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Sample records for adipose tissue depot

  1. Adipose tissue in muscle : a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Dympna; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and

  2. Characterization of stromal vascular fraction and adipose stem cells from subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral morbidly obese human adipose tissue depots.

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    Silva, Karina Ribeiro; Côrtes, Isis; Liechocki, Sally; Carneiro, João Regis Ivar; Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto; Borojevic, Radovan; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes; Baptista, Leandra Santos

    2017-01-01

    The pathological condition of obesity is accompanied by a dysfunctional adipose tissue. We postulate that subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral obese abdominal white adipose tissue depots could have stromal vascular fractions (SVF) with distinct composition and adipose stem cells (ASC) that would differentially account for the pathogenesis of obesity. In order to evaluate the distribution of SVF subpopulations, samples of subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral adipose tissues from morbidly obese women (n = 12, BMI: 46.2±5.1 kg/m2) were collected during bariatric surgery, enzymatically digested and analyzed by flow cytometry (n = 12). ASC from all depots were evaluated for morphology, surface expression, ability to accumulate lipid after induction and cytokine secretion (n = 3). A high content of preadipocytes was found in the SVF of subcutaneous depot (p = 0.0178). ASC from the three depots had similar fibroblastoid morphology with a homogeneous expression of CD34, CD146, CD105, CD73 and CD90. ASC from the visceral depot secreted the highest levels of IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF (p = 0.0278). Interestingly, preperitoneal ASC under lipid accumulation stimulus showed the lowest levels of all the secreted cytokines, except for adiponectin that was enhanced (p = 0.0278). ASC from preperitoneal adipose tissue revealed the less pro-inflammatory properties, although it is an internal adipose depot. Conversely, ASC from visceral adipose tissue are the most pro-inflammatory. Therefore, ASC from subcutaneous, visceral and preperitoneal adipose depots could differentially contribute to the chronic inflammatory scenario of obesity.

  3. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications.

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    Russo, Valerio; Yu, Claire; Belliveau, Paul; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant source of multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise in regenerative medicine. In humans, fat is primarily distributed in the subcutaneous and visceral depots, which have varying biochemical and functional properties. In most studies to date, subcutaneous adipose tissue has been investigated as the adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) source. In this study, we sought to develop a broader understanding of the influence of specific adipose tissue depots on the isolated ASC populations through a systematic comparison of donor-matched abdominal subcutaneous fat and omentum, and donor-matched pericardial adipose tissue and thymic remnant samples. We found depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability in the yield, viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic potential, doubling time, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities of the ASC populations. More specifically, ASCs isolated from both intrathoracic depots had a longer average doubling time and a significantly higher proportion of CD34(+) cells at passage 2, as compared with cells isolated from subcutaneous fat or the omentum. Furthermore, ASCs from subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue demonstrated enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity, whereas ASCs isolated from the omentum displayed the highest levels of osteogenic markers in culture. Through cell culture analysis under hypoxic (5% O(2)) conditions, oxygen tension was shown to be a key mediator of colony-forming unit-fibroblast number and osteogenesis for all depots. Overall, our results suggest that depot selection is an important factor to consider when applying ASCs in tissue-specific cell-based regenerative therapies, and also highlight pericardial adipose tissue as a potential new ASC source.

  4. Differential screening identifies transcripts with depot-dependent expression in white adipose tissues

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    Zhou Shengli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The co-morbidities of obesity are tied to location of excess fat in the intra-abdominal as compared to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT depot. Genes distinctly expressed in WAT depots may impart depot-dependent physiological functions. To identify such genes, we prepared subtractive cDNA libraries from murine subcutaneous (SC or intra-abdominal epididymal (EP white adipocytes. Results Differential screening and qPCR validation identified 7 transcripts with 2.5-fold or greater enrichment in EP vs. SC adipocytes. Boc, a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway demonstrated highest enrichment (~12-fold in EP adipocytes. We also identified a dramatic enrichment in SC adipocytes vs. EP adipocytes and in SC WAT vs. EP WAT for transcript(s for the major urinary proteins (Mups, small secreted proteins with pheromone functions that are members of the lipocalin family. Expression of Boc and Mup transcript was further assessed in murine tissues, adipogenesis models, and obesity. qPCR analysis reveals that EP WAT is a major site of expression of Boc transcript. Furthermore, Boc transcript expression decreased in obese EP WAT with a concomitant upregulation of Boc transcript in the obese SC WAT depot. Assessment of the Boc binding partner Cdon in adipose tissue and cell fractions thereof, revealed transcript expression similar to Boc; suggestive of a role for the Boc-Cdon axis in WAT depot function. Mup transcripts were predominantly expressed in liver and in the SC and RP WAT depots and increased several thousand-fold during differentiation of primary murine preadipocytes to adipocytes. Mup transcripts were also markedly reduced in SC WAT and liver of ob/ob genetically obese mice compared to wild type. Conclusion Further assessment of WAT depot-enriched transcripts may uncover distinctions in WAT depot gene expression that illuminate the physiological impact of regional adiposity.

  5. Inflammatory characteristics of distinct abdominal adipose tissue depots relate differently to metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease Distinct fat depots and vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Mariette E. G.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Stupkova, Tereza; de Jager, Wilco; Vink, Aryan; Moll, Frans L.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    Objective: Abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, specific contributions of distinct adipose tissue (AT) depots to metabolic complications of obesity are still unclear. In this study, the inflammatory profile of four distinct abdominal AT-depots and

  6. Distinct developmental signatures of human abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue depots.

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    Karastergiou, Kalypso; Fried, Susan K; Xie, Hui; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Divoux, Adeline; Rosencrantz, Marcus A; Chang, R Jeffrey; Smith, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Fat distribution differs in men and women, but in both sexes, a predominantly gluteal-femoral compared with abdominal (central) fat distribution is associated with lower metabolic risk. Differences in cellular characteristics and metabolic functions of these depots have been described, but the molecular mechanisms involved are not understood. Our objective was to identify depot- and sex-dependent differences in gene expression in human abdominal and gluteal sc adipose tissues. Abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue aspirates were obtained from 14 premenopausal women [age 27.5 ± 7.0 yr, body mass index (BMI) 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m(2), and waist-to-hip ratio 0.82 ± 0.04] and 21 men (age 29.7±7.4 yr, BMI 27.2 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), and waist-to-hip ratio 0.91 ± 0.07) and transcriptomes were analyzed using Illumina microarrays. Expression of selected genes was determined in isolated adipocytes and stromal vascular fractions from each depot, and in in vitro cultures before and after adipogenic differentiation. A total of 284 genes were differentially expressed between the abdominal and gluteal depot, either specifically in males (n = 66) or females (n = 159) or in both sexes (n = 59). Most notably, gene ontology and pathway analysis identified homeobox genes (HOXA2, HOXA3, HOXA4, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXB7, HOXB8, HOXC8, and IRX2) that were down-regulated in the gluteal depot in both sexes (P = 2 × 10(-10)). Conversely, HOXA10 was up-regulated in gluteal tissue and HOXC13 was detected exclusively in this depot. These differences were independent of BMI, were present in both adipocytes and stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissue, and were retained throughout in vitro differentiation. We conclude that developmentally programmed differences may contribute to the distinct phenotypic characteristics of peripheral fat.

  7. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

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    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  8. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue was fo...

  9. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of chemerin in obesity: adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism.

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    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-06-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.

  10. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue...... was found to correlate linearly to the relative body weight (RBW) in per cent with the regression equation lambda = 0.045 . RBW + 0.99. The subcutaneous lambda on the abdomen correlated linearly to the local skinfold thickness (SFT) with the equation lambda = 0.22 SFT + 2.99. Similarly lambda on the thigh...

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Adipose Tissues Reveals that ECM-Receptor Interaction Is Involved in the Depot-Specific Adipogenesis in Cattle.

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    Hyun-Jeong Lee

    Full Text Available Adipocytes mainly function as energy storage and endocrine cells. Adipose tissues showed the biological and genetic difference based on their depots. The difference of adipocytes between depots might be influenced by the inherent genetic programing for adipogenesis. We used RNA-seq technique to investigate the transcriptomes in 3 adipose tissues of omental (O, subcutaneous (S and intramuscular (I fats in cattle. Sequence reads were obtained from Illumina HiSeq2000 and mapped to the bovine genome using Tophat2. Differentially expressed genes (DEG between adipose tissues were detected by EdgeR. We identified 5797, 2156, and 5455 DEGs in the comparison between OI, OS, and IS respectively and also found 5657 DEGs in the comparison between the intramuscular and the combined omental and subcutaneous fats (C (FDR<0.01. Depot specifically up- and down- regulated DEGs were 853 in S, 48 in I, and 979 in O. The numbers of DEGs and functional annotation studies suggested that I had the different genetic profile compared to other two adipose tissues. In I, DEGs involved in the developmental process (eg. EGR2, FAS, and KLF7 were up-regulated and those in the immune system process were down-regulated. Many DEGs from the adipose tissues were enriched in the various GO terms of developmental process and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the ECM-receptor interaction was one of commonly enriched pathways in all of the 3 adipose tissues and also functioned as a sub-pathway of other enriched pathways. However, genes involved in the ECM-receptor interaction were differentially regulated depending on the depots. Collagens, main ECM constituents, were significantly up-regulated in S and integrins, transmembrane receptors, were up-regulated in I. Different laminins were up-regulated in the different depots. This comparative transcriptome analysis of three adipose tissues suggested that the interactions between ECM components and transmembrane receptors of fat cells

  12. Iron elevation and adipose tissue remodeling in the epididymal depot of a mouse model of polygenic obesity.

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    Xiaoya Ma

    Full Text Available Iron dysregulation is a potential contributor to the pathology of obesity-related metabolic complications. KK/HIJ (KK mice, a polygenic obese mouse model, have elevated serum iron levels. A subset of KK male mice display a bronzing of epididymal adipose tissue (eAT associated with >100-fold (p0.05. The eAT histology revealed iron retention, macrophage clustering, tissue fibrosis, cell death as well as accumulation of HIF-2α in the high iron eAT. qPCR showed significantly decreased Lep (leptin and AdipoQ (adiponectin, whereas Tnfα (tumor necrosis factor α, and Slc40a1 (ferroportin were up-regulated in HI (p<0.05. Elevated HIF-2α, oxidative stress and local insulin signaling loss was also observed.Our data suggest that deposition of iron in adipose tissue is limited to the epididymal depot in male KK mice. A robust adipose tissue remodeling is concomitant with the high iron concentration, which causes local adipose tissue insulin resistance.

  13. Testosterone stimulates adipose tissue 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in a depot-specific manner in children.

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    Zhu, Lijun; Hou, Miao; Sun, Bin; Burén, Jonas; Zhang, Li; Yi, Jun; Hernell, Olle; Li, Xiaonan

    2010-07-01

    Activation of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) in adipose tissue results in the production of excess tissue glucocorticoids and the induction of adiposity and visceral obesity in particular. Androgens may affect body fat distribution by regulating the local metabolism of cortisol. Our objective was to study 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression in abdominal sc and omental (om) adipose tissue in children after in vitro testosterone and cortisol treatment. Paired fat biopsies (sc and om) were obtained from 19 boys (age 6-14 yr, body mass index 14.6-25.3 kg/m(2), BMI sd score SDS -1.6-3.1) undergoing open abdominal surgery. Pieces of adipose tissue were incubated with testosterone, cortisol, or both hormones for 24 h, whereupon mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) were measured by real-time PCR, and 11beta-HSD1 enzyme activity was determined. Testosterone treatment up-regulated 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression compared with control incubations in the absence of testosterone (P Testosterone and cortisol both increased 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression in om but not sc adipose tissue in a depot-specific manner by 2.5- and 2.9-fold, respectively (P Testosterone and cortisol stimulated 11beta-HSD1 and H6PDH mRNA expression and 11beta-HSD1 activity in om but not in sc adipose tissue. This suggests that these hormones may contribute to fat distribution and accumulation during childhood.

  14. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.

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    Sierra Rojas, Johanna X; García-San Frutos, Miriam; Horrillo, Daniel; Lauzurica, Nuria; Oliveros, Eva; Carrascosa, Jose María; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Ros, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases with aging and these disorders are associated with inflammation. Insulin resistance and inflammation do not develop at the same time in all tissues. Adipose tissue is one of the tissues where inflammation and insulin resistance are established earlier during aging. Nevertheless, the existence of different fat depots states the possibility of differential roles for these depots in the development of age-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. To explore this, we analyzed insulin signaling and inflammation in epididymal, perirenal, subcutaneous, and brown adipose tissues during aging in Wistar rats. Although all tissues showed signs of inflammation and insulin resistance with aging, epididymal fat was the first to develop signs of inflammation and insulin resistance along aging among white fat tissues. Subcutaneous adipose tissue presented the lowest degree of inflammation and insulin resistance that developed latter with age. Brown adipose tissue also presented latter insulin resistance and inflammation but with lower signs of macrophage infiltration. Caloric restriction ameliorated insulin resistance and inflammation in all tissues, being more effective in subcutaneous and brown adipose tissues. These data demonstrate differential susceptibility of the different adipose depots to the development of age-associated insulin resistance and inflammation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

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    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  16. Expression of Genes Related to Prostaglandin Synthesis or Signaling in Human Subcutaneous and Omental Adipose Tissue: Depot Differences and Modulation by Adipogenesis

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    Andréanne Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To examine depot-specific PGE2 and PGF2α release and mRNA expression of enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling in human adipose tissues; (2 to identify changes in expression of these transcripts through preadipocyte differentiation; and (3 to examine associations between adipose tissue mRNA expression of these transcripts and adiposity measurements. Methods. Fat samples were obtained surgically in women. PGE2 and PGF2α release by preadipocytes and adipose tissue explants was measured. Expression levels of mRNA coding for enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling were measured by RT-PCR. Results. Cultured preadipocytes and explants from omental fat released more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot and the corresponding transcripts showed consistent depot differences. Following preadipocyte differentiation, expression of PLA2G16 and PTGER3 mRNA was significantly increased whereas COX-1, COX-2, PTGIS, and PTGES mRNA abundance were decreased in both compartments (P≤0.01 for all. Transcripts that were stimulated during adipogenesis were those that correlated best with adiposity measurements. Conclusion. Cells from the omental fat compartment release more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot. Obesity modulates expression of PG-synthesizing enzymes and PG receptors which likely occurs through adipogenesis-induced changes in expression of these transcripts.

  17. An integrative transcriptomic approach to identify depot differences in genes and microRNAs in adipose tissues from high fat fed mice

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    Wijayatunga, Nadeeja N.; Pahlavani, Mandana; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Coarfa, Cristian; Ramalingam, Latha; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2018-01-01

    Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we validated depot-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes and miRNAs using mice fed a HFD vs. low fat diet (LFD/10% of calories from fat). According to the transcriptomic analysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were higher in VAT compared to BAT, whereas energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation were higher in BAT than in VAT of the HFD fed mice. In contrast to BAT, ER stress marker genes were significantly upregulated in VAT of HFD fed mice than the LFD fed mice. For the first time, we report depot specific differences in ER stress related miRNAs including; downregulation of miR-125b-5p, upregulation miR-143-3p, and miR-222-3p in VAT following HFD and upregulation of miR-30c-2-3p only in BAT following a HFD in mice than the LFD mice. In conclusion, HFD differentially regulates miRNAs and genes in different adipose depots with significant induction of genes related to lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, ER stress, and UPR in WAT compared to BAT. PMID:29507687

  18. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

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    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  19. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R S =0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R S =0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R S =0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R S =0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their metabolic effects

  20. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

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    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-06-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

  1. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

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    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  2. Differential sympathetic outflow to adipose depots is required for visceral fat loss in response to calorie restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Sipe, L M; Yang, C; Ephrem, J; Garren, E; Hirsh, J; Deppmann, C D

    2017-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates energy homeostasis in part by governing fatty acid liberation from adipose tissue. We first examined whether SNS activity toward discrete adipose depots changes in response to a weight loss diet in mice. We found that SNS activity toward each adipose depot is unique in timing, pattern of activation, and habituation with the most dramatic contrast between visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots. Sympathetic drive toward visceral epididymal adipos...

  3. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging–measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. Objective We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. Results In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r ≤ 0.07). Multivariate adjustment found no significant difference for optimally fitting models between the use of anthropometric and MRI measures, and the magnitudes of differences were small (adjusted R2 ≤ 0.06). For HOMA and HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Conclusion Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects. PMID:18541572

  4. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  5. Obesity associated disease risk: the role of inherent differences and location of adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jessica H; Solt, Claudia; Foster, Michelle T

    2018-03-16

    Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk. Specifically, distinctive tissue depots within the body include the lower body, upper body and abdominal (deep and superficial) subcutaneous regions, as well as visceral (mesenteric and omental) regions. Upper body and visceral adipose tissues are highly associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disease development, whereas lower body gluteofemoral subcutaneous adipose tissue imparts protection against diet-induced metabolic derangement. Each adipose depot functions distinctly as an endocrine organ hence it has a different level of impact on health outcomes. Effluent from adipose tissue can modulate the functions of other tissues, whilst receiving differential communication from the rest of the body via central nervous system innervation, metabolites and other signaling molecules. More so, adipose depots contain a diverse reservoir of tissue-resident immune cells that play an integral part in both maintaining tissue homeostasis, as well as propagating metabolically-induced inflammation. Overall, the conceptualization of obesity and associated risks needs updating to reflect the complexities of obesity. We review adipose tissue characteristics that are linked to deleterious or beneficial adipose tissue distributions.

  6. Differential sympathetic outflow to adipose depots is required for visceral fat loss in response to calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, L M; Yang, C; Ephrem, J; Garren, E; Hirsh, J; Deppmann, C D

    2017-04-10

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates energy homeostasis in part by governing fatty acid liberation from adipose tissue. We first examined whether SNS activity toward discrete adipose depots changes in response to a weight loss diet in mice. We found that SNS activity toward each adipose depot is unique in timing, pattern of activation, and habituation with the most dramatic contrast between visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots. Sympathetic drive toward visceral epididymal adipose is more than doubled early in weight loss and then suppressed later in the diet when weight loss plateaued. Coincident with the decline in SNS activity toward visceral adipose is an increase in activity toward subcutaneous depots indicating a switch in lipolytic sources. In response to calorie restriction, SNS activity toward retroperitoneal and brown adipose depots is unaffected. Finally, pharmacological blockage of sympathetic activity on adipose tissue using the β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist, SR59230a, suppressed loss of visceral adipose mass in response to diet. These findings indicate that SNS activity toward discrete adipose depots is dynamic and potentially hierarchical. This pattern of sympathetic activation is required for energy liberation and loss of adipose tissue in response to calorie-restricted diet.

  7. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-10-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared adipose tissue measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but no such study has been conducted in HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, who have a high prevalence of regional fat loss. We compared DXA- with MRI-measured trunk, leg, arm, and total fat in HIV+ and control subjects. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 877 HIV+ subjects and 260 control subjects in FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection), stratified by sex and HIV status. Univariate associations of DXA with MRI were strongest for total and trunk fat (r > or = 0.92) and slightly weaker for leg (r > or = 0.87) and arm (r > or = 0.71) fat. The average estimated limb fat was substantially greater for DXA than for MRI for HIV+ and control men and women (all P < 0.0001). Less of a difference was observed in trunk fat measured by DXA and MRI, but the difference was still statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman plots showed increasing differences and variability. Greater average limb fat in control and HIV+ subjects (both P < 0.0001) was associated with greater differences between DXA and MRI measurements. Because the control subjects had more limb fat than did the HIV+ subjects, greater amounts of fat were measured by DXA than by MRI when control subjects were compared with HIV+ subjects. More HIV+ subjects had leg fat in the bottom decile of the control subjects by DXA than by MRI (P < 0.0001). Although DXA- and MRI-measured adipose tissue depots correlate strongly in HIV+ and control subjects, differences increase as average fat increases, particularly for limb fat. DXA may estimate a higher prevalence of peripheral lipoatrophy than does MRI in HIV+ subjects.

  8. Male bovine GH transgenic mice have decreased adiposity with an adipose depot-specific increase in immune cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benencia, Fabian; Harshman, Stephanie; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Householder, Lara; Al-Naeeli, Mawadda; Liang, Xiaoyu; Welch, Lonnie; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2015-05-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is composed of mature adipocytes and a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a variety of cells, including immune cells that vary among the different WAT depots. Growth hormone (GH) impacts immune function and adiposity in an adipose depot-specific manner. However, its effects on WAT immune cell populations remain unstudied. Bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice are commonly used to study the in vivo effects of GH. These giant mice have an excess of GH action, impaired glucose metabolism, decreased adiposity, increased lean mass, and a shortened lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the WAT depot-specific differences in immune cell populations in the presence of excess GH in vivo. Three WAT depots were assessed: inguinal (sc), epididymal (EPI), and mesenteric (MES). Subcutaneous and MES bGH WAT depots showed a significantly higher number of total SVF cells, yet only MES bGH WAT had higher leukocyte counts compared with control samples. By means of flow cytometry analysis of the SVF, we detected greater macrophage and regulatory T-cell infiltration in sc and MES bGH WAT depots compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in the EPI WAT depot. RNA-sequencing confirmed significant alterations in pathways related to T-cell infiltration and activation in the sc depot with fewer significant changes in the EPI bGH WAT depot. These findings collectively point to a previously unrecognized role for GH in influencing the distribution of WAT immune cell populations in a depot-specific manner.

  9. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  10. Distinct Adipose Depots from Mice Differentially Respond to a High-Fat, High-Salt Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClercq, Vanessa C; Goldsby, Jennifer S; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Dietary factors such as high-sodium or high-fat (HF) diets have been shown to induce a proinflammatory phenotype. However, there is limited information with respect to how microenvironments of distinct intra-abdominal adipose depots respond to the combination of a high-salt, HF diet. We tested the hypothesis that HF feeding would cause changes in distinct adipose depots, which would be further amplified by the addition of high salt to the diet. Twenty-seven male C57BL6 mice were fed an HF diet (60% of kcal from fat), an HF + high-salt diet (4% wt:wt), a control diet [low-fat (LF);10% of kcal from fat], or an LF + high-salt diet for 12 wk. The main sources of fat in the diets were corn oil and lard. Adipokines in serum and released from adipose tissue organ cultures were measured by immunoassays. QIAGEN's Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to perform functional analysis of the RNA-sequencing data from distinct adipose depots. Diet-induced obesity resulted in a classical inflammatory phenotype characterized by increased concentrations of circulating inflammatory mediators (38-56%) and reduced adiponectin concentrations (27%). However, high-salt feeding did not exacerbate the HF diet-induced changes in adipokines and cytokines. Leptin and interleukin-6 were differentially released from adipose depots and HF feeding impaired adiponectin and resistin secretion across all 3 depots (34-48% and 45-83%, respectively). The addition of high salt to the HF diet did not further modulate secretion in cultured adipose tissue experiments. Although gene expression data from RNA sequencing indicated a >4.3-fold upregulation of integrin αX (Itgax) with HF feeding in all 3 depots, markers of cellular function were differentially expressed in response to diet across depots. Collectively, these findings highlight the role of distinct adipose depots in mice in the development of obesity and emphasize the importance of selecting specific depots to study the effects of therapeutic

  11. High Plasma Glucagon Levels Correlate with Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Suprailiac Skinfold Thickness, and Deep Subcutaneous Abdominal and Intraperitoneal Adipose Tissue Depots in Nonobese Asian Indian Males with Type 2 Diabetes in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajith Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (n=81; BMI < 25 kg/m2 with T2DM of less than one-year duration and nonobese males without diabetes (n=30 were evaluated for the following: anthropometry (BMI, waist circumference, W-HR, and truncal skinfolds, whole-body DEXA (for body fat and fat-free mass, and MRI scan (for volumes of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT including superficial and deep, intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (including intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver span and fatty liver, and pancreatic volume. Plasma glucose and glucagon, serum insulin, hepatic transaminases, and lipid profile were measured. Significantly higher levels of fasting and postprandial glucagon (p<0.001 and fasting and postprandial insulin (p<0.001 were seen in patients with T2DM. The mean values of fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon levels were higher in T2DM patients with NAFLD (n=37 as compared to T2DM patients without NAFLD (n=44. Four independent predictors were derived for fasting glucagon levels in patients with T2DM, namely, W-HR, suprailiac skinfold thickness, IPAT, and deep SCAT (p<0.05; r2=0.84. These observations in Asian Indians may have significance for diabetes therapies which impact glucagon levels.

