Sample records for adjustable adaptive compact

  1. Theory of adaptive adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Huang


    Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.

  2. Apparatus for a compact adjustable passive compliant mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael


    Various technologies described herein pertain to an adjustable compliance apparatus. The adjustable compliance apparatus includes a shaft, a sleeve element, and a torsion spring. The sleeve element includes a bore there through, where the shaft is positioned through the bore of the sleeve element. Further, the torsion spring includes a plurality of coils, where the shaft is positioned through the plurality of coils. Moreover, the sleeve element is slidable in an axial direction along the shaft between the torsion spring and the shaft. Accordingly, compliance of the adjustable compliance apparatus is adjustable based on a number of the plurality of coils in contact with the sleeve element as positioned along the shaft within the torsion spring.

  3. Adaptive Feature Based Control of Compact Disk Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Vidal, Enrique Sanchez


    of the Compact Disc. The problem is to design servo controllers which are well suited for handling surface faults which disturb the position measurement and still react sufficiently against normal disturbances like mechanical shocks. In previous work of the same authors a feature based control scheme for CD......-players playing CDs with surface fault is derived and described. This feature based control scheme uses precomputed base to remove the surface fault influence from the position measurements. In this paper an adaptive version of the feature based control scheme is proposed and described. This adaptive scheme can...... in contrast with the other scheme adapt to the given fault. The adaptive scheme recomputes the feature extraction bases which is used to remove fault components from the measurements, at each encounter of the given fault. The improvements of this adaptive scheme are illustrated by simulations, with the clear...

  4. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  5. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation (United States)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  6. Compact infrared camera (CIRC) for earth observation adapting athermal optics (United States)

    Kato, Eri; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Naitoh, Masataka; Harada, Masatomo; Nakamura, Ryoko; Nakau, Koji; Sato, Ryota


    We have developed the compact infrared camera (CIRC) with an uncooled infrared array detector (microbolometer) for space application. The main mission of the CIRC is the technology demonstration of the wildfire detection using a large format (640×480) microbolometer. Wildfires are major and chronic disasters affecting numerous countries, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, and may get worse with global warming and climate change. Microbolometers have an advantage of not requiring cooling systems such an a mechanical cooler, and is suitable for resource-limited sensor systems or small satellites. Main characteristic of the CIRC is also an athermal optics. The thermal optics compensates the defocus due to the temperature change by using Germanium and Chalcogenide glass which have different coefficient of thermal expansion and temperature dependence of refractive index. The CIRC achieves a small size, light weight, and low electrical power by employing the athermal optics and a shutter-less system. Two CIRCs will be carried as a technology demonstration payload of ALOS-2 and JEM-CALET, which will be launched in JFY 2013 and 2014, respectively. We have finished the ground calibration test of the CIRC Proto Flight Model (PFM). Athermal optical performance of the CIRC have been confirmed by measuring modulation transfer function (MTF) in a vacuum environment and at environmental temperature from -15 to 50 °C. As a result, MTF was found to be effective at capturing clear images across the entire range of operating temperatures. We also provide an overview of the CIRC and radiometric test results in this presentation.

  7. Fatigue-induced adaptive changes of anticipatory postural adjustments. (United States)

    Strang, Adam J; Berg, William P


    To examine the fatigue-induced adaptive changes (e.g., timing) of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), APAs of 30 research participants were recorded before (baseline) and after (post-test) conditions of either rest (control group, n=15) or fatigue (fatigue group, n=15). Muscle fatigue was generated using a dead-lift exercise performed to exhaustion. Self-initiated postural perturbations were induced using a rapid unilateral arm-raising maneuver (focal movement), and APAs were obtained using electromyography (EMG) recorded bilaterally in the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscles as well as the hamstring muscles. Postural stability during the focal movement was assessed using a force plate. Results showed that fatigue had no effect on postural stability during the focal movement, and yet caused earlier APA onsets in three of the six muscles evaluated. In spite of early APA activation, the APA EMG integrals of two of the three postural control muscles which exhibited fatigue-induced early APA onsets (T9 and L4 contralateral paraspinals) did not differ between baseline and post-test measures. The findings suggest that early APA onset may enhance postural stability by permitting a longer duration APA which can counteract fatigue-induced decreases in the force-producing capability of muscles that contribute to postural stability.

  8. Applying Maxi-adjustment to Adaptive Information Filtering Agents


    Lau, Raymond; ter Hofstede, Arthur H.M.; Bruza, Peter D.


    Learning and adaptation is a fundamental property of intelligent agents. In the context of adaptive information filtering, a filtering agent's beliefs about a user's information needs have to be revised regularly with reference to the user's most current information preferences. This learning and adaptation process is essential for maintaining the agent's filtering performance. The AGM belief revision paradigm provides a rigorous foundation for modelling rational and minimal changes to an age...

  9. Cognitive control adjustments and conflict adaptation in major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Clawson, Ann; Clayson, Peter E; Larson, Michael J


    Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) show alterations in the cognitive control function of conflict processing. We examined the influence of these deficits on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) indices of conflict adaptation, a cognitive control process wherein previous-trial congruency modulates current-trial performance, in 55 individuals with MDD and 55 matched controls. ERPs were calculated while participants completed a modified flanker task. There were nonsignificant between-groups differences in response time, error rate, and N2 indices of conflict adaptation. Higher depressive symptom scores were associated with smaller mean N2 conflict adaptation scores for individuals with MDD and when collapsed across groups. Results were consistent when comorbidity and medications were analyzed. These findings suggest N2 conflict adaptation is associated with depressive symptoms rather than clinical diagnosis alone. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Compact MEMS-based Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Zawadzki, R; Evans, J; Choi, S; Werner, J


    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of the trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  11. Adaptation and adjustment in children of transsexual parents. (United States)

    White, Tonya; Ettner, Randi


    It is a relatively uncommon event that children find themselves in a situation with a parent who undergoes a transition from one sex to another. Unlike situations of divorce or a parent with a medical or major psychiatric disorder, it is unlikely that the children will know of other children who encounter similar situations. There is very little literature that describes the adjustment of these children and the nature of their relationships with their parents and peers. Such information would be beneficial for clinicians assisting children and families in this situation. To better delineate the adjustment of these children, we interviewed 27 parents of 55 children. The interview took place on average 6 years after the gender transition. The measures obtained included the parent and child relationships at present and also at the time of the transition. We also inquired about academic function, peer relationships and social stigma. The results found that children who were younger at the time of the parent's transition tended to have better relationships and less adjustment difficulties. In addition, parental conflict that continues after the transition period tends to reflect greater family conflict between the transitioned parent and their child.

  12. Adaptability of anticipatory postural adjustments associated with voluntary movement (United States)

    Yiou, Eric; Caderby, Teddy; Hussein, Tarek


    The control of balance is crucial for efficiently performing most of our daily motor tasks, such as those involving goal-directed arm movements or whole body displacement. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it is to recall how balance can be maintained despite the different sources of postural perturbation arising during voluntary movement. The importance of the so-called “anticipatory postural adjustments” (APA), taken as a “line of defence” against the destabilizing effect induced by a predicted perturbation, is emphasized. Secondly, it is to report the results of recent studies that questioned the adaptability of APA to various constraints imposed on the postural system. The postural constraints envisaged here are classified into biomechanical (postural stability, superimposition of motor tasks), (neuro) physiological (fatigue), temporal (time pressure) and psychological (fear of falling, emotion). Overall, the results of these studies point out the capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt the spatio-temporal features of APA to each of these constraints. However, it seems that, depending on the constraint, the “priority” of the CNS was focused on postural stability maintenance, on body protection and/or on maintenance of focal movement performance. PMID:22720267

  13. Leaf Area Adjustment As an Optimal Drought-Adaptation Strategy (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Beyer, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Vico, G.; Weih, M.


    Leaf phenology plays a major role in land-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges. Much work has focused on phenological responses to light and temperature, but less to leaf area changes during dry periods. Because the duration of droughts is expected to increase under future climates in seasonally-dry as well as mesic environments, it is crucial to (i) predict drought-related phenological changes and (ii) to develop physiologically-sound models of leaf area dynamics during dry periods. Several optimization criteria have been proposed to model leaf area adjustment as soil moisture decreases. Some theories are based on the plant carbon (C) balance, hypothesizing that leaf area will decline when instantaneous net photosynthetic rates become negative (equivalent to maximization of cumulative C gain). Other theories draw on hydraulic principles, suggesting that leaf area should adjust to either maintain a constant leaf water potential (isohydric behavior) or to avoid leaf water potentials with negative impacts on photosynthesis (i.e., minimization of water stress). Evergreen leaf phenology is considered as a control case. Merging these theories into a unified framework, we quantify the effect of phenological strategy and climate forcing on the net C gain over the entire growing season. By accounting for the C costs of leaf flushing and the gains stemming from leaf photosynthesis, this metric assesses the effectiveness of different phenological strategies, under different climatic scenarios. Evergreen species are favored only when the dry period is relatively short, as they can exploit most of the growing season, and only incur leaf maintenance costs during the short dry period. In contrast, deciduous species that lower maintenance costs by losing leaves are advantaged under drier climates. Moreover, among drought-deciduous species, isohydric behavior leads to lowest C gains. Losing leaves gradually so as to maintain a net C uptake equal to zero during the driest period in

  14. Coping with a changing soundscape: avoidance, adjustments and adaptations. (United States)

    Potvin, Dominique A


    Since the industrial age, background anthropogenic noise has become a pervasive feature of many habitable environments. This relatively recent environmental feature can be particularly challenging for organisms that use acoustic forms of communication due to its propensity for masking and decreasing the potential acoustic space of signals. Furthermore, anthropogenic noise may affect biological processes including animal interactions, physiological and behavioural responses to stimuli and cognitive development. However, animals' cognitive abilities may enable them to cope with high levels of anthropogenic noise through learning, the employment of acoustic and behavioural flexibility as well as the use of multi-modal sensory systems. We are only just beginning to understand how neural structures, endocrine systems and behaviour are mechanistically linked in these scenarios, providing us with information we can use to mitigate deleterious effects of pervasive noise on wildlife, along with highlighting the remarkable adaptability of animals to an increasingly anthropogenic world. In this review, I will focus mainly on birds, due to the amount of literature on the topic, and survey recent advancements made in two main spheres: (1) how anthropogenic noise affects cognitive processes and (2) how cognition enables animals to cope with increasingly noisy environments. I will be highlighting current gaps in our knowledge, such as how noise might impact behavioural traits such as predation, as well as how noise causes physical damage to neurotransmitters and affects stress levels, in order to direct future studies on this topic.

  15. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F


    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  16. Compact integration factor methods for complex domains and adaptive mesh refinement. (United States)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Nie, Qing


    Implicit integration factor (IIF) method, a class of efficient semi-implicit temporal scheme, was introduced recently for stiff reaction-diffusion equations. To reduce cost of IIF, compact implicit integration factor (cIIF) method was later developed for efficient storage and calculation of exponential matrices associated with the diffusion operators in two and three spatial dimensions for Cartesian coordinates with regular meshes. Unlike IIF, cIIF cannot be directly extended to other curvilinear coordinates, such as polar and spherical coordinate, due to the compact representation for the diffusion terms in cIIF. In this paper, we present a method to generalize cIIF for other curvilinear coordinates through examples of polar and spherical coordinates. The new cIIF method in polar and spherical coordinates has similar computational efficiency and stability properties as the cIIF in Cartesian coordinate. In addition, we present a method for integrating cIIF with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to take advantage of the excellent stability condition for cIIF. Because the second order cIIF is unconditionally stable, it allows large time steps for AMR, unlike a typical explicit temporal scheme whose time step is severely restricted by the smallest mesh size in the entire spatial domain. Finally, we apply those methods to simulating a cell signaling system described by a system of stiff reaction-diffusion equations in both two and three spatial dimensions using AMR, curvilinear and Cartesian coordinates. Excellent performance of the new methods is observed.

  17. The UC Softhand: Light Weight Adaptive Bionic Hand with a Compact Twisted String Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Tavakoli


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and development of the UC-Softhand. The UC Softhand is a low cost, Bionic and adaptive hand that takes advantage of compliant joints. By optimization of the actuation strategy as well as the actuation mechanism, we could develop an anthropomorphic hand that embeds three actuators, transmission mechanisms, controllers and drivers in the palm of the hand, and weighs only 280 g, making it one of the lightest bionic hands that has been created so far. The key aspect of the UC Softhand is utilization of a novel compact twisted string actuation mechanism, that allows a considerable weight and cost reduction compared to its predecessor.

  18. Ultra-compact swept-source optical coherence tomography handheld probe with motorized focus adjustment (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Keller, Brenton; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.


    Handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems facilitate imaging of young children, bedridden subjects, and those with less stable fixation. Smaller and lighter OCT probes allow for more efficient imaging and reduced operator fatigue, which is critical for prolonged use in either the operating room or neonatal intensive care unit. In addition to size and weight, the imaging speed, image quality, field of view, resolution, and focus correction capability are critical parameters that determine the clinical utility of a handheld probe. Here, we describe an ultra-compact swept source (SS) OCT handheld probe weighing only 211 g (half the weight of the next lightest handheld SSOCT probe in the literature) with 20.1 µm lateral resolution, 7 µm axial resolution, 102 dB peak sensitivity, a 27° x 23° field of view, and motorized focus adjustment for refraction correction between -10 to +16 D. A 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner, a converging beam-at-scanner telescope configuration, and an optical design employing 6 different custom optics were used to minimize device size and weight while achieving diffraction limited performance throughout the system's field of view. Custom graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated software was used to provide real-time display of OCT B-scans and volumes. Retinal images were acquired from adult volunteers to demonstrate imaging performance.

  19. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.


    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  20. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping (United States)

    Mhaidat, Fatin


    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  1. Adaptive Optics System with Deformable Composite Mirror and High Speed, Ultra-Compact Electronics (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Knowles, G. J.; Shea, B. G.


    We report development of a novel adaptive optics system for optical astronomy. Key components are very thin Deformable Mirrors (DM) made of fiber reinforced polymer resins, subminiature PMN-PT actuators, and low power, high bandwidth electronics drive system with compact packaging and minimal wiring. By using specific formulations of fibers, resins, and laminate construction, we are able to fabricate mirror face sheets that are thin (ceramic devices with large stroke (2- 20 microns), high linearity, low hysteresis, low power, and flat frequency response to >2 KHz. By utilizing QorTek’s proprietary synthetic impendence power supply technology, all the power, control, and signal extraction for many hundreds to 1000s of actuators and sensors can be implemented on a single matrix controller printed circuit board co-mounted with the DM. The matrix controller, in turn requires only a single serial bus interface, thereby obviating the need for massive wiring harnesses. The technology can be scaled up to multi-meter aperture DMs with >100K actuators.

  2. Enabling the extended compact genetic algorithm for real-parameter optimization by using adaptive discretization. (United States)

    Chen, Ying-ping; Chen, Chao-Hong


    An adaptive discretization method, called split-on-demand (SoD), enables estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs) for discrete variables to solve continuous optimization problems. SoD randomly splits a continuous interval if the number of search points within the interval exceeds a threshold, which is decreased at every iteration. After the split operation, the nonempty intervals are assigned integer codes, and the search points are discretized accordingly. As an example of using SoD with EDAs, the integration of SoD and the extended compact genetic algorithm (ECGA) is presented and numerically examined. In this integration, we adopt a local search mechanism as an optional component of our back end optimization engine. As a result, the proposed framework can be considered as a memetic algorithm, and SoD can potentially be applied to other memetic algorithms. The numerical experiments consist of two parts: (1) a set of benchmark functions on which ECGA with SoD and ECGA with two well-known discretization methods: the fixed-height histogram (FHH) and the fixed-width histogram (FWH) are compared; (2) a real-world application, the economic dispatch problem, on which ECGA with SoD is compared to other methods. The experimental results indicate that SoD is a better discretization method to work with ECGA. Moreover, ECGA with SoD works quite well on the economic dispatch problem and delivers solutions better than the best known results obtained by other methods in existence.

  3. Evidence of adaptive intergenerational sex ratio adjustment in contemporary human populations. (United States)

    Song, Shige


    Using the abrupt decline in sex ratio at birth in China during and immediately after the 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward Famine in China as a natural experiment, this study conducts difference-in-differences analysis to test the hypothesis that changes in the sex ratio at birth of the maternal generation can produce adaptive changes in the sex ratio at birth of the offspring generation toward the opposite direction, which was derived from the developmental and evolutionary psychological literature on female reproductive strategy. The results show that, after controlling for sex-selective abortion, the decline in the sex ratio at birth in 1962-1964 caused a substantial increase in the sex ratio at birth among children whose mothers were born in 1963. Such finding suggests the presence of adaptive intergenerational sex ratio adjustment in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Data-driven spatially-adaptive metric adjustment for visual tracking. (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Liu, Wenyu


    Matching visual appearances of the target over consecutive video frames is a fundamental yet challenging task in visual tracking. Its performance largely depends on the distance metric that determines the quality of visual matching. Rather than using fixed and predefined metric, recent attempts of integrating metric learning-based trackers have shown more robust and promising results, as the learned metric can be more discriminative. In general, these global metric adjustment methods are computationally demanding in real-time visual tracking tasks, and they tend to underfit the data when the target exhibits dynamic appearance variation. This paper presents a nonparametric data-driven local metric adjustment method. The proposed method finds a spatially adaptive metric that exhibits different properties at different locations in the feature space, due to the differences of the data distribution in a local neighborhood. It minimizes the deviation of the empirical misclassification probability to obtain the optimal metric such that the asymptotic error as if using an infinite set of training samples can be approximated. Moreover, by taking the data local distribution into consideration, it is spatially adaptive. Integrating this new local metric learning method into target tracking leads to efficient and robust tracking performance. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed tracking method in various tracking scenarios.

  5. A Bayesian adaptive blinded sample size adjustment method for risk differences. (United States)

    Hartley, Andrew Montgomery


    Adaptive sample size adjustment (SSA) for clinical trials consists of examining early subsets of on trial data to adjust estimates of sample size requirements. Blinded SSA is often preferred over unblinded SSA because it obviates many logistical complications of the latter and generally introduces less bias. On the other hand, current blinded SSA methods for binary data offer little to no new information about the treatment effect, ignore uncertainties associated with the population treatment proportions, and/or depend on enhanced randomization schemes that risk partial unblinding. I propose an innovative blinded SSA method for use when the primary analysis is a non-inferiority or superiority test regarding a risk difference. The method incorporates evidence about the treatment effect via the likelihood function of a mixture distribution. I compare the new method with an established one and with the fixed sample size study design, in terms of maximization of an expected utility function. The new method maximizes the expected utility better than do the comparators, under a range of assumptions. I illustrate the use of the proposed method with an example that incorporates a Bayesian hierarchical model. Lastly, I suggest topics for future study regarding the proposed methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System

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    Doo Yong Choi


    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs. Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems.

  7. Compact, single-frequency, doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped in an achromatic phase-adapted double-pass geometry. (United States)

    Hardy, B; Berrou, A; Guilbaud, S; Raybaut, M; Godard, A; Lefebvre, M


    We report on a nested-cavity, doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (NesCOPO) architecture for widely tunable, mid-IR, single-frequency generation. By use of an achromatic phase-adapted double-pass pumping scheme, this new, low-threshold, semimonolithic architecture only requires two free-standing cavity mirrors and a nonlinear crystal with a mirror coating deposited on its input facet while the other facet is antireflection coated. It is thus as simple and compact as any basic linear optical parametric oscillator cavity, is easily tunable, and displays low sensitivity to mechanical vibrations. Using a high-repetition-rate (4.8 kHz) microlaser as the pump source of the NesCOPO, we demonstrate a compact source that provides pulsed, stable single-frequency output over a wide spectral range (3.8-4.3 μm) with a high peak power (up to 50 W), which are properties well suited for practical gas sensing applications.

  8. Performance analysis of a compact electro-optical 3D adapter with a wide capturing angle (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Lee, Jong-Gil; Kim, Eun-Soo


    In this paper, a new 3D adapter system with a lens unit interposed between a capturing lens and an adapter housing for alternately passing right and left video images of an object there through, wherein the lens unit has an entrance pupil point formed outside the lens unit, the lens unit has a magnification of 1:1, and the lens unit comprises a plurality of symmetrically arranged lenses for reversing the video images, whereby it is possible to capture video images with wide picture angles without increasing the size of the adapter housing, and to prevent occurrence of any distortion in the resulting video images comprised of the integrated right an left images of the object. From some experimental result, the conventional 3D adapter system has the standard deviation of x axis is 3.92 pixels and the standard deviation of y axis is 2.92 pixels. But in the used camera system, the standard deviation of x axis is 1.11 pixels and the standard deviation of y axis is 0.39 pixels. Thus the errors in pixel of proposed system are smaller than the conventional system.

  9. Translation, Cultural Adjustment, and Validation of a Measure of Adaptive Behavior. (United States)

    Tombokan-Runtukahu, Juliana; Nitko, Anthony


    This study delineated procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and operationalization of adaptive behavior in individuals with mental retardation, culturally adapted the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and investigated the validity of the resulting instrument. The study concluded that the domain of adaptive behavior can be successfully applied…

  10. Homoclinic connections and subcritical Neimark bifurcation in a duopoly model with adaptively adjusted productions

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    Agliari, Anna [Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)]. E-mail:


    In this paper we study some global bifurcations arising in the Puu's oligopoly model when we assume that the producers do not adjust to the best reply but use an adaptive process to obtain at each step the new production. Such bifurcations cause the appearance of a pair of closed invariant curves, one attracting and one repelling, this latter being involved in the subcritical Neimark bifurcation of the Cournot equilibrium point. The aim of the paper is to highlight the relationship between the global bifurcations causing the appearance/disappearance of two invariant closed curves and the homoclinic connections of some saddle cycle, already conjectured in [Agliari A, Gardini L, Puu T. Some global bifurcations related to the appearance of closed invariant curves. Comput Math Simul 2005;68:201-19]. We refine the results obtained in such a paper, showing that the appearance/disappearance of closed invariant curves is not necessarily related to the existence of an attracting cycle. The characterization of the periodicity tongues (i.e. a region of the parameter space in which an attracting cycle exists) associated with a subcritical Neimark bifurcation is also discussed.

  11. A Self-Driven and Adaptive Adjusting Teaching Learning Method for Optimizing Optical Multicast Network Throughput (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Xu, Yifan; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Mingjia


    With the development of one point to multiple point applications, network resources become scarcer and wavelength channels become more crowded in optical networks. To improve the bandwidth utilization, the multicast routing algorithm based on network coding can greatly increase the resource utilization, but it is most difficult to maximize the network throughput owing to ignoring the differences between the multicast receiving nodes. For making full use of the destination nodes' receives ability to maximize optical multicast's network throughput, a new optical multicast routing algorithm based on teaching-learning-based optimization (MR-iTLBO) is proposed in the paper. In order to increase the diversity of learning, a self-driven learning method is adopted in MR-iTLBO algorithm, and the mutation operator of genetic algorithm is introduced to prevent the algorithm into a local optimum. For increasing learner's learning efficiency, an adaptive learning factor is designed to adjust the learning process. Moreover, the reconfiguration scheme based on probability vector is devised to expand its global search capability in MR-iTLBO algorithm. The simulation results show that performance in terms of network throughput and convergence rate has been improved significantly with respect to the TLBO and the variant TLBO.

  12. Osmotic adjustment is a prime drought stress adaptive engine in support of plant production. (United States)

    Blum, Abraham


    Osmotic adjustment (OA) and cellular compatible solute accumulation are widely recognized to have a role in plant adaptation to dehydration mainly through turgor maintenance and the protection of specific cellular functions by defined solutes. At the same time, there has been an ongoing trickle of skepticism in the literature about the role of OA in supporting crop yield under drought stress. Contrarian reviews argued that OA did not sustain turgor or that it served mainly for plant survival rather than productivity. This critical review examined 26 published studies where OA was compared with yield under drought stress in variable genotypes of 12 crops, namely, barley, wheat, maize, sorghum, chickpea, pea, pigeon pea, soybean, canola, mustard, castor bean and sunflower. Over all crops a positive and significant association between OA and yield under drought stress were found in 24 out of 26 cases. Considering that it is generally difficult to find a singular plant trait responsible for yield advantage of numerous crops under different drought stress conditions, this evidence is no less than remarkable as proof that OA sustains crop yield under drought stress. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Compact optical imaging system for star tracker with long focal length and perfect thermal adaptability (United States)

    Ji, Yiqun; Shi, Rongbao; He, Hucheng; Xu, Li; Liu, Xuxia; Jin, Yangming; Shen, Weimin


    A star tracker optical imaging system is designed for Polaris detection. System parameters determination and its configuration chosen method are given. Based on Macsutov-Cassegrain configuration, the system is designed imagery tele-centric. It works at 0.6μm~1.1μm waveband and the view field is 0.5 degree. The tube length of the system is 80mm, which is only 8 percent of its focal length. Its MTF reaches diffraction limit and the spot diagrams are quit near a circle. About 80% of the energy is encircled in a CCD pixel. And the distortion is less than 1%. Moreover, it has a perfect thermal adaptability from -40° to 60°.

  14. Compact genome of the Antarctic midge is likely an adaptation to an extreme environment. (United States)

    Kelley, Joanna L; Peyton, Justin T; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Teets, Nicholas M; Yee, Muh-Ching; Johnston, J Spencer; Bustamante, Carlos D; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L


    The midge, Belgica antarctica, is the only insect endemic to Antarctica, and thus it offers a powerful model for probing responses to extreme temperatures, freeze tolerance, dehydration, osmotic stress, ultraviolet radiation and other forms of environmental stress. Here we present the first genome assembly of an extremophile, the first dipteran in the family Chironomidae, and the first Antarctic eukaryote to be sequenced. At 99 megabases, B. antarctica has the smallest insect genome sequenced thus far. Although it has a similar number of genes as other Diptera, the midge genome has very low repeat density and a reduction in intron length. Environmental extremes appear to constrain genome architecture, not gene content. The few transposable elements present are mainly ancient, inactive retroelements. An abundance of genes associated with development, regulation of metabolism and responses to external stimuli may reflect adaptations for surviving in this harsh environment.

  15. Modeling cognitive adaptation: a longitudinal investigation of the impact of individual differences and coping on college adjustment and performance. (United States)

    Aspinwall, L G; Taylor, S E


    Drawing on cognitive adaptation theory, optimism, psychological control, and self-esteem were explored as longitudinal predictors of adjustment to college in a sample of 672 freshmen. Although a direct effect of optimism on adjustment was found, most of the predicted effects were mediated by coping methods. Controlling for initial positive and negative mood, the beneficial effects of optimism, control, and self-esteem on adjustment were mediated by the nonuse of avoidance coping, greater use of active coping, and greater seeking of social support. Alternative models of the causal relations among these variables did not fit the data as well as the a priori mediational model. The results of a 2-year follow-up indicated that self-esteem and control predicted greater motivation and higher grades, controlling for college entrance exam scores. Implications for cognitive adaptation theory and for interventions with populations under stress are discussed.

  16. Adjusted adaptive Lasso for covariate model-building in nonlinear mixed-effect pharmacokinetic models. (United States)

    Haem, Elham; Harling, Kajsa; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Zare, Najaf; Karlsson, Mats O


    One important aim in population pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics is identification and quantification of the relationships between the parameters and covariates. Lasso has been suggested as a technique for simultaneous estimation and covariate selection. In linear regression, it has been shown that Lasso possesses no oracle properties, which means it asymptotically performs as though the true underlying model was given in advance. Adaptive Lasso (ALasso) with appropriate initial weights is claimed to possess oracle properties; however, it can lead to poor predictive performance when there is multicollinearity between covariates. This simulation study implemented a new version of ALasso, called adjusted ALasso (AALasso), to take into account the ratio of the standard error of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to the ML coefficient as the initial weight in ALasso to deal with multicollinearity in non-linear mixed-effect models. The performance of AALasso was compared with that of ALasso and Lasso. PK data was simulated in four set-ups from a one-compartment bolus input model. Covariates were created by sampling from a multivariate standard normal distribution with no, low (0.2), moderate (0.5) or high (0.7) correlation. The true covariates influenced only clearance at different magnitudes. AALasso, ALasso and Lasso were compared in terms of mean absolute prediction error and error of the estimated covariate coefficient. The results show that AALasso performed better in small data sets, even in those in which a high correlation existed between covariates. This makes AALasso a promising method for covariate selection in nonlinear mixed-effect models.

  17. Design of a Compact, Bimorph Deformable Mirror-Based Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope. (United States)

    He, Yi; Deng, Guohua; Wei, Ling; Li, Xiqi; Yang, Jinsheng; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong


    We have designed, constructed and tested an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) using a bimorph mirror. The simulated AOSLO system achieves diffraction-limited criterion through all the raster scanning fields (6.4 mm pupil, 3° × 3° on pupil). The bimorph mirror-based AOSLO corrected ocular aberrations in model eyes to less than 0.1 μm RMS wavefront error with a closed-loop bandwidth of a few Hz. Facilitated with a bimorph mirror at a stroke of ±15 μm with 35 elements and an aperture of 20 mm, the new AOSLO system has a size only half that of the first-generation AOSLO system. The significant increase in stroke allows for large ocular aberrations such as defocus in the range of ±600° and astigmatism in the range of ±200°, thereby fully exploiting the AO correcting capabilities for diseased human eyes in the future.

  18. High Gene Family Turnover Rates and Gene Space Adaptation in the Compact Genome of the Carnivorous Plant Utricularia gibba. (United States)

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Librado, Pablo; Chang, Tien-Hao; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Rozas, Julio; Albert, Victor A


    Utricularia gibba is an aquatic carnivorous plant with highly specialized morphology, featuring fibrous floating networks of branches and leaf-like organs, no recognizable roots, and bladder traps that capture and digest prey. We recently described the compressed genome of U. gibba as sufficient to control the development and reproduction of a complex organism. We hypothesized intense deletion pressure as a mechanism whereby most noncoding DNA was deleted, despite evidence for three independent whole-genome duplications (WGDs). Here, we explore the impact of intense genome fractionation in the evolutionary dynamics of U. gibba's functional gene space. We analyze U. gibba gene family turnover by modeling gene gain/death rates under a maximum-likelihood statistical framework. In accord with our deletion pressure hypothesis, we show that the U. gibba gene death rate is significantly higher than those of four other eudicot species. Interestingly, the gene gain rate is also significantly higher, likely reflecting the occurrence of multiple WGDs and possibly also small-scale genome duplications. Gene ontology enrichment analyses of U. gibba-specific two-gene orthogroups, multigene orthogroups, and singletons highlight functions that may represent adaptations in an aquatic carnivorous plant. We further discuss two homeodomain transcription factor gene families (WOX and HDG/HDZIP-IV) showing conspicuous differential expansions and contractions in U. gibba. Our results 1) reconcile the compactness of the U. gibba genome with its accommodation of a typical number of genes for a plant genome, and 2) highlight the role of high gene family turnover in the evolutionary diversification of U. gibba's functional gene space and adaptations to its unique lifestyle and highly specialized body plan. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  19. A Highly Versatile and Adaptable Artificial Leaf with Floatability and Planar Compact Design Applicable in Various Natural Environments. (United States)

    Kim, Sangkuk; Kim, Taewan; Lee, Seunghyup; Baek, Seunghyeon; Park, Taiho; Yong, Kijung


    As a promising means of solar energy conversion, photovoltaic (PV) cell-based electrolysis has recently drawn considerable attention for its effective solar fuel generation; especially the generation of hydrogen by solar water splitting. Inspired by remarkable accomplishments in enhancing the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, various efforts have aimed at fostering convenient and practical uses of PV electrolysis to make this technology ubiquitous, manageable, and efficient. Here, the design and function of a monolithic photoelectrolysis system-a so-called artificial leaf-for use in various environments are highlighted. The uniquely designed artificial-leaf system facilitates an unbiased water-splitting reaction by combining superstrate PV cells in series with single-face electrodes in a compact 2D catalytic configuration. Floatability is a new feature of the water-splitting artificial leaf; this feature maximizes solar light utilization and allows for easy retrieval for recycling. Additionally, its planar design enables operation of the device in water-scarce conditions. These characteristics endow the artificial leaf with versatility and a high adaptability to natural environments, widening the applicability of the device. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Trend Damping: Under-Adjustment, Experimental Artifact, or Adaptation to Features of the Natural Environment? (United States)

    Harvey, Nigel; Reimers, Stian


    People's forecasts from time series underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones. This trend damping may occur because (a) people anchor on the last data point and make insufficient adjustment to take the trend into account, (b) they adjust toward the average of the trends they have encountered within the…

  1. Effect of Treatment Education Based on the Roy Adaptation Model on Adjustment of Hemodialysis Patients. (United States)

    Kacaroglu Vicdan, Ayse; Gulseven Karabacak, Bilgi


    The Roy Adaptation Model examines the individual in 4 fields: physiological mode, self-concept mode, role function mode, and interdependence mode. Hemodialysis treatment is associated with the Roy Adaptation Model as it involves fields that might be needed by the individual with chronic renal disease. This research was conducted as randomized controlled experiment with the aim of determining the effect of the education given in accordance with the Roy Adaptation Model on physiological, psychological, and social adaptation of individuals undergoing hemodialysis treatment. This was a random controlled experimental study. The study was conducted at a dialysis center in Konya-Aksehir in Turkey between July 1 and December 31, 2012. The sample was composed of 82 individuals-41 experimental and 41 control. In the second interview, there was a decrease in the systolic blood pressures and body weights of the experimental group, an increase in the scores of functional performance and self-respect, and a decrease in the scores of psychosocial adaptation. In the control group, on the other hand, there was a decrease in the scores of self-respect and an increase in the scores of psychosocial adaptation. The 2 groups were compared in terms of adaptation variables and a difference was determined on behalf of the experimental group. The training that was provided and evaluated for individuals receiving hemodialysis according to 4 modes of the Roy Adaptation Model increased physical, psychological, and social adaptation.

  2. Translation, Cultural Adjustment, and Operationalization of the Construct of Adaptive Behavior. (United States)

    Tombokan-Runtukahu, Juliana; Nitko, Anthony J.

    Whether the construct of adaptive behavior, which has been developed and operationalized in western countries, could be successfully operationalized in a non-western country, Indonesia, was studied. Focus was on delineating procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and operationalization of the construct; creating an operationalization of the…

  3. Multiple pathways of maternal effects in black-headed gull eggs : Constraint and adaptive compensatory adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, T. G. G.; Eising, C. M.; Blount, J. D.; Surai, P.; Apanius, V.; Dijkstra, C.; Mueller, Wendt

    We investigated in the black-headed gull whether female deposition of antioxidants and immunoglobulins (enhancing early immune function), and testosterone (suppressing immune function and increasing early competitive skills) correlate suggesting that evolution has favoured the mutual adjustment of

  4. Social capital practices as adaptive drivers for local adjustment of new public management in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.


    on empirical case studies from two Danish municipal schools and the concept of organisational social capital, we investigate how two reform initiatives – ‘student plan-based school–home collaboration’ and ‘teamwork’ – were locally adjusted into collaborative practices. The analysis demonstrates surprising...

  5. Social Capital Practices as Adaptive Drivers for Local Adjustment of New Public Management in Schools (United States)

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.


    New public management (NPM) reforms have typically undermined teachers' autonomy, values, and status in society. This article questions whether such reforms automatically have these outcomes or whether and how possibilities for local adjustment of such reforms may prevent negative outcomes. Drawing on empirical case studies from two Danish…

  6. Social daydreaming and adjustment: An experience-sampling study of socio-emotional adaptation during a life transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Lara Poerio


    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation.

  7. Adaptive adjustment of reference constellation for demodulating 16QAM signal with intrinsic distortion due to imperfect modulation. (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi; Namiki, Shu


    We find that an adaptive equalizer and a phase-locked loop operating with decision-directed mode exhibit degraded performances when they are used in a digital coherent receiver to demodulate a 16QAM signal with intrinsically distorted constellation, and that the degradation is more significant for the dual-polarization case. We then propose a scheme to correctly demodulate such a distorted 16QAM signal, where the reference constellation and the threshold for the decision are adaptively adjusted such that they fit to the distorted ones. We experimentally confirm the improved performance of the proposed scheme over the conventional one for single-and dual-polarization 16QAM signals with distortion. We also investigate the applicable range of the proposed scheme for the degree of distortion of the signal.

