García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of compact zones has been studied because of its influence in the creation of zones with regular forms, which are easier to analyze, to investigate or to administer. This paper propose a new method to measure compactness,by means of the transformation of the original geographical spaces, into figures formed with square cells, which are used to measure the similarity between the original zone and an ideal zone with straight forms. The proposed method was applied to design electoral zones, which must satisfy constraints of compactness, contiguity and population balance, in a topographical configuration that favors the creation of twisted and diffuse shapes. The results show that the new method favors the creation of zones with straight forms, without an important effect to the population balance, which are considered zones of high quality. Keywords: Redistricting, compactness, simulated annealing, GIS. Mathematics Subject Classification: 90C59, 90C29, 68T20.

  8. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  9. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  10. Gamma-Rays from Galactic Compact Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2007-04-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed many sources of TeV photons in our Mikly Way galaxy powered by compact objects, either neutron stars or black holes. These objects must be powerful particle accelerators, some with peak energies of at least 100 TeV, and may be neutrino, as well as photon, sources. Future TeV observations will enable us to address key questions concerning particle acceleration by compact objects including the fraction of energy which accreting black holes channel into relativstic jet production, whether the compact object jets are leptonic or hadronic, and the mechanism by which pulsar winds accelerate relativistic particles. We report on work done related to compact Galactic objects in preparation of a White Paper on the status and future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy requested by the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society.

  11. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomograph, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  12. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomograph, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  13. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomography, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  14. Compact Microtube Igniter for Methane Rockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to facilitate the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) LOX/Methane Propulsion Architecture by developing a reliable, compact, low power methane igniter....

  15. Compact Energy Conversion Module, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes such as structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  16. Compact energy conversion module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  17. Compact, Airborne Multispecies Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer to benefit Earth science research activities. To...

  18. Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Hydraulic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per

    effects of subsoil compaction on soil ecological services and functions) put forward the hypothesis that due to a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity in the soil matrix, compaction increases the frequency of preferential flow events in macropores and therefore increases the leaching of otherwise....... In the field the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured with a tension infiltrometer in the same treatments at a depth of 30 cm. In the laboratory saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity and the bulk density were measured as well. Also, macropores in the large soil cores were made...... that for the upper soil depth, a significant increase in bulk density was measured for the compacted treatment. For the lower depth differences were less pronounced. For the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the results indicated a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity for the compacted treatment for the upper...

  19. Compact variable rate laser for space application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will focus on the development and test of high reliable, radiation tolerant, compact laser for planetary mission.  The laser will be able to operate at variable...

  20. The Compact Pulsed Hadron Source Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jie; Cai, Jinchi; Chen, Huaibi; Cheng, Cheng; Du, Qiang; Du, Taibin; Feng, Qixi; Feng, Zhe; Gong, Hui; Guan, Xialing; Han, Xiaoxue; Huang, Tuchen; Huang, Zhifeng; Li, Renkai; Li, Wenqian; Loong, Chun-Keung; Tang, Chuanxiang; Tian, Yang; Wang, Xuewu; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xing, Qingzi; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Xu, Dong; Yang, Yigang; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Huayi; Zhang, Xiaozhang; Zheng, Shu-xin; Zheng, Zhihong; Zhong, Bin; Billen, James; Young, Lloyd; Fu, Shinian; Tao, Juzhou; Zhao, Yaliang; Guan, Weiqiang; He, Yu; Li, Guohua; Li, Jian; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Li, Jinghai; Liang, Tianjiao; Liu, Zhanwen; Sun, Liangting; Zhao, Hongwei; Shao, Beibei; Stovall, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the design and construction status, technical challenges, and future perspectives of the proton-linac based Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) at the Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

  1. Mappings with closed range and compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.; Umweni, I.

    1985-12-01

    The motivation for this note is the result of E.O. Thorp that a normed linear space E is finite dimensional if and only if every continuous linear map for E into any normed linear space has a closed range. Here, a class of Hausdorff topological groups is introduced; called r-compactifiable topological groups, they include compact groups, locally compact Abelian groups and locally convex linear topological spaces. It is proved that a group in this class which is separable, complete metrizable or locally compact, is necessarily compact if its image by a continuous group homomorphism is necessarily closed. It is deduced then that a Hausdorff locally convex is zero if its image by a continuous additive map is necessarily closed. (author)

  2. Deep Compaction Control of Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałachowski Lech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibroflotation, vibratory compaction, micro-blasting or heavy tamping are typical improvement methods for the cohesionless deposits of high thickness. The complex mechanism of deep soil compaction is related to void ratio decrease with grain rearrangements, lateral stress increase, prestressing effect of certain number of load cycles, water pressure dissipation, aging and other effects. Calibration chamber based interpretation of CPTU/DMT can be used to take into account vertical and horizontal stress and void ratio effects. Some examples of interpretation of soundings in pre-treated and compacted sands are given. Some acceptance criteria for compaction control are discussed. The improvement factors are analysed including the normalised approach based on the soil behaviour type index.

  3. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  4. Compact Fiber Lasers for Coherent LIDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a proposal to investigate the feasibility of developing a low cost, compact, lightweight, high power (>500m W) and narrow linewidth 1.5 and 1.06 micron...

  5. Impact Compaction of a Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Todd, Steve; Grady, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Although, the mechanical behavior of granular materials have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of these materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This paper describes how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure the compaction process for granular materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modelling. The experimental technique relies on a gas-gun driven plunger system to generate a compaction wave through a volume of granular material. This volume of material has been redundantly instrumented along the bed length to track the progression of the compaction wave, and the piston displacement is measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Using the gathered experimental data along with the initial material tap density, a granular material equation of state can be determined.

  6. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  7. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  8. A Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment of International Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavoshi, Saeid; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dentakos, Stella; Wright, Lorna

    2017-01-01

    The current study proposes a Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment and uses a multifaceted measure, including academic, social and psychological adjustment, to examine factors predictive of undergraduate international student adjustment. A hierarchic regression model is carried out on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire…

  9. Compaction of spent nuclear fuel cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, H.

    1985-01-01

    Hydraulic press apparatus for compacting waste material eg. spent nuclear fuel cans comprises a fixed frame, a movable cross head, a press crown and three groups of piston/cylinder devices; having their pistons connected to the cross head and their cylinders secured to the press crown. A control means connects the first group of devices to hydraulic fluid in a reservoir which is pressurised initially by gas from gas accumulators to move the cross head and a quill secured thereto towards the frame base to compact the waste at a first high rate under a first high loading. Compaction then proceeds at a lower second rate at a lower second loading as the hydraulic fluid in the reservoir is pressurised by a pump. At two subsequent stages of compaction of the waste at which resistance increases causing a pressure rise in cylinders the control means causes hydraulic fluid to be passed to the second group of devices and thence to the third group of devices, the compaction rate reducing at each stage but the compaction force increasing. (author)

  10. Technology Selections for Cylindrical Compact Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey A. Phillips

    2010-10-01

    A variety of process approaches are available and have been used historically for manufacture of cylindrical fuel compacts. The jet milling, fluid bed overcoating, and hot press compacting approach being adopted in the U.S. AGR Fuel Development Program for scale-up of the compacting process involves significant paradigm shifts from historical approaches. New methods are being pursued because of distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of process mixed waste. Recent advances in jet milling technology allow simplified dry matrix powder preparation. The matrix preparation method is well matched with patented fluid bed powder overcoating technology recently developed for the pharmaceutical industry and directly usable for high density fuel particle matrix overcoating. High density overcoating places fuel particles as close as possible to their final position in the compact and is matched with hot press compacting which fully fluidizes matrix resin to achieve die fill at low compacting pressures and without matrix end caps. Overall the revised methodology provides a simpler process that should provide very high yields, improve homogeneity, further reduce defect fractions, eliminate intermediate grading and QC steps, and allow further increases in fuel packing fractions.

  11. Compaction and flow rule of oxide nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltachev, G. Sh.; Lukyashin, K. E.; Maximenko, A. L.; Maksimov, R. N.; Shitov, V. A.; Shtern, M. B.

    2017-09-01

    Transparent Al2O3 ceramics have attracted considerable interest for use in a wide range of optical, electronic and structural applications. The fabrication of these ceramics using powder metallurgy processes requires the development of theoretical approaches to the compaction of nanopowders. In this work, we investigate the compaction processes of two model granular systems imitating Al2O3 nanosized powders. System I is a loosely aggregated powder, and system II is a powder strongly inclined to agglomeration (for instance, calcined powder). The processes of isostatical (uniform), biaxial, and uniaxial compaction as well as uniaxial compaction with simultaneous shear deformation are studied. The energy parameters of compaction such as the energy change of elastic interparticle interactions and dispersion interactions, dissipative energy losses related to the processes of interparticle friction, and the total work of compaction are calculated for all the processes. The nonapplicability of the associated flow rule to the description of deformation processes of oxide nanopowders is shown and an alternative plastic flow rule is suggested. A complete system of determining the relationship of the flow including analytical approximations of yield surfaces is obtained.

  12. The impact of soil compaction on runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogger, Magdalena; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Soil compaction caused by intensive agricultural practices is known to influence runoff processes at the local scale and is often speculated to have an impact on flood events at much larger scales. Due to the complex and diverse mechanisms related to soil compaction, the key processes influencing runoff at different scales are still poorly understood. In this study we are analyzing data from a subsoil compaction database [Trautner et al., 2003] that includes the results of a large number of field and laboratory experiments across Europe. We are focusing on changes in parameters relevant for hydrology such as saturated hydraulic conductivity and bulk density. We will compare the observed impacts in relation to climatic and soil conditions. The specific type of agricultural practice causing the soil compaction is also taken into account. In a further step the results of this study shall be used to derive a toy model for scenario analysis in order to identify the potential impacts of soil compaction on runoff processes at larger scales then the plot scale. Reference : Trautner, A., Van den Akker, J.J.H., Fleige, H, Arvidsson, J. and Horn, R., 2003. A subsoil compaction database: its development, structure and content. Soil & Till. Res. 73: 9-13.

  13. [Psychosocial adjustment in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Aguilar, Salvador; Guerra-Cruz, Hilda Griselda; Cupil-Rodríguez, Aura Lizbet; Calderillo-Ruiz, Germán; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial adaptation is a measurement that represents the patient's adjustment to those changes involved in their illness. We undertook this study to search for individual characteristics and clinical aspects associated with successful psychosocial adjustment in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing (CT) chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Seventy-five patients with CRC treated with CT or CRT in a cancer center were included. Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale Self-Reporting (PAIS-SR) questionnaire was used as a measurement of psychosocial adjustment. Psychosocial adaptation was successful in 18 patients (24%) and unsuccessful in 57 patients (76%). Young patients, married patients and males showed lower psychosocial adaptation to disease. This is associated with the decrease in sexual relations, economic resources and psychological symptoms. Patients complained that they were unsatisfied due to the lack of disease and treatment information offered by the heath care team. In the process of adaptation, clinical features such as tumor location and treatment scheme are considered basic, as well as age, education, marital status. Areas such as sexuality, interpersonal and family relationships, economic status and emotional state of patients affected by the disease and treatments provide a deep complexity in the study of the psychosocial adaptation process in patients with CRC.

  14. Sobolev Spaces on Locally Compact Abelian Groups: Compact Embeddings and Local Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Górka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue our research on Sobolev spaces on locally compact abelian (LCA groups motivated by our work on equations with infinitely many derivatives of interest for string theory and cosmology. In this paper, we focus on compact embedding results and we prove an analog for LCA groups of the classical Rellich lemma and of the Rellich-Kondrachov compactness theorem. Furthermore, we introduce Sobolev spaces on subsets of LCA groups and study its main properties, including the existence of compact embeddings into Lp-spaces.

  15. Adaptive sequential controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  16. Adaptive sequential controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  17. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna’s performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  18. Adjusting Curricular Design to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Egan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing learners’ ability to self-regulate their own learning has been an ideal sought after by researchers and practitioners alike. Over the past 40 years a plethora of educational psychology research on self-regulated learning (SRL has flooded the literature. In this article I attempt to consolidate key theories from this literature base and propose a 6-point strategy to CREATE a culture of SRL. I will argue that instructors must communicate proximal and long-term goals that have been negotiated by a community of learners, substantially reward all positive aspects of the learning process, judge and reward the learning process by assigning elaborative learning assessments, realistically attribute success and failure to appropriate processes, and tune ineffective strategies and goals to allow the curriculum to evolve in accordance with learner difficulty and success.Enseigner aux apprenants la capacité d’autoréguler leur propre apprentissage est un idéal que poursuivent les chercheurs et les praticiens. Au cours des quarante dernières années, il y a eu surabondance d’études sur l’autorégulation de l’apprentissage dans la littérature sur la psychologie de l’éducation. Dans cet article, l’auteur tente de regrouper les principales théories tirées de cette documentation et de proposer une stratégie composée de six éléments contribuant à la création d’une culture de l’autorégulation. Il soutient que les enseignants doivent communiquer les objectifs à court et à long terme convenus par les apprenants, reconnaître de façon marquée tous aspects positifs du processus d’apprentissage, évaluer et reconnaître ce processus en donnant des travaux élaborés afin de mesurer l’apprentissage, attribuer de façon réaliste les succès et les échecs aux processus appropriés et adapter les stratégies et buts inefficaces afin de permettre l’évolution du curriculum en tenant compte des difficultés et des r

  19. Model and Adaptive Operations of an Adaptive Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Le; Zhao, Qiuyun; Shu, Hongping

    In order to keep up with the dynamical and open internet environment and in terms of component, an adaptive component model which is based on event mechanism and policy binding is proposed. Components of the model can sense external changes and give the explicit description of the external environment. According to preset policy, component also can take adaptive operations such as adding, deleting, replacing and updating when necessary, and adjust the behavior and structure of the internetware to provide better services.

  20. An Adaptive-PSO-Based Self-Organizing RBF Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hong-Gui; Lu, Wei; Hou, Ying; Qiao, Jun-Fei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a self-organizing radial basis function (SORBF) neural network is designed to improve both accuracy and parsimony with the aid of adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO). In the proposed APSO algorithm, to avoid being trapped into local optimal values, a nonlinear regressive function is developed to adjust the inertia weight. Furthermore, the APSO algorithm can optimize both the network size and the parameters of an RBF neural network simultaneously. As a result, the proposed APSO-SORBF neural network can effectively generate a network model with a compact structure and high accuracy. Moreover, the analysis of convergence is given to guarantee the successful application of the APSO-SORBF neural network. Finally, multiple numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed APSO-SORBF neural network. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is more competitive in solving nonlinear problems than some other existing SORBF neural networks.

  1. [Adjustment disorder and DSM-5: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appart, A; Lange, A-K; Sievert, I; Bihain, F; Tordeurs, D

    2017-02-01

    This paper exposes the complexity and discrete characteristic of the adjustment disorder with reference to its clinical and scientific diagnosis. Even though the disorder occurs in frequent clinical circumstances after important life events, such as mobbing, burn-out, unemployment, divorce or separation, pregnancy denial, surgical operation or cancer, the adjustment disorder is often not considered in the diagnosis since better known disorders with similar symptoms prevail, such as major depression and anxiety disorder. Ten years ago, Bottéro had already noticed that the adjustment disorder diagnosis remained rather uncommon with reference to patients he was working with while Langlois assimilated this disorder with an invisible diagnosis. In order to maximize the data collection, we used the article review below and challenged their surveys and results: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NBCI - Pubmed) for international articles and Cairn.info for French literature. Moreover, we targeted the following keywords on the search engine and used articles, which had been published from 1 February 1975 to 31 January 2015: "adjustment", "adjustment disorder" and the French translation "trouble de l'adaptation". One hundred and ninety-one articles matched our search criteria. However, after a closer analysis, solely 105 articles were selected as being of interest. Many articles were excluded since they were related to non-psychiatric fields induced by the term "adaptation". Indeed, the number of corresponding articles found for the adjustment disorder literally pointed-out the lack of existing literature on that topic in comparison to more known disorders such as anxiety disorder (2661 articles) or major depression (5481 articles). This represents up to 50 times more articles in comparison to the number of articles we found on adjustment disorder and up to 20 times more articles for the eating disorder (1994), although the prevalence is not significantly

  2. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  3. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  4. Electromagnetic tracking for US-guided interventions: standardized assessment of a new compact field generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, A M; März, K; Hummel, J; Birkfellner, W; Bendl, R; Delorme, S; Schlemmer, H-P; Meinzer, H-P; Maier-Hein, L

    2012-11-01

    One of the main challenges related to electromagnetic tracking in the clinical setting is a placement of the field generator (FG) that optimizes the reliability and accuracy of sensor localization. Recently, a new mobile FG for the NDI Aurora(®) tracking system has been presented. This Compact FG is the first FG that can be attached directly to an ultrasound (US) probe. The purpose of this study was to assess the precision and accuracy of the Compact FG in the presence of nearby mounted US probes. Six different US probes were mounted onto the Compact FG by means of a custom-designed mounting adapter. To assess precision and accuracy of the Compact FG, we employed a standardized assessment protocol. Utilizing a specifically manufactured plate, we measured positional data on three levels of distances from the FG as well as rotational data. While some probes had negligible influence on tracking accuracy two probes increased the mean distance error up to 1.5 mm compared with a reference measurement of 0.5 mm. The jitter error consistently stayed below 0.2 mm in all cases. The mean relative error in orientation was found to be smaller than 3°. Attachment of an US probe to the Compact FG does not have a critical influence on tracking accuracy in most cases. Clinical benefit of this promising mobile FG must be shown in future studies.