  12. HIV Persistence in Adipose Tissue Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jacob; Lewis, Dorothy E

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence describing adipose tissue as a reservoir for HIV-1 and how this often expansive anatomic compartment contributes to HIV persistence. Memory CD4 T cells and macrophages, the major host cells for HIV, accumulate in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques. Whereas HIV and SIV proviral DNA is detectable in CD4 T cells of multiple fat depots in virtually all infected humans and monkeys examined, viral RNA is less frequently detected, and infected macrophages may be less prevalent in adipose tissue. However, based on viral outgrowth assays, adipose-resident CD4 T cells are latently infected with virus that is replication-competent and infectious. Additionally, adipocytes interact with CD4 T cells and macrophages to promote immune cell activation and inflammation which may be supportive for HIV persistence. Antiviral effector cells, such as CD8 T cells and NK/NKT cells, are abundant in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection and typically exceed CD4 T cells, whereas B cells are largely absent from adipose tissue of humans and monkeys. Additionally, CD8 T cells in adipose tissue of HIV patients are activated and have a late differentiated phenotype, with unique TCR clonotypes of less diversity relative to blood CD8 T cells. With respect to the distribution of antiretroviral drugs in adipose tissue, data is limited, but there may be class-specific penetration of fat depots. The trafficking of infected immune cells within adipose tissues is a common event during HIV/SIV infection of humans and monkeys, but the virus may be mostly transcriptionally dormant. Viral replication may occur less in adipose tissue compared to other major reservoirs, such as lymphoid tissue, but replication competence and infectiousness of adipose latent virus are comparable to other tissues. Due to the ubiquitous nature of adipose tissue, inflammatory interactions among adipocytes and CD4 T cells and macrophages, and

  13. Chick subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots respond differently in lipolytic and adipogenic activity to α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L; Wang, Guoqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-07-01

    In birds, α-MSH is anorexigenic, but effects on adipose tissue are unknown. Four day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 5, 10, or 50μg of α-MSH and subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue collected at 60min for RNA isolation (n=10). Plasma was collected post-euthanasia at 60 and 180min for measuring non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and α-MSH (n=10). Relative to the vehicle, food intake was reduced in the 50μg-treated group. Plasma NEFAs were greater in 10μg than vehicle-treated chicks at 3h. Plasma α-MSH was 3.06±0.57ng/ml. In subcutaneous tissue, melanocortin receptor 5 (MC5R) mRNA was increased in 10μg, MC2R and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) mRNAs increased in 50μg, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and C/EBPα decreased in 5, 10 and 50μg, and Ki67 mRNA decreased in 50μg α-MSH-injected chicks, compared to vehicle-injected chicks. In abdominal tissue, adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA was greater in 10μg α-MSH- than vehicle-treated chicks. Cells isolated from abdominal fat that were treated with 10 and 100nM α-MSH for 4h expressed more MC5R and perilipin-1 than control cells (n=6). Cells that received 100nM α-MSH expressed more fatty acid binding protein 4 and comparative gene identification-58 mRNA than control cells. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity was greater in cells at 9days post-differentiation that were treated with 1 and 100nM α-MSH for 4h than in control cells (n=3). Results suggest that α-MSH increases lipolysis and reduces adipogenesis in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fat depot-specific gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Masakuni; Inoue, Mayumi; Jiang, Yibin; Barnes, Richard H; Buchner, David A; Chun, Tae-Hwa

    2014-06-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1 or Ly6A/E) is a cell surface marker that is widely expressed in mesenchymal stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We hypothesized that the fat depot-specific gene signature of Sca1(high) ASCs may play the major role in defining adipose tissue function and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in a depot-specific manner. Herein we aimed to characterize the unique gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) ASCs isolated from subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (epididymal) adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs are found in the adventitia and perivascular areas of adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs purified with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrate dendrite or round shape with the higher expression of cytokines and chemokines (e.g., Il6, Cxcl1) and the lower expression of a glucose transporter (Glut1). Subcutaneous and visceral fat-derived Sca1(high) ASCs particularly differ in the gene expressions of adhesion and ECM molecules. While the expression of the major membrane-type collagenase (MMP14) is comparable between the groups, the expressions of secreted collagenases (MMP8 and MMP13) are higher in visceral Sca1(high) ASCs than in subcutaneous ASCs. Consistently, slow but focal MMP-dependent collagenolysis was observed with subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived vascular stromal cells, whereas rapid and bulk collagenolysis was observed with visceral adipose tissue-derived cells in MMP-dependent and -independent manners. These results suggest that the fat depot-specific gene signatures of ASCs may contribute to the distinct patterns of ECM remodeling and adipose function in different fat depots. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  16. Distribution of ganglionic sympathetic neurons supplying the subcutaneous, perirenal and mesentery fat tissue depots in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Krzysztof; Kraeling, Robert; Klimczuk, Magdalena; Franke-Radowiecka, Amelia; Sienkiewicz, Waldemar; Lakomy, Mirosław

    2002-01-01

    Previous morphological studies revealed that the adipose tissue is innervated by adrenergic nerve fibers. Furthermore, physiological studies showed that the metabolism of adipose tissue is controlled by the adrenergic component of the nervous system. However, nothing is known on the sources of innervation of different fat tissue depots. Therefore, we decided to study the distribution of ganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating adipose tissue in the pig by means of a retrograde tracing method. We used 9 male and 9 female pigs of approximately 50 kg body weight. The retrograde tracer, Fast Blue (FB), was injected into the subcutaneous, perirenal and mesentery fat tissue depots. Results of the present study showed that numerous centers of the sympathetic nervous system innervate adipose tissue in the pig. FB+ neurons projecting to the subcutaneous fat tissue were placed in the thoraco-lumbar region of the sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG). However, neurons supplying perirenal and mesentery fat tissue depots were found in both the SChG and prevertebral ganglia (PVG). We conclude that different adipose tissue depots (subcutaneous, perirenal and mesentery) have different sources of innervation and that there is no significant difference in the distribution of neurons innervating adipose tissue in male and female pigs.

  17. Estimation of CT-derived abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots from anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie V Eastwood

    Full Text Available South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry.We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT.669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70 ± 7 years underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means.South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference, model fit was better in men (R(2 range 0.59-0.71 than women (range 0.35-0.59. Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R(2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively. For basic SAT equations, R(2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%.We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available.

  18. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  19. Inflammation and race and gender differences in computerized tomography-measured adipose depots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beasley, L.E.; Koster, A.; Newman, A.B.; Javaid, M.K.; Ferucci, L.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Kuller, L.H.; Pahor, M.; Visser, M.; Rubin, S.M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Everhart, J.E.; Harris, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has consistently shown a correlation between obesity and chronic subclinical inflammation. It is unclear whether the size of specific adipose depots is more closely associated with concentrations of inflammatory markers than overall adiposity. This study investigated the

  20. Factors affecting adipose tissue development in chickens: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Kim, Woo Kyun; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-10-01

    The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce. The purpose of this review is to describe factors regulating adipogenesis in chickens, with an emphasis on dietary factors and the broiler. Results from many studies have demonstrated effects of dietary nutrient composition on adipose tissue development and lipid metabolism. Transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α and β, and sterol regulatory element binding proteins orchestrate a series of cellular events that lead to an increase in activity of fatty acid transport proteins and enzymes that are responsible for triacylglycerol synthesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development may provide a practical strategy to affect body composition of the commercial broiler while providing insights on diets that maximize conversion into muscle rather than fat and affect depot-dependent deposition of lipids. Because of the propensity to overeat and become obese, the broiler chicken also represents an attractive biomedical model for eating disorders and obesity in humans. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikke-Schmidt, H.; O’Rourke, R. W.; Lumeng, C. N.; Sandoval, D. A.; Seeley, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. PMID:27272117

  2. Browning and thermogenic programing of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Florian W

    2016-08-01

    The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue. The energy dissipating properties of beige and/or brown adipocytes hold great promise as a novel therapeutic concept against obesity and related complications. Hence, identifying the specific thermogenic adipocyte populations in humans and their pathways of activation are key milestones of current metabolism research. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms of adipose tissue browning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of adipose tissue blood flow with local 133Xe clearance. Evaluation of a new labelling technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Bülow, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Adipose tissue blood flow was measured in six healthy, non-obese subjects with the xenon wash-out technique after labelling of the tissue by either injection of 133Xe dissolved in isotonic sodium chloride (water depot) or injection of 133Xe in gas form (gas depot). The wash-out rates were registe...

  4. Diet and adipose tissue distributions: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary quality affects cardiometabolic risk, yet its pathways of influence on regional adipose tissue depots involved in metabolic and diabetes risk are not well established. We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary quality and regional adiposity. We investigated 5079 individuals in...

  5. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Porter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers’ attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies.

  6. Thermogenic potential and physiological relevance of human epicardial adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechi, K; Richard, D

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is a unique fat depot around the heart that shares a close anatomic proximity and vascular supply with the myocardium and coronary arteries. Its accumulation around the heart, measured using various imaging modalities, has been associated with the onset and progression of coronary artery disease in humans. Epicardial adipose tissue is also the only fat depot around the heart that is known to express uncoupling protein 1 at both mRNA and protein levels in the detectable range. Recent advances have further indicated that human epicardial fat exhibits beige fat-like features. Here we provide an overview of the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of human epicardial fat, and further discuss whether its thermogenic properties can serve as a target for the therapeutic management of coronary heart disease in humans. PMID:27152172

  7. Metabolically active human brown adipose tissue derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francisco J; Holt, Dolly J; Vargas, Vanessa; Yockman, James; Boudina, Sihem; Atkinson, Donald; Grainger, David W; Revelo, Monica P; Sherman, Warren; Bull, David A; Patel, Amit N

    2014-02-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in the evolutionarily conserved mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis in mammals. It is characterized by fat vacuoles 5-10 µm in diameter and expression of uncoupling protein one, central to the regulation of thermogenesis. In the human newborn, BAT depots are typically grouped around the vasculature and solid organs. These depots maintain body temperature during cold exposure by warming the blood before its distribution to the periphery. They also ensure an optimal temperature for biochemical reactions within solid organs. BAT had been thought to involute throughout childhood and adolescence. Recent studies, however, have confirmed the presence of active BAT in adult humans with depots residing in cervical, supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and suprarenal regions. While human pluripotent stem cells have been differentiated into functional brown adipocytes in vitro and brown adipocyte progenitor cells have been identified in murine skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, multipotent metabolically active BAT-derived stem cells from a single depot have not been identified in adult humans to date. Here, we demonstrate a clonogenic population of metabolically active BAT stem cells residing in adult humans that can: (a) be expanded in vitro; (b) exhibit multilineage differentiation potential; and (c) functionally differentiate into metabolically active brown adipocytes. Our study defines a new target stem cell population that can be activated to restore energy homeostasis in vivo for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  9. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  10. Limitations of ractopamine to affect adipose tissue metabolism in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C Y; Grant, A L; Kim, K H; Ji, S Q; Hancock, D L; Anderson, D B; Mills, S E

    1994-01-01

    To determine the temporal effect of ractopamine (Rac), a phenethanolamine, on adipose lipogenic enzyme activity and gene expression, 20 crossbred barrows were fed Rac (20 mg/kg of diet) for 0, 1, 8, or 24 d before slaughter (105 +/- 1 kg). Ractopamine had no effect (P > .05) on the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or malic enzyme in either the middle or outer layers of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Similarly, mRNA abundance for acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and the glucose transport proteins Glut 1 and Glut 4 were not affected by Rac in either adipose depot. Despite the inability of Rac to affect adipose tissue metabolism, Rac increased nitrogen retention, longissimus muscle area, and alpha-actin gene expression in skeletal muscle. Results indicate that Rac was not a functional beta-adrenergic agonist toward adipose tissue in this study. We suggest that the response to Rac in adipose tissue is masked by a combination of factors including tissue insensitivity, Rac-dose limitation, inherent partial agonism of Rac, and beta-adrenoceptor down-regulation.

  11. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... women had lower 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with men (62% lower, p difference was found between obese men and women. 11Beta-HSD1 mRNA in human adipose tissue was higher in obese subjects compared with lean subjects in both women...... and men and in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. No difference in mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD1 between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue or between subcutaneous adipose tissue from different depots was found. CONCLUSIONS: 11Beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue is increased in obesity in both...

  12. The role of perivascular adipose tissue in vasoconstriction, arterial stiffness, and aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorta, Luis; Chang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Since the “rediscovery” of brown adipose tissue in adult humans, significant scientific efforts are being pursued to identify the molecular mechanisms to promote a phenotypic change of white adipocytes into brown-like cells, a process called “browning”. It is well documented that white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and factors released from WAT influence the vascular function and positively correlate with cardiac arrest, stroke, and other cardiovascular complications. Similar to other fat depots,...

  13. White adipose tissue: Getting nervous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Kreier, F.; Voshol, P. J.; Havekes, L. M.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Kalsbeek, A.; Buijs, R. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Neuroendocrine research has altered the traditional perspective of white adipose tissue (WAT) as a passive store of triglycerides. In addition to fatty acids, WAT produces many hormones and can therefore be designated as a traditional endocrine gland actively participating in the integrative

  14. Epicardial adipose tissue in endocrine and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able to synthesize, produce, and secrete bioactive molecules which are then transported into the adjacent myocardium through vasocrine and/or paracrine pathways. Based on these evidences, epicardial adipose tissue can be considered an endocrine organ. Epicardial fat is also thought to provide direct heating to the myocardium and protect the heart during unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, such as ischemia or hypoxia. Epicardial fat has been suggested to play an independent role in the development and progression of obesity- and diabetes-related cardiac abnormalities. Clinically, the thickness of epicardial fat can be easily and accurately measured. Epicardial fat thickness can serve as marker of visceral adiposity and visceral fat changes during weight loss interventions and treatments with drugs targeting the fat. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of endocrine and metabolic diseases. This review article will provide Endocrine's reader with a focus on epicardial adipose tissue in endocrinology. Novel, established, but also speculative findings on epicardial fat will be discussed from the unexplored perspective of both clinical and basic Endocrinologist.

  15. Adipose tissue oxygenation: Effects on metabolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity there is a concomitant increase in white adipose tissue dysfunction, with the tissue moving toward a proinflammatory phenotype. Adipose tissue hypoxia has been proposed as a key underlying mechanism triggering tissue dysfunction but data from human, in vivo studies, to support this hypothesis is limited. Human adipose tissue oxygenation has been investigated by direct assessment of tissue oxygen tension (pO2) or by expression of hypoxia-sensitive gene...

  16. Skin Tissue Engineering: Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Agnes S; Zimoch, Jakub; Biedermann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Perception of the adipose tissue has changed dramatically over the last few decades. Identification of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) ultimately transformed paradigm of this tissue from a passive energy depot into a promising stem cell source with properties of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. As compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), ASCs are more easily accessible and their isolation yields higher amount of stem cells. Therefore, the ASCs are of high interest for stem cell-based therapies and skin tissue engineering. Currently, freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which may be used directly without any expansion, was also assessed to be highly effective in treating skin radiation injuries, burns, or nonhealing wounds such as diabetic ulcers. In this paper, we review the characteristics of SVF and ASCs and the efficacy of their treatment for skin injuries and disorders.

  17. Heterogeneous response of adipose tissue to cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Bertevello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia causes disruption of lipid metabolism. Since it has been well established that the various adipose tissue depots demonstrate different responses to stimuli, we assessed the effect of cachexia on some biochemical and morphological parameters of adipocytes obtained from the mesenteric (MES, retroperitoneal (RPAT, and epididymal (EAT adipose tissues of rats bearing Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, compared with controls. Relative weight and total fat content of tissues did not differ between tumor-bearing rats and controls, but fatty acid composition was modified by cachexia. Adipocyte dimensions were increased in MES and RPAT from tumor-bearing rats, but not in EAT, in relation to control. Ultrastructural alterations were observed in the adipocytes of tumor-bearing rat RPAT (membrane projections and EAT (nuclear bodies.

  18. Cellular Responses and Tissue Depots for Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Martinez-Skinner

    Full Text Available Long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART induces a range of innate immune migratory, phagocytic and secretory cell functions that perpetuate drug depots. While recycling endosomes serve as the macrophage subcellular depots, little is known of the dynamics of nanoART-cell interactions. To this end, we assessed temporal leukocyte responses, drug uptake and distribution following both intraperitoneal and intramuscular injection of nanoformulated atazanavir (nanoATV. Local inflammatory responses heralded drug distribution to peritoneal cell populations, regional lymph nodes, spleen and liver. This proceeded for three days in male Balb/c mice. NanoATV-induced changes in myeloid populations were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS with CD45, CD3, CD11b, F4/80, and GR-1 antibodies. The localization of nanoATV within leukocyte cell subsets was determined by confocal microscopy. Combined FACS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry assays determined nanoATV carriages by cell-based vehicles. A robust granulocyte, but not peritoneal macrophage nanoATV response paralleled zymosan A treatment. ATV levels were highest at sites of injection in peritoneal or muscle macrophages, dependent on the injection site. The spleen and liver served as nanoATV tissue depots while drug levels in lymph nodes were higher than those recorded in plasma. Dual polymer and cell labeling demonstrated a nearly exclusive drug reservoir in macrophages within the liver and spleen. Overall, nanoART induces innate immune responses coincident with rapid tissue macrophage distribution. Taken together, these works provide avenues for therapeutic development designed towards chemical eradication of human immunodeficiency viral infection.

  19. Interactions between adipose tissue and the immune system in health and malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensveen, Felix M.; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Polić, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue provides the body with a storage depot of nutrients that is drained during times of starvation and replenished when food sources are abundant. As such, it is the primary sensor for nutrient availability in the milieu of an organism, which it communicates to the body through the

  20. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Tomoya, E-mail: toyamada@affrc.go.jp; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  1. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eCatalan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  2. UCP1 in brite/beige adipose tissue mitochondria is functionally thermogenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Petrovic, Natasa; de Jong, Jasper M A; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2013-12-12

    The phenomenon of white fat "browning," in which certain white adipose tissue depots significantly increase gene expression for the uncoupling protein UCP1 and thus supposedly acquire thermogenic, fat-burning properties, has attracted considerable attention. Because the mRNA increases are from very low initial levels, the metabolic relevance of the change is unclear: is the UCP1 protein thermogenically competent in these brite/beige-fat mitochondria? We found that, in mitochondria isolated from the inguinal "white" adipose depot of cold-acclimated mice, UCP1 protein levels almost reached those in brown-fat mitochondria. The UCP1 was thermogenically functional, in that these mitochondria exhibited UCP1-dependent thermogenesis with lipid or carbohydrate substrates with canonical guanosine diphosphate (GDP) sensitivity and loss of thermogenesis in UCP1 knockout (KO) mice. Obesogenic mouse strains had a lower thermogenic potential than obesity-resistant strains. The thermogenic density (UCP1-dependent oxygen consumption per g tissue) of inguinal white adipose tissue was maximally one-fifth of interscapular brown adipose tissue, and the total quantitative contribution of all inguinal mitochondria was maximally one-third of all interscapular brown-fat mitochondria, indicating that the classical brown adipose tissue depots would still predominate in thermogenesis. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced fatty acid uptake in visceral adipose tissue is not reversed by weight loss in obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucci, Marco; Karmi, Anna C; Iozzo, Patricia; Fielding, Barbara A; Viljanen, Antti; Badeau, Robert M; Borra, Ronald; Saunavaara, Virva; Pham, Tam; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Viljanen, Tapio; Parkkola, Riitta; Frayn, Keith N; Nuutila, Pirjo

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity causes an imbalance in fat mass distribution between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots. We tested the hypothesis that this relates to increased NEFA uptake between these depots in obese compared with healthy participants. Second, we hypothesised that a

  4. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojciechowicz

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16 the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis, under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot.

  5. Local androgen inactivation in abdominal visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Karine; Richard, Christian; Bélanger, Chantal; Dupont, Pierre; Daris, Marleen; Laberge, Philippe; Luu-The, Van; Tchernof, André

    2003-12-01

    We examined the expression and activity of two enzymes from the aldoketoreductase (AKR) family 1C, namely type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD-5, AKR1C3) and type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD-3, AKR1C2) in female sc and omental adipose tissue and in preadipocyte primary cultures. 17beta-HSD-5 preferentially synthesizes testosterone from the inactive adrenal precursor androstenedione, whereas 3alpha-HSD-3 inactivates dihydrotestosterone. mRNAs of both enzymes were detected in adipose tissue from the omental and sc compartments. Real-time PCR quantification indicated a 3-fold higher 3alpha-HSD-3 expression compared with 17beta-HSD-5, and the expression of both enzymes tended to be higher in the sc vs. the omental depot. Accordingly, dose-response and time-course experiments performed in preadipocyte primary cultures indicated that 3alpha-HSD activity was higher than 17beta-HSD activity (13-fold maximum velocity difference). We measured 3alpha-HSD activity in omental and sc adipose tissue samples of 32 women for whom body composition and body fat distribution were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and CT, respectively. We found that androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue through 3alpha-HSD activity was significantly higher in women with elevated vs. low visceral adipose tissue accumulation (1.7-fold difference; P < 0.05). Moreover, omental adipose tissue 3alpha-HSD activity was positively and significantly associated with CT-measured visceral adipose tissue (r = 0.43; P < 0.02) and omental adipocyte diameter (r = 0.42; P < 0.02). These results indicate that local androgen inactivation is a predominant reaction in female abdominal adipose tissue, with the greatest conversion rates observed in the presence of abdominal visceral obesity. Increased androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue of abdominally obese women may impact locally on the regulation of adipocyte metabolism.

  6. LRP5 regulates human body fat distribution by modulating adipose progenitor biology in a dose- and depot-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Nellie Y; Neville, Matt J; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Hardcastle, Sarah A; Fielding, Barbara A; Duncan, Emma L; McCarthy, Mark I; Tobias, Jonathan H; Gregson, Celia L; Karpe, Fredrik; Christodoulides, Constantinos

    2015-02-03

    Common variants in WNT pathway genes have been associated with bone mass and fat distribution, the latter predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Rare mutations in the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 are similarly associated with bone and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the role of LRP5 in human adipose tissue. Subjects with gain-of-function LRP5 mutations and high bone mass had enhanced lower-body fat accumulation. Reciprocally, a low bone mineral density-associated common LRP5 allele correlated with increased abdominal adiposity. Ex vivo LRP5 expression was higher in abdominal versus gluteal adipocyte progenitors. Equivalent knockdown of LRP5 in both progenitor types dose-dependently impaired β-catenin signaling and led to distinct biological outcomes: diminished gluteal and enhanced abdominal adipogenesis. These data highlight how depot differences in WNT/β-catenin pathway activity modulate human fat distribution via effects on adipocyte progenitor biology. They also identify LRP5 as a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...... and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...

  8. Effects of local alpha2-adrenergic receptor blockade on adipose tissue lipolysis during prolonged systemic adrenaline infusion in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Stallknecht, Bente

    2008-01-01

    During prolonged adrenaline infusion, lipolysis peaks within 30 min and thereafter tends to decline, and we hypothesized that the stimulation of local adipose tissue alpha2-adrenergic receptors accounts for this decline. The lipolytic effect of a prolonged intravenous adrenaline infusion combined....... Regional adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the (133)Xe clearance technique. Regional glycerol output (lipolytic rate) was calculated from these measurements and simultaneous measurements of arterial glycerol concentrations. Adrenaline infusion increased lipolysis in all three depots (data...... circulating adrenaline concentrations, and the decrease in lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue under prolonged adrenaline stimulation is thus not attributed to alpha2-adrenergic receptor inhibition of lipolysis. However, in the preperitoneal adipose tissue depot, alpha2-adrenergic receptor tone plays...