  8. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill


    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  9. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill


    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design – analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany – to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  10. Statistical Model Based HPLC Analytical Method Adjustment Strategy to Adapt to Different Sets of Analytes in Complicated Samples. (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Bai, Xue; Sheng, Yunjie; Li, Fanzhu


    On account of the complicated compositions of the products like traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and functional foods, it is a common practice to determine different sets of analytes in the same product for different purposes. To efficiently develop the corresponding HPLC methods, a statistical model based analytical method adjustment (SMB-AMA) strategy was proposed. In this strategy, the HPLC data acquired with design of experiments methodology were efficiently utilised to build the retention models for all the analytes and interferences shown in the chromatograms with multivariate statistical modelling methods. According to the set of analytes under research, Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted based on these retention models to estimate the probability of achieving adequate separations between all the analytes and their interferences. Then the analytical parameters were mathematically optimised to the point giving a high value of this probability to compose a robust HPLC method. Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and its TCM formula with Folium Epimedii (FE) were taken as the complicated samples for case studies. The retention models for the compounds in RAS and FE were built independently with correlation coefficients all above 0.9799. The analytical parameters were tactfully adjusted to adapt to six cases of different sets of analytes and different sample matrices. In the validation experiments using the adjusted analytical parameters, satisfactory separations were acquired. The results demonstrated that the SMB-AMA strategy was able to develop HPLC methods rationally and rapidly in the adaption of different sets of analytes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Adjustments with running speed reveal neuromuscular adaptations during landing associated with high mileage running training. (United States)

    Verheul, Jasper; Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J


    It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations before and during the first half of stance and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n = 13) and low mileage (LM; running speed. HM runners also demonstrated higher initial knee stiffness during the impact phase compared with LM runners, which was associated with an earlier peak knee flexion velocity, and both were relatively unchanged by running speed. In contrast, LM runners had higher knee stiffness during the slightly later weight acceptance phase and the disparity was amplified with increases in speed. It was concluded that initial knee joint stiffness might predominantly be governed by tendon stiffness rather than muscular activations before landing. Estimated elastic work about the ankle was found to be higher in the HM runners, which might play a role in reducing weight acceptance phase muscle activation levels and improve muscle activation efficiency with running training. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although neuromuscular factors play a key role during running, the influence of high mileage training on neuromuscular function has been poorly studied, especially in relation to running speed. This study is the first to demonstrate changes in neuromuscular conditioning with high mileage training, mainly characterized by lower thigh muscle activation after touch down, higher initial knee stiffness, and greater estimates of energy return, with adaptations being increasingly evident at faster running speeds. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Design and Experimental Development of a Pneumatic Stiffness Adjustable Foot System for Biped Robots Adaptable to Bumps on the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xizhe Zang


    Full Text Available Walking on rough terrains still remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for biped robots because the unevenness on the ground can easily disrupt the walking stability. This paper proposes a novel foot system with passively adjustable stiffness for biped robots which is adaptable to small-sized bumps on the ground. The robotic foot is developed by attaching eight pneumatic variable stiffness units to the sole separately and symmetrically. Each variable stiffness unit mainly consists of a pneumatic bladder and a mechanical reversing valve. When walking on rough ground, the pneumatic bladders in contact with bumps are compressed, and the corresponding reversing valves are triggered to expel out the air, enabling the pneumatic bladders to adapt to the bumps with low stiffness; while the other pneumatic bladders remain rigid and maintain stable contact with the ground, providing support to the biped robot. The performances of the proposed foot system, including the variable stiffness mechanism, the adaptability on the bumps of different heights, and the application on a biped robot prototype are demonstrated by various experiments.

  13. An Adaptive Filtering-based Adjustment Method for Reliability Parameters of Vehicle Systems During Their Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Lurie


    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of difficult accessibility and low quality of data on the reliability parameters of the vehicle system components and the difficulties arising from this problem to estimate the reliability parameters of the systems themselves as statutorily required and in terms of international standards (e.g. ISO 26262. As a problem solution, the paper proposes a method for adjustment of the system reliability estimates based on the field observation of system failures. The method based on a Kalman filter uses non-parametric definition of the failure probability distribution (quantile «folding» of the distribution with subsequent «unfolding» via Monte Carlo.A mathematical model shows how to use this method.  For clarity, the estimates of reliability parameters are given at the time of rollout (100 % of systems are in working order and upon the failure of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of produced systems, respectively. A КК plot shows that the reliability estimates gradually become close to the field reliability data.The method allows, by varying filter parameters, a more conservative estimate of the reliability parameters or an estimate, which is more in accord with the field data. Thus, the results can be used at all stages of the system lifecycle, namely when developing, manufacturing and upon completing production for the aftermarket services.

  14. Changes in content of free, conjugated and bound polyamines and osmotic adjustment in adaptation of vetiver grass to water deficit. (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Bingjun


    Osmotic adjustment and alteration of polyamines (PAs) have been suggested to play roles in plant adaptation to water deficit/drought stress. In this study, the changes in cell intactness, photosynthesis, compatible solutes and PAs [including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) each in free, conjugated and bound forms] were investigated in leaves of vetiver grass exposed to different intensity of water deficit stress and subsequent rewatering. The results showed that, when vetiver grass was exposed to the moderate (20% and 40% PEG-6000 solutions) and severe (60% PEG solution) water deficit for 6days, the plant injury degree (expressed as the parameters of plant growth, cell membrane integrity, water relations and photosynthesis) increased and contents of free and conjugated Put decreased with the rise of PEG concentration. Under the moderate water deficit, the plants could survive by the reduced osmotic potential (psi(s)), increased free and conjugated Spd and Spm in leaves. After subsequent rewatering, the osmotic balance was re-established, most of the above investigated physiological parameters were fully or partly recovered to the control levels. However, it was not the case for the severely-stressed and rewatering plants. It indicates that, vetiver grass can cope well with the moderate water deficit/drought stress by using the strategies of osmotic adjustment and maintenance of total contents of free, conjugated and bound PAs in leaves.

  15. Adaptive adjustment of interval predictive control based on combined model and application in shell brand petroleum distillation tower (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Zhang, Chunran; Gu, Xinfeng; Liu, Bin


    Constraints of the optimization objective are often unable to be met when predictive control is applied to industrial production process. Then, online predictive controller will not find a feasible solution or a global optimal solution. To solve this problem, based on Back Propagation-Auto Regressive with exogenous inputs (BP-ARX) combined control model, nonlinear programming method is used to discuss the feasibility of constrained predictive control, feasibility decision theorem of the optimization objective is proposed, and the solution method of soft constraint slack variables is given when the optimization objective is not feasible. Based on this, for the interval control requirements of the controlled variables, the slack variables that have been solved are introduced, the adaptive weighted interval predictive control algorithm is proposed, achieving adaptive regulation of the optimization objective and automatically adjust of the infeasible interval range, expanding the scope of the feasible region, and ensuring the feasibility of the interval optimization objective. Finally, feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm is validated through the simulation comparative experiments.

  16. The compact genome of the plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae is adapted to intracellular interactions with host Brassica spp. (United States)

    Rolfe, Stephen A; Strelkov, Stephen E; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Wayne E; Robinson, Stephen J; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Malinowski, Robert; Haddadi, Parham; Kagale, Sateesh; Parkin, Isobel A P; Taheri, Ali; Borhan, M Hossein


    The protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil-borne pathogen of cruciferous species and the causal agent of clubroot disease of Brassicas including agriculturally important crops such as canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus). P. brassicae has remained an enigmatic plant pathogen and is a rare example of an obligate biotroph that resides entirely inside the host plant cell. The pathogen is the cause of severe yield losses and can render infested fields unsuitable for Brassica crop growth due to the persistence of resting spores in the soil for up to 20 years. To provide insight into the biology of the pathogen and its interaction with its primary host B. napus, we produced a draft genome of P. brassicae pathotypes 3 and 6 (Pb3 and Pb6) that differ in their host range. Pb3 is highly virulent on B. napus (but also infects other Brassica species) while Pb6 infects only vegetable Brassica crops. Both the Pb3 and Pb6 genomes are highly compact, each with a total size of 24.2 Mb, and contain less than 2 % repetitive DNA. Clustering of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Pb3, Pb6 and three additional re-sequenced pathotypes (Pb2, Pb5 and Pb8) shows a high degree of correlation of cluster grouping with host range. The Pb3 genome features significant reduction of intergenic space with multiple examples of overlapping untranslated regions (UTRs). Dependency on the host for essential nutrients is evident from the loss of genes for the biosynthesis of thiamine and some amino acids and the presence of a wide range of transport proteins, including some unique to P. brassicae. The annotated genes of Pb3 include those with a potential role in the regulation of the plant growth hormones cytokinin and auxin. The expression profile of Pb3 genes, including putative effectors, during infection and their potential role in manipulation of host defence is discussed. The P. brassicae genome sequence reveals a compact genome, a dependency of the pathogen on its host for some

  17. Quality of life, psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning of patients with intoxication-type inborn errors of metabolism - a systematic review. (United States)

    Zeltner, Nina A; Huemer, Martina; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Landolt, Markus A


    In recent decades, considerable progress in diagnosis and treatment of patients with intoxication-type inborn errors of metabolism (IT-IEM) such as urea cycle disorders (UCD), organic acidurias (OA), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), or tyrosinemia type 1 (TYR 1) has resulted in a growing group of long-term survivors. However, IT-IEM still require intense patient and caregiver effort in terms of strict dietetic and pharmacological treatment, and the threat of metabolic crises is always present. Furthermore, crises can affect the central nervous system (CNS), leading to cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric sequelae. Consequently, the well-being of the patients warrants consideration from both a medical and a psychosocial viewpoint by assessing health-related quality of life (HrQoL), psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning. To date, an overview of findings on these topics for IT-IEM is lacking. We therefore aimed to systematically review the research on HrQoL, psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning in patients with IT-IEM. Relevant databases were searched with predefined keywords. Study selection was conducted in two steps based on predefined criteria. Two independent reviewers completed the selection and data extraction. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were of varying methodological quality and used different assessment measures. Findings on HrQoL were inconsistent, with some showing lower and others showing higher or equal HrQoL for IT-IEM patients compared to norms. Findings on psychological adjustment and adaptive functioning were more consistent, showing mostly either no difference or worse adjustment of IT-IEM patients compared to norms. Single medical risk factors for HrQoL, psychological adjustment, or adaptive functioning have been addressed, while psychosocial risk factors have not been addressed. Data on HrQoL, psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning for IT-IEM are sparse. Studies are inconsistent in

  18. Soil Compaction Investigation. (United States)

    Turski, Mark P.


    Describes a lab investigation designed to introduce students to soil compaction and help them to learn to design and adapt procedures that scientists use when they plan and conduct controlled investigations. Provided are objectives, a list of materials, procedures, and a sample student handout. (CW)

  19. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Resilience Scale adapted to chronic pain (RS-18): new empirical evidence of the protective role of resilience on pain adjustment. (United States)

    Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Esteve, Rosa; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Wagnild, Gail


    Recent attention has focused on resilience as an important process in the experience and management of chronic pain. In this context, resilience is considered as a psychological factor that promotes adaptive responses to pain and pain-related life adversities. Current research suggests that it is a relevant variable in the prediction of pain adjustment among chronic pain patients. Recently, it was adapted the Resilience Scale to patients suffering chronic musculoskeletal pain (RS-18). The aims of this study were to confirm the internal structure of the RS-18 and to present new empirical evidence regarding its validity. A sample of 592 patients with chronic musculoskeletal back pain completed a battery of instruments to assess resilience, anxiety sensitivity, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, hypervigilance, pain acceptance, and pain adjustment variables (pain intensity, emotional distress, functional impairment, and daily functioning). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the RS-18 and a single-factor solution. A series of moderated multiple regression analysis showed that resilience is a relevant psychological variable that not only independently predicts better pain adjustment, but also moderates the relationships between several psychological pain-related variables and pain adjustment variables. These findings give empirical support to the consideration of resilience as a protective variable in chronic pain adjustment and highlight the consideration that improving resilient behaviour could be an important target for the treatment of pain patients.

  20. Predictors of adaptive functioning and psychosocial adjustment in children with pediatric brain tumor: a report from the Brain Radiation Investigative Study Consortium. (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Wolfe, Kelly R; Yeates, Keith O; Mahone, E Mark; Cecil, Kim M; Ris, M Douglas


    Children are at risk for psychosocial and adaptive morbidities following diagnosis of and treatment for a pediatric brain tumor. This study examined whether familial/demographic, developmental, diagnostic, or treatment-related variables best predict the acute psychosocial adjustment and adaptive functioning of children soon after an initial diagnosis. Participants included 56 children (mean age = 10.72, SD = 4.02) newly diagnosed with a pediatric brain tumor. Parents completed background/demographic forms and completed ratings of children's behavioral and emotional symptoms, and adaptive behavior. Diagnostic and treatment-related information was abstracted from medical records. Parent ratings of behavioral symptoms and adaptive functioning were within normative expectation, although rates of clinical impairment in adaptive functioning exceeded expected rates. A combination of familial/demographic and diagnostic variables were associated with acute functioning. In multiple regressions, tumor size best predicted adaptive functioning after initial diagnosis, whereas tumor location best predicted variance in behavioral symptoms. Children may be more vulnerable to acute impairment in adaptive functioning following diagnosis of a pediatric brain tumor, but rates of behavioral symptoms were within expectation. Familial, sociodemographic, and diagnostic variables may help to identify those most at risk of impairment. Screening of these factors within tertiary care settings will be useful to identify those most in need of psychosocial care during the initial phases of treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Compact Multiantenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rudant


    Full Text Available Planar inverted-f antenna (PIFA and notch antenna are combined within a compact 2-port MIMO antenna. Electrical and magnetic duality of the two antennas avoids a critical coupling and best performances can be expected for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication. When excitation of notch antenna is optimized properly, the notch length can be short enough so that the two antennas can be colocated in a single compact volume. This compact multiantenna design is suitable for integration in MIMO handheld terminals. A prototype for broadband network application in 3.4–3.8’GHz frequency band has been characterized in anechoic chamber.

  2. Could changes in reported sex ratios at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine support the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Reimondos


    Full Text Available Background: The adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis suggests that when mothers are in poor conditions the sex ratio of their offspring will be biased towards females. Major famines provide opportunities for testing this hypothesis because they lead to the widespread deterioration of living conditions in the affected population. Objective: This study examines changes in sex ratio at birth before, during, and after China's 1958-1961 famine, to see whether they provide any support for the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis. Methods: We use descriptive statistics to analyse data collected by both China's 1982 and 1988 fertility sample surveys and examine changes in sex ratio at birth in recent history. In addition, we examine the effectiveness of using different methods to model changes in sex ratio at birth and compare their differences. Results: During China's 1958-1961 famine, reported sex ratio at birth remained notably higher than that observed in most countries in the world. The timing of the decline in sex ratio at birth did not coincide with the timing of the famine. After the famine, although living conditions were considerably improved, the sex ratio at birth was not higher but lower than that recorded during the famine. Conclusions: The analysis of the data collected by the two fertility surveys has found no evidence that changes in sex ratio at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine and the post-famine period supported the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis.

  3. Adaptation to a warming-drying trend through cropping system adjustment over three decades: A case study in the northern agro-pastural ecotone of China (United States)

    Zhang, Jingting; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Hao, Baozhen; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xuebiao; Xue, Qingwu


    Long-term field monitoring data and historical crop data are useful to assess the impacts of climate change and to manage cropping systems. The objectives of this study are to understand the cropping system response to a warming-drying trend in the northern agro-pastural ecotone (NAE) of China and to document how farmers can adapt to the warming-drying trend by changing cropping system structure and adjusting planting date. The results indicate that a significant warming-drying trend existed in the NAE from 1980 to 2009, and this trend significantly decreased crop (spring wheat, naked oat, and potato) yields. Furthermore, the yield decreased by 16.2%-28.4% with a 1°C increase in maximum temperature and decreased by 6.6%-11.8% with a 10% decrease in precipitation. Considering food security, water use efficiency, and water ecological adaptability in the semi-arid NAE, cropping system structure adjustment (e.g., a shift from wheat to potato as the predominant crop) and planting date adaptation (e.g., a delay in crop planting date) can offset the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE. Based on the successful offsetting of the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE, we conclude that farmers can reduce the negative effects of climate change and minimize the risk of crop failure by adapting their cropping system structure at the farming level.

  4. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary


    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  5. The relational basis of adolescent adjustment: trajectories of mother-child interactive behaviors from infancy to adolescence shape adolescents' adaptation. (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth


    Theories of social-emotional growth propose that repeatedly-experienced parent-infant interactions shape the individual's adaptation across development, yet few studies examined interactive behaviors repeatedly from infancy to adolescence. This study assessed the trajectories of four mother-child relational behaviors at six time-points from 3 months to 13 years: maternal sensitivity, child social engagement, mother intrusiveness, and dyadic reciprocity. Trajectories were examined separately for infants who later exhibited higher and lower psychological adaptation in adolescence. Overall, relational behaviors changed substantially with age in non-linear ways and changes in the four patterns were inter-related. Differences between the high- and low-adaptation groups were observed for maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness already in infancy and differences on all factors emerged at the transition to adolescence. Maternal sensitivity, mother intrusiveness, and dyadic reciprocity were individually stable from infancy to adolescence. Maternal psychological distress, infant difficult temperament, and dyadic reciprocity predicted adolescent adaptation. Results point to the long-term effects of risk and resilience components in the mother-infant relationship and underscore continuity in social development from infancy.

  6. Family Adjustment of Single Parents in the U. S. Army: An Empirical Analysis of Work Stressors and Adaptive Resources (United States)


    strategy should provide the Army with a better understanding of the adjustment of single parent families and, if warranted, help tailcr interventions ...military leadership has resisted efforts to fully assimilate women into military roles (Shields, 1988). Yet, sexism is but only one structural stress...differences have implications for policy and practice interventions . For single fathers, work suessors alone did not contribute a statistically significant

  7. Adaptive Adjustment of Relaxation Parameters for Algebraic Reconstruction Technique and its Possible Application to Sparsity Prior X-ray CT Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sajib; Lambert, Andrew; Pickering, Mark


    In this paper, we systematically evaluate the performance of adaptive adjustment of the relaxation parameters of various iterative algorithms for X-ray CT reconstruction relying on sparsity priors. Sparsity prior has been found to be an efficient strategy in CT reconstruction where significantly fewer attenuation measurements are available. Sparsity prior CT reconstruction relies on iterative algorithms such as the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) to produce a crude reconstruction based on which a sparse approximation is performed. Data driven adjustment of relaxation has been found to ensure better convergence than traditional relaxation for ART. In this paper, we study the performance of such data driven relaxation on a (CS) compressed sensing environment. State-of-the-art algorithms are implemented and their performance analyzed in regard to conventional and data-driven relaxation. Experiments are performed both on simulated and real environments. For the simulated case, experiments are conducted w...

  8. Compact vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)


    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)

  9. Cognitive adaptation theory as a predictor of adjustment to emerging adulthood for youth with and without type 1 diabetes. (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Reynolds, Kerry A; Siminerio, Linda M; Becker, Dorothy J; Escobar, Oscar


    The purpose of the study was to determine whether resilience, defined by cognitive adaptation theory, predicted emerging adulthood outcomes among youth with and without type 1 diabetes. Youth with (n=118) and without type 1 diabetes (n=122), who were part of a previous longitudinal study during adolescence, completed on-line questionnaires during their senior year of high school and one and two years later. They were average age 18, 53% female, and 93% white. Questionnaires assessed cognitive adaptation theory (CAT) indicators (self-esteem, mastery, optimism) and psychological, relationship, behavioral, vocational, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. The CAT index at baseline predicted reduced psychological distress, enhanced psychological well-being, increased friend support, reduced friend conflict, the presence of romantic relationships, reduced likelihood of romantic breakups, higher GPA, higher work satisfaction, and lower work stress during the transition to emerging adulthood. Among those with diabetes, the CAT index predicted better self-care behavior and revealed a marginal relation to better glycemic control. Analyses controlled for baseline levels when appropriate. Findings were stronger one year than two years post high school graduation, and findings were stronger for those with than without diabetes. Youth with diabetes also scored lower on the CAT index than youth without diabetes. These findings suggest that the implications of CAT include not only psychological health but also relationship, vocational, and diabetes outcomes. Those who score lower on CAT indicators should be identified as children so that interventions designed to enhance resilience can be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A longitudinal examination of the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: predicting child and adolescent adjustment over time. (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Rindlaub, Laura; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Rienks, Shauna; Bianco, Hannah; Markman, Howard J


    This study tests key tenets of the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model. This model (Wadsworth, Raviv, Santiago, & Etter, 2011 ) builds on Conger and Elder's family stress model by proposing that primary control coping and secondary control coping can help reduce the negative effects of economic strain on parental behaviors central to the family stress model, namely, parental depressive symptoms and parent-child interactions, which together can decrease child internalizing and externalizing problems. Two hundred seventy-five co-parenting couples with children between the ages of 1 and 18 participated in an evaluation of a brief family strengthening intervention, aimed at preventing economic strain's negative cascade of influence on parents, and ultimately their children. The longitudinal path model, analyzed at the couple dyad level with mothers and fathers nested within couple, showed very good fit, and was not moderated by child gender or ethnicity. Analyses revealed direct positive effects of primary control coping and secondary control coping on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms. Decreased economic strain predicted more positive father-child interactions, whereas increased secondary control coping predicted less negative mother-child interactions. Positive parent-child interactions, along with decreased parent depression and economic strain, predicted child internalizing and externalizing over the course of 18 months. Multiple-group models analyzed separately by parent gender revealed, however, that child age moderated father effects. Findings provide support for the adaptation to poverty-related stress model and suggest that prevention and clinical interventions for families affected by poverty-related stress may be strengthened by including modules that address economic strain and efficacious strategies for coping with strain.

  11. Compact and Thermosensitive Nature-inspired Micropump (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon


    Liquid transportation without employing a bulky power source, often observed in nature, has been an essential prerequisite for smart applications of microfluidic devices. In this report, a leaf-inspired micropump (LIM) which is composed of thermo-responsive stomata-inspired membrane (SIM) and mesophyll-inspired agarose cryogel (MAC) is proposed. The LIM provides a durable flow rate of 30 μl/h · cm2 for more than 30 h at room temperature without external mechanical power source. By adapting a thermo-responsive polymer, the LIM can smartly adjust the delivery rate of a therapeutic liquid in response to temperature changes. In addition, as the LIM is compact, portable, and easily integrated into any liquid, it might be utilized as an essential component in advanced hand-held drug delivery devices.

  12. On-board adaptive model for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on Kalman filter with proportional integral-based error adjustment (United States)

    Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai


    With the rapid development of battery-powered electric vehicles, the lithium-ion battery plays a critical role in the reliability of vehicle system. In order to provide timely management and protection for battery systems, it is necessary to develop a reliable battery model and accurate battery parameters estimation to describe battery dynamic behaviors. Therefore, this paper focuses on an on-board adaptive model for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a first-order equivalent circuit battery model is employed to describe battery dynamic characteristics. Then, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide good initial values of model parameters to ensure filter stability and reduce the convergence time. Thirdly, an extended-Kalman-filter (EKF) is applied to on-line estimate battery SOC and model parameters. Considering that the EKF is essentially a first-order Taylor approximation of battery model, which contains inevitable model errors, thus, a proportional integral-based error adjustment technique is employed to improve the performance of EKF method and correct model parameters. Finally, the experimental results on lithium-ion batteries indicate that the proposed EKF with proportional integral-based error adjustment method can provide robust and accurate battery model and on-line parameter estimation.

  13. Compact torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H.P.


    The objective of the compact torus approach is to provide toroidal magnetic-field configurations that are based primarily on plasma currents and can be freed from closely surrounding mechanical structures. Some familiar examples are the current-carrying plasma rings of reversed-field theta pinches and relativistic-electron smoke ring experiments. The spheromak concept adds an internal toroidal magnetic field component, in order to enhance MHD stability. In recent experiments, three different approaches have been used to generate spheromak plasmas: (1) the reversed-field theta pinch; (2) the coaxial plasma gun; (3) a new quasi-static method, based on the initial formation of a toroidal plasma sleeve around a mechanical ring that generates poloidal and toroidal fluxes, followed by field-line reconnection to form a detached spheromak plasma. The theoretical and experimental MHD stability results for the spheromak configuration are found to have common features.

  14. Meditation-induced cognitive-control states regulate response-conflict adaptation: Evidence from trial-to-trial adjustments in the Simon task. (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Hommel, Bernhard


    Here we consider the possibility that meditation has an immediate impact on information processing. Moreover, we were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional input control, as previous observations suggest, or the handling of response conflict. Healthy adults underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a Simon task-which assesses conflict-resolution efficiency. While the size of the Simon effect (reflecting the efficiency of handling response conflict) was unaffected by type of meditation, the amount of dynamic behavioral adjustments (i.e., trial-to-trial variability of the Simon effect: the Gratton effect) was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in meditation instantly creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on conflict-driven control adaptations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?]. (United States)

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I


    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.


    Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Härter, Martin; Brähler, Elmar; Faller, Hermann; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Koch, Uwe; Friedrich, Michael; Mehnert, Anja


    We aimed to investigate type and frequency of stressors, predominant symptom profiles, and predictors of adjustment disorders (AD) in cancer patients across major tumor entities. In this epidemiological study, we examined 2,141 cancer patients out of 4,020 screened with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, adaptation for oncology (CIDI-O). AD were operationalized as subthreshold disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. In our sample, 265 out of 2,141 patients (12.4%) met all criteria for AD (unweighted 4-week prevalence). The disclosure of the cancer diagnosis, relapse or metastases, and cancer treatments were most frequently described as stressors associated with depressive or anxious symptoms. With regard to AD symptom profiles, patients showed high prevalence rates of affective symptoms according to the DSM-IV criteria of Major Depression: The highest prevalence rates were found for cognitive disturbances (concentration and memory problems) (88%), sleeping disturbances (86%), and depressive mood (83%). We found sex, education, and metastasis as significant predictors for AD. Higher education was the most influential predictor. Men were half as likely to report symptoms fulfilling the AD criteria as women. Patients with metastasized tumors had a more than 80% higher risk of AD than those without metastasis. However, the explained variance of our model is very small (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.08). Patients with AD can be identified using a standardized instrument and deserve clinical attention, as they often show severe clinical symptoms and impairments. Improving the clinical conceptualization of AD by the adding-on of potential stress-response-symptoms is necessary to identify severe psychological strain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Perfectionsism, Coping, and Emotional Adjustment. (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.


    Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…

  18. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha


    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations o...

  19. Model Compaction Equation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compaction are two parameters that indicate the degree of compaction in sandstones. When the values are low, the sands are undercompacted, but when they are high the sands are compacted. A number of equations relating porosity and depth in sandstones have been published (Athy,. 1930; Hubbert and Rubey, 1959; ...

  20. Adaptive strategies after health decline in later life: Increasing the person-environment fit by adjusting the social and physical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomese, G.C.F.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.


    Following the press-competence model (PCM) of Lawton and associates, we tested two expectations as to the adaptations older adults make to their socio-physical environment following health decline: (1) depending on the change in their functional limitations, older adults use adaptive strategies

  1. Study on the Salini-adaptation Physiology in Different Ecotypes of Phragmites australis in the Yellow River Delta of China: Osmotica and Their Contribution to the Osmotic Adjustment (United States)

    Zhao, K. F.; Feng, L. T.; Zhang, S. Q.


    In the Yellow River Delta, there are four ecotypes of Phragmites australis: freshwater swamp reed; salty-water swamp reed; lower salt-meadow reed and higher salt-meadow reed. The growth status, composition and dominance of the reed community were observed. The organic and inorganic osmotica, osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment ability of reeds were determined. The abundance, coverage, plant height, leaf water content and osmotic potential all decreased with increasing salinity of habitats. K+ and sugars are the main osmotica in lower salinity, while Na+ is the main osmoticum in higher salinity. Na+ contents and the osmotic adjustment abilities of roots are higher than those in leaves. Na/K ratios of reeds varied with salinity levels of habitats, being about 1 in higher salinity. Moreover, the contributions of osmotica to the osmotic adjustment change with salinity, the higher the salinity level, the greater the contribution of inorganic osmotica, but the smaller the contribution of organic osmotica.

  2. Efficient and Compact Semiconductor Laser Transmitter Modules Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continue development of a Compact Transmitter Module (CTM). Modules will be voltage controlled to adjust wavlength using temperature and drive current settings. The...

  3. Chiropractic Adjustment (United States)

    ... Results Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only a modest benefit — similar to the results of more conventional treatments. Some studies suggest that spinal manipulation also may ...

  4. Compaction behaviour of soils


    Kurucuk, Nurses


    Soil compaction is widely applied in geotechnical engineering practice. It is used to maximise the dry density of soils to reduce subsequent settlement under working loads or to reduce the permeability of soils. The durability and stability of structures are highly related to the appropriate compaction achievement. The structural failure of roads and airfields, and the damage caused by foundation settlement can often be traced back to the failure in achieving adequate compaction. For that rea...

  5. Self-Compacting Concrete


    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro


    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  6. Compact Antenna Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  7. Compact Polarimetry Potentials (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric


    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  8. Model Compaction Equation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exponential loss of porosity with depth (Ramm et al., 1997). Compaction coefficient and percentage compaction are two .... distribution of overpressure zones in the Niger. Delta in order to further investigate the overpressure. ..... light of the theory of continental drift. Geology Magazine, 105: 385 - 397. Weber, K.J. And E.M. ...

  9. Compact microstrip stepped impedance wideband bandpass filter (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Zheng-Fan; Xia, H.-X.; Yang, J.-X.


    A novel wideband bandpass filter with a very compact size is presented in this article. Using a side-coupled stepped impedance resonator, wideband characteristics with adjustable centre frequency and 3-dB fractional bandwidth can be obtained easily. Finally, a filter sample is designed and fabricated to provide an experimental verification on the proposed topology. Good insertion/return losses, flat group delay, wide bandwidth as well as ultra compact size are achieved as demonstrated in both simulation and experiment, which makes this filter a very promising candidate for applications in future wideband communication system.

  10. Adjusting with care. Building blocks for an integral vision on climate adaptation; Aanpassen met beleid. Bouwstenen voor een integrale visie op klimaatadaptatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligtvoet, W.; Van Bree, L. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Van Dorland, R. [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands)


    This study aims to: (a) to give a state-of-the-art of climate change knowledge in the Netherlands (Chapter 2); (b) to map the knowledge on the sensitivity of the focus areas which are outside the field of Delta Programme (Chapter 3); (c) to picture the current policy focus (Chapter 4); (d) to consider the planned Climate Agenda ('Klimaatagenda') with respect to the recently published adaptation strategy of the European Union (Chapter 5); (e) to describe briefly the possible steps to be taken to organize the new adaptation strategy and the required knowledge (chapter 6) [Dutch] Deze studie heeft tot doel: (a) de huidige stand van zaken in beeld te brengen rond de kennis over de klimaatverandering (hoofdstuk 2); (b) de kennis in beeld te brengen over de gevoeligheid van de aandachtsvelden die buiten het domein van het Deltaprogramma vallen (hoofdstuk 3); (c) de huidige beleidsaandacht in beeld te brengen (hoofdstuk 4); (d) de beoogde Klimaatagenda te bezien in het licht van de recent gepubliceerde adaptatiestrategie van de Europese Unie (hoofdstuk 5); (e) een korte beschouwing te geven over de mogelijke stappen die moeten worden gezet voor de organisatie van de nieuwe adaptatiestrategie en de hiervoor benodigde kennisopbouw (hoofdstuk 6)

  11. Small Valdivia compact spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kubi's, W; Kubi\\'s, Wieslaw; Michalewski, Henryk


    We prove a preservation theorem for the class of Valdivia compact spaces, which involves inverse sequences of ``simple'' retractions. Consequently, a compact space of weight $\\loe\\aleph_1$ is Valdivia compact iff it is the limit of an inverse sequence of metric compacta whose bonding maps are retractions. As a corollary, we show that the class of Valdivia compacta of weight at most $\\aleph_1$ is preserved both under retractions and under open 0-dimensional images. Finally, we characterize the class of all Valdivia compacta in the language of category theory, which implies that this class is preserved under all continuous weight preserving functors.

  12. Compact boson stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Betti [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany); Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Schaffer, Isabell, E-mail: [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany)


    We consider compact boson stars that arise for a V-shaped scalar field potential. They represent a one parameter family of solutions of the scaled Einstein-Gordon equations. We analyze the physical properties of these solutions and determine their domain of existence. Along their physically relevant branch emerging from the compact Q-ball solution, their mass increases with increasing radius. Employing arguments from catastrophe theory we argue that this branch is stable, until the maximal value of the mass is reached. There the mass and size are on the order of magnitude of the Schwarzschild limit, and thus the spiraling respectively oscillating behaviour, well known for compact stars, sets in.

  13. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  14. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  15. Cardiovascular adaptations in weightlessness: The influence of in-flight exercise programs on the cardiovascular adjustments during weightlessness and upon returning to Earth (United States)

    Bennett, C. H.


    The effect of in-flight exercise programs on astronauts' cardiovascular adjustments during spaceflight weightlessness and upon return to Earth was studied. Physiological changes in muscle strength and volume, cardiovascular responses during the application of lower body negative pressure, and metabolic activities during pre-flight and flight tests were made on Skylab crewmembers. The successful completion of the Skylab missions showed that man can perform submaximal and maximal aerobic exercise in the weightless enviroment without detrimental trends in any of the physiologic data. Exercise tolerance during flight was unaffected. It was only after return to Earth that a tolerance decrement was noted. The rapid postflight recovery of orthostatic and exercise tolerance following two of the three Skylab missions appeared to be directly related to total in-flight exercise as well as to the graded, regular program of exercise performed during the postflight debriefing period.

  16. Compost Compaction Evaluation. (United States)


    aerated static pile composting ) has been shown to be most effective at reducing the explosives levels in the soils (4). As a result, it is anticipated...y ■,... tiiii silsis H-ifjfe Compost Compaction Evaluation Report No. ENAEC-TS-CR-93110 Contract No. DACA31-9-D-0079 Task Order No. 01...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE October 1993 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Compost Compaction Evaluation 6

  17. Adaptive upstream rate adjustment by RSOA-ONU depending on different injection power of seeding light in standard-reach and long-reach PON systems (United States)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Shih, F. Y.; Pan, C. L.


    The wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing (WDM-TDM) passive optical network (PON) using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based colorless optical networking units (ONUs) is considered as a promising candidate for the realization of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). And this architecture is actively considered by Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for the realization of FTTH in Taiwan. However, different fiber distances and optical components would introduce different power budgets to different ONUs in the PON. Besides, due to the aging of optical transmitter (Tx), the power decay of the distributed optical carrier from the central office (CO) could also reduce the injection power into each ONU. The situation will be more severe in the long-reach (LR) PON, which is considered as an option for the future access. In this work, we investigate a WDM-TDM PON using RSOA-based ONU for upstream data rate adjustment depending on different continuous wave (CW) injection powers. Both standard-reach (25 km) and LR (100 km) transmissions are evaluated. Moreover, a detail analysis of the upstream signal bit-error rate (BER) performances at different injection powers, upstream data rates, PON split-ratios under stand-reach and long-reach is presented.

  18. An iteratively reweighted least-squares approach to adaptive robust adjustment of parameters in linear regression models with autoregressive and t-distributed deviations (United States)

    Kargoll, Boris; Omidalizarandi, Mohammad; Loth, Ina; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Alkhatib, Hamza


    In this paper, we investigate a linear regression time series model of possibly outlier-afflicted observations and autocorrelated random deviations. This colored noise is represented by a covariance-stationary autoregressive (AR) process, in which the independent error components follow a scaled (Student's) t-distribution. This error model allows for the stochastic modeling of multiple outliers and for an adaptive robust maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of the unknown regression and AR coefficients, the scale parameter, and the degree of freedom of the t-distribution. This approach is meant to be an extension of known estimators, which tend to focus only on the regression model, or on the AR error model, or on normally distributed errors. For the purpose of ML estimation, we derive an expectation conditional maximization either algorithm, which leads to an easy-to-implement version of iteratively reweighted least squares. The estimation performance of the algorithm is evaluated via Monte Carlo simulations for a Fourier as well as a spline model in connection with AR colored noise models of different orders and with three different sampling distributions generating the white noise components. We apply the algorithm to a vibration dataset recorded by a high-accuracy, single-axis accelerometer, focusing on the evaluation of the estimated AR colored noise model.

  19. A Compact UWB Diversity Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao


    Full Text Available A compact printed ultrawideband (UWB diversity antenna with a size of 30 mm × 36 mm operating at a frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz is proposed. The antenna is composed of two semielliptical monopoles fed by two microstrip lines. Two semicircular slots, two rectangular slots, and one stub are introduced in the ground plane to adjust the impedance bandwidth of the antenna and improve the isolation between two feeding ports. The simulated and measured results show that impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna can cover the whole UWB band with a good isolation of < −15 dB. The radiation patterns, peak antenna gain, and envelope correlation coefficient are also measured and discussed. The measured results show that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for some portable MIMO/diversity UWB applications.

  20. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper


    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...

  1. Compaction of FGD-gypsum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, B.T.J.; Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.


    It is shown that it is possible to produce compacted gypsum with a low porosity and a high strength on a laboratory scale by uniaxial compaction of flue gas desulphurization (FGD-) gypsum powder. Compacted FGD-gypsum cylinders were produced at a compaction pres-sure between 50 and 500 MPa yielding

  2. Compact photomultiplier housing with controlled cooling. (United States)



    Description of a compact photomultiplier housing which can provide controlled cooling to the photomultiplier tube down to -90 C. The cooling is accomplished by flowing liquid nitrogen cooled helium gas through a series of coils which envelop the photocathode portion of the tube. The temperature is controlled by controlling the flow of the gas with a fine adjustable needle valve. The temperature is measured near the photocathode of the photomultiplier by a calibrated thermistor.

  3. Compaction of poultry litter. (United States)

    Bernhart, M; Fasina, O O; Fulton, J; Wood, C W


    Poultry litter, a combination of accumulated chicken manure, feathers and bedding materials, is a potential feedstock for bioenergy and other value-added applications. The use of this waste product has been historically limited to within few miles of the place of generation because of its inherent low density. Compaction is one possible way to enhance the storage and transportation of the litter. This study therefore investigates the effect of moisture content (19.8-70.7%, d.b.) and pressure (0.8-8.4 MPa) on the compaction characteristics of poultry litter. Results obtained showed that the initial density of densified poultry litter, energy required for compaction and the strength of the densified material after 2 months of storage were significantly (Ppoultry litter.

  4. Frequency-Adaptive Modified Comb-Filter-Based Phase-Locked Loop for a Doubly-Fed Adjustable-Speed Pumped-Storage Hydropower Plant under Distorted Grid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Luo


    Full Text Available The control system of a doubly-fed adjustable-speed pumped-storage hydropower plant needs phase-locked loops (PLLs to obtain the phase angle of grid voltage. The main drawback of a comb-filter-based phase-locked loop (CF-PLL is the slow dynamic response. This paper presents a modified comb-filter-based phase-locked loop (MCF-PLL by improving the pole-zero pattern of the comb filter, and gives the parameters’ setting method of the controller, based on the discrete model of MCF-PLL. In order to improve the disturbance resistibility of MCF-PLL when the power grid’s frequency changes, this paper proposes a frequency-adaptive modified, comb-filter-based, phase-locked loop (FAMCF-PLL and its digital implementation scheme. Experimental results show that FAMCF-PLL has good steady-state and dynamic performance under distorted grid conditions. Furthermore, FAMCF-PLL can determine the phase angle of the grid voltage, which is locked when it is applied to a doubly-fed adjustable-speed pumped-storage hydropower experimental platform.