  5. A compact and versatile dynamic flow cryostat for photon science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Peter J. E. M.; Moretti Sala, Marco; Henriquet, Christian; Rossi, Matteo; Ohgushi, Kenya; Fauth, François; Simonelli, Laura; Marini, Carlo; Fraga, Edmundo; Murray, Claire; Potter, Jonathan; Krisch, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a helium gas flow cryostat for use on synchrotron tender to hard X-ray beamlines. Very efficient sample cooling is achieved because the sample is placed directly in the cooling helium flow on a removable sample holder. The cryostat is compact and easy to operate; samples can be changed in less than 5 min at any temperature. The cryostat has a temperature range of 2.5-325 K with temperature stability better than 0.1 K. The very wide optical angle and the ability to operate in any orientation mean that the cryostat can easily be adapted for different X-ray techniques. It is already in use on different beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility (ALBA), and Diamond Light Source (DLS) for inelastic X-ray scattering, powder diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained at these beamlines are presented here.

  6. Beam Trajectory control of the future Compact LInear Collider beam

    CERN Document Server

    Balik, G; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Caron, B; Deleglise, G; Jeremie, A; Le Breton, R; Lottin, J; Pacquet, L

    2011-01-01

    The future Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) currently under design at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) would create high-energy particle collisions between electrons and positrons, and provide a tool for scientists to address many of the most compelling questions about the fundamental nature of matter, energy, space and time. In accelerating structure, it is well-established that vibrations generated by the ground motion constitute the main limiting factors for reaching the luminosity of 10^34 cm-2s-1. Several methods have been proposed to counteract this phenomena and active vibration controls based on the integration of mechatronic systems into the machine structure is probably one of the most promising. This paper studies the strategy of the vibration suppression. Active vibration control methods, such as optimized parameter of a numerical compensator, adaptive algorithm with real time control are investigated and implemented in the simulation layout. The requirement couldn’t be achieved w...

  7. A representation independent propagator. Pt. 1. Compact Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional path integral expressions for propagators are representation dependent. Rather than having to adapt each propagator to the representation in question, it is shown that for compact Lie groups it is possible to introduce a propagator that is representation independent. For a given set of kinematical variables this propagator is a single function independent of any particular choice of fiducial vector, which monetheless, correctly propagates each element of the coherent state representation associated with these kinematical variables. Although the configuration space is in general curved, nevertheless the lattice phase-space path integral for the representation independent propagator has the form appropriate to flat space. To illustrate the general theory a representation independent propagator is explicitly constructed for the Lie group SU(2). (orig.)

  8. Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

  9. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Morozova, Elena; Lysyakova, Ludmila; Kasyanenko, Nina

    2011-01-01

    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  10. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  11. CMS - The Compact Muon Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Bergauer, T; Waltenberger, W; Kratschmer, I; Treberer-treberspurg, W; Escalante del valle, A; Andreeva, I; Innocente, V; Camporesi, T; Malgeri, L; Marchioro, A; Moneta, L; Weingarten, W; Beni, N T; Cimmino, A; Rovere, M; Jafari, A; Lange, C G; Vartak, A P; Gilbert, A J; Pantaleo, F; Reis, T; Cucciati, G; Alipour tehrani, N; Stakia, A; Fallavollita, F; Pizzichemi, M; Pinna, D; Rauco, G; Zhang, S; Hu, T; Yazgan, E; Zhang, H; Thomas-wilsker, J; Reithler, H K V; Philipps, B; Merschmeyer, M K; Heidemann, C A; Mukherjee, S; Geenen, H; Kuessel, Y; Weingarten, S; Nehrkorn, A; Gallo, E; Schwanenberger, C; Walsh bastos rangel, R; Beernaert, K S; De wit, A M; Elwood, A C; Connor, P; Lelek, A A; Wichmann, K H; Myronenko, V; Kovalchuk, N; Bein, S L; Dreyer, T; Scharf, C; Quast, G; Dierlamm, A H; Barth, C; Mol, X; Kudella, S; Schafer, D; Schimassek, R R; Matorras, F; Calderon tazon, A; Garcia ferrero, J; Bercher, M J; Sirois, Y; Callier, S; Depasse, P; Laktineh, I B; Grenier, G; Boudoul, G; Heath, G P; Hartley, D A; Quinton, S; Tomalin, I R; Harder, K; Francis, V B; Thea, A; Zhang, Z; Loukas, D; Hernath, S T; Naskar, K; Colaleo, A; Maggi, G P; Maggi, M; Loddo, F; Calabria, C; Campanini, R; Cuffiani, M; D'antone, I; Grandi, C; Navarria, F; Guiducci, L; Battilana, C; Tosi, N; Gulmini, M; Meola, S; Longo, E; Marzocchi, B; Schizzi, A; Cho, S; Ha, S; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Md halid, M F B; Yusli, M N B; Dominik, W M; Bunkowski, K; Olszewski, M; Byszuk, A P; Rasteiro da silva, J C; Varela, J; Leong, Q; Sulimov, V; Vorobyev, A; Denisov, A; Murzin, V; Egorov, A; Lukyanenko, S; Postoev, V; Pashenkov, A; Solovey, A; Rubakov, V; Troitsky, S; Kirpichnikov, D; Lychkovskaya, N; Safronov, G; Fedotov, A; Toms, M; Barniakov, M; Olimov, K; Fazilov, M; Umaraliev, A; Dumanoglu, I; Bakirci, N M; Dozen, C; Demiroglu, Z S; Oglakci, M; Isik, C; Zeyrek, M; Yalvac, M; Ozkorucuklu, S; Chang, Y; Dolgopolov, A; Gottschalk, E E; Maeshima, K; Heavey, A E; Kramer, T; Kwan, S W L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S M; Mokhov, N; Marraffino, J M; Mrenna, S; Yarba, V; Banerjee, B; Elvira, V D; Gray, L A; Holzman, B; Dagenhart, W; Canepa, A; Ryu, S C; Strobbe, N C; Adelman-mc carthy, J K; Contescu, A C; Andre, J O; Wu, J; Dittmer, S J; Bucinskaite, I; Zhang, J; Karchin, P E; Thapa, P; Zaleski, S G; Gran, J L; Wang, S; Patterson, A S; Zilizi, G; Raics, P P; Bhardwaj, A; Naimuddin, M; Smiljkovic, N; Stojanovic, M; Brandao malbouisson, H; De oliveira martins, C P; Tonelli manganote, E J; Medina jaime, M; Thiel, M; Laurila, S H; Wu, X; Graehling, P; Tonon, N; Blekman, F; De bruyn, I H J; Postiau, N J S; Leroux, P J; Van remortel, N; Janssen, X J; Di croce, D; Aleksandrov, A; Shopova, M F; Dogra, S M; Shinoda, A A; Arce, P; Daniel, M; Navarrete marin, J J; Redondo fernandez, I; Guirao elias, A; Cela ruiz, J M; Lottin, J; Gras, P; Kircher, F; Levesy, B; Payn, A; Guilloux, F; Negro, G; Leloup, C; Pasztor, G; Panwar, L; Bhatnagar, V; Bruzzi, M; Sciortino, S; Starodubtsev, O; Azzi, P; Conti, E; Lacaprara, S; Margoni, M; Rossin, R; Tosi, M; 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Kienzle, W; Reynaud, S; Schwick, C; Troska, J; Zeuner, W D; Osborne, J A; Moll, M; Franzoni, G; Tinoco mendes, A D; Milenovic, P; Garai, Z; Bendavid, J L; Dupont, N A; Gulhan, D C; Daponte, V; Martinez turtos, R; Giuffredi, R; Rapacz, K J; Otiougova, P; Zhu, G; Leggat, D A; Kiesel, M K; Lipinski, M; Wallraff, W; Meyer, A; Pook, T; Pooth, O; Behnke, O; Eckstein, D; Fischer, D J; Garay garcia, J; Vagnerini, A; Klanner, R; Stadie, H; Perieanu, A; Benecke, A; Abbas, S M; Schroeder, M; Lobelle pardo, P; Chwalek, T; Heidecker, C; Floh, K M; Gomez, G; Cabrillo bartolome, I J; Orviz fernandez, P; Duarte campderros, J; Busson, P; Dobrzynski, L; Fontaine, G R R; Granier de cassagnac, R; Paganini, P R J; Arleo, F P; Balagura, V; Martin blanco, J; Ortona, G; Kucher, I; Contardo, D C; Lumb, N; Baulieu, G; Lagarde, F; Figueiredo marques, B E; Heath, H F; Kreczko, L; Clement, E J; Paramesvaran, S; Bologna, S; Bell, K W; Petyt, D A; Moretti, S; Hill, J A; Durkin, T J; Daskalakis, G; Kataria, S K; Iaselli, G; Pugliese, G; My, S; Sharma, A; Abbiendi, G; Taneja, S; Benussi, L; Fabbri, F; Calvelli, V; Frizziero, E; Barone, L M; De notaristefani, F; D'imperio, G; Gobbo, B; Jo, Y; Gyun, D; Yusupov, H; Liew, C S; Zabolotny, W M; Sobolev, S; Gavrikov, Y; Kozlov, I; Golubev, N; Andreev, Y; Tlisov, D; Zaytsev, V; Stepennov, A; Popova, E; Kolchanova, A; Shtol, D; Sirunyan, A; Gokbulut, G; Kara, O; Damarseckin, S; Guler, A M; Ozpineci, A; Hayreter, A; Li, S; Gruenendahl, S; Yarba, J; Para, A; Ristori, L F; Ronzhin, A I; Rubinov, P M; Reichanadter, M A; Churin, I; Beretvas, A; Muzaffar, S M; Lykken, J D; Gutsche, O; Baldin, B; Uplegger, L A; Lei, C M; Wu, W; Derylo, G E; Ruschman, M K; Lipton, R J; Whitbeck, A J; Schmitt, R; Contreras pasuy, L C; Olsen, J T; Cavanaugh, R J; Betts, R R; Wang, H; Sturdy, J T; Gutierrez jr, A; Campagnari, C F; White, D T; Brewer, F D; Qu, H; Ranjan, K; Lalwani, K; Md, H; Shah, A H; Fonseca de souza, S; De jesus damiao, D; Revoredo, E A; Chinellato, J A; Amadei marques da costa, C; Lampen, P T; Wendland, L A; Brom, J; Andrea, J; Tavernier, S; Van doninck, W K; Van mulders, P K A; Clerbaux, B; Rougny, R; Rashevski, G D; Rodozov, M N; Padula, S; Bernardes, C A; Dias maciel, C; Deiters, K; Feichtinger, D; Wiederkehr, S A; Cerrada, M; Fouz iglesias, M; Senghi soares, M; Pasquetto, E; Ferry, S C; Georgette, Z; Malcles, J; Csanad, M; Lal, M K; Walia, G; Kaur, A; Ciulli, V; Lenzi, P; Dosselli, U; Zanetti, M; Costa, M; Dughera, G; Bartosik, N; Ramirez sanchez, G; Frueboes, T M; Karjavine, V; Skachkov, N; Litvinenko, A; Petrosyan, A; Teryaev, O; Trofimov, V; Makankin, A; Golunov, A; Savrin, V; Korotkikh, V; Vardanyan, I; Lukina, O; Belyaev, A; Korneeva, N; Petukhov, V; Skvortsov, V; Konstantinov, D; Efremov, V; Smirnov, N; Shiu, J; Chen, P; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L R; St john, J M; Morse, D M; Krajczar, K F; Mironov, C M; Niu, X; Wang, J; Charaf, O; Matveev, M; Eppley, G W; Mccliment, E R; Ozok, F; Bilki, B; Zieser, A J; Olivito, D J; Wood, J G; Hashemi, B T; Bean, A L; Wang, Q; 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Mueller, C N; Planer, M D; Suh, I S; Hurtado anampa, K P; De barbaro, P J; Garcia-bellido alvarez de miranda, A A; Korjenevski, S K; Moolekamp, F E; Fallon, C T; Acosta castillo, J G; Gutay, L; Barker, A W; Gough, E; Poyraz, D; Van driessche, W G M; Verbeke, W L M; Beniozef, I S; Krasteva, R L; Winn, D R; Fenyvesi, A C; Makovec, A; Munro, C G; Sanchez cruz, S; Bernardino rodrigues, N A; Lokhovitskiy, A; Uribe estrada, C; Rivera martinez, R C; Rebane, L; Racioppi, A; Kim, H; Kim, T; Puljak, I; Boyaryntsev, A; Saeed, M; Tanwir, S; Butt, U; Hussain, A; Nawaz, A; Khurshid, T; Imran, M; Sultan, A; Naeem, M; Kaadze, K; Modak, A; Taylor, R D; Kim, D; Grab, C; Nessi-tedaldi, F; Fischer, J; Manzoni, R A; Zagozdzinska-bochenek, A A; Berger, P; Reichmann, M P; Hashemi, M; Rezaei hosseinabadi, F; Mehrabpour, H; Paganoni, M; Farina, F M; Ciriolo, V; Joshi, Y R; Avila bernal, C A; Cabrera mora, A L; Segura delgado, M A; Gonzalez hernandez, C F; Asavapibhop, B; U-ruekolan, S; Kim, G; Choi, M; Aly, S; El sawy, M; Castaneda hernandez, A M; Shamdasani, J; Tavkhelidze, D; Hegde, V; Aziz, T; Sur, N; Sutar, B J; Karmakar, S; Ghete, V M; Dragicevic, M G; Brandstetter, J; Marques moraes, A; Molina insfran, J A; Aspell, P; Baillon, P; Barney, D; Delikaris, D; Honma, A; Pape, L; Sakulin, H; Macpherson, A L; Bangert, N; Guida, R; Steggemann, J; Voutsinas, G G; Da silva gomes, D; Ben mimoun bel hadj, F; Bonnaud, J Y R; Canelli, F M; Bai, J; Qiu, J; Bian, J; Cheng, Y; Kukulies, C; Teroerde, M; Erdmann, M; Hebbeker, T; Zantis, F; Scheuch, F; Erdogan, Y; Campbell, A J; Kasemann, M; Lange, W; Raspiareza, A; Melzer-pellmann, I; Aldaya martin, M; Lewendel, B; Schmidt, R S; Lipka, E; Missiroli, M; Grados luyando, J M; Shevchenko, R; Babounikau, I; Steinbrueck, G; Vanhoefer, A; Ebrahimi, A; Pena rodriguez, K J; Stover, M; Niedziela, M A; Froehlich, A; Simonis, H J; Katkov, I; Wozniewski, S; Marco de lucas, R J; Lopez virto, A M; Jaramillo echeverria, R W; Hennion, P; Zghiche, A; Chiron, A; Romanteau, T; Beaudette, F; Lobanov, A; Grasseau, G J; Pierre-emile, T B; El mamouni, H; Gouzevitch, M; Goldstein, J; Cussans, D G; Seif el nasr, S A; Titterton, A S; Ford, P J W; Olaiya, E O; Salisbury, J G; Paspalaki, G; Asenov, P; Hidas, P; Kiss, T N; Zalan, P; Shukla, P; Abbrescia, M; De filippis, N; Donvito, G; Radogna, R; Miniello, G; Gelmi, A; Capiluppi, P; Marcellini, S; Odorici, F; Bonacorsi, D; Genta, C; Ferri, G; Saviano, G; Ferrini, M; Minutoli, S; Tosi, S; Lista, L; Passeggio, G; Breglio, G; Merola, M; Diemoz, M; Rahatlou, S; Baccaro, S; Bartoloni, A; Talamo, I G; Kim, J Y; Oh, G; Lim, J H; Lee, J; Mohamad idris, F B; Gani, A B; Cwiok, M; Doroba, K; Martins galinhas, B E; Kim, V; Krivshich, A; Vorobyev, A; Ivanov, Y; Tarakanov, V; Lobodenko, A; Obikhod, T; Isayev, O; Kurov, O; Leonidov, A; Lvova, N; Kirsanov, M; Suvorova, O; Karneyeu, A; Demidov, S; Konoplyannikov, A; Popov, V; Pakhlov, P; Vinogradov, S; Klemin, S; Blinov, V; Skovpen, I; Chatrchyan, S; Grigorian, N; Kayis topaksu, A; Sunar cerci, D; 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Wang, Z; Favart, D; Maltoni, F; Vidal marono, M; Delcourt, M; Markov, S I; Seez, C; Richards, A J; Ferguson, W; Chatziangelou, M; Karathanasis, G; Kontaxakis, P; Jones, J A; Strologas, J; Katsoulis, P; Dutt, S; Roy chowdhury, S; Bhardwaj, R; Purohit, A; Singh, B; Behera, P K; Sharma, A; Spagnolo, P; Tonelli, G E; Fedi, G; Giannini, L; Poulios, S; Groote, J F; Untuc, B; Oztirpan, F O; Koseoglu, I; Luiggi lopez, E E; Krohn, M D; Hadley, N J; Shin, Y H; Safonov, A; Eusebi, R; Rose, A K; Overton, D A; Erbacher, R D; Funk, G N; Pilot, J R; Regnery, B J; Klimenko, S; Matchev, K; Gleyzer, S; Wang, J; Bortignon, P; Curry, D A; Cadamuro, L; Sun, W M; Soffi, L; Lantz, S R; Wright, D; Cline, D; Cousins jr, R D; Erhan, S; Yang, X; Schnaible, C J; Dasgupta, A; Bradley, D C; Monzat, D; Dodd, L M; Tikalsky, J L; Kapusta, J; Gilbert, W J; Lesko, Z J; Marinelli, N; Wayne, M R; Heering, A H; Galanti, M; Duh, Y; Roy, A; Arabgol, M; Hacker, T J; Salva, S; Petrov, V; Barychevski, V; Drobychev, G; Lobko, A; Gabusi, M; Fabris, L; Conte, E R E; Kasprowicz, G H; Kyberd, P; Cole, J E; Lopez, J M; Salazar gonzalez, C A; Benzon, A M; Pelagio, L; Walsh, M F; Postnov, A; Lelas, D; Vaitkus, J V; Jurciukonis, D; Sulmanas, B; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Jalil, S H; Kahl, W E; Taylor, D R; Choi, Y I; Jeong, Y; Roy, T; Guerrero ibarra, D F; Schoenenberger, M A; Khateri, P; Etesami, S M; Fiorini, E; Pullia, A; Magni, S; Gennai, S; Fiorendi, S; Zuolo, D; Sanabria arenas, J C; Florez bustos, C A; Holguin coral, A; Mendez, H; Srimanobhas, N; Jaikar, A H; Arteche gonzalez, F J; Call, K R; Vazquez valencia, E F; Calderon monroy, M A; Aly mohamed mahmoud mohamed, R; Elkafrawy, T; Abdelmaguid, A; Mal, P K; Yuan, L; Lomidze, I; Prangishvili, I; Adamov, G; Dube, S S; Dugad, S; Mohanty, G B; Bhat, M A; Bheesette, S; Abou kors, D J