  9. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  10. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  11. Adipose tissue biglycan as a potential anti-inflammatory target of sodium salicylate in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adapala Venkata J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation in adipose tissue (AT during obesity causes impaired AT function. Although multiple extracellular matrix (ECM proteins are expressed in AT their potential role in adipose tissue inflammation is unclear. Biglycan, a pro-inflammatory ECM gene, is highly enriched in adipose tissue. However, whether it is correlated with adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. We provide evidence in support of a strong association between biglycan expression and inflammatory status of adipose tissue. Methods C57BL6 mice were fed either a control (10% fat calories or a high fat diet (HFD (60% fat calories for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue was analyzed for the expression of biglycan, IL-6 and TNFα. Biglycan knockout or wild type were also fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks and the expression of inflammatory genes in the mesenteric adipose tissue was examined. To test anti-inflammatory treatment on biglycan expression, a group of mice were fed either the low fat or high fat diet for eight weeks supplemented with either saline or sodium salicylate @ 25mg/100ml in their drinking water. Results Mice on HFD had an increase in ECM genes (BGN and COL1A1, inflammatory genes (IL-6 and TNFα in both the subcutaneous and epididymal depots. However, correlation analysis only shows a positive correlation between biglycan, IL-6 and TNFα expression. In addition, lower expression of IL-6 and CD68 was found in the mesenteric adipose tissue of biglycan knockout mice compared to the wild type. Sodium salicylate treatment reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of BGN, COL1A1, and COL6A1 and a concurrent downregulation of TNFα and IL-6 and TLR4 expression. Salicylate also lowered the serum TGFβ1 levels. Conclusion Biglycan expression correlates with adipose tissue inflammation, especially in the subcutaneous depot compared to the epididymal depot. This is supported by the greater effect of sodium salicylate in attenuating both inflammatory and ECM gene

  12. Functionally enhanced brown adipose tissue in Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Justin; Bartke, Andrzej

    2017-01-02

    Reduced insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin signaling (IIS) has been linked to extended longevity in species ranging from yeast to mammals. In mammals, this is exemplified in Ames dwarf (Prop1 df/df ) mice, which have a 40%-60% increase in longevity (males and females, respectively) due to their recessive Prop1 loss-of-function mutation that results in lack of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Our laboratory has previously shown that Ames dwarf mice have functionally unique white adipose tissue (WAT) that improves, rather than impairs, insulin sensitivity. Because GH and thyroid hormone are integral to adipose tissue development and function, we hypothesized that brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Ames dwarf mice may also be functionally unique and/or enhanced. Here, we elaborate on our recent findings, which demonstrate that BAT is functionally enhanced in Ames dwarf mice, and suggest that BAT removal in these mice results in utilization of WAT depots as an energy source. We also discuss how our findings compare to those in other long-lived dwarf mice with altered IIS, which unlike Ames dwarf mice, are essentially euthyroid. Lastly, we provide some insights into the implications of these findings and discuss some of the necessary future work in this area.

  13. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björntorp, P

    1996-04-01

    physiological oral administration of triglycerides, labelled with a small amount of oleic acid, followed by measurements of the regional uptake and turn-over of adipose tissue triglycerides. Such studies show lipid uptake in the order omental = retroperitoneal > subcutaneous abdominal > subcutaneous femoral adipose tissues in men, with a similar rank order for half-life of the triglyceride, indicating also a turn-over of triglycerides in that order. T amplifies these differences in men. In premenopausal women subcutaneous abdominal has a higher turnover than femoral adipose tissue. Results of studies in vitro indicate that this difference is diminished at the menopause, and restored by estrogen substitution, suggesting that the functional effects of estrogens in women are similar to those of T in men. The mechanisms are, however, probably indirect because of the apparent absence of specific estrogen and progesterone receptors in human adipose tissue. This interpretation from the studies referred to above fits well with physiological, and clinical conditions with increased visceral fat mass, where the balance between the lipid accumulating hormone couple (cortisol and insulin) and the hormones which prevent lipid accumulation and instead activate lipid mobilization pathways (sex steroid hormones and GH) is shifted to the advantage of the former. Such conditions include Cushing's syndrome, the polycystic ovary syndrome, menopause, aging, GH-deficiency, depression, smoking and excess alcohol intake. With appropriate interventions against hypercortisolemia and substitution of deficient sex steroids and GH, visceral fat mass is decreasing. Based on this evidence from physiological, clinical, interventional observations and detailed studies of mechanisms at cellular and molecular levels it is suggested that the combined endocrine abnormalities in the syndrome of visceral obesity direct storage fat to visceral adipose depots. Therefore, measurements of visceral fat accumulat

  14. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  15. Prostacyclin synthase activity regulates the adipose depot specific IL-6 secretion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogston, N. C.; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M.; Duchen, M.; Horáková, Olga; Kopecký, Jan; Johnston, S.; Speakman, J.; Fry, C.; Mohamed-Ali, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2007), S69-S69 ISSN 0307-0565. [European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * adipokines * IL-6 * cyclooxygenase-2 Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  16. Perivascular adipose tissue alleviates inflammatory factors and stenosis in diabetic blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjia; Liu, Xinnong; Ni, Leng; Wang, Zhanqi; Wang, Wenda; Shi, Tao; Liu, Xiu; Liu, Changwei

    2016-11-11

    Adipose tissue can modulate disease processes in a depot-specific manner. However, the functional properties of perivascular adipocytes, and their influence on the pathophysiology of blood vessel walls, remain to be determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether perivascular adipose tissue could have an ameliorative effect on blood vessels damaged in diabetes. Using in vitro coculture, and in vivo transplantation model simulating diabetic angioplasty-induced injury, we showed that perivascular adipose tissue has an important function in protecting blood vessels from high glucose impairment. Levels of inflammatory cytokines, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and osteopontin, were markedly reduced, whereas that of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase was markedly elevated in vascular walls. These depot-specific differences in blood vessels exposed to high levels of glucose were demonstrable both in vivo, with transplanted adipose tissues, and in vitro, when vascular endothelial cells were cocultured with adipocytes. In addition, intimal hyperplasia was also decreased by transplanted perivascular adipose tissue after balloon injury combined with hyperglycemia. We conclude that perivascular adipocytes can reduce inflammation in blood vessels and promote the normal function of endothelium, which could afford a new therapeutic strategy in vascular walls damaged by diabetes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity.

  18. Impact of Growth Hormone on Regulation of Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troike, Katie M; Henry, Brooke E; Jensen, Elizabeth A; Young, Jonathan A; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2017-06-18

    Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output. We will provide an overview of GH structure and function and define several human conditions and cognate mouse lines with extremes in GH action that have helped shape our understanding of GH and AT. A detailed discussion of the GH/AT relationship will be included that addresses adipokine production, immune cell populations, lipid metabolism, senescence, differentiation, and fibrosis, as well as brown AT and beiging of white AT. A brief overview of how GH levels are altered in an obese state, and the efficacy of GH as a therapeutic option to manage obesity will be given. As we will reveal, the effects of GH on AT are numerous, dynamic and depot-dependent. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:819-840, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Global gene expression profiling of brown to white adipose tissue transformation in sheep reveals novel transcriptional components linked to adipose remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Astrid L.; Dixen, Karen; Yadav, Rachita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large mammals are capable of thermoregulation shortly after birth due to the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The majority of BAT disappears after birth and is replaced by white adipose tissue (WAT). Results: We analyzed the postnatal transformation of adipose in sheep with a t......Background: Large mammals are capable of thermoregulation shortly after birth due to the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The majority of BAT disappears after birth and is replaced by white adipose tissue (WAT). Results: We analyzed the postnatal transformation of adipose in sheep...... with a time course study of the perirenal adipose depot. We observed changes in tissue morphology, gene expression and metabolism within the first two weeks of postnatal life consistent with the expected transition from BAT to WAT. The transformation was characterized by massively decreased mitochondrial....... Conclusions: Using global gene expression profiling of the postnatal BAT to WAT transformation in sheep, we provide novel insight into adipose tissue plasticity in a large mammal, including identification of novel transcriptional components linked to adipose tissue remodeling. Moreover, our data set provides...

  20. Alcohol, Adipose Tissue and Lipid Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Steiner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long‐term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged. Study of the lipolytic and lipogenic pathways has identified several regulatory proteins modulated by alcohol that contribute to these effects. Glucose tolerance of adipose tissue is also impaired by chronic alcohol due to decreased glucose transporter‐4 availability at the membrane. As an endocrine organ, white adipose tissue (WAT releases several adipokines that are negatively modulated following chronic alcohol consumption including adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. When these effects are combined with the enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators that are induced by chronic alcohol, a proinflammatory state develops within WAT, contributing to the observed lipodystrophy. Lastly, while chronic alcohol intake may enhance thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT, definitive mechanistic evidence is currently lacking. Overall, both WAT and BAT depots are impacted by chronic alcohol intake and the resulting lipodystrophy contributes to fat accumulation in peripheral organs, thereby enhancing the pathological state accompanying chronic alcohol use disorder.

  1. Traveling from the hypothalamus to the adipose tissue: The thermogenic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cristina; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; López, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized tissue critical for non-shivering thermogenesis producing heat through mitochondrial uncoupling; whereas white adipose tissue (WAT) is responsible of energy storage in the form of triglycerides. Another type of fat has been described, the beige adipose tissue; this tissue emerges in existing WAT depots but with thermogenic ability, a phenomenon known as browning. Several peripheral signals relaying information about energy status act in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to regulate thermogenesis in BAT and browning of WAT. Different hypothalamic areas have the capacity to regulate the thermogenic process in brown and beige adipocytes through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). This review discusses important concepts and discoveries about the central control of thermogenesis as a trip that starts in the hypothalamus, and taking the sympathetic roads to reach brown and beige fat to modulate thermogenic functions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue

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    Gabriel M Pagnotti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell pool (MSC that gives rise also to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally-supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot, or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone - a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk - mice demonstrate a 5-fold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise

  3. Adipose Tissue Remodeling as Homeostatic Inflammation

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    Michiko Itoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated indicating that obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Obese adipose tissue is characterized by dynamic changes in cellular composition and function, which may be referred to as “adipose tissue remodeling”. Among stromal cells in the adipose tissue, infiltrated macrophages play an important role in adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. We have demonstrated that a paracrine loop involving saturated fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-α derived from adipocytes and macrophages, respectively, aggravates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Notably, saturated fatty acids, which are released from hypertrophied adipocytes via the macrophage-induced lipolysis, serve as a naturally occurring ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 complex, thereby activating macrophages. Such a sustained interaction between endogenous ligands derived from parenchymal cells and pathogen sensors expressed in stromal immune cells should lead to chronic inflammatory responses ranging from the basal homeostatic state to diseased tissue remodeling, which may be referred to as “homeostatic inflammation”. We, therefore, postulate that adipose tissue remodeling may represent a prototypic example of homeostatic inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying homeostatic inflammation may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat obesity-related complications.

  4. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  5. Effects of pioglitazone on adipose tissue remodeling within the setting of obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, C J; Eckhardt, M; Gagen, K; Dong, M; Chen, W; Laurent, D; Burkey, B F

    2001-08-01

    Obesity and dysfunctional energy partitioning can lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The antidiabetic thiazolidinediones shift the energy balance toward storage, leading to an increase in whole-body adiposity. These studies examine the effects of pioglitazone (Pio) on adipose tissue physiology, accumulation, and distribution in female Zucker (fa/fa) rats. Pio treatment (up to 28 days) decreased the insulin-resistant and hyperlipidemic states and increased food consumption and whole-body adiposity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis and weights of fat pads demonstrated that the increase in adiposity was not only limited to the major fat depots but also to fat deposition throughout the body. Adipocyte sizing profiles, fat pad histology, and DNA content show that Pio treatment increased the number of small adipocytes because of both the appearance of new adipocytes and the shrinkage and/or disappearance of existing mature adipocytes. The remodeling was time dependent, with new small adipocytes appearing in clusters throughout the fat pad, and accompanied by a three- to fourfold increase in citrate synthase and fatty acid synthase activity. The appearance of new fat cells and the increase in fat mass were depot specific, with a rank order of responsiveness of ovarian > retroperitoneal > subcutaneous. This differential depot effect resulted in a redistribution of the fat mass in the abdominal region such that there was an increase in the visceral:subcutaneous ratio, as confirmed by MRI analysis. Although the increased adiposity is paradoxical to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, the quantitative increase of adipose mass should be viewed in context of the qualitative changes in adipose tissue, including the remodeling of adipocytes to a smaller size with higher lipid storage potential. This shift in energy balance is likely to result in lower circulating free fatty acid levels, ultimately improving insulin sensitivity and the

  6. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

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    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprostatic (PP adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia. Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated. Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis, whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH. Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable

  7. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  8. Dietary supplementation of tetradecylthioacetic acid increases feed intake but reduces body weight gain and adipose depot sizes in rats fed on high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensaas, A J; Rustan, A C; Rokling-Andersen, M H; Caesar, R; Jensen, J; Kaalhus, O; Graff, B A; Gudbrandsen, O A; Berge, R K; Drevon, C A

    2009-11-01

    The pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligand and fatty acid analogue tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) may reduce plasma lipids and enhance hepatic lipid metabolism, as well as reduce adipose tissue sizes in rats fed on high-fat diets. This study further explores the effects of TTA on weight gain, feed intake and adipose tissue functions in rats that are fed a high-fat diet for 7 weeks. The effects on feed intake and body weight during 7 weeks' dietary supplement with TTA ( approximately 200 mg/kg bw) were studied in male Wistar rats fed on a lard-based diet containing approximately 40% energy from fat. Adipose tissue mass, body composition and expression of relevant genes in fat depots and liver were measured at the end of the feeding. Despite higher feed intake during the final 2 weeks of the study, rats fed on TTA gained less body weight than lard-fed rats and had markedly decreased subcutaneous, epididymal, perirenal and mesenteric adipose depots. The effects of TTA feeding with reduced body weight gain and energy efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) started between day 10 and 13. Body contents of fat, protein and water were reduced after feeding lard plus TTA, with a stronger decrease in fat relative to protein. Plasma lipids, including Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA), were significantly reduced, whereas fatty acid beta-oxidation in liver and heart was enhanced in lard plus TTA-fed rats. Hepatic UCP3 was expressed ectopically both at protein and mRNA level (>1900-fold), whereas Ucp1 mRNA was increased approximately 30-fold in epididymal and approximately 90-fold in mesenteric fat after lard plus TTA feeding. Our data support the hypothesis that TTA feeding may increase hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation, and thereby reduce the size of adipose tissues. The functional importance of ectopic hepatic UCP3 is unknown, but might be associated with enhanced energy expenditure and thus the reduced feed efficiency.

  9. Resistin increases islet blood flow and decreases subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, T; Fredriksson, L; Jansson, L; Henriksnäs, J

    2009-02-01

    Resistin is an adipokine which has been suggested to participate in the induction of insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute administration of resistin influences tissue blood perfusion in rats. Resistin was administered as an intravenous infusion of 7.5 microg h(-1) (1.5 mL h(-1)) for 30 min to rats anaesthetized with thiobutabarbital. A microsphere technique was used to estimate the blood flow to six different depots of white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as to the pancreas, islets, duodenum, colon, kidneys, adrenal glands and liver. Resistin administration led to an increased blood flow to the pancreas and islets and a decrease in subcutaneous WAT and BAT. Intra-abdominal white adipose tissue blood flow and that to other organs were not affected. Acute administration of resistin markedly affects the blood perfusion of both the pancreas and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots. At present it is unknown whether resistin exerts a direct effect on the vasculature, or works through local or systemic activation of endothelial cells and/or macrophages. The extent to which this might contribute to the insulin resistance caused by resistin is yet unknown.

  10. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  11. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  12. The origin and purpose of layers of subcutaneous adipose tissue in pigs and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Gary J

    2018-03-16

    Adipose tissue exists in many locations or depots that differ from one another based on numerous and various characteristics. The unique "layered" anatomical feature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in man and the pig is reviewed and discussed. The origin of fetal pig adipose tissue subcutaneous layers is reviewed before the onset of adipogenesis and after the overt adipogenesis. Furthermore, the distinguishing characteristics of developing outer SAT layer (OSQ) and middle SAT layer (MSQ) in pigs are reviewed. These characteristics include adipocyte hypertrophy, metabolism and genetic regulation. The MSQ layer is the major layer in the pig and expands to the greatest degree in obesity and growth. Abdominal SAT in man is composed of deep SAT (dSAT) and superficial SAT (sSAT) layers. Clearly, dSAT expands disproportionally more than sSAT with increasing obesity in Caucasian males which precipitates a number of human pathologies associated with increased adiposity. We reviewed the considerable evidence that demonstrates the distinction between sSAT and dSAT which includes higher levels of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and greater levels of lipolysis in dSAT. Furthermore, dSAT expresses more metabolic and inflammatory genes. Studies comparing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and dSAT indicate that both depots are implicated in insulin resistance (IR) and other human pathologies. Epigenetic studies of MSQ and dSAT have begun to indicate a role for DNA methylation in gene regulation of these depots. Further studies of dSAT and MSQ are warranted as they are clearly a major manifestation of obesity.

  13. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  14. A stratified transcriptomics analysis of polygenic fat and lean mouse adipose tissues identifies novel candidate obesity genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Morton

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In addition to brain-regulated processes, recent genome wide association studies have indicated that genes highly expressed in adipose tissue affect the distribution and function of fat and thus contribute to obesity. Using a stratified transcriptome gene enrichment approach we attempted to identify adipose tissue-specific obesity genes in the unique polygenic Fat (F mouse strain generated by selective breeding over 60 generations for divergent adiposity from a comparator Lean (L strain.To enrich for adipose tissue obesity genes a 'snap-shot' pooled-sample transcriptome comparison of key fat depots and non adipose tissues (muscle, liver, kidney was performed. Known obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL information for the model allowed us to further filter genes for increased likelihood of being causal or secondary for obesity. This successfully identified several genes previously linked to obesity (C1qr1, and Np3r as positional QTL candidate genes elevated specifically in F line adipose tissue. A number of novel obesity candidate genes were also identified (Thbs1, Ppp1r3d, Tmepai, Trp53inp2, Ttc7b, Tuba1a, Fgf13, Fmr that have inferred roles in fat cell function. Quantitative microarray analysis was then applied to the most phenotypically divergent adipose depot after exaggerating F and L strain differences with chronic high fat feeding which revealed a distinct gene expression profile of line, fat depot and diet-responsive inflammatory, angiogenic and metabolic pathways. Selected candidate genes Npr3 and Thbs1, as well as Gys2, a non-QTL gene that otherwise passed our enrichment criteria were characterised, revealing novel functional effects consistent with a contribution to obesity.A focussed candidate gene enrichment strategy in the unique F and L model has identified novel adipose tissue-enriched genes contributing to obesity.

  15. Ambient particulate air pollution induces oxidative stress and alterations of mitochondria and gene expression in brown and white adipose tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkema Jack R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between air pollution and metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. Changes in adipose tissue and its mitochondrial content/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant metabolic complications. We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ambient air pollutant exposure in a rodent model. Methods Male ApoE knockout (ApoE-/- mice inhaled concentrated fine ambient PM (PM 2.5 or filtered air (FA for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 months. We examined superoxide production by dihydroethidium staining; inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry; and changes in white and brown adipocyte-specific gene profiles by real-time PCR and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in response to PM2.5 exposure in different adipose depots of ApoE-/- mice to understand responses to chronic inhalational stimuli. Results Exposure to PM2.5 induced an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in brown adipose depots. Additionally, exposure to PM2.5 decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue as measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Mitochondrial number was significantly reduced in white (WAT and brown adipose tissues (BAT, while mitochondrial size was also reduced in BAT. In BAT, PM2.5 exposure down-regulated brown adipocyte-specific genes, while white adipocyte-specific genes were differentially up-regulated. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure triggers oxidative stress in BAT, and results in key alterations in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial alterations that are pronounced in BAT. We postulate that exposure to PM2.5 may induce imbalance between white and brown adipose tissue functionality and thereby predispose to metabolic dysfunction.

  16. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  17. Insulin resistance causes inflammation in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Albert, Verena; Woelnerhanssen, Bettina; Frei, Irina C; Weissenberger, Diana; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Clement, Nicolas; Moes, Suzette; Colombi, Marco; Meier, Jerome A; Swierczynska, Marta M; Jenö, Paul; Beglinger, Christoph; Peterli, Ralph; Hall, Michael N

    2018-03-12

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, obesity-mediated insulin resistance correlates with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages and inflammation. However, the causal relationship of these events is unclear. Here, we report that obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice precedes macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue. Using a mouse model that combines genetically induced, adipose-specific insulin resistance (mTORC2-knockout) and diet-induced obesity, we found that insulin resistance causes local accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages. Mechanistically, insulin resistance in adipocytes results in production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), which recruits monocytes and activates proinflammatory macrophages. Finally, insulin resistance (high homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) correlated with reduced insulin/mTORC2 signaling and elevated MCP1 production in visceral adipose tissue from obese human subjects. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in adipose tissue leads to inflammation rather than vice versa.

  18. Omental adipose tissue is a more suitable source of canine Mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Francisca; Flores, Estefania; Cattaneo, Gino; Bruna, Flavia; Conget, Paulette

    2017-06-08

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic tool in veterinary medicine. Currently the subcutaneous adipose tissue is the leading source of MSCs in dogs. MSCs derived from distinct fat depots have shown dissimilarities in their accessibility and therapeutic potential. The aims of our work were to determine the suitability of omental adipose tissue as a source of MSCs, according to sampling success, cell yield and paracrine properties of isolated cells, and compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue. While sampling success of omental adipose tissue was 100% (14 collections from14 donors) for subcutaneous adipose tissue it was 71% (10 collections from 14 donors). MSCs could be isolated from both sources. Cell yield was significantly higher for omental than for subcutaneous adipose tissue (38 ± 1 vs. 30 ± 1 CFU-F/g tissue, p cell proliferation potential (73 ± 1 vs. 74 ± 1 CDPL) and cell senescence (at passage 10, both cultures presented enlarged cells with cytoplasmic vacuoles and cellular debris). Omental- and subcutaneous-derived MSCs expressed at the same level bFGF, PDGF, HGF, VEGF, ANG1 and IL-10. Irrespective of the source, isolated MSCs induced proliferation, migration and vascularization of target cells, and inhibited the activation of T lymphocytes. Compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue, omental adipose tissue is a more suitable source of MSCs in dogs. Since it can be procured from donors with any body condition, its collection procedure is always feasible, its cell yield is high and the MSCs isolated from it have desirable differentiation and paracrine potentials.

  19. Combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix and adipose-derived stem cells for adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A; Zhang, Qixu; Beahm, Elisabeth K

    2013-11-01

    Repair of soft tissue defects resulting from lumpectomy or mastectomy has become an important rehabilitation process for breast cancer patients. This study aimed to provide an adipose tissue engineering platform for soft tissue defect repair by combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). To derive hDAM incised human adipose tissues underwent a decellularization process. Effective cell removal and lipid removal were proved by immunohistochemical analysis and DNA quantification. Scanning electron microscopic examination showed a three-dimensional nanofibrous architecture in hDAM. The hDAM included collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and vascular endothelial growth factor, but lacked major histocompatibility complex antigen I. hASC viability and proliferation on hDAM were proven in vitro. hDAM implanted subcutaneously in Fischer rats did not cause an immunogenic response, and it underwent remodeling, as indicated by host cell infiltration, neovascularization, and adipose tissue formation. Fresh fat grafts (Coleman technique) and engineered fat grafts (hDAM combined with hASCs) were implanted subcutaneously in nude rats. The implanted engineered fat grafts maintained their volume for 8 weeks, and the hASCs contributed to adipose tissue formation. In summary, the combination of hDAM and hASCs provides not only a clinically translatable platform for adipose tissue engineering, but also a vehicle for elucidating fat grafting mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transplantation of Adipose Tissue and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Tool to Study Metabolic Physiology and for Treatment of Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Thien T.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Humans and other mammals have three main fat depots - visceral white fat, subcutaneous white fat, and brown fat - each possessing unique cell-autonomous properties. In contrast to visceral fat which can induce detrimental metabolic effects, subcutaneous white fat and brown fat have potential beneficial metabolic effects, including improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy consumption, which might be transferred by transplantation of these fat tissues. In addition, fat contains adipose...

  1. Dermal white adipose tissue: a new component of the thermogenic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Caroline M.; Kasza, Ildiko; Yen, C-L. Eric; Reeder, Scott B.; Hernando, Diego; Gallo, Richard L.; Jahoda, Colin A. B.; Horsley, Valerie; MacDougald, Ormond A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that the layer of adipocytes embedded in the skin below the dermis is far from being an inert spacer material. Instead, this layer of dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is a regulated lipid layer that comprises a crucial environmental defense. Among all the classes of biological molecules, lipids have the lowest thermal conductance and highest insulation potential. This property can be exploited by mammals to reduce heat loss, suppress brown adipose tissue activation, reduce the activation of thermogenic programs, and increase metabolic efficiency. Furthermore, this layer responds to bacterial challenge to provide a physical barrier and antimicrobial disinfection, and its expansion supports the growth of hair follicles and regenerating skin. In sum, this dWAT layer is a key defensive player with remarkable potential for modifying systemic metabolism, immune function, and physiology. In this review, we discuss the key literature illustrating the properties of this recently recognized adipose depot. PMID:26405076

  2. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition.