  5. S — Compactness Via Ideals


    Abdel Monsef, M. E. [محمد عزت عبد المنصف; Lashien, E. F.; Nasef, A. A.


    Compactness modulo as an ideal has not been widely studied. Many new sorts of weak compactness have been introduced to topological spaces in the last twenty years but have not been studied using ideals. So, the main aim of our work is to study relations between ideals and some types of weak compactness. We initiate types of compactness modulo an ideal that generalize semi-compactness, S-closeness, S-Lindelofness and other types of compactness. Moreover, we study some of their properties and c...

  6. Compact Information Representations (United States)


    detections (e.g., DDoS attacks), machine learning, databases, and search. Fundamentally, compact data representations are highly beneficial because problems in data stream computations, real-time network monitoring & anomaly detections (e.g., DDoS attacks), machine learning, databases, and

  7. Granular compaction by fluidization (United States)

    Tariot, Alexis; Gauthier, Georges; Gondret, Philippe


    How to arrange a packing of spheres is a scientific question that aroused many fundamental works since a long time from Kepler's conjecture to Edward's theory (S. F. Edwards and R.B.S Oakeshott. Theory of powders. Physica A, 157: 1080-1090, 1989), where the role traditionally played by the energy in statistical problems is replaced by the volume for athermal grains. We present experimental results on the compaction of a granular pile immersed in a viscous fluid when submited to a continuous or bursting upward flow. An initial fluidized bed leads to a well reproduced initial loose packing by the settling of grains when the high enough continuous upward flow is turned off. When the upward flow is then turned on again, we record the dynamical evolution of the bed packing. For a low enough continuous upward flow, below the critical velocity of fluidization, a slow compaction dynamics is observed. Strikingly, a slow compaction can be also observed in the case of "fluidization taps" with bursts of fluid velocity higher than the critical fluidization velocity. The different compaction dynamics is discussed when varying the different control parameters of these "fluidization taps".

  8. Highly Compact Composite Antenna


    Pigeon, Mélusine; Morlaas-Courties, Christophe; Aubert, Hervé; Souny, Bernard


    International audience; The highly compact antenna proposed in this communication consists of a judicious association of equivalent magnetic current source with equivalent electric current source. This composite antenna presents a directivity radiation pattern analogous to one of the microstrip ceramic antennas but can be used at low frequencies. The antenna measurements confirm the promising performances obtained from electromagnetic simulations.

  9. Real Compact Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The classification of real compact surfaces is a main result which is at the same time easy to understand and non- trivial, simple in formulation and rich in consequences. The aim of this article is to explain the theorem by means of many drawings. It is an invitation to a visual approach of mathematics. First Definitions and ...

  10. Isometric coactions of compact quantum groups on compact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    isometry group' in Rieffel's framework, we might expect it to be compact. Therefore, we gather some information on compact quantum groups and compact quantum metric spaces together with other preliminary notions in the second section. Next, we introduce our notion of isometric coactions in the third section. We show in ...

  11. Progress in Compact Toroid Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Thomas James


    The term "compact toroids" as used here means spherical tokamaks, spheromaks, and field reversed configurations, but not reversed field pinches. There are about 17 compact toroid experiments under construction or operating, with approximate parameters listed in Table 1.

  12. Weakly compact operators and interpolation


    Maligranda, Lech


    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  13. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  14. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.


    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  15. Compaction of cereal grain


    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A; Mughal, A.


    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  16. Compaction of cereal grain (United States)

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.


    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  17. Compact simulator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fray, R.; Divakaruni, M. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))


    In its work to expand and enhance simulator-based training in the fossil generation industry, EPRI is developing compact simulator technology for training power plant operators. These personal computer-based systems are more flexible and much less expensive than conventional, mainframe-based simulators, and their use can dramatically increase operator effectiveness. The potential benefits for utilities include improved plant performance, availability, life, and environmental compliance and thus significantly lower O and M costs.

  18. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites. (United States)

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe


    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  19. Compact dynamic microfluidic iris array (United States)

    Kimmle, Christina; Doering, Christoph; Steuer, Anna; Fouckhardt, Henning


    A dynamic microfluidic iris is realized. Light attenuation is achieved by absorption of an opaque liquid (e.g. black ink). The adjustment of the iris diameter is achieved by fluid displacement via a transparent elastomer (silicone) half-sphere. This silicone calotte is hydraulically pressed against a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate as the bottom window, such that the opaque liquid is squeezed away, this way opening the iris. With this approach a dynamic range of more than 60 dB can be achieved with response times in the ms to s regime. The design allows the realization of a single iris as well as an iris array. So far the master for the molded silicone structure was fabricated by precision mechanics. The aperture diameter was changed continuously from 0 to 8 mm for a single iris and 0 to 4 mm in case of a 3 x 3 iris array. Moreover, an iris array was combined with a PMMA lens array into a compact module, the distance of both arrays equaling the focal length of the lenses. This way e.g. spatial frequency filter arrays can be realized. The possibility to extend the iris array concept to an array with many elements is demonstrated. Such arrays could be applied e.g. in light-field cameras.

  20. Compact T-branes (United States)

    Marchesano, Fernando; Savelli, Raffaele; Schwieger, Sebastian


    We analyse global aspects of 7-brane backgrounds with a non-commuting profile for their worldvolume scalars, also known as T-branes. In particular, we consider configurations with no poles and globally well-defined over a compact Kähler surface. We find that such T-branes cannot be constructed on surfaces of positive or vanishing Ricci curvature. For the existing T-branes, we discuss their stability as we move in Kähler moduli space at large volume and provide examples of T-branes splitting into non-mutually-supersymmetric constituents as they cross a stability wall.

  1. Compact synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weihreter, Ernst


    This book covers a new niche in circular accelerator design, motivated by the promising industrial prospects of recent micromanufacturing methods - X-ray lithography, synchrotron radiation-based micromachining and microanalysis techniques. It describes the basic concepts and the essential challenges for the development of compact synchrotron radiation sources from an accelerator designer's point of view and gives an outline of the actual state of the art. The volume is intended as an introduction and as a reference for physicists, engineers and managers involved in this rapidly developing fiel

  2. Compact Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Losano, L.; Marques, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Rocha, R. da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil)


    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space–time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  3. Sustainable compact city concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Šulin Košar


    Full Text Available The compact city concept has emerged at the end of the 20th century as one of the solutions for sustainable urban development. The concept brings development, which emphasizes urban density, while avoiding urban sprawl. The key features of the concept are mixed land use, construction of higher density (city intensification as well as better access for the entire population and most importantantly, development of the public transport system. The concept has advantages, but also disadvantages, because too much density affects the quality of life in the city.

  4. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski


    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  5. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J


    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  6. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P


    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  7. Development of Compact Lenses for Micro Four-Thirds System (United States)

    Koiwai, Tamotsu; Akita, Hidenori

    In 2010, "The micro SLR Olympus PEN" of Micro Four Thirds standard won double titles of CAMERA GRAND PRIX .The characteristics of Olympus PEN series are high-quality, compact, lightweight, no feeling of burden/stress and easy to take both still images and movies by SLR quality. Especially, the consciousness of compact and lightweight is taken into the series’ entire system including the body and interchangeable lenses. We have developed the interchangeable lenses by aiming ultimate miniaturization for optical and lens-barrel design along with making the miniaturizing compliance of Micro Four Thirds standard useful. In order to create compact and lightweight interchangeable lenses, a number of technical difficulties, such as realization of thinner design by adapting lens-barrel retraction system, lens-barrel with a high degree of accuracy, quick and silent AF, adaptation of special lenses, thorough trimming of weight, had to be overcome in the developmental process. Here we refer to these miniaturization technologies.

  8. Isometric coactions of compact quantum groups on compact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose a notion of isometric coaction of a compact quantum group on a compact quantum metric space in the framework of Rieffel, where the metric structure is given by a Lipnorm. Within this setting we study the problem of the existence of a quantum isometry group.

  9. The Student's Adjustment Inventory Manual | Tanyi | IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term school adjustment according to this study relates directly to personality formation of a child at school. Personality also here refers to stable behaviors in the process of adjustment. Stable forms of adjustment or adaptations can be regarded as traits of personality. School adjustment therefore, is a behavioural pattern ...

  10. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel


    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  11. Compact photonic spin filters (United States)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Zhenxing; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun


    In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact photonic spin filter formed by integrating a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens (focal length of ±f ) into a conventional plano-concave lens (focal length of -f). By choosing the input port of the filter, photons with a desired spin state, such as the right-handed component or the left-handed one, propagate alone its original propagation direction, while the unwanted spin component is quickly diverged after passing through the filter. One application of the filter, sorting the spin-dependent components of vector vortex beams on higher-order Poincaré sphere, is also demonstrated. Our scheme provides a simple method to manipulate light, and thereby enables potential applications for photonic devices.

  12. CIM - compact intensity modulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, M.; Lang, E.; Gahler, G.; Lal, J.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source; Inst. Lau Langevin


    Compact intensity modulation (CIM), a new method to modulate the intensity of a neutron beam is demonstrated. CIM allows the production of arbitrary signals where the focus point can be chosen and changed without any constraints. A novel feature in this technique compared to spin echo techniques is that the neutron polarization is kept parallel or anti-parallel to the static fields during the passage through the magnetic fields and the beating pattern at the detector is produced by an amplitude modulation (AM) of the adiabatic RF-spin flippers rather than Larmor precession like in neutron spin echo (NSE) instruments; thus, the achievable contrast is very high and the instrument resolution can be changed very quickly. This gives the fascinating possibility at pulsed neutron sources to sweep the modulation frequency of the flippers in order to increase dynamic resolution range during the same neutron pulse.

  13. Compact Neutrino Source

    CERN Document Server

    LoSecco, John


    Some evidence for sterile neutrinos has been found in short baseline observations where the measured neutrino flux did not agree with expectations. Systematic uncertainties from the expected values has limited the sensitivity of this approach. Observation at multiple distances can remove the normalization uncertainty by isolating the distance dependence. This doesn't work for high $\\Delta m^{2}$ sterile neutrinos since they are fully mixed at most observation distances and only shift the normalization of the flux. A compact intense source of neutrinos based on a subcritical fission reactor would permit observation of oscillations on submeter distance scales and clearly distinguish between a systematic normalization and the $L/E$ dependence expected from oscillations.

  14. An Active Black Hole in a Compact Dwarf (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    A new type of galaxy has just been added to the galaxy zoo: a small, compact, and old elliptical galaxy that shows signs of a monster black hole actively accreting material in its center. What can this unusual discovery tell us about how compact elliptical galaxies form?A New Galactic BeastCompact elliptical galaxies are an extremely rare early-type dwarf galaxy. Consistent with their name, compact ellipticals are small, very compact collections of ancient stars; these galaxies exhibit a high surface brightness and arent actively forming stars.Optical view of the ancient compact elliptical galaxy SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 (center of image) in an SDSS color composite image. [Adapted from Paudel et al. 2016]Most compact ellipticals are found in dense environments, particularly around massive galaxies. This has led astronomers to believe that compact ellipticals might form via the tidal stripping of a once-large galaxy in interactions with another, massive galaxy. In this model, once the original galaxys outer layers are stripped away, the compact inner bulge component would be left behind as a compact elliptical galaxy. Recent discoveries of a few isolated compact ellipticals, however, have strained this model.Now a new galaxy has been found to confuse our classification schemes: the first-ever compact elliptical to also display signs of an active galactic nucleus. Led by Sanjaya Paudel (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute), a team of scientists discovered SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 serendipitously in Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. The team used SDSS images and spectroscopy in combination with data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to learn more about this unique galaxy.Puzzling CharacteristicsSDSS J085431.18+173730.5 presents an interesting conundrum. Ancient compact ellipticals are supposed to be devoid of gas, with no fuel left to trigger nuclear activity. Yet SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 clearly shows the emission lines that indicate active accretion onto

  15. Roller-compacted concrete pavements. (United States)


    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to help compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional con...

  16. Compaction of alpha contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herald, W.R.; Luthy, D.F.


    The initial equipment installation and development of procedures for compacting less than or equal to 10 nCi/gram waste, greater than or equal to 10 nCi/gram waste, and less than or equal to 100 nCi/gram waste are given. Design and construction of the new compaction facility is discussed. (LK)

  17. A Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; /SLAC


    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and predamping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  18. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)


    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  19. Compact photoacoustic tomography system (United States)

    Kalva, Sandeep Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit


    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a non-ionizing biomedical imaging modality which finds applications in brain imaging, tumor angiogenesis, monitoring of vascularization, breast cancer imaging, monitoring of oxygen saturation levels etc. Typical PAT systems uses Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light illumination, single element large ultrasound transducer (UST) as detector. By holding the UST in horizontal plane and moving it in a circular motion around the sample in full 2π radians photoacoustic data is collected and images are reconstructed. The horizontal positioning of the UST make the scanning radius large, leading to larger water tank and also increases the load on the motor that rotates the UST. To overcome this limitation, we present a compact photoacoustic tomographic (ComPAT) system. In this ComPAT system, instead of holding the UST in horizontal plane, it is held in vertical plane and the photoacoustic waves generated at the sample are detected by the UST after it is reflected at 45° by an acoustic reflector attached to the transducer body. With this we can reduce the water tank size and load on the motor, thus overall PAT system size can be reduced. Here we show that with the ComPAT system nearly similar PA images (phantom and in vivo data) can be obtained as that of the existing PAT systems using both flat and cylindrically focused transducers.

  20. Compact 3D camera (United States)

    Bothe, Thorsten; Osten, Wolfgang; Gesierich, Achim; Jueptner, Werner P. O.


    A new, miniaturized fringe projection system is presented which has a size and handling that approximates to common 2D cameras. The system is based on the fringe projection technique. A miniaturized fringe projector and camera are assembled into a housing of 21x20x11 cm size with a triangulation basis of 10 cm. The advantage of the small triangulation basis is the possibility to measure difficult objects with high gradients. Normally a small basis has the disadvantage of reduced sensitivity. We investigated in methods to compensate the reduced sensitivity via setup and enhanced evaluation methods. Special hardware issues are a high quality, bright light source (and components to handle the high luminous flux) as well as adapted optics to gain a large aperture angle and a focus scan unit to increase the usable measurement volume. Adaptable synthetic wavelengths and integration times were used to increase the measurement quality and allow robust measurements that are adaptable to the desired speed and accuracy. Algorithms were developed to generate automatic focus positions to completely cover extended measurement volumes. Principles, setup, measurement examples and applications are shown.

  1. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)


    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  2. Compact, Airborne Multispecies Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer to benefit Earth science research activities. To...

  3. Compact energy conversion module Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  4. Compact, Ultrasensitive Formaldehyde Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a compact UV laser ?based sensor for Earth science and planetary atmosphere exploration....

  5. What Is Business's Social Compact? (United States)

    Avishai, Bernard


    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)

  6. A Parallel Compact Hash Table

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, Steven; Laarman, Alfons; Vojnar, Tomas


    We present the first parallel compact hash table algorithm. It delivers high performance and scalability due to its dynamic region-based locking scheme with only a fraction of the memory requirements of a regular hash table.

  7. Collapse settlement in compacted soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, AR


    Full Text Available Research into collapse settlement in compacted soils is described, with special reference to recent cases in Southern Africa where collapse settlement occurred in road embankments following wetting of the soil. The laboratory work described...

  8. Compaction with Automatic Jog Introduction (United States)


    conserve area. For these reasons, compaction algorithms have gained widespread attention in the VLSI literature S ,[4, 5, 9, 111, and have been incorporated...graph is (V,E), then Dijkstra’s algorithm runs in time 6 (IEl - IVI log IV!) using Fibonacci heaps [3]. In contrast, the longest- path algorithm of...however, so that hierarchical compaction can alleviate much of the resource -. 33 pa. .1 N’, problem. It also may be suited to use in channel routing

  9. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (United States)

    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.


    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  10. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel (United States)

    Zhang, Ou

    conducted in a stoke boiler. A separate burning test was also carried out by burning biomass logs alone in an outdoor hot-water furnace for heating a building. Based on a previous coal compaction study, the process of biomass compaction was studied numerically by use of a non-linear finite element code. A constitutive model with sufficient generality was adapted for biomass material to deal with pore contraction during compaction. A contact node algorithm was applied to implement the effect of mold wall friction into the finite element program. Numerical analyses were made to investigate the pressure distribution in a die normal to the axis of compaction, and to investigate the density distribution in a biomass log after compaction. The results of the analyses gave generally good agreement with theoretical analysis of coal log compaction, although assumptions had to be made about the variation in the elastic modulus of the material and the Poisson's ratio during the compaction cycle.

  11. Adaptation and mitigation (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Kenneth E. Skog; Duncan C. McKinley; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher W. Swanston; Sarah J. Hines; Christopher W. Woodall; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; David L. Peterson; James M. Vose


    Forest ecosystems respond to natural climatic variability and human-caused climate change in ways that are adverse as well as beneficial to the biophysical environment and to society. Adaptation refers to responses or adjustments made—whether passive, reactive, or anticipatory—to climatic variability and change (Carter et al. 1994). Many adjustments occur whether...

  12. Annual Adjustment Factors (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  13. The classification of 2-compact groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K. S. Andersen, Kasper; Grodal, Jesper


    We prove that any connected 2-compact group is classified by its 2-adic root datum, and in particular the exotic 2-compact group DI(4), constructed by Dwyer-Wilkerson, is the only simple 2-compact group not arising as the 2-completion of a compact connected Lie group. Combined with our earlier wo...

  14. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  15. Development of compact accelerator neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letourneau Alain


    Full Text Available There is a worldwide growing interest for small-scale and reduced-cost neutron sources not based on nuclear fission. High-intensity proton or deuteron beams impinging on light materials could be used to produce such neutron sources with intensities or brightness comparable to nuclear reactor for dedicated experiments. To develop such technologies several key technological issues have to be addressed. Among them the neutron production and the maximization of the neutron extraction and transport to the instrument is a key parameter for the design of high-brightness sources adapted for the required application. This issue have to be addressed with validated and predictive Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper we present preliminary results on the use of Geant4 in the context of Compact Accelerator based Neutron Source (CANS developments.

  16. Development of compact accelerator neutron source (United States)

    Letourneau, Alain; Marchix, Anthony; Tran, Ngoc-Hoang; Chauvin, Nicolas; Menelle, Alain; Ott, Frédéric; Schwindling, Jérôme


    There is a worldwide growing interest for small-scale and reduced-cost neutron sources not based on nuclear fission. High-intensity proton or deuteron beams impinging on light materials could be used to produce such neutron sources with intensities or brightness comparable to nuclear reactor for dedicated experiments. To develop such technologies several key technological issues have to be addressed. Among them the neutron production and the maximization of the neutron extraction and transport to the instrument is a key parameter for the design of high-brightness sources adapted for the required application. This issue have to be addressed with validated and predictive Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper we present preliminary results on the use of Geant4 in the context of Compact Accelerator based Neutron Source (CANS) developments.

  17. Compact wavefunctions from compressed imaginary time evolution

    CERN Document Server

    McClean, Jarrod R


    Simulation of quantum systems promises to deliver physical and chemical predictions for the frontiers of technology. Unfortunately, the exact representation of these systems is plagued by the exponential growth of dimension with the number of particles, or colloquially, the curse of dimensionality. The success of approximation methods has hinged on the relative simplicity of physical systems with respect to the exponentially complex worst case. Exploiting this relative simplicity has required detailed knowledge of the physical system under study. In this work, we introduce a general and efficient black box method for many-body quantum systems that utilizes technology from compressed sensing to find the most compact wavefunction possible without detailed knowledge of the system. It is a Multicomponent Adaptive Greedy Iterative Compression (MAGIC) scheme. No knowledge is assumed in the structure of the problem other than correct particle statistics. This method can be applied to many quantum systems such as spi...

  18. Summary of Self-compacting Concrete Workability


    GUO Gui-xiang; Duan Hong-jun


    On the basis of a large number of domestic and foreign literature, situation and development of self-compacting concrete is introduced. Summary of the compacting theory of self-compacting concrete. And some of the factors affecting the workability of self-compacting concrete were discussed and summarized to a certain extent. Aims to further promote the application and research of self-compacting concrete

  19. Analysis and control of the compaction force in the composite prepreg tape winding process for rocket motor nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong He


    Full Text Available In the process of composite prepreg tape winding, the compaction force could influence the quality of winding products. According to the analysis and experiments, during the winding process of a rocket motor nozzle aft exit cone with a winding angle, there would be an error between the deposition speed of tape layers and the feeding speed of the compaction roller, which could influence the compaction force. Both a lack of compaction and overcompaction related to the feeding of the compaction roller could result in defects of winding nozzles. Thus, a flexible winding system has been developed for rocket motor nozzle winding. In the system, feeding of the compaction roller could be adjusted in real time to achieve an invariable compaction force. According to experiments, the force deformation model of the winding tape is a time-varying system. Thus, a forgetting factor recursive least square based parameter estimation proportional-integral-differential (PID controller has been developed, which could estimate the time-varying parameter and control the compaction force by adjusting the feeding of the compaction roller during the winding process. According to the experimental results, a winding nozzle with fewer voids and a smooth surface could be wounded by the invariable compaction force in the flexible winding system.

  20. Compact magnetic confinement fusion: Spherical torus and compact torus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao


    Full Text Available The spherical torus (ST and compact torus (CT are two kinds of alternative magnetic confinement fusion concepts with compact geometry. The ST is actually a sub-category of tokamak with a low aspect ratio; while the CT is a toroidal magnetic configuration with a simply-connected geometry including spheromak and field reversed pinch. The ST and CT have potential advantages for ultimate fusion reactor; while at present they can also provide unique fusion science and technology contributions for mainstream fusion research. However, some critical scientific and technology issues should be extensively investigated.

  1. The College Adjustment Questionnaire: A Measure of Students' Educational, Relational, and Psychological Adjustment to the College Environment (United States)

    O'Donnell, Maeve B.; Shirley, Lauren A.; Park, Stacey S.; Nolen, Julian P.; Gibbons, Alyssa M.; Rosén, Lee A.


    Several instruments exist to measure college adjustment: the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ; Baker & Siryk, 1989), the College Adjustment Rating Scale (Zitzow, 1984), and the College Adjustment Scales (Anton & Reed, 1991). Of these, the SACQ is the most widely used and takes a multifaceted approach to measuring college…

  2. The United Nations Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm


    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations......, an operational perspective discussing the composition and impact of its participants, as well as a governance perspective discussing the constraints and opportunities of the initiative as an institutionalized arena for addressing global governance gaps. The authors contrast these three perspectives and identify...... key empirical as well as conceptual scholarly contributions. The remainder of this article contains focused summaries of the articles selected for this Special Issue. All articles are introduced and evaluated against the background of the three research perspectives....

  3. Compaction Stress in Fine Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, A.J.; Kenkre, V.M.; Pease, E.A.; Scott, J.E.


    A vexing feature in granular materials compaction is density extrema interior to a compacted shape. Such inhomogeneities can lead to weaknesses and loss of dimensional control in ceramic parts, unpredictable dissolution of pharmaceuticals, and undesirable stress concentration in load-bearing soil. As an example, the centerline density in a cylindrical compact often does not decrease monotonically from the pressure source but exhibits local maxima and minima. Two lines of thought in the literature predict, respectively, diffusive and wavelike propagation of stress. Here, a general memory function approach has been formulated that unifies these previous treatments as special cases; by analyzing a convenient intermediate case, the telegrapher's equation, one sees that local density maxima arise via semidiffusive stress waves reflecting from the die walls and adding constructively at the centerline.

  4. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike


    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  5. Compact accelerator for medical therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Paul, Arthur C.


    A compact accelerator system having an integrated particle generator-linear accelerator with a compact, small-scale construction capable of producing an energetic (.about.70-250 MeV) proton beam or other nuclei and transporting the beam direction to a medical therapy patient without the need for bending magnets or other hardware often required for remote beam transport. The integrated particle generator-accelerator is actuable as a unitary body on a support structure to enable scanning of a particle beam by direction actuation of the particle generator-accelerator.

  6. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillard François


    Full Text Available Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  7. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material (United States)

    Guillard, François; Golshan, Pouya; Shen, Luming; Valdès, Julio R.; Einav, Itai


    Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  8. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery (United States)

    Nihalani, B R; Hunter, D G


    Surgical management of strabismus remains a challenge because surgical success rates, short-term and long-term, are not ideal. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery has been available for decades as a tool to potentially enhance the surgical outcomes. Intellectually, it seems logical that having a second chance to improve the outcome of a strabismus procedure should increase the overall success rate and reduce the reoperation rate. Yet, adjustable suture surgery has not gained universal acceptance, partly because Level 1 evidence of its advantages is lacking, and partly because the learning curve for accurate decision making during suture adjustment may span a decade or more. In this review we describe the indications, techniques, and published results of adjustable suture surgery. We will discuss the option of ‘no adjustment' in cases with satisfactory alignment with emphasis on recent advances allowing for delayed adjustment. The use of adjustable sutures in special circumstances will also be reviewed. Consistently improved outcomes in the adjustable arm of nearly all retrospective studies support the advantage of the adjustable option, and strabismus surgeons are advised to become facile in the application of this approach. PMID:21760626

  9. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.


    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  10. A compact molecular beam machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.; Chandler, D.W.; Strecker, K.E.


    We have developed a compact, low cost, modular, crossed molecular beam machine. The new apparatus utilizes several technological advancements in molecular beams valves, ion detection, and vacuum pumping to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a molecular beam apparatus. We apply these

  11. Boundaries of flat compact surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter


    type. The number of $3$-singular points (points of zero curvature or if not then of zero torsion) on the boundary of a flat immersed compact surface is greater than or equal to twice the absolute value of the Euler characteristic of the surface. A set of necessary and, in a weakened sense, sufficient...

  12. Compactness in fuzzy function spaces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In [3] we defined a notion of compactness in FCS, the category of fuzzy convergence spaces as defined by Lowen/Lowen/Wuyts [8]. In their paper the latter also introduced a fuzzy convergence structure c-lim for fuzzy function spaces thus proving that FCS is a topological quasitopos. In this paper we start the investigation of ...

  13. Decompounding on compact Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Said, Salem; Bihan, Nicolas Le; Manton, Jonathan H


    Noncommutative harmonic analysis is used to solve a nonparametric estimation problem stated in terms of compound Poisson processes on compact Lie groups. This problem of decompounding is a generalization of a similar classical problem. The proposed solution is based on a char- acteristic function method. The treated problem is important to recent models of the physical inverse problem of multiple scattering.

  14. Dynamic compaction of ceramic powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.F.


    Dynamic consolidation is a technique for densifying powder ensembles to near theoretical with or without external application of heat. The technique itself is simple: the confined powder, initially at a green density of approx. 50% encounters a high pressure shock wave which exceeds the yield strength and densifies as the wave proceeds through the compact. The time scales and pressure range from 1-10's of microseconds and 10-100's of kilobars (10 Kb = 1 GPa). The short time scale of the pressure pulse during the compaction stage inhibits kinetic processes which have longer time constants. The pressure pulse can be delivered to the green compact by a number of techniques, i.e. high explosive, projectile. The methods differ in the degree that one can control the amplitude, duration, and nature of the pressure pulse. The lecture compares powders compacted by explosive and light gas guns and when possible characterize their resulting structures and properties, using AlN as example. 14 figures.

  15. Der Global Compact und der Schutz der Menschenrechte


    Hamm, Brigitte I.; Weiß, Norman (Prof. Dr.)


    Der Global Compact und der Schutz der Menschenrechte I. Einleitung II. Was ist der Global Compact? III. Wie funktioniert der Global Compact? IV. Der Global Compact will kein Verhaltenskodex sein V. Der Global Compact als Bestandteil von „global governance" VI. Der Global Compact und der Schutz der Menschenrechte VII. Ausschau Literatur „Global Compact" und Schutz der Menschenrechte - Diskussionszusammenfassung

  16. Psychological adjustment to chronic disease and rehabilitation - an exploration. (United States)

    Dekker, Joost; de Groot, Vincent


    Psychological adjustment has a major impact on chronic disease health outcomes. However, the classification of psychological adjustment is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We aim (i) to characterize the process of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, and (ii) to analyze how various categories of the psychological adjustment process could be incorporated into the ICF. We provide a summary of models of psychological adjustment to chronic disease. We also evaluate various options for incorporating categories of psychological adjustment into the ICF. Acute and ongoing illness stressors; emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses; personal background; and social and environmental background are major categories in the adjustment process. These categories could, in principle, be integrated with various components of the ICF. Any future revision of the ICF should explicitly incorporate psychological adjustment and its (sub)categories. The ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications will be required. Implications for Rehabilitation In the context of an ageing society and large numbers of people living with chronic diseases, it is essential to understand psychological adjustment to chronic disease. However, the classification of psychological adjustment to chronic disease is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We demonstrate that the ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications would first be required. We suggest that these adaptations and clarifications should be considered in any future revision of the ICF.

  17. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.


    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  18. Adjusted on climate changes? Results from a company survey for the adaptation in the energy industry and transportation; Eingestellt auf Klimafolgen? Ergebnisse einer Unternehmensbefragung zur Anpassung in der Energie- und Verkehrswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechan, Anna; Rotter, Maja; Eisenack, Klaus


    The aim of this study is to gain an empirical insight into the different approaches German companies from the rail transport and power supply industries are taking to deal with the impacts of cli-mate change. The study analyses the character of these approaches as well as possible endoge-nous and exogenous factors that influence the companies dealing with the issue. A survey was conducted in the course of summer 2010 within the state-funded research project ''Chameleon - Adaptation to climate change in the utility sector'' using a standardised online-questionnaire. The main result of the survey is that utility companies begin to actively deal with the impacts of cli-mate change. About two thirds of the participating companies internally discuss the issue and more than a half already incorporate it into their strategic planning. Yet, one fifth of the companies do not treat the issue at all. While approximately one quarter plan to implement concrete measures, an-other fifth of the companies indicate to have already implemented steps to deal with the impacts. However, due to a partially obvious mixing or confusion of the issues of adaptation and mitigation, the indicated steps might not exclusively be adaptation related. (orig.)


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  20. University students' adjustment problems. (United States)

    Cherian, V I; Cherian, L


    Considerable information is available on the adjustment problems of first-year university students in developed countries, but comparatively little is known about such problems in Asia and Africa. This study of a representative sample of 1257 first-year students conducted at the University of the North showed that 33 to 85% of the first-year students experienced various adjustment problems.

  1. Topological groups with dense compactly generated subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujita


    Full Text Available A topological group G is: (i compactly generated if it contains a compact subset algebraically generating G, (ii -compact if G is a union of countably many compact subsets, (iii 0-bounded if arbitrary neighborhood U of the identity element of G has countably many translates xU that cover G, and (iv finitely generated modulo open sets if for every non-empty open subset U of G there exists a finite set F such that F  U algebraically generates G. We prove that: (1 a topological group containing a dense compactly generated subgroup is both 0-bounded and finitely generated modulo open sets, (2 an almost metrizable topological group has a dense compactly generated subgroup if and only if it is both 0-bounded and finitely generated modulo open sets, and (3 an almost metrizable topological group is compactly generated if and only if it is -compact and finitely generated modulo open sets.

  2. Properties of Cement Compacts Prepared by High-Pressure Compaction. (United States)


    compressed, low-porosity portland cement pastes. According to work by Relis and Soroka , other factors have been found to produce excellent strength...Pressure Compaction," Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol.67, March 1970. 22. Relis, M. and Soroka , I., "Prediction of Standard...No.2, pp.239-245, 1983. 29. Relis, M. and Soroka , I., "Limiting Values for Density, Expansion, and Intrinsic Shrinkage In Hydrated Portland Cement

  3. Compact adaptive optic-optical coherence tomography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, Scot S [Livermore, CA; Chen, Diana C [Fremont, CA; Jones, Steven M [Danville, CA; McNary, Sean M [Stockton, CA


    Badal Optometer and rotating cylinders are inserted in the AO-OCT to correct large spectacle aberrations such as myopia, hyperopic and astigmatism for ease of clinical use and reduction. Spherical mirrors in the sets of the telescope are rotated orthogonally to reduce aberrations and beam displacement caused by the scanners. This produces greatly reduced AO registration errors and improved AO performance to enable high order aberration correction in a patient eyes.

  4. Compact adaptive optic-optical coherence tomography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, Scot S [Livermore, CA; Chen, Diana C [Fremont, CA; Jones, Steven M [Danville, CA; McNary, Sean M [Stockton, CA


    Badal Optometer and rotating cylinders are inserted in the AO-OCT to correct large spectacle aberrations such as myopia, hyperopic and astigmatism for ease of clinical use and reduction. Spherical mirrors in the sets of the telescope are rotated orthogonally to reduce aberrations and beam displacement caused by the scanners. This produces greatly reduced AO registration errors and improved AO performance to enable high order aberration correction in a patient eyes.

  5. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der


    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  6. Compaction Characteristics of Igumale Shale | Iorliam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the outcome of an investigation into the effect of different compactive energies on the compaction characteristics of Igumale shale, to ascertain its suitability as fill material in highway construction. Tests were conducted on specimen of Igumale shale, which included classification, compaction using three ...

  7. Equationally Compact Acts : Coproducts / Peeter Normak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normak, Peeter


    In this article equational compactness of acts and its generalizations are discussed. As equational compactness does not carry over to coproducts a slight generalization of c-equational campactness is introduced. It is proved that a coproduct of acts is c-equationally compact if and only if all components are c-equationally campact

  8. Probability on compact Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Applebaum, David


    Probability theory on compact Lie groups deals with the interaction between “chance” and “symmetry,” a beautiful area of mathematics of great interest in its own sake but which is now also finding increasing applications in statistics and engineering (particularly with respect to signal processing). The author gives a comprehensive introduction to some of the principle areas of study, with an emphasis on applicability. The most important topics presented are: the study of measures via the non-commutative Fourier transform, existence and regularity of densities, properties of random walks and convolution semigroups of measures, and the statistical problem of deconvolution. The emphasis on compact (rather than general) Lie groups helps readers to get acquainted with what is widely seen as a difficult field but which is also justified by the wealth of interesting results at this level and the importance of these groups for applications. The book is primarily aimed at researchers working in probability, s...

  9. Compact planar microwave blocking filters (United States)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)


    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  10. Adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Barbulescu


    Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis was the factor that triggered the adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances accumulated in Romania. The current account deficit and budget deficit were two major structural imbalances that have created a high vulnerability for the economy and explained the extent of economic contraction in Romania during the economic crisis. This article identifies the main causes that lead to the need for fiscal adjustment both in the EU and in Romania, as well as main effects of adjustments in respect of their experience in recent years. The article deals with this topic, because the current topical debate in the field of fiscal adjustments implemented both in the EU and our country, and their need for economic activity aimed at economic recovery.

  11. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  12. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.


    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  13. Weighted triangulation adjustment (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.


    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  14. Numerical simulation of intelligent compaction technology for construction quality control. (United States)


    Intelligent compaction (IC) technique is a fast-developing technology for compaction quality control and acceptance. Proof rolling using the intelligent compaction rollers after completing compaction can eectively identify : the weak spots and sig...

  15. Wavelet Packet based Detection of Surface Faults on Compact Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor


    In this paper the detection of faults on the surface of a compact disc is addressed. Surface faults like scratches and fingerprints disturb the on-line measurement of the pick-up position relative to the track. This is critical since the pick-up is focused on and tracked at the information track...... based on these measurements. A precise detection of the surface fault is a prerequisite to a correct handling of the faults in order to protect the pick-up of the compact disc player from audible track losses. The actual fault handling which is addressed in other publications can be carried out...... by the use of dedicated filters adapted to remove the faults from the measurements. In this paper detection using wavelet packet filters is demonstrated. The filters are designed using the joint best basis method. Detection using these filters shows a distinct improvement compared to detection using ordinary...

  16. Der Global Compact und der Schutz der Menschenrechte


    Hamm, Brigitte I.


    Inhalt: - I. Einleitung - II. Was ist der Global Compact? - III. Wie funktioniert der Global Compact? - IV. Der Global Compact will kein Verhaltenskodex sein. - V. Der Global Compact als Bestandteil von „global governance“ - VI. Der Global Compact und der Schutz der Menschenrechte - VII. Ausschau - Literatur - Teilnehmer des Global Compact

  17. Should adjustment disorder be conceptualized as transitional disorder? In pursuit of adjustment disorders definition. (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe


    The DSM classification of an adjustment disorder is frequently criticized for not being well differentiated from other disorders. A possible reason for this is the vague definition of the term adjustment in social science literature. Hence, the current paper discusses the definition of adjustment and its implications for understanding maladjustment. Differential definitions of the terms adjustment, adaptation, socialization and coping are outlined, leading to the proposition that each one of them represents a different type of demand that is imposed on an individual who encounters a transitional event. Moreover, the four types of demands might be the possible sources of maladjustment. Helping people in transition requires an identification of the source, or combination of sources, that have led to the adjustment problem first, followed by the implementation of an adequate helping approach.