    CMS is a general purpose proton-proton detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the LHC. It is also well adapted for studies at the initially lower luminosities. The CMS Collaboration consists of over 1800 scientists and engineers from 151 institutes in 31 countries. The main design goals of CMS are: \\begin{enumerate} \\item a highly performant muon system, \\item the best possible electromagnetic calorimeter \\item high quality central tracking \\item hermetic calorimetry \\item a detector costing less than 475 MCHF. \\end{enumerate} All detector sub-systems have started construction. Engineering Design Reviews of parts of these sub-systems have been successfully carried-out. These are held prior to granting authorization for purchase. The schedule for the LHC machine and the experiments has been revised and CMS will be ready for first collisions now expected in April 2006. \\\\\\\\ ~~~~$\\bullet$ Magnet \\\\ The detector (see Figure) will be built around a long (13~m) and large bore ($\\phi$=5.9~m) high...

  12. Adaptation pathways in planning for uncertain climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, Mark; Campos, Inês S.; Vizinho, André; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Lorencová, Eliška Krkoška; Brugge, van der Rutger; Vlist, van der Maarten J.; Brink, van den Adri; Jeuken, Ad B.M.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation pathways are developed to design adaptive policies to handle climate change uncertainty. Use of this tool varies across planning practices and adaptation challenges and adjusting the tool to particular practices can foster its adequate use. To gain insight into the use of adaptation

  13. Phased array compaction cell for measurement of the transversely isotropic elastic properties of compacting sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.

    2010-12-15

    Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.

  14. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  15. Compaction of Ti–6Al–4V powder using high velocity compaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Dil Faraz; Yin, Haiqing; Li, He; Qu, Xuanhui; Khan, Matiullah; Ali, Shujaat; Iqbal, M. Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We compacted Ti–6Al–4V powder by HVC technique. • As impact force rises up, the green density of the compacts increases gradually. • At impact force 1.857 kN relative sintered density of the compacts reaches 99.88%. • Spring back of the green compact’s decreases gradually with increasing impact force. • Mechanical properties of the samples increases with increasing impact force. - Abstract: High velocity compaction technique was applied to the compaction of pre-alloyed, hydride–dehydride Ti–6Al–4V powder. The powder was pressed in single stroke with a compaction speed of 7.10–8.70 ms −1 . When the speed was 8.70 ms −1 , the relative density of the compacts reaches up to 85.89% with a green density of 3.831 g cm −3 . The green samples were sintered at 1300 °C in Ar-gas atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the surface of the sintered samples. Density and mechanical properties such as Vickers micro hardness and bending strength of the powder samples were investigated. Experimental results indicated that with the increase in impact force, the density and mechanical properties of the compacts increased. The sintered compacts exhibited a maximum relative density of 99.88% with a sintered density of 4.415 g cm −3 , hardness of 364–483 HV and the bending strength in the range of 103–126.78 MPa. The springback of the compacts decreased with increasing impact force

  16. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  17. Examining the Relationship between Autistic Traits and College Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Dominic; Birmingham, Elina

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and college adjustment in a sample of neurotypical college students. Using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, we found that higher levels of autism spectrum disorder characteristics were…

  18. Radiation shielding aspects of compact medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Ruth, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hospital-based compact medical cyclotrons are commonly used to produce large activities of short-lived PET radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (HL110 min) and oxygen-18 (HL= 20 min), by bombarding suitably enriched gas or liquid targets with 11-15 MeV protons. High energy prompt neutron/gamma radiation fields are generated as the nuclear reaction product. The compact medical cyclotrons are installed either inside or in the close proximity of the nuclear medicine clinic. Therefore the adequacy of the radiation shielding is vitally important for the radiological safety of the patients and members of the public. The present paper highlights the important radiation shielding aspects of some compact medical cyclotrons presently available in the international market. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Compaction and sedimentary basin analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabasova, Leila R.; Kite, Edwin S.

    2018-03-01

    Many of the sedimentary basins of Mars show patterns of faults and off-horizontal layers that, if correctly understood, could serve as a key to basin history. Sediment compaction is a possible cause of these patterns. We quantified the possible role of differential sediment compaction for two Martian sedimentary basins: the sediment fill of Gunjur crater (which shows concentric graben), and the sediment fill of Gale crater (which shows outward-dipping layers). We assume that basement topography for these craters is similar to the present-day topography of complex craters that lack sediment infill. For Gunjur, we find that differential compaction produces maximum strains consistent with the locations of observed graben. For Gale, we were able to approximately reproduce the observed layer orientations measured from orbiter image-based digital terrain models, but only with a >3 km-thick donut-shaped past overburden. It is not immediately obvious what geologic processes could produce this shape.

  20. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  1. JAPC Compact Simulator evolution to latest integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, T.; Nakayama, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of JAPC compact simulator from the first installation in 1988 until recent integration with SIMULATE-3 engineering code core model and extended simulation for Mid-loop operation and severe accidents. JAPC Compact Simulator has an advanced super compact rotating panel design. Three plants, Tokai 2 (GE BWR 5), Tsuruga 1 (GE BWR 2), Tsuruga 2 (MHI PWR 4-Loop) are simulated. The simulator has been used for training of operator and engineering personnel, and has continuously been upgraded to follow normal plant modifications as well as development in modeling and computer technology. The integration of SIMULATE-3 core model is, to our knowledge, the first integration of a real design code into a training simulator. SIMULATE-3 has been successfully integrated into the simulator and run in real time, without compromising the accuracy of SIMULATE-3. The code has been modified to also handle mid-loop operation and severe accidents. (author)

  2. Coherent states for quantum compact groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jurco, B

    1996-01-01

    Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for all simple quantum compact groups. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit and interpret the coherent state as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R--matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q--deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel--Weil construction) are described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non--commutative differential geometry is suggested.}

  3. Challenges: a state and compact perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1987-01-01

    The challenges facing states and compacts in their efforts to implement the Low-Level Waste Policy Amendments Act are described. Institutional challenges include: small-volume sites; compact maintenance; shifting agencies and changing personnel; and timing of progress. The technical challenge lies in the enormous number of plans, procedures, and regulations that have to be developed over the next four years. There are two main fiscal challenges: funding of day-to-day operations of compact commissions; and financing the siting and construction of new disposal sites. There are also two main regulatory challenges: host states must develop regulations for siting and selection of technology; and all states have to await federal regulations to be completed. The final challenge is political: whether a region can overcome public opposition and actually site a facility

  4. Observational properties of compact groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of galaxies with projected separations comparable to the diameters of the galaxies themselves. Two well-known examples are Stephan's Quintet (Stephan, 1877) and Seyfert's Sextet (Seyfert 1948a,b). In groups such as these, the apparent space density of galaxies approaches 10(exp 6) Mpc(sub -3), denser even than the cores of rich clusters. The apparent unlikeliness of the chance occurrence of such tight groupings lead Ambartsumyan (1958, 1975) to conclude that compact groups must be physically dense systems. This view is supported by clear signs of galaxy interactions that are seen in many groups. Spectroscopic observations reveal that typical relative velocities of galaxies in the groups are comparable to their internal stellar velocities. This should be conducive to strong gravitational interactions - more so than in rich clusters, where galaxy velocities are typically much higher. This suggests that compact groups could be excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy interactions and their effects. Compact groups often contain one or more galaxies whose redshift differs greatly from those of the other group members. If these galaxies are at the same distance as the other members, either entire galaxies are being ejected at high velocities from these groups, or some new physical phenomena must be occurring. If their redshifts are cosmological, we must explain why so many discordant galaxies are found in compact groups. In recent years much progress has been made in addressing these questions. Here, the author discusses the current observational data on compact groups and their implications

  5. Adaptive tuning of elasto-plastic damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Riess; Krenk, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Hysteretic dampers are frequency independent, and thereby otentially effective for several structural vibration modes, provided that the inherent amplitude dependence can be controlled. An adaptive tuning procedure is proposed, aiming at elimination of the amplitude dependence by adjusting...... technique, and maximization leads to an amplitude dependent expression for the optimal yield level. The amplitude is predicted from the most recent extremum of the damper response, and simultaneously used to adjust the yield level. Numerical examples demonstrate that the adaptive tuning procedure succeeds...

  6. Spherical conformal models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takisa, P.M.; Maharaj, S.D.; Manjonjo, A.M.; Moopanar, S. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2017-10-15

    We consider spherical exact models for compact stars with anisotropic pressures and a conformal symmetry. The conformal symmetry condition generates an integral relationship between the gravitational potentials. We solve this condition to find a new anisotropic solution to the Einstein field equations. We demonstrate that the exact solution produces a relativistic model of a compact star. The model generates stellar radii and masses consistent with PSR J1614-2230, Vela X1, PSR J1903+327 and Cen X-3. A detailed physical examination shows that the model is regular, well behaved and stable. The mass-radius limit and the surface red shift are consistent with observational constraints. (orig.)

  7. Adaptation Stories

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By Reg'

    formed a real foundation for endogenous, and, therefore, sustainable, strategies for adaptation to climate change. The stories reinforce what we already knew: that successful adaptation must come from the people who are living on the front lines, facing the many problems caused by climate change and climate variation.

  8. Microstructure analysis of laboratory and in-situ compacted silts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses some results of an experimental research aimed at analysing the influence of compaction variables (w and energy and method on the resulting microstructure of a compacted silty soil. In particular, the experimental data here discussed allow to compare the microstructure induced by different dynamic compaction techniques, comparing that characterising specimens obtained by two laboratory methods (Proctor standard and Harvard and that of samples compacted in-situ during the construction of an embankment built for river regimentation purposes. Both undisturbed and disturbed samples have been retrieved from the embankment, the latter one with the purpose of collecting the soil subsequently used for laboratory compaction. Microstructural analyses (SEM, MIP performed on laboratory and in-situ compacted samples evidenced a substantial similarity of the texture induced by the various compaction techniques, highlighting that laboratory compaction is suitable to provide soil samples representative of earth in-situ compacted soil.

  9. Compaction Scale Up and Optimization of Cylindrical Fuel Compacts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley

    2012-10-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  10. EPRI compact analyzer: A compact, interactive and color-graphics based simulator for power plant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Chen, H.; Colley, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an EPRI sponsored project (RP2395-2) for design and development of an interactive, and color graphics based simulator for power plant analysis. The system is called Compact Analyzer and can be applied to engineering and training applications in the utility industry. The Compact Analyzer's software and system design are described. Results of two demonstration system for a nuclear plant, and a fossil plant are presented, and the applications of the Compact Analyzer to operating procedures evaluation are discussed

  11. Simulation of HMA compaction by using FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, H.L.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a simulation tool for the compaction process of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) using a roller under varying external conditions. The focus is on the use of the Finite Element Model (FEM) with code DiekA, on its necessary requirements and on the presentation of simulation results. The

  12. Stochastic Beamforming via Compact Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the average beamforming (BF) gain of compact antenna arrays when statistical channel knowledge is available. The optimal excitation (precoding vector) and impedance termination that maximize the average BF gain are a compromise between the ones that maximize the array...

  13. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  14. Resonant phenomena in compact and extended systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullen, K.; Loss, D.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of Josephson junctions in two formulations: one where the phase is defined on a compact interval [0,2π], and a second where it is defined on an extended interval (-∞,∞). We find that in general the two approaches are not equivalent: they have different sets of allowable

  15. Compaction of amorphous iron–boron powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Mørup, Steen; Koch, Christian

    1993-01-01

    report on attempts to compact amorphous iron–boron particles prepared by chemical reduction of Fe(II) ions in aqueous solution by NaBH4 (Ref. 2). The particles prepared in this way are pyrophoric, but can be passivated. The small particle size (10–100 nm), characteristic of this preparation technique...

  16. Understanding asphalt compaction: An action research strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Doree, Andries G.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi

    2007-01-01

    In Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) construction, rollers provide the compaction energy required to produce a specified density. However, little is known about the heuristics used by the roller operators. This study forms part of a larger action research project focussing on the improvement of the HMA paving

  17. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  18. The compact simulator for Tihange nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueben, M.

    1982-01-01

    After an introduction about the simulators for nuclear plants, a description is given of the compact simulator for the Tihange nuclear power plant as well as the simulated circuits and equipments such as the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The extent of simulation, the functions used by the instructor, the use of the simulator, the formation programme and construction planning are described. (AF)

  19. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  20. On Daniell Integrals and Compact Supports

    OpenAIRE

    Chersi, Franco

    1995-01-01

    Un integrale di Daniell definito su tutto $C\\left(X,\\mathbb{R}\\right)$ equivale ad una misura di Radon a supporto compatto. A Daniell integral defined on all of$C\\left(X,\\mathbb{R}\\right)$ is a Radon measure with compact support.

  1. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1997-01-01

    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  2. Analytic vortex solutions on compact hyperbolic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Rafael; Manton, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    We construct, for the first time, abelian Higgs vortices on certain compact surfaces of constant negative curvature. Such surfaces are represented by a tessellation of the hyperbolic plane by regular polygons. The Higgs field is given implicitly in terms of Schwarz triangle functions and analytic solutions are available for certain highly symmetric configurations. (paper)

  3. Compaction Characteristics of Earth-Rock Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    special processing and handling equipment, more spacious facilities, specialized instrumentation, and lots of hard manual labor . Therefore, beginning...construction qual- ity assurance laboratories, and contractor quality control labo- ratories because they consider it too time consuming and labor intensive. It...pcint test performed on dry materia. 149 Table 16 Characteristics of Compaction Equipment (After Carga and Madureira, 1985) Nominal Mould Rammer mould

  4. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m 3 versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m 3 ), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.)

  5. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  6. Compactly supported frames for decomposition spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    2012-01-01

    In this article we study a construction of compactly supported frame expansions for decomposition spaces of Triebel-Lizorkin type and for the associated modulation spaces. This is done by showing that finite linear combinations of shifts and dilates of a single function with sufficient decay in b...

  7. ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas

  8. Compact stellar X-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; van der Klis, M.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray astronomy is the prime available window on astrophysical compact objects: black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs. In the last ten years new observational opportunities have led to an explosion of knowledge in this field. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the astrophysics of

  9. A compact, coherent light source system architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedron, S.G.; Dattoli, G.; Dipalma, E.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S.V.; Petrillo, V.; Rau, J. V.; Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I.P.; Van Der Slot, P. J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Our team has been examining several architectures for short-wavelength, coherent light sources. We are presently exploring the use and role of advanced, high-peak power lasers for both accelerating the electrons and generating a compact light source with the same laser. Our overall goal is to devise

  10. Self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The project 'self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete (SCFRC)' is part of the Dutch STW/PPM program - 'cement-bonded materials' - DCT.4010. Subproject III to which the project ,SCFRC' belongs deals with the development of new high performance concretes. The project 'SCFRC' aims at investigating the

  11. CMOS Compatible Ultra-Compact Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    A planar layout for an ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically investigated. Our device utilizes potentially CMOS compatible materials and can achieve 3-dB modulation in just 65nm and insertion loss <1dB at telecommunication wavelengths....