  3. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 is required for normal fat storage in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Diego A; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nguyen, Long N; Cheng, Wang; Tan, Bryan C; Goh, Vera J; Tan, Jolene S Y; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Kn, Bhanu Prakash; Velan, S Sendhil; Wang, Hongyan; Silver, David L

    2014-04-04

    Triglycerides within the cytosol of cells are stored in a phylogenetically conserved organelle called the lipid droplet (LD). LDs can be formed at the endoplasmic reticulum, but mechanisms that regulate the formation of LDs are incompletely understood. Adipose tissue has a high capacity to form lipid droplets and store triglycerides. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2/FIT2) is highly expressed in adipocytes, and data indicate that FIT2 has an important role in the formation of LDs in cells, but whether FIT2 has a physiological role in triglyceride storage in adipose tissue remains unproven. Here we show that adipose-specific deficiency of FIT2 (AF2KO) in mice results in progressive lipodystrophy of white adipose depots and metabolic dysfunction. In contrast, interscapular brown adipose tissue of AF2KO mice accumulated few but large LDs without changes in cellular triglyceride levels. High fat feeding of AF2KO mice or AF2KO mice on the genetically obese ob/ob background accelerated the onset of lipodystrophy. At the cellular level, primary adipocyte precursors of white and brown adipose tissue differentiated in vitro produced fewer but larger LDs without changes in total cellular triglyceride or triglyceride biosynthesis. These data support the conclusion that FIT2 plays an essential, physiological role in fat storage in vivo.

  4. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2014-01-01

    increases adiponectin secretion, indicating that NPs may improve adipose tissue function and in this way function as a cardio-protective agent in HF. Accordingly we investigated the interplay between plasma adiponectin, plasma proBNP, and development of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed...

  5. Mycobacterium canettii Infection of Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fériel; Brégeon, Fabienne; Poncin, Isabelle; Weber, Pascal; Drancourt, Michel; Canaan, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissues were shown to host Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is persisting inside mature adipocytes. It remains unknown whether this holds true for Mycobacterium canettii , a rare representative of the M. tuberculosis complex responsible for lymphatic and pulmonary tuberculosis. Here, we infected primary murine white and brown pre-adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mature adipocytes with M. canettii and M. tuberculosis as a positive control. Both mycobacteria were able to infect 18-22% of challenged primary murine pre-adipocytes; and to replicate within these cells during a 7-day experiment with the intracellular inoculums being significantly higher in brown than in white pre-adipocytes for M. canettii ( p = 0.02) and M. tuberculosis ( p = 0.03). Further in-vitro infection of 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes yielded 9% of infected cells by M. canettii and 17% of infected cells by M. tuberculosis ( p = 0.001). Interestingly, M. canettii replicated and accumulated intra-cytosolic lipid inclusions within mature adipocytes over a 12-day experiment; while M. tuberculosis stopped replicating at day 3 post-infection. These results indicate that brown pre-adipocytes could be one of the potential targets for M. tuberculosis complex mycobacteria; and illustrate differential outcome of M. tuberculosis complex mycobacteria into adipose tissues. While white adipose tissue is an unlikely sanctuary for M. canettii , it is still an open question whether M. canettii and M. tuberculosis could persist in brown adipose tissues.

  6. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  7. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on postnatal adipose tissue development of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, A; Mendizabal, J A; Alzón, M; Soret, B; Purroy, A

    2008-12-01

    Vitamin A (retinoic acid) is known to be an adipogenic factor influencing both in vitro and in vivo cell development. This study aimed to determine its effect on lamb adipose tissue development during the early phase of postnatal development until 100 d of age. Male lambs (n = 24) of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were used. At birth, lambs were assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: 1) the control (C) group, which received feed without vitamin A supplementation, and 2) the vitamin A (V) group, which received a supplement of 500,000 IU/animal twice per week from birth to slaughter. The effect of vitamin A supplementation was studied at 16.8 +/- 0.35 kg of BW (58 +/- 0.7 d of age) and at 27.8 +/- 0.78 kg of BW (101 +/- 6.5 d of age). The variables of lamb growth, carcass, LM area, and lipid content were analyzed. To study adipose tissue development, the amount of adipose tissue accumulated, the size and number of adipocytes, and lipogenic enzyme activities (glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) of the omental, perirenal, and s.c. depots were quantified. Results showed that vitamin A supplementation had no influence on growth, carcass variables, LM area, and lipid content during lamb growth but that the number of adipocytes in the perirenal depot was 30% greater in lambs of the V group (P vitamin A during the whole period of growth of the lambs influenced the processes of hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the different adipose depots, depending on their degree of maturity.

  8. [Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyutin, R V; Zapohlska, K M; Palyanytsya, S S; Sirman, V M; Sokolov, M F

    2015-03-01

    Experimental investigation were conducted with the objective to determine a stem cells, capacity to differentiate in adipogenic direction, if they were obtained from adipose tissue. The investigation results have witnessed, that the cells, obtained from adipose tissue, are capable for a tissue-speciphic differentiation in osteogenic, chondrogenic, and, principally--in adipogenic direction, what confirms a multypotent nature of mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue constitutes an alternative to the bone marrow, as a source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, which may be applied in further investigations, concerning determination of their defense possibility for the transplanted autologous adipose tissue from the tissue resorption, made in a lipophiling way.

  9. Characterization of brown adipose tissue by water-fat separated magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romu, Thobias; Elander, Louise; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Persson, Anders; Enerbäck, Sven; Borga, Magnus

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the possibility of quantifying brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume and fat concentration with a high resolution, long echo time, dual-echo Dixon imaging protocol. A 0.42 mm isotropic resolution water-fat separated MRI protocol was implemented by using the second opposite-phase echo and third in-phase echo. Fat images were calibrated with regard to the intensity of nearby white adipose tissue (WAT) to form relative fat content (RFC) images. To evaluate the ability to measure BAT volume and RFC contrast dynamics, rats were divided into two groups that were kept at 4° or 22°C for 5 days. The rats were then scanned in a 70 cm bore 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner and a human dual energy CT. Interscapular, paraaortal, and perirenal BAT (i/pa/pr-BAT) depots as well as WAT and muscle were segmented in the MRI and CT images. Biopsies were collected from the identified BAT depots. The biopsies confirmed that the three depots identified with the RFC images consisted of BAT. There was a significant linear correlation (P fat concentration, induced by cold stimulation. The high correlation between RFC and HU suggests that the fat concentration is the main RFC image contrast mechanism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Facial Adipose Tissue: A Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja; Trujillo, Oscar; Kristen, Quick; Isac, Kerelos; Zorko, Julia; Fam, Maria; Okonkwo, Kasie; Mian, Asima; Thanh, Hyunh; Koban, Konstantin; Sclafani, Anthony P; Steinke, Hanno; Cotofana, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Recent advantages in the anatomical understanding of the face have turned the focus toward the subcutaneous and deep facial fat compartments. During facial aging, these fat-filled compartments undergo substantial changes along with other structures in the face. Soft tissue filler and fat grafting are valid methods to fight the signs of facial aging, but little is known about their precise effect on the facial fat. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge about the facial fat compartments in terms of anatomical location, histologic appearance, immune-histochemical characteristics, cellular interactions, and therapeutic options. Three different types of facial adipose tissue can be identified, which are located either superficially (dermal white adipose tissue) or deep (subcutaneous white adipose tissue): fibrous (perioral locations), structural (major parts of the midface), and deposit (buccal fat pad and deep temporal fat pad). These various fat types differ in the size of the adipocytes and the collagenous composition of their extracellular matrix and thus in their mechanical properties. Minimal invasive (e.g., soft tissue fillers or fat grafting) and surgical interventions aiming to restore the youthful face have to account for the different fat properties in various facial areas. However, little is known about the macro- and microscopic characteristics of the facial fat tissue in different compartments and future studies are needed to reveal new insights to better understand the process of aging and how to fight its signs best. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Changes in adiponectin and inflammatory genes in response to hormonal imbalances in female mice and exacerbation of depot selective visceral adiposity by high-fat diet: implications for insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xinlei; Aravindakshan, Jayaprakash; Sairam, M Ram

    2007-12-01

    Early obesity and late onset of insulin resistance associated with hormonal imbalances occur in FSH receptor-deficient follitropin receptor knockout female mice. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic high-fat diet aggravates obesogenic changes in a depot-specific manner and explores some molecular links of hormone imbalances with insulin resistance. In SV 129 mice, hormonal imbalances seem obligatory for exacerbation of diet-induced obesity. Visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance, and lipid disturbances in 9-month follitropin receptor knockout females were associated with decrease in adiponectin signaling. High-molecular-weight plasma adiponectin and adipose tissue adiponectin mRNA were decreased. Adiponectin receptors R1 and R2 mRNA was selectively altered in mesenteric fat but not periuterine fat. R2 decreased in the liver and R1 was higher in muscle. Whereas hepatic adenosine monophosphate T-activated protein kinase activity was down-regulated, both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase enzymes were up-regulated. Longitudinally, diminishing sex hormone signaling in adipose tissue was associated with progressive down-regulation of adiponectin activity and gradual impaired glucose tolerance. Chronic high-fat diet in SV129 wild-type mice did not produce overt obesity but induced visceral fat depot changes accompanied by liver lipid accumulation, high cholesterol, and up-regulation of inflammation gene mRNAs. Thus, TNF-alpha, C-C motif chemokine receptor-2, and C-C motif chemokine ligand-2 were selectively elevated in mesenteric fat without altering glucose tolerance and adiponectin signaling. Our study highlights adiponectin signaling and regulation to be involved in hormone imbalance-induced insulin resistance and demonstrates selective visceral adipose depot alterations by chronic high-fat diet and induction of inflammatory genes.

  12. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P.; Hauner, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  13. Post-mortem stability of RNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the tissue-specific expression of myostatin, perilipin and associated factors in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa K Morrison

    Full Text Available Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB, follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots. The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs

  14. Fatty acid profile of three adipose depots in seven Spanish breeds of suckling kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcada, A; Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Sañudo, C; Teixeira, A; Panea, B

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular, subcutaneous and kidney knob fat depot fatty acid profiles were studied in 104 male suckling kids from seven Spanish breeds: Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtibérica, Moncaína, Negra Serrana-Castiza, Pirenaica, Malagueña and Murciano-Granadina. Kids were raised in the traditional production system on mother's milk and slaughtered at around 7kg live weight. Differences were observed between dairy (Malagueña) and meat breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtibérica, Moncaína, Negra Serrana-Castiza, and Pirenaica). Malagueña showed higher monounsaturated and conjugated linoleic fatty acid levels than the other breeds. Highest percentages of saturated fatty acids were observed in meat breeds. For intramuscular fat depot, the range for desirable fatty acids was 66.16-72.27% was. The influence of breed on fatty acid profiles of intramuscular, subcutaneous and kidney knob fat depots studied was evident. Intramuscular fat depot is proposed as a differentiating factor between dairy and meat breed goat kids, but not between meat breed kids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: There is increasing evidence of cross-talk between the heart, body metabolism, and adipose tissue, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have recently emerged as the prime candidate for a mediator. In patients with heart failure (HF), infusion of NPs...... increases adiponectin secretion, indicating that NPs may improve adipose tissue function and in this way function as a cardio-protective agent in HF. Accordingly we investigated the interplay between plasma adiponectin, plasma proBNP, and development of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed...... and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and physical activity) by Cox regression analysis, adiponectin remained an independent predictor of HF: the hazard ratio (HR) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in adiponectin was 1.20 [95...

  16. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical pr...

  17. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4 is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT and Small Tailed Han (STH sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism.

  18. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    (range: 3-90 days). The patients were studied under two different conditions. Firstly, during the day in the erect position, awake (sitting, standing and quiet walking) and secondly, during night hours in the supine position, asleep. The coefficient of variation of nocturnal adipose tissue blood flow......Wash-out of 133xenon from a local depot in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot was measured continuously during 24 hours on subsequent recordings in 51 feet (normal circulation: 10, intermittent claudication: 22 and ischaemic nocturnal rest pain: 19) with a mean time interval of 26 days...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  19. Effects of beta-carotene supplementation on adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juana; Fuster, Antonia; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2009-12-01

    We previously described that the intake of pharmacological doses of beta-carotene (BC) resulted in higher body weight gain in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo), an animal model that resembles human subjects in terms of intestinal BC absorption and metabolism. These results were some way unexpected considering the condition of BC as a vitamin A precursor and the previous data in rodents showing these compounds as thermogenic activators. Here, we aimed to characterise in the ferret whether the mentioned changes in body weight could be explained by changes in adipose tissue thermogenic capacity. We studied the effects of 6-month supplementation with BC (0.8 and 3.2 mg/kg per d) on adipose tissue morphology and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content. BC supplementation resulted in higher body weight (the high dose), induced depot- and dose-dependent hypertrophy of white adipocytes, decreased the amount of brown-like multilocular adipocytes in the retroperitoneal depot and decreased UCP1 content in different fat depots. To ascertain whether BC effects could be mediated by retinoic acid (RA), 1 week supplementation with RA (0.25 and 25 mg/kg per d) was also studied. RA treatment resulted in a slight decrease in adiposity, decreased cell lipid accumulation and increased UCP1 content, suggesting that the effects of BC on thermogenic capacity are not through RA. In conclusion, RA, but not BC, may have in the ferret comparable effects with those described in rodents, whereas differences concerning BC and RA treatments may be attributable to the different BC metabolism in the present animal model with a lower conversion of BC to RA compared with rodents.

  20. Time-course microarrays reveal early activation of the immune transcriptome and adipokine dysregulation leads to fibrosis in visceral adipose depots during diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Eun-Young

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral white adipose tissue (WAT hypertrophy, adipokine production, inflammation and fibrosis are strongly associated with obesity, but the time-course of these changes in-vivo are not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the time-course of changes in adipocyte morphology, adipokines and the global transcriptional landscape in visceral WAT during the development of diet-induced obesity. Results C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD or normal diet (ND and sacrificed at 8 time-points over 24 weeks. Excessive fat accumulation was evident in visceral WAT depots (Epidydimal, Perirenal, Retroperitoneum, Mesentery after 2–4 weeks. Fibrillar collagen accumulation was evident in epidydimal adipocytes at 24 weeks. Plasma adipokines, leptin, resistin and adipsin, increased early and time-dependently, while adiponectin decreased late after 20 weeks. Only plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were associated with their respective mRNA levels in visceral WAT. Time-course microarrays revealed early and sustained activation of the immune transcriptome in epididymal and mesenteric depots. Up-regulated inflammatory genes included pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines (Tnf, Il1rn, Saa3, Emr1, Adam8, Itgam, Ccl2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9 and their upstream signalling pathway genes (multiple Toll-like receptors, Irf5 and Cd14. Early changes also occurred in fibrosis, extracellular matrix, collagen and cathepsin related-genes, but histological fibrosis was only visible in the later stages. Conclusions In diet-induced obesity, early activation of TLR-mediated inflammatory signalling cascades by CD antigen genes, leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation. Early changes in collagen genes may trigger the accumulation of ECM components, promoting fibrosis in the later stages of diet-induced obesity. New therapeutic approaches

  1. Automated segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous (deep and superficial) adipose tissues in normal and overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Prakash, Bhanu; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Khoo, Chin Meng; Chou, Hong; Venkataraman, Kavita; Khoo, Eric Y H; Lee, Yung Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Tai, E Shyong; Velan, S Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    To develop an automatic segmentation algorithm to classify abdominal adipose tissues into visceral fat (VAT), deep (DSAT), and superficial (SSAT) subcutaneous fat compartments and evaluate its performance against manual segmentation. Data were acquired from 44 normal (BMI 18.0-22.9 kg/m(2) ) and 38 overweight (BMI 23.0-29.9 kg/m(2) ) subjects at 3T using a two-point Dixon sequence. A fully automatic segmentation algorithm was developed to segment the fat depots. The first part of the segmentation used graph cuts to separate the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and the second step employed a modified level sets approach to classify deep and superficial subcutaneous tissues. The algorithmic results of segmentation were validated against the ground truth generated by manual segmentation. The proposed algorithm showed good performance with Dice similarity indices of VAT/DSAT/SSAT: 0.92/0.82/0.88 against the ground truth. The study of the fat distribution showed that there is a steady increase in the proportion of DSAT and a decrease in the proportion of SSAT with increasing obesity. The presented technique provides an accurate approach for the segmentation and quantification of abdominal fat depots. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functional Characterization of Preadipocytes Derived from Human Periaortic Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery. Morphological studies with hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemical assay were performed in situ to quantify adipokine expression. To analyze adipogenic capacity, adipokine expression, and the levels of thermogenic proteins, adipocyte precursor cells were isolated from periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues and induced to differentiation. The precursors of adipocytes from the periaortic tissue accumulated less triglycerides than those from the subcutaneous tissue after differentiation and were smaller than those from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis and energy expenditure increased significantly in periaortic adipose tissue. Additionally, the expression levels of adipokines that affect carbohydrate metabolism, such as FGF21, increased significantly in mature adipocytes induced from periaortic adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that precursors of periaortic adipose tissue in humans may affect cardiovascular events and might serve as a target for preventing vascular diseases.

  3. Eradicating hepatitis C virus ameliorates insulin resistance without change in adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, K-L; Jenkins, A B; Trenell, M; Tid-Ang, J; Samocha-Bonet, D; Weltman, M; Xu, A; George, J; Chisholm, D J

    2014-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with lipid-related changes and insulin resistance; the latter predicts response to antiviral therapy, liver disease progression and the risk of diabetes. We sought to determine whether insulin sensitivity improves following CHC viral eradication after antiviral therapy and whether this is accompanied by changes in fat depots or adipokine levels. We compared 8 normoglycaemic men with CHC (genotype 1 or 3) before and at least 6 months post viral eradication and 15 hepatitis C antibody negative controls using an intravenous glucose tolerance test and two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with [6,6-(2) H2 ] glucose to assess peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal fat compartments, liver and intramyocellular lipid. Peripheral insulin sensitivity improved (glucose infusion rate during high-dose insulin increased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 12 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min/, P = 0.025), with no change in hepatic insulin response following successful viral eradication, without any accompanying change in muscle, liver or abdominal fat depots. There was corresponding improvement in incremental glycaemic response to intravenous glucose (pretreatment: 62.1 ± 8.3 vs post-treatment: 56.1 ± 8.5 mm, P = 0.008). Insulin sensitivity after viral clearance was comparable to matched controls without CHC. Post therapy, liver enzyme levels decreased but, interestingly, levels of glucagon, fatty acid-binding protein and lipocalin-2 remained elevated. Eradication of the hepatitis C virus improves insulin sensitivity without alteration in fat depots, adipokine or glucagon levels, consistent with a direct link of the virus with insulin resistance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    exercise), as well as during non-steady-state (onset of exercise and early exercise) experimental settings. Fourteen healthy women [age: 74 +/- 1 (SE) yr] were studied at rest and during 60-min continuous bicycling at 60% of peak O(2) uptake. Calculated and measured subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue...... venous glycerol concentrations increased substantially from rest to exercise but were similar both at rest and during later stages of exercise. In contrast, during the initial approximately 40 min of exercise, calculated glycerol concentration was significantly lower (approximately 40%) than measured...... and continuous prolonged exercise. However, during shorter periods of exercise (

  5. Characterization of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells in critical wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Sung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells which both play a key role in wound repair. While macrophages can be divided into the classically-activated M1 and the alternatively-activated M2 phenotype, ASCs are characterized by the expression of specific stem cell markers. Methods In the present study, we have investigated the expression of common macrophage polarization and stem cell markers in acutely inflamed adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 20 patients and 20 healthy subjects were harvested and underwent qPCR and flow cytometry analysis. Results Expression levels of the M1-specific markers CD80, iNOS, and IL-1b were significantly elevated in inflammatory adipose tissue when compared to healthy adipose tissue, whereas the M2-specific markers CD163 and TGF-β were decreased. By flow cytometry, a significant shift of adipose tissue macrophage populations towards the M1 phenotype was confirmed. Furthermore, a decrease in the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD34, and CD105 was observed whereas CD73 and CD90 remained unchanged. Discussion This is the first report describing the predominance of M1 adipose tissue macrophages and the reduction of stem cell marker expression in acutely inflamed, non-healing wounds.

  6. Characterization of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells in critical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Tilstam, Pathricia V; Springenberg-Jung, Katrin; Boecker, Arne Hendrick; Schmitz, Corinna; Heinrichs, Daniel; Hwang, Soo Seok; Stromps, Jan Philipp; Ganse, Bergita; Kopp, Ruedger; Knobe, Matthias; Bernhagen, Juergen; Pallua, Norbert; Bucala, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells which both play a key role in wound repair. While macrophages can be divided into the classically-activated M1 and the alternatively-activated M2 phenotype, ASCs are characterized by the expression of specific stem cell markers. In the present study, we have investigated the expression of common macrophage polarization and stem cell markers in acutely inflamed adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 20 patients and 20 healthy subjects were harvested and underwent qPCR and flow cytometry analysis. Expression levels of the M1-specific markers CD80, iNOS, and IL-1b were significantly elevated in inflammatory adipose tissue when compared to healthy adipose tissue, whereas the M2-specific markers CD163 and TGF- β were decreased. By flow cytometry, a significant shift of adipose tissue macrophage populations towards the M1 phenotype was confirmed. Furthermore, a decrease in the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD34, and CD105 was observed whereas CD73 and CD90 remained unchanged. This is the first report describing the predominance of M1 adipose tissue macrophages and the reduction of stem cell marker expression in acutely inflamed, non-healing wounds.

  7. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool

  8. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  9. Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh D. Wankhade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonshivering thermogenesis is the process of biological heat production in mammals and is primarily mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT. Through ubiquitous expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 on the mitochondrial inner membrane, BAT displays uncoupling of fuel combustion and ATP production in order to dissipate energy as heat. Because of its crucial role in regulating energy homeostasis, ongoing exploration of BAT has emphasized its therapeutic potential in addressing the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. The recent appreciation that adult humans possess functional BAT strengthens this prospect. Furthermore, it has been identified that there are both classical brown adipocytes residing in dedicated BAT depots and “beige” adipocytes residing in white adipose tissue depots that can acquire BAT-like characteristics in response to environmental cues. This review aims to provide a brief overview of BAT research and summarize recent findings concerning the physiological, cellular, and developmental characteristics of brown adipocytes. In addition, some key genetic, molecular, and pharmacologic targets of BAT/Beige cells that have been reported to have therapeutic potential to combat obesity will be discussed.