  18. New Ultra-Compact Dwarf Galaxies in Clusters (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    How do ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) galaxies that are especially small and dense form and evolve? Scientists have recently examined distant galaxy clusters, searching for more UCDs to help us answer this question.Origins of DwarfsIn recent years we have discovered a growing sample of small, very dense galaxies. Galaxies that are tens to hundreds of light-years across, with masses between a million and a billion solar masses, fall into category of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs).An example of an unresolved compact object from the authors survey that is likely an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy. [Adapted from Zhang Bell 2017]How do these dense and compact galaxies form? Two possibilities are commonly suggested:An initially larger galaxy was tidally stripped during interactions with other galaxies in a cluster, leaving behind only its small, dense core as a UCD.UCDs formed as compact galaxies at very early cosmic times. The ones living in a massive dark matter halo may have been able to remain compact over time, evolving into the objectswe see today.To better understand which of these formation scenarios applies to which galaxies, we need a larger sample size! Our census of UCDs is fairly limited and because theyare small and dim, most of the ones weve discovered are in the nearby universe. To build a good sample, we need to find UCDs at higher redshifts as well.A New SampleIn a recent study, two scientists from University of Michigan have demonstrated how we might find more UCDs. Yuanyuan Zhang (also affiliated with Fermilab) and Eric Bell used the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble (CLASH) to search 17 galaxy clusters at intermediate redshifts of 0.2 z 0.6, looking for unresolved objects that might be UCDs.The mass and size distributions of the UCD candidates reported in this study, in the context of previously known nuclear star clusters, globular clusters (GCs), UCDs, compact elliptical galaxies (cEs), and dwarf galaxies. [Zhang Bell 2017]Zhang and

  19. Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits (United States)

    Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave; Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet


    Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

  20. Compact Radiometers Expand Climate Knowledge (United States)


    To gain a better understanding of Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, NASA plans to embark on the Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission in 2015. To prepare, Goddard Space Flight Center provided Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to ProSensing Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, to develop a compact ultrastable radiometer for sea surface salinity and soil moisture mapping. ProSensing incorporated small, low-cost, high-performance elements into just a few circuit boards and now offers two lightweight radiometers commercially. Government research agencies, university research groups, and large corporations around the world are using the devices for mapping soil moisture, ocean salinity, and wind speed.

  1. Compact sources for eyesafe illumination (United States)

    Baranova, N.; Pu, R.; Stebbins, K.; Bystryak, I.; Rayno, M.; Ezzo, K.; DePriest, C.


    Q-Peak has demonstrated a novel, compact, pulsed eyesafe laser architecture operating with OPO), which utilizes Potassium Titanyl Arsenate (KTA) in a linear OPO geometry. This laser efficiently operates in the eyesafe band, and has been designed to fit within a volume of 3760 cm3. We will discuss details of the optical system design, modeled thermal effects and stress-induced birefringence, as well as experimental advantages of the end-pumped laser geometry, along with proposed paths to higher eyesafe pulse energies.

  2. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica


    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...

  3. Predicting the Adjustment of Black Students at Predominantly White Institutions. (United States)

    Thompson, Chalmer E.; Fretz, Bruce R.


    A set of variables termed "bicultural adaptive strategies" was formulated and tested for predicting Black students' (n=171) levels of adjustment to a predominantly White university. Findings suggest that the incorporation of variables reflecting Black cultural frame of reference is fruitful in studying Black student adjustment and retention.…

  4. Diffeomorphic image registration with automatic time-step adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Klein, S.; Sommer, Stefan Horst


    In this paper, we propose an automated Euler's time-step adjustment scheme for diffeomorphic image registration using stationary velocity fields (SVFs). The proposed variational problem aims at bounding the inverse consistency error by adaptively adjusting the number of Euler's step required...

  5. [Adjustment to retirement]. (United States)

    Goewie, R


    Rather frequently a person's commitment to his work is taken as one of the factors that thwart his adaptation to retirement. However, research has pointed out that people of different socio-economic classes do not in the same degree commit themselves to their work. Moreover a strong commitment to work does not necessarily lead to a negative attitude towards retirement, nor does a loose tie to one's work always lead to a positive attitude towards retirement. Factors that are more important to facilitate adaptation to retirement, are: to have sufficient means of subsistence, satisfying relationships, a good health, and the possibility to lead an active life. These requirements will be more frequently met with people of the higher and middle occupational level than with those of the lower level. Therefore, the former may be expected to show a better adaptation to retirement.

  6. Adjustment of International Students. (United States)

    Stafford, Thomas H., Jr.; And Others


    International students (N=747) completed a questionnaire to obtain information about their adjustment so that special services could be developed for them. Homesickness was their greatest area of concern, as well as housing, social relationships, the English language, and finances. (RC)

  7. Adjustment to Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Solinge, H.; Krauss Withbourne, S.


    Retirement is an important life course event that marks the start of a new life stage in which work is no longer dominant. Thus, employees have to adjust to the significant life changes that accompany the transition and seek to achieve psychological comfort with their retirement life. This entry

  8. Rural to Urban Adjustment (United States)

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  9. Psychosocial adjustment following ostomy. (United States)

    Follick, M J; Smith, T W; Turk, D C


    Ostomy patients have been identified as a chronic illness population frequently experiencing adjustment difficulties. The present study, based on the biopsychosocial model (Engel, 1977) of chronic illness, examined a range of post-surgical adjustment difficulties in a sample of 131 ostomy patients. The patient population reported experiencing a significant number of technical, emotional, social, marital/family, and sexual difficulties post-surgically. Technical difficulties were associated with impaired emotional, social, and marital/family functioning. Emotional difficulties were also associated with problematic social, marital/family adjustment, and impaired sexual functioning. Technical problems, emotional difficulties, and social problems were all associated with the patient's perception of having received inadequate preparatory information. Marital/family and sexual maladjustment, on the other hand, were associated with low levels of perceived social support. The results of this investigation are interpreted as supporting the biopsychosocial model of chronic illness, and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed as well as their relation to previous research on adjustment to stressful medical procedures.

  10. Environmentally Adjusted Elasticity Measures


    Shaik, Saleem


    Here, using input, output and nitrogen pollution data related to one state, we propose to extend the elasticity concept to include environmental pollution treated as undesirable output to provide the environmentally adjusted elasticity measures for the period, 1936-1997 in a two-step procedure.

  11. Incisor adjustment in rabbits. (United States)

    Brown, Cyndi


    Rabbit incisor teeth are open-rooted and, in healthy animals, grow continuously. Incisor adjustments are often necessary to maintain the health and well-being of rabbits with incisor malocclusion. This column will describe some techniques used to manage incisor malocclusion in the rabbit.

  12. Compact Visualisation of Video Summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Ćalić


    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for compact and intuitive video summarisation aimed at both high-end professional production environments and small-screen portable devices. To represent large amounts of information in the form of a video key-frame summary, this paper studies the narrative grammar of comics, and using its universal and intuitive rules, lays out visual summaries in an efficient and user-centered way. In addition, the system exploits visual attention modelling and rapid serial visual presentation to generate highly compact summaries on mobile devices. A robust real-time algorithm for key-frame extraction is presented. The system ranks importance of key-frame sizes in the final layout by balancing the dominant visual representability and discovery of unanticipated content utilising a specific cost function and an unsupervised robust spectral clustering technique. A final layout is created using an optimisation algorithm based on dynamic programming. Algorithm efficiency and robustness are demonstrated by comparing the results with a manually labelled ground truth and with optimal panelling solutions.

  13. Cold compaction of water ice (United States)

    Durham, W.B.; McKinnon, W.B.; Stern, L.A.


    Hydrostatic compaction of granulated water ice was measured in laboratory experiments at temperatures 77 K to 120 K. We performed step-wise hydrostatic pressurization tests on 5 samples to maximum pressures P of 150 MPa, using relatively tight (0.18-0.25 mm) and broad (0.25-2.0 mm) starting grain-size distributions. Compaction change of volume is highly nonlinear in P, typical for brittle, granular materials. No time-dependent creep occurred on the lab time scale. Significant residual porosity (???0.10) remains even at highest P. Examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a random configuration of fractures and broad distribution of grain sizes, again consistent with brittle behavior. Residual porosity appears as smaller, well-supported micropores between ice fragments. Over the interior pressures found in smaller midsize icy satellites and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), substantial porosity can be sustained over solar system history in the absence of significant heating and resultant sintering. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Quark matter in compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, H., E-mail: harg@cefet-rj.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Maracana 249, 20271-110, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B., E-mail: sbd@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, J.C.T., E-mail: jcto@cbpf.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus do Paricarana s/n, 69310-270, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil)


    Recently reported massive compact stars (Mapprox2M{sub o}) have provided strong constraints on the properties of the ultradense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. Therefore, realistic quark or hybrid star models must be compatible with these observational data. Some used equations of state (EoS) describing quark matter are in general too soft and hence are not suitable to explain the stability of high compact star masses. In this work, we present the calculations of static spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state which takes into account the superconducting colour-flavour locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. We discuss the influence of the obtained quark matter equation of state on the mass-radius relationship of quark stars. Massive quark stars are found due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when reasonable values of the superconducting gap, taken as a free parameter, are used.

  15. Compact hybrid Si microring lasers (United States)

    Liang, Di; Bowers, John E.; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.


    In this paper we review the recent progress in developing compact microring lasers on the hybrid silicon platform. A simplified self-aligned process is used to fabricate devices as small as 15 μm in diameter. The optically-pumped, continuous wave (cw) devices show low threshold carrier density, comparable to the carrier density to reach material transparency. In the electrically-pumped lasers, the short cavity length leads to the minimum laser threshold less than 5 mA in cw operation. The maximum cw lasing temperature is up to 65 °C. Detailed studies in threshold as a function of coupling coefficient and bus waveguide width are presented. Surface recombination at the dry-etched exposed interface is investigated qualitatively by studying the current-voltage characteristics. Ring resonator-based figures of merits including good spectral purity and large side-mode suppression ratio are demonstrated. Thermal impedance data is extracted from temperature-dependent spectral measurement, and buried oxide layer in silicon-on-insulator wafer is identified as the major thermal barrier to cause high thermal impedance for small-size devices. The demonstrated compact hybrid ring lasers have low power consumption, small footprint and dynamic performance. They are promising for Si-based optical interconnects and flip-flop applications.

  16. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shakeran


    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  17. Adaptive management of rangeland systems (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Hart, Noelle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Twidwell, Dirac


    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that uses structured learning to reduce uncertainties for the improvement of management over time. The origins of adaptive management are linked to ideas of resilience theory and complex systems. Rangeland management is particularly well suited for the application of adaptive management, having sufficient controllability and reducible uncertainties. Adaptive management applies the tools of structured decision making and requires monitoring, evaluation, and adjustment of management. Adaptive governance, involving sharing of power and knowledge among relevant stakeholders, is often required to address conflict situations. Natural resource laws and regulations can present a barrier to adaptive management when requirements for legal certainty are met with environmental uncertainty. However, adaptive management is possible, as illustrated by two cases presented in this chapter. Despite challenges and limitations, when applied appropriately adaptive management leads to improved management through structured learning, and rangeland management is an area in which adaptive management shows promise and should be further explored.

  18. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.


    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  19. The Future Concrete: Self-Compacting Concrete


    Liana Iureş; Corneliu Bob


    The paper presents the characteristics of the self-compacting concretes, their advantages and disadvantages when they are used in buildings. Due to its properties and composition, the self-compacting concrete is described here as being one of the future friendly enviromental material for buildings. Tests concerning to obtaining a self-compacting concrete, together with the specific fresh concrete properties tests, are described.

  20. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines


    Postolati V.; Bycova Е.; Suslov V.; Timashova L.; Shakarian Yu.; Kareva S.


    Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL) constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL), appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced ...

  1. The Future Concrete: Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Iureş


    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of the self-compacting concretes, their advantages and disadvantages when they are used in buildings. Due to its properties and composition, the self-compacting concrete is described here as being one of the future friendly enviromental material for buildings. Tests concerning to obtaining a self-compacting concrete, together with the specific fresh concrete properties tests, are described.

  2. Compaction of amorphous iron–boron powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Mørup, Steen; Koch, Christian


    Large scale practical use of bulk amorphous alloys requires the capability of molding the material to a desired design, for instance by compaction of an amorphous powder. This is a difficult task because the sintering temperature is limited by the crystallization temperature of the alloy.1 Here w...... of density and structure on compaction pressure and compaction temperature. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  3. Compaction criteria for eastern coal waste embankments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, S.K.


    The authors present the results of a full-scale experiment wherein four embankments were constructed to evaluate compaction equipment performance, optimum lift thickness, and number of passes required for specified degree of compaction for coal refuse at Moundsville, West Virginia. It was found that suitable equipment are vibratory smooth drums and sheepsfoot rollers with an applied force not less than 46,000 lb (20930 kg) and compaction lifts not greater than 1ft (0.3 m) in thickness.

  4. Effect of slash on forwarder soil compaction (United States)

    Timothy P. McDonald; Fernando Seixas


    A study of the effect of slash on forwarder soil compaction was carried out. The level of soil compaction at two soil moisture contents, three slash densities (0, 10, and 20 kg/m2), and two levels of traffic (one and five passes) were measured. Results indicated that, on dry, loamy sand soils, the presence of slash did not decrease soil compaction after one forwarder...

  5. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce. (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario


    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  6. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank


    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  7. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten


    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This directs...... attention to the transformative implications of conscious strategic maneuvering by incumbent regime actors, when confronting regime structurations. This article provides insight to processes of regime enactment performed by local governments by applying a flow-oriented perspective on regime dynamics......, inspired by Actor-Network Theory to demonstrate that regime incumbent actors can induce gradual regime adjustments at the urban scale. This is done through a case study of an urban development project, where the Municipality of Egedal in Denmark has successfully promoted energy efficient buildings through...

  8. Self-compacting concrete: the role of the particle size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.; Radix, H.J.


    This paper addresses experiments and theories on Self-Compacting Concrete. The “Chinese Method”, as developed by Su et al. [1] and Su and Miao [2] and adapted to European circumstances, serves as a basis for the development of new concrete mixes. Mixes, consisting of slag blended cement, gravel

  9. Compact storage ring to search for the muon electric dipole moment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelmann, A.; Kirch, K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Schietinger, T.

    We present the concept of a compact storage ring of less than 0.5 m orbit radius to search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the muon (d(mu)) by adapting the 'frozen spin' method. At existing muon facilities a statistics limited sensitivity of d(mu) similar to 7 x 10(-23) e cm can be achieved

  10. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.


    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  11. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus (United States)

    Chaplin, James E.


    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  12. Compact LWIR sensors using spatial interferometric technology (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Bingham, Adam L.; Lucey, Paul G.; Knobbe, Edward T.


    Recent developments in reducing the cost and mass of hyperspectral sensors have enabled more widespread use for short range compositional imaging applications. HSI in the long wave infrared (LWIR) is of interest because it is sensitive to spectral phenomena not accessible to other wavelengths, and because of its inherent thermal imaging capability. At Spectrum Photonics we have pursued compact LWIR hyperspectral sensors both using microbolometer arrays and compact cryogenic detector cameras. Our microbolometer-based systems are principally aimed at short standoff applications, currently weigh 10-15 lbs and feature sizes approximately 20x20x10 cm, with sensitivity in the 1-2 microflick range, and imaging times on the order of 30 seconds. Our systems that employ cryogenic arrays are aimed at medium standoff ranges such as nadir looking missions from UAVs. Recent work with cooled sensors has focused on Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) technology, as these detector arrays are undergoing rapid improvements, and have some advantages compared to HgCdTe detectors in terms of calibration stability. These sensors include full on-board processing sensor stabilization so are somewhat larger than the microbolometer systems, but could be adapted to much more compact form factors. We will review our recent progress in both these application areas.

  13. (U) Influence of Compaction Model Form on Planar and Cylindrical Compaction Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carney, Theodore Clayton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fichtl, Christopher Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The dynamic compaction response of CeO2 is examined within the frameworks of the Ramp and P-a compaction models. Hydrocode calculations simulating the dynamic response of CeO2 at several distinct pressures within the compaction region are investigated in both planar and cylindrically convergent geometries. Findings suggest additional validation of the compaction models is warranted under complex loading configurations.

  14. A compact molecular beam machine. (United States)

    Jansen, Paul; Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E


    We have developed a compact, low cost, modular, crossed molecular beam machine. The new apparatus utilizes several technological advancements in molecular beams valves, ion detection, and vacuum pumping to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a molecular beam apparatus. We apply these simplifications to construct a linear molecular beam machine as well as a crossed-atomic and molecular beam machine. The new apparatus measures almost 50 cm in length, with a total laboratory footprint less than 0.25 m(2) for the crossed-atomic and molecular beam machine. We demonstrate the performance of the apparatus by measuring the rotational temperature of nitric oxide from three common molecular beam valves and by observing collisional energy transfer in nitric oxide from a collision with argon.

  15. The Compactness of Construction Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Zadrozny, W


    We present an argument for {\\em construction grammars} based on the minimum description length (MDL) principle (a formal version of the Ockham Razor). The argument consists in using linguistic and computational evidence in setting up a formal model, and then applying the MDL principle to prove its superiority with respect to alternative models. We show that construction-based representations are at least an order of magnitude more compact that the corresponding lexicalized representations of the same linguistic data. The result is significant for our understanding of the relationship between syntax and semantics, and consequently for choosing NLP architectures. For instance, whether the processing should proceed in a pipeline from syntax to semantics to pragmatics, and whether all linguistic information should be combined in a set of constraints. From a broader perspective, this paper does not only argue for a certain model of processing, but also provides a methodology for determining advantages of different...

  16. Anisotropic models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)


    In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analog of the Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of the anisotropic factor Δ with the help of both metric potentials e{sup ν} and e{sup λ}. Here we consider e{sup λ} the same as Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) did, whereas e{sup ν} is as given by Lake (Phys Rev D 67:104015, 2003). The field equations are solved by the change of dependent variable method. The solutions set mathematically thus obtained are compared with the physical properties of some of the compact stars, strange star as well as white dwarf. It is observed that all the expected physical features are available related to the stellar fluid distribution, which clearly indicates the validity of the model. (orig.)

  17. Compact infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter (United States)

    Craven, Julia; Kudenov, Michael W.; Stapelbroek, Maryn G.; Dereniak, Eustace L.


    A compact SWIR/MWIR infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter (IHIP) is currently under development at the Optical Detection Lab at the University of Arizona. The sensor uses a pair of sapphire Wollaston prisms and high order retarders to form an imaging birefringent Fourier transform spectropolarimeter. Polarimetric data are acquired through the use of channeled spectropolarimetry to modulate the spectrum with the Stokes parameter information. The two dimensional interferogram is Fourier filtered and reconstructed to recover the complete Stokes vector data across the image. The IHIP operates over a +/-5° field of view and will use a dual-scan false signature reduction technique to suppress polarimetric aliasing artifacts. We present current instrument development progress, initial laboratory results, and our plan for future work.

  18. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry


    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  19. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET. (United States)

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara


    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  20. CIM-Compact intensity modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail:; Lang, E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Gaehler, R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue J. Horowitz, Grenoble 38042 (France); Lal, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    Compact intensity modulation (CIM), a new method to modulate the intensity of a neutron beam is demonstrated. CIM allows the production of arbitrary signals where the focus point can be chosen and changed without any constraints. A novel feature in this technique compared to spin echo techniques is that the neutron polarization is kept parallel or anti-parallel to the static fields during the passage through the magnetic fields and the beating pattern at the detector is produced by an amplitude modulation (AM) of the adiabatic RF-spin flippers rather than Larmor precession like in neutron spin echo (NSE) instruments; thus, the achievable contrast is very high and the instrument resolution can be changed very quickly. This gives the fascinating possibility at pulsed neutron sources to sweep the modulation frequency of the flippers in order to increase dynamic resolution range during the same neutron pulse.

  1. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan


    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  2. Compact autonomous navigation system (CANS) (United States)

    Hao, Y. C.; Ying, L.; Xiong, K.; Cheng, H. Y.; Qiao, G. D.


    Autonomous navigation of Satellite and constellation has series of benefits, such as to reduce operation cost and ground station workload, to avoid the event of crises of war and natural disaster, to increase spacecraft autonomy, and so on. Autonomous navigation satellite is independent of ground station support. Many systems are developed for autonomous navigation of satellite in the past 20 years. Along them American MANS (Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System) [1] of Microcosm Inc. and ERADS [2] [3] (Earth Reference Attitude Determination System) of Honeywell Inc. are well known. The systems anticipate a series of good features of autonomous navigation and aim low cost, integrated structure, low power consumption and compact layout. The ERADS is an integrated small 3-axis attitude sensor system with low cost and small volume. It has the Earth center measurement accuracy higher than the common IR sensor because the detected ultraviolet radiation zone of the atmosphere has a brightness gradient larger than that of the IR zone. But the ERADS is still a complex system because it has to eliminate many problems such as making of the sapphire sphere lens, birefringence effect of sapphire, high precision image transfer optical fiber flattener, ultraviolet intensifier noise, and so on. The marginal sphere FOV of the sphere lens of the ERADS is used to star imaging that may be bring some disadvantages., i.e. , the image energy and attitude measurements accuracy may be reduced due to the tilt image acceptance end of the fiber flattener in the FOV. Besides Japan, Germany and Russia developed visible earth sensor for GEO [4] [5]. Do we have a way to develop a cheaper/easier and more accurate autonomous navigation system that can be used to all LEO spacecraft, especially, to LEO small and micro satellites? To return this problem we provide a new type of the system—CANS (Compact Autonomous Navigation System) [6].

  3. General Relativity&Compact Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, Norman K.


    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10{sup 14} times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed.

  4. Compactness in L-Fuzzy Topological Spaces


    Luna-Torres, Joaquin; Salazar-Buelvas, Elias


    We give a definition of compactness in L-fuzzy topological spaces and provide a characterization of compact L-fuzzy topological spaces, where L is a complete quasi-monoidal lattice with some additional structures, and we present a version of Tychonoff's theorem within the category of L-fuzzy topological spaces.

  5. Quantification of the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn


    The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders by a simple linear relationship between the diametral compressive strength of tablets and the applied compaction pressure. The mechanical strength of the tablets is characterized as the crushing...

  6. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.


    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  7. Compressibility Characteristics of Compacted Black Cotton Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One dimensional consolidation studies on compacted black cotton soil treated with up to 16% rice husk ash (RHA) at the British Standard light compactive effort was carried out to access the compressibility characteristics. The consolidation characteristics of black cotton soil containing 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16% RHA were ...

  8. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips


    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  9. Feature Based Control of Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    Two servo control loops are used to keep the Optical Pick-up Unit focused and radially on the information track of the Compact Disc. These control servos have problems handling surface faults on the Compact Disc. In this Ph.D thesis a method is proposed to improve the handling of these surface...

  10. Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Hydraulic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per

    Soil compaction is a major threat to sustainable soil quality and is increasing since agricultural machinery is becoming heavier and is used more intensively. Compaction not only reduces pore volume, but also modifies the pore connectivity. The inter-Nordic research project POSEIDON (Persistent...... effects of subsoil compaction on soil ecological services and functions) put forward the hypothesis that due to a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity in the soil matrix, compaction increases the frequency of preferential flow events in macropores and therefore increases the leaching of otherwise...... relatively immobile agrochemicals. In a morainic clay soil, undisturbed soil cores (6280 cm3) were sampled at 20-40 and 60-80 cm depth in the spring 2009 fourteen years after operation with a heavy sugar beet harvester. Soil cores were sampled both from uncompacted reference blocks and from compacted blocks...

  11. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.


    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  12. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld


    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  13. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron


    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  14. Levels of induced pressure and compaction as caused by forest harvesting operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Caruana Martins


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine levels of pressure and compaction induced by forest harvesting operations in a Red Latosol (LV under planted eucalyptus. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from layers 0-3 and 15-18 cm and then used in a uniaxial compression test. Sampling was done before and after harvesting operations. Equipment being evaluated included: harvester, feller buncher, forwarder, self-loading adapted tractor, standard truck, wide-tire truck and grapple saw. Average pressures induced by the grapple saw were 320 kPa and 272 kPa, causing compaction in 80% and 20% of samples respectively from layers 0-3 cm and 15-18 cm, which indicates substantial degradation of soil structure in areas where timber is processed. In layer 0-3 cm, average pressures induced by the harvester and by the feller buncher were 240 kPa and 263 kPa respectively, while in layer 15-18 cm pressures were 234 kPa and 239 kPa respectively. The feller buncher caused higher soil compaction than the harvester in layer 0-3 cm, yet in layer 15-18 cm they had similar behavior. All timber forwarding equipment led to soil compaction. The wide-tire truck was the forwarding implement promoting the highest rate of compaction, in both residue conditions. Traffic intensity 7 promoted the highest rate of soil compaction.

  15. Compact Structure Patterns in Proteins. (United States)

    Chitturi, Bhadrachalam; Shi, Shuoyong; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V


    Globular proteins typically fold into tightly packed arrays of regular secondary structures. We developed a model to approximate the compact parallel and antiparallel arrangement of α-helices and β-strands, enumerated all possible topologies formed by up to five secondary structural elements (SSEs), searched for their occurrence in spatial structures of proteins, and documented their frequencies of occurrence in the PDB. The enumeration model grows larger super-secondary structure patterns (SSPs) by combining pairs of smaller patterns, a process that approximates a potential path of protein fold evolution. The most prevalent SSPs are typically present in superfolds such as the Rossmann-like fold, the ferredoxin-like fold, and the Greek key motif, whereas the less frequent SSPs often possess uncommon structure features such as split β-sheets, left-handed connections, and crossing loops. This complete SSP enumeration model, for the first time, allows us to investigate which theoretically possible SSPs are not observed in available protein structures. All SSPs with up to four SSEs occurred in proteins. However, among the SSPs with five SSEs, approximately 20% (218) are absent from existing folds. Of these unobserved SSPs, 80% contain two or more uncommon structure features. To facilitate future efforts in protein structure classification, engineering, and design, we provide the resulting patterns and their frequency of occurrence in proteins at: Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Spherically symmetric charged compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)


    In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)

  17. A compact optical fiber positioner (United States)

    Hu, Hongzhuan; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Zengxiang; Zhai, Chao; Chu, Jiaru


    In this paper, a compact optical fiber positioner is proposed, which is especially suitable for small scale and high density optical fiber positioning. Based on the positioning principle of double rotation, positioner's center shaft depends on planetary gear drive principle, meshing with the fixed annular gear central motor gear driving device to rotate, and the eccentric shaft rotated driving by a coaxial eccentric motor, both center and the eccentric shaft are supported by a rolling bearings; center and eccentric shaft are both designed with electrical zero as a reference point, and both of them have position-limiting capability to ensure the safety of fiber positioning; both eccentric and center shaft are designed to eliminating clearance with spring structure, and can eliminate the influence of gear gap; both eccentric and center motor and their driving circuit can be installed in the positioner's body, and a favorable heat sink have designed, the heat bring by positioning operation can be effectively transmit to design a focal plane unit through the aluminum component, on sleeve cooling spiral airway have designed, when positioning, the cooling air flow is inlet into install hole on the focal plate, the cooling air flow can effectively take away the positioning's heat, to eliminate the impact of the focus seeing. By measuring position device's sample results show that: the unit accuracy reached 0.01mm, can meet the needs of fiber positioning.

  18. Compact IR synchrotron beamline design. (United States)

    Moreno, Thierry


    Third-generation storage rings are massively evolving due to the very compact nature of the multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice which allows amazing decreases of the horizontal electron beam emittance, but leaves very little place for infrared (IR) extraction mirrors to be placed, thus prohibiting traditional IR beamlines. In order to circumvent this apparent restriction, an optimized optical layout directly integrated inside a SOLEIL synchrotron dipole chamber that delivers intense and almost aberration-free beams in the near- to mid-IR domain (1-30 µm) is proposed and analyzed, and which can be integrated into space-restricted MBA rings. Since the optics and chamber are interdependent, the feasibility of this approach depends on a large part on the technical ability to assemble mechanically the optics inside the dipole chamber and control their resulting stability and thermo-mechanical deformation. Acquiring this expertise should allow dipole chambers to provide almost aberration-free IR synchrotron sources on current and `ultimate' MBA storage rings.

  19. Compact stellarators with modular coils (United States)

    Garabedian, P. R.


    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan. PMID:10899993

  20. Evaluation of automatic vacuum- assisted compaction solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brzeziński


    Full Text Available Currently on the mould-making machines market the companies like: DiSA, KUENKEL WAGNER, HAFLINGER, HEINRICH WAGNER SINTO, HUNTER, SAVELLI AND TECHNICAL play significant role. These companies are the manufacturers of various solutions in machines and instalations applied in foundry engineering. Automatic foundry machines for compaction of green sand have the major role in mechanisation and automation processes of making the mould. The concept of operation of automatic machines is based on the static and dynamic methods of compacting the green sand. The method which gains the importance is the compacting method by using the energy of the air pressure. It's the initial stage or the supporting process of compacting the green sand. However in the automatic mould making machines using this method it's essential to use the additional compaction of the mass in order to receive the final parameters of the form. In the constructional solutions of the machines there is the additional division which concerns the method of putting the sand into the mould box. This division distinquishes the transport of the sand with simultaneous compaction or the putting of the sand without the pre-compaction. As the solutions of the major manufacturers are often the subject for application in various foundries, the authors of the paper would like/have the confidence to present their own evaluation process confirmed by their own researches and independent analysis of the producers' solutions.

  1. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson


    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  2. Does soil compaction increase floods? A review (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Rogger, Magdalena; Peth, Stephan; Blöschl, Günter


    Europe has experienced a series of major floods in the past years which suggests that flood magnitudes may have increased. Land degradation due to soil compaction from crop farming or grazing intensification is one of the potential drivers of this increase. A literature review suggests that most of the experimental evidence was generated at plot and hillslope scales. At larger scales, most studies are based on models. There are three ways in which soil compaction affects floods at the catchment scale: (i) through an increase in the area affected by soil compaction; (ii) by exacerbating the effects of changes in rainfall, especially for highly degraded soils; and (iii) when soil compaction coincides with soils characterized by a fine texture and a low infiltration capacity. We suggest that future research should focus on better synthesising past research on soil compaction and runoff, tailored field experiments to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the coupled mechanical and hydraulic processes, new mapping methods of soil compaction that combine mechanical and remote sensing approaches, and an effort to bridge all disciplines relevant to soil compaction effects on floods.

  3. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbæk explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  4. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances......In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions......’ of newcomers enacting the organizational emergent. The study throws light on the informal socialization in work-related interactions between newcomers and veterans and reveals professional relational histories, as well as the relationship between veteran coworker and hiring manager, to be important aspects...

  5. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)


    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)

  6. Semi-compact skyrmion-like structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.


    We study three distinct types of planar, spherically symmetric and localized structures, one of them having non-topological behavior and the two others being of topological nature. The non-topological structures have energy density localized in a compact region in the plane, but are unstable against spherically symmetric fluctuations. The topological structures are stable and behave as vortices and skyrmions at larger distances, but they engender interesting compact behavior as one approaches their inner cores. They are semi-compact skyrmion-like spin textures generated from models that allow to control the internal behavior of such topological structures.

  7. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  8. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  9. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  10. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz


    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  11. Compact Fiber Lasers for Coherent LIDAR Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a proposal to investigate the feasibility of developing a low cost, compact, lightweight, high power (>500m W) and narrow linewidth 1.5 and 1.06 micron...

  12. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  13. The Compact Pulsed Hadron Source Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jie; Cai, Jinchi; Chen, Huaibi; Cheng, Cheng; Du, Qiang; Du, Taibin; Feng, Qixi; Feng, Zhe; Gong, Hui; Guan, Xialing; Han, Xiaoxue; Huang, Tuchen; Huang, Zhifeng; Li, Renkai; Li, Wenqian; Loong, Chun-Keung; Tang, Chuanxiang; Tian, Yang; Wang, Xuewu; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xing, Qingzi; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Xu, Dong; Yang, Yigang; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Huayi; Zhang, Xiaozhang; Zheng, Shu-xin; Zheng, Zhihong; Zhong, Bin; Billen, James; Young, Lloyd; Fu, Shinian; Tao, Juzhou; Zhao, Yaliang; Guan, Weiqiang; He, Yu; Li, Guohua; Li, Jian; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Li, Jinghai; Liang, Tianjiao; Liu, Zhanwen; Sun, Liangting; Zhao, Hongwei; Shao, Beibei; Stovall, James


    This paper reports the design and construction status, technical challenges, and future perspectives of the proton-linac based Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) at the Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

  14. Deep Compaction Control of Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałachowski Lech


    Full Text Available Vibroflotation, vibratory compaction, micro-blasting or heavy tamping are typical improvement methods for the cohesionless deposits of high thickness. The complex mechanism of deep soil compaction is related to void ratio decrease with grain rearrangements, lateral stress increase, prestressing effect of certain number of load cycles, water pressure dissipation, aging and other effects. Calibration chamber based interpretation of CPTU/DMT can be used to take into account vertical and horizontal stress and void ratio effects. Some examples of interpretation of soundings in pre-treated and compacted sands are given. Some acceptance criteria for compaction control are discussed. The improvement factors are analysed including the normalised approach based on the soil behaviour type index.

  15. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.


    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  16. Compact Reconfigurable HF-UHF Antennas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarabandi, Kamal


    The development of a compact reconfigurable HF-UHF antenna is of great practical importance in mobile military communications where low visibility and high mobility are required Variations of monopole...

  17. New geometrical compactness measures for zones design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfredo Rincón-García


    Full Text Available The design of compact zones has been studied because of its influence in the creation of zones with regular forms, which are easier to analyze, to investigate or to administer. This paper propose a new method to measure compactness,by means of the transformation of the original geographical spaces, into figures formed with square cells, which are used to measure the similarity between the original zone and an ideal zone with straight forms. The proposed method was applied to design electoral zones, which must satisfy constraints of compactness, contiguity and population balance, in a topographical configuration that favors the creation of twisted and diffuse shapes. The results show that the new method favors the creation of zones with straight forms, without an important effect to the population balance, which are considered zones of high quality. Keywords: Redistricting, compactness, simulated annealing, GIS. Mathematics Subject Classification: 90C59, 90C29, 68T20.

  18. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  19. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production (United States)

    Turner, William C.


    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  20. Impact Compaction of a Granular Material (United States)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Todd, Steve; Grady, Dennis


    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Although, the mechanical behavior of granular materials have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of these materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This paper describes how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure the compaction process for granular materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modelling. The experimental technique relies on a gas-gun driven plunger system to generate a compaction wave through a volume of granular material. This volume of material has been redundantly instrumented along the bed length to track the progression of the compaction wave, and the piston displacement is measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Using the gathered experimental data along with the initial material tap density, a granular material equation of state can be determined.

  1. Adaptive Self Tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The AST software includes numeric methods to 1) adjust STA/LTA signal detector trigger level (TL) values and 2) filter detections for a network of sensors. AST adapts TL values to the current state of the environment by leveraging cooperation within a neighborhood of sensors. The key metric that guides the dynamic tuning is consistency of each sensor with its nearest neighbors: TL values are automatically adjusted on a per station basis to be more or less sensitive to produce consistent agreement of detections in its neighborhood. The AST algorithm adapts in near real-time to changing conditions in an attempt to automatically self-tune a signal detector to identify (detect) only signals from events of interest.

  2. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle


    In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use ...... based on iterative methods. In this paper an algebraic solution is presented. The algebraic algorithm do only use two thirds of the number of multiplication and additions as the iterative method uses per iteration....

  3. Impact of Cassandra Compaction on Dockerized Cassandra’s performance : Using Size Tiered Compaction Strategy


    Mohanty, Biswajeet


    Context. Cassandra is a NoSQL Database which handles large amount of data simultaneously and provides high availability for the data present. Compaction in Cassandra is a process of removing stale data and making data more available to the user. This thesis focusses on analyzing the impact of Cassandra compaction on Cassandra’s performance when running inside a Docker container. Objectives. In this thesis, we investigate the impact of Cassandra compaction on the database performance when it i...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Petković


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the accuracy of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy computing technique in precipitation estimation. The monthly precipitation data from 29 synoptic stations in Serbia during 1946-2012 are used as case studies. Even though a number of mathematical functions have been proposed for modeling the precipitation estimation, these models still suffer from the disadvantages such as their being very demanding in terms of calculation time. Artificial neural network (ANN can be used as an alternative to the analytical approach since it offers advantages such as no required knowledge of internal system parameters, compact solution for multi-variable problems and fast calculation. Due to its being a crucial problem, this paper presents a process constructed so as to simulate precipitation with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference (ANFIS method. ANFIS is a specific type of the ANN family and shows very good learning and prediction capabilities, which makes it an efficient tool for dealing with encountered uncertainties in any system such as precipitation. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system (FIS. This intelligent algorithm is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated.  The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  5. The impact of soil compaction on runoff (United States)

    Rogger, Magdalena; Blöschl, Günter


    Soil compaction caused by intensive agricultural practices is known to influence runoff processes at the local scale and is often speculated to have an impact on flood events at much larger scales. Due to the complex and diverse mechanisms related to soil compaction, the key processes influencing runoff at different scales are still poorly understood. In this study we are analyzing data from a subsoil compaction database [Trautner et al., 2003] that includes the results of a large number of field and laboratory experiments across Europe. We are focusing on changes in parameters relevant for hydrology such as saturated hydraulic conductivity and bulk density. We will compare the observed impacts in relation to climatic and soil conditions. The specific type of agricultural practice causing the soil compaction is also taken into account. In a further step the results of this study shall be used to derive a toy model for scenario analysis in order to identify the potential impacts of soil compaction on runoff processes at larger scales then the plot scale. Reference : Trautner, A., Van den Akker, J.J.H., Fleige, H, Arvidsson, J. and Horn, R., 2003. A subsoil compaction database: its development, structure and content. Soil & Till. Res. 73: 9-13.

  6. Technology Selections for Cylindrical Compact Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey A. Phillips


    A variety of process approaches are available and have been used historically for manufacture of cylindrical fuel compacts. The jet milling, fluid bed overcoating, and hot press compacting approach being adopted in the U.S. AGR Fuel Development Program for scale-up of the compacting process involves significant paradigm shifts from historical approaches. New methods are being pursued because of distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of process mixed waste. Recent advances in jet milling technology allow simplified dry matrix powder preparation. The matrix preparation method is well matched with patented fluid bed powder overcoating technology recently developed for the pharmaceutical industry and directly usable for high density fuel particle matrix overcoating. High density overcoating places fuel particles as close as possible to their final position in the compact and is matched with hot press compacting which fully fluidizes matrix resin to achieve die fill at low compacting pressures and without matrix end caps. Overall the revised methodology provides a simpler process that should provide very high yields, improve homogeneity, further reduce defect fractions, eliminate intermediate grading and QC steps, and allow further increases in fuel packing fractions.

  7. Compaction and flow rule of oxide nanopowders (United States)

    Boltachev, G. Sh.; Lukyashin, K. E.; Maximenko, A. L.; Maksimov, R. N.; Shitov, V. A.; Shtern, M. B.