  12. Sensitivity of cotton cultivars to soil compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaynara Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most sensitive crops to soil compaction, but there may be genetic variability for this trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate cotton cultivars sensitivity to soil compaction. Soil columns were built with three pvc rings with internal diameter of 10 cm and filled with an alfisol. The heights of the top and bottom rings were 15 cm, and the intermediate ring, in which the soil was compacted, was 3.5 cm high. The levels of compression used in the subsurface were characterized by penetration resistances of 0.41, 0.93, 1.41 and 1.92 MPa. The cultivars 701 FMT, FMT 705, FMT 707, FMX 951 LL and FMX 966 LL were grown up to 23 days after plant emergence, when the dry matter of shoots and roots, root length density and root diameter were determined. The cotton cultivars have variability in their sensitivity to resistance to penetration. The cultivar 707 FMT is more sensitive to soil compaction, while the FMT 701 is more tolerant. Penetration resistance of around 0.92 to 1.06 MPa reduce 50% cotton root growth, but resistance to penetration of 1.92 MPa did not totally prevent growth.

  13. Large compact dimensions and high energy experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Models of spacetime with extra compact dimensions and having the Standard Model fields confined to a narrow slice of 4-dimensional spacetime can have strong gravitational effects at the TeV scale as well as electroweak-strength interactions at present-day colliders. Phenomenological consequences of such models are ...

  14. Investigation of HMA compactability using GPR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Georgiou, Panos; Loizos, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In-situ field density is often regarded as one of the most important controls used to ensure that an asphalt pavement being placed is of high quality. The achieved density results from the effectiveness of the applied compaction mode on the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) layer. It is worthwhile mentioning that the proper compaction of HMA increases pavement fatigue life, decreases the amount of permanent deformation or rutting, reduces the amount of oxidation or aging, decreases moisture damage or stripping, increases strength and internal stability, and may decrease slightly the amount of low-temperature cracking that may occur in the mix. Conventionally, the HMA density in the field is assessed by direct destructive methods, including through the cutting of samples or drilling cores. These methods are characterized by a high accuracy, although they are intrusive and time consuming. In addition, they provide local information, i.e. information only for the exact test location. To overcome these limitations, the use of non-intrusive techniques is often recommended. The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is an example of a non-intrusive technique that has been increasingly used for pavement investigations over the years. GPR technology is practical and application-oriented with the overall design concept, as well as the hardware, usually dependent on the target type and the material composing the target and its surroundings. As the sophistication of operating practices increases, the technology matures and GPR becomes an intelligent sensor system. The intelligent sensing deals with the expanded range of GPR applications in pavements such as determining layer thickness, detecting subsurface distresses, estimating moisture content, detecting voids and others. In addition, the practice of using GPR to predict in-situ field density of compacted asphalt mixture material is still under development and research; however the related research findings seem to be promising

  15. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  16. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness ...

  17. Hydrodynamic modeling and explosive compaction of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, C.; Holt, A.; Finger, M.; Kuhl, W.

    1977-09-01

    High-density ceramics with high-strength microstructure were achieved by explosive compaction. Well-characterized Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, and boron powders were explosively compacted in both cylindrical and flat plate geometries. In cylindrical geometries compacted densities between 91 and 98 percent of theoretical were achieved. Microhardness measurements indicated that the strength and integrity of the microstructure were comparable to conventionally fabricated ceramics, even though all samples with densities greater than 90 percent theoretical contained macrocracks. Fractured surfaces evaluated by SEM showed evidence of boundary melting. Equation of state data for porous Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were used to calculate the irreversible work done on the sample as a function of pressure. This was expressed as a percentage of the total sample which could be melted. Calculations show that very little melting can be expected in samples shocked to less than 3 GPa. Significant melting and grain boundary fusion can be expected in samples shocked to pressures greater than 8 GPa. Hydrodynamic modeling of right cylinder compaction with detonation at one end was attempted by using a two-dimensional computer code. The complications of this analysis led to experiments using plane shock waves. Flat-plate compaction assemblies were designed and analyzed by 2-D hydrodynamic codes. The use of porous shock attenuators was evaluated. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide powders in plane wave geometry. Microstructure evaluations were made as a function of location in the flat plate samples. 11 figures, 1 table.

  18. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2014-09-01

    The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Psychosexual adjustment following sterilization: a prospective study on Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C S; Chung, T K

    1997-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify significant predictors of Chinese women's psychosexual adjustment after sterilization. One hundred fifteen multiparous Chinese women, aged 25-51 years, were interviewed before and after elective laparoscopic or postpartum sterilization. Eight-seven women were also interviewed about their pshychosexual adjustment at 1 year after sterilization. Results showed that the fear of negative evaluation by others, family cohesion and adaptability, and preoperative psychological distress were robust predictors of adverse psychosexual outcome immediately and 1 year after sterilization. There was significant improvement in women's mental health following sterilization, and their sexual adjustment such as coital frequency and sexual satisfaction were not adversely affected at 1 year follow-up. Women with either elective or postpartum sterilization had similar adjustment throughout, except the latter group tended to experience more physical discomfort at 1 year follow-up. About 3.4% of the women experienced regret at 12 months after sterilization.

  20. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  1. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    intense relational mechanisms provide an effective means for contingency adaptation and therefore reduce the probability of premature termination. However, in situations where relationships are already governed by longer duration contracts, we argue that investments in relational mechanism create...

  2. Adjustment of gripping force by optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Barz, C.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing automation, robotics also requires ever more intelligent solutions in the handling of various tasks. In this context, many grippers must also be re-designed. For this, they must always be adapted for different requirements. The equipment of the gripper systems with sensors should help to make the gripping process more intelligent. In order to achieve such objectives, optical systems can also be used. This work analyzes how the gripping force can be adjusted by means of an optical recognition. The result of this work is the creation of a connection between optical recognition, tolerances, gripping force and real-time control. In this way, algorithms can be created, with the aid of which robot grippers as well as other gripping systems become more intelligent.

  3. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  4. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  5. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  6. Land-use, transport and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason; de Sa, Thiago Herick; Ewing, Reid; Mohan, Dinesh; McClure, Rod; Roberts, Ian; Tiwari, Geetam; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, Jim; Sun, Xiaoduan; Wallace, Mark; Woodcock, James

    2017-01-01

    Using a Health Impact Assessment Framework, we estimated the population health effects arising from alternative land-use and transport policy initiatives in six cities. Land-use changes were modelled to reflect a compact city in which land-use density and diversity were increased and distances to public transport were reduced to produce low motorised mobility, namely a modal shift from private motor vehicles to walking, cycling, and public transport. The modelled compact city scenario resulted in health gains for all cities (for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) with the overall health gains ranging from 420 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 100 000 population to 826 DALYs per 100 000 population. However, for moderate to highly motorised cities, such as Melbourne, London, and Boston, the compact city scenario predicted a small increase in road trauma for cyclists and pedestrians (health loss of between 34 to 41 DALYs per 100 000 population). The findings suggest that government policies need to actively pursue land-use elements (particularly a focus towards compact cities) that support a modal shift away from private motor vehicles towards walking, cycling, and low-emission public transport. At the same time, these policies need to ensure the provision of safe walking and cycling infrastructure. The findings highlight the opportunities for policymakers to positively influence the overall health of city populations. PMID:27671671

  7. Land use, transport, and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Ewing, Reid; Mohan, Dinesh; McClure, Rod; Roberts, Ian; Tiwari, Geetam; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sun, Xiaoduan; Wallace, Mark; Woodcock, James

    2016-12-10

    Using a health impact assessment framework, we estimated the population health effects arising from alternative land-use and transport policy initiatives in six cities. Land-use changes were modelled to reflect a compact city in which land-use density and diversity were increased and distances to public transport were reduced to produce low motorised mobility, namely a modal shift from private motor vehicles to walking, cycling, and public transport. The modelled compact city scenario resulted in health gains for all cities (for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) with overall health gains of 420-826 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 population. However, for moderate to highly motorised cities, such as Melbourne, London, and Boston, the compact city scenario predicted a small increase in road trauma for cyclists and pedestrians (health loss of between 34 and 41 DALYs per 100 000 population). The findings suggest that government policies need to actively pursue land-use elements-particularly a focus towards compact cities-that support a modal shift away from private motor vehicles towards walking, cycling, and low-emission public transport. At the same time, these policies need to ensure the provision of safe walking and cycling infrastructure. The findings highlight the opportunities for policy makers to positively influence the overall health of city populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RESOLUTION OF THE COMPACT RADIO CONTINUUM SOURCES IN Arp220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batejat, Fabien; Conway, John E.; Hurley, Rossa; Parra, Rodrigo; Diamond, Philip J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    We present 2 cm and 3.6 cm wavelength very long baseline interferometry images of the compact radio continuum sources in the nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp220. Based on their radio spectra and variability properties, we confirm these sources to be a mixture of supernovae (SNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs). Of the 17 detected sources we resolve 7 at both wavelengths. The SNe generally only have upper size limits. In contrast all the SNRs are resolved with diameters ≥0.27 pc. This size limit is consistent with them having just entered their Sedov phase while embedded in an interstellar medium (ISM) of density 10 4 cm -3 . These objects lie on the diameter-luminosity correlation for SNRs (and so also on the diameter-surface brightness relation) and extend these correlations to very small sources. The data are consistent with the relation L∝D -9/4 . Revised equipartition arguments adjusted to a magnetic field to a relativistic particle energy density ratio of 1% combined with a reasonable synchrotron-emitting volume filling factor of 10% give estimated magnetic field strengths in the SNR shells of ∼15-50 mG. The SNR shell magnetic fields are unlikely to come from compression of ambient ISM fields and must instead be internally generated. We set an upper limit of 7 mG for the ISM magnetic field. The estimated energy in relativistic particles, 2%-20% of the explosion kinetic energy, is consistent with estimates from models that fit the IR-radio correlation in compact starburst galaxies.

  9. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    ’s intrinsic O2-affinity and its allosteric interaction with cellular effectors (organic phosphates, protons and chloride). Whereas short-term altitudinal adaptations predominantly involve adjustments in allosteric interactions, long-term, genetically-coded adaptations typically involve changes....... Molecular heterogeneity (multiple isoHbs with differentiated oxygenation properties) can further broaden the range of physico-chemical conditions where Hb functions under altitudinal hypoxia. This treatise reviews the molecular and cellular mechanisms that adapt haemoglobin-oxygen affinities in mammals...

  10. Roller compacted concrete : field evaluation and mixture optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) as an economical, fast construction and sustainable materials has attracted increasing attention for pavement construction. The growth of roller-compacted concrete pavement used in different regions is impeded by conce...

  11. compaction delay versus properties of cement-bound lateritic soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Standard Proctor), the Unconfined Compressive. Strength (UCS), the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test and Durability test. The results obtained indicated that compaction and strength characteristics decreased with increase in compaction delay ...

  12. Does Compact Development Increase or Reduce Traffic Congestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    From years of research, we know that compact development that is dense, diverse, well-designed, etc. produces fewer vehicle miles traveled (VMT) than sprawling development. But compact development also concentrates origins and destinations. No one ha...

  13. Introduction to compact (matrix) quantum groups and Banica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , India from 5–24 January 2015. We give basic definitions, properties and examples of compact quantum groups and compact matrix quantum groups such as the existence of a Haar state, the representation theory and Woronowicz's quantum ...

  14. Application of Roller Compacted Concrete in Colorado's Roadways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) is a no-slump concrete mixture that is transported, placed, and compacted with : the same construction equipment as asphalt pavement. RCCs were used to construct three sections of pavement in : Weld County Road 28 (WCR...

  15. Introduction to compact (matrix) quantum groups and Banica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moritz Weber

    2017-11-27

    . Chennai, India from 5–24 January 2015. We give basic definitions, properties and examples of compact quantum groups and compact matrix quantum groups such as the existence of a Haar state, the representation theory ...

  16. Quantitative FLIM-FRET Microscopy to Monitor Nanoscale Chromatin Compaction In Vivo Reveals Structural Roles of Condensin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Llères

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available How metazoan genomes are structured at the nanoscale in living cells and tissues remains unknown. Here, we adapted a quantitative FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer-based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM approach to assay nanoscale chromatin compaction in living organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans was chosen as a model system. By measuring FRET between histone-tagged fluorescent proteins, we visualized distinct chromosomal regions and quantified the different levels of nanoscale compaction in meiotic cells. Using RNAi and repetitive extrachromosomal array approaches, we defined the heterochromatin state and showed that its architecture presents a nanoscale-compacted organization controlled by Heterochromatin Protein-1 (HP1 and SETDB1 H3-lysine-9 methyltransferase homologs in vivo. Next, we functionally explored condensin complexes. We found that condensin I and condensin II are essential for heterochromatin compaction and that condensin I additionally controls lowly compacted regions. Our data show that, in living animals, nanoscale chromatin compaction is controlled not only by histone modifiers and readers but also by condensin complexes.

  17. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator

  18. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  19. Improved compaction of dried tannery wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Zassa, M; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Santomaso, A C; Canu, P

    2015-12-01

    We quantitatively studied the advantages of improving the compaction of a powder waste by several techniques, including its pelletization. The goal is increasing the mass storage capacity in a given storage volume, and reducing the permeability of air and moisture, that may trigger exothermic spontaneous reactions in organic waste, particularly as powders. The study is based on dried sludges from a wastewater treatment, mainly from tanneries, but the indications are valid and useful for any waste in the form of powder, suitable to pelletization. Measurements of bulk density have been carried out at the industrial and laboratory scale, using different packing procedures, amenable to industrial processes. Waste as powder, pellets and their mixtures have been considered. The bulk density of waste as powder increases from 0.64 t/m(3) (simply poured) to 0.74 t/m(3) (tapped) and finally to 0.82 t/m(3) by a suitable, yet simple, packing procedure that we called dispersion filling, with a net gain of 28% in the compaction by simply modifying the collection procedure. Pelletization increases compaction by definition, but the packing of pellets is relatively coarse. Some increase in bulk density of pellets can be achieved by tapping; vibration and dispersion filling are not efficient with pellets. Mixtures of powder and pellets is the optimal packing policy. The best compaction result was achieved by controlled vibration of a 30/70 wt% mixture of powders and pellets, leading to a final bulk density of 1t/m(3), i.e. an improvement of compaction by more than 54% with respect to simply poured powders, but also larger than 35% compared to just pellets. That means increasing the mass storage capacity by a factor of 1.56. Interestingly, vibration can be the most or the least effective procedure to improve compaction of mixtures, depending on characteristics of vibration. The optimal packing (30/70 wt% powders/pellets) proved to effectively mitigate the onset of smouldering

  20. Dissolution and compaction instabilities in geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, I.; Sulem, J.; de Sauvage, J.

    2014-12-01

    Compaction bands play an important role in reservoir engineering and geological storage. Their presence in geological formations may also provide useful information on various geological processes. Several mechanisms can be involved at different scales and may be responsible for compaction band instabilities [1]. Compaction bands can be seen as a particular instability of the governing mathematical system leading to localization of deformation [2-4]. In a saturated porous rock, the progressive mechanical damage of the solid skeleton during compaction, results in the increase of the interface area of the reactants and consequently in the acceleration of the dissolution rate of the solid phase [2,5]. Thus, the solid skeleton is degraded more rapidly (mass removal because of dissolution), the overall mechanical properties of the system diminish (contraction of the elastic domain - chemical softening), deformations increase and the solid skeleton is further damaged (intergranular fractures, debonding, breakage of the porous network etc.). The stability of this positive feedback process is investigated analytically through linear stability analysis by considering the strong chemo-poro-mechanical coupling due to chemical dissolution. The post bifurcation behavior is then studied analytically and numerically revealing the compaction band thickness and periodicity. The effect of various parameters is studied as for instance the influence of the hydraulic diffusivity on the compaction band thickness. [1] P. Baud, S. Vinciguerra, C. David, A. Cavallo, E. Walker and T. Reuschlé (2009), Pure Appl. Geophys., 166(5-7), 869-898 [2] I. Stefanou and J. Sulem (2014), JGR: Solid Earth, 119(2), 880-899. doi:10.1002/2013JB010342I [3] J.W. Rudnicki and J.R. Rice (1975), Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 23(6),: 371-394 [4] K.A. Issen and J.W. Rudnicki (2000), JGR, 105(B9), 21529. doi:10.1029/2000JB900185 [5] R. Nova, R. Castellanza and C. Tamagnini (2003), International

  1. Adaptation-Based Programming in Haskell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Bauer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an embedded DSL to support adaptation-based programming (ABP in Haskell. ABP is an abstract model for defining adaptive values, called adaptives, which adapt in response to some associated feedback. We show how our design choices in Haskell motivate higher-level combinators and constructs and help us derive more complicated compositional adaptives. We also show an important specialization of ABP is in support of reinforcement learning constructs, which optimize adaptive values based on a programmer-specified objective function. This permits ABP users to easily define adaptive values that express uncertainty anywhere in their programs. Over repeated executions, these adaptive values adjust to more efficient ones and enable the user's programs to self optimize. The design of our DSL depends significantly on the use of type classes. We will illustrate, along with presenting our DSL, how the use of type classes can support the gradual evolution of DSLs.

  2. The Lω-Compactness in Lω-Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Li Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of αω-remote neighborhood family, γω-cover, and Lω-compactness are defined in Lω-spaces. The characterizations of Lω-compactness are systematically discussed. Some important properties of Lω-compactness such as ω-closed heredity, arbitrarily multiplicative property, and preserving invariance under ω-continuous mappings are obtained. Finally, the Alexander ω-subbase lemma and the Tychonoff product theorem with respect to Lω-compactness are given.