  10. Irbesartan increased PPARγ activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. → Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. → DNA-binding for PPARγ was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. → Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. → Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPARγ agonistic action of an AT 1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPARγ in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPARγ in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPARγ and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  11. Interactions between adipose tissue and the immune system in health and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensveen, Felix M; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Wensveen, Tamara Turk; Polić, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue provides the body with a storage depot of nutrients that is drained during times of starvation and replenished when food sources are abundant. As such, it is the primary sensor for nutrient availability in the milieu of an organism, which it communicates to the body through the excretion of hormones. Adipose tissue regulates a multitude of body functions associated with metabolism, such as gluconeogenesis, feeding and nutrient uptake. The immune system forms a vital layer of protection against micro-organisms that try to gain access to the nutrients contained in the body. Because infections need to be resolved as quickly as possible, speed is favored over energy-efficiency in an immune response. Especially when immune cells are activated, they switch to fast, but energy-inefficient anaerobic respiration to fulfill their energetic needs. Despite the necessity for an effective immune system, it is not given free rein in its energy expenditure. Signals derived from adipose tissue limit immune cell numbers and activity under conditions of nutrient shortage, whereas they allow proper immune cell activity when food sources are sufficiently available. When excessive fat accumulation occurs, such as in diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue becomes the site of pathological immune cell activation, causing chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Obesity is therefore associated with a number of disorders in which the immune system plays a central role, such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this review, we will discuss the way in which adipose tissue regulates activity of the immune system under healthy and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have increased subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, altered glucose homeostasis, and no change in white adipose tissue cellular senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisford, Ross; Lubbers, Ellen R.; Householder, Lara; Suer, Ozan; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L.; List, Edward O.; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Growth hormone (GH) resistant/deficient mice experience improved glucose homeostasis and substantially increased lifespan. Recent evidence suggests long-lived GH resistant/deficient mice are protected from white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, including WAT cellular senescence, impaired adipogenesis and loss of subcutaneous WAT in old age. This preservation of WAT function has been suggested to be a potential mechanism for the extended lifespan of these mice. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine white adipose tissue (WAT) senescence, WAT distribution, and glucose homeostasis in dwarf growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice, a unique mouse strain having decreased GH action but normal longevity. METHODS 18mo old female GHA mice and wild type (WT) littermate controls were used. Prior to dissection, body composition, fasting blood glucose, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. WAT distribution was determined by weighing four distinct WAT depots at the time of dissection. Cellular senescence in four WAT depots was assessed using senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining to quantify the senescent cell burden and real time qPCR to quantify gene expression of senescence markers p16 and IL-6. RESULTS GHA mice had a 22% reduction in total body weight, 33% reduction in lean mass, and a 10% increase in body fat percentage compared to WT controls. GHA mice had normal fasting blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity; however, they exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, GHA mice displayed enhanced lipid storage in the inguinal subcutaneous WAT depot (p<.05) and a 1.7 fold increase in extra-/intraperitoneal WAT ratio compared to controls (p<.05). Measurements of WAT cellular senescence showed no difference between GHA mice and WT controls. CONCLUSIONS Similar to other mice with decreased GH action, female GHA mice display reduced age-related lipid redistribution and improved insulin

  13. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in adipose tissue of control and diabetic animals of different ages are presented together with the effect of manganese on adipose tissue from high fat milk diet fed animals ... Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India; Molecular Medicine Unit, ...

  14. Relations between antioxidant vitamins in adipose tissue, plasma, and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Brants, H.A.M.; Berg, H. van den; Schoonhoven, J. van; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    For an evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in adipose tissue as biomarkers of intake, estimates of usual intake of β-carotene, total vitamin A, and vitamin E (assessed by food frequency questionnaire) were compared with plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of β-carotene, retinol,

  15. A hot interaction between immune cells and adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Systemic as well as adipose tissue inflammation contributes to the development of obesity-associated diseases. This thesis describes three targets to battle this chronic inflammation in a model of diet-induced obesity in mice. First, we studied inflammation in obese white - and brown adipose tissue

  16. Mechanisms of inflammatory responses in obese adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, S.Y.; Yewei, Ji; Kersten, A.H.; Qi, L.

    2012-01-01

    The fields of immunology and metabolism are rapidly converging on adipose tissue. During obesity, many immune cells infiltrate or populate in adipose tissue and promote a low-grade chronic inflammation. Studies to date have suggested that perturbation of inflammation is critically linked to nutrient

  17. Microarray analysis of adipose tissue gene expression profiles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is one of the main problems faced by the broiler industry nowadays. In order to visualize the mechanisms involved in the gene expression and regulation of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, cDNA microarray containing 9 024 cDNA was used to construct gene ...

  18. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  19. Cold exposure down-regulates immune response pathways in ferret aortic perivascular adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynés, Bàrbara; van Schothorst, Evert M; García-Ruiz, Estefanía; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2017-05-03

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds blood vessels and releases paracrine factors, such as cytokines, which regulate local inflammation. The inflammatory state of PVAT has an important role in vascular disease; a pro-inflammatory state has been related with atherosclerosis development, whereas an anti-inflammatory one is protective. Cold exposure beneficially affects immune responses and, could thus impact the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of one-week of cold exposure at 4°C of ferrets on aortic PVAT (aPVAT) versus subcutaneous adipose tissue. Ferrets were used because of the similarity of their adipose tissues to those of humans. A ferret-specific Agilent microarray was designed to cover the complete ferret genome and global gene expression analysis was performed. The data showed that cold exposure altered gene expression mainly in aPVAT. Most of the regulated genes were associated with cell cycle, immune response and gene expression regulation, and were mainly down-regulated. Regarding the effects on immune response, cold acclimation decreased the expression of genes involved in antigen recognition and presentation, cytokine signalling and immune system maturation and activation. This immunosuppressive gene expression pattern was depot-specific, as it was not observed in the inguinal subcutaneous depot. Interestingly, this depression in immune response related genes was also evident in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In conclusion, these results reveal that cold acclimation produces an inhibition of immune response-related pathways in aPVAT, reflected in PBMC, indicative of an anti-inflammatory response, which can potentially be exploited for the enhancement or maintenance of cardiovascular health.

  20. Physiological Aging: Links Among Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, Diabetes, and Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Michael B; Justice, Jamie N; Nicklas, Barbara J; Kirkland, James L

    2017-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with progressive declines in physiological function that lead to overt chronic disease, frailty, and eventual mortality. Importantly, age-related physiological changes occur in cellularity, insulin-responsiveness, secretory profiles, and inflammatory status of adipose tissue, leading to adipose tissue dysfunction. Although the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction are multifactorial, the consequences result in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, immune cell infiltration, an accumulation of senescent cells, and an increase in senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These processes synergistically promote chronic sterile inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid redistribution away from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Without intervention, these effects contribute to age-related systemic metabolic dysfunction, physical limitations, and frailty. Thus adipose tissue dysfunction may be a fundamental contributor to the elevated risk of chronic disease, disability, and adverse health outcomes with advancing age. ©2017 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  1. Adipose Tissue, Inflammation (Meta-inflammation and Obesity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity-induced inflammation contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. CONTENT:The last decade has seen a sharp increase in our appreciation for the macrophage as a critical regulator of metabolic status in obesity. Activation of adipose tissue (AT macrophages within fat depots is coupled with the development of obesity-induced proinflammatory state and insulin resistance (IR. The activation of classically activated M1 macrophages at the expense of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages has been causally linked to the development of AT inflammation and metabolic syndrome, a pathophysiological state aptly termed as ‘metainflammation’. It is recognized that several proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-1β, are implicated in disrupting insulin signaling. Our developing appreciation of links among obesity, inflammation and cardiovascular disease will require multiple complementary approaches to leverage new concepts into translatable outcomes. Careful characterization of human patients, particularly analysis of AT distribution, will be needed to stratify subjects that are most likely obese/metabolically healthy from those that are obese/metabolically unhealthy. SUMMARY: It has been suggested that individuals with the condition known as metabolically healthy obese (MHO may not have the same increased risk for the development of metabolic abnormalities as their non-metabolically healthy counterparts. A complications-centric model for the medical management of obesity emphasizes the identification and staging of complications, and treatment paradigm directed at patients who would gain the most benefit from weight loss. KEYWORDS: obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, M1/M2 macrophage.

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Gonadal Adipose Tissue in Male Mice Exposed Perinatally to 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-47

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aser Abrha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For the majority of lipophilic compounds, adipose tissue is traditionally considered as a storage depot and only rarely as a target organ. Meanwhile, abnormalities in adipose tissue physiology induced by chemical exposure may contribute to the current epidemic of obesity and metabolic diseases. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs are a group of lipophilic flame retardants found in the majority of human samples in North America. Their ability to alter the physiology of adipose tissue is unknown. We exposed pregnant mice to 0.2 mg/kg body weight/day of BDE-47 perinatally. Transcriptomic changes in gonadal adipose tissue were analyzed in male offspring using the RNA-seq approach with subsequent bioinformatic analysis. The expression of genes of coagulation and complement cascade, de novo lipogenesis, and xenobiotic metabolism was altered in response to BDE-47 exposure. The affected molecular network included the following hubs: PPARα, HNF1A, and HNF4. These findings suggest that adipose tissue should be considered a target tissue for BDE-47, in addition to its role as a storage depot. This study also builds a background for a targeted search of sensitive phenotypic endpoints of BDE-47 exposure, including lipid profile parameters and coagulation factors in circulation. Additional studies are needed to investigate the role of PBDEs as an obesogen.

  3. The role of adipose tissue in insulin resistance in women of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H; Levitt, Naomi S; Evans, Juliet; Ellman, Nicole; Hume, David John; Kotze, Liske; Tootla, Mehreen; Victor, Hendriena; Keswell, Dheshnie

    2013-01-01

    Women of African ancestry, particularly those living in industrialized countries, experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to their white counterparts. Similarly, obesity and insulin resistance, which are major risk factors for T2D, are greater in black compared to white women. The exact mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not known. This paper will focus on the role of adipose tissue biology. Firstly, the characteristic body fat distribution of women of African ancestry will be discussed, followed by the depot-specific associations with insulin resistance. Factors involved in adipose tissue biology and their relation to insulin sensitivity will then be explored, including the role of sex hormones, glucocorticoid metabolism, lipolysis and adipogenesis, and their consequent effects on adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Finally the role of ectopic fat deposition will be discussed. The paper proposes directions for future research, in particular highlighting the need for longitudinal and/or intervention studies to better understand the mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of insulin resistance and T2D in women of African ancestry.

  4. The Role of Adipose Tissue in Insulin Resistance in Women of African Ancestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia H. Goedecke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women of African ancestry, particularly those living in industrialized countries, experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D compared to their white counterparts. Similarly, obesity and insulin resistance, which are major risk factors for T2D, are greater in black compared to white women. The exact mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not known. This paper will focus on the role of adipose tissue biology. Firstly, the characteristic body fat distribution of women of African ancestry will be discussed, followed by the depot-specific associations with insulin resistance. Factors involved in adipose tissue biology and their relation to insulin sensitivity will then be explored, including the role of sex hormones, glucocorticoid metabolism, lipolysis and adipogenesis, and their consequent effects on adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Finally the role of ectopic fat deposition will be discussed. The paper proposes directions for future research, in particular highlighting the need for longitudinal and/or intervention studies to better understand the mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of insulin resistance and T2D in women of African ancestry.

  5. The impact of currently used oral antihyperglycemic drugs on dysfunctional adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić-Naglić Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a disease with pandemic frequency, often accompanied by chronic metabolic and organic complications. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is among the most common metabolic complications of obesity. The first step in the treatment of T2DM is medical nutrition therapy combined with moderate physical activity and with advice to patients to reduce their body weight. Pharmacotherapy starts with metformin, and in the case of inadequate therapeutic response, another antihyperglycemic agent should be added. The most clinical experience exists with sulfonylurea agents, but their use is limited due to high incidence of hypoglycemia and increase in body weight. Based on the fact that dysfunction of adipose tissue can lead to the development of chronic degenerative complications, precise use of drugs with a favorable effect on the functionality of adipose tissue represents an imperative of modern T2DM treatment. Antihyperglycemic drugs of choice in obese individuals are those which cause maturation of adipocytes, improvement of secretion of protective adipokines, and redistribution of fat mass from visceral to subcutaneous depots. Oral antihyperglycemic agents that can affect the functionality of adipose tissue are metformin, SGLT-2 inhibitors, DPP-4 inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones.

  6. Adipose tissue remodeling in lipedema: adipocyte death and concurrent regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Hirotaka; Araki, Jun; Aoi, Noriyuki; Kato, Harunosuke; Higashino, Takuya; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2009-12-01

    Lipedema is a disease with unknown etiology presenting as bilateral and symmetric enlargement of the lower extremities due to subcutaneous deposition of the adipose tissue. Here we describe the histopathological features of the lipedema tissue and nonaffected adipose tissue obtained from a typical patient with severe lipedema. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated degenerative and regenerative changes of the lipedema tissue, characterized by crown-like structures (necrotizing adipocytes surrounded by infiltrating CD68+ macrophages; a feature commonly seen in obese adipose tissue) and proliferation of adipose-derived stem/progenitor/stromal cells (Ki67+CD34+ cells), respectively. These findings suggested increased adipogenesis in the lipedema tissue, which may further lead to hypoxia similar to that seen in obesity, resulting in adipocyte necrosis and macrophage recruitment. The confinement to the lower extremities and the difference from systemic obesity warrants further elucidation in future studies.

  7. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  8. Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor is increased in adipose tissue of obese subjects: a role for adenovirus infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Marta; Moreno, María; Bassols, Judit; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) was originally identified as a common receptor for coxsackie B viruses and type C adenoviruses. The objective was to investigate CAR gene expression in human adipose tissue to explore its associations with adipocyte physiology. This was an ex vivo study in 91 visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and 109 sc adipose tissue (SAT) human samples (61 paired) obtained during elective surgical procedures. Patients were recruited at the Endocrinology Service of the Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta. CAR mRNA was measured in human adipose tissue samples and confirmed at the protein level and in adipose tissue fractions. The effects of inflammatory stimuli on CAR gene expression were also evaluated. In paired samples, CAR was 46-fold higher in VAT vs SAT (P < .0001), being higher also at the protein level (P = .04). CAR was predominantly found in stromal vascular cell fractions (SVFs) in both fat depots. CAR mRNA (P = .006) and protein levels (P = .01) in VAT were significantly increased in obese vs nonobese subjects. In fact, CAR mRNA levels in SAT were positively associated with body mass index (r = 0.26; P = .008) and percentage fat mass (r = 0.28; P = .004). In VAT, MGLL, FSP27, AKAP, omentin, TKT, S14, and FABP contributed independently to CAR mRNA variation after adjusting for age and body mass index. Macrophage-conditioned medium led to increased CAR gene expression in mature adipocytes in vitro. The increased expression of CAR in adipose tissue from obese subjects, mainly in SVFs, suggests that CAR might play a role in adipose tissue dysfunction, given its dual associations with adipogenic and inflammatory genes.

  9. Determination of UCP1 expression in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqin; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gongcheng; Yu, Jing; Sheng, Yunlu; Wang, Chen; Lv, Yifan; Lv, Shan; Qi, Hanmei; Di, Wenjuan; Yin, Changjun; Ding, Guoxian

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the property of human perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) and assess the adipose property of PAT in hypertension. Ninety-four patients, including 64 normotensive patients (T-NP) and 30 hypertensive patients (HP), who underwent renal surgery were included. Expression analysis was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry in PAT and back subcutaneous adipose tissue (bSAT) depots. Compared with bSAT, PAT adipocytes were smaller, and the expressions of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA and protein were markedly higher, while the mRNA expressions of markers for classic beige and white adipocytes were lower in PAT. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed more multilocular UCP1-positive adipocytes in PAT than in bSAT. UCP1 expressions were lower in PAT in HP than in the T-NP or age- and body mass index-matched NP groups. Bigger unilocular adipocytes with less UCP1 staining in PAT were detected in HP than in NP group, although no such difference was observed in bSAT. PAT acts as a brown-like fat. UCP1 expression of PAT was lower in HP than in normotensive patients. UCP1 expression of PAT may serve as a protective indicator for hypertension.

  10. Olanzapine promotes fat accumulation in male rats by decreasing physical activity, repartitioning energy and increasing adipose tissue lipogenesis while impairing lipolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Vance L.; Judson, Jessica G.; She, Pengxiang; Lang, Charles H.; Maresca, Kevin P.; Joyal, John L.; Lynch, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics cause metabolic side effects leading to obesity and diabetes; while these continue to be an important public health concern, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, an animal model of these side effects was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic administration of olanzapine elevated fasting glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased fat mass but, in contrast to female rats, did not increase body weight or food intake. Acute studies were conducted to delineate the mechanisms responsible for these effects. Olanzapine markedly decreased physical activity without a compensatory decline in food intake. It also acutely elevated fasting glucose, and worsened oral glucose and insulin tolerance, suggesting these effects are adiposity independent. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies measuring 14C-2-deoxyglucose (14C-DOG) uptake revealed tissue-specific insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in skeletal muscle, but either unchanged or increased in adipose tissue depots. Consistent with the olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia there was a tendency for increased 14C-DOG uptake into fat depots of fed rats and, surprisingly, free fatty acid (FFA) uptake into fat depots was elevated approximately 2-fold. The increased glucose and FFA uptake into adipose tissue was coupled with increased adipose tissue lipogenesis. Finally, olanzapine lowered fasting plasma FFA and whereas it had no effect on isoproterenol-stimulated rises in plasma glucose, it blunted isoproterenol-stimulated in vivo lipolysis in fed rats. Collectively, these results suggest olanzapine exerts several metabolic effects that together favor increased accumulation of fuel into adipose tissue, thereby increasing adiposity. PMID:20308992

  11. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In order to evaluate the modulatory effects of manganese, high fat diet fed and alloxan diabetic rats were taken and the changes in the glucose oxidation, glycerol release and effects of manganese on these parameters were measured from adipose tissue. An insulin-mimetic effect of manganese was observed in the adipose ...

  12. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lohmann, Tobias [Municipal Clinic Dresden-Neustadt, Dresden (Germany); Schön, Michael R. [Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Clinic of Visceral Surgery, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dietrich, Arne [Department of Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); IFB AdiposityDiseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan [Department of Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Plastic Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Klöting, Nora, E-mail: nora.kloeting@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [IFB AdiposityDiseases, Junior Research Group 2 “Animal Models of Obesity”, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  13. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine; Lohmann, Tobias; Schön, Michael R.; Dietrich, Arne; Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  14. N-Palmitoylethanolamine depot injection increased its tissue levels and those of other acylethanolamide lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo SL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie L Grillo,1,* Jantana Keereetaweep,2,* Michael A Grillo,1 Kent D Chapman,2 Peter Koulen1–3 1Vision Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Missouri – Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2University of North Texas, Center for Plant Lipid Research, Department of Biological Sciences, Denton, TX, USA; 3Department of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri – Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: N-Palmitoylethanolamine (NAE 16:0 is an endogenous lipid signaling molecule that has limited water solubility, and its action is short-lived due to its rapid metabolism. This poses a problem for use in vivo as oral administration requires a high concentration for significant levels to reach target tissues, and injection of the compound in a dimethyl sulfoxide- or ethanol-based vehicle is usually not desirable during long-term treatment. A depot injection of NAE 16:0 was successfully emulsified in sterile corn oil (10 mg/kg and administered in young DBA/2 mice in order to elevate baseline levels of NAE 16:0 in target tissues. NAE 16:0 levels were increased in various tissues, particularly in the retina, 24 and 48 hours following injections. Increases ranged between 22% and 215% (above basal levels in blood serum, heart, brain, and retina and induced an entourage effect by increasing levels of other 18 carbon N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs, which ranged between 31% and 117% above baseline. These results indicate that NAE 16:0 can be used as a depot preparation, avoiding the use of inadequate vehicles, and can provide the basis for designing tissue-specific dosing regimens for therapies involving NAEs and related compounds. Keywords: cannabinoid receptor, vanilloid receptor, DBA/2 mice, lipid extraction, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry

  15. Altered microRNA expression in bovine subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues from cattle under different diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Moura Romao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of molecular regulators found to participate in numerous biological processes, including adipogenesis in mammals. This study aimed to evaluate the differences of miRNA expression between bovine subcutaneous (backfat and visceral fat depots (perirenal fat and the dietary effect on miRNA expression in these fat tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fat tissues were collected from 16 Hereford×Aberdeen Angus cross bred steers (15.5 month old fed a high-fat diet (5.85% fat, n = 8 or control diet (1.95% fat, n = 8. Total RNA from each animal was subjected to miRNA microarray analysis using a customized Agilent miRNA microarray containing 672 bovine miRNA probes. Expression of miRNAs was not equal between fat depots as well as diets: 207 miRNAs were detected in both fat depots, while 37 of these were found to be tissue specific; and 169 miRNAs were commonly expressed under two diets while 75 were diet specific. The number of miRNAs detected per animal fed the high fat diet was higher than those fed control diet (p = 0.037 in subcutaneous fat and p = 0.002 visceral fat. Further qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of some miRNAs was highly influenced by diet (miR-19a, -92a, -92b, -101, -103, -106, -142-5p, and 296 or fat depot (miR-196a and -2454. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed that the miRNA may differ among adipose depots and level of fat in the diet, suggesting that miRNAs may play a role in the regulation of bovine adipogenesis.

  16. Innate immunity orchestrates adipose tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Wei; Wei, Li-Na

    2017-06-23

    Obesity is strongly associated with multiple diseases including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers, etc. Adipose tissue (AT), mainly brown AT (BAT) and white AT (WAT), is an important metabolic and endocrine organ that maintains whole-body homeostasis. BAT contributes to non-shivering thermogenesis in a cold environment; WAT stores energy and produces adipokines that fine-tune metabolic and inflammatory responses. Obesity is often characterized by over-expansion and inflammation of WAT where inflammatory cells/mediators are abundant, especially pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation and leading to insulin resistance and metabolic complications. Macrophages constitute the major component of innate immunity and can be activated as a M1 or M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype in response to environmental stimuli. Polarized M1 macrophage causes AT inflammation, whereas polarized M2 macrophage promotes WAT remodeling into the BAT phenotype, also known as WAT browning/beiging, which enhances insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. This review will discuss the regulation of AT homeostasis in relation to innate immunity.

  17. Activation of brown adipose tissue in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Constantin; Maya, Yoshifumi; Wagner, Martin; Arias-Loza, Paula; Werner, Rudolf A; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) attracts growing interest as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes. Hyperthyroidism is well-known to increase BAT activity, but the role of hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to investigate the association between different thyroid hormone (TH) states and BAT activity. FDG-PET studies were retrospectively evaluated in thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy both at euthyroidism during TH replacement or at hypothyroidism after TH cessation. Serum TH levels were compared between patients with active BAT and control patients with non-active BAT matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Additionally, animal experiments with controls (n = 5) and hypothyroid rats (n = 5) were performed. Out of 124 patients, 6 patients with active BAT were identified. These patients showed significantly higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels than matched controls (P hypothyroid animals showed BAT activation at room temperature (24 °C), whereas controls did not (P hypothyroidism, which might be the result of a feedback mechanism to maintain body temperature in a state of reduced basal thermogenesis. Future research needs to explore the underlying mechanistic and biological implications.

  18. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proença, A.R.G.; Sertié, R.A.L.; Oliveira, A.C.; Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT

  19. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proença, A.R.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Limeira, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Sertié, R.A.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  20. Cryolipolysis for reduction of excess adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew A; Wasserman, Daniel; Avram, Mathew M

    2009-12-01

    Controlled cold exposure has long been reported to be a cause of panniculitis in cases such as popsicle panniculitis. Cryolipolysis is a new technology that uses cold exposure, or energy extraction, to result in localized panniculitis and modulation of fat. Presently, the Zeltiq cryolipolysis device is FDA cleared for skin cooling, as well as various other indications, but not for lipolysis. There is, however, a pending premarket notification for noninvasive fat layer reduction. Initial animal and human studies have demonstrated significant reductions in the superficial fat layer thickness, ranging from 20% to 80%, following a single cryolipolysis treatment. The decrease in fat thickness occurs gradually over the first 3 months following treatment, and is most pronounced in patients with limited, discrete fat bulges. Erythema of the skin, bruising, and temporary numbness at the treatment site are commonly observed following treatment with the device, though these effects largely resolve in approximately 1 week. To date, there have been no reports of scarring, ulceration, or alterations in blood lipid or liver function profiles. Cryolipolysis is a new, noninvasive treatment option that may be of benefit in the treatment of excess adipose tissue.