    Transparent Al2O3 ceramics have attracted considerable interest for use in a wide range of optical, electronic and structural applications. The fabrication of these ceramics using powder metallurgy processes requires the development of theoretical approaches to the compaction of nanopowders. In this work, we investigate the compaction processes of two model granular systems imitating Al2O3 nanosized powders. System I is a loosely aggregated powder, and system II is a powder strongly inclined to agglomeration (for instance, calcined powder). The processes of isostatical (uniform), biaxial, and uniaxial compaction as well as uniaxial compaction with simultaneous shear deformation are studied. The energy parameters of compaction such as the energy change of elastic interparticle interactions and dispersion interactions, dissipative energy losses related to the processes of interparticle friction, and the total work of compaction are calculated for all the processes. The nonapplicability of the associated flow rule to the description of deformation processes of oxide nanopowders is shown and an alternative plastic flow rule is suggested. A complete system of determining the relationship of the flow including analytical approximations of yield surfaces is obtained.

  8. Multiplicity adjustments in testing for bioequivalence. (United States)

    Hua, Steven Y; Xu, Siyan; D'Agostino, Ralph B


    Bioequivalence of two drugs is usually demonstrated by rejecting two one-sided null hypotheses using the two one-sided tests for pharmacokinetic parameters: area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax). By virtue of the intersection-union test, there is no need for multiplicity adjustment in testing the two one-sided null hypotheses within each parameter. However, the decision rule for bioequivalence often requires equivalence to be achieved simultaneously on both parameters that contain four one-sided null hypotheses together; without adjusting for multiplicity, the family wise error rate (FWER) could fail to be controlled at the nominal type-I error rate α. The multiplicity issue for bioequivalence in this regard is scarcely discussed in the literature. To address this issue, we propose two approaches including a closed test procedure that controls FWER for the simultaneous AUC and Cmax bioequivalence and requires no adjustment of the type-I error, and an alpha-adaptive sequential testing (AAST) that controls FWER by pre-specifying the significance level on AUC (α1) and obtaining it for Cmax (α2) adaptively after testing of AUC. While both methods control FWER, the closed test requires testing of eight intersection null hypotheses each at α, and AAST is at times accomplished through a slight deduction in α1 and no deduction in α2 relative to α. The latter considers equivalence reached in AUC a higher importance than that in Cmax. Illustrated with published data, the two approaches, although operate differently, can lead to the same substantive conclusion and are better than a traditional method like Bonferroni adjustment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment of International Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Chavoshi, Saeid; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dentakos, Stella; Wright, Lorna


    The current study proposes a Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment and uses a multifaceted measure, including academic, social and psychological adjustment, to examine factors predictive of undergraduate international student adjustment. A hierarchic regression model is carried out on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire…

  10. Sobolev Spaces on Locally Compact Abelian Groups: Compact Embeddings and Local Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Górka


    Full Text Available We continue our research on Sobolev spaces on locally compact abelian (LCA groups motivated by our work on equations with infinitely many derivatives of interest for string theory and cosmology. In this paper, we focus on compact embedding results and we prove an analog for LCA groups of the classical Rellich lemma and of the Rellich-Kondrachov compactness theorem. Furthermore, we introduce Sobolev spaces on subsets of LCA groups and study its main properties, including the existence of compact embeddings into Lp-spaces.

  11. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J


    counter and still be able to maintain a stable operation under extreme radioactivity and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. In the following sections, the description is given for the design and performance of this new compact PPAC, for studying the neutron-induced reactions on actinides using DANCE at LANL.

  12. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang


    Full Text Available A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna’s performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  13. Mono-energy coronary angiography with a compact light source (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela


    While conventional x-ray tube sources reliably provide high-power x-ray beams for everyday clinical practice, the broad spectra that are inherent to these sources compromise the diagnostic image quality. For a monochromatic x-ray source on the other hand, the x-ray energy can be adjusted to optimal conditions with respect to contrast and dose. However, large-scale synchrotron sources impose high spatial and financial demands, making them unsuitable for clinical practice. During the last decades, research has brought up compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering, which deliver a highly brilliant, quasi-monochromatic, tunable x-ray beam, yet fitting into a standard laboratory. One application that could benefit from the invention of these sources in clinical practice is coronary angiography. Being an important and frequently applied diagnostic tool, a high number of complications in angiography, such as renal failure, allergic reaction, or hyperthyroidism, are caused by the large amount of iodine-based contrast agent that is required for achieving sufficient image contrast. Here we demonstrate monochromatic angiography of a porcine heart acquired at the MuCLS, the first compact synchrotron source. By means of a simulation, the CNR in a coronary angiography image achieved with the quasi-mono-energetic MuCLS spectrum is analyzed and compared to a conventional x-ray-tube spectrum. The results imply that the improved CNR achieved with a quasi-monochromatic spectrum can allow for a significant reduction of iodine contrast material.

  14. Compact Microstrip Antenna with Pattern-Reconfigurable Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Ma


    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip antenna with radiation pattern reconfigurable characteristic employing MEMS switches is proposed and investigated. This novel antenna mainly includes four parts: a circular-shaped patch, six MEMS switches, six fan-shaped coupling cells and six fan-shaped radiation cells. Through controlling the states of MEMS switches, radiation pattern selectivity of the proposed antenna can be achieved. When switching operation states of the antenna from state 1 to state 12 sequentially, the main radiation beam direction in azimuth planes could rotate 30˚ from 0˚ to 330˚ with each switch. Meanwhile, the radiation beam directions in elevation plane and the operation frequencies of proposed antenna for different operation states are stable at about 35˚ and 4GHz, respectively. With the consideration of MEMS switches actual size, the antenna structure and dimensions were optimized and adjusted. The simulated and measured results were analyzed and compared, indicating this compact antenna can be widely used for multifunctional applications and modern wireless communication systems.

  15. Compact Superconducting Final Focus Magnet Options for the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Brett; Escallier, John; Harrison, Michael; He, Ping; Jain, Animesh K; Markiewicz, Thomas W; Marone, Andrew; Maruyama, Takashi; Nosochkov, Yuri; Seryi, Andrei; Wu, Kuo-Chen


    We present a compact superconducting final focus (FF) magnet system for the ILC based on recent BNL direct wind technology developments. Direct wind gives an integrated coil prestress solution for small transverse size coils. With beam crossing angles more than 15 mr, disrupted beam from the IP passes outside the coil while incoming beam is strongly focused. A superconducting FF magnet is adjustable to accommodate collision energy changes, i.e. energy scans and low energy calibration runs. A separate extraction line permits optimization of post IP beam diagnostics. Direct wind construction allows adding separate coils of arbitrary multipolarity (such as sextupole coils for local chromaticity correction). In our simplest coil geometry extracted beam sees significant fringe field. Since the fringe field affects the extracted beam, we also study advanced configurations that give either dramatic fringe field reduction (especially critical for gamma-gamma colliders) or useful quadrupole focusing on the outgoing be...

  16. An Adaptive-PSO-Based Self-Organizing RBF Neural Network. (United States)

    Han, Hong-Gui; Lu, Wei; Hou, Ying; Qiao, Jun-Fei


    In this paper, a self-organizing radial basis function (SORBF) neural network is designed to improve both accuracy and parsimony with the aid of adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO). In the proposed APSO algorithm, to avoid being trapped into local optimal values, a nonlinear regressive function is developed to adjust the inertia weight. Furthermore, the APSO algorithm can optimize both the network size and the parameters of an RBF neural network simultaneously. As a result, the proposed APSO-SORBF neural network can effectively generate a network model with a compact structure and high accuracy. Moreover, the analysis of convergence is given to guarantee the successful application of the APSO-SORBF neural network. Finally, multiple numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed APSO-SORBF neural network. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is more competitive in solving nonlinear problems than some other existing SORBF neural networks.

  17. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders. (United States)

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K


    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Adjustment disorder and DSM-5: A review]. (United States)

    Appart, A; Lange, A-K; Sievert, I; Bihain, F; Tordeurs, D


    This paper exposes the complexity and discrete characteristic of the adjustment disorder with reference to its clinical and scientific diagnosis. Even though the disorder occurs in frequent clinical circumstances after important life events, such as mobbing, burn-out, unemployment, divorce or separation, pregnancy denial, surgical operation or cancer, the adjustment disorder is often not considered in the diagnosis since better known disorders with similar symptoms prevail, such as major depression and anxiety disorder. Ten years ago, Bottéro had already noticed that the adjustment disorder diagnosis remained rather uncommon with reference to patients he was working with while Langlois assimilated this disorder with an invisible diagnosis. In order to maximize the data collection, we used the article review below and challenged their surveys and results: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NBCI - Pubmed) for international articles and for French literature. Moreover, we targeted the following keywords on the search engine and used articles, which had been published from 1 February 1975 to 31 January 2015: "adjustment", "adjustment disorder" and the French translation "trouble de l'adaptation". One hundred and ninety-one articles matched our search criteria. However, after a closer analysis, solely 105 articles were selected as being of interest. Many articles were excluded since they were related to non-psychiatric fields induced by the term "adaptation". Indeed, the number of corresponding articles found for the adjustment disorder literally pointed-out the lack of existing literature on that topic in comparison to more known disorders such as anxiety disorder (2661 articles) or major depression (5481 articles). This represents up to 50 times more articles in comparison to the number of articles we found on adjustment disorder and up to 20 times more articles for the eating disorder (1994), although the prevalence is not significantly

  19. Adjusting Curricular Design to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Egan


    Full Text Available Developing learners’ ability to self-regulate their own learning has been an ideal sought after by researchers and practitioners alike. Over the past 40 years a plethora of educational psychology research on self-regulated learning (SRL has flooded the literature. In this article I attempt to consolidate key theories from this literature base and propose a 6-point strategy to CREATE a culture of SRL. I will argue that instructors must communicate proximal and long-term goals that have been negotiated by a community of learners, substantially reward all positive aspects of the learning process, judge and reward the learning process by assigning elaborative learning assessments, realistically attribute success and failure to appropriate processes, and tune ineffective strategies and goals to allow the curriculum to evolve in accordance with learner difficulty and success.Enseigner aux apprenants la capacité d’autoréguler leur propre apprentissage est un idéal que poursuivent les chercheurs et les praticiens. Au cours des quarante dernières années, il y a eu surabondance d’études sur l’autorégulation de l’apprentissage dans la littérature sur la psychologie de l’éducation. Dans cet article, l’auteur tente de regrouper les principales théories tirées de cette documentation et de proposer une stratégie composée de six éléments contribuant à la création d’une culture de l’autorégulation. Il soutient que les enseignants doivent communiquer les objectifs à court et à long terme convenus par les apprenants, reconnaître de façon marquée tous aspects positifs du processus d’apprentissage, évaluer et reconnaître ce processus en donnant des travaux élaborés afin de mesurer l’apprentissage, attribuer de façon réaliste les succès et les échecs aux processus appropriés et adapter les stratégies et buts inefficaces afin de permettre l’évolution du curriculum en tenant compte des difficultés et des r

  20. Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography. (United States)

    Roy, Somak; Pantanowitz, Liron; Amin, Milon; Seethala, Raja R; Ishtiaque, Ahmed; Yousem, Samuel A; Parwani, Anil V; Cucoranu, Ioan; Hartman, Douglas J


    Photomicrographs in Anatomic Pathology provide a means of quickly sharing information from a glass slide for consultation, education, documentation and publication. While static image acquisition historically involved the use of a permanently mounted camera unit on a microscope, such cameras may be expensive, need to be connected to a computer, and often require proprietary software to acquire and process images. Another novel approach for capturing digital microscopic images is to use smartphones coupled with the eyepiece of a microscope. Recently, several smartphone adapters have emerged that allow users to attach mobile phones to the microscope. The aim of this study was to test the utility of these various smartphone adapters. We surveyed the market for adapters to attach smartphones to the ocular lens of a conventional light microscope. Three adapters (Magnifi, Skylight and Snapzoom) were tested. We assessed the designs of these adapters and their effectiveness at acquiring static microscopic digital images. All adapters facilitated the acquisition of digital microscopic images with a smartphone. The optimal adapter was dependent on the type of phone used. The Magnifi adapters for iPhone were incompatible when using a protective case. The Snapzoom adapter was easiest to use with iPhones and other smartphones even with protective cases. Smartphone adapters are inexpensive and easy to use for acquiring digital microscopic images. However, they require some adjustment by the user in order to optimize focus and obtain good quality images. Smartphone microscope adapters provide an economically feasible method of acquiring and sharing digital pathology photomicrographs.

  1. Psychological adjustment to chronic disease. (United States)

    de Ridder, Denise; Geenen, Rinie; Kuijer, Roeline; van Middendorp, Henriët


    This Review discusses physiological, emotional, behavioural, and cognitive aspects of psychological adjustment to chronic illness. Reviewing the reports of the past decade, we identify four innovative and promising themes that are relevant for understanding and explaining psychological adjustment. In particular, the emphasis on the reasons why people fail to achieve a healthy adjustment has shifted to the identification of factors that help patients make that adjustment. To promote psychological adjustment, patients should remain as active as is reasonably possible, acknowledge and express their emotions in a way that allows them to take control of their lives, engage in self-management, and try to focus on potential positive outcomes of their illness. Patients who can use these strategies have the best chance of successfully adjusting to the challenges posed by a chronic illness.

  2. Aligning laboratory and field compaction practices for asphalt - the influence of compaction temperature on mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; de Bondt, A.H.; Doree, Andries G.


    The approach used to identify a compaction temperature in the laboratory, based on binder viscosity, provides a single compaction temperature whereas, on-site, a roller operates within a temperature window. The effect on the density and mechanical properties of rolling during a temperature window

  3. Effects of compaction delay on the performance of porous asphalt mixture compacted at different thicknesses (United States)

    Hasan, Mohd Rosli Mohd; Hamzah, Meor Othman; Razak, Rosmawati Abdul


    This study was conducted to ascertain the effects of specimen thickness and compaction delay on the properties of porous asphalt (PA) mixtures. The PA14 specimens were prepared at 4.5 % binder content. Crushed granite aggregate and conventional asphalt binder penetration grade 60/70 were used as the main ingredients for the preparation of the samples. The PA mixture was prepared using a bucket mixer and compacted using a Marshall hammer. Porous asphalt specimens were tested to evaluate the effects of compaction delay on mixtures at two different thicknesses, 40 mm and 60 mm. Four compaction process delay times were selected, namely 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes. The PA specimens were evaluated based on the temperature drop, permeability, resilient modulus and indirect tensile strength (ITS) tests. The temperature of each specimen was evaluated at every minute prior to the compaction of the PA mixture. From the test results, the temperature of the 40 mm thick specimens were lower compared to specimens compacted to 60 mm thickness. Additionally, the ITS of a PA mixture reduced as the compaction delay time increased. It was also found that the 40 mm thick specimen exhibited higher ITS compared to the ITS of 60 mm thick specimens. On the other hand, the mixture compacted with a 30 minute delay time exhibited the highest coefficient of permeability and air voids, which resulted in lower resilient modulus.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D


    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  5. A compact and versatile dynamic flow cryostat for photon science. (United States)

    van der Linden, Peter J E M; Moretti Sala, Marco; Henriquet, Christian; Rossi, Matteo; Ohgushi, Kenya; Fauth, François; Simonelli, Laura; Marini, Carlo; Fraga, Edmundo; Murray, Claire; Potter, Jonathan; Krisch, Michael


    We have developed a helium gas flow cryostat for use on synchrotron tender to hard X-ray beamlines. Very efficient sample cooling is achieved because the sample is placed directly in the cooling helium flow on a removable sample holder. The cryostat is compact and easy to operate; samples can be changed in less than 5 min at any temperature. The cryostat has a temperature range of 2.5-325 K with temperature stability better than 0.1 K. The very wide optical angle and the ability to operate in any orientation mean that the cryostat can easily be adapted for different X-ray techniques. It is already in use on different beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility (ALBA), and Diamond Light Source (DLS) for inelastic X-ray scattering, powder diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained at these beamlines are presented here.

  6. A compact and versatile dynamic flow cryostat for photon science (United States)

    van der Linden, Peter J. E. M.; Moretti Sala, Marco; Henriquet, Christian; Rossi, Matteo; Ohgushi, Kenya; Fauth, François; Simonelli, Laura; Marini, Carlo; Fraga, Edmundo; Murray, Claire; Potter, Jonathan; Krisch, Michael


    We have developed a helium gas flow cryostat for use on synchrotron tender to hard X-ray beamlines. Very efficient sample cooling is achieved because the sample is placed directly in the cooling helium flow on a removable sample holder. The cryostat is compact and easy to operate; samples can be changed in less than 5 min at any temperature. The cryostat has a temperature range of 2.5-325 K with temperature stability better than 0.1 K. The very wide optical angle and the ability to operate in any orientation mean that the cryostat can easily be adapted for different X-ray techniques. It is already in use on different beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility (ALBA), and Diamond Light Source (DLS) for inelastic X-ray scattering, powder diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained at these beamlines are presented here.

  7. Mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixes (United States)

    Yildirim, Yetkin

    According to Superpave mixture design, gyratory specimens are mixed and compacted at equiviscous binder temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 0.17 and 0.28 Pa.s. respectively. These were the values previously used in the Marshal mix design method to determine optimal mixing and compaction temperatures. In order to estimate the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixture design, a temperature-viscosity relationship for the binder needs to be developed (ASTM D 2493, Calculation of Mixing and Compaction Temperatures). The current approach is simple and provides reasonable temperatures for unmodified binders. However, some modified binders have exhibited unreasonably high temperatures for mixing and compaction using this technique. These high temperatures can result in construction problems, damage of asphalt, and production of fumes. Heating asphalt binder to very high temperatures during construction oxidizes the binder and separates the polymer from asphalt binder. It is known that polymer modified asphalt binders have many benefits to the roads, such as; increasing rutting resistance, enhancing low temperature cracking resistance, improving traction, better adhesion and cohesion, elevating tensile strength which are directly related to the service life of the pavement. Therefore, oxidation and separation of the polymer from the asphalt binder results in reduction of the service life. ASTM D 2493 was established for unmodified asphalt binders which are Newtonian fluids at high temperatures. For these materials, viscosity does not depend on shear rate. However, most of the modified asphalt binders exhibit a phenomenon known as pseudoplasticity, where viscosity does depend on shear rate. Thus, at the high shear rates occurring during mixing and compaction, it is not necessary to go to very high temperatures. This research was undertaken to determine the shear rate during compaction such that the effect of this parameter could be

  8. Phased array compaction cell for measurement of the transversely isotropic elastic properties of compacting sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.


    Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.

  9. CMS - The Compact Muon Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Bergauer, T; Waltenberger, W; Kratschmer, I; Treberer-treberspurg, W; Escalante del valle, A; Andreeva, I; Innocente, V; Camporesi, T; Malgeri, L; Marchioro, A; Moneta, L; Weingarten, W; Beni, N T; Cimmino, A; Rovere, M; Jafari, A; Lange, C G; Gilbert, A J; Pantaleo, F; Reis, T; Cucciati, G; Alipour tehrani, N; Stakia, A; Fallavollita, F; Pizzichemi, M; Pinna, D; Rauco, G; Zhang, S; Hu, T; Yazgan, E; Zhang, H; Thomas-wilsker, J; Reithler, H K V; Philipps, B; Merschmeyer, M K; Heidemann, C A; Mukherjee, S; Geenen, H; Kuessel, Y; Weingarten, S; Nehrkorn, A; Gallo, E; Schwanenberger, C; Walsh bastos rangel, R; Beernaert, K S; De wit, A M; Elwood, A C; Connor, P; Lelek, A A; Wichmann, K H; Myronenko, V; Kovalchuk, N; Bein, S L; Dreyer, T; Scharf, C; Quast, G; Dierlamm, A H; Barth, C; Mol, X; Kudella, S; Schafer, D; Schimassek, R R; Matorras, F; Calderon tazon, A; Garcia ferrero, J; Bercher, M J; Sirois, Y; Jo, M; Antropov, I; Callier, S; Depasse, P; Laktineh, I B; Grenier, G; Boudoul, G; Heath, G P; Brooke, J J; Hartley, D A; Quinton, S; Tomalin, I R; Harder, K; Francis, V B; Thea, A; Zhang, Z; Loukas, D; Hernath, S T; Naskar, K; Colaleo, A; Maggi, G P; Maggi, M; Loddo, F; Calabria, C; Campanini, R; Cuffiani, M; D'antone, I; Grandi, C; Navarria, F; Guiducci, L; Battilana, C; Tosi, N; Gulmini, M; Meola, S; Longo, E; Marzocchi, B; Gelli, S; Schizzi, A; Cho, S; Ha, S; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Md halid, M F B; Yusli, M N B; Dominik, W M; Bunkowski, K; Olszewski, M; Byszuk, A P; Rasteiro da silva, J C; Varela, J; Leong, Q; Sulimov, V; Vorobyev, A; Denisov, A; Murzin, V; Egorov, A; Lukyanenko, S; Postoev, V; Pashenkov, A; Solovey, A; Rubakov, V; Troitsky, S; Kirpichnikov, D; Lychkovskaya, N; Safronov, G; Fedotov, A; Toms, M; Barniakov, M; Olimov, K; Fazilov, M; Umaraliev, A; Dumanoglu, I; Bakirci, N M; Dozen, C; Demiroglu, Z S; Oglakci, M; Isik, C; Zeyrek, M; Yalvac, M; Ozkorucuklu, S; Chang, Y; Dolgopolov, A; Gottschalk, E E; Maeshima, K; Heavey, A E; Kramer, T; Kwan, S W L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S M; Mokhov, N; Marraffino, J M; Mrenna, S; Yarba, V; Banerjee, B; Elvira, V D; Gray, L A; Holzman, B; Dagenhart, W; Canepa, A; Ryu, S C; Strobbe, N C; Adelman-mc carthy, J K; Contescu, A C; Andre, J O; Wu, J; Dittmer, S J; Bucinskaite, I; Zhang, J; Karchin, P E; Thapa, P; Zaleski, S G; Gran, J L; Wang, S; Patterson, A S; Zilizi, G; Raics, P P; Bhardwaj, A; Smiljkovic, N; Stojanovic, M; Brandao malbouisson, H; De oliveira martins, C P; Tonelli manganote, E J; Medina jaime, M; Thiel, M; Laurila, S H; Wu, X; Graehling, P; Tonon, N; Blekman, F; De bruyn, I H J; Postiau, N J S; Leroux, P J; Van remortel, N; Janssen, X J; Di croce, D; Aleksandrov, A; Shopova, M F; Dogra, S M; Shinoda, A A; Arce, P; Daniel, M; Navarrete marin, J J; Redondo fernandez, I; Guirao elias, A; Cela ruiz, J M; Lottin, J; Gras, P; Kircher, F; Levesy, B; Payn, A; Guilloux, F; Negro, G; Leloup, C; Pasztor, G; Panwar, L; Bhatnagar, V; Maity, M; Bruzzi, M; Sciortino, S; Starodubtsev, O; Azzi, P; Conti, E; Lacaprara, S; Margoni, M; Rossin, R; Tosi, M; Fano', L; Lucaroni, A; Biino, C; Dattola, D; Rotondo, F; Ballestrero, A; Obertino, M M; Kiani, M B; Paterno, A; Magana villalba, R; Ramirez garcia, M; Reyes almanza, R; Gorski, M; Wrochna, G; Bluj, M J; Zarubin, A; Nozdrin, M; Ladygin, V; Malakhov, A; Golunov, A; Skrypnik, A; Sotnikov, A; Evdokimov, N; Tiurin, V; Lokhtin, I; Ershov, A; Platonova, M; Tyurin, N; Slabospitskii, S; Talov, V; Belikov, N; Ryazanov, A; Chao, Y; Tsai, J; Foord, A; Wood, D R; Orimoto, T J; Luckey, P D; Gomez ceballos retuerto, G; Jaditz, S H; Stephans, G S; Darlea, G L; Di matteo, L; Maier, B; Trovato, M; Bhattacharya, S; Roberts, J B; Padley, P B; Tu, Z; Rorie, J T; Clarida, W J; Tiras, E; Khristenko, V; Cerizza, G; Pieri, M; Krutelyov, V; Saiz santos, M D; Klein, D S; Derdzinski, M; Murray, M J; Gray, J A; Minafra, N; Forthomme, L; Castle, J R; Bowen, J L S; Buterbaugh, K; Morrow, S I; Bunn, J; Newman, H; Spiropulu, M; Balcas, J; Lawhorn, J M; Thomas, S D; Panwalkar, S M; Kyriacou, S; Xie, Z; Ojalvo, I R; Laird, E M; Wimpenny, S J; Yates, B R; Perry, T M; Schiber, C C; Uniyal, R; Mesic, B; Kolosova, M; Snow, G R; Lundstedt, C; Johnston, D; Zvada, M; Weitzel, D J; Damgov, J V; Giammanco, A; David, P N Y; Zobec, J; Cabrera jamoulle, J B; Daubie, E; Batinkov, A I; Nash, J A; Evans, L; Hall, G; Nikitenko, A; Ryan, M J; Matsushita, T; Huffman, M A J; Styliaris, E; Evangelou, I; Sharan, M K; Roy, A; Rout, P K; Kalbhor, P N; Bagliesi, G; Braccini, P L; Ligabue, F; Boccali, T; Rizzi, A; Minuti, M; Oh, S; Kim, J; Sen, S; Boz evinay, M; Xiao, M; Hung, W T; Jensen, F O; Mulholland, T D; Kumar, A; Jones, M; Roozbahani, B H; Neu, C C; Thacker, H B; Wolfe, E M; Jabeen, S; Gilmore, J; Winer, B L; Rush, C J; Luo, W; Alimena, J M; Lefeld, A J; Ko, W; Lander, R; Broadley, W H; Shi, M; Low, J F; Mei, H; Alexander, J P; Zientek, M E; Conway, J V; Padilla fuentes, Y L; Florent, A H; Bravo, C B; Crotty, I M; Wenman, D L; Sarangi, T R; Ghabrous larrea, C; Gomber, B; Smith, N C; Long, K D; Roberts, J M; Kalafut, S T; Hildreth, M D; Jessop, C P; Karmgard, D J; Loukas, N; Ferbel, T; Zielinski, M A; Cooper, S I; Jung, A; Fagot, A; Vermassen, B; Valchkova-georgieva, F K; Dimitrov, D S; Roumenin, T S; Podrasky, V; Re, V; Zucca, S; De canio, F; Romaniuk, R; Teodorescu, L; Krofcheck, D; Anderson, N G; Bell, S T; Salazar ibarguen, H A; Kudinov, V; Onishchenko, S; Naujikas, R; Lyubynskiy, V; Sobolev, O; Khan, M S; Adeel-ur-rehman, A; Hassan, Q U; Ali, I; Kreuzer, P K; Robson, A J; Gadrat, S G; Ivanov, A; Mendis, D; Da silva di calafiori, D R; Zeinali, M; Behnamian, H; Moroni, L; Malvezzi, S; Park, I; Pastika, N J; Oropeza barrera, C; Elkhateeb, E A A; Elmetenawee, W; Mohammed, Y; Tayel, E S A; Mcclatchey, R H; Kovacs, Z; Liaquat, S; Munir, K; Odeh, M; Rao, A M; Magradze, E; Oikashvili, B; Shingade, P; Shukla, R A; Banerjee, S; Kumar, S; Jashal, B K; Kundu, T K; Adam, W; Ero, J; Fabjan, C; Jeitler, M; Rad, N K; Auffray hillemanns, E; Charkiewicz, A; Fartoukh, S; Garcia de enterria adan, D; 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Rebane, L; Racioppi, A; Kim, H; Kim, T; Puljak, I; Rupeika, E A; Boyaryntsev, A; Saeed, M; Tanwir, S; Butt, U; Hussain, A; Nawaz, A; Khurshid, T; Imran, M; Sultan, A; Naeem, M; Kaadze, K; Modak, A; Taylor, R D; Kim, D; Grab, C; Nessi-tedaldi, F; Fischer, J; Manzoni, R A; Zagozdzinska-bochenek, A A; Berger, P; Reichmann, M P; Hashemi, M; Rezaei hosseinabadi, F; Mehrabpour, H; Paganoni, M; Farina, F M; Ciriolo, V; Joshi, Y R; Avila bernal, C A; Cabrera mora, A L; Segura delgado, M A; Gonzalez hernandez, C F; Asavapibhop, B; U-ruekolan, S; Kim, G; Choi, M; Aly, S; Sawy, F H; El sawy, M; Castaneda hernandez, A M; Branson, A B; Shamdasani, J; Martin, F; Tavkhelidze, D; Hegde, V; Aziz, T; Sur, N; Sutar, B J; Sarkar, T; Karmakar, S; Ghete, V M; Dragicevic, M G; Brandstetter, J; Marques moraes, A; Molina insfran, J A; Aspell, P; Baillon, P; Barney, D; Delikaris, D; Honma, A; Pape, L; Sakulin, H; Macpherson, A L; Bangert, N; Guida, R; Steggemann, J; Voutsinas, G G; Da silva gomes, D; Ben mimoun bel hadj, F; Bonnaud, J Y R; Canelli, F M; Bai, J; Qiu, J; Bian, J; Cheng, Y; Kukulies, C; Teroerde, M; Erdmann, M; Hebbeker, T; Zantis, F; Scheuch, F; Erdogan, Y; Campbell, A J; Kasemann, M; Lange, W; Raspiareza, A; Melzer-pellmann, I; Aldaya martin, M; Lewendel, B; Schmidt, R S; Lipka, E; Missiroli, M; Grados luyando, J M; Shevchenko, R; Babounikau, I; Steinbrueck, G; Vanhoefer, A; Ebrahimi, A; Pena rodriguez, K J; Stover, M; Niedziela, M A; Froehlich, A; Simonis, H J; Katkov, I; Wozniewski, S; Marco de lucas, R J; Lopez virto, A M; Jaramillo echeverria, R W; Hennion, P; Zghiche, A; Chiron, A; Romanteau, T; Beaudette, F; Lobanov, A; Grasseau, G J; Pigard, P; Pierre-emile, T B; El mamouni, H; Gouzevitch, M; Goldstein, J; Cussans, D G; Seif el nasr, S A; Smith, D; Titterton, A S; Ford, P J W; Olaiya, E O; Salisbury, J G; Paspalaki, G; Asenov, P; Hidas, P; Kiss, T N; Zalan, P; Bartok, M; Shukla, P; Abbrescia, M; De filippis, N; Donvito, G; Radogna, R; Miniello, G; Gelmi, A; Capiluppi, P; Marcellini, S; Odorici, F; Bonacorsi, D; Genta, C; Ferri, G; Saviano, G; Ferrini, M; Minutoli, S; Tosi, S; Lista, L; Passeggio, G; Breglio, G; Merola, M; Diemoz, M; Rahatlou, S; Baccaro, S; Bartoloni, A; Margaroli, F; Talamo, I G; Kim, J Y; Oh, G; Lim, J H; Lee, J; Mohamad idris, F B; Gani, A B; Cwiok, M; Doroba, K; Pyskir, A D; Martins galinhas, B E; Kim, V; Krivshich, A; Vorobyev, A; Ivanov, Y; Tarakanov, V; Lobodenko, A; Obikhod, T; Isayev, O; Kurov, O; Leonidov, A; Lvova, N; Kirsanov, M; Suvorova, O; Karneyeu, A; Demidov, S; Konoplyannikov, A; Popov, V; Pakhlov, P; Vinogradov, S; Klemin, S; Blinov, V; Skovpen, I; Chatrchyan, S; Grigorian, N; Kayis topaksu, A; Sunar cerci, D; Hos, I; Girgis chyla, S; Guler, Y; Kiminsu, U; Serin, M; Deniz, M; Turan, I; Eryol, F; Pozdnyakov, A; Liu, Z; Doan, T H; Genser, K; Hanlon, J E; Mcbride, P L; Pal, I; Verzocchi, M; Garren, L; Oleynik, G; Harris, R M; Bolla, G; Kowalkowski, J B; Evans, D E; Vaandering, E W; Patrick, J F; Rechenmacher, R; Prosser, A G; Messer, T A; Tiradani, A R; Rivera, R A; Jayatilaka, B A; Duarte, J M; Todri, A; Harr, R F; Richman, J D; Bhandari, R; Dordevic, M; Cirkovic, P; Mora herrera, C; Rosa lopes zachi, A; De paula carvalho, W; Kinnunen, R L A; Lehti, S T; Maeenpaeae, T H; Bloch, D; Chabert, E C; Rudolf, N G; Devroede, O; Skovpen, K; Moreels, L; Lontkovskyi, D; De wolf, E A; Van mechelen, P; Van spilbeeck, A B E; Georgiev, L S; Novaes, S F; Costa, M A; Costa leal, B; Horisberger, R P; De la cruz, B; Willmott, C; Perez-calero yzquierdo, A M; Dejardin, M M; Mehta, A; Barbagli, G; Focardi, E; Bacchetta, N; Gasparini, U; Pantano, D; Sgaravatto, M; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Candelori, A; Pozzobon, N; Boletti, A; Servoli, L; Postolache, V; Rossi, A; Ciangottini, D; Alunni solestizi, L; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Amapane, N C; Shchelina, K; Lopez fernandez, R; Sanchez hernandez, A; Heredia de la cruz, I; Ramirez sanchez, G; Matveev, V; Kracikova, T; Shmatov, S; Vasilev, S; Kurenkov, A; Oleynik, D; Verkheev, A; Voytishin, N; Proskuryakov, A; Bogdanova, G; Petrova, E; Bagaturia, I; Tsamalaidze, Z; Zhao, Z; Arcaro, D J; Barberis, E; Wamorkar, T; Wang, B; Ralph, D K; Velasco, M M; Odell, N J; Sevova, S; Li, W; Merlo, J; Onel, Y; Mermerkaya, H; Moeller, A R; Haytmyradov, M; Dong, R; Bugg, W M; Ragghianti, G C; Delannoy sotomayor, A G; Thapa, K; Yagil, A; Gerosa, R A; Masciovecchio, M; Schmitz, E J; Kapustinsky, J S; Greene, S V; Zhang, L; Vlimant, J V; Mughal, A; Cury siqueira, S; Gershtein, Y; Arora, S R R; Lin, W X; Stickland, D P; Mc donald, K T; Pivarski, J M C; Lucchini, M T; Higginbotham, S L; Rosenfield, M; Long, O R; Johnson, K F; Adams, T; Susa, T; Rykaczewski, H; Ge, Y; Li, J; Li, L; Bloom, K A; Monroy montanez, J A; Kunori, S; Wang, Z; Favart, D; Maltoni, F; Vidal marono, M; Delcourt, M; Markov, S I; Seez, C; Richards, A J; Ferguson, W; Saoulidou, N; Chatziangelou, M; Karathanasis, G; Kontaxakis, P; Jones, J A; Strologas, J; Katsoulis, P; Dutt, S; Roy chowdhury, S; Bhardwaj, R; Purohit, A; Singh, B; Behera, P K; Sharma, A; Spagnolo, P; Tonelli, G E; Fedi, G; Giannini, L; Poulios, S; Groote, J F; Untuc, B; Oztirpan, F O; Koseoglu, I; Luiggi lopez, E E; Krohn, M D; Hadley, N J; Shin, Y H; Safonov, A; Eusebi, R; Rose, A K; Overton, D A; Erbacher, R D; Funk, G N; Pilot, J R; Regnery, B J; Klimenko, S; Matchev, K; Gleyzer, S; Wang, J; Bortignon, P; Curry, D A; Sun, W M; Soffi, L; Lantz, S R; Wright, D; Cline, D; Cousins jr, R D; Erhan, S; Yang, X; Schnaible, C J; Dasgupta, A; Bradley, D C; Lazaridis, C; Monzat, D; Dodd, L M; Tikalsky, J L; Kapusta, J; Gilbert, W J; Lesko, Z J; Marinelli, N; Wayne, M R; Heering, A H; Galanti, M; Han, J Y; Duh, Y; Roy, A; Arabgol, M; Hacker, T J; Salva, S; Petrov, V; Barychevski, V; Drobychev, G; Lobko, A; Gabusi, M; Fabris, L; Conte, E R E; Kasprowicz, G H; Kyberd, P; Cole, J E; Reid, I D; Lopez, J M; Salazar gonzalez, C A; Benzon, A M; Pelagio, L; Walsh, M F; Postnov, A; Lelas, D; Vaitkus, J V; Jurciukonis, D; Sulmanas, B; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Jalil, S H; Kahl, W E; Taylor, D R; Choi, Y I; Jeong, Y; Roy, T; Guerrero ibarra, D F; Schoenenberger, M A; Khateri, P; Etesami, S M; Fiorini, E; Pullia, A; Magni, S; Gennai, S; Fiorendi, S; Zuolo, D; Sanabria arenas, J C; Florez bustos, C A; Holguin coral, A; Mendez, H; Srimanobhas, N; Jaikar, A H; Arteche gonzalez, F J; Call, K R; Vazquez valencia, E F; Calderon monroy, M A; Aly mohamed mahmoud mohamed, R; Elkafrawy, T; Abdelmaguid, A; Mal, P K; Yuan, L; Lomidze, I; Prangishvili, I; Adamov, G; Dube, S S; Dugad, S; Mohanty, G B; Bhat, M A; Bheesette, S; Abou kors, D J

    CMS is a general purpose proton-proton detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the LHC. It is also well adapted for studies at the initially lower luminosities. The CMS Collaboration consists of over 1800 scientists and engineers from 151 institutes in 31 countries. The main design goals of CMS are: \\begin{enumerate} \\item a highly performant muon system, \\item the best possible electromagnetic calorimeter \\item high quality central tracking \\item hermetic calorimetry \\item a detector costing less than 475 MCHF. \\end{enumerate} All detector sub-systems have started construction. Engineering Design Reviews of parts of these sub-systems have been successfully carried-out. These are held prior to granting authorization for purchase. The schedule for the LHC machine and the experiments has been revised and CMS will be ready for first collisions now expected in April 2006. \\\\\\\\ ~~~~$\\bullet$ Magnet \\\\ The detector (see Figure) will be built around a long (13~m) and large bore ($\\phi$=5.9~m) high...