  3. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming

    2003-01-01

    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  4. The adaptation nature and content: a philosophical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Попович, О. В.

    2014-01-01

    Philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of adaptation is urgently needed, as the scientific discourse confirms the diversity within the meaning of adaptation and missing not only an integrative concept, but consistency in terminology of allied sciences. According to etymological definition of "adaptation" (from the latin words "adaptatio" (adaptation) and "adaptio" (adapt) allows to interpret it as a process and as a result of adjustment. In the development of the science of great importance...

  5. The Entropy of Co-Compact Open Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bourquin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-compact entropy is introduced as an invariant of topological conjugation for perfect mappings defined on any Hausdorff space (compactness and metrizability are not necessarily required. This is achieved through the consideration of co-compact covers of the space. The advantages of co-compact entropy include: (1 it does not require the space to be compact and, thus, generalizes Adler, Konheim and McAndrew’s topological entropy of continuous mappings on compact dynamical systems; and (2 it is an invariant of topological conjugation, compared to Bowen’s entropy, which is metric-dependent. Other properties of co-compact entropy are investigated, e.g., the co-compact entropy of a subsystem does not exceed that of the whole system. For the linear system, (R; f, defined by f(x = 2x, the co-compact entropy is zero, while Bowen’s entropy for this system is at least log 2. More generally, it is found that co-compact entropy is a lower bound of Bowen’s entropies, and the proof of this result also generates the Lebesgue Covering Theorem to co-compact open covers of non-compact metric spaces.

  6. 77 FR 22805 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998..., correct the hotel address line in ADDRESSES to read: 300 East Travis. Dated: April 10, 2012. Gary S...

  7. Production of permalloy components without compacting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozols, A; Pagnola, M.R; Thern, G; Marajofsky, A; Sirkin, M.H

    2004-01-01

    A processing route is analyzed for powder from Permalloy (Ni-18Fe-2Mo) that avoids the metallic die machining steps and the compacting of the powders. The molding of the pieces is based on the preparation of viscous clays prepared from mixtures of aqueous solutions of monomers, emulsifiers, catalyzers and metallic powders. The fluid obtained is poured into thermoplastic molds, where the polymer is cured at 80 o C. The unmolded pieces are slowly heated, until the water and polymer are eliminated, and sinterized to 1160 o C and 1300 o C in a dry hydrogen atmosphere. The resulting pieces undergo comparative studies with the same alloy processed by compacting (700 Mpa) and sinterizing in hydrogen. The electromagnetic loan is evaluated by determining the hysteresis cycles. The preliminary results show the viability of producing soft magnetic pieces (CW)

  8. Radiation shielding for medical compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsukawa, Syoji; Hatakeyama, Satoru; Saito, Yoshihiro; Sera, Kouichiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Sasaki, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a medical compact cyclotron for PET (positron emission tomography) and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis in Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center. The cyclotron vault is covered by concrete wall of 1.5 m thickness. However, a big penetrating window of 1.8 m square was needed at the concrete wall between the cyclotron vault and the PIXE room for beam transport equipment. This window was closed by packing materials of iron shots, small grained polyethylenes mixed with boron and lead grains for shielding of neutrons and γ-rays. Several measurement data have showed that this method is useful for shielding of radiations from the compact cyclotron. (author)

  9. Rules of thumb for minimising subsoil compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu; Keller, T

    2012-01-01

    Subsoil compaction is persistent and can affect important soil functions including soil productivity. The aim of this study was to develop recommendations on how to avoid subsoil compaction for soils exposed to traffic by machinery at field capacity. We measured the vertical stress in the tyre......–soil contact area for two traction tyres at ca. 30- and 60-kN wheel loads on a loamy sand at field capacity. Data on resulting stress distributions were combined with those from the literature for five implement tyres tested at a range of inflation pressures and wheel loads. The vertical stress in the soil...... profile was then predicted using the Söhne model for all tests in the combined data set. The predicted stress at 20 cm depth correlated with the maximum stress in the contact area, tyre inflation pressure, tyre–soil contact area and mean ground pressure. At 100 cm depth, the predicted vertical stress...

  10. Ion diffusion through highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.; Jacobsson, A.; Pusch, R.

    1981-01-01

    Compacted Na- and Ca-bentonites were contacted with aqueous solutions of 134 Cs + , 85 Sr 2+ , 131 I - and 36 Cl - and the diffusivities calculated from tracer concentration-distance profiles in the bentonites 10 days after the onset of diffusion. In the case of 131 I - and 36 Cl - the diffusivities were also determined by measuring the steady state transport through a 5 mm thick bentonite disc. The experimental results indicate that the diffusion through compacted bentonite is governed by complex mechanisms and cannot be accomodated by a simple pore diffusion model. It seems reasonable to assume that non-sorbing ions migrate in the pore water, while cations also move through smectic crystal lattices, preferably through interlamellar spacings according to an ion-exchange-type model. The very low diffusion rate of the investigated anions, as compared with the corresponding rate in bulk water, verifies that the diffusive resistance is very strong for these ions. (Auth.)

  11. Visual soil evaluation and soil compaction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M.L. Guimarães, Rachel; Keller, Thomas; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    to organize a joint workshop. The present special issue is an outcome from the workshop on “Soil structural quality of tropical soils: Visual evaluation methods and soil compaction prevention strategies” that was held 26–29 May 2014 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. There has been a long-lasting interest in Visual...... in 2005, 2009 and 2011 stimulated collaboration, resulting in the collaborative development of methods. The Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS; Ball et al., 2007) test was reimagined from the Peerlkamp method, based on discussions held at the meeting in Peronne, France, in 2005. The SubVESS method...... resources. VSE methods are ideal tools for evaluating management impacts on soil structural quality. Identification of soil compaction is a key aspect in VSE. These considerations formed the basis for the organization of a meeting jointly organized by the VSEE and the Subsoil working groups of ISTRO....

  12. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2007-01-01

    endvidere, at Teknologisk Institut vil kommercialisere projektets resultater. Abstract The overall subject of this project was Self-Compacting Concrete. More specifically it has been to establish a modelling approach for prediction of the form filling behaviour of SCC in a vertical formwork. Self...... of theoretical prediction tools is one of the main reasons for the haltering use of SCC in vertical applications. A lack of prediction tools may lead to selection of concrete mix compositions and casting techniques that are not suitable for a given application. This project proposes a modelling approach within...... to differences in density. In future constructions with Self-Compacting Concrete the proposed modelling approach may be applied to optimise the rheological parameters, particle configuration, and casting technique for a given application in order to obtain the structural quality required....

  13. Lattes-type mappings on compact manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astola, Laura; Kangaslampi, Riikka; Peltonen, Kirsi

    A uniformly quasiregular mapping acting on a compact Riemannian manifold distorts the metric by a bounded amount, independently of the number of iterates. Such maps are rational with respect to some measurable conformal structure and there is a Fatou-Julia type theory associated with the dynamical system obtained by iterating these mappings. We study a rich subclass of uniformly quasiregular mappings that can be produced using an analogy of classical Lattes' construction of chaotic rational functions acting on the extended plane bar{C} . We show that there is a plenitude of compact manifolds that support these mappings. Moreover, we find that in some cases there are alternative ways to construct this type of mapping with different Julia sets.

  14. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  15. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Cong; Chen Zhe; Yang Jie; Wu Nanjian; Wang Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm 2 /bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Compact beamforming in medical ultrasound scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2003-01-01

    to fit a large number of channels on a single integrated circuit. The use of oversampled analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with the corresponding beamforming was identified as a particularly promising approach, since it provides both inexpensive and compact A/D conversion and allows for much more...... channels, and even more channels are necessary for 3-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging. On the other hand, there is a demand for inexpensive portable devices for use outside hospitals, in field conditions, where power consumption and compactness are important factors. The thesis starts...... quality is comparable to that of the very good scanners currently on the market. The performance results have been achieved with the use of a simple oversampled converter of second order. The use of a higher order oversampled converter will allow higher pulse frequency to be used while the high dynamic...

  17. Planning multifunctional green infrastructure for compact cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rieke; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; van der Jagt, Alexander P.N.

    2018-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure planning aims to develop green space networks on limited space in compact cities. Multifunctionality is considered key to achieving this goal as it supports planning practice that considers the ability of green spaces to provide multiple benefits concurrently. However, ....... These recommendations can also be instructive for research on ecosystem service assessments in order to develop approaches that more strongly correspond to the demands of planning practice.......Urban green infrastructure planning aims to develop green space networks on limited space in compact cities. Multifunctionality is considered key to achieving this goal as it supports planning practice that considers the ability of green spaces to provide multiple benefits concurrently. However......, multifunctionality is an elusive concept and little information is available on how it is perceived and actioned by planners. Therefore, this paper will examine the application of the multifunctionality concept in urban planning based on a semi-quantitative study, including interviews with chief planners...

  18. Compact AMS System At Yamagata University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokanai, Fuyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Anshita, Minoru; Izumi, Akihiro; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Saito, Tsugio

    2011-06-01

    A new compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system has been installed in the Kaminoyama research institute at Yamagata University. The AMS system is based on a 0.5 MV Pelletron accelerator developed by National Electrostatics Corp. The performance of the system was investigated using C series samples (C1-C8), standard samples (HOxII), and reagent graphite without any chemical treatment. The precision of 14C measurements for the standard samples is typically higher than 0.3%. The ratio of 14C to 12C is less than 6×10-16 for the reagent graphite. In this paper, we present the performance of the new compact AMS system, as well as of the fully automated 20-reactor graphite lines equipped at the research institute.

  19. Social Compacts in Regional and Global Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2009-01-01

    the impact of global restructuring on labour and social conditions. Examples of the distributional consequences and resulting inequality, poverty, and unemployment are provided. This process has had an important impact on the emergence of reactive regional social compacts based on various forms of negotiated...... théoriser et de conceptualiser les notions de la mondialisation et de la gouvernance globale et régionale. La transformation de l'aide sociale en workfare (assistance sociale en échange du travail) et les impacts d'une restructuration globale sur le travail et les conditions sociales sont analysés, exemples......Abstract This article addresss four issues related to the emergence of new social compacts. It discusses various attempts to theorize and conceptualize the notions of globalization and global and regional governance. It then looks at the transformation from welfare to workfare and examines...

  20. Compact toroid development, activity plan for spheromaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This document contains the description, goals, status, plans, and approach for the investigation of the properties of a magnetic configuration for plasma confinement identified as the spheromak. This component of the magnetic fusion development program has been characterized by its potential for physical compactness and a flexible range of output power. The included material represents the second phase of spheromak program planning. The first was completed in February 1983 and was reported in DOE/ER-0160, Compact Toroid Development. This planning builds on that previous report and concentrates on the detailed plans for the next several years of the current DOE sponsored program. It has been deliberately restricted to the experimental and theoretical efforts possible within the present scale of effort. A third phase of this planning exercise will examine the subsequent effort and resources needed to achieve near-term (1987 to 1990) spheromak technical objectives

  1. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  2. Borehole plugging by compaction process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; MacGowan, C.; Nolan, E.; Morey, R.; Palty, A.

    1976-08-01

    The requirements of an overall program to preserve the integrity of a repository formation are documented. The repository is intended to be in stable earth stratum used as a safe and permanent storage area for nuclear waste material. These wastes represent an environmental hazard for a period of up to 200,000 years. An engineering analysis, a reliability and quality-assurance program, and a development program for borehole plugging by compaction process, using natural earthen materials, are presented. Part 1 provides the engineering analysis of downhole compaction methods and related instrumentation along with a recommended development plan from concept through a pilot in-situ experiment. Part 2 provides a reliability and quality-assurance program from laboratory testing of materials through an in-situ experiment

  3. Iterative solution of high order compact systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotz, W.F.; Carey, G.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We have recently developed a class of finite difference methods which provide higher accuracy and greater stability than standard central or upwind difference methods, but still reside on a compact patch of grid cells. In the present study we investigate the performance of several gradient-type iterative methods for solving the associated sparse systems. Both serial and parallel performance studies have been made. Representative examples are taken from elliptic PDE`s for diffusion, convection-diffusion, and viscous flow applications.

  4. On weak compactness in L_1 spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2009), s. 1885-1893 ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190610; GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA AV ČR IAA1019103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : weak compactness * subspace of L_1 * superreflexive space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.260, year: 2009

  5. Compaction Characteristics of Igumale Shale | Iorliam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum dry density (MDD) increased, while optimum moisture content (OMC) decreased with increase in compactive energy. The MDD of samples 1 and 2 increased from 1.53 Mg/m3 and 1.59 Mg/m3 to 1.90 Mg/m3 and 1.89 Mg/m3 while the OMC decreased from 19.1 % and 16.8 % to 14.3 % and 13.0 % respectively.

  6. A compact 133Xe gas dispenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, T.; Harris, R.

    1977-01-01

    A dispenser for 133 Xe gas is described which is compact and simple to use, allowing the xenon to be dispensed from it shipping ampoule to suitable multi-dose injection vials in a controlled manner and with a high degree of operator safety. The apparatus has no joints and only a single rubber teat, minimizing the risks of adsorption and leakage. A scaled drawing of the dispenser is shown. (U.K.)

  7. Transient Modeling and Simulation of Compact Photobioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Robert Luis Lara; Mariano, André Bellin; Souza, Jeferson Avila; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to make possible the simulation of microalgae growth and its dependency on medium temperature and light intensity. The model is utilized to simulate a compact photobioreactor response in time with physicochemical parameters of the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The model allows for the prediction of the transient and local evolution of the biomass concentration in the photobioreactor with low computational time. As a result, the model is...

  8. Technical benefit and risk analysis on cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hanmin

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates the potential technical benefit and risk for cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon, a laboratory-phase developing technique, from 9 aspects, including the heat consumption of clinkering and exhaust heat utilization, clinker quality, adaptability to alternative fuels, the disposal ability of industrial offal and civil garbage, adaptability to the raw materials and fuels with high content of chlorine, sulphur and alkali, the feasibility of process scale up, the briquetting process of the coal-containing cement raw meal pellet, NO x emission and the capital cost and benefit of conversion project. It is concluded that it will be able to replace the modern precalciner rotary kiln process and to become the main stream technique of cement clinkering process in low carbon economy times. - Highlights: • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to run stably. • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to scale up. • New process triples energy efficiency with excellent environmental performance. • It will be able to compete with and replace the existing precalciner kiln process. • It will become the mainstream clinkering process in low carbon economy

  9. Compact x-ray source and panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayon, Stephen E [Manteca, CA

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  10. Compact source origin of cosmic ray antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The flux of cosmic ray antiprotons with kinetic energies between /approximately/1 and 15 GeV is /approximately/5 times greater than the flux predicted on the basis of the leaky-box model. This excess is attributed to secondary antineutron production in compact sources. Because the antineutrons are not confined by the magnetic field of the compact source, they leave the interaction site, decay in interstellar space and account for the apparent excess cosmic ray antiproton flux. The escape and decay of neutrons produced in association with the antineutrons is a source of cosmic ray protons. Observations of the angular variation of the intensity and spectral shape of 100 MeV γ-rays produced by neutron-decay protons in the reaction p + p → π 0 → 2γ could reveal compact-source cosmic ray production sites. COS-B observations of spectral hardening near point sources, and future high-resolution observations of galactic point sources by Gamma-1 and the Egret telescope onboard the Gamma Ray Observatory may provide supporting evidence for this model. 12 refs., 2 figs

  11. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R

    2014-01-01

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  12. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  13. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweigard, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig

  14. Enhancement of griseofulvin release from liquisolid compacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentzschel, C M; Alnaief, M; Smirnova, I; Sakmann, A; Leopold, C S

    2012-01-01

    The potential of hydrophilic aerogel formulations and liquisolid systems to improve the release of poorly soluble drugs was investigated using griseofulvin as model drug. The in vitro release rates of this drug formulated as directly compressed tablets containing crystalline griseofulvin were compared to aerogel tablets with the drug adsorbed onto hydrophilic silica aerogel and to liquisolid compacts containing the drug dissolved or suspended in PEG 300. Furthermore, the commonly used carrier and coating materials in liquisolid systems Avicel® and Aerosil® were replaced by Neusilin®, an amorphous magnesium aluminometasilicate with an extremely high specific surface area of 339 m²/g to improve the liquisolid approach. Both the liquisolid compacts containing the drug dissolved in PEG 300 and the aerogel tablets showed a considerably faster drug release than the directly compressed tablets. With liquisolid compacts containing the drug suspended in PEG 300, the release rate increased with rising fraction of dissolved drug in the liquid portion. It could be shown that Neusilin® with its sevenfold higher liquid adsorption capacity than the commonly used Avicel® and Aerosil® allows the production of liquisolid formulations with lower tablet weights. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fusion potential for spherical and compact tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandzelius, Mikael

    2003-02-01

    The tokamak is the most successful fusion experiment today. Despite this, the conventional tokamak has a long way to go before being realized into an economically viable power plant. In this master thesis work, two alternative tokamak configurations to the conventional tokamak has been studied, both of which could be realized to a lower cost. The fusion potential of the spherical and the compact tokamak have been examined with a comparison of the conventional tokamak in mind. The difficulties arising in the two configurations have been treated from a physical point of view concerning the fusion plasma and from a technological standpoint evolving around design, materials and engineering. Both advantages and drawbacks of either configuration have been treated relative to the conventional tokamak. The spherical tokamak shows promising plasma characteristics, notably a high {beta}-value but have troubles with high heat loads and marginal tritium breeding. The compact tokamak operates at a high plasma density and a high magnetic field enabling it to be built considerably smaller than any other tokamak. The most notable down-side being high heat loads and neutron transport problems. With the help of theoretical reactor studies, extrapolating from where we stand today, it is conceivable that the spherical tokamak is closer of being realized of the two. But, as this study shows, the compact tokamak power plant concept offers the most appealing prospect.