  1. Brown adipose tissue quantification in human neonates using water-fat separated MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerod M Rasmussen

    Full Text Available There is a major resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology, particularly regarding its determinants and consequences in newborns and infants. Reliable methods for non-invasive BAT measurement in human infants have yet to be demonstrated. The current study first validates methods for quantitative BAT imaging of rodents post mortem followed by BAT excision and re-imaging of excised tissues. Identical methods are then employed in a cohort of in vivo infants to establish the reliability of these measures and provide normative statistics for BAT depot volume and fat fraction. Using multi-echo water-fat MRI, fat- and water-based images of rodents and neonates were acquired and ratios of fat to the combined signal from fat and water (fat signal fraction were calculated. Neonatal scans (n = 22 were acquired during natural sleep to quantify BAT and WAT deposits for depot volume and fat fraction. Acquisition repeatability was assessed based on multiple scans from the same neonate. Intra- and inter-rater measures of reliability in regional BAT depot volume and fat fraction quantification were determined based on multiple segmentations by two raters. Rodent BAT was characterized as having significantly higher water content than WAT in both in situ as well as ex vivo imaging assessments. Human neonate deposits indicative of bilateral BAT in spinal, supraclavicular and axillary regions were observed. Pairwise, WAT fat fraction was significantly greater than BAT fat fraction throughout the sample (ΔWAT-BAT = 38 %, p<10(-4. Repeated scans demonstrated a high voxelwise correlation for fat fraction (Rall = 0.99. BAT depot volume and fat fraction measurements showed high intra-rater (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.93, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93 and inter-rater reliability (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.86, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93. This study demonstrates the reliability of using multi-echo water-fat MRI in human neonates for quantification throughout the torso of BAT depot volume and fat

  2. Update on cryopreservation of adipose tissue and adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhiquan; Gao, Dayong; Pu, Lee L Q

    2015-04-01

    This article first discusses some fundamentals of cryobiology and challenges for cell and tissue cryopreservation. Then, the results of cryopreservation of adipose cells and tissues, including adipose-derived stem cells, in the last decade are reviewed. In addition, from the viewpoint of cryobiology, some desired future work in fat cryopreservation is proposed that would benefit the optimization, standardization, and better application of such techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of in situ adipose tissue inflammation by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Andersen, Ove; Henriksen, Jens H

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation, and specifically adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, is part of the pathophysiology of obesity and HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Local AT protein assessment methods are limited, and AT inflammation studies have therefore primarily examined inflammatory gene expression. We therefore...

  4. Adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Innovative developments in the multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering have yielded various implementation strategies and the possibility of functional tissue regeneration. Technologic advances in the combination of stem cells, biomaterials, and growth factors have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in vivo and in vitro. The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are harvested from bone marrow and adipose tissue, has generated increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. These cells can differentiate into a variety of tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and nerve tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells have some advantages compared with other sources of stem cells, most notably that a large number of cells can be easily and quickly isolated from adipose tissue. In current clinical therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration, several methods have been developed and applied either alone or in combination, such as enamel matrix proteins, guided tissue regeneration, autologous/allogeneic/xenogeneic bone grafts, and growth factors. However, there are various limitations and shortcomings for periodontal tissue regeneration using current methods. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using MSCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because the various secreted growth factors from MSCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissue but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells are especially effective for neovascularization compared with other MSC sources. In this review, the possibility and potential of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine are introduced. Of particular interest, periodontal tissue regeneration with adipose-derived stem cells is discussed.

  5. Use of osmium tetroxide staining with microcomputerized tomography to visualize and quantify bone marrow adipose tissue in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L; Troiano, Nancy; Vanhoutan, Joshua N; Bouxsein, Mary A; Fretz, Jackie A; Xi, Yougen; Nelson, Tracy; Katz, Griffin; Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher D; Doucette, Casey R; Rodeheffer, Matthew S; Macdougald, Ormond A; Rosen, Clifford J; Horowitz, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Adipocytes reside in discrete, well-defined depots throughout the body. In addition to mature adipocytes, white adipose tissue depots are composed of many cell types, including macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stromal cells, which together are referred to as the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). The SVF also contains adipocyte progenitors that give rise to mature adipocytes in those depots. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) or marrow fat has long been known to be present in bone marrow (BM) but its origin, development, and function remain largely unknown. Clinically, increased MAT is associated with age, metabolic diseases, drug treatment, and marrow recovery in children receiving radiation and chemotherapy. In contrast to the other depots, MAT is unevenly distributed in the BM of long bones. Conventional quantitation relies on sectioning of the bone to overcome issues with distribution but is time-consuming, resource intensive, inconsistent between laboratories and may be unreliable as it may miss changes in MAT volume. Thus, the inability to quantitate MAT in a rapid, systematic, and reproducible manner has hampered a full understanding of its development and function. In this chapter, we describe a new technique that couples histochemical staining of lipid using osmium tetroxide with microcomputerized tomography to visualize and quantitate MAT within the medullary canal in three dimensions. Imaging of osmium staining provides a high-resolution map of existing and developing MAT in the BM. Because this method is simple, reproducible, and quantitative, we expect it will become a useful tool for the precise characterization of MAT. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammation and adipose tissue: effects of progressive load training in rats

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    Oyama Lila M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α are increased after exhaustive exercise in the rat retroperitoneal (RPAT and mesenteric adipose tissue (MEAT pads. On the other hand, these cytokines show decreased expression in these depots in response to a chronic exercise protocol. However, the effect of exercise with overload combined with a short recovery period on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of cytokine production in the adipose tissue of rats after an overtraining-inducing exercise protocol. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (C, Trained (Tr, Overtrained (OT and recovered overtrained (R. Cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 levels and Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4, Nuclear Factor kBp65 (NF-kBp65, Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL and, Perilipin protein expression were assessed in the adipose tissue. Furthermore, we analysed plasma lipid profile, insulin, testosterone, corticosterone and endotoxin levels, and liver triacylglycerol, cytokine content, as well as apolipoprotein B (apoB and TLR4 expression in the liver. Results OT and R groups exhibited reduced performance accompanied by lower testosterone and increased corticosterone and endotoxin levels when compared with the control and trained groups. IL-6 and IL-10 protein levels were increased in the adipose tissue of the group allowed to recover, in comparison with all the other studied groups. TLR-4 and NF-kBp65 were increased in this same group when compared with both control and trained groups. The protein expression of HSL was increased and that of Perilipin, decreased in the adipose in R in relation to the control. In addition, we found increased liver and serum TAG, along with reduced apoB protein expression and IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the of R in relation to the control and trained groups. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that increases in pro

  7. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Transgenic Mice Have Increased Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Mass, Altered Glucose Homeostasis and No Change in White Adipose Tissue Cellular Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisford, Ross; Lubbers, Ellen R; Householder, Lara A; Suer, Ozan; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-resistant/deficient mice experience improved glucose homeostasis and substantially increased lifespan. Recent evidence suggests that long-lived GH-resistant/deficient mice are protected from white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, including WAT cellular senescence, impaired adipogenesis and loss of subcutaneous WAT in old age. This preservation of WAT function has been suggested to be a potential mechanism for the extended lifespan of these mice. The objective of this study was to examine WAT senescence, WAT distribution and glucose homeostasis in dwarf GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice, a unique mouse strain having decreased GH action but normal longevity. 18-month-old female GHA mice and wild-type (WT) littermate controls were used. Prior to dissection, body composition, fasting blood glucose as well as glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. WAT distribution was determined by weighing four distinct WAT depots at the time of dissection. Cellular senescence in four WAT depots was assessed using senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining to quantify the senescent cell burden, and real-time qPCR to quantify gene expression of senescence markers p16 and IL-6. GHA mice had a 22% reduction in total body weight, a 33% reduction in lean mass and a 10% increase in body fat percentage compared to WT controls. GHA mice had normal fasting blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity; however, they exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, GHA mice displayed enhanced lipid storage in the inguinal subcutaneous WAT depot (p < 0.05) and a 1.7-fold increase in extra-/intraperitoneal WAT ratio compared to controls (p < 0.05). Measurements of WAT cellular senescence showed no difference between GHA mice and WT controls. Similar to other mice with decreased GH action, female GHA mice display reduced age-related lipid redistribution and improved insulin sensitivity, but no change in cellular senescence. The similar abundance of

  8. Omental adipose tissue fibrosis and insulin resistance in severe obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmi, V; Cardellini, M; Cinti, F; Corgosinho, F; Cardolini, I; D'Adamo, M; Zingaretti, M C; Bellia, A; Lauro, D; Gentileschi, P; Federici, M; Cinti, S; Sbraccia, P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The unresolved chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity leads to interstitial deposition of fibrogenic proteins as reparative process. The contribution of omental adipose tissue (oWAT) fibrosis to obesity-related complications remains controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate whether oWAT fibrosis may be related to insulin resistance in severely obese population. Subjects/Methods: Forty obese subjects were studied by glucose clamp befor...

  9. Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sidossis, Labros S.; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K.; Børsheim, Elisabet; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Chao, Tony; Ali, Arham; Chondronikola, Maria; Mlcak, Ronald; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Herndon, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Since the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was confirmed in adult humans, BAT has become a therapeutic target for obesity and insulin resistance. We examined whether human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) can adopt a BAT-like phenotype using a clinical model of prolonged and severe adrenergic stress. sWAT samples were collected from severely burned and healthy individuals. A subset of burn victims were prospectively followed during their acute hospitalization. Browning of sWAT w...

  10. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclaustra, Martin; Corella, Dolores; Ordovas, José M

    2007-02-01

    Several pathophysiological explanations for the metabolic syndrome have been proposed involving insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation following adipose tissue saturation. However, current concepts create several paradoxes, including limited cardiovascular risk reduction with intensive glucose control in diabetics, therapies that result in weight gain (PPAR agonists), and presence of some of the metabolic traits among some lipodystrophies. We propose the functional failure of an organ, in this case, the adipose tissue as a model to interpret its manifestations and to reconcile some of the apparent paradox. A cornerstone of this model is the failure of the adipose tissue to buffer postprandial lipids. In addition, homeostatic feedback loops guide physiological and pathological adipose tissue activities. Fat turnover is determined by a complex equilibrium in which insulin is a main factor but not the only one. Chronically inadequate energy balance may be a key factor, stressing the system. In this situation, an adipose tissue functional failure occurs resulting in changes in systemic energy delivery, impaired glucose consumption and activation of self-regulatory mechanisms that extend their influence to whole body homeostasis system. These include changes in adipokines secretion and vascular effects. The functional capacity of the adipose tissue varies among subjects explaining the incomplete overlapping among the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Variations at multiple gene loci will be partially responsible for these interindividual differences. Two of those candidate genes, the adiponectin (APM1) and the perilipin (PLIN) genes, are discussed in more detail.

  11. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in oral mucosa tissue engineering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... urethral reconstruction. Specifically, tissue-engineered oral mucosa holds great prospect for urethroplasty. Mesenchymal stem cells within the stromal-vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue, that is, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), have been used in skin repair with satisfactory results.

  12. Increased fibrosis: A novel means by which GH influences white adipose tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, Lara A; Comisford, Ross; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lee, Kevin; Troike, Katie; Wilson, Cody; Jara, Adam; Harberson, Mitchell; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2018-04-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis - the buildup of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily collagen - is now a recognized hallmark of tissue dysfunction and is increased with obesity and lipodystrophy. While growth hormone (GH) is known to increase collagen in several tissues, no previous research has addressed its effect on ECM in WAT. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine if GH influences WAT fibrosis. This study examined WAT from four distinct strains of GH-altered mice (bGH and GHA transgenic mice as well as two tissue specific GH receptor gene disrupted lines, fat growth hormone receptor knockout or FaGHRKO and liver growth hormone receptor knockout or LiGHRKO mice). Collagen content and adipocyte size were studied in all cohorts and compared to littermate controls. In addition, mRNA expression of fibrosis-associated genes was assessed in one cohort (6month old male bovine GH transgenic and WT mice) and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with GH. Collagen stained area was increased in WAT from bGH mice, was depot-dependent, and increased with age. Furthermore, increased collagen content was associated with decreased adipocyte size in all depots but more dramatic changes in the subcutaneous fat pad. Notably, the increase in collagen was not associated with an increase in collagen gene expression or other genes known to promote fibrosis in WAT, but collagen gene expression was increased with acute GH administration in 3T3-LI cells. In contrast, evaluation of 6month old GH antagonist (GHA) male mice showed significantly decreased collagen in the subcutaneous depot. Lastly, to assess if GH induced collagen deposition directly or indirectly (via IGF-1), fat (Fa) and liver (Li) specific GHRKO mice were evaluated. Decreased fibrosis in FaGHRKO and increased fibrosis in LiGHRKO mice suggest GH is primarily responsible for the alterations in collagen. Our results show that GH action is positively associated with an increase in WAT collagen content as

  13. Growth hormone and adipose tissue: beyond the adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; List, Edward O; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Lubbers, Ellen; Munn, Rachel; Kopchick, John J

    2011-06-01

    The last two decades have seen resurgence in research focused on adipose tissue. In part, the enhanced interest stems from an alarming increase in obesity rates worldwide. However, an understanding that this once simple tissue is significantly more intricate and interactive than previously realized has fostered additional attention. While few would argue that growth hormone (GH) radically alters fat mass, newer findings revealing the complexity of adipose tissue requires that GH's influence on this tissue be reexamined. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the more recent understanding of adipose tissue and to summarize our current knowledge of how GH may influence and contribute to these newer complexities of this tissue with special focus on the available data from mice with altered GH action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Central control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the central nervous system which responds to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate BAT sympathetic nerve activity. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates BAT thermogenesis and includes the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature during fever. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors, through second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord ascends to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of BAT thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus activates BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the rostral raphe pallidus, which provide excitatory, and possibly disinhibitory, inputs to spinal sympathetic circuits to drive BAT thermogenesis. Other recently recognized central sites influencing BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure are also described.

  15. Visceral adipose tissue quantification using Lunar Prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, David L; Rothney, Megan P; Oates, Mary K; Xia, Yi; Wacker, Wynn K; Binkley, Neil C

    2013-01-01

    A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) application to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in the android region of a total body DXA scan has recently been developed. This new application, CoreScan, has been validated on the Lunar iDXA (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) densitometer against volumetric computed tomography. The geometric assumptions underlying the CoreScan model are the same on the Prodigy (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) densitometer. However, differences between the peak X-ray voltage and detector array configurations may lead to differences in VAT quantification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of Prodigy and iDXA CoreScan values and to characterize differences in VAT precision between the instruments. Data from volunteers with paired Prodigy and iDXA measurements were used to define empirical adjustments to the VAT algorithm parameters (n=59) and validate performance on Prodigy (n=62). Prodigy VAT measurements were highly correlated to iDXA (r=0.984). The mean of the Prodigy-iDXA VAT volume differences was -13.8cm³ with a 95% confidence interval of -45 to +17cm³. The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement for the 2 methods were -252 to +224cm³. Measurement of short-term precision showed that measurement error variance on iDXA was smaller (pProdigy (coefficient of variance: 7.3% vs 9.8%). Precision results are in agreement with previous reports on the differences between Prodigy and iDXA for body composition measures. Prodigy and iDXA measures of VAT are similar, but the lower precision of the Prodigy may require investigators to target larger changes in VAT. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue from Obese and Lean Adults Does Not Release Hepcidin In Vivo

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    Lisa Tussing-Humphreys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is the main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and is primarily produced by the liver but is also expressed, at the mRNA-level, in periphery tissues including the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Obesity is associated with elevated hepcidin concentrations and iron depletion suggesting that the exaggerated fat mass in obesity could contribute significantly to circulating hepcidin levels consequently altering iron homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine if abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AbScAT releases hepcidin in vivo and if release is modified by obesity. Arterio-venous differences in concentrations of hepcidin were measured across AbScAT in 9 obese and 9 lean adults. Overall (n=18, mean plasma hepcidin concentrations were significantly higher in arterialized compared to AbScAT venous samples [mean difference (arterialized-AbScAT venous plasma hepcidin = 4.9±9.6 ng/mL, P=0.04]. Net regional release was not calculated because mean venous plasma hepcidin concentrations were lower than mean arterialized concentrations indicating no net release. Significant correlations between AbScAT venous and arterialized plasma hepcidin concentrations with anthropometric variables were not observed. Findings from this vein drainage study suggest there is no net release of hepcidin from the AbScAT depot and thereby no ability to signal systemically, even in obesity.

  17. Adiposoft: automated software for the analysis of white adipose tissue cellularity in histological sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarraga, Miguel; Campión, Javier; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Boqué, Noemí; Moreno, Haritz; Martínez, José Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín; Ortiz-de-Solórzano, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The accurate estimation of the number and size of cells provides relevant information on the kinetics of growth and the physiological status of a given tissue or organ. Here, we present Adiposoft, a fully automated open-source software for the analysis of white adipose tissue cellularity in histological sections. First, we describe the sequence of image analysis routines implemented by the program. Then, we evaluate our software by comparing it with other adipose tissue quantification methods, namely, with the manual analysis of cells in histological sections (used as gold standard) and with the automated analysis of cells in suspension, the most commonly used method. Our results show significant concordance between Adiposoft and the other two methods. We also demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to distinguish the cellular composition of three different rat fat depots. Moreover, we found high correlation and low disagreement between Adiposoft and the manual delineation of cells. We conclude that Adiposoft provides accurate results while considerably reducing the amount of time and effort required for the analysis.

  18. Recruitment of Brown Adipose Tissue as a Therapy for Obesity-Associated Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPHEN ROBERT FARMER

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT has been recognized for more than 20 years to play a key role in cold-induced non-shivering thermogenesis (CIT, NST, and body weight homeostasis in animals. BAT is a flexible tissue that can be recruited by stimuli (including small molecules in animals, and atrophies in the absence of a stimulus. In fact, the contribution of BAT (and UCP1 to resting metabolic rate and healthy body weight homeostasis in animals (rodents is now well established. Many investigations have shown that resistance to obesity and associated disorders in various rodent models is due to increased BAT mass and the number of brown adipocytes or UCP1 expression in various depots. The recent discovery of active BAT in adult humans has rekindled the notion that BAT is a therapeutic target for combating obesity-related metabolic disorders. In this review, we highlight investigations performed in rodents that support the contention that activation of BAT formation and/or function in obese individuals is therapeutically powerful. We also propose that enhancement of brown adipocyte functions in white adipose tissue (WAT will also regulate energy balance as well as reduce insulin resistance in obesity-associated inflammation in WAT.

  19. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligen; Lee, Jong Han; Buras, Eric D; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr(-/-) mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsrp(-/-) mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsrp(-/-) mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

  20. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Eric D.; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C. Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr−/− mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsr−/− mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsr−/− mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:26837433

  1. Altered Levels of Fatty Acids and Inflammatory and Metabolic Mediators in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosshaug, Linn E; Dahl, Christen P; Risnes, Ivar; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K; Nymo, Ståle; Geiran, Odd; Yndestad, Arne; Gullestad, Lars; Aukrust, Pål; Vinge, Leif E; Øie, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Adipose tissue has endocrine properties, secreting a wide range of mediators into the circulation, including factors involved in cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the potential role of adipose tissue in heart failure (HF), and the aim of this study was to investigate epicardial (EAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue in HF patients. Thirty patients with systolic HF and 30 patients with normal systolic function undergoing thoracic surgery were included in the study. Plasma was sampled and examined with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, whereas SAT and EAT biopsies were collected and examined by means of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and gas chromatography. Significantly higher expressions of mRNA encoding interleukin-6, adrenomedullin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, and fatty acid (FA)-binding protein 3, as well as higher levels of monounsaturated FA and palmitoleic acid, were seen in the EAT of HF patients, whereas the levels of docosahexaenoic acid were lower. Palmitoleic acid levels in EAT were correlated with 2 parameters of cardiac remodeling: increasing left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Our results demonstrate adipose tissue depot-specific alterations of synthesis of FA and inflammatory and metabolic mediators in systolic HF patients. EAT may be a source of increased circulatory and myocardial levels of these mediators through endocrine actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The interplay between adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system: is fat always bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoumianakis, Ioannis; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological 'quality' of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognised as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers, and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways. Despite being able to mediate normal cardiovascular function under physiological conditions, AT undergoes a phenotypic shift characterised by acquisition of pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory properties in cases of CVD. Crucially, recent evidence suggests that AT depots such as perivascular AT and epicardial AT are able to modify their phenotype in response to local signals of vascular and myocardial origin, respectively. Utilisation of this unique property of certain AT depots to dynamically track cardiovascular biology may reveal novel diagnostic and prognostic tools against CVD. Better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the 'quality' of AT secretome, as well as the communication links between AT and the cardiovascular system, is required for the efficient management of CVD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ultra-structural morphology of long-term cultivated white adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Ivan; Miko, Michal; Oravcová, Lenka; Bačkayová, Tatiana; Koller, Ján; Danišovič, Ľuboš

    2015-12-01

    White adipose tissue was long perceived as a passive lipid storage depot but it is now considered as an active and important endocrine organ. It also harbours not only adipocytes and vascular cells but also a wide array of immunologically active cells, including macrophages and lymphocytes, which may induce obesity-related inflammation. Recently, adipose tissue has been reported as a source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with wide use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Their relatively non-complicated procurement and collection (often performed as liposuction during aesthetic surgery) and grand plasticity support this idea even more. We focused our research on exploring the issues of isolation and long-term cultivation of mesenchymal stem cells obtained from adipose tissue. Ultra-structural morphology of the cells cultivated in vitro has been studied and analysed in several cultivation time periods and following serial passages--up to 30 passages. In the first passages they had ultra-structural characteristics of cells with high proteosynthetic activity. Within the cytoplasm, big number of small lipid droplets and between them, sparsely placed, small and inconspicuous, electron-dense, lamellar bodies, which resembled myelin figures were observed. The cells from the later passages contained high number of lamellar electron-dense structures, which filled out almost the entire cytoplasm. In between, mitochondria were often found. These bodies were sometimes small and resembled myelin figures, but several of them reached huge dimensions (more than 1 µm) and their lamellar structure was not distinguishable. We did not have an answer to the question about their function, but they probably represented the evidence of active metabolism of lipids present in the cytoplasm of these cells or represented residual bodies, which arise after the breakdown of cellular organelles, notably mitochondria during long-term cultivation.

  4. Control of adipose tissue lipolysis in ectotherm vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, R H; Lima-Verde, J S; Machado, C R; Cardona, G M; Garofalo, M A; Kettelhut, I C

    1992-10-01

    Lipolytic activity of fish (Hoplias malabaricus), toad (Bufo paracnemis), and snake (Philodryas patagoniensis) adipose tissue was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Catecholamines or glucagon did not affect the release of free fatty acids (FFA) by incubated fish and toad adipose tissue. Catecholamines also failed to activate snake adipose tissue lipolysis, which even decreased in the presence of epinephrine. However, glucagon stimulated both the lipolytic activity of reptilian tissue in vitro and the mobilization of FFA to plasma when administered to snakes in vivo. The release of FFA from incubated fish, amphibian, and reptilian adipose tissue increased markedly in the presence of cAMP or xanthine derivatives, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase. Forskolin or fluoride, activators of specific components of the adenylate cyclase system, strongly stimulated toad adipose tissue lipolysis. The data suggest that adipocyte triacylglycerol lipase of ectotherm vertebrates is activated by a cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and that the organization of the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase system is similar to that of mammals.

  5. Brown adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy H E J Vijgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cold-stimulated adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT to increase energy expenditure is suggested as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. We have recently shown high prevalence of BAT in adult humans, which was inversely related to body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BF%, suggesting that obesity is associated with lower BAT activity. Here, we examined BAT activity in morbidly obese subjects and its role in cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT after applying a personalized cooling protocol. We hypothesize that morbidly obese subjects show reduced BAT activity upon cold exposure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After applying a personalized cooling protocol for maximal non-shivering conditions, BAT activity was determined using positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT. Cold-induced BAT activity was detected in three out of 15 morbidly obese subjects. Combined with results from lean to morbidly obese subjects (n = 39 from previous study, the collective data show a highly significant correlation between BAT activity and body composition (P<0.001, respectively explaining 64% and 60% of the variance in BMI (r = 0.8; P<0.001 and BF% (r = 0.75; P<0.001. Obese individuals demonstrate a blunted CIT combined with low BAT activity. Only in BAT-positive subjects (n = 26 mean energy expenditure was increased significantly upon cold exposure (51.5±6.7 J/s versus 44.0±5.1 J/s, P = 0.001, and the increase was significantly higher compared to BAT-negative subjects (+15.5±8.9% versus +3.6±8.9%, P = 0.001, indicating a role for BAT in CIT in humans. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in an extremely large range of body compositions, BAT activity is highly correlated with BMI and BF%. BAT-positive subjects showed higher CIT, indicating that BAT is also in humans involved in adaptive thermogenesis. Increasing BAT activity could be a therapeutic target in (morbid obesity.