  10. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank


    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  11. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilani, Charles D


    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  12. Women with breast cancer: perception of family functioning and adjustment to illness. (United States)

    Friedman, L C; Baer, P E; Nelson, D V; Lane, M; Smith, F E; Dworkin, R J


    Fifty-seven women with breast cancer completed measures of family adaptability and cohesion, marital adjustment, and psychosocial adjustment to illness. Using a circumplex model of family systems, we examined whether subjects who perceived their families at moderate levels of cohesion and adaptability reported better psychosocial adjustment than subjects from families with extreme levels of cohesion and adaptability. The results indicated that the patients who reported the best adjustment to breast cancer and in their marriages, also reported the highest levels of family cohesion. There was not a significant relationship between adjustment to illness and adaptability. The implications for the treatment of women with breast cancer and for the families of these patients were discussed.

  13. Compaction and sedimentary basin analysis on Mars (United States)

    Gabasova, Leila R.; Kite, Edwin S.


    Many of the sedimentary basins of Mars show patterns of faults and off-horizontal layers that, if correctly understood, could serve as a key to basin history. Sediment compaction is a possible cause of these patterns. We quantified the possible role of differential sediment compaction for two Martian sedimentary basins: the sediment fill of Gunjur crater (which shows concentric graben), and the sediment fill of Gale crater (which shows outward-dipping layers). We assume that basement topography for these craters is similar to the present-day topography of complex craters that lack sediment infill. For Gunjur, we find that differential compaction produces maximum strains consistent with the locations of observed graben. For Gale, we were able to approximately reproduce the observed layer orientations measured from orbiter image-based digital terrain models, but only with a >3 km-thick donut-shaped past overburden. It is not immediately obvious what geologic processes could produce this shape.

  14. Toward the Realization of a Compact Chemical Sensor Platform using Quantum Cascade Lasers (United States)


    the military and industry have expressed interest in the development of more sensitive, easily adaptable, and compact trace gas analysis equipment...Miklos, P. Hess, Modulated and pulsed photoacoustics in trace gas analysis . Anal. Chem. 72, 30A (2000). [5] F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, F. J. M. Harren...exposure to agents GA (Tabun), GB ( Sarin ) and VX. Fed. Regist. 68, 58348 (2003). [25] J. McMurry, Organic Chemistry. (Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA

  15. Experimental Compaction in a Growing Dendritic Zone (United States)

    Deguen, R.; Alboussière, T.; Brito, D.; La Rizza, P.; Masson, J.


    The Earth inner core is thought to be in a state of dynamical equilibrium between dendritic solidification and compaction of the resulting solid-liquid region (or 'mushy zone') (Sumita et al.,1996). One important question is how much liquid can be trapped in the inner core, or how efficient is compaction to squeeze out the liquid phase. While this can be estimated theoretically in the case of non-reacting liquid and solid phases, this problem is somewhat more complicated in the case of a crystallizing mushy zone, as it involves a continuous mass transfer between the two phases as the system evolves. Consequences on the evolution of the connectivity of the melt as solidification proceed are difficult to assess, making the dependence of the permeability on porosity difficult to predict theoretically, particularly when the liquid fraction becomes small. Other open questions includes how does compaction and convection compete in the mushy zone? What are the effects of compaction on the thickness of the convecting zone? on the interdendritic spacing? on the structure and dimensions of chimneys? We present here preliminary results of an experiment devoted to the study of compaction during the dendritic crystallization of a model material. In our experimental set-up, compaction is promoted by a high apparent gravity, which is imposed by putting the crystallizing sample in a standard lab centrifuge, where the centrifuge acceleration can reach a few thousand g. While solidification proceed, the sample is scanned in situ with ultrasounds, allowing us to follow the propagation of the solidification front and to investigate the variations of ultrasound velocity and attenuation in the liquid, mush and solid domains.

  16. Examining the Relationship between Autistic Traits and College Adjustment (United States)

    Trevisan, Dominic; Birmingham, Elina


    We examined the relationship between characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and college adjustment in a sample of neurotypical college students. Using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, we found that higher levels of autism spectrum disorder characteristics were…

  17. Early Parental Adjustment and Bereavement after Childhood Cancer Death (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; O'connor, Kathleen; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Spencer, Lynlee; Nicholas, David; Jovcevska, Vesna; Tallet, Susan; Schneiderman, Gerald


    This study comprehensively explored parental bereavement and adjustment at 6 months post-loss due to childhood cancer. Interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 13 fathers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on qualitative methodology. A model describing early parental bereavement and adaptation emerged with 3 domains:…

  18. Early Maternal Depression and Children's Adjustment to School. (United States)

    Wright, Cheryl A.; George, Thomas P.; Burke, Renee; Gelfand, Donna M.; Teti, Douglas M.


    Examined the relationship between mother's history of depression when their children were 0-3 years old and the child's subsequent early school adaptation, using teacher ratings of problem behaviors, peer relations, and academic performance of 5- to 8-year-olds. Found that maternal depression was related to more adjustment and behavior problems,…

  19. Pre-morbid predictors of psychological adjustment to cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Miedema, [No Value; Ormel, J; Miedema, I.

    This study examined the potential role of social support, neuroticism, and self-efficacy as predictors of the short-term and long-term adaptation to the diagnosis of cancer. Psychological adjustment was defined in terms of psychological distress. It is argued that these factors may provide insights

  20. Compact superconducting coplanar microwave beam splitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baust, Alexander; Haeberlein, Max; Goetz, Jan; Hoffmann, Elisabeth; Menzel, Edwin P.; Schwarz, Manuel J.; Wulschner, Friedrich; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TUM, Garching (Germany); Kalb, Norbert; Losinger, Thomas [Physik-Department, TUM, Garching (Germany)


    The recent evolution of circuit quantum electrodynamics systems making use of standing-wave microwave modes towards setups for propagating quantum microwaves has triggered the need for low-loss superconducting microwave beam splitters. Such a device should have ports compatible with the coplanar geometry relevant for circuit QED and, at the same time, be compact allowing for scalability. This combination presents fundamental and technological challenges. In this work, we present the fabrication and characterization of various compact superconducting coplanar microwave beam splitters. In addition, we discuss efforts towards a tunable beam splitter.

  1. Spherical conformal models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takisa, P.M.; Maharaj, S.D.; Manjonjo, A.M.; Moopanar, S. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)


    We consider spherical exact models for compact stars with anisotropic pressures and a conformal symmetry. The conformal symmetry condition generates an integral relationship between the gravitational potentials. We solve this condition to find a new anisotropic solution to the Einstein field equations. We demonstrate that the exact solution produces a relativistic model of a compact star. The model generates stellar radii and masses consistent with PSR J1614-2230, Vela X1, PSR J1903+327 and Cen X-3. A detailed physical examination shows that the model is regular, well behaved and stable. The mass-radius limit and the surface red shift are consistent with observational constraints. (orig.)

  2. Ultra-compact Ku band rectenna


    Takacs, Alexandru; Aubert, Hervé; Charlot, Samuel


    International audience; This paper addresses an innovative and ultra-compact rectenna designed for energy harvesting or wireless power transfer applications. The presented rectenna uses a printed cross dipoles antenna array and a rectifier implemented with only one silicon Schottky diode. Experimental results show that 1.15 mW of DC power can be obtained for an optimal load impedance of 500 Ω using a compact rectenna (2.5 cm 2 or 0.6 square wavelength) illuminated by an electric field of 60 V...

  3. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  4. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction. (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  5. ADAPT Dataset (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  6. Adaptive skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staša Stropnik


    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  7. Adaptive core simulation (United States)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany Samy

    The work presented in this thesis is a continuation of a master's thesis research project conducted by the author to gain insight into the applicability of inverse methods to developing adaptive simulation capabilities for core physics problems. Use of adaptive simulation is intended to improve the fidelity and robustness of important core attributes predictions such as core power distribution, thermal margins and core reactivity. Adaptive simulation utilizes a selected set of past and current reactor measurements of reactor observables, i.e. in-core instrumentations readings, to adapt the simulation in a meaningful way. A meaningful adaption will result in high fidelity and robust adapted core simulators models. To perform adaption, we propose an inverse theory approach in which the multitudes of input data to core simulators, i.e. reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic data, are to be adjusted to improve agreement with measured observables while keeping core simulators models unadapted. At a first glance, devising such adaption for typical core simulators models would render the approach impractical. This follows, since core simulators are based on very demanding computational models, i.e. based on complex physics models with millions of input data and output observables. This would spawn not only several prohibitive challenges but also numerous disparaging concerns. The challenges include the computational burdens of the sensitivity-type calculations required to construct Jacobian operators for the core simulators models. Also, the computational burdens of the uncertainty-type calculations required to estimate the uncertainty information of core simulators input data presents a demanding challenge. The concerns however are mainly related to the reliability of the adjusted input data. We demonstrate that the power of our proposed approach is mainly driven by taking advantage of this unfavorable situation. Our contribution begins with the realization that to obtain

  8. FODO-Supercell Based Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction and Optimized Dynamic Aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC


    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and pre-damping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  9. Adjusted Clinical Groups: a patient classification system through risk adjustment


    Sicras-Mainar, Antonio; Dirección de Planificación, Badalona Serveis Assistencials. Barcelona, España. Médico doctor en Medicina, especialista en Salud Pública.; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Hospital Germans Trías i Pujol. Badalona, Barcelona, España. médica especialista en Documentación Médica.


    Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) are risk adjustment systems that classify people according to their age, sex and medical conditions, these people have a similar consumption of health resources over a given period of time. They were developed by Starfield and Weiner (Johns Hopkins University, USA, 1991), and their objective is to measure the degree of illness among patients based on the levels of comorbidity. Their main applications are: a) the evaluation of the efficiency in the use of hea...

  10. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  11. Compact stellar X-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; van der Klis, M.


    X-ray astronomy is the prime available window on astrophysical compact objects: black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs. In the last ten years new observational opportunities have led to an explosion of knowledge in this field. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the astrophysics of

  12. ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Jacqueline


    This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas

  13. Self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.


    The project 'self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete (SCFRC)' is part of the Dutch STW/PPM program - 'cement-bonded materials' - DCT.4010. Subproject III to which the project ,SCFRC' belongs deals with the development of new high performance concretes. The project 'SCFRC' aims at investigating the

  14. Relativistic compact objects in isotropic coordinates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    symmetric solutions satisfying a nonlocal equation of state from known density profiles. Several new exact ... tary three-dimensional regular system of ordinary differential equations on compact state space [5,6]. ... determined system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the second order. For the special case of a ...

  15. Strong lensing interferometry for compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, U.L.; Yang, I.S.


    We propose a possibility to improve the current precision measurements on compact binaries. When the orbital axis is almost perpendicular to our line of sight, a pulsar behind its companion can form two strong lensing images. These images cannot be resolved, but we can use multiwavelength

  16. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu


    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  17. Simulation of HMA compaction by using FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, H.L.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; van de Ven, M.F.C.


    This paper introduces a simulation tool for the compaction process of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) using a roller under varying external conditions. The focus is on the use of the Finite Element Model (FEM) with code DiekA, on its necessary requirements and on the presentation of simulation results. The

  18. Stochastic Beamforming via Compact Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    The paper investigates the average beamforming (BF) gain of compact antenna arrays when statistical channel knowledge is available. The optimal excitation (precoding vector) and impedance termination that maximize the average BF gain are a compromise between the ones that maximize the array...

  19. Analysis of Technology for Compact Coherent Lidar (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin


    In view of the recent advances in the area of solid state and semiconductor lasers has created new possibilities for the development of compact and reliable coherent lidars for a wide range of applications. These applications include: Automated Rendezvous and Capture, wind shear and clear air turbulence detection, aircraft wake vortex detection, and automobile collision avoidance. The work performed by the UAH personnel under this Delivery Order, concentrated on design and analyses of a compact coherent lidar system capable of measuring range and velocity of hard targets, and providing air mass velocity data. The following is the scope of this work. a. Investigate various laser sources and optical signal detection configurations in support of a compact and lightweight coherent laser radar to be developed for precision range and velocity measurements of hard and fuzzy targets. Through interaction with MSFC engineers, the most suitable laser source and signal detection technique that can provide a reliable compact and lightweight laser radar design will be selected. b. Analyze and specify the coherent laser radar system configuration and assist with its optical and electronic design efforts. Develop a system design including its optical layout design. Specify all optical components and provide the general requirements of the electronic subsystems including laser beam modulator and demodulator drivers, detector electronic interface, and the signal processor. c. Perform a thorough performance analysis to predict the system measurement range and accuracy. This analysis will utilize various coherent laser radar sensitivity formulations and different target models.

  20. Compact Stars as Dark Matter Probes


    Bertone, Gianfranco; Fairbairn, Malcolm


    We discuss the consequences of the accretion of dark matter (DM) particles on compact stars such as white dwarfs and neutron stars. We show that in large regions of the DM parameter space, these objects are sensitive probes of the presence of DM and can be used to set constraints both on the DM density and on the physical properties of DM particles.

  1. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm


    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  2. Self Compacting Concrete with Chalk Filler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.


    Utilisation of Danish chalk filler has been investigated as a means to produce self compacting concrete (SCC) at lower strength levels for service in non aggressive environments. Stable SCC mixtures were prepared at chalk filler contents up to 60% by volume of binder to yield compressive strengths...

  3. A Compact 6D Muon Cooling Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Harold G; Garren, Albert A; Kahn, Stephen A; Mills, Frederick E


    We discuss a conceptual design for a compact muon cooling system based on a weak-focusing ring loaded with high-pressure Hydrogen gas. We demonstrate that such a ring will be capable of cooling a circulating muon beam in each of the three spatial dimensions so that 6d cooling of the muon beam phase space is achieved.

  4. Compaction of isolated Escherichia coli nucleoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, Anna S.; Wintraecken, Kathelijne; Spurio, Roberto; Woldringh, Conrad L.; Vries, de Renko; Odijk, Theo


    Escherichia coli nucleoids were compacted by the inert polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the presence of the H-NS protein. The protein by itself appears to have little impact on the size of the nucleoids as determined by fluorescent microscopy. However, it has a significant impact on the

  5. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.


    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m/sup 3/ versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m/sup 3/), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.).

  6. Large compact dimensions and high energy experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Extra dimensions; Kaluza–Klein; graviton. Abstract. Models of spacetime with extra compact dimensions and having the Standard Model fields confined to a narrow slice of 4-dimensional spacetime can have strong gravitational effects at the TeV scale as well as electroweak-strength interactions at present-day ...

  7. Ultramassive black hole feedback in compact galaxies (United States)

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.


    Recent observations confirm the existence of ultra-massive black holes (UMBH) in the nuclei of compact galaxies, with physical properties similar to NGC 1277. The nature of these objects poses a new puzzle to the `black hole-host galaxy co-evolution' scenario. We discuss the potential link between UMBH and galaxy compactness, possibly connected via extreme active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback at early times ($z > 2$). In our picture, AGN feedback is driven by radiation pressure on dust. We suggest that early UMBH feedback blows away all the gas beyond a $\\sim$kpc or so, while triggering star formation at inner radii, eventually leaving a compact galaxy remnant. Such extreme UMBH feedback can also affect the surrounding environment on larger scales, e.g. the outflowing stars may form a diffuse stellar halo around the compact galaxy, or even escape into the intergalactic or intracluster medium. On the other hand, less massive black holes will drive less powerful feedback, such that the stars formed within the AGN feedback-driven outflow remain bound to the host galaxy, and contribute to its size growth over cosmic time.

  8. Compactly supported frames for decomposition spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann


    In this article we study a construction of compactly supported frame expansions for decomposition spaces of Triebel-Lizorkin type and for the associated modulation spaces. This is done by showing that finite linear combinations of shifts and dilates of a single function with sufficient decay in b...

  9. 28 CFR 2.107 - Interstate Compact. (United States)


    ... following individuals on parole supervision pursuant to the Interstate Parole and Probation Compact... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... with the approval of the Parole Commission. A D.C. Code parolee who is under the Parole Commission's...

  10. Compact integral manifolds of differential systems


    Gorbuzov, V. N.


    The boundedness tests for the number of compact integral manifolds of autonomous ordinary differential systems, of autonomous total differential systems, of linear systems of partial differential equations, of Pfaff systems of equations, and of systems of exterior differential equations are proved.

  11. Mitotic chromosome compaction via active loop extrusion (United States)

    Goloborodko, Anton; Imakaev, Maxim; Marko, John; Mirny, Leonid; MIT-Northwestern Team

    During cell division, two copies of each chromosome are segregated from each other and compacted more than hundred-fold into the canonical X-shaped structures. According to earlier microscopic observations and the recent Hi-C study, chromosomes are compacted into arrays of consecutive loops of ~100 kilobases. Mechanisms that lead to formation of such loop arrays are largely unknown. Here we propose that, during cell division, chromosomes can be compacted by enzymes that extrude loops on chromatin fibers. First, we use computer simulations and analytical modeling to show that a system of loop-extruding enzymes on a chromatin fiber self-organizes into an array of consecutive dynamic loops. Second, we model the process of loop extrusion in 3D and show that, coupled with the topo II strand-passing activity, it leads to robust compaction and segregation of sister chromatids. This mechanism of chromosomal condensation and segregation does not require additional proteins or specific DNA markup and is robust against variations in the number and properties of such loop extruding enzymes. Work at NU was supported by the NSF through Grants DMR-1206868 and MCB-1022117, and by the NIH through Grants GM105847 and CA193419. Work at MIT was supported by the NIH through Grants GM114190 R01HG003143.

  12. Soil compaction across the old rotation (United States)

    Evaluating soil compaction levels across the Old Rotation, the world’s oldest continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) experiment, has not been conducted since the experiment transitioned to conservation tillage and high residue cover crops with and without irrigation. Our objective was to charact...

  13. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.


    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  14. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.


    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.


    Hossain, Mohammad Samir; Irfan, Muhammad; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Giasuddin, Noor Ahmed; Sultana, Syeda Naheed


    The Death Adjustment Hypothesis (DAH) postulates two key themes. Its first part postulates that death should not be considered the end of existence and the second part emphasizes that the belief in immortal pattern of human existence can only be adopted in a morally rich life with the attitude towards morality and materialism balanced mutually. We wanted to explore Death Adjustment in the Indian subcontinent and the differences among, Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. We also wanted to find the relationship between death adjustment (i.e., adaptation to death), materialistic thoughts and death adjustment thoughts. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from May 2010 to June 2013. Using a purposive sampling strategy, a sample of 296 participants from the Indian subcontinent [Pakistan (n=100), Bangladesh (n=98) and India (n=98)] was selected. Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) was used to measure death adjustment. The rest of the variables were measured using lists of respective thoughts, described in elaborated DAH. Analyses were carried out using SPSSv13. The mean death adjustment score for Pakistani, Indian and Bangaldeshi population were 115.26 +/- 26.4, 125.87 +/- 24.3 and 114.91 +/- 21.2, respectively. Death adjustment was better with older age (r=0.20) and with lower scores on materialistic thoughts (r = -0.26). However, this was a weak relation. The three nationalities were compared with each other by using Analysis of variance. Death adjustment thoughts and death adjustment were significantly different when Indians were compared with Bangladeshis (p=0.00) and Pakistanis (p=0.006) but comparison between Bangladeshis and Pakistanis showed no significant difference. Subjects with lesser materialistic thoughts showed better death adjustment. There are differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in adjusting to death.

  16. Fuel quality changes during seasonal storage of compacted logging residues and young trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, M.; Nordfjell, T. [Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Section of Forest Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)


    Forest fuel procurement creates logistical problems, as large stocks are accumulated along the supply chain. The purpose of this study was to examine fuel quality (moisture content, ash content and calorific value) of compacted young trees (mainly downy birch) and both uncompacted and compacted logging residues (LR) (mainly Norway spruce). The materials were examined before and after storage, with and without cover, and effects of handling were considered. Dry matter losses from compacted LR during storage and handling were determined. Fuel quality and mass were determined before and after storage and handling. The moisture content of LR dropped to 28.6% when stored in small piles after fuel adapted logging at the clear felling site for 3 weeks in May. Drying continued after compaction into cylindrical bales (length 3.4 m, diameter 0.7 m) and during storage in windrows (9 and 12 months), the moisture content falling to 18.2-20.7% for the covered and 18.8-24.9% for the uncovered material. The windrow of loose LR remoistened to 40.8% (by snow contamination) resulted in a 6% lower net calorific value as received, compared to cylindrical bales. Ash contents were in the range 1.6-2.2% for LR and 1.0-1.2% for young trees. Dry matter losses ranged from 8.4% to 18.1% on compacted LR. Remoistening during the winter is higher for loose than for compacted LR. Early summer in northern Sweden provides favourable conditions for drying forest fuels. (author)

  17. Negative life events and school adjustment among Chinese nursing students: The mediating role of psychological capital. (United States)

    Liu, Chunqin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Ping


    Adjustment difficulties of college students are common and their school adjustment has gained wide concern in recent years. Negative life events and psychological capital (PsyCap) have been associated with school adjustment. However, the potential impact of negative life events on PsyCap, and whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment among nursing students have not been studied. To investigate the relationship among negative life events, PsyCap, and school adjustment among five-year vocational high school nursing students in China and the mediating role of PsyCap between negative life events and school adjustment. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted. 643 five-year vocational high school nursing students were recruited from three public high vocational colleges in Shandong of China. Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Checklist (ASLEC), the Psychological Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students scale (PCQAS), and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale (CCSAS) were used in this study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of PsyCap. Negative life events were negatively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment (interpersonal relationship adaptation, learning adaptation, campus life adaptation, career adaptation, emotional adaptation, self-adaptation, and degree of satisfaction). PsyCap was positively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment and negatively associated with negative life events. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment. Negative life events may increase the risk of school maladjustment in individuals with low PsyCap. Interventions designed to increase nursing students' PsyCap might buffer the stress of adverse life events, and thereby, enhance students' positive adjustment to school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder? (United States)

    ... and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness Thoughts of suicide Worry Trouble sleeping If you're dealing with a stressful situation in your life, try ...

  19. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder? (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Stress management What's the difference between normal stress and an adjustment disorder? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to ...

  20. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan


    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  1. Land use, transport, and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities. (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Ewing, Reid; Mohan, Dinesh; McClure, Rod; Roberts, Ian; Tiwari, Geetam; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sun, Xiaoduan; Wallace, Mark; Woodcock, James


    Using a health impact assessment framework, we estimated the population health effects arising from alternative land-use and transport policy initiatives in six cities. Land-use changes were modelled to reflect a compact city in which land-use density and diversity were increased and distances to public transport were reduced to produce low motorised mobility, namely a modal shift from private motor vehicles to walking, cycling, and public transport. The modelled compact city scenario resulted in health gains for all cities (for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) with overall health gains of 420-826 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 population. However, for moderate to highly motorised cities, such as Melbourne, London, and Boston, the compact city scenario predicted a small increase in road trauma for cyclists and pedestrians (health loss of between 34 and 41 DALYs per 100 000 population). The findings suggest that government policies need to actively pursue land-use elements-particularly a focus towards compact cities-that support a modal shift away from private motor vehicles towards walking, cycling, and low-emission public transport. At the same time, these policies need to ensure the provision of safe walking and cycling infrastructure. The findings highlight the opportunities for policy makers to positively influence the overall health of city populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Land-use, transport and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason; de Sa, Thiago Herick; Ewing, Reid; Mohan, Dinesh; McClure, Rod; Roberts, Ian; Tiwari, Geetam; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, Jim; Sun, Xiaoduan; Wallace, Mark; Woodcock, James


    Using a Health Impact Assessment Framework, we estimated the population health effects arising from alternative land-use and transport policy initiatives in six cities. Land-use changes were modelled to reflect a compact city in which land-use density and diversity were increased and distances to public transport were reduced to produce low motorised mobility, namely a modal shift from private motor vehicles to walking, cycling, and public transport. The modelled compact city scenario resulted in health gains for all cities (for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) with the overall health gains ranging from 420 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 100 000 population to 826 DALYs per 100 000 population. However, for moderate to highly motorised cities, such as Melbourne, London, and Boston, the compact city scenario predicted a small increase in road trauma for cyclists and pedestrians (health loss of between 34 to 41 DALYs per 100 000 population). The findings suggest that government policies need to actively pursue land-use elements (particularly a focus towards compact cities) that support a modal shift away from private motor vehicles towards walking, cycling, and low-emission public transport. At the same time, these policies need to ensure the provision of safe walking and cycling infrastructure. The findings highlight the opportunities for policymakers to positively influence the overall health of city populations. PMID:27671671

  3. Determinants of adjustment for children of divorcing parents. (United States)

    Oppenheimer, K; Prinz, R J; Bella, B S


    Family physicians frequently see children and parents when they are adjusting to marital separation. This study examined how well child adjustment at school could be determined from an assessment of interspousal relations, maternal functioning, and child perception variables. Teachers evaluated adaptive functioning, social withdrawal, and aggressive behavior at school for a carefully selected sample of 22 boys and 24 girls (ages 7-12) whose parents had been separated for two to 18 months. Regression analyses indicated that boys' overall school adjustment was associated with better maternal parenting skills, lower child fear of abandonment, less blaming of father for the separation, and positive parental verbal attributions toward the other parent. Girls with better overall school adjustment reported less blaming of their mothers and a higher rate of positive attributions by mother about father. These findings suggest concepts family physicians can use in working with families to minimize the effect of divorce on children.

  4. [Adjustment disorder during military service]. (United States)

    Kamrowska, Anna; Florkowski, Antoni


    Adjustment disorders in soldiers of mandatory military service are one of most frequent causes of early military discharges. Their occurrence brings about economic, social and medical consequences. The analysis of reasons and circumstances for adjustment disorders in solders of mandatory military service accepted by Medical Military Boards as unfit for military service. Studies included 91 cases of soldiers of mandatory military service hospitalised at the Psychiatry Clinical Department of Psychiatry in 10th Clinical Military Hospital in Bydgoszcz for the occurrence of symptoms of adjustment disorder acc. to criteria ICD-10 and certified by Medical Military Boards. The examined soldiers were at the age of 19-24, and the period of their military service ranged from one week to three months. To evaluate statistical correlations chi-square test (chi2) was used. Before the call-up, more than a half of the soldiers revealing symptoms of adjustment disorder lived in the country or in big urban agglomerations. Those soldiers had primary or vocational education certificates and every third was brought up in one-parent family. In the tested population of soldiers there was found a statistical relation between the appearance of adjustment disorders and the education of soldiers' mothers, parents' diseases and factors impeding their military service. Factors conducive to adjustment disorders under conditions of mandatory military service in the studies carried out included: education of soldiers' mothers, raised difficulties while serving in the army and parents' diseases.

  5. Quantitative FLIM-FRET Microscopy to Monitor Nanoscale Chromatin Compaction In Vivo Reveals Structural Roles of Condensin Complexes. (United States)

    Llères, David; Bailly, Aymeric P; Perrin, Aurélien; Norman, David G; Xirodimas, Dimitris P; Feil, Robert


    How metazoan genomes are structured at the nanoscale in living cells and tissues remains unknown. Here, we adapted a quantitative FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer)-based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) approach to assay nanoscale chromatin compaction in living organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans was chosen as a model system. By measuring FRET between histone-tagged fluorescent proteins, we visualized distinct chromosomal regions and quantified the different levels of nanoscale compaction in meiotic cells. Using RNAi and repetitive extrachromosomal array approaches, we defined the heterochromatin state and showed that its architecture presents a nanoscale-compacted organization controlled by Heterochromatin Protein-1 (HP1) and SETDB1 H3-lysine-9 methyltransferase homologs in vivo. Next, we functionally explored condensin complexes. We found that condensin I and condensin II are essential for heterochromatin compaction and that condensin I additionally controls lowly compacted regions. Our data show that, in living animals, nanoscale chromatin compaction is controlled not only by histone modifiers and readers but also by condensin complexes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative FLIM-FRET Microscopy to Monitor Nanoscale Chromatin Compaction In Vivo Reveals Structural Roles of Condensin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Llères


    Full Text Available How metazoan genomes are structured at the nanoscale in living cells and tissues remains unknown. Here, we adapted a quantitative FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer-based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM approach to assay nanoscale chromatin compaction in living organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans was chosen as a model system. By measuring FRET between histone-tagged fluorescent proteins, we visualized distinct chromosomal regions and quantified the different levels of nanoscale compaction in meiotic cells. Using RNAi and repetitive extrachromosomal array approaches, we defined the heterochromatin state and showed that its architecture presents a nanoscale-compacted organization controlled by Heterochromatin Protein-1 (HP1 and SETDB1 H3-lysine-9 methyltransferase homologs in vivo. Next, we functionally explored condensin complexes. We found that condensin I and condensin II are essential for heterochromatin compaction and that condensin I additionally controls lowly compacted regions. Our data show that, in living animals, nanoscale chromatin compaction is controlled not only by histone modifiers and readers but also by condensin complexes.

  7. Construction of CHESS compact undulator magnets at Kyma (United States)

    Temnykh, Alexander B.; Lyndaker, Aaron; Kokole, Mirko; Milharcic, Tadej; Pockar, Jure; Geometrante, Raffaella


    In 2014 KYMA S.r.l. has built two CHESS Compact Undulator (CCU) magnets that are at present installed and successfully operate at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. This type of undulator was developed for upgrade of Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source beam-lines, but it can be used elsewhere as well. CCU magnets are compact, lightweight, cost efficient and in-vacuum compatible. They are linearly polarized undulators and have a fixed gap. Magnetic field tuning is achieved by phasing (shifting) top magnetic array relative bottom. Two CCUs constructed by KYMA S.r.l. have 28.4 mm period, 6.5 mm gap, 0.93 T peak field. Magnetic structure is of PPM type, made with NdFeB (40UH grade) permanent magnet material. Transitioning from the laboratory to industrial environment for a novel design required additional evaluation, design adjusting and extensive testing. Particular attention was given to the soldering technique used for fastening of the magnetic blocks to holders. This technique had thus far never been used before for undulator magnet construction by industry. The evaluation included tests of different types of soldering paste, measurements of strength of solder and determining the deformations of the soldered magnet and holder under simulated loading forces. This paper focuses on critical features of the CCU design, results of the soldering technique testing and the data regarding permanent magnets magnetization change due to soldering. In addition it deals with optimization-assisted assembly and the performance of the assembled devices and assesses some of the results of the CCU magnets operation at CESR.

  8. A case study of intelligent compaction used in road upgrades

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leyland, R


    Full Text Available Compaction is one of the more important processes in roadway construction. It is needed to achieve high quality and uniformity of materials and ensure design performance. Current procedures using conventional compaction machines and limited Quality...

  9. Introduction to compact (matrix) quantum groups and Banica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , India from 5–24 January 2015. We give basic definitions, properties and examples of compact quantum groups and compact matrix quantum groups such as the existence of a Haar state, the representation theory and Woronowicz's quantum ...

  10. A Compact, Low-power Spectrometer For Atmospheric Particle Measurements (United States)

    Smith, M. H.; Hill, M. K.; Brooks, B. J.

    A compact, lightweight and relatively robust aerosol spectrometer is under develop- ment for use in a variety of atmospheric particle investigations. This instrument will cover particle sizes in the range from 0.3 to 10µm with a weight of around 0.5kg (depending upon configuration). The low weight and compact size will make this de- vice suitable for balloon-borne atmospheric measurements, and its relatively low cost will encourage deployment in riskier situations, such as close to the ocean surface. The reasonably high volume sampling rate of approximately 50ml/s commends it to applications where high temporal resolution is required such as in particle flux studies. This instrument is based around a small scatter cell unit, measuring approximately 7 x 3 x 3cm, manufactured by Met One (a division of Pacific Scientific). This unit incor- porates a circuit board with solid state laser supply, detector and signal preamplifiers and is built into a number of Met One particle counters which, in their smaller in- struments, generally have only two size channels. Additional circuit boards have been designed and developed in Leeds which, in addition to appropriate control, data stor- age and transmission electronics, contain a multi-channel pulse height analyser. Laser scattering instruments generally exhibit a multi-valued response for particles around the wavelength of the laser illumination, the precise location of which depends upon the refractive index (and hence the composition) of the particulate material. By using a 12-bit A/D converter and full microprocessor control, the operating performance of the instrument may be optimised for particles with differing characteristics, with an output resolution of up to 256 size channels. The prototype is being evaluated and the degree to which its sensitivity and volume sampling rate may be adjusted to extend its operating size range examined. The low- cost and compact dimensions of these instruments allow risks to be taken

  11. The Lω-Compactness in Lω-Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Li Chen


    Full Text Available The concepts of αω-remote neighborhood family, γω-cover, and Lω-compactness are defined in Lω-spaces. The characterizations of Lω-compactness are systematically discussed. Some important properties of Lω-compactness such as ω-closed heredity, arbitrarily multiplicative property, and preserving invariance under ω-continuous mappings are obtained. Finally, the Alexander ω-subbase lemma and the Tychonoff product theorem with respect to Lω-compactness are given.

  12. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  13. Advanced freeform optics enabling ultra-compact VR headsets (United States)

    Benitez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Zamora, Pablo; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Buljan, Marina; Narasimhan, Bharathwaj; Gorospe, Jorge; López, Jesús; Nikolić, Milena; Sánchez, Eduardo; Lastres, Carmen; Mohedano, Ruben


    We present novel advanced optical designs with a dramatically smaller display to eye distance, excellent image quality and a large field of view (FOV). This enables headsets to be much more compact, typically occupying about a fourth of the volume of a conventional headset with the same FOV. The design strategy of these optics is based on a multichannel approach, which reduces the distance from the eye to the display and the display size itself. Unlike conventional microlens arrays, which are also multichannel devices, our designs use freeform optical surfaces to produce excellent imaging quality in the entire field of view, even when operating at very oblique incidences. We present two families of compact solutions that use different types of lenslets: (1) refractive designs, whose lenslets are composed typically of two refractive surfaces each; and (2) light-folding designs that use prism-like three-surface lenslets, in which rays undergo refraction, reflection, total internal reflection and refraction again. The number of lenslets is not fixed, so different configurations may arise, adaptable for flat or curved displays with different aspect ratios. In the refractive designs the distance between the optics and the display decreases with the number of lenslets, allowing for displaying a light-field when the lenslet becomes significantly small than the eye pupil. On the other hand, the correlation between number of lenslets and the optics to display distance is broken in light-folding designs, since their geometry permits achieving a very short display to eye distance with even a small number of lenslets.

  14. α-fuzzy compactness in I-topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Gregori


    α-fuzzy compactness (where α belongs to the unit interval, so extending the concept of compactness due to C. L. Chang. We obtain a Baire category theorem for α-locally compact spaces and construct a one-point α-fuzzy compactification of an I-topological space.

  15. Tillage and Farmyard Manure Effects on Crusting and Compacting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In semi-arid Kenya, the most dominant soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurrence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction decrease rainwater infiltration ...

  16. When is an ultracomplete space almost locally compact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jardón Arcos


    Full Text Available We study spaces X which have a countable outer base in βX; they are called ultracomplete in the most recent terminology. Ultracompleteness implies Cech-completeness and is implied by almost local compactness (≡having all points of non-local compactness inside a compact subset of countable outer character. It turns out that ultracompleteness coincides with almost local compactness in most important classes of isocompact spaces (i.e., in spaces in which every countably compact subspace is compact. We prove that if an isocompact space X is ω-monolithic then any ultracomplete subspace of X is almost locally compact. In particular, any ultracomplete subspace of a compact ω-monolithic space of countable tightness is almost locally compact. Another consequence of this result is that, for any space X such that vX is a Lindelöf Σ-space, a subspace of Cp(X is ultracomplete if and only if it is almost locally compact. We show that it is consistent with ZFC that not all ultracomplete subspaces of hereditarily separable compact spaces are almost locally compact.

  17. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming


    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine...

  18. Productivity of planted shortleaf pine in artificially compacted Clarksville soil (United States)

    Felix Jr. Ponder


    After 9 years, tree survival was 72, 65, and 70 percent for not compacted, medium compacted, and severely compacted treatments, respectively, for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) planted in a forest clearcut on the Carr Creek State Forest in Shannon County, Missouri. The study is in one of the USDA Forest Service's Long-term Soil...

  19. Features of roadbed compaction under the negative air temperatures


    Fomenko, E.; Sedov, A.


    The features of roadbed compaction under negative air temperatures are considered. With the soil temperature decrease, the soil system"s structural resistance to compaction is growing. Attainment of the necessary soil density depends here on an ambient temperature, value and mode of the compaction loading.

  20. Adaptive and self-learning slaughter robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard; Madsen, Ole


    The project is concerned with research in adaptive learning algorithms. The algorithms will enable robots to react to variations in input, perform ongoing corrections during operations and make adjustments to subsequent operations based on evaluation of the output. In processes such as the slaugh......The project is concerned with research in adaptive learning algorithms. The algorithms will enable robots to react to variations in input, perform ongoing corrections during operations and make adjustments to subsequent operations based on evaluation of the output. In processes...... and output, an adaptive robot platform is preferable to more dedicated production machinery....

  1. Adaptation-Based Programming in Haskell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Bauer


    Full Text Available We present an embedded DSL to support adaptation-based programming (ABP in Haskell. ABP is an abstract model for defining adaptive values, called adaptives, which adapt in response to some associated feedback. We show how our design choices in Haskell motivate higher-level combinators and constructs and help us derive more complicated compositional adaptives. We also show an important specialization of ABP is in support of reinforcement learning constructs, which optimize adaptive values based on a programmer-specified objective function. This permits ABP users to easily define adaptive values that express uncertainty anywhere in their programs. Over repeated executions, these adaptive values adjust to more efficient ones and enable the user's programs to self optimize. The design of our DSL depends significantly on the use of type classes. We will illustrate, along with presenting our DSL, how the use of type classes can support the gradual evolution of DSLs.