  16. Fusion potential for spherical and compact tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandzelius, Mikael

    2003-02-01

    The tokamak is the most successful fusion experiment today. Despite this, the conventional tokamak has a long way to go before being realized into an economically viable power plant. In this master thesis work, two alternative tokamak configurations to the conventional tokamak has been studied, both of which could be realized to a lower cost. The fusion potential of the spherical and the compact tokamak have been examined with a comparison of the conventional tokamak in mind. The difficulties arising in the two configurations have been treated from a physical point of view concerning the fusion plasma and from a technological standpoint evolving around design, materials and engineering. Both advantages and drawbacks of either configuration have been treated relative to the conventional tokamak. The spherical tokamak shows promising plasma characteristics, notably a high β-value but have troubles with high heat loads and marginal tritium breeding. The compact tokamak operates at a high plasma density and a high magnetic field enabling it to be built considerably smaller than any other tokamak. The most notable down-side being high heat loads and neutron transport problems. With the help of theoretical reactor studies, extrapolating from where we stand today, it is conceivable that the spherical tokamak is closer of being realized of the two. But, as this study shows, the compact tokamak power plant concept offers the most appealing prospect

  17. Compact Stars with Sequential QCD Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Mark; Sedrakian, Armen

    2017-10-20

    Compact stars may contain quark matter in their interiors at densities exceeding several times the nuclear saturation density. We explore models of such compact stars where there are two first-order phase transitions: the first from nuclear matter to a quark-matter phase, followed at a higher density by another first-order transition to a different quark-matter phase [e.g., from the two-flavor color-superconducting (2SC) to the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase]. We show that this can give rise to two separate branches of hybrid stars, separated from each other and from the nuclear branch by instability regions, and, therefore, to a new family of compact stars, denser than the ordinary hybrid stars. In a range of parameters, one may obtain twin hybrid stars (hybrid stars with the same masses but different radii) and even triplets where three stars, with inner cores of nuclear matter, 2SC matter, and CFL matter, respectively, all have the same mass but different radii.

  18. A Novel Structure and Design Optimization of Compact Spline-Parameterized UWB Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koziel Slawomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel structure of a compact UWB slot antenna and its design optimization procedure has been presented. In order to achieve a sufficient number of degrees of freedom necessary to obtain a considerable size reduction rate, the slot is parameterized using spline curves. All antenna dimensions are simultaneously adjusted using numerical optimization procedures. The fundamental bottleneck here is a high cost of the electromagnetic (EM simulation model of the structure that includes (for reliability an SMA connector. Another problem is a large number of geometry parameters (nineteen. For the sake of computational efficiency, the optimization process is therefore performed using variable-fidelity EM simulations and surrogate-assisted algorithms. The optimization process is oriented towards explicit reduction of the antenna size and leads to a compact footprint of 199 mm2 as well as acceptable matching within the entire UWB band. The simulation results are validated using physical measurements of the fabricated antenna prototype.

  19. Compact Diplexer with High Isolation and Wide Stopband Based on SIRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wang, Xin-Yi; Wei, Feng; Chen, Lei

    2017-05-01

    A compact microstrip diplexer with a high isolation and improved out-of-band performance is proposed in this paper. The proposed diplexer is based on cascaded-quadruplet (CQ) bandpass filters (BPFs), which is composed of λ/4 stepped-impedance resonators (SIRs). By employing the edge and quasi-lumped coupling topology, a compact diplexer with improved passband selectivity can be achieved. Meanwhile, by appropriately adjusting the impedance and electric length ratios of SIRs, the stopband can be extended to 20 GHz with a rejection level of 10 dB, which is 12.7 times of the fundamental frequency. The predicted results on S parameters are compared with the measured ones and good agreement is achieved.

  20. Soil compaction: alterations in physical, chemical and biological attributes in a fluvic neosoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    The efficient management of soil proposes the correct utilization of agricultural practices to minimize the loss of structure, compaction, and nutrient losses in the soil, which are the main causes of its degradation. Such concerns reside in the fact that the impact from compaction can also be related to the soil capacity for losing carbon. This effect has strong influence on CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. On the other hand, induced mutation, a valuable tool for the development of genetic materials, that is tolerant to environmental adversities, can be helpful in the adaptation of crops in compacted soils. This study was conducted to evaluate isolated and combined effects of compaction, water content and organic amendments in soil respiration. Also it investigates the development of cowpea (V. unguiculata, L. Walp] var. IPA 206, in a Fluvic Neosoil, artificially compacted, with different fertilizer materials added (cowdung, NPK, organomineral I, and organomineral II). Also it evaluates the development of cowpea when the seeds were submitted to gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) and cultivated in compacted and non compacted soil, under greenhouse conditions, for 60 days. The isolated addition of spent coffee powder and marine algae to the soil increased the CO 2 evolution from soil, reflecting variations in dynamics of the heterotrophic soil microbiota. CO 2 evolution decreased with the increase in soil density, showing reductions in aeration. The values presented were found to be low in the treatment without addition of these materials (control) and showed them to be significantly increased in the treatments that received such residues, all over the incubation period. Plant height, root length, shoot dry matter production and dry matter of nodules diminished with the increase in soil density. The incorporation of the organomineral mixtures I and II to the artificially compacted soil, showed an increase in plant height, and root length, suggesting the beneficial action

  1. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation......This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  2. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  3. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults : The effect of laterality and state regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Borger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation,

  4. Investigating the use of an adjustment task to set preferred illuminances in a workplace environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta; Christoffersen, Jens; Fotios, Steve

    2011-01-01

    by variables inherent in the experimental design including the available stimulus range, the anchor (initial setting before adjustment) and adaptation time before onset of adjustment action. The experiment included three different stimulus ranges (21–482 lux, 38–906 lux and 72–1307 lux) and these lead...

  5. Self-adjusting assembly jig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaser, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Jig adjusts for thermal expansion and contraction to hold parts being joined under constant pressure and in correct alignment during entire joining operation. Jig is simple and easy to use, durable and maintenance free. Several methods may be used to join parts of many sizes and shapes.

  6. Kinematic adjustments to seismic recordings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, A.N.; Levii, N.V.; Volovik, U.M.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of kinematic adjustments by adding the displaced blocks is studied theoretically and in test seismograms. The advantage to this method resulting from the weight variation in the trace is demonstrated together with its kinematic drawback. A variation on the displaced block addition method that does not involve realignment of the travel time curves and that has improved amplitude characteristics is proposed.

  7. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...

  8. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College of Science, .... It is first necessary to decide upon the level of accuracy, or correctness which is sought from the adjustment of the initial model, and this will be heavily influenced by the eventual application of the ..... reviewing the degree of success attained.

  9. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning.

  10. Discrete Modelling of Compaction of Non-spherical Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction behaviour and mechanical response of a compact show strong dependence on particle shape. In this study, a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM was developed to study the compaction behaviour of spheroidal particles. In the model, particle shape was approximated by gluing multiple spheres together. A bonded particle model was adopted to describe interparticle bonding force. The DEM model was first validated by comparing the properties of packing of spheroids (packing density, coordination number with literature data and then applied to both die compaction and unconfined compression. In die compaction, the effect of aspect ratio on the densification was mainly due to the difference in the initial packing. In unconfined compression, the increase in compressive strength with increasing aspect ratio was attributed to the increase in the number of interparticle bonding. The findings facilitate a better understanding of the relation of particle shape to the compaction behaviour and compact strength.

  11. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  12. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  13. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    be given greater access to relevant information to help them adapt their farming practices and socio- economic strategies to climate change? To address this challenge, the project “InfoClim,” led by Senegal's. Ecological Monitoring Centre. (CSE) with support from the. CCAA program, aims at improving the access of farmers ...

  14. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  15. Morphological responses of barley roots to soil compaction and modified supply of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SIMOJOKI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes in barley roots in response to soil compaction and hypoxia were quantified by image analysis. Based on the assumption that these soil stresses increase endogenous ethylene production in plants, changes indicating higher construction costs for roots, such as decreased specific root length, were expected. The hypothesis was found to be only partly correct. Most morphological changes of barley roots were probably a reaction to increased soil mechanical impedance. Examples of this are root width, which was increased by compaction apart from in wet soil, as well as increased width and specific volume, and a decreased specific length of roots in the deepest layer of well-aerated loose soil. However, in loose moist soil hypoxia prevented root growth, but did not change root morphology. The results suggest that severe hypoxia lessens the possibilities of roots to adapt to the hypoxic soil by reducing root growth and by preventing the formation of aerenchyma. ;

  16. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  17. Mechanical Compaction of Porous Sandstone Compaction mécanique des grès poreux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong T. F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In many reservoir engineering and tectonic problems, the ability to predict both the occurrence and extent of inelastic deformation and failure hinges upon a fundamental understanding of the phenomenology and micromechanics of compaction in reservoir rock. This paper reviews recent research advances on mechanical compaction of porous sandstone, with focus on the synthesis of laboratory data, quantitative microstructural characterization of damage, and theoretical models based on elastic contact and fracture mechanics. The mechanical attributes of compaction in nominally dry and saturated samples have been studied under hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic loadings over a broad range of pressure conditions. Specific topics reviewed herein include: comparison of mechanical and acoustic emission data with continuum plasticity theory; microstructural control of onset and development of compaction; strain hardening and spatial evolution of damage during compaction; and the weakening effect of water on compactive yield and porosity change. Pour de nombreux problèmes de tectonique et d'ingénierie de réservoir, la capacité à prévoir à la fois la fréquence, l'ampleur de la déformation inélastique et les ruptures repose sur une compréhension fondamentale de la phénoménologie et de la micromécanique de compaction dans les roches-réservoirs. Cet article présente les résultats de recherches récentes sur la compaction mécanique des grès poreux. On insiste plus particulièrement sur la synthèse des données de laboratoire, la caractérisation microstructurale quantitative de l'endommagement, ainsi que sur les modèles théoriques basés sur un contact élastique et sur la mécanique de la rupture. Les attributs mécaniques de la compaction sur des échantillons initialement secs et saturés ont été étudiés sous des chargements hydrostatiques et non hydrostatiques dans une large gamme de pression. Les sujets spécifiques étudiés ici

  18. General Adjustment Influence Factor of Malaysian Construction Expatriates Executives Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainol Halmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of Malaysian construction companies creates an opportunity to explore abroad. Past studies have shown that the difficulty of expatriates in adjusting to a new environment is the main aspect that leads to failure of assignments. The success in implementing an overseas assignment does not solely depend on an expatriate’s technical expertise. The adjustment issues such as the interaction with the host nationals, and adaptability to the host country’s culture also exert influence on the assignment. The research was conducted to identify the influence of executive expatriate general adjustment on assignment in host countries. The objective of the study was to identify adjustment influence factors relating to general adjustment abroad. Questionnaires were sent to Malaysian expatriate executives. Sixty four Malaysian expatriate executives from Malaysian construction companies overseas were involved in this study. The findings show interaction, social and living environment influences their adjustment during expatriation. Pre-departure training preparation aspects for expatriates is a good step before their departure to host countries.

  19. Adaptation and creativity in cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M. Cohen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is the fit between the individual and the environment. The dynamic interplay between person, culture, and environment is one of the most important issues in analyzing creativity. Adaptation is defined as the fit or adjustment of the individual to external conditions, but adaptation can also mean moving from one environment to another more suitable, or even forcing the environment to adapt in response to creative efforts. Culture impacts creativity in limiting acceptable boundaries, yet providing the artifacts used in creating. Culture is impacted and changed by creative efforts. Tight conformity to confining environments or cultures can stifle. The creator must be aware of cultural values and not overstep these boundaries for work to be accepted. A developmental continuum of adaptive, creative behaviors suggests a shift from individual adaptation to the environment to adaptation by the world to the individual.

  20. The α ' expansion on a compact manifold of exceptional holonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin; Robbins, Daniel; Witten, Edward

    2014-06-01

    In the approximation corresponding to the classical Einstein equations, which is valid at large radius, string theory compactification on a compact manifold M of G 2 or Spin(7) holonomy gives a supersymmetric vacuum in three or two dimensions. Do α ' corrections to the Einstein equations disturb this statement? Explicitly analyzing the leading correction, we show that the metric of M can be adjusted to maintain supersymmetry. Beyond leading order, a general argument based on low energy effective field theory in spacetime implies that this is true exactly (not just to all finite orders in α '). A more elaborate field theory argument that includes the massive Kaluza-Klein modes matches the structure found in explicit calculations. In M-theory compactification on a manifold M of G 2 or Spin(7) holonomy, similar results hold to all orders in the inverse radius of M — but not exactly. The classical moduli space of G 2 metrics on a manifold M is known to be locally a Lagrangian submanifold of H 3( M,) ⊕ H 4( M,). We show that this remains valid to all orders in the α ' or inverse radius expansion.

  1. Conceptual design of a compact positron tomograph for prostateimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.S.; Derenzo, S.E.; Qi, J.; Moses, W.W.; Huesman, R.H.; Budinger, T.F.

    2000-11-04

    We present a conceptual design of a compact positron tomograph for prostate imaging using a pair of external curved detector banks, one placed above and one below the patient. The lower detector bank is fixed below the patient bed, and the top bank adjusts vertically for maximum sensitivity and patient access. Each bank is composed of 40conventional block detectors, forming two arcs (44 cm minor, 60 cm major axis) that are tilted to minimize attenuation and positioned as close as possible to the patient to improve sensitivity. The individual detectors are angled to point towards the prostate to minimize resolution degradation in that region. Inter-plane septa extend 5 cm beyond the scintillator crystals to reduce random and scatter backgrounds. A patient is not fully encircled by detector rings in order to minimize cost,causing incomplete sampling due to the side gaps. Monte Carlo simulation (including random and scatter) demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a spherical tumor of 2.5 cm diameter with a tumor to background ratio of2:1, utilizing the number of events that should be achievable with a6-minute scan after a 10 mCi injection (e.g., carbon-11 choline or fluorine-18 fluorocholine).

  2. Advanced Construction of Compact Containment BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Maruyama, T.; Mori, H.; Hoshino, K.; Hijioka, Y.; Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Hoshi, T.

    2006-01-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a mid/small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. Compact Containment BWR (CCR) is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The high investment potential is expected from CCR's simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, top mounted upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified safety system with high pressure resistible primary containment vessel (PCV) concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The top mounted upper entry CRDs enable the bottom located short core in RPV. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), high pressure resistible PCV and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in case of design base accidents including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. CCR's specific self-standing steel high pressure resistible PCV is designed to contain minimum piping and valves inside with reactor pressure vessel (RPV), only 13 m in diameter and 24 m in height. This compact PCV makes it possible to

  3. Chemically induced compaction bands in geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Compaction bands play an important role in oil production and may provide useful information on various geological processes. Various mechanisms can be involved at different scales: the micro scale (e.g. the grain scale), the meso scale (e.g. the Representative Element Volume) and the macro scale (e.g. the structure). Moreover, hydro-chemo-mechanical couplings might play an important role in triggering instabilities in the form of compaction bands. Compaction bands can be seen as an instability of the underneath mathematical problem leading to localization of deformation [1,2,3]. Here we explore the conditions of compaction banding in quartz-based geomaterials by considering the effect of chemical dissolution and precipitation [4,5]. In due course of the loading process grain crushing affects the residual strength, the porosity and the permeability of the material. Moreover, at the micro-level, grain crushing results in an increase of the grain specific surface, which accelerates the dissolution [6]. Consequently, the silica is removed more rapidly from the grain skeleton and the overall mechanical properties are degraded due to chemical factors. The proposed model accounts for these phenomena. In particular, the diffusion of the diluted in the water silica is considered through the mass balance equation of the porous medium. The reduction of the mechanical strength of the material is described through a macroscopic failure criterion with chemical softening. The grain size reduction is related to the total energy input [7]. A grain size and porosity dependent permeability law is adopted. These degradation mechanisms are coupled with the dissolution/precipitation reaction kinetics. The obtained hydro-chemo-mechanical model is used to investigate the conditions, the material parameters and the chemical factors inducing compaction bands formation. References [1] J.W. Rudnicki, and J.R. Rice. "Conditions for the Localization of Deformation in Pressure

  4. Effect of roll compaction on granule size distribution of microcrystalline cellulose-mannitol mixtures: computational intelligence modeling and parametric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Pezhman; Khalid, Mohammad Hassan; Pérez Gago, Ana; Kleinebudde, Peter; Jachowicz, Renata; Szlęk, Jakub; Mendyk, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Dry granulation using roll compaction is a typical unit operation for producing solid dosage forms in the pharmaceutical industry. Dry granulation is commonly used if the powder mixture is sensitive to heat and moisture and has poor flow properties. The output of roll compaction is compacted ribbons that exhibit different properties based on the adjusted process parameters. These ribbons are then milled into granules and finally compressed into tablets. The properties of the ribbons directly affect the granule size distribution (GSD) and the quality of final products; thus, it is imperative to study the effect of roll compaction process parameters on GSD. The understanding of how the roll compactor process parameters and material properties interact with each other will allow accurate control of the process, leading to the implementation of quality by design practices. Computational intelligence (CI) methods have a great potential for being used within the scope of quality by design approach. The main objective of this study was to show how the computational intelligence techniques can be useful to predict the GSD by using different process conditions of roll compaction and material properties. Different techniques such as multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, random forest, Cubist and k-nearest neighbors algorithm assisted by sevenfold cross-validation were used to present generalized models for the prediction of GSD based on roll compaction process setting and material properties. The normalized root-mean-squared error and the coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) were used for model assessment. The best fit was obtained by Cubist model (normalized root-mean-squared error =3.22%, R 2 =0.95). Based on the results, it was confirmed that the material properties (true density) followed by compaction force have the most significant effect on GSD.