  6. Increased Ratio of Visceral to Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Septic Patients Is Associated With Adverse Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisitsak, Chawika; Lee, Joseph G H; Boyd, John H; Coxson, Harvey O; Russell, James A; Walley, Keith R

    2016-11-01

    Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue may contribute differentially to the septic inflammatory response. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with altered sepsis outcome. A retrospective analysis from a cohort of sepsis patients admitted between 2004 and 2009. A mixed medical-surgical ICU at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Patients older than 16 years old who had sepsis and underwent abdominal CT scan (n = 257) for clinical reasons. None. We measured the visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and calculated the visceral adipose tissue-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio. Visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue was not correlated with body mass index (r = -0.015, p = NS) and therefore provides additional unique information independent of body mass index. Sepsis patients with higher visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue had greater 90-day mortality than patients with lower visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue (log-rank test, linear-by linear association p ratios of 2.01 (95% CI, 1.01-3.99) for the third visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue quartile compared with the first quartile and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.15-4.69) for the highest visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue quartile when compared with the first quartile. Increased mortality for patients with higher visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue was found for both patients with body mass index less than 25 kg/m (p = 0.004) and for body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m (p = 0.023). Furthermore, we found significantly greater need for mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, and ICU stay in patients in the highest visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue quartile. The ratio of proinflammatory (interleukin-8) to anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) plasma cytokine levels was greater in patients with

  7. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Marcinko

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC.

  8. Brown Adipose Tissue Function Is Enhanced in Long-Lived, Male Ames Dwarf Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Samuel; Fang, Yimin; Huber, Joshua A.; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Liou Y.; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Ames dwarf mice (Prop1df/df) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation, resulting in deficiency of GH, TSH, and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient. Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature. Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Given the unique phenotype of Ames dwarf epididymal WAT, their improved energy metabolism, and lower core body temperature, we hypothesized that Ames dwarf brown adipose tissue (BAT) may function differently from that of their normal littermates. Here we use histology and RT-PCR to demonstrate that Ames dwarf mice have enhanced BAT function. We also use interscapular BAT removal to demonstrate that BAT is necessary for Ames dwarf energy metabolism and thermogenesis, whereas it is less important for their normal littermates. Furthermore, we show that Ames dwarf mice are able to compensate for loss of interscapular BAT by using their WAT depots as an energy source. These findings demonstrate enhanced BAT function in animals with GH and thyroid hormone deficiencies, chronic reduction of body temperature, and remarkably extended longevity. PMID:27740871

  9. Expression of clock genes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanquetta, Melissa Moreira; Correa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Alonso, Paulino Alberto; Guimarães, Ligia Maria Martins Vaz; Meyer, Alberto; Villares, Sandra Mara Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythms are associated with obesity and metabolic alterations, but little is known about the participation of peripheral circadian clock machinery in these processes. The aim of the present study was to analyze RNA expression of clock genes in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues of male and female subjects in AM (morning) and PM (afternoon) periods, and its interactions with body mass index (BMI). Ninety-one subjects (41 ± 11 yrs of age) presenting a wide range of BMI (21.4 to 48.6 kg/m(2)) were included. SAT and VAT biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing abdominal surgeries. Clock genes expressions were evaluated by qRT-PCR. The only clock gene that showed higher expression (p CLOCK expression was not altered. Relationships between clock genes were different in SAT vs. VAT. BMI was negatively correlated with SATPER1 (r = -.549; p = .001) and SATPER2 (r = -.613; p = .0001) and positively with VATCLOCK (r = .541; p = .001) and VATBMAL1 (r = .468; p = .007) only in women. These data suggest that the circadian clock machinery of adipose tissue depots differs between female and male subjects, with a sex-specific effect observed for some genes. BMI correlated with clock genes, but at this moment it is not possible to establish the cause-effect relationship.

  10. Severe diabetes, age-dependent loss of adipose tissue, and mild growth deficiency in mice lacking Akt2/PKBβ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert S.; Orena, Stephen J.; Rafidi, Kristina; Torchia, Anthony J.; Stock, Jeffrey L.; Hildebrandt, Audrey L.; Coskran, Timothy; Black, Shawn C.; Brees, Dominique J.; Wicks, Joan R.; McNeish, John D.; Coleman, Kevin G.

    2003-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB plays key roles in the regulation of cell growth, survival, and metabolism. It remains unclear, however, whether the functions of individual Akt/PKB isoforms are distinct. To investigate the function of Akt2/PKBβ, mice lacking this isoform were generated. Both male and female Akt2/PKBβ-null mice exhibit mild growth deficiency and an age-dependent loss of adipose tissue or lipoatrophy, with all observed adipose depots dramatically reduced by 22 weeks of age. Akt2/PKBβ-deficient mice are insulin resistant with elevated plasma triglycerides. In addition, Akt2/PKBβ-deficient mice exhibit fed and fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and impaired muscle glucose uptake. In males, insulin resistance progresses to a severe form of diabetes accompanied by pancreatic β cell failure. In contrast, female Akt2/PKBβ-deficient mice remain mildly hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic until at least one year of age. Thus, Akt2/PKBβ-deficient mice exhibit growth deficiency similar to that reported previously for mice lacking Akt1/PKBα, indicating that both Akt2/PKBβ and Akt1/PKBα participate in the regulation of growth. The marked hyperglycemia and loss of pancreatic β cells and adipose tissue in Akt2/PKBβ-deficient mice suggest that Akt2/PKBβ plays critical roles in glucose metabolism and the development or maintenance of proper adipose tissue and islet mass for which other Akt/PKB isoforms are unable to fully compensate. PMID:12843127

  11. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD + -dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  12. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  13. Microarray analysis of adipose tissue gene expression profiles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    and provides a major protein source from meat and eggs throughout the world. Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is one of the main problems faced by ..... important role in cholesterol homeostasis (Bhattacharyya et al 1993). Cholesterol is removed from peripheral tissues and transported either directly ...

  14. MicroRNA expression profiling in neurogenesis of adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Cho J. A., Park H., Lim E. H. and Lee K. W. 2011 MicroRNA expression profiling in neurogenesis of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. J. Genet. 90, 81–93] ... capability, however there are considerable challenges to the use of these cells for ... tissues including brain, blood, muscle, skin, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood ...

  15. Adipose Tissue Tumours in Port Harcourt (A ten year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Adipose tissue tumors are one of the commonest soft tissue tumors. Though not given much attention in medical practice and in literature, it posed cosmetic problems. The location and size of the tumor determined the symptoms which ranges from dyspnea to a feeling of fullness and discomfort on motion.

  16. Adipose tissue as an immunological organ : implications for childhood obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is increasingly considered as an inflammatory disorder. In adults, obesity induces inflammation of adipose tissue (AT). Through the release of inflammatory lipids and immune mediating proteins called adipokines, AT inflammation spreads to other tissues ranging from liver and muscle to the

  17. Defective regulation of adipose tissue autophagy in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, C E; Rodrigues, V S; Gomes, F S; Moura, R F de; Victorio, S C; Bombassaro, B; Chaim, E A; Pareja, J C; Geloneze, B; Velloso, L A; Araujo, E P

    2013-11-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated process that has an important role in the control of a wide range of cellular functions, such as organelle recycling, nutrient availability and tissue differentiation. A recent study has shown an increased autophagic activity in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, and a role for autophagy in obesity-associated insulin resistance was proposed. Body mass reduction is the most efficient approach to tackle insulin resistance in over-weight subjects; however, the impact of weight loss in adipose tissue autophagy is unknown. Adipose tissue autophagy was evaluated in mice and humans. First, a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes was maintained on a 15-day, 40% caloric restriction. At baseline, markers of autophagy were increased in obese mice as compared with lean controls. Upon caloric restriction, autophagy increased in the lean mice, whereas it decreased in the obese mice. The reintroduction of ad libitum feeding was sufficient to rapidly reduce autophagy in the lean mice and increase autophagy in the obese mice. In the second part of the study, autophagy was evaluated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of nine obese-non-diabetic and six obese-diabetic subjects undergoing bariatric surgery for body mass reduction. Specimens were collected during the surgery and approximately 1 year later. Markers of systemic inflammation, such as tumor necrosis factor-1α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β were evaluated. As in the mouse model, human obesity was associated with increased autophagy, and body mass reduction led to an attenuation of autophagy in the adipose tissue. Obesity and caloric overfeeding are associated with the defective regulation of autophagy in the adipose tissue. The studies in obese-diabetic subjects undergoing improved metabolic control following calorie restriction suggest that autophagy and inflammation are regulated independently.

  18. Biomarkers of Habitual Fish Intake in Adipose-Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Haraldsdottir, H.

    1995-01-01

    /d) was significantly associated with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid content (DHA; r = 0.55 and 0.58, respectively, P eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid contents. Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long......The association between habitual fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, and the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat was studied in 24 healthy young volunteers. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated from three 7-d weighed food records made at months 0, 5, and 8...... of the 8-mo study period. The adipose tissue fatty acid composition of each individual was determined by gas chromatography as the mean of two gluteal biopsies, obtained in the first and the last month of the study. The daily consumption of fish and of marine n-3 PUFAs in absolute terms (g...

  19. The effect of hypokinesia on lipid metabolism in adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Ladislav; Kvetn̆anský, Richard; Ficková, Mária

    The increase of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in plasma was observed in rats subjected to hypokinesia for 1-60 days. In the period of recovery (7 and 21 days after 60 days immobilization) the content of NEFA returned to control values. The increase of fatty acid release from adipose tissue was observed in hypokinetic rats, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lower in rats exposed to hypokinesis. The decrease of the binding capacity and a diminished number of beta-adrenergic receptors were found in animals after hypokinesia. The augmentation of the incorporation of glucose into lipids and the marked increase in the stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin were found in adipose tissue of rats subjected to long-term hypokinesia. These results showed an important effect of hypokinesia on lipid mobilization, on lipogenesis and on the processes of hormone regulation in adipose tissue.

  20. Fructose consumption enhances glucocorticoid action in rat visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać, Biljana N; Djordjevic, Ana D; Vasiljević, Ana D; Milutinović, Danijela D Vojnović; Veličković, Nataša A; Nestorović, Nataša M; Matić, Gordana M

    2013-06-01

    The rise in consumption of refined sugars high in fructose appears to be an important factor for the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fructose has been shown to be involved in genesis and progression of the syndrome through deregulation of metabolic pathways in adipose tissue. There is evidence that enhanced glucocorticoid regeneration within adipose tissue, mediated by the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 (11βHSD1), may contribute to adiposity and metabolic disease. 11βHSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH). We hypothesized that harmful effects of long-term high fructose consumption could be mediated by alterations in prereceptor glucocorticoid metabolism and glucocorticoid signaling in the adipose tissue of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week drinking of 10% fructose solution on dyslipidemia, adipose tissue histology and both plasma and tissue corticosterone level. Prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids was characterized by determining 11βHSD1 and H6PDH mRNA and protein levels. Glucocorticoid signaling was examined at the level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and compartmental redistribution, as well as at the level of expression of its target genes (GR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase). Fructose diet led to increased 11βHSD1 and H6PDH expression and elevated corticosterone level within the adipose tissue, which was paralleled with enhanced GR nuclear accumulation. Although the animals did not develop obesity, nonesterified fatty acid and plasma triglyceride levels were elevated, indicating that fructose, through enhanced prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids, could set the environment for possible later onset of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adipose HIF-1α causes obesity by suppressing brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jonathan C; Devera, Ronald; Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Yao, Qiaoling; Rathore, Aman; Younas, Haris; Halberg, Nils; Scherer, Philipp E; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in adipose tissue is known to promote obesity. We hypothesized that HIF-1α interferes with brown fat thermogenesis, thus decreasing energy expenditure. To test this hypothesis, we compared transgenic mice constitutively expressing HIF-1α in adipose tissues (HIF-1α++) at usual temperature (22 °C), where brown fat is somewhat active, or at thermoneutrality (30 °C), where brown fat is minimally active. HIF-1α++ mice or control litter mates were separated into room temperature (22 °C) or thermoneutrality (30 °C) groups. We assessed weight gain, food intake, calorimetry, activity, and oxygen consumption and transcriptional changes in isolated white and brown adipocytes. At 22 °C, HIF-1α++ mice exhibited accelerated weight gain, cold and glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, and decreased energy expenditure without changes in food intake or activity. These changes were absent or minimal at thermoneutrality. In brown adipocytes of HIF-1α++ mice, oxygen consumption decreased ~50 % in association with reduced mitochondrial content, uncoupling protein 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1α). In conclusion, adipose HIF-1α overexpression inhibits thermogenesis and cellular respiration in brown adipose tissue, promoting obesity in the setting of reduced ambient temperature. Constitutive HIF-1α activation in adipose tissue promotes weight gain in mice. The weight gain is associated with reduced brown adipose tissue function and oxygen consumption. Reduced oxygen consumption may be mediated by reductions in mitochondria.

  2. Perinatal maternal high-fat diet induces early obesity and sex-specific alterations of the endocannabinoid system in white and brown adipose tissue of weanling rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana M; Dias-Rocha, Camilla P; Souza, André S; Muros, Mariana F; Mendonca, Leonardo S; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Trevenzoli, Isis H

    2017-11-01

    Perinatal maternal high-fat (HF) diet programmes offspring obesity. Obesity is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in adult subjects, but the role of the ECS in the developmental origins of obesity is mostly unknown. The ECS consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2)) and metabolising enzymes. We hypothesised that perinatal maternal HF diet would alter the ECS in a sex-dependent manner in white and brown adipose tissue of rat offspring at weaning in parallel to obesity development. Female rats received standard diet (9 % energy content from fat) or HF diet (29 % energy content from fat) before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring were killed for tissue harvest. Maternal HF diet induced early obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and increased lipid accumulation in brown adipose tissue associated with sex-specific changes of the ECS's components in weanling rats. In male pups, maternal HF diet decreased CB1 and CB2 protein in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In female pups, maternal HF diet increased visceral and decreased subcutaneous CB1. In brown adipose tissue, maternal HF diet increased CB1 regardless of pup sex. In addition, maternal HF diet differentially changed oestrogen receptor across the adipose depots in male and female pups. The ECS and oestrogen signalling play an important role in lipogenesis, adipogenesis and thermogenesis, and we observed early changes in their targets in adipose depots of the offspring. The present findings provide insights into the involvement of the ECS in the developmental origins of metabolic disease induced by inadequate maternal nutrition in early life.

  3. Chagas disease, adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fnu Nagajyothi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection of the adipose tissue of mice triggers the local expression of inflammatory mediators and a reduction in the expression of the adipokine adiponectin. T. cruzi can be detected in adipose tissue by PCR 300 days post-infection. Infection of cultured adipocytes results in increased expression of cytokines and chemokines and a reduction in the expression of adiponectin and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ³, both of which are negative regulators of inflammation. Infection also results in the upregulation of cyclin D1, the Notch pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and a reduction in the expression of caveolin-1. Thus, T. cruzi infection of cultured adipocytes leads to an upregulation of the inflammatory process. Since adiponectin null mice have a cardiomyopathic phenotype, it is possible that the reduction in adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Adipose tissue may serve as a reservoir for T. cruzi from which parasites can become reactivated during periods of immunosuppression. T. cruzi infection of mice often results in hypoglycemia. In contrast, hyperglycemia as observed in diabetes results in increased parasitemia and mortality. Adipose tissue is an important target tissue of T. cruzi and the infection of this tissue is associated with a profound impact on systemic metabolism, increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate......Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...

  5. Natural compounds involved in adipose tissue mass control in in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kowalska

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized obesity as an epidemic of the 21st century. Obesity is pathological fat accumulation in the body influenced by many factors: metabolic, endocrine, genetic, environmental, psychological and behavioral. The quality and quantity of food intake to a considerable degree determine excessive fat accumulation in the body. The strategy in obesity prevention includes, among other things, a proper diet. It is widely known that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables reduces body weight. Adipocytes are not only cells serving as storage depots for “energy”, but are also specialized cells influenced by various hormones, cytokines and nutrients, which have pleiotropic effects on the body. Knowledge of adipocyte biology is crucial for our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of obesity and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, rational manipulation of adipose physiology is a promising avenue for therapy of these conditions. Adipose tissue mass can be reduced through elimination of adipocytes by apoptosis, inhibition of adipogenesis and increased lipolysis in adipocytes. Natural products have a potential to induce apoptosis, inhibit adipogenesis and stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes. Various dietary bioactive compounds target different stages of the adipocyte life cycle and may be useful as natural therapeutic agents in obesity prevention.

  6. Rose hip supplementation increases energy expenditure and induces browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Axling, Ulrika; Berger, Karin; Holm, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are widespread chronic disorders defined as excessive fat accumulation, and are major risk factors for several chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure and fatty liver. Changes in lifestyle such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet can be crucial tools for treating obesity. Intake of rose hip, the fruit of several plants belonging to the Rosaceae family, has been shown to reduce body fat mass and prevent body weight gain. Thus, the aim of the study was to elucidate potential mechanisms through which rose hip inhibit diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet with (RH) or without (CTR) rose hip supplementation for three months. In vivo indirect calorimetry was monitored, as well as gene expression and protein levels of different adipose depots. Although no differences in energy intake were found compared to the CTR group, RH prevented body weight gain and lowered blood glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels. Indirect calorimetry showed that RH-fed mice have significantly higher EE during the dark phase, despite comparable voluntary activity. Moreover, when challenged with treadmill running, RH-fed mice exhibited higher metabolic rate. Therefore, we hypothesized that RH could stimulate the brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic capacity or may induce browning of the white adipose tissue (WAT). Compared to the CTR group, gene expression and protein levels of some brown and "brite" markers, together with genes able to promote brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis (such as ucp1, tbx15 , bmp7, and cidea ), as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, was increased in WAT (but not in BAT) of RH-fed mice. Taken together these results indicate that dietary rose hip prevents body weight gain by increasing whole body EE and inducing browning of WAT. Thus, it has potential therapeutic implication for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  7. Vitamin D and adipose tissue - more than storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprakash Jagalur Mutt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OHD. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g. in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR -/- and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 -/- mouse models: Both VDR -/- and CYP27B1 -/- models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases.

  8. Vitamin D and adipose tissue-more than storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Hyppönen, Elina; Saarnio, Juha; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OH)D. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol) via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine, and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g., in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH)2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs) and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR(-/-)) and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 (-/-)) mouse models: Both VDR(-/-) and CYP27B1(-/-) models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH)2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases.

  9. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xiaowen, E-mail: baixw01@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Alt, Eckhard, E-mail: ealt@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  10. Metabolically Active Three-Dimensional Brown Adipose Tissue Engineered from White Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jessica P; Anderson, Amy E; McCartney, Annemarie; Ory, Xavier; Ma, Garret; Pappalardo, Elisa; Bader, Joel; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2017-04-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a unique capacity to expend calories by decoupling energy expenditure from ATP production, therefore BAT could realize therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated markers and function of native BAT, however, successful therapies will rely on methods that supplement the small existing pool of brown adipocytes in adult humans. In this study, we engineered BAT from both human and rat adipose precursors and determined whether these ex vivo constructs could mimic in vivo tissue form and metabolic function. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were isolated from several sources, human white adipose tissue (WAT), rat WAT, and rat BAT, then differentiated toward both white and brown adipogenic lineages in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. ASCs derived from WAT were successfully differentiated in 3D poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels into mature adipocytes with BAT phenotype and function, including high uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA and protein expression and increased metabolic activity (basal oxygen consumption, proton leak, and maximum respiration). By utilizing this "browning" process, the abundant and accessible WAT stem cell population can be engineered into 3D tissue constructs with the metabolic capacity of native BAT, ultimately for therapeutic intervention in vivo and as a tool for studying BAT and its metabolic properties.

  11. Differential effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on brown and beige adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Bronisch, Felix; Hintschich, Constantin; Krügel, Ute; Seyfried, Florian; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-10-01

    There are numerous reports of increased energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in humans and rodent models but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study we assessed at the gene expression level whether RYGB leads to recruitment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and/or beige adipose tissue (BeAT) as a means of enhanced facultative thermogenesis and increased energy expenditure after surgery. Diet-induced obese male Wistar rats were randomized into RYGB-operated (n=10), sham-operated ad libitum fed (Sham) (n=7) or sham-operated body weight matched (BWM) to RYGB groups (n=7). At a stage of postoperatively stabilized weight reduction, BAT (interscapular), subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (epididymal and perirenal) white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were collected in the fasted state. Expression of thermoregulatory genes (UCP1, CIDEA and PRDM16) in BAT and WAT as well as specific markers of BeAT (Ear2 and TMEM26) in WAT was analyzed using RT-qPCR. Compared to Sham rats, UCP1 mRNA expression in BAT was significantly reduced in BWM, but not in RYGB rats. No differences in mRNA expression were found for thermoregulatory proteins or for markers of BeAT in subcutaneous or visceral WAT depots between RYGB and Sham groups. The compensatory decrease in BAT thermogenic gene expression typically associated with body weight loss is attenuated after RYGB which, as opposed to recruitment of BeAT, may contribute to overall increases in energy expenditure and weight loss maintenance after surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estrogen receptor protein content is different in abdominal than gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Kathleen M; Cooper, Elizabeth E; Hickner, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Premenopausal women demonstrate a distinctive gynoid body fat distribution and circulating estrogen status is associated with the maintenance of this adiposity patterning. Estrogen's role in modulation of regional adiposity may occur through estrogen receptors (ERs), which are present in human adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine regional differences in the protein content of ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) between the abdominal (AB) and gluteal (GL) subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Biopsies of the subcutaneous AB and GL adipose tissue were performed in 15 premenopausal women (7 Caucasian/8 African American, 25.1 ± 1.8 years, BMI 29.5 ± 0.5kg/m(2)). Adipose tissue protein content was measured by western blot analysis and correlation analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between ER protein content and anthropometric indices/body composition measurements. We found that ERα protein was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.0 ± 0.2 vs GL 0.67 ± 0.1 arbitrary units [AU], P=0.02), ERβ protein was higher in GL than AB (AB 0.78 ± 0.12 vs GL 1.3 ± 0.2 AU, P=0.002), ERα/ERβ ratio was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.9 ± 0.4 vs GL 0.58 ± 0.08 AU, P=0.007), and GPER protein content was similar in AB and GL (P=0.80) subcutaneous adipose tissue. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely related to gluteal ERβ (r(2)=0.315, P=0.03) and positively related to gluteal ERα/ERβ ratio (r(2)=0.406, P=0.01). These results indicate that depot specific ER content may be an important underlying determinant of regional effects of estrogen in upper and lower body adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Visceral adipose tissue area measurement at a single level: can it represent visceral adipose tissue volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumura, Yusuke; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Sutherland, Kenneth; Nishimura, Hideho

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) needs to be accurate and sensitive to change for risk monitoring. The purpose of this study is to determine the CT slice location where VAT area can best reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight. 60 plain abdominal CT images from 30 males [mean age (range) 51 (41-68) years, mean body weight (range) 71.1 (101.9-50.9) kg] who underwent workplace screenings twice within a 1-year interval were evaluated. Automatically calculated and manually corrected areas of the VAT of various scan levels using "freeform curve" region of interest on CT were recorded and compared with body weight changes. The strongest correlations of VAT area with VAT volume and body weight changes were shown in a slice 3 cm above the lower margin of L3 with r values of 0.853 and 0.902, respectively. VAT area measurement at a single level 3 cm above the lower margin of the L3 vertebra is feasible and can reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight. Advances in knowledge: As VAT area at a CT slice 3cm above the lower margin of L3 can best reflect interval changes in VAT volume and body weight, VAT area measurement should be selected at this location.

  14. The Combination of Tissue Dissection and External Volume Expansion Generates Large Volumes of Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunfan; Dong, Ziqing; Xie, Gan; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive external volume expansion device has been applied to stimulate nonsurgical breast enlargement in clinical settings. Although previous results demonstrate the capacity of external volume expansion to increase the number of adipocytes, this strategy alone is insufficient to reconstruct soft-tissue defects or increase breast mass. The authors combined a minimally invasive tissue dissection method with external volume expansion to generate large volumes of adipose tissue. In vitro, various densities of adipose-derived stem cells were prepared to evaluate relations between cell contacts and cell proliferation. In vivo, dorsal adipose tissue of rabbits was thoroughly dissected and the external volume expansion device was applied to maintain the released state. External volume expansion without tissue dissection served as the control. In the dissection group, the generated adipose tissue volume was much larger than that in the control group at all time points. A larger number of proliferating cells appeared in the dissection samples than in the control samples at the early stage after tissue dissection. At low cell density, adipose-derived stem cells displayed an increasing proliferation rate compared to high cell density. Protein expression analysis revealed that cell proliferation was mediated by a similar mechanism both in vivo and in vitro, involving the release of cell contact inhibition and Hippo/Yes-associated protein pathway activation. Adipose tissue dissection releases cell-to-cell contacts and induces adipose-derived stem cell proliferation. Preexpanded adipose-derived stem cells undergo adipogenesis under the adipogenic environment created by external volume expansion, leading to better adipose regeneration compared with the control.