  2. Compact AMS System At Yamagata University (United States)

    Tokanai, Fuyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Anshita, Minoru; Izumi, Akihiro; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Saito, Tsugio


    A new compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system has been installed in the Kaminoyama research institute at Yamagata University. The AMS system is based on a 0.5 MV Pelletron accelerator developed by National Electrostatics Corp. The performance of the system was investigated using C series samples (C1-C8), standard samples (HOxII), and reagent graphite without any chemical treatment. The precision of 14C measurements for the standard samples is typically higher than 0.3%. The ratio of 14C to 12C is less than 6×10-16 for the reagent graphite. In this paper, we present the performance of the new compact AMS system, as well as of the fully automated 20-reactor graphite lines equipped at the research institute.

  3. Non-compaction cardiomyopathy – brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mirea


    Full Text Available Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy is a genetic disorder characterized by the presence of two myocardial layers with numerous prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses that communicate with the ventricular cavity. The diagnosis is often challenging because excessive trabeculations may also be a normal finding in performance athletes and black people. Echocardiography is the gold standard for diagnosis of this condition, but other useful diagnostic techniques may include cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and contrast ventriculography. Moreover, newer echocardiographic methods such as three-dimensional imaging and speckle tracking analysis promise to improve the diagnosis of left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this paper is to review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of this disease.

  4. [Not isolated ventricular compaction in an infant]. (United States)

    Dibi, A; Jabourik, F; Bentahila, A


    Not isolated ventricular compaction cardiomyopathy is a rare deasese described both in children than in adults. It due to the interruption of the embryogenic compaction process of the normal myocardium. We report a pediatric observation of noncompaction of the left ventricle. This is a 4-month girl who was admitted to an array of heart failure with systolic murmur to FM. Chest radiography showed cardiomegaly. The ECG showed repolarization disorder. The echocardiography objectified dilated left cavities with thickened wall and anechoic areas (sinusoidal), a mitral regurgitation GII and minimal tricuspid regurgitation. NCVI is a rare cause of heart failure in infants. The management is based on guidelines for various clinical symptomatology. Its discovery in children should lead to screening of first-degree relative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Lattes-type mappings on compact manifolds (United States)

    Astola, Laura; Kangaslampi, Riikka; Peltonen, Kirsi

    A uniformly quasiregular mapping acting on a compact Riemannian manifold distorts the metric by a bounded amount, independently of the number of iterates. Such maps are rational with respect to some measurable conformal structure and there is a Fatou-Julia type theory associated with the dynamical system obtained by iterating these mappings. We study a rich subclass of uniformly quasiregular mappings that can be produced using an analogy of classical Lattes' construction of chaotic rational functions acting on the extended plane bar{C} . We show that there is a plenitude of compact manifolds that support these mappings. Moreover, we find that in some cases there are alternative ways to construct this type of mapping with different Julia sets.

  6. Chemical Abundances of Compact Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Hui; Shaw, Richard A.; Stanghellini, letizia; Riley, Ben


    We present preliminary results from an optical spectroscopic survey of compact planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Galactic disk. This is an ongoing optical+infrared spectral survey of 150 compact PNe to build a deep sample of PN chemical abundances. We obtained optical spectra of PNe with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and Goodman High-Throughput Spectrograph between 2012 and 2015. These data were used to calculate the nebulae diagnostics such as electron temperature and density for each PN, and to derive the elemental abundances of He, N, O Ne, S and Ar. These abundances are vital to understanding the nature of the PNe, and their low- to intermediate-mass progenitor stars.

  7. Compact ranges in antenna and RCS measurements (United States)

    Audone, B.


    With the increased complexity and extended frequency range of operation model measurements and far field test ranges are no longer suitable to satisfy the demand of accurate testing. Moreover plane wave test conditions are required for Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurements which represent a key point in stealth technology. Compact ranges represent the best test facilities available presently since they allow for indoor measurements under far field conditions in real time without any calculation effort. Several types of compact ranges are described and compared discussing their relevant advantages with regard to RCS and antenna measurements. In parallel to measuring systems sophisticated computer models were developed with such a high level of accuracy that it is questionable whether experiments give better results than theory. Tests performed on simple structures show the correlation between experimental results and theoretical ones derived on the basis of GTD computer codes.

  8. Visual soil evaluation and soil compaction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M.L. Guimarães, Rachel; Keller, Thomas; Munkholm, Lars Juhl


    Following on from discussions that took place during the 19th International Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO) in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 2012, the ISTRO working groups “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) and “Subsoil Compaction” decided...... to organize a joint workshop. The present special issue is an outcome from the workshop on “Soil structural quality of tropical soils: Visual evaluation methods and soil compaction prevention strategies” that was held 26–29 May 2014 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. There has been a long-lasting interest in Visual...... and climatic conditions, as well as in utilizing VSE methods together with qualitative methods to evaluate the impact of soil management (Munkholm et al., 2013). Soil compaction due to agricultural operations is a serious threat to soil productivity and soil ecological functions and has been a key research...

  9. Rules of thumb for minimising subsoil compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu; Keller, T


    Subsoil compaction is persistent and can affect important soil functions including soil productivity. The aim of this study was to develop recommendations on how to avoid subsoil compaction for soils exposed to traffic by machinery at field capacity. We measured the vertical stress in the tyre–soil...... contact area for two traction tyres at ca. 30- and 60-kN wheel loads on a loamy sand at field capacity. Data on resulting stress distributions were combined with those from the literature for five implement tyres tested at a range of inflation pressures and wheel loads. The vertical stress in the soil...... profile was then predicted using the Söhne model for all tests in the combined data set. The predicted stress at 20 cm depth correlated with the maximum stress in the contact area, tyre inflation pressure, tyre–soil contact area and mean ground pressure. At 100 cm depth, the predicted vertical stress...

  10. Compaction of granular material inside confined geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjy eMarks


    Full Text Available In both nature and the laboratory, loosely packed granular materials are often compacted inside confined geometries. Here, we explore such behaviour in a quasi-two dimensional geometry, where parallel rigid walls provide the confinement. We use the discrete element method to investigate the stress distribution developed within the granular packing as a result of compaction due to the displacement of a rigid piston. We observe that the stress within the packing increases exponentially with the length of accumulated grains, and show an extension to current analytic models which fits the measured stress. The micromechanical behaviour is studied for a range of system parameters, and the limitations of existing analytic models are described. In particular, we show the smallest sized systems which can be treated using existing models. Additionally, the effects of increasing piston rate, and variations of the initial packing fraction, are described.

  11. Compact quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi [Institute of Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    From several searches of the area common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, we have selected 22 luminous galaxies between z ∼ 0.4 and z ∼ 0.9 that have colors and sizes similar to those of the compact quiescent galaxies at z > 2. By exploring structural parameters and stellar populations, we found that most of these galaxies actually formed most of their stars at z < 2 and are generally less compact than those found at z > 2. Several of these young objects are disk-like or possibly prolate. This lines up with several previous studies that found that massive quiescent galaxies at high redshifts often have disk-like morphologies. If these galaxies were to be confirmed to be disk-like, their formation mechanism must be able to account for both compactness and disks. On the other hand, if these galaxies were to be confirmed to be prolate, the fact that prolate galaxies do not exist in the local universe would indicate that galaxy formation mechanisms have evolved over cosmic time. We also found five galaxies forming over 80% of their stellar masses at z > 2. Three of these galaxies appear to have been modified to have spheroid-like morphologies, in agreement with the scenario of 'inside-out' buildup of massive galaxies. The remaining galaxies, SDSS J014355.21+133451.4 and SDSS J115836.93+021535.1, have truly old stellar populations and disk-like morphologies. These two objects would be good candidates for nearly unmodified compact quiescent galaxies from high redshifts that are worth future study.

  12. On weak compactness in L_1 spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, Václav


    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2009), s. 1885-1893 ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190610; GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA AV ČR IAA1019103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : weak compactness * subspace of L_1 * superreflexive space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.260, year: 2009

  13. Iterative solution of high order compact systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotz, W.F.; Carey, G.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    We have recently developed a class of finite difference methods which provide higher accuracy and greater stability than standard central or upwind difference methods, but still reside on a compact patch of grid cells. In the present study we investigate the performance of several gradient-type iterative methods for solving the associated sparse systems. Both serial and parallel performance studies have been made. Representative examples are taken from elliptic PDE`s for diffusion, convection-diffusion, and viscous flow applications.

  14. Energy report compact 2015; Energiebericht kompakt 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Energy Report compact 2015 from the Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection and the Energy Sector and the State Office for Statistics Baden-Wuerttemberg provides an overview on the energy sector developments in Baden-Wuerttemberg in 2013. It contains numerous information on the energy consumption in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the energy productivity, the share of renewable energy sources, power generation and the energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions.

  15. The Greek Compact Spawl. σ theoretical analysis


    Portokalidis, Costas; Zygouri, Foteini


    Cities probably represent the most complex and creative component of man-made environment. Nowadays their structure has been altered since the obvious limits (boundaries) of the "classic city" have been changed as result of the expansion of urban functions to the rural land. The main scope of this project is to present the complex aspects of an idiomorphic phenomenon, named "compact sprawl" of the Greek cities which is stamped by the giant growth of a "latent urbanism", such as the urban spra...

  16. The Greek Compact Spawl. A theoretical analysis


    Costas Portokalidis; Foteini Zygouri


    Cities probably represent the most complex and creative component of man-made environment. Nowadays their structure has been altered since the obvious limits (boundaries) of the "classic city" have been changed as result of the expansion of urban functions to the rural land. The main scope of this project is to present the complex aspects of an idiomorphic phenomenon, named "compact sprawl" of the Greek cities which is stamped by the giant growth of a "latent urbanism", such as the urban spra...

  17. A Novel Structure and Design Optimization of Compact Spline-Parameterized UWB Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koziel Slawomir


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel structure of a compact UWB slot antenna and its design optimization procedure has been presented. In order to achieve a sufficient number of degrees of freedom necessary to obtain a considerable size reduction rate, the slot is parameterized using spline curves. All antenna dimensions are simultaneously adjusted using numerical optimization procedures. The fundamental bottleneck here is a high cost of the electromagnetic (EM simulation model of the structure that includes (for reliability an SMA connector. Another problem is a large number of geometry parameters (nineteen. For the sake of computational efficiency, the optimization process is therefore performed using variable-fidelity EM simulations and surrogate-assisted algorithms. The optimization process is oriented towards explicit reduction of the antenna size and leads to a compact footprint of 199 mm2 as well as acceptable matching within the entire UWB band. The simulation results are validated using physical measurements of the fabricated antenna prototype.

  18. Compact Diplexer with High Isolation and Wide Stopband Based on SIRs (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wang, Xin-Yi; Wei, Feng; Chen, Lei


    A compact microstrip diplexer with a high isolation and improved out-of-band performance is proposed in this paper. The proposed diplexer is based on cascaded-quadruplet (CQ) bandpass filters (BPFs), which is composed of λ/4 stepped-impedance resonators (SIRs). By employing the edge and quasi-lumped coupling topology, a compact diplexer with improved passband selectivity can be achieved. Meanwhile, by appropriately adjusting the impedance and electric length ratios of SIRs, the stopband can be extended to 20 GHz with a rejection level of 10 dB, which is 12.7 times of the fundamental frequency. The predicted results on S parameters are compared with the measured ones and good agreement is achieved.

  19. Use of SHPB tests for incorporating a compaction constitutive equation within a two-phase model (United States)

    Weckert, S. A.; Resnyansky, A. D.


    The well-known Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) set-up is used for analysis of compaction of calcite sand samples within a gauge instrumented confinement. A two-phase material model, used previously for simulation of sand behaviour under extreme shock loading, requires a constitutive equation for a parameter responsible for the compaction response within a non-equilibrium loading path tending to the solid Hugoniot. A mathematical formulation approximating the present experimental set-up is suggested and used for inverse adjustment of parameters in the constitutive equation. This equation determined from the SHPB tests and incorporated in the two-phase model is used for description of the behaviour of explosively driven sand with the help of the CTH shock physics code. Comparison with available independent experiments shows a good agreement.

  20. Compact video synopsis via global spatiotemporal optimization. (United States)

    Nie, Yongwei; Xiao, Chunxia; Sun, Hanqiu; Li, Ping


    Video synopsis aims at providing condensed representations of video data sets that can be easily captured from digital cameras nowadays, especially for daily surveillance videos. Previous work in video synopsis usually moves active objects along the time axis, which inevitably causes collisions among the moving objects if compressed much. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for compact video synopsis using a unified spatiotemporal optimization. Our approach globally shifts moving objects in both spatial and temporal domains, which shifting objects temporally to reduce the length of the video and shifting colliding objects spatially to avoid visible collision artifacts. Furthermore, using a multilevel patch relocation (MPR) method, the moving space of the original video is expanded into a compact background based on environmental content to fit with the shifted objects. The shifted objects are finally composited with the expanded moving space to obtain the high-quality video synopsis, which is more condensed while remaining free of collision artifacts. Our experimental results have shown that the compact video synopsis we produced can be browsed quickly, preserves relative spatiotemporal relationships, and avoids motion collisions.

  1. Enhancement of griseofulvin release from liquisolid compacts. (United States)

    Hentzschel, C M; Alnaief, M; Smirnova, I; Sakmann, A; Leopold, C S


    The potential of hydrophilic aerogel formulations and liquisolid systems to improve the release of poorly soluble drugs was investigated using griseofulvin as model drug. The in vitro release rates of this drug formulated as directly compressed tablets containing crystalline griseofulvin were compared to aerogel tablets with the drug adsorbed onto hydrophilic silica aerogel and to liquisolid compacts containing the drug dissolved or suspended in PEG 300. Furthermore, the commonly used carrier and coating materials in liquisolid systems Avicel® and Aerosil® were replaced by Neusilin®, an amorphous magnesium aluminometasilicate with an extremely high specific surface area of 339 m²/g to improve the liquisolid approach. Both the liquisolid compacts containing the drug dissolved in PEG 300 and the aerogel tablets showed a considerably faster drug release than the directly compressed tablets. With liquisolid compacts containing the drug suspended in PEG 300, the release rate increased with rising fraction of dissolved drug in the liquid portion. It could be shown that Neusilin® with its sevenfold higher liquid adsorption capacity than the commonly used Avicel® and Aerosil® allows the production of liquisolid formulations with lower tablet weights. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fusion potential for spherical and compact tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandzelius, Mikael


    The tokamak is the most successful fusion experiment today. Despite this, the conventional tokamak has a long way to go before being realized into an economically viable power plant. In this master thesis work, two alternative tokamak configurations to the conventional tokamak has been studied, both of which could be realized to a lower cost. The fusion potential of the spherical and the compact tokamak have been examined with a comparison of the conventional tokamak in mind. The difficulties arising in the two configurations have been treated from a physical point of view concerning the fusion plasma and from a technological standpoint evolving around design, materials and engineering. Both advantages and drawbacks of either configuration have been treated relative to the conventional tokamak. The spherical tokamak shows promising plasma characteristics, notably a high {beta}-value but have troubles with high heat loads and marginal tritium breeding. The compact tokamak operates at a high plasma density and a high magnetic field enabling it to be built considerably smaller than any other tokamak. The most notable down-side being high heat loads and neutron transport problems. With the help of theoretical reactor studies, extrapolating from where we stand today, it is conceivable that the spherical tokamak is closer of being realized of the two. But, as this study shows, the compact tokamak power plant concept offers the most appealing prospect.

  3. Compact Stars with Sequential QCD Phase Transitions. (United States)

    Alford, Mark; Sedrakian, Armen


    Compact stars may contain quark matter in their interiors at densities exceeding several times the nuclear saturation density. We explore models of such compact stars where there are two first-order phase transitions: the first from nuclear matter to a quark-matter phase, followed at a higher density by another first-order transition to a different quark-matter phase [e.g., from the two-flavor color-superconducting (2SC) to the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase]. We show that this can give rise to two separate branches of hybrid stars, separated from each other and from the nuclear branch by instability regions, and, therefore, to a new family of compact stars, denser than the ordinary hybrid stars. In a range of parameters, one may obtain twin hybrid stars (hybrid stars with the same masses but different radii) and even triplets where three stars, with inner cores of nuclear matter, 2SC matter, and CFL matter, respectively, all have the same mass but different radii.

  4. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov


    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  5. Adjustment to hand injury: Cross-sectional survey exploring adjustment in relation to illness perceptions and coping strategies. (United States)

    Turkington, Catherine; Dempster, Martin; Maguire, Jennifer


    Cross-sectional descriptive. Hand injuries are highly prevalent, and the impact they have on physical, emotional, and functional adjustment is well recognized. Increasingly, adjustment to health conditions including hand injuries is being understood in terms of psychological variables. To examine the role of illness beliefs and coping strategies in adjustment to hand injury. Adjustment was considered from a complete perspective including quality of life (QOL) and functional ability as well as mood and trauma symptoms. Cross-sectional survey whereby consecutive patients (n = 65) attending the regional plastic surgery service with hand injuries were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing illness perceptions, coping strategies, QOL, hand functioning, depression, and trauma symptoms. Data were analyzed in SPSS (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY) by correlation and then hierarchical regression analysis. Illness perceptions and coping strategies were significantly related to the adjustment outcomes (hand functioning, QOL, depression, and trauma symptoms). Specifically, poorer adjustment was associated with more negative illness beliefs (r = 0.31-0.47), greater use of denial (r = 0.24-0.53), and avoidance-based (r = 0.41-0.64) coping strategies. Illness beliefs and coping play an important role in adjustment after hand injury. Adjustment is multifaceted with a need to consider physical and emotional functioning. More optimistic beliefs and adaptive coping styles are associated with improved adjustment. The role of psychological variables in optimizing adjustment is an important consideration for the design of psychological interventions, but because this study was cross sectional and cannot assume directional effects, future longitudinal studies are needed. N/A. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fiscal Adjustment in IMF-Supported Adjustment Programmes: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiscal adjustment is an essential element of macro-economic stability and economic growth. Given that economic growth is the most powerful weapon in the fight for higher living standards, poor growth performance in African countries, has been a challenge to economists, policy makers and international development ...

  7. GPU Parallel Bundle Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Maoteng


    Full Text Available To deal with massive data in photogrammetry, we introduce the GPU parallel computing technology. The preconditioned conjugate gradient and inexact Newton method are also applied to decrease the iteration times while solving the normal equation. A brand new workflow of bundle adjustment is developed to utilize GPU parallel computing technology. Our method can avoid the storage and inversion of the big normal matrix, and compute the normal matrix in real time. The proposed method can not only largely decrease the memory requirement of normal matrix, but also largely improve the efficiency of bundle adjustment. It also achieves the same accuracy as the conventional method. Preliminary experiment results show that the bundle adjustment of a dataset with about 4500 images and 9 million image points can be done in only 1.5 minutes while achieving sub-pixel accuracy.

  8. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment. (United States)

    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio


    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  9. Compact, Controlled Force Crew Exercise System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceflight adaptations include muscle atrophy, decreased bone mineral density and reduced aerobic capacity making effective resistance exercise countermeasure...

  10. Automorphisms of p-compact groups and their root data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K.K.S.; Grodal, J.


    We construct a model for the space of automorphisms of a connected p–compact group in terms of the space of automorphisms of its maximal torus normalizer and its root datum. As a consequence we show that any homomorphism to the outer automorphism group of a p–compact group can be lifted to a group...... action, analogous to   a classical theorem of de Siebenthal for compact Lie groups. The model of this paper is used in a crucial way in our paper `The classification of 2-compact groups' [arXiv:math.AT/0611437], where we prove the conjectured classification of 2–compact groups and determine...

  11. Mexican-Origin Youth's Cultural Orientations and Adjustment: Changes from Early to Late Adolescence (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.


    Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents' cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel…

  12. mFOAM-1.02: A compact version of the cellular event generator FOAM (United States)

    Jadach, S.; Sawicki, P.


    The general-purpose self-adapting Monte Carlo (MC) event generator/simulator mFOAM (standing for mini-FOAM) is a new compact version of the FOAM program, with a slightly limited functionality with respect to its parent version. On the other hand, mFOAM is easier to use for the average user. This new version is fully integrated with the ROOT package, the C++ utility library used widely in the particle physics community. The internal structure of the code is simplified and the very valuable feature of the persistency of the objects of the mFOAM class is improved. With the persistency at hand, it is possible to record very easily the complete state of a MC simulator object based on mFOAM and ROOT into a disk-file at any stage of its use: just after object allocation, after full initialization (exploration of the distribution), or at any time during the generation of the long series of MC events. Later on the MC simulator object can be easily restored from the disk-file in the "ready to go" state. Objects of the TFoam class can be used as a stand-alone solution to many everyday problems in the area of the Monte Carlo simulation, or as building blocks in large-scale MC projects, taking full advantage of the object-oriented technology and persistency. Program summaryManuscript title: mFOAM-1.02: A compact version of the cellular event generator FOAM Authors: S. Jadach, P. Sawicki Program title: mFOAM (mini FOAM), version 1.02 Catalogue identifier: ADYX_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 036 711 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 21 403 104 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: ANSI C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations, supercomputers and PC Operating

  13. Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somak Roy


    Full Text Available Background: Photomicrographs in Anatomic Pathology provide a means of quickly sharing information from a glass slide for consultation, education, documentation and publication. While static image acquisition historically involved the use of a permanently mounted camera unit on a microscope, such cameras may be expensive, need to be connected to a computer, and often require proprietary software to acquire and process images. Another novel approach for capturing digital microscopic images is to use smartphones coupled with the eyepiece of a microscope. Recently, several smartphone adapters have emerged that allow users to attach mobile phones to the microscope. The aim of this study was to test the utility of these various smartphone adapters. Materials and Methods: We surveyed the market for adapters to attach smartphones to the ocular lens of a conventional light microscope. Three adapters (Magnifi, Skylight and Snapzoom were tested. We assessed the designs of these adapters and their effectiveness at acquiring static microscopic digital images. Results: All adapters facilitated the acquisition of digital microscopic images with a smartphone. The optimal adapter was dependent on the type of phone used. The Magnifi adapters for iPhone were incompatible when using a protective case. The Snapzoom adapter was easiest to use with iPhones and other smartphones even with protective cases. Conclusions: Smartphone adapters are inexpensive and easy to use for acquiring digital microscopic images. However, they require some adjustment by the user in order to optimize focus and obtain good quality images. Smartphone microscope adapters provide an economically feasible method of acquiring and sharing digital pathology photomicrographs.

  14. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin


    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  15. Accommodation of repetitive sensor faults - applied to surface faults on compact discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle


    Surface defects such as scratches and fingerprints on compact discs (CDs) can cause CD players to lose focus and tracking on the discs. A scheme for handling these defects has previously been proposed. In this brief, adaptive and predictive versions of this scheme are developed. The adaptive scheme...... can be used to adapt the accommodation to specific surface defects on specific discs, while the predictive scheme can be used to jump between tracks with surface defects on the disc. Sufficient and necessary stability conditions for the proposed  accommodation schemes are derived as well. Performance...... of the accommodation scheme is discussed. Both proposed methods show their potentials through simulations with a CD player playing a CD with a surface  defect (scratch).  ...

  16. Morphological responses of barley roots to soil compaction and modified supply of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The morphological changes in barley roots in response to soil compaction and hypoxia were quantified by image analysis. Based on the assumption that these soil stresses increase endogenous ethylene production in plants, changes indicating higher construction costs for roots, such as decreased specific root length, were expected. The hypothesis was found to be only partly correct. Most morphological changes of barley roots were probably a reaction to increased soil mechanical impedance. Examples of this are root width, which was increased by compaction apart from in wet soil, as well as increased width and specific volume, and a decreased specific length of roots in the deepest layer of well-aerated loose soil. However, in loose moist soil hypoxia prevented root growth, but did not change root morphology. The results suggest that severe hypoxia lessens the possibilities of roots to adapt to the hypoxic soil by reducing root growth and by preventing the formation of aerenchyma. ;

  17. Bicultural Efficacy and College Adjustment. (United States)

    Coleman, Hardin L. K.; And Others

    The retention of ethnic minorities is a major problem in American colleges and universities. This study deals with the factors that affect adjustment to college and, in particular, to achievement of "bicultural efficacy" for this group. Bicultural efficacy is defined as an individual's expectations that he or she can (or cannot) manage the stress…

  18. Technological Change: Helping Workers Adjust. (United States)

    Mowery, David C.


    Discusses some of the problems in employment shifts and unemployment caused by new technologies in offices and factories. Addresses the Job Training Partnership Act (Title III) which was established as the primary assistance vehicle for displaced workers. Calls for workers to receive sufficient time to adjust to technologies. (TW)

  19. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus


    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...

  20. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose


    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  1. Mechanical Compaction of Porous Sandstone Compaction mécanique des grès poreux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong T. F.


    Full Text Available In many reservoir engineering and tectonic problems, the ability to predict both the occurrence and extent of inelastic deformation and failure hinges upon a fundamental understanding of the phenomenology and micromechanics of compaction in reservoir rock. This paper reviews recent research advances on mechanical compaction of porous sandstone, with focus on the synthesis of laboratory data, quantitative microstructural characterization of damage, and theoretical models based on elastic contact and fracture mechanics. The mechanical attributes of compaction in nominally dry and saturated samples have been studied under hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic loadings over a broad range of pressure conditions. Specific topics reviewed herein include: comparison of mechanical and acoustic emission data with continuum plasticity theory; microstructural control of onset and development of compaction; strain hardening and spatial evolution of damage during compaction; and the weakening effect of water on compactive yield and porosity change. Pour de nombreux problèmes de tectonique et d'ingénierie de réservoir, la capacité à prévoir à la fois la fréquence, l'ampleur de la déformation inélastique et les ruptures repose sur une compréhension fondamentale de la phénoménologie et de la micromécanique de compaction dans les roches-réservoirs. Cet article présente les résultats de recherches récentes sur la compaction mécanique des grès poreux. On insiste plus particulièrement sur la synthèse des données de laboratoire, la caractérisation microstructurale quantitative de l'endommagement, ainsi que sur les modèles théoriques basés sur un contact élastique et sur la mécanique de la rupture. Les attributs mécaniques de la compaction sur des échantillons initialement secs et saturés ont été étudiés sous des chargements hydrostatiques et non hydrostatiques dans une large gamme de pression. Les sujets spécifiques étudiés ici

  2. Compact atmospheric pressure plasma self-resonant drive circuits (United States)

    Law, V. J.; Anghel, S. D.


    This paper reports on compact solid-state self-resonant drive circuits that are specifically designed to drive an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge of small volume (0.5 cm3). The atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) device can be operated with helium, argon or a mixture of both. Equivalent electrical models of the self-resonant drive circuits and discharge are developed and used to estimate the plasma impedance, plasma power density, current density or electron number density of three APP devices. These parameters and the kinetic gas temperature are dependent on the self-resonant frequency of the APP device. For a fixed switching frequency and APP device geometry, the plasma parameters are controlled by adjusting the dc voltage at the primary coil and the gas flow rate. The resonant frequency is controlled by the selection of the switching power transistor and means of step-up voltage transformation (ferrite core, flyback transformer, or Tesla coil). The flyback transformer operates in the tens of kHz, the ferrite core in the hundreds of kHz and Tesla coil in the MHz range. Embedded within this work is the principle of frequency pulling which is exemplified in the flyback transformer circuit that utilizes a pickup coil for feedback control of the switching frequency.

  3. Conceptual design of a compact positron tomograph for prostateimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.S.; Derenzo, S.E.; Qi, J.; Moses, W.W.; Huesman, R.H.; Budinger, T.F.


    We present a conceptual design of a compact positron tomograph for prostate imaging using a pair of external curved detector banks, one placed above and one below the patient. The lower detector bank is fixed below the patient bed, and the top bank adjusts vertically for maximum sensitivity and patient access. Each bank is composed of 40conventional block detectors, forming two arcs (44 cm minor, 60 cm major axis) that are tilted to minimize attenuation and positioned as close as possible to the patient to improve sensitivity. The individual detectors are angled to point towards the prostate to minimize resolution degradation in that region. Inter-plane septa extend 5 cm beyond the scintillator crystals to reduce random and scatter backgrounds. A patient is not fully encircled by detector rings in order to minimize cost,causing incomplete sampling due to the side gaps. Monte Carlo simulation (including random and scatter) demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a spherical tumor of 2.5 cm diameter with a tumor to background ratio of2:1, utilizing the number of events that should be achievable with a6-minute scan after a 10 mCi injection (e.g., carbon-11 choline or fluorine-18 fluorocholine).

  4. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment. (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.


    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  5. General Adjustment Influence Factor of Malaysian Construction Expatriates Executives Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainol Halmi


    Full Text Available The success of Malaysian construction companies creates an opportunity to explore abroad. Past studies have shown that the difficulty of expatriates in adjusting to a new environment is the main aspect that leads to failure of assignments. The success in implementing an overseas assignment does not solely depend on an expatriate’s technical expertise. The adjustment issues such as the interaction with the host nationals, and adaptability to the host country’s culture also exert influence on the assignment. The research was conducted to identify the influence of executive expatriate general adjustment on assignment in host countries. The objective of the study was to identify adjustment influence factors relating to general adjustment abroad. Questionnaires were sent to Malaysian expatriate executives. Sixty four Malaysian expatriate executives from Malaysian construction companies overseas were involved in this study. The findings show interaction, social and living environment influences their adjustment during expatriation. Pre-departure training preparation aspects for expatriates is a good step before their departure to host countries.

  6. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    be given greater access to relevant information to help them adapt their farming practices and socio- economic strategies to climate change? To address this challenge, the project “InfoClim,” led by Senegal's. Ecological Monitoring Centre. (CSE) with support from the. CCAA program, aims at improving the access of farmers ...

  7. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    and local adaptive capacity. During a monitoring and evaluation session, farmers indicated that the downscaled climate outlook has helped them to make more appropriate on-farm decisions. Figure 2 illustrates the effects of seasonal forecasts on the decisions farmers made in regards to the type/ variety of seeds to plant.

  8. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette


    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...

  9. Adaptation and creativity in cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M. Cohen


    Full Text Available Adaptation is the fit between the individual and the environment. The dynamic interplay between person, culture, and environment is one of the most important issues in analyzing creativity. Adaptation is defined as the fit or adjustment of the individual to external conditions, but adaptation can also mean moving from one environment to another more suitable, or even forcing the environment to adapt in response to creative efforts. Culture impacts creativity in limiting acceptable boundaries, yet providing the artifacts used in creating. Culture is impacted and changed by creative efforts. Tight conformity to confining environments or cultures can stifle. The creator must be aware of cultural values and not overstep these boundaries for work to be accepted. A developmental continuum of adaptive, creative behaviors suggests a shift from individual adaptation to the environment to adaptation by the world to the individual.

  10. Mental health and multimorbidity: psychosocial adjustment as an important process for quality of life


    Schulze, Thekla; Maercker, Andreas; Horn, Andrea B.


    BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity (the co-occurrence of two or more chronic diseases) can be seen as a prototypical situation in which psychosocial adjustment is required. Even though most patients adapt successfully, a significant number of individuals show adaptation problems and develop additional mental health problems. OBJECTIVE: For this reason, this article focuses on the importance of psychosocial adaptation as a core process in the context of quality of life. RESULTS: Important findin...

  11. Compact Core Galaxies in the RESOLVE Survey (United States)

    Snyder, Elaine; Kannappan, S.; Stark, D.; Eckert, K. D.; Norris, M. A.; Norman, D. J.; RESOLVE Team


    We identify a population of galaxies with half-light radii CCGs) include both compact ellipticals (cEs) and CCGs with envelopes of gas and stars. They occupy both isolated and non-isolated environments, spanning a variety of large scale structures in RESOLVE, including clusters, walls, and filaments. We deconvolve the radii of these galaxies with their seeing profiles, as CCGs are strongly affected by seeing at RESOLVE distances. We compare their radii and star formation histories with those of globular clusters, ultra compact dwarfs (UCDs), and cEs in the ~300 object AIMSS (Archive of Intermediate Mass Stellar Systems) catalog, making use of cross-matched GALEX NUV data for both data sets. We also present Gemini observations of velocity dispersions of the CCGs for comparison with RESOLVE and AIMSS kinematic data. By examining all of these properties, we seek to discriminate between formation scenarios for CCGs, such as tidal stripping (a likely scenario if they represent the high-mass end of the UCD population) or dissipative major mergers (a likely scenario if they represent the low-mass end of the massive spheroid population). We also use properties of AIMSS sample objects such as color and environment to guide the development of new algorithms for finding potentially overlooked cEs/CCGs in RESOLVE. Increasing the completeness of our sample of compact galaxies will strengthen its statistical power for analysis of their formation scenarios as a function of environment. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under AST-0955368, and by the grant HST-AR-12147.01-A .

  12. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, D.S.


    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  13. Uplifting non-compact gauged supergravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Walter H.; Dall’Agata, Gianguido [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”,Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Padova Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    We provide the M-theory uplift of de Sitter vacua of SO(5,3) and SO(4,4) gaugings of maximal supergravity in 4 dimensions. We find new non-compact backgrounds that are squashed hyperboloids with non-trivial flux for the 3-form potential. The uplift requires a new non-linear ansatz for the 11-dimensional metric and for the 3-form potential that reduces to the known one leading to the 7-sphere solution in the case of the SO(8) gauging.

  14. Company Delistings from the UN Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen


    While a substantial amount of the literature describes corporate benefits of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, the literature is silent concerning why some companies announce CSR initiatives, yet fail to implement them. The article examines company delistings from the UN Global...... shows that companies are less likely to be delisted from countries where domestic governance institutions are well-functioning. To a lesser extent, I find that firms from countries with international economies are more willing to comply with the UN Global Compact requirements. Countries with a high...

  15. Compact MOSFET models for VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, A B


    Practicing designers, students, and educators in the semiconductor field face an ever expanding portfolio of MOSFET models. In Compact MOSFET Models for VLSI Design , A.B. Bhattacharyya presents a unified perspective on the topic, allowing the practitioner to view and interpret device phenomena concurrently using different modeling strategies. Readers will learn to link device physics with model parameters, helping to close the gap between device understanding and its use for optimal circuit performance. Bhattacharyya also lays bare the core physical concepts that will drive the future of VLSI.

  16. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip


    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  17. Winds from disks in compact binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauche, C.W.


    We herein present an observational and theoretical review of the winds of compact binaries. After a brief consideration of the accretion disk coronae and winds of X-ray binaries, the review concentrates on the winds of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Specifically, we consider the related problems of the geometry and mass-loss rate of the winds of CVs, their ionization state and variability, and the results from studies of eclipsing CVs. Finally, the properties of bona fide accretion disk wind models are reviewed.

  18. Social Compacts in Regional and Global Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk


    the impact of global restructuring on labour and social conditions. Examples of the distributional consequences and resulting inequality, poverty, and unemployment are provided. This process has had an important impact on the emergence of reactive regional social compacts based on various forms of negotiated...... théoriser et de conceptualiser les notions de la mondialisation et de la gouvernance globale et régionale. La transformation de l'aide sociale en workfare (assistance sociale en échange du travail) et les impacts d'une restructuration globale sur le travail et les conditions sociales sont analysés, exemples...

  19. Constraints on the braneworld from compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, R.G. [Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, CFTP, Lisboa (Portugal); Paret, D.M. [Universidad de la Habana, Departamento de Fisica General, Facultad de Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); Martinez, A.P. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)


    According to the braneworld idea, ordinary matter is confined on a three-dimensional space (brane) that is embedded in a higher-dimensional space-time where gravity propagates. In this work, after reviewing the limits coming from general relativity, finiteness of pressure and causality on the brane, we derive observational constraints on the braneworld parameters from the existence of stable compact stars. The analysis is carried out by solving numerically the brane-modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, using different representative equations of state to describe matter in the star interior. The cases of normal dense matter, pure quark matter and hybrid matter are considered. (orig.)

  20. Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers. (United States)

    Keller, Ursula


    Ultrafast lasers, which generate optical pulses in the picosecond and femtosecond range, have progressed over the past decade from complicated and specialized laboratory systems to compact, reliable instruments. Semiconductor lasers for optical pumping and fast optical saturable absorbers, based on either semiconductor devices or the optical nonlinear Kerr effect, have dramatically improved these lasers and opened up new frontiers for applications with extremely short temporal resolution (much smaller than 10 fs), extremely high peak optical intensities (greater than 10 TW/cm2) and extremely fast pulse repetition rates (greater than 100 GHz).

  1. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)


    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  2. Development of a compact solar combisystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon


    to get highest system efficiency for use with either a condensing natural gas boiler or a pellet boiler. Especially when using the potential of high peak power of modern condensing natural gas boilers, a new operation strategy of a natural gas boiler/solar combisystem can increase the energy savings......Within the frame of the project REBUS, “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research, a new type of compact solar combisystem with high degree of prefabrication was developed. A hydraulic and control concept was designed with the goal...... of a small solar combisystem by about 80% compared to conventional operation strategies....

  3. School Adjustment And Academic Achievement Among Tribal Dolescents In Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ch. Beda Devi


    Full Text Available Abstract The present study is an attempt to examine school adjustment and academic achievement among tribal adolescent students in two districts of Manipur. The study also attempts to examine the high and low academic achievers of tribal students of the two areas. The sample comprised of 629 XI standard tribal adolescent students. Out of which 136 were from Imphal West and 493 were from Ukhrul district. A standardized school adjustment inventory for adolescent students developed by the investigator was used. For academic achievement the last public examination i.e. H.S.L.C. marks were used as the index of academic achievement. The findings revealed that a low positive correlation between school adjustment and academic achievement in both the districts. It was also reveals that high academic achievers had better adaptability in school than that of low academic achievers

  4. Development of pixelated scintillator-based compact radio-TLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang June; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jong Guk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The radio-TLC system generally shows as a graph of counting gamma radioactivity, emitting by radiopharmaceutical including a specific radioisotope. it makes guarantee quantitative accuracy and reproducibility for chemically stability and change of a targeting radiopharmaceutical. In present the radio-TLC produced by a few companies use a gas-filled proportional counter with high cost, and it has limitations of both gas diffusion and ion density. Recently, Ce:GAGG has been developed and presented as promising scintillators for PET and SPECT due to high density, high light yield (- 46,000-51,000 photon/MeV), and fast decay time. We have adapted GAGG scintillation crystal array to radio-TLC detector. We developed the GAGG crystal array based radio-TLC RT-102. The RT-102 has several advantages such as the compact size, the no-gas usage, and the lower cost in comparison with commercial radio-TLC scanner. In order to verify the performance of RT-102, we compared RT-102 with AR-2000. We scanned and compared Tc-99m and F-18 solution spotted samples in the same conditions. The ROI counts ratio and position detecting performances of RT-102 are approximately same with AR-2000. The results indicate the RT-102 has enough resolution and sensitivity to be used in the measurement of radiochemical purity test in radio-TLC devices.