  5. School Adjustment And Academic Achievement Among Tribal Dolescents In Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ch. Beda Devi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study is an attempt to examine school adjustment and academic achievement among tribal adolescent students in two districts of Manipur. The study also attempts to examine the high and low academic achievers of tribal students of the two areas. The sample comprised of 629 XI standard tribal adolescent students. Out of which 136 were from Imphal West and 493 were from Ukhrul district. A standardized school adjustment inventory for adolescent students developed by the investigator was used. For academic achievement the last public examination i.e. H.S.L.C. marks were used as the index of academic achievement. The findings revealed that a low positive correlation between school adjustment and academic achievement in both the districts. It was also reveals that high academic achievers had better adaptability in school than that of low academic achievers

  6. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  7. Compact MOSFET models for VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, A B

    2009-01-01

    Practicing designers, students, and educators in the semiconductor field face an ever expanding portfolio of MOSFET models. In Compact MOSFET Models for VLSI Design , A.B. Bhattacharyya presents a unified perspective on the topic, allowing the practitioner to view and interpret device phenomena concurrently using different modeling strategies. Readers will learn to link device physics with model parameters, helping to close the gap between device understanding and its use for optimal circuit performance. Bhattacharyya also lays bare the core physical concepts that will drive the future of VLSI.

  8. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  9. Highly compact polarization-independent grating coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shiqian; Wang, Yi

    2010-06-01

    We propose a compact polarization-independent output grating coupler, which consists of T-shaped grooves. For only 20 periods on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a 260nm thick top silicon layer, the output coupling efficiencies for both the TE and the TM modes are larger than 50% in the wavelength range of 1480-1580nm and are approximately 58% around 1550nm. The polarization-dependent loss of the device is within 0.05dB in the range of 1510-1580nm.

  10. [Twin dystocia: about one case of compaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseauve, D; Voluménie, J-L

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of twin dystocia during the evacuation of full-term fetus both in cephalic presentation. A low-outlet forceps for second-phase arrest was performed for the first twin but the head remained stuck to maternal perineum, mimicking a shoulder dystocia. Digital examination found a twin compaction, that is the presence of the second twin's fetal head at the level of the first twin's chest. The discrepancy between fetal weights and the use of forceps could favor this rare complication. Various maneuvers were described previously attempted to solve the problem. Forcing back the second head may help to achieve delivery of the first twin.

  11. The Dugdale model for the compact specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Plastic zone size and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) equations were developed. Boundary collocation analyses were used to analyze the compact specimen subjected to various loading conditions (pin loads, concentrated forces, and uniform pressure acting on the crack surface). Stress intensity factor and crack surface displacement equations for some of these loadings were developed and used to obtain the Dugdale model. The results from the equations for plastic zone size and CTOD agreed well with numerical values calculated by Terada for crack length to width ratios greater than 0.4.

  12. The Dugdale model for compact specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Plastic zone size and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) equations were developed. Boundary collocation analyses were used to analyze the compact specimen subjected to various loading conditions (pin loads, concentrated forces, and uniform pressure acting on the crack surface). Stress intensity factor and crack surface displacement equations for some of these loadings were developed and used to obtain the Dugdale model. The results from the equations for plastic zone size and CTOD agreed well with numerical values calculated by Terada for crack length to width ratios greater than 0.4.

  13. Development status of compact containment BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Mori, H.; Sekiguchi, K.; Kuroki, M.; Arai, K.; Hida, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, increase of nuclear plant unit capacity has been promoted to take advantage of economies of scale while further enhancing safety and reliability. As a result, more than 50 units of nuclear power plants are playing important role in electric power generation. However, the factors, such as stagnant growth in the recent electricity demand, limitation in electricity grid capacity and limited in initial investment avoiding risk, will not be in favor of large plant outputs. The reactor concept considered in this paper has a small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR), which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The high investment potential is expected from CCR's simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, top mounted upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified ECCS system with high pressure resistible primary containment vessel (PCV) concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The top mounted upper entry CRDs enable the bottom located short core in RPV. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), high pressure resistible PCV and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response

  14. Constraints on the braneworld from compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, R.G. [Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, CFTP, Lisboa (Portugal); Paret, D.M. [Universidad de la Habana, Departamento de Fisica General, Facultad de Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); Martinez, A.P. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    According to the braneworld idea, ordinary matter is confined on a three-dimensional space (brane) that is embedded in a higher-dimensional space-time where gravity propagates. In this work, after reviewing the limits coming from general relativity, finiteness of pressure and causality on the brane, we derive observational constraints on the braneworld parameters from the existence of stable compact stars. The analysis is carried out by solving numerically the brane-modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, using different representative equations of state to describe matter in the star interior. The cases of normal dense matter, pure quark matter and hybrid matter are considered. (orig.)

  15. Compact experiments for α-particle heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.

    1978-01-01

    Recent experiments, and scalings deduced from them, have indicated that relatively high density plasmas can be produced and well confined in toroidal configurations capable of sustaining high current densities without inducing macroscopic instabilities. Here we propose to develop a line of compact devices sustaining sufficiently high plasma currents to confine the 3.5 MeV α-particles that are produced in D-T reactions. This line is proposed as a parallel program to the development of large volume Tokamaks which is being undertaken on a worldwide basis

  16. The Boundary Layer in compact binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hertfelder, Marius; Kley, Wilhelm; Suleimanov, Valery; Werner, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Disk accretion onto stars leads to the formation of a Boundary Layer (BL) near the stellar surface where the disk makes contact with the star. Albeit a large fraction of the total luminosity of the system originates from this tiny layer connecting the accretion disk and the accreting object, its structure has not been fully understood yet. It is the aim of this work, to obtain more insight into the Boundary Layer around the white dwarf in compact binary systems. There are still many uncertain...

  17. Compact neutron generator with nanotube ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Ionidi, V. Y.; Ivashchuk, O. O.; Kirsanov, M. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Klenin, A. A.; Kubankin, A. S.; Nazhmudinov, R. M.; Nikulin, I. S.; Oleinik, A. N.; Pavlov, A. A.; Shchagin, A. V.; Zhukova, P. N.

    2018-02-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of fast neutrons generated when a positive acceleration potential is applied to an array of orientated carbon nanotubes, which are used as an ion source. The neutrons with energy of 2.45 MeV are generated as a result of D-D fusion reaction. The dependencies of the neutron yield on the value of the applied potential and residual pressure of deuterium are measured. The proposed approach is planned to be used for the development of compact neutron generators.

  18. Sputtering target made by hot isostatic compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Hecht, R.J.; Fenton, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    In a method of making a cooled sputtering target assembly, material to be sputtered is in powder form which is isostatically hot-pressed in a toroidal metallic container under conditions which promote compaction and bonding of the powder particles to form a dense material. Parts of the container are then removed from the target material except for a remnant around the outer surface of the target material. A cooling jacket is then fabricated and attached around the remnant of the container. The targets specified are made from MCrAlY type alloys where M is Fe, Co or Ni. (U.K.)

  19. A long-lasting compact group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governato, Fabio; Bhatia, Rajiv; Chincarini, Guido

    1991-04-01

    The dynamical evolution of a compact group of four galaxies has been studied using Aarseth's NBODY2 code. An important departure from previous studies is the wider range of masses chosen for the individual galaxies, which are representative of those existing in Hickson's catalog. The first merging occurs after 4.3 billion yr, while the group lasts for as many as nine billion yr before merging into a single remnant. Two other simulations test the dependence of the results on the galaxy models adopted and the general set of initial conditions. Another run, with four identical galaxies and no special initial conditions, is used as a standard of reference.

  20. Development of a compact solar combisystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    to get highest system efficiency for use with either a condensing natural gas boiler or a pellet boiler. Especially when using the potential of high peak power of modern condensing natural gas boilers, a new operation strategy of a natural gas boiler/solar combisystem can increase the energy savings......Within the frame of the project REBUS, “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research, a new type of compact solar combisystem with high degree of prefabrication was developed. A hydraulic and control concept was designed with the goal...... of a small solar combisystem by about 80% compared to conventional operation strategies....

  1. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  2. A compact design of a characterization station for far UV photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Peter X.; Aldalbahi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    A newly fabricated characterization station is presented. It is a compact, cost-effective, and easily adjustable apparatus. Each part including 4-pin probe, manipulators, operating temperature, and applied bias can be independently controlled. The station can provide highly reliable, reproducible, and economical methods to quickly conduct and complete the characterizations of a large amount of sensing materials within a short period of time. It is particularly suitable for studies of various nanostructured materials and their related thermal effect, polarization effect, sensitivity, and electrical and electronic properties.

  3. DFB laser array driver circuit controlled by adjustable signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weikang; Du, Yinchao; Guo, Yu; Li, Wei; Wang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    In order to achieve the intelligent controlling of DFB laser array, this paper presents the design of an intelligence and high precision numerical controlling electric circuit. The system takes MCU and FPGA as the main control chip, with compact, high-efficiency, no impact, switching protection characteristics. The output of the DFB laser array can be determined by an external adjustable signal. The system transforms the analog control model into a digital control model, which improves the performance of the driver. The system can monitor the temperature and current of DFB laser array in real time. The output precision of the current can reach ± 0.1mA, which ensures the stable and reliable operation of the DFB laser array. Such a driver can benefit the flexible usage of the DFB laser array.

  4. Adaptive sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  5. Adaptive positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  6. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  7. ADAPTATION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn PETERS, M.Sc.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved

  8. Development of pixelated scintillator-based compact radio-TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sang June; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2016-01-01

    The radio-TLC system generally shows as a graph of counting gamma radioactivity, emitting by radiopharmaceutical including a specific radioisotope. it makes guarantee quantitative accuracy and reproducibility for chemically stability and change of a targeting radiopharmaceutical. In present the radio-TLC produced by a few companies use a gas-filled proportional counter with high cost, and it has limitations of both gas diffusion and ion density. Recently, Ce:GAGG has been developed and presented as promising scintillators for PET and SPECT due to high density, high light yield (- 46,000-51,000 photon/MeV), and fast decay time. We have adapted GAGG scintillation crystal array to radio-TLC detector. We developed the GAGG crystal array based radio-TLC RT-102. The RT-102 has several advantages such as the compact size, the no-gas usage, and the lower cost in comparison with commercial radio-TLC scanner. In order to verify the performance of RT-102, we compared RT-102 with AR-2000. We scanned and compared Tc-99m and F-18 solution spotted samples in the same conditions. The ROI counts ratio and position detecting performances of RT-102 are approximately same with AR-2000. The results indicate the RT-102 has enough resolution and sensitivity to be used in the measurement of radiochemical purity test in radio-TLC devices

  9. Development of pixelated scintillator-based compact radio-TLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang June; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jong Guk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The radio-TLC system generally shows as a graph of counting gamma radioactivity, emitting by radiopharmaceutical including a specific radioisotope. it makes guarantee quantitative accuracy and reproducibility for chemically stability and change of a targeting radiopharmaceutical. In present the radio-TLC produced by a few companies use a gas-filled proportional counter with high cost, and it has limitations of both gas diffusion and ion density. Recently, Ce:GAGG has been developed and presented as promising scintillators for PET and SPECT due to high density, high light yield (- 46,000-51,000 photon/MeV), and fast decay time. We have adapted GAGG scintillation crystal array to radio-TLC detector. We developed the GAGG crystal array based radio-TLC RT-102. The RT-102 has several advantages such as the compact size, the no-gas usage, and the lower cost in comparison with commercial radio-TLC scanner. In order to verify the performance of RT-102, we compared RT-102 with AR-2000. We scanned and compared Tc-99m and F-18 solution spotted samples in the same conditions. The ROI counts ratio and position detecting performances of RT-102 are approximately same with AR-2000. The results indicate the RT-102 has enough resolution and sensitivity to be used in the measurement of radiochemical purity test in radio-TLC devices.

  10. DO POST-SOCIALIST URBAN AREAS MAINTAIN THEIR SUSTAINABLE COMPACT FORM? ROMANIAN URBAN AREAS AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Raluca GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is regarded as an important concept in promoting sustainable development, especially within the European Union. The socialist urban planning system maintained a high compactness of the urban areas through almost exclusive predominance of the public sector in housing provision, and ideological nature of the planning strategies. After the 1990’s, the administrative decentralization allowed local authorities to adopt particular urban development strategies. However, development was directly influenced by the importance of the urban administrative centre. The aim of the paper is to determine if post-socialist urban areas maintained their compact urban form or they encountered different evolution trajectories. We determined the type of changes by calculating urban form indicators at two time moments: 1990 and 2006. Furthermore, the two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA was used to identify significant changes, and to assess the effect of the development level of the urban area on the variance of form indicators. The results show that Romanian post-socialist urban areas either shifted from the compact form, "inherited" after the collapse of socialism, to more dispersed patterns, either expanded in a compact manner. Moreover, as development level got higher, urban areas were more likely to be affected by suburbanization and periurbanization. In order to respond to these challenges, new instruments such as setting of metropolitan areas or spatial framework plans could be used. Furthermore, planning should be adapted to local circumstances and to the different development trajectories of big and mid-sized urban areas.

  11. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for U(1) invariant integrable models: Compact and non-compact applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.J.; Melo, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the algebraic Bethe ansatz developed in our previous paper [C.S. Melo, M.J. Martins, Nucl. Phys. B 806 (2009) 567] to three different families of U(1) integrable vertex models with arbitrary N bond states. These statistical mechanics systems are based on the higher spin representations of the quantum group U q [SU(2)] for both generic and non-generic values of q as well as on the non-compact discrete representation of the SL(2,R) algebra. We present for all these models the explicit expressions for both the on-shell and the off-shell properties associated to the respective transfer matrices eigenvalue problems. The amplitudes governing the vectors not parallel to the Bethe states are shown to factorize in terms of elementary building blocks functions. The results for the non-compact SL(2,R) model are argued to be derived from those obtained for the compact systems by taking suitable N→∞ limits. This permits us to study the properties of the non-compact SL(2,R) model starting from systems with finite degrees of freedom.

  12. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for U(1) invariant integrable models: Compact and non-compact applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M. J.; Melo, C. S.

    2009-10-01

    We apply the algebraic Bethe ansatz developed in our previous paper [C.S. Melo, M.J. Martins, Nucl. Phys. B 806 (2009) 567] to three different families of U(1) integrable vertex models with arbitrary N bond states. These statistical mechanics systems are based on the higher spin representations of the quantum group U[SU(2)] for both generic and non-generic values of q as well as on the non-compact discrete representation of the SL(2,R) algebra. We present for all these models the explicit expressions for both the on-shell and the off-shell properties associated to the respective transfer matrices eigenvalue problems. The amplitudes governing the vectors not parallel to the Bethe states are shown to factorize in terms of elementary building blocks functions. The results for the non-compact SL(2,R) model are argued to be derived from those obtained for the compact systems by taking suitable N→∞ limits. This permits us to study the properties of the non-compact SL(2,R) model starting from systems with finite degrees of freedom.

  13. [Causal relationship between assertiveness and adjustment in children: A short-term longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the causal relationships between assertiveness and both internal and external adjustment in children. Elementary school children in grades four through six (N = 284) participated in the study, which used a short-term longitudinal design. The children completed questionnaires twice during a 6-months period. They responded to assertiveness questionnaires that included two components: "self-expression" and "consideration of others". They also completed a self-esteem scale as an index of internal adjustment, and the Class Life Satisfaction scale as an index of external adjustment. There was a positive causative relationship between "self-expression" and internal adjustment and between "consideration for others" and external adjustment. In addition, the effects on adjustment varied according to the type of assertiveness. Cluster analysis and MANOVA indicated that the group with high "self-expression" and "consideration for others" had high internal and external adjustment, while the children with poor assertiveness showed the lowest degree of adaptivity.

  14. High temperature getter for compact HID lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maagt, B J de [Central Development Lighting, Philips Lighting B.V., PO Box 80020, 5600JM, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Corazza, A [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, 20020 Lainate, Milan (Italy)

    2005-09-07

    In high intensity discharge (HID) lamps getters are generally used to remove gaseous impurities that otherwise may have negative effects on the lamp characteristics. Hydrogen, in particular, is a dangerous impurity because it can induce ignition problems and, in lamps with a quartz burner, it can diffuse from the outer bulb into the arc tube and cause early corrosion of the quartz. Recently a new getter, suitable to work in compact HID lamps operated at high temperatures, has been developed: this getter is an appropriate solution to sorb hydrogen at high working temperatures in lamps where the use of a conventional getter is inadequate because of its small capacity for gettering hydrogen, its relatively high hydrogen equilibrium pressure and problems associated with the evaporation of getter and container material. The newly developed getter, named high temperature getter (HTG), is based on a special alloy enclosed in a niobium container. The new alloy is very effective in sorbing hydrogen in the temperature region of 500-900 deg. C. It has been proved that by introducing the HTG the processing of high-wattage compact HID lamps can be simplified and a better lamp performance can be obtained.

  15. Compact solid source of hydrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Hecht, Andrew M.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2004-06-08

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  16. Compact neutron generator development at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, J.; English, G.; Firestone, R.; Giquel, F.; King, M.; Leung, K-N.; Sun, M.

    2003-01-01

    A wide variety of applications ranging from medical (BNCT, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) and basic science (neutron imaging, material studies) to homeland security (explosive detection and nuclear material non-proliferation) are in need of compact, high flux neutron generators. The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is developing various neutron generators for these applications. These neutron generators employed either the D-D or the D-T fusion reaction for the neutron production. The deuterium or deuterium-tritium gas mixture is ionized in an RF-driven plasma source. The ions are then accelerated to ∼100 keV energy using high current, high voltage DC-power supply to a target where the 2.45 MeV (for D-D reaction) or 14 MeV (for the D-T reaction) neutrons are generated. The development of two different types of neutron tubes are being discussed in this presentation, namely compact, pulsed operation neutron generators and cw, high yield neutron generators. These generators are currently operating at D-D neutron yields of 108 n/s and 109 n/s respectively. A facility, incorporating the larger neutron generator, has been constructed for Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) measurements

  17. Binding Energy and Equilibrium of Compact Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the existence of a limit mass for compact astronomic ob- jects requires the solution of the Einstein’s equations of g eneral relativity together with an appropriate equation of state. Analytical solutions exi st in some special cases like the spherically symmetric static object without energy sou rces that is here considered. Solutions, i.e. the spacetime metrics, can have a singular m athematical form (the so called Schwarzschild metric due to Hilbert or a nonsingula r form (original work of Schwarzschild. The former predicts a limit mass and, conse quently, the existence of black holes above this limit. Here it is shown that, the origi nal Schwarzschild met- ric permits compact objects, without mass limit, having rea sonable values for central density and pressure. The lack of a limit mass is also demonst rated analytically just imposing reasonable conditions on the energy-matter densi ty, of positivity and decreas- ing with radius. Finally the ratio between proper mass and to tal mass tends to 2 for high values of mass so that the binding energy reaches the lim it m (total mass seen by a distant observer. As it is known the negative binding energ y reduces the gravitational mass of the object; the limit of m for the binding energy provides a mechanism for stable equilibrium of any amount of mass to contrast the gravitatio nal collapse.

  18. Overview of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A national team has developed a baseline concept for a Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). The CIT mission is to achieve ignition and provide experimental capability to study the behavior of burning plasma. The design uses large magnetic fields on axis (about 10 T) and large plasma currents (about 9-10 MA). The magnet structure derives high strength from the use of a copper-Inconel composite plate design in the nose of region of the toroidal field (TF) coil and in the ohmic heating solenoid. Inertial cooling is used;liquid nitrogen temperatures are established at the beginning of each pulse. Capability is provided to operate either with a divertor or limiter based plasma. The design is very compact (1.32-m major radius, 0.43-m plasma radius), has 16 TF coils, and has 16 major horizontal access ports, about 30 cm by 80 cm, located between TF coils. The schedule is for a construction project to be authorized for the period FY 1988-93

  19. On quantum symmetries of compact metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirvasitu, Alexandru

    2015-08-01

    An action of a compact quantum group on a compact metric space (X , d) is (D)-isometric if the distance function is preserved by a diagonal action on X × X. In this study, we show that an isometric action in this sense has the following additional property: the corresponding action on the algebra of continuous functions on X by the convolution semigroup of probability measures on the quantum group contracts Lipschitz constants. In other words, it is isometric in another sense due to Li, Quaegebeur, and Sabbe, which partially answers a question posed by Goswami. We also introduce other possible notions of isometric quantum actions in terms of the Wasserstein p-distances between probability measures on X for p ≥ 1, which are used extensively in optimal transportation. Indeed, all of these definitions of quantum isometry belong to a hierarchy of implications, where the two described above lie at the extreme ends of the hierarchy. We conjecture that they are all equivalent.

  20. Free Fermions and the Classical Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Mezzadri, Francesco; O'Connell, Neil

    2018-04-01

    There is a close connection between the ground state of non-interacting fermions in a box with classical (absorbing, reflecting, and periodic) boundary conditions and the eigenvalue statistics of the classical compact groups. The associated determinantal point processes can be extended in two natural directions: (i) we consider the full family of admissible quantum boundary conditions (i.e., self-adjoint extensions) for the Laplacian on a bounded interval, and the corresponding projection correlation kernels; (ii) we construct the grand canonical extensions at finite temperature of the projection kernels, interpolating from Poisson to random matrix eigenvalue statistics. The scaling limits in the bulk and at the edges are studied in a unified framework, and the question of universality is addressed. Whether the finite temperature determinantal processes correspond to the eigenvalue statistics of some matrix models is, a priori, not obvious. We complete the picture by constructing a finite temperature extension of the Haar measure on the classical compact groups. The eigenvalue statistics of the resulting grand canonical matrix models (of random size) corresponds exactly to the grand canonical measure of free fermions with classical boundary conditions.

  1. Conduction cooled compact laser for chemcam instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, B.; Saccoccio, M.; Maurice, S.; Durand, E.; Derycke, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new conduction cooled compact laser for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Mars is presented. The laser provides pulses with energy higher than 30mJ at 1μm of wavelength with a good spatial quality. Three development prototypes of this laser have been built and functional and environmental tests have been done. Then, the Qualification and Flight models have been developed and delivered. A spare model is now developed. This laser will be mounted on the ChemCam Instrument of the NASA mission MSL 2009. ChemCam Instrument is developed in collaboration between France (CESR and CNES) and USA (LANL). The goal of this Instrument is to study the chemical composition of Martian rocks. A laser source (subject of this presentation) emits a pulse which is focused by a telescope. It creates a luminous plasma on the rock; the light of this plasma is then analysed by three spectrometers to obtain information on the composition of the rock. The laser source is developed by the French company Thales Laser, with a technical support from CNES and CESR. This development is funded by CNES. The laser is compact, designed to work in burst mode. It doesn't require any active cooling.

  2. Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yang

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.

  3. The corrosion of copper in compacted clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F.; Ryan, S.R.; Litke, C.D

    1997-12-01

    The uniform corrosion behaviour of copper has been investigated in the presence of compacted clay under simulated disposal vault conditions. The compacted clay is used to simulate the buffer material that would surround copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault. The effect of the speciation of dissolved Cu has been investigated using three synthetic groundwaters of different salinity and various dissolved [O{sub 2}]. The formation of cuprous species is favoured by low [O{sub 2}] and high [C1{sup -}], with Cu(II) species formed at high [O{sub 2}] and low [C1{sup -}]. Because the Na-bentonite clay is a cation-exchange material, positively charged Cu(II) species are found to adsorb more strongly than negatively charged CuC1{sup -} complexes. The impact of the Cu speciation on four experimental parameters is reported: the corrosion rate, the interfacial [Cu] in the clay, the [Cu] profile through the clay layer, and the Cu(l):Cu(ll) ratio in the precipitated corrosion products. In agreement with previous studies, the overall rate-controlling process is believed to be the diffusion of dissolved Cu away from the corroding surface. Adsorption acts as a driving force for corrosion by immobilizing dissolved Cu. Under the conditions used in these experiments, the diffusion of dissolved O{sub 2} to the Cu surface was not rate controlling. (author)

  4. Compact reactor/ORC power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500 0 C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370 0 C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analyses have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high. 10 refs

  5. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within OFHEO's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as...

  6. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within the OCC's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b) The...

  7. The classification of p-compact groups for p odd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K.K.S.; Grodal, J.; Møller, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A p-compact group, as defined by Dwyer and Wilkerson, is a purely homotopically defined p-local analog of a compact Lie group. It has long been the hope, and later the conjecture, that these objects should have a classification similar to the classification of compact Lie groups. In this paper we...... finish the proof of this conjecture, for p an odd prime, proving that there is a one-to-one correspondence between connected p-compact groups and finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. We do this by providing the last, and rather intricate, piece, namely that the exceptional compact Lie...... groups are uniquely determined as p-compact groups by their Weyl groups seen as finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. Our approach in fact gives a largely self-contained proof of the entire classification theorem for p odd....

  8. Inspection method of uranium content of the fuel compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuuzi; Kikuchi, Teruo; Ikawa, Katsuichi; Iwamoto, Kazumi

    1977-11-01

    An experiment of the non-destructive measurement of uranium content in the fuel compact has been made by gamma-ray spectrometry. Uranium content was determined by comparing gamma-ray emissions at the 185 kev U-235 photopeak between a sample and a counting standard compact. A compact shown to have uniform uranium distribution by X-ray radiography and gamma-ray spectrometry was used as the standard. Uranium distribution in axial direction of the fuel compact was often not uniform, so gamma-rays were measured with a detector along the side of the fuel compact in order to minimize error of the counting. Uranium content of the fuel compact can be measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with accuracy of +-3% at 3σ level. (auth.)

  9. Bone compaction enhances implant fixation in a canine gap model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, Søren Vedding; Rahbek, Ole; Toft, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    A new bone preparation technique, compaction, has increased fixation of implants inserted with exact-fit or press-fit to bone. Furthermore, a demonstrated spring-back effect of compacted bone might be of potential value in reducing the initial gaps that often exist between clinical inserted...... implants and bone. However, it is unknown whether the compression and breakage of trabeculae during the compaction procedure results in impaired gap-healing of compacted bone. Therefore, we compared compaction with conventional drilling in a canine gap model. Grit-blasted titanium implants (diameter 6 mm......) were bilaterally inserted into cavities initially expanded to 8 mm diameters in the proximal humeri. Each dog served as its own control; thus, one humerus had the implant cavity prepared with compaction, the other with drilling. Eight dogs were euthanized after 2 weeks, and 7 dogs after 4 weeks. Humeri...

  10. Bone compaction enhances fixation of weightbearing titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, Søren Vedding; Rahbek, Ole; Vestermark, Marianne Toft

    2005-01-01

    Implant stability is crucial for implant survival. A new surgical technique, compaction, has increased in vitro implant stability and in vivo fixation of nonweightbearing implants. However, the in vivo effects of compaction on weightbearing implants are unknown. As implants inserted clinically...... are weightbearing, the effects of compaction on weightbearing implants were examined. The hypothesis was that compaction would increase implant fixation compared with conventional drilling. Porous-coated titanium implants were inserted bilaterally into the weightbearing portion of the femoral condyles of dogs....... In each dog, one knee had the implant cavity prepared with drilling, and the other knee was prepared with compaction. Eight dogs were euthanized after 2 weeks, and eight dogs were euthanized after 4 weeks. Femoral condyles from an additional eight dogs represented Time 0. Compacted specimens had higher...

  11. A cheap and compact mass spectrometer for radioactive ions based on a Wien filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Tuske, O.

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents simulations of a mass spectrometer composed of one or two Wien filters. The ion source used is MONO1000 ECRIS. This ion source can produce singly charged ions with high efficiency, especially for gaseous materials. After extraction, the ions are mass selected and can be injected either into a beam line towards an experiment area or in an N+ charge booster. Due to its compactness and simplicity the proposed spectrometer is well adapted for preparing and analyzing radioactive beams. The simulations are based on the SIMION 3D [www.simion.com/] software.

  12. A cheap and compact mass spectrometer for radioactive ions based on a Wien filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, C. [CIRIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Avenue Henri Becquerel, B.P. 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: Pierret@ganil.fr; Maunoury, L. [CIRIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Avenue Henri Becquerel, B.P. 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen cedex 05 (France); Tuske, O. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents simulations of a mass spectrometer composed of one or two Wien filters. The ion source used is MONO1000 ECRIS. This ion source can produce singly charged ions with high efficiency, especially for gaseous materials. After extraction, the ions are mass selected and can be injected either into a beam line towards an experiment area or in an N{sup +} charge booster. Due to its compactness and simplicity the proposed spectrometer is well adapted for preparing and analyzing radioactive beams. The simulations are based on the SIMION 3D [ (http://www.simion.com/)] software.

  13. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  14. Statistical Mechanics of Vibration-Induced Compaction of Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, S. F.; Grinev, D. V.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a theory which describes the density relaxation of loosely packed, cohesionless granular material under mechanical tapping. Using the compactivity concept we develope a formalism of statistical mechanics which allows us to calculate the density of a powder as a function of time and compactivity. A simple fluctuation-dissipation relation which relates compactivity to the amplitude and frequency of a tapping is proposed. Experimental data of E.R.Nowak et al. [{\\it Powder Technology} ...

  15. New forms of -compactness with respect to hereditary classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Mohammed Qahis

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available A hereditary class on a set X is a nonempty collection of subsets closed under heredity. The aim of this paper is to introduce and study strong forms of u-compactness in generalized topological spaces with respect to a hereditary class, called  SuH-compactness and S- SuH-compactness. Also several of their properties are presented. Finally some eects of various kinds of functions on them are studied.

  16. The use of compaction in the manufacture of tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tryhubchak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the production of tablets direct compression method, wet and dry granulationare used. Dry granulation can be used if materials have sufficient cohesive properties to form granules. Scientific publications of recent years clearly demonstrate the prospects of roller compaction using in pharmaceutical industry. Aim. The aim of work is to generalize available data regarding to the use of compaction in the pharmaceutical industry. Materials and methods. We have studied and analyzed the available scientific sources in order to generalize the available literature on the use of compacting in the production of the tablets. During this study we used methods of observation and systematization analysis. Results. Materials for compaction characteristics of the process, its benefits and conditions of application have been collected and systematized, parameters of process have been selected, theories of compaction have been generalized, the characteristics and examples of compaction equipment have been adduced, and the key characteristics of the material used in the pharmaceutical industry have been demonstrated. Compacting is dry granulation technology in which powder containing active ingredients and excipients are compacted between two opposing spinning rollers by applying mechanical pressure. Compared with the original powder, granules after compression are characterized by much better fluidity and higher density by reducing the volume. The roller consolidation process substantially affects the particle size distribution, flowability, homogeneity, pressing, compaction substances and excipients, therefore, can affect dissolution, time of disintegration, resistance to crushing, abrasion of tablets. The main parameters of compacting are seal and method of its application, conditions and speed of the process. Conclusions. It has been established that the use of compacting decreases or increases particles size to form granules, which leads to improved

  17. Development of a compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for fast trace elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Takafumi, E-mail: ashidatakafumi@gmail.com; Tsuji, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    A compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence (GE-XRF) spectrometer was developed in the laboratory. An Al cylindrical collimator for the primary X-rays was placed just above the sample stage. This collimator also played the role of an exit slit to detect fluorescent X-rays at small grazing exit angles. Therefore, no additional exit slit was used in this setup, leading to a compact design. The entire size of the analysis equipment was 80 mm × 200 mm × 170 mm (horizontal × vertical × height). The maximum exit angle was adjusted to the height of the sample stage. The background was drastically reduced at grazing exit angles, enabling trace elemental analysis. A calibration curve was obtained using 10 μL Ga solutions. Accordingly, the detection limit for Ga was evaluated to be 20 ppb. - Highlights: • We developed a compact GE-XRF spectrometer. • The dimension of GE-XRF spectrometer was 80 mm × 200 mm × 170 mm. • A detection limit of 20 ppb for Ga was obtained. • Analytical performance was comparable with that of a table-top TXRF spectrometer.

  18. Automorphisms of p-compact groups and their root data

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kasper K. S.; Grodal, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We construct a model for the space of automorphisms of a connected p-compact group in terms of the space of automorphisms of its maximal torus normalizer and its root datum. As a consequence we show that any homomorphism to the outer automorphism group of a p-compact group can be lifted to a group action, analogous to a classical theorem of de Siebenthal for compact Lie groups. The model of this paper is used in a crucial way in our paper ``The classification of 2-compact groups'', where we p...

  19. Characterizing chain-compact and chain-finite topological semilattices

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Bardyla, Serhii

    2017-01-01

    In the paper we present various characterizations of chain-compact and chain-finite topological semilattices. A topological semilattice $X$ is called chain-compact (resp. chain-finite) if each closed chain in $X$ is compact (finite). In particular, we prove that a (Hausdorff) $T_1$-topological semilattice $X$ is chain-finite (chain-compact) if and only if for any closed subsemilattice $Z\\subset X$ and any continuous homomorphism $h:X\\to Y$ to a (Hausdorff) $T_1$-topological semilattice $Y$ th...

  20. A Gimbal-Stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gimbal-stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (GCHIS) fully integrates multi-sensor spectral imaging, stereovision, GPS and inertial measurement,...