  5. Gravitational Wave Detection of Compact Binaries Through Multivariate Analysis (United States)

    Atallah, Dany Victor; Dorrington, Iain; Sutton, Patrick


    The first detection of gravitational waves (GW), GW150914, as produced by a binary black hole merger, has ushered in the era of GW astronomy. The detection technique used to find GW150914 considered only a fraction of the information available describing the candidate event: mainly the detector signal to noise ratios and chi-squared values. In hopes of greatly increasing detection rates, we want to take advantage of all the information available about candidate events. We employ a technique called Multivariate Analysis (MVA) to improve LIGO sensitivity to GW signals. MVA techniques are efficient ways to scan high dimensional data spaces for signal/noise classification. Our goal is to use MVA to classify compact-object binary coalescence (CBC) events composed of any combination of black holes and neutron stars. CBC waveforms are modeled through numerical relativity. Templates of the modeled waveforms are used to search for CBCs and quantify candidate events. Different MVA pipelines are under investigation to look for CBC signals and un-modelled signals, with promising results. One such MVA pipeline used for the un-modelled search can theoretically analyze far more data than the MVA pipelines currently explored for CBCs, potentially making a more powerful classifier. In principle, this extra information could improve the sensitivity to GW signals. We will present the results from our efforts to adapt an MVA pipeline used in the un-modelled search to classify candidate events from the CBC search.

  6. Adjustment in the World Economy


    Paul Krugman


    There is a widespread view that world payments imbalances can be remedied through increased demand in surplus countries and reduced demand in deficit countries, without any need for real exchange rate changes. In fact shifts in demand and real exchange rate adjustment are necessary couplets, not substitutes. The essential reason for this complementarity is that a much higher fraction of a marginal dollar of US than of foreign spending falls on US output. As a result, a redistribution of world...

  7. DFB laser array driver circuit controlled by adjustable signal (United States)

    Du, Weikang; Du, Yinchao; Guo, Yu; Li, Wei; Wang, Hao


    In order to achieve the intelligent controlling of DFB laser array, this paper presents the design of an intelligence and high precision numerical controlling electric circuit. The system takes MCU and FPGA as the main control chip, with compact, high-efficiency, no impact, switching protection characteristics. The output of the DFB laser array can be determined by an external adjustable signal. The system transforms the analog control model into a digital control model, which improves the performance of the driver. The system can monitor the temperature and current of DFB laser array in real time. The output precision of the current can reach ± 0.1mA, which ensures the stable and reliable operation of the DFB laser array. Such a driver can benefit the flexible usage of the DFB laser array.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Raluca GRĂDINARU


    Full Text Available The compact city is regarded as an important concept in promoting sustainable development, especially within the European Union. The socialist urban planning system maintained a high compactness of the urban areas through almost exclusive predominance of the public sector in housing provision, and ideological nature of the planning strategies. After the 1990’s, the administrative decentralization allowed local authorities to adopt particular urban development strategies. However, development was directly influenced by the importance of the urban administrative centre. The aim of the paper is to determine if post-socialist urban areas maintained their compact urban form or they encountered different evolution trajectories. We determined the type of changes by calculating urban form indicators at two time moments: 1990 and 2006. Furthermore, the two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA was used to identify significant changes, and to assess the effect of the development level of the urban area on the variance of form indicators. The results show that Romanian post-socialist urban areas either shifted from the compact form, "inherited" after the collapse of socialism, to more dispersed patterns, either expanded in a compact manner. Moreover, as development level got higher, urban areas were more likely to be affected by suburbanization and periurbanization. In order to respond to these challenges, new instruments such as setting of metropolitan areas or spatial framework plans could be used. Furthermore, planning should be adapted to local circumstances and to the different development trajectories of big and mid-sized urban areas.

  9. 77 FR 60475 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact (United States)


    ...) Best Practices Guide: The Outsourcing of Noncriminal Justice Administrative Functions (2) The Report on... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Federal Government and 29 states are parties to the Compact which governs the exchange of criminal history...

  10. Newly developed compact magnetic sector mass spectrometer (United States)

    Meng, Dong; Yongjun, Cheng; Wenjun, Sun; Meiru, Guo; Lian, Chen; Huzhong, Zhang; Gang, Li; Xiaoqiang, Pei


    In this paper, a novel compact magnetic sector mass spectrometer has been developed and tested at the Lanzhou Institute of Physics. Its design is based on the mass separation of a 90° magnetic sector-field analyzer with a double trajectory, which has a magnetic induction of 0.7 T. The instrument can record mass range from 1 to 50 amu based on two special trajectories when the accelerating voltage of the ion source changes from 200 V to 2500 V. The dimensions of the device together with the electronic unit are approximately 220  ×  165  ×  165 mm3 (length  ×  depth  ×  height). The weight is 10.2 kg and the maximum power consumption was measured to be 20 W. The instrument successfully provided mass spectrum information on the vacuum test chamber, resolving power of about 58 at full width half maximum (FWHM), and demonstrated a sensitivity of 7.2  ×  10‑5 A Pa‑1. The compact magnetic sector mass spectrometer is designed for space application and can be extended to other portable analytical fields on Earth.

  11. Broadband electromagnetic analysis of compacted kaolin (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Cai, Caifang; Scheuermann, Alexander


    The mechanical compaction of soil influences not only the mechanical strength and compressibility but also the hydraulic behavior in terms of hydraulic conductivity and soil suction. At the same time, electric and dielectric parameters are increasingly used to characterize soil and to relate them with mechanic and hydraulic parameters. In the presented study electromagnetic soil properties and suction were measured under defined conditions of standardized compaction tests. The impact of external mechanical stress conditions of nearly pure kaolinite was analyzed on soil suction and broadband electromagnetic soil properties. An experimental procedure was developed and validated to simultaneously determine mechanical, hydraulic and broadband (1 MHz-3 GHz) electromagnetic properties of the porous material. The frequency dependent electromagnetic properties were modeled with a classical mixture equation (advanced Lichtenecker and Rother model, ALRM) and a hydraulic-mechanical-electromagnetic coupling approach was introduced considering water saturation, soil structure (bulk density, porosity), soil suction (pore size distribution, water sorption) as well as electrical conductivity of the aqueous pore solution. Moreover, the relaxation behavior was analyzed with a generalized fractional relaxation model concerning a high-frequency water process and two interface processes extended with an apparent direct current conductivity contribution. The different modeling approaches provide a satisfactory agreement with experimental data for the real part. These results show the potential of broadband electromagnetic approaches for quantitative estimation of the hydraulic state of the soil during densification.

  12. Compact modeling of STT-MTJ devices (United States)

    Xu, Zihan; Yang, Chengen; Mao, Manqing; Sutaria, Ketul B.; Chakrabarti, Chaitali; Cao, Yu


    STT-MTJ is a promising device for future high-density and low-power integrated systems. To enable design exploration of STT-MTJ, this paper presents a fully compact model for efficient SPICE simulation. Derived from the fundamental LLG equation, the new model consists of RC elements that are compact equations of device geometry and material properties. They support transient SPICE simulations, providing necessary details beyond the macromodel and enable resilient memory design. The accuracy of the model is validated with numerical results and published data. Scaling analysis shows the sensitivity of STT-MTJ to its geometry. We also did variability analysis with Monte Carlo simulation of the basic 1T1MTJ memory cell to study the bit error rate performance for different transistor size and programming current profile. We show that there is a tradeoff between programming energy and cell area for the same bit error rate constraint. Finally we derive the cell size that achieves minimum energy consumption for a given bit error rate constraint (primary) and latency or area constraint (secondary).

  13. Results of Compact Stellarator Eengineering Trade Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Brown, L. Bromberg, and M. Cole


    A number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study.

  14. Results of Compact Stellarator Engineering Trade Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Brown, L. Bromberg, M. Cole


    number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study.

  15. Compact, solid-state femtosecond source (United States)

    Bado, Philippe


    The goal of this program was to demonstrate that femtosecond laser sources (1 femtosecond = 10(exp -15) sec) can be made to be extremely compact and robust. We demonstrated the generation of ultrashort pulses using compact diode-pumped lasers. Our latest pump source is 300 times smaller and weighs only a fraction of today's commercial equivalent. It runs on 110 VAC and requires no water cooling. The commercial availability of robust sources will have a broad commercial impact. A brief listing includes: industry (3D imaging, ranging, thin-film monitoring, optical memory), medical (confocal microscopy, real-time assessment of surgical procedure), and military (sensor fusion, high-power THz beam generation, phase-array radars). We are pursuing the development of a general laboratory instrument, as well as several specific applications. This large market has not gone unnoticed: Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITT) has very recently recommended Femtosecond Technology as one of Japan's only six priority research areas.

  16. Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yang

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.

  17. Compact solid source of hydrogen gas (United States)

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Hecht, Andrew M.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Bell, Nelson S.


    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  18. Compact Directional Microwave Antenna for Localized Heating (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Lin, Gregory Y.; Chu, Andrew W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong


    A directional, catheter-sized cylindrical antenna has been developed for localized delivery of microwave radiation for heating (and thus killing) diseased tissue without excessively heating nearby healthy tissue. By "localized" is meant that the antenna radiates much more in a selected azimuthal direction than in the opposite radial direction, so that it heats tissue much more on one side than it does on the opposite side. This antenna can be inserted using either a catheter or a syringe. A 2.4-mm prototype was tested, although smaller antennas are possible. Prior compact, cylindrical antennas designed for therapeutic localized hyperthermia do not exhibit such directionality; that is, they radiate in approximately axisymmetric patterns. Prior directional antennas designed for the same purpose have been, variously, (1) too large to fit within catheters or (2) too large, after deployment from catheters, to fit within the confines of most human organs. In contrast, the present antenna offers a high degree of directionality and is compact enough to be useable as a catheter in some applications.

  19. Binding Energy and Equilibrium of Compact Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano M.


    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the existence of a limit mass for compact astronomic ob- jects requires the solution of the Einstein’s equations of g eneral relativity together with an appropriate equation of state. Analytical solutions exi st in some special cases like the spherically symmetric static object without energy sou rces that is here considered. Solutions, i.e. the spacetime metrics, can have a singular m athematical form (the so called Schwarzschild metric due to Hilbert or a nonsingula r form (original work of Schwarzschild. The former predicts a limit mass and, conse quently, the existence of black holes above this limit. Here it is shown that, the origi nal Schwarzschild met- ric permits compact objects, without mass limit, having rea sonable values for central density and pressure. The lack of a limit mass is also demonst rated analytically just imposing reasonable conditions on the energy-matter densi ty, of positivity and decreas- ing with radius. Finally the ratio between proper mass and to tal mass tends to 2 for high values of mass so that the binding energy reaches the lim it m (total mass seen by a distant observer. As it is known the negative binding energ y reduces the gravitational mass of the object; the limit of m for the binding energy provides a mechanism for stable equilibrium of any amount of mass to contrast the gravitatio nal collapse.

  20. Looking for extra dimensions in compact stars (United States)

    Lugones, Germán; Arbañil, José D. V.


    The properties of spherically symmetric static compact stars are studied in the Randall-Sundrum II type braneworld model assuming that the spacetime outside the star is described by a Schwarzschild metric. The integration of the stellar structure equations employing the so called causal limit equation of state (EoS) shows that the equilibrium solutions can violate the general relativistic causal limit. An analysis of the properties of hadronic and strange quark stars using standard EoSs confirm the same result: there is a branch in the mass-radius diagram that shows the typical behaviour found within the frame of General Relativity and another branch of stars that are supported against collapse by the nonlocal effects of the bulk on the brane. Stars belonging to the new branch can violate the general relativistic causal limit, may have an arbitrarily large mass, and are stable under small radial perturbations. If they exist in Nature, these objects could be hidden among the population of black hole candidates. The future observation of compact stars with masses and radii falling above the causal limit of General Relativity but below the Schwarzschild limit maybe a promising astrophysical evidence for the existence of extra dimensions.

  1. Urban soil compaction reduces cicada diversity. (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Numata, Hideharu


    Urbanization converts animal habitats into globally homogeneous environments. Consequently, urban communities have low diversity and are often dominated by a few species. However, proximate environmental factor(s) causing community degradation have rarely been identified among diverse and co-varying urban parameters. The present study addresses the recent loss of cicada diversity in Osaka, Japan, where cicada communities are overwhelmed by a single species, Cryptotympana facialis. A field survey across an urban-forest gradient revealed that the trend of decreasing cicada diversity toward the urban core was mostly associated with the soil hardness among the environmental variables examined. Simultaneously, the proportion of C. facialis increased with soil hardness, although this effect was partially mitigated in forest patches. Newly hatched nymphs of C. facialis exhibited greater burrowing ability than that in other native species. These findings identify soil compaction due to urbanization as a possible cause of cicada diversity loss, as it impedes the passage of nymphs to underground nests. This impact of urban soil compaction may influence ecosystem functioning of soil-dwelling arthropods and their trophically associated animals.

  2. Conduction cooled compact laser for chemcam instrument (United States)

    Faure, B.; Saccoccio, M.; Maurice, S.; Durand, E.; Derycke, C.


    A new conduction cooled compact laser for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Mars is presented. The laser provides pulses with energy higher than 30mJ at 1μm of wavelength with a good spatial quality. Three development prototypes of this laser have been built and functional and environmental tests have been done. Then, the Qualification and Flight models have been developed and delivered. A spare model is now developed. This laser will be mounted on the ChemCam Instrument of the NASA mission MSL 2009. ChemCam Instrument is developed in collaboration between France (CESR and CNES) and USA (LANL). The goal of this Instrument is to study the chemical composition of Martian rocks. A laser source (subject of this presentation) emits a pulse which is focused by a telescope. It creates a luminous plasma on the rock; the light of this plasma is then analysed by three spectrometers to obtain information on the composition of the rock. The laser source is developed by the French company Thales Laser, with a technical support from CNES and CESR. This development is funded by CNES. The laser is compact, designed to work in burst mode. It doesn't require any active cooling.

  3. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul


    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  4. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin


    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  5. Adaptive VFH (United States)

    Odriozola, Iñigo; Lazkano, Elena; Sierra, Basi


    This paper investigates the improvement of the Vector Field Histogram (VFH) local planning algorithm for mobile robot systems. The Adaptive Vector Field Histogram (AVFH) algorithm has been developed to improve the effectiveness of the traditional VFH path planning algorithm overcoming the side effects of using static parameters. This new algorithm permits the adaptation of planning parameters for the different type of areas in an environment. Genetic Algorithms are used to fit the best VFH parameters to each type of sector and, afterwards, every section in the map is labelled with the sector-type which best represents it. The Player/Stage simulation platform has been chosen for making all sort of tests and to prove the new algorithm's adequateness. Even though there is still much work to be carried out, the developed algorithm showed good navigation properties and turned out to be softer and more effective than the traditional VFH algorithm.

  6. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette


    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...

  7. Preparation of Ag nanoparticle dispersed silk fibroin compact (United States)

    Yu, Weidong; Kuzuya, Toshihiro; Hirai, Shinji; Tamada, Yasushi; Sawada, Ken; Iwasa, Tatsuo


    We prepared a silk fibroin compact in which Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were dispersed, by adding only silver nitrate (AgNO3) to a silk fibroin solution without using any reducing agent. FT-IR and DSC revealed that the formation of Ag NPs distorted the conformation of the silk fibroin. However, the Ag NPs did not affect the thermal stability of the silk fibroin compact. An antimicrobial test against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was performed using the silk fibroin compact in which Ag NPs were dispersed. The compact showed sufficient antimicrobial activity because the average survival of E. coli was 1.6% after 8 h incubation even when the silver content was 0.01 wt%. The addition of Ag NPs into silk fibroin compact can provide color and an antimicrobial function without spoiling the function of the silk fibroin compact.

  8. Soil compaction effects on soil health and cropproductivity: an overview. (United States)

    Shah, Adnan Noor; Tanveer, Mohsin; Shahzad, Babar; Yang, Guozheng; Fahad, Shah; Ali, Saif; Bukhari, Muhammad Adnan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Hafeez, Abdul; Souliyanonh, Biangkham


    Soil compaction causes substantial reduction in agriculture productivity and has always been of great distress for farmers. Intensive agriculture seems to be more crucial in causing compaction. High mechanical load, less crop diversification, intensive grazing, and irrigation methods lead to soil compaction. It is further exasperated when these factors are accompanied with low organic matter, animal trampling, engine vibrations, and tillage at high moisture contents. Soil compaction increases soil bulk density and soil strength, while decreases porosity, aggregate stability index, soil hydraulic conductivity, and nutrient availability, thus reduces soil health. Consequently, it lowers crop performance via stunted aboveground growth coupled with reduced root growth. This paper reviews the potential causes of compaction and its consequences that have been published in last two decades. Various morphological and physiological alterations in plant as result of soil compaction have also been discussed in this review.

  9. [Causal relationship between assertiveness and adjustment in children: A short-term longitudinal study]. (United States)

    Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu


    This study examined the causal relationships between assertiveness and both internal and external adjustment in children. Elementary school children in grades four through six (N = 284) participated in the study, which used a short-term longitudinal design. The children completed questionnaires twice during a 6-months period. They responded to assertiveness questionnaires that included two components: "self-expression" and "consideration of others". They also completed a self-esteem scale as an index of internal adjustment, and the Class Life Satisfaction scale as an index of external adjustment. There was a positive causative relationship between "self-expression" and internal adjustment and between "consideration for others" and external adjustment. In addition, the effects on adjustment varied according to the type of assertiveness. Cluster analysis and MANOVA indicated that the group with high "self-expression" and "consideration for others" had high internal and external adjustment, while the children with poor assertiveness showed the lowest degree of adaptivity.

  10. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul


    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related conc....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn PETERS, M.Sc.


    Full Text Available Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved

  12. Environmental impacts of different crop rotations in terms of soil compaction. (United States)

    Götze, Philipp; Rücknagel, Jan; Jacobs, Anna; Märländer, Bernward; Koch, Heinz-Josef; Christen, Olaf


    Avoiding soil compaction caused by agricultural management is a key aim of sustainable land management, and the soil compaction risk should be considered when assessing the environmental impacts of land use systems. Therefore this project compares different crop rotations in terms of soil structure and the soil compaction risk. It is based on a field trial in Germany, in which the crop rotations (i) silage maize (SM) monoculture, (ii) catch crop mustard (Mu)_sugar beet (SB)-winter wheat (WW)-WW, (iii) Mu_SM-WW-WW and (iv) SB-WW-Mu_SM are established since 2010. Based on the cultivation dates, the operation specific soil compaction risks and the soil compaction risk of the entire crop rotations are modelled at two soil depths (20 and 35 cm). To this end, based on assumptions of the equipment currently used in practice by a model farm, two scenarios are modelled (100 and 50% hopper load for SB and WW harvest). In addition, after one complete rotation, in 2013 and in 2014, the physical soil parameters saturated hydraulic conductivity (kS) and air capacity (AC) were determined at soil depths 2-8, 12-18, 22-28 and 32-38 cm in order to quantify the soil structure. At both soil depths, the modelled soil compaction risks for the crop rotations including SB (Mu_SB-WW-WW, SB-WW-Mu_SM) are higher (20 cm: medium to very high risks; 35 cm: no to medium risks) than for those without SB (SM monoculture, Mu_SM-WW-WW; 20 cm: medium risks; 35 cm: no to low risks). This increased soil compaction risk is largely influenced by the SB harvest in years where soil water content is high. Halving the hopper load and adjusting the tyre inflation pressure reduces the soil compaction risk for the crop rotation as a whole. Under these conditions, there are no to low soil compaction risks for all variants in the subsoil (soil depth 35 cm). Soil structure is mainly influenced in the topsoil (2-8 cm) related to the cultivation of Mu as a catch crop and WW as a preceding crop. Concerning k

  13. A new algorithm for computing branching rules and Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of unitary representations of compact groups (United States)

    Ibort, A.; López Yela, A.; Moro, J.


    A numerical algorithm that computes the decomposition of any finite-dimensional unitary reducible representation of a compact Lie group is presented. The algorithm, which does not rely on an algebraic insight into the group structure, is inspired by quantum mechanical notions. After generating two adapted states (these objects will be conveniently defined in Definition II.1) and after appropriate algebraic manipulations, the algorithm returns the block matrix structure of the representation in terms of its irreducible components. It also provides an adapted orthonormal basis. The algorithm can be used to compute the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the tensor product of irreducible representations of a given compact Lie group. The performance of the algorithm is tested on various examples: the decomposition of the regular representation of two finite groups and the computation of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of two examples of tensor products of representations of SU(2).

  14. Accelerated Tests of Soft Errors in Network Systems Using a Compact Accelerator- Driven Neutron Source (United States)

    Iwashita, Hidenori; Sato, Hirotaka; Arai, Kaoru; Kotanigawa, Takashi; Kino, Koichi; Kamiyama, Takashi; Hiraga, Fujio; Koda, Katsutoshi; Furusaka, Michihiro; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki


    The frequency of neutron-induced soft errors is increasing as devices become more integrated and miniaturized. Therefore, it has become more important recently to check reliability of a recovery system from the soft errors in network systems. For accelerated test, first we have examined possibility of the acceleration tests at a compact accelerator-driven neutron source, which is easy to adjust for soft-error tests and which also has low experimental costs. We selected the electron accelerator-driven neutron source at Hokkaido University as the compact accelerator-driven neutron source. We prepared a new target-reflector assembly composed of heavy metals to provide the fast neutrons, and conducted neutron-induced soft-error experiments on network equipments. As a result, we found that an accelerated rate of soft errors was about 106 times compared with that of the natural environment. We also investigated network equipment soft-error tolerance, fault detection and backup switching processes. Performing such testing before network equipment is actually deployed is critical for development of future network systems. Hence, the compact accelerator-based neutron source is a very useful tool.

  15. 24 CFR 882.410 - Rent adjustments. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent adjustments. 882.410 Section... Policies § 882.410 Rent adjustments. (a) Annual and special adjustments. Contract Rents will be adjusted as... schedule of Contract Rents, provided that the unit is in decent, safe, and sanitary condition and that the...

  16. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b) The...

  17. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong


    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  18. Characterization of field compaction using shrinkage analysis and visual soil examination (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Keller, Thomas; Weisskopf, Peter; Schulin, Rainer; Boivin, Pascal


    Visual field examination of soil structure can be very useful in extension work, because it is easy to perform, does not require equipment or lab analyses and the result is immediately available. The main limitations of visual methods are subjectivity and variation with field conditions. To provide reliable reference information, methods for objective and quantitative assessment of soil structure quality are still necessary. Soil shrinkage analysis (ShA) (Braudeau et al., 2004) provides relevant parameters for soil functions that allow precise and accurate assessment of soil compaction. To test it, we applied ShA to samples taken from a soil structure observatory (SSO) set up in 2014 on a loamy soil in Zurich, Switzerland to quantify the structural recovery of compacted agricultural soil. The objective in this presentation is to compare the ability of a visual examination method and ShA to assess soil compaction and structural recovery on the SSO field plots. Eighteen undisturbed soil samples were taken in the topsoil (5-10 cm) and 9 samples in the subsoil (30-35 cm) of compacted plots and control. Each sample went through ShA, followed by a visual examination of the sample and analysis of soil organic carbon and texture. ShA combines simultaneous shrinkage with water retention measurements and, in addition to soil properties such as bulk density, coarse and fine porosity, also provides information on hydrostructural stability and plasma and structural porosity. For visual examination the VESS method of Ball et al. (2007) was adapted to core samples previously equilibrated at -100 hPa matric potential. The samples were randomly and anonymously scored to avoid subjectivity and were equilibrated to insure comparable conditions. Compaction decreased the total specific volume, as well as air and water content at all matric potentials. Structural porosity was reduced, while plasma porosity remained unchanged. Compaction also changed the shape of the shrinkage curve: (i

  19. Planar Shock compaction of ceramic powders with mining explosives (United States)

    Stuivinga, M.


    Shock compaction experiments of B_4C powders have been performed using a planar configuration. The powders were contained between metal plates, with a layer of mining explosives on top of the upper plate, whose thickness was about 10 mm. For this configuration, computer simulations have been performed with use of the hydrocode Autodyn. In comparison with the cylindrical compaction process the planar compaction process appears to be quite different. The reason is the very low detonation velocity of the used mining explosive (2.2km/s), which is much lower than the sound and shock speeds of the steel plate, in combination with the relatively large thickness of the metal layer. As a result, the nature of the compaction process of the powder initially more resembles a quasi-static compaction process than a shock compaction process. Due to the quasi-state nature of the compaction the pressure release in the powder after compression is very gradual. No strong rarefaction waves leading to high tensile stresses in the compact arise, and therefore the risk of the generation of cracks, which is a great problem for cylindrical compaction methods, is small in this configuration. Flat plates (10 x 10 x 0.8 cm) of Al (30 vol.-this configuration.

  20. Soil compaction in topsoil replacement during mining reclamation. (United States)

    Barry Phelps, L; Holland, L


    Current U.S. mining regulations require revegetation in reclaiming surface mines. Excessive soil compaction can be an impediment to successful revegetation in poor soil conditions common to Eastern U.S. coal mine sites. A field study was performed to determine the bulk densities of soils that had been spread by either bulldozers or scrapers at a strip mine site. Moisture-density relationships for the soils were determined from the field samples. These were compared with samples compacted by the Standard Proctor compaction test. The results of the study indicate that the degree of compaction, could be lessened through proper soil handling procedures.

  1. The formation of compact groups of galaxies. I: Optical properties (United States)

    Diaferio, Antonaldo; Geller, Margaret J.; Ramella, Massimo


    The small crossing time of compact groups of galaxies (t(sub cr)H(sub 0) approximately less than 0.02) makes it hard to understand why they are observable at all. Our dissipationless N-body simulations show that within a single rich collapsing group compact groups of galaxies continually form. The mean lifetime of a particular compact configuration if approximately 1 Gyr. On this time scale, members may merge and/or other galaxies in the loose group may join the compact configuration. In other words, compact configurations are continually replaced by new systems. The frequency of this process explains the observability of compact groups. Our model produces compact configurations (compact groups (CG's) with optical properties remarkably similar to Hickson's (1982) compact groups (HCG's): (1) CG's have a frequency distribution of members similar to that of HCG's; (2) CG's are approximately equals 10 times as dense as loose groups; (3) CG's have dynamical properties remarkably similar to those of HCG's; (4) most of the galaxy members of CG's are not merger remnants. The crucial aspect of the model is the relationship between CG's and the surrounding rich loose group. Our model predicts the frequency of occurrence of CG's. A preliminary analysis of 18 rich loose groups is consistent with the model prediction. We suggest further observational tests of the model.

  2. Self-Compacting Concrete in Precast Elements Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Bob


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present information about the Self-Compacting Concrete and experimental results regarding the use of them into precast element industry. This type of concrete does not require vibration for placing and compaction; it is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction, even in the presence of congested reinforcement. The experimental programme has take into account two prestressed beams which were prefabricated and tested on a special stands. The beams of Self-Compacting Concrete with the length of 24 m were prepared at „Beton-Star” Kft, Kecsekenet, Hungary, and used at the CASCO, Satu-Mare.

  3. A Gimbal-Stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gimbal-stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (GCHIS) fully integrates multi-sensor spectral imaging, stereovision, GPS and inertial measurement,...

  4. Characterizing chain-compact and chain-finite topological semilattices


    Banakh, Taras; Bardyla, Serhii


    In the paper we present various characterizations of chain-compact and chain-finite topological semilattices. A topological semilattice $X$ is called chain-compact (resp. chain-finite) if each closed chain in $X$ is compact (finite). In particular, we prove that a (Hausdorff) $T_1$-topological semilattice $X$ is chain-finite (chain-compact) if and only if for any closed subsemilattice $Z\\subset X$ and any continuous homomorphism $h:X\\to Y$ to a (Hausdorff) $T_1$-topological semilattice $Y$ th...

  5. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to continue the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon...

  6. Faithful actions of locally compact quantum groups on classical spaces (United States)

    Goswami, Debashish; Roy, Sutanu


    We construct examples of locally compact quantum groups coming from bicrossed product construction, including non-Kac ones, which can faithfully and ergodically act on connected classical (noncompact) smooth manifolds. However, none of these actions can be isometric in the sense of Goswami (Commun Math Phys 285(1):141-160, 2009), leading to the conjecture that the result obtained by Goswami and Joardar (Rigidity of action of compact quantum groups on compact, connected manifolds, 2013. arXiv:1309.1294) about nonexistence of genuine quantum isometry of classical compact connected Riemannian manifolds may hold in the noncompact case as well.

  7. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.


    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  8. A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy. (United States)

    Seth, Anil C; van den Bosch, Remco; Mieske, Steffen; Baumgardt, Holger; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay; Neumayer, Nadine; Chilingarian, Igor; Hilker, Michael; McDermid, Richard; Spitler, Lee; Brodie, Jean; Frank, Matthias J; Walsh, Jonelle L


    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are among the densest stellar systems in the Universe. These systems have masses of up to 2 × 10(8) solar masses, but half-light radii of just 3-50 parsecs. Dynamical mass estimates show that many such dwarfs are more massive than expected from their luminosity. It remains unclear whether these high dynamical mass estimates arise because of the presence of supermassive black holes or result from a non-standard stellar initial mass function that causes the average stellar mass to be higher than expected. Here we report adaptive optics kinematic data of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 that show a central velocity dispersion peak exceeding 100 kilometres per second and modest rotation. Dynamical modelling of these data reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 2.1 × 10(7) solar masses. This is 15 per cent of the object's total mass. The high black hole mass and mass fraction suggest that M60-UCD1 is the stripped nucleus of a galaxy. Our analysis also shows that M60-UCD1's stellar mass is consistent with its luminosity, implying a large population of previously unrecognized supermassive black holes in other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

  9. Training Adaptive Decision-Making.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James C.


    Adaptive Thinking has been defined here as the capacity to recognize when a course of action that may have previously been effective is no longer effective and there is need to adjust strategy. Research was undertaken with human test subjects to identify the factors that contribute to adaptive thinking. It was discovered that those most effective in settings that call for adaptive thinking tend to possess a superior capacity to quickly and effectively generate possible courses of action, as measured using the Category Generation test. Software developed for this research has been applied to develop capabilities enabling analysts to identify crucial factors that are predictive of outcomes in fore-on-force simulation exercises.

  10. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S


    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  11. Noogenic psychological characteristics and adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Masten


    Full Text Available The present article is concerned with noogenic personality characteristics of adolescents involved in military training in relation to psychic and psychosomatic symptoms. A selected sample of 107 conscripts was questioned regarding their psychical and psychosomatic symptoms in the first and in the sixth month of their military training. They were also questioned regarding personal meaning of life, as well as regarding their values and attitudes toward the army. Individuals maintaining their personal meaning of life, have less psychical and psychosomatic symptoms after coming to army than the others. The findings do not support the hypothesis that after five months of military training the number of symptoms decreases. In most participants the symptoms mostly remained at the same level after five months of training, for one third of respondents the number of symptoms increased significantly. In 9 % of military recruits number of symptoms decreased. The evaluation of differences in the number of symptoms between two assessments showed, that personal meaning, values and attitudes toward army discriminate the groups with different levels of adjustment to military service. Participants with the same level of symptoms after five months are less hedonistic, have more positive attitudes toward army and higher rates on meaning scales. The data are interpreted in the context of theory that adjustment to stressing life events is mediated by noogenic personality characteristics.

  12. Products of straight spaces with compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuo Nishijima


    Full Text Available A metric space X is called straight if any continuous real-valued function which is uniformly continuous on each set of a finite cover of X by closed sets, is itself uniformly continuous. Let C be the convergent sequence {1/n : n ϵ N} with its limit 0 in the real line with the usual metric. In this paper, we show that for a straight space X, X × C is straight if and only if X × K is straight for any compact metric space K. Furthermore, we show that for a straight space X, if X × C is straight, then X is precompact. Note that the notion of straightness depends on the metric on X. Indeed, since the real line R with the usual metric is not precompact, R×C is not straight. On the other hand, we show that the product space of an open interval and C is straight.

  13. Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) current spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakoef, A.; Vermeulen, H.J. [Stellenbosch Univ., (South Africa)


    Many Industrial and Commercial Energy Efficiency (ICEE) projects involve the retrofit of energy inefficient lighting systems with newer, more energy efficient luminaires to reduce the total energy consumption. In the residential sector, these interventions often target the replacement of incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). In order to measure and verify the energy savings associated with such retrofits, the baseline and post-implementation energy consumption profiles must be determined for the lamps removed as well as those installed in the intervention. The CFL supply current waveforms have very high degrees of harmonic distortion, with THDs ranging from approximately 110 per cent to over 250 per cent over the supply voltage range tested. According to the measured results for 3-phase CFL loads, the CFLs give rise to high zero-sequence, or neutral, current loading, which is a potential cause for concern, particularly for underrated networks.

  14. Planning multifunctional green infrastructure for compact cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rieke; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; van der jagt, Alexander P.N.


    Urban green infrastructure planning aims to develop green space networks on limited space in compact cities. Multifunctionality is considered key to achieving this goal as it supports planning practice that considers the ability of green spaces to provide multiple benefits concurrently. However....... Further, spatial assessment, strategic planning and site design need to 4) consider synergies, trade-offs and the capacity of urban green spaces to provide functions as part of the wider green infrastructure network; and 5) largely benefit from cooperation between different sectors and public departments...... green space functions or the purposive design and management of multifunctional parks. Based on the findings, we arrive at five recommendations for promoting multifunctional urban green infrastructure in densifying urban areas: 1) undertake systematic spatial assessments of all urban green (and blue...

  15. Burst Searches for Compact Binary Coalescences (United States)

    Klimenko, Sergey


    Compact Binary coalescences (CBC) are the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GW) for the first detection with advanced GW detectors. Being the most efficient GW emitters among anticipated GW sources, they are also well understood theoretically in the framework of General Relativity. In the talk I'll discuss different flavors of CBC sources and two types of search methods employed in the GW data analysis: template and excess power. While template methods are the most optimal for CBC sources, I will concentrate on the excess power methods, which are typical for searches of generic GW transients (bursts). How to use burst searches for CBC sources? Why would we do this? What can we learn about CBC sources from a burst search? - these and other questions will be discussed in the talk. Supported by NSF grant PHY-1205512.

  16. Cooldown of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeton, D.C.


    Cooldown of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) with the baseline liquid nitrogen cooling system was analyzed. On the basis of this analysis and present knowledge of the two-phase heat transfer, the current baseline CIT can be cooled down in about 1.5 h. An extensive heat transfer test program is recommended to reduce uncertainty in the heat transfer performance and to explore methods for minimizing the cooldown time. An alternate CIT cooldown system is described which uses a pressurized gaseous helium coolant in a closed-loop system. It is shown analytically that this system will cool down the CIT well within 1 h. Confidence in this analysis is sufficiently high that a heat transfer test program would not be necessary. The added cost of this alternate system is estimated to be about $5.3 million. This helium cooling system represents a reasonable backup approach to liquid nitrogen cooling of the CIT. 3 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Compact Radiative Control Structures for Millimeter Astronomy (United States)

    Brown, Ari D.; Chuss, David T.; Chervenak, James A.; Henry, Ross M.; Moseley, s. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.


    We have designed, fabricated, and tested compact radiative control structures, including antireflection coatings and resonant absorbers, for millimeter through submillimeter wave astronomy. The antireflection coatings consist of micromachined single crystal silicon dielectric sub-wavelength honeycombs. The effective dielectric constant of the structures is set by the honeycomb cell geometry. The resonant absorbers consist of pieces of solid single crystal silicon substrate and thin phosphorus implanted regions whose sheet resistance is tailored to maximize absorption by the structure. We present an implantation model that can be used to predict the ion energy and dose required for obtaining a target implant layer sheet resistance. A neutral density filter, a hybrid of a silicon dielectric honeycomb with an implanted region, has also been fabricated with this basic approach. These radiative control structures are scalable and compatible for use large focal plane detector arrays.

  18. Compact superconducting synchrocyclotron systems for proton therapy (United States)

    Blosser, H. G.


    Conventional room temperature synchrocyclotrons are widely used as a source for medical proton beams. If the synchrocyclotron is changed to a superconducting design, weight is reduced more than tenfold and the resulting accelerator is beautifully compact and of moderate cost. Engineering studies indicate that the traditional reliability of the synchrocyclotron will not be impinged by the change to a much smaller structure. Design studies for 70 and 250 MeV systems have been made. The 70 MeV machine would be a stond-alone facility for eye treatment, whereas the 250 MeV unit is for general, anywhere-in-the-body proton therapy. The 250 MeV machine is small enough to permit the option of directly mounting the cyclotron on an isocentric gantry, thereby greatly reducing the complexity of the beam transport system.

  19. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)


    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  20. Compact stars with specific mass function (United States)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Rahaman, Farook; Rahaman, Monsur; Banerjee, Ayan


    Aims: In the present work we search for a new model of compact star within embedding class one spacetime i.e., four dimensional spacetime embedded in five dimensional Pseudo Euclidean space. Methods: In particular we propose a new mass function to obtain an exact analytic solutions of the Einstein field equations. For this specific mass function, obtained solutions are well-behaved at the centre of the star, satisfy all energy conditions and the mass-radius relation fall within the limit proposed by Buchdahl (1959). Results: The static equilibrium condition has been maintained under different forces. We have discussed the solutions in detail and compare with a set of astrophysical objects like 4U1608-52, PSR J1903+327, PSR J1614-2230 and X-ray pulsar Vela X-1 is also explored.