  15. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Sik eChoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue (WAT functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue (BAT accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secret various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic over-nutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  16. Comparison of Methods for Analyzing Human Adipose Tissue Macrophage Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harteneck, Debra; Jaeger, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relationship between inflammation, obesity, and adverse metabolic conditions is associated with adipose tissue macrophages (ATM). This study compared the measurements of human ATM using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ...

  17. Endotrophin triggers adipose tissue fibrosis and metabolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Gupta, Olga T

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model to demonst...

  18. MicroRNA expression profiling in neurogenesis of adipose tissue

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are one population of adult stem cells that can self renew and differentiate into multiple lineages. Because of advantages in method and quantity of acquisition, ADSCs are gaining attention as an alternative source of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we ...

  19. 12- and 15-Lipoxygenases in Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Banumathi K.; Lieb, David C.; Dobrian, Anca D.; Nadler, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The lipoxygenases (LOs) are principal enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. 12- and 15-LO and their lipid metabolites have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Adipose tissue, and in particular visceral adipose tissue, plays a primary role in the development of the inflammation seen in these conditions. 12- and 15-LO and their lipid metabolites act as upstream regulators of many of the cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in adipose tissue. While the role that 12- and 15-LO play in chronically inflamed adipose tissue is becoming clearer, there are still many questions that remain unanswered regarding their activation, signaling pathways, and roles in healthy fat. 12- and 15-LO also generate products with anti-inflammatory properties that are under investigation. Therefore, 12- and 15-LO have the potential to be very important targets for therapeutics aimed at reducing insulin resistance and the comorbid conditions associated with obesity. PMID:22951339

  20. Quantification of visceral adipose tissue in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Nylander, Malin Chatarina; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2018-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with frequent overweight and abdominal obesity. Quantifying visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in PCOS patients can be a tool to assess metabolic risk and monitor effects of treatment. The latest dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology...

  1. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Both insulin and manganese caused an increased oxidation of carbon-1 of glucose and an increase of its incorporation into 14C-lipids in ... of the importance of obesity to cardiovascular problems,. NIDDM and insulin resistance ... genesis in liver and adipose tissue caused by manganese treatment of rats fed a high fat diet ...

  2. Spice Up Your Life: Adipose Tissue and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are now recognized in the adipose tissue which, in obesity, produces proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Several herbs and spices have been in use since ancient times which possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this perspective, I discuss and propose the usage of these culinary delights for the benefit of human health. PMID:24701352

  3. Spice Up Your Life: Adipose Tissue and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cells of the immune system are now recognized in the adipose tissue which, in obesity, produces proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Several herbs and spices have been in use since ancient times which possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this perspective, I discuss and propose the usage of these culinary delights for the benefit of human health.

  4. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissu...... fatty acids and changes in anthropometry....

  5. Isolation of Stromal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Maria; Oltolina, Francesca; Antonini, Silvia; Zamperone, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue has been shown to be particularly advantageous as source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), because of its easy accessibility, and the possibility of obtaining stem cells in high yields. MSCs are obtained from the so-called Stromal Vascular Fraction, (SVF), exploiting their property of adhering to plastic surfaces and can be further purified by positive or negative immunomagnetic selection with appropriately chosen antibodies. These cells (Stromal Stem Cells, SSCs) can then be directly analyzed, frozen in liquid nitrogen, or expanded for further applications, e.g., for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The methodology described here in detail for SSCs isolated from mouse subcutaneous adipose tissue can be applied to human tissues, such as epicardium.

  6. Sexual dimorphism in circulating leptin concentrations is not accounted for by differences in adipose tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, M; Pietrobelli, A; Vasselli, J R; Heymsfield, S B; Leibel, R L

    2001-09-01

    Circulating concentrations of leptin normalized to total adipose tissue mass are significantly greater in females than in males. Rates of leptin expression (per gram of adipose tissue) are significantly greater in subcutaneous (SAT) than visceral (VAT) adipose tissue and the relative amount of fat stored as SAT vs VAT is significantly greater in pre-menopausal females than in males. Gender-related differences in the relative amounts of SAT and VAT may account for the greater circulating leptin concentration relative to fat-mass in females than males. We examined body composition and anatomic fat distribution by dual energy X-ray-absorptiometry (DEXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and post-absorptive circulating concentrations of leptin and insulin in 58 subjects (26 females, 32 males). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, treating gender as a dichotomous variable, were performed to determine inter-relationships among leptin concentrations and insulin concentrations, VAT and SAT. Body composition by DEXA and MRI were highly correlated (r(2)=0.97, P<0.0001). There were significant gender effects on leptin/total fat mass (males, 0.17+/-0.01 ng/ml/kg; females, 0.49+/-0.05 ng/ml/kg; P<0.0001) and relative amounts of fat in SAT and VAT depots (ratio of SAT/VAT; males, 12.3+/-1.5; females, 32.9+/-3.2; P<0.0001). Circulating leptin concentration was significantly correlated with insulin concentration (P=0.001), SAT (P<0.0001) and gender (P=0.033). Circulating concentrations of insulin were significantly correlated with VAT, but not SAT, in males and with SAT, but not VAT, in females. The sexual dimorphism in the relationship between leptin and adipose tissue mass cannot be explained by differences in the relative amounts of VAT and SAT. Thus, the sexual dimorphism in plasma leptin concentration appears to reflect, at least in part, effects of circulating concentrations of gonadal steroids (especially androgens) and/or primary genetic differences that are

  7. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... constant. It is concluded that the microvascular volume and changes in volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue can be assessed using CEU with good reproducibility. Postprandial capillary recruitment takes place in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue....

  8. Evaluation of Human Adipose Tissue Stromal Heterogeneity in Metabolic Disease Using Single Cell RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    individual cell types within human adipose tissue interact to regulate adipose tissue physiology . Specifically, we have developed the molecular and...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0251 TITLE: “Evaluation of Human Adipose Tissue Stromal Heterogeneity in Metabolic Disease Using Single Cell RNA...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 AUG 2016 - 31 Aug 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluation of Human Adipose Tissue Stromal

  9. A high fat diet enhances the sensitivity of chick adipose tissue to the effects of centrally injected neuropeptide Y on gene expression of adipogenesis-associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Williams, Carli A; McConn, Betty R; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later. In abdominal fat, mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) increased after NPY injection in HF diet-fed chicks. NPY injection decreased expression of PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) in the subcutaneous fat of HC diet-fed chicks, whereas SREBP1 expression was increased in the subcutaneous fat of HF diet-fed chicks after NPY injection. An acutely increased central concentration of NPY in chicks affects adipose tissue physiology in a depot- and diet-dependent manner. The chick may serve as a model to understand the relationship between diet and the brain-fat axis' role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis, as well as to understand metabolic distinctions among fat depots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Andi Asadul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In searching for the best source of stem cells, researcher found adipose stem cells as one of the ideal source due to its easiness in harvesting and its potential for differentiating into other cell lineage. METHODS: We isolated stem cells from adipose tissue, cultured and confirmed its immunophenotype using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Cluster of differentiation (CD)44, CD73, CD90, CD105 were expressed, which represent immunophenotype of mesenchymal stem cells.  CONCLUSION...

  11. Sex hormone imbalances and adipose tissue dysfunction impacting on metabolic syndrome; a paradigm for the discovery of novel adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Sairam, M Ram

    2014-02-01

    Sex hormone imbalance is causally related with visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction and visceral obesity - an etiological component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), associated with high risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. In general, premenopausal women appear to be protected from CVD and the dramatic decline in sex steroid hormone occurring during menopausal transitions or other sex-related disorders influence the regional distribution, function, and metabolism of AT and increase the risk of CVD. Visceral AT dysfunction, manifesting as abnormality of fatty acid metabolism, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and excessive production of adipokines have been proposed in the pathogenesis of MetS. However, direct evidence of molecular mechanisms of depot-specific AT alterations, and dysfunction causally related to MetS is limited in studies on postmenopausal women due to difficulty in collecting discrete AT specimens at different ages and repeated sampling from different fat depots. This can be overcome using animal models that can mimic the cluster of pathology leading to MetS and help establish the molecular basis of links between loss of gonadal function on various AT depots and their contribution to MetS. Our group used sex hormone imbalance FSH receptor knock out (FORKO) female mice to recapitulate different aspects of the MetS and addressed the mechanism of visceral obesity related to MetS and discover two novel sex steroid hormone-regulated deep mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipose (MEDAs) genes. Taken together, such recent studies raise hopes for pharmacologic intervention strategies targeting sex steroid hormone signaling in AT to provide protection against AT dysfunction.

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  4. CREBH-FGF21 axis improves hepatic steatosis by suppressing adipose tissue lipolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Jong-Gil; Xu, Xu; Cho, Sungyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kersten, Sander; Lee, Ann-Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis produces glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that serve as energy sources during nutrient scarcity. Adipose tissue lipolysis is tightly regulated and excessive lipolysis causes hepatic steatosis, as NEFA released from adipose tissue constitutes a major source of TG

  5. Adipose-derived stem cell differentiation as a basic tool for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Huber, Birgit; Kluger, Petra J

    2016-01-01

    The development of in vitro adipose tissue constructs is highly desired to cope with the increased demand for substitutes to replace damaged soft tissue after high graded burns, deformities or tumor removal. To achieve clinically relevant dimensions, vascularization of soft tissue constructs becomes inevitable but still poses a challenge. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent a promising cell source for the setup of vascularized fatty tissue constructs as they can be differentiated into adipocytes and endothelial cells in vitro and are thereby available in sufficiently high cell numbers. This review summarizes the currently known characteristics of ASCs and achievements in adipogenic and endothelial differentiation in vitro. Further, the interdependency of adipogenesis and angiogenesis based on the crosstalk of endothelial cells, stem cells and adipocytes is addressed at the molecular level. Finally, achievements and limitations of current co-culture conditions for the construction of vascularized adipose tissue are evaluated. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parallels in Immunometabolic Adipose Tissue Dysfunction with Ageing and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Trim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ageing, like obesity, is often associated with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory processes resulting in morbidity from diseases characterised by poor metabolic control, insulin insensitivity, and inflammation. Ageing populations also exhibit a decline in immune competence referred to as immunosenescence, which contributes to, or might be driven by chronic, low-grade inflammation termed “inflammageing”. In recent years, animal and human studies have started to uncover a role for immune cells within the stromal fraction of adipose tissue in driving the health complications that come with obesity, but relatively little work has been conducted in the context of immunometabolic adipose function in ageing. It is now clear that aberrant immune function within adipose tissue in obesity—including an accumulation of pro-inflammatory immune cell populations—plays a major role in the development of systemic chronic, low-grade inflammation, and limiting the function of adipocytes leading to an impaired fat handling capacity. As a consequence, these changes increase the chance of multiorgan dysfunction and disease onset. Considering the important role of the immune system in obesity-associated metabolic and inflammatory diseases, it is critically important to further understand the interplay between immunological processes and adipose tissue function, establishing whether this interaction contributes to age-associated immunometabolic dysfunction and inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this article is to summarise how the interaction between adipose tissue and the immune system changes with ageing, likely contributing to the age-associated increase in inflammatory activity and loss of metabolic control. To understand the potential mechanisms involved, parallels will be drawn to the current knowledge derived from investigations in obesity. We also highlight gaps in research and propose potential future directions based on the current evidence.

  7. Developments in our understanding of the effects of growth hormone on white adipose tissue from mice: implications to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; Henry, Brooke; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a well-established target of growth hormone (GH) and is altered in clinical conditions associated with excess, deficiency and absence of GH action. Due to the difficulty in collecting AT from clinical populations, genetically modified mice have been useful in better understanding how GH affects this tissue. Recent findings in mice would suggest that the impact of GH on AT is beyond alterations of lipolysis, lipogenesis or proliferation/ differentiation. AT depot-specific alterations in immune cells, extracellular matrix, adipokines, and senescence indicate an expanded role for GH in AT physiology. This mouse data will guide additional studies necessary to evaluate the therapeutic potential and safety of GH for conditions associated with altering AT, such as obesity. In this review, we introduce several relatively new intricacies of GH's effect on AT, focusing on recent studies in mice. Finally, we summarize the clinical implications of these findings.

  8. The influence of thiazolidinediones on adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo: potential modifiers of intramuscular adipose tissue deposition in meat animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, G J; Poulos, S P; Pringle, T D; Azain, M J

    2008-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZD) are insulin sensitizing agents currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are widely used as adipogenic agents because they are ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a key adipogenic transcription factor. In vivo and in vitro studies of TZD as potential modifiers of intramuscular or marbling adipogenesis are reviewed. Thiazolidinedione-induced adipogenesis has been reported in numerous cell culture systems, including rodent, human, bovine, and porcine adipose tissue stromal-vascular (S-V) cell cultures. Studies of porcine S-V cell cultures derived from semitendinosus muscle show that TZD can potentially modify intramuscular or marbling adipogenesis. Preadipocyte recruitment was TZD-dependent in muscle S-V cultures but TZD-independent in adipose S-V cultures. There appear to be differences between adipocytes in muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue, reminiscent of differences observed in adipocytes from different adipose tissue depots. Troglitazone, a TZD, induces marbling adipogenesis without inhibiting myogenesis when cells are grown on laminin precoated culture dishes. Additionally, troglitazone treatment does not increase lipid content in porcine adipose tissue or muscle S-V cell cultures. Thiazolidinedione treatment increases lipid content of muscle in rodents and humans; however, rosiglitazone treatment for 49 d in pigs did not influence muscle lipid content and meat quality, but several significant changes in muscle fatty acid composition were observed. Although timing of treatment with TZD needs to be optimized, evidence suggests these compounds may enhance marbling deposition in swine.

  9. Perinatal overnutrition exacerbates adipose tissue inflammation caused by high-fat feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon D Kayser

    Full Text Available Obesity causes white adipose tissue (WAT inflammation and insulin resistance in some, but not all individuals. Here, we used a mouse model of early postnatal overfeeding to determine the role of neonatal nutrition in lifelong WAT inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. C57BL/6J mice were reared in small litters of 3 (SL or normal litters of 7 pups (NL and fed either regular chow or a 60% high fat diet (HFD from 5 to 17 weeks. At weaning, SL mice did not develop WAT inflammation despite increased fat mass, although there was an up-regulation of WAT Arg1 and Tlr4 expression. On HFD, adult SL mice had greater inguinal fat mass compared to NL mice, however both groups showed similar increases in visceral fat depots and adipocyte hypertrophy. Despite the similar levels of visceral adiposity, SL-HFD mice displayed greater impairments in glucose homeostasis and more pronounced hepatic steatosis compared to NL-HFD mice. In addition, WAT from SL mice fed a HFD displayed greater crown-like structure formation, increased M1 macrophages, and higher cytokine gene expression. Together, these data suggest that early postnatal overnutrition may be a critical determinant of fatty liver and insulin resistance in obese adults by programming the inflammatory capacity of adipose tissue.

  10. Adipose Tissue 12/15 Lipoxygenase Pathway in Human Obesity and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, David C.; Brotman, Joshua J.; Hatcher, Margaret A.; Aye, Myo S.; Cole, Banumathi K.; Haynes, Bronson A.; Wohlgemuth, Stephen D.; Fontana, Mark A.; Beydoun, Hind; Nadler, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a key contributor to chronic inflammation in obesity. The 12/15-lipoxygenase pathway (ALOX) is present in adipose tissue (AT) and leads to inflammatory cascades that are causal for the onset of insulin resistance in rodent models of obesity. Objective: The pathophysiology of the ALOX 12/15 pathway in human AT is unknown. We characterized the ALOX pathway in different AT depots in obese humans with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Design: This study includes a cross-sectional cohort of 46 morbidly obese (body mass index >39 kg/m2) nondiabetic (n = 25) and T2D (n = 21) subjects. Setting: This study was conducted at Eastern Virginia Medical School (Norfolk, Virginia) in collaboration with Sentara Metabolic and Weight Loss Surgery Center (Sentara Medical Group, Norfolk, Virginia). Patients: Twenty-five obese (body mass index 44.8 ± 4.4 kg/m2) nondiabetic (hemoglobin A1c 5.83% ± 0.27%) and 21 obese (43.4 ± 4.1 kg/m2) and T2D (hemoglobin A1c 7.66% ± 1.22%) subjects were included in the study. The subjects were age matched and both groups had a bias toward female gender. Main Outcomes and Measures: Expression of ALOX isoforms along with fatty acid substrates and downstream lipid metabolites were measured. Correlations with depot-specific inflammatory markers were also established. Results: ALOX 12 expression and its metabolite 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were significantly increased in the VAT of T2D subjects. ALOX 15A was exclusively expressed in VAT in both groups. ALOX 12 expression positively correlated with expression of inflammatory genes IL-6, IL-12a, CXCL10, and lipocalin-2. Conclusions: ALOX 12 may have a critical role in regulation of inflammation in VAT in obesity and T2D. Selective ALOX 12 inhibitors may constitute a new approach to limit AT inflammation in human obesity. PMID:24955608

  11. Intrinsic regulation of blood flow in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Nielsen, Steen Levin; Paaske, W

    1976-01-01

    Previous studies on intact human subcutaneous tissue have shown, that blood flow remains constant during minor changes in perfusion pressure. This so-called autoregulatory response has not been demonstrable in isolated preparations of adipose tissue. In the present study on isolated, denervated...... subcutaneous tissue in female rabbits only 2 of 12 expts. revealed an autoregulatory response during reduction in arterial perfusion pressure. Effluent blood flow from the tissue in the control state was 15.5 ml/100 g-min (S.D. 6.4, n = 12) corresponding to slight vasodilatation of the exposed tissue...... is more susceptible to surgical exposure of the tissue. During elevation of arterial perfusion pressure blood flow in the isolated tissue showed a transient increase and then almost returned to the level during normotension, indicating an elevated vascular resistance. Raising of venous pressure elicited...

  12. Lipid profiling of in vitro cell models of adipogenic differentiation: relationships with mouse adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A.; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V.; Siviski, Matthew E.; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Baker, Paul R.S.; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MSALL. Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-...

  13. [The adipose tissue as a regulatory center of the metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Alaniz, Miriam H; Takada, Julie; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel C; Lima, Fabio Bessa

    2006-04-01

    The recent progress in the research about the metabolic properties of the adipose tissue and the discovery of its ability to produce hormones that are very active in pathophysiologic as well as physiologic processes is rebuilding the concepts about its biology. Its involvement in conditions like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis, dislipidemias and chronic and acute inflammatory processes indicate that the understanding of its functional capacities may contribute to improve the prognosis of those diseases whose prevalence increased in a preoccupying manner. Here we review some functional aspects of adipocytes, such as the metabolism, its influence on energy homeostasis, its endocrine ability and the adipogenesis, i.e., the potential of pre-adipocytes present in adipose tissue stroma to differentiate into new adipocytes and regenerate the tissue. In addition, we are including some studies on the relationship between the adipose tissue and the pineal gland, a new and poorly known, although, as will be seen, very promising aspect of adipocyte physiology together with its possible favorable repercussions to the therapy of the obesity related diseases.

  14. Marrow adipose tissue spectrum in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Iana M; Salmon, Carlos E G; Nahas, Andressa K; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H; Elias, Jorge; de Paula, Francisco J A

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association of bone mass and marrow adipose tissue (MAT) with other fat depots, insulin resistance, bone remodeling markers, adipokines and glucose control in type 2 diabetes and obesity. The study groups comprised 24 controls (C), 26 obese (O) and 28 type 2 diabetes. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD). Blood samples were collected for biochemical measurements. 1 H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess MAT in the L3 vertebra, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess intrahepatic lipids in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Regression analysis models were used to test the association between parameters. At all sites tested, BMD was higher in type 2 diabetes than in O and C subjects. The C group showed lower VAT values than the type 2 diabetes group and lower IHL than the O and type 2 diabetes groups. However, MAT was similar in the 3 groups. Osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen were lower in type 2 diabetes than those in C and O subjects. Moreover, at all sites, BMD was negatively associated with osteocalcin. No association was observed between MAT and VAT. No relationship was observed among MAT and HOMA-IR, leptin, adiponectin or Pref-1, but MAT was positively associated with glycated hemoglobin. MAT is not a niche for fat accumulation under conditions of energy surplus and type 2 diabetes, also is not associated with VAT or insulin resistance. MAT is associated with glycated hemoglobin. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. PACAP is essential for the adaptive thermogenic response of brown adipose tissue to cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Nikolic, Nikolina; Rudecki, Alexander P; King, Shannon M; Bowie, Drew J; Gray, Sarah L

    2014-09-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, neurotropic factor, neuroprotectant, secretagogue, and neurohormone. Owing to its pleiotropic biological actions, knockout of Pacap (Adcyap1) has been shown to induce several abnormalities in mice such as impaired thermoregulation. However, the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. A previous report has shown that cold-exposed Pacap null mice cannot supply appropriate levels of norepinephrine (NE) to brown adipocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that exogenous NE would rescue the impaired thermogenic response of Pacap null mice during cold exposure. We compared the adaptive thermogenic capacity of Pacap(-/-) to Pacap(+/+) mice in response to NE when housed at room temperature (24 °C) and after a 3.5-week cold exposure (4 °C). Biochemical parameters, expression of thermogenic genes, and morphological properties of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) were also characterized. Results showed that there was a significant effect of temperature, but no effect of genotype, on the resting metabolic rate in conscious, unrestrained mice. However, the normal cold-induced increase in the basal metabolic rate and NE-induced increase in thermogenesis were severely blunted in cold-exposed Pacap(-/-) mice. These changes were associated with altered substrate utilization, reduced β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-Ar (Adrb3)) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl (Lipe)) gene expression, and increased fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) gene expression in BAT. Interestingly, Pacap(-/-) mice had depleted WAT depots, associated with upregulated uncoupling protein 1 expression in inguinal WATs. These results suggest that the impairment of adaptive thermogenesis in Pacap null mice cannot be rescued by exogenous NE perhaps in part due to decreased β3-Ar-mediated BAT activation. © 2014 Society for

  16. Differential Expression of , , and Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN, and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM, which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR. The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05 in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.

  17. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  18. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  19. Lsd1 Ablation Triggers Metabolic Reprogramming of Brown Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Duteil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous work indicated that lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1 can positively regulate the oxidative and thermogenic capacities of white and beige adipocytes. Here we investigate the role of Lsd1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT and find that BAT-selective Lsd1 ablation induces a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism. This shift is associated with downregulation of BAT-specific and upregulation of white adipose tissue (WAT-selective gene expression. This results in the accumulation of di- and triacylglycerides and culminates in a profound whitening of BAT in aged Lsd1-deficient mice. Further studies show that Lsd1 maintains BAT properties via a dual role. It activates BAT-selective gene expression in concert with the transcription factor Nrf1 and represses WAT-selective genes through recruitment of the CoREST complex. In conclusion, our data uncover Lsd1 as a key regulator of gene expression and metabolic function in BAT.

  20. Mechanoresponsive musculoskeletal tissue differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Andrew; Subramanian, Gayathri; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2016-04-22

    Musculoskeletal tissues are constantly under mechanical strains within their microenvironment. Yet, little is understood about the effect of in vivo mechanical milieu strains on cell development and function. Thus, this review article outlines the in vivo mechanical environment of bone, muscle, cartilage, tendon, and ligaments, and tabulates the mechanical strain and stress in these tissues during physiological condition, vigorous, and moderate activities. This review article further discusses the principles of mechanical loading platforms to create physiologically relevant mechanical milieu in vitro for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. A special emphasis is placed on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as an emerging valuable tool for regenerative musculoskeletal tissue engineering, as they are easily isolated, expanded, and able to differentiate into any musculoskeletal tissue. Finally, it highlights the current state-of-the art in ADSCs-guided musculoskeletal tissue regeneration under mechanical loading.

  1. Periparturient lipolysis and oxylipid biosynthesis in bovine adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, G. Andres; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; de Souza, Jonas; Gandy, Jeff; Mavangira, Vengai; Lock, Adam L.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.

    2017-01-01

    The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipolysis in adipose tissues (AT), which induces the release of free fatty acids (FFA) into circulation. Among FFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and can modulate inflammatory responses during lipolysis within AT. Linoleic and arachidonic acid oxidized products (oxylipids) such as hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODE) and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETE), were recently identified as products of ...

  2. Brain–gut–adipose-tissue communication pathways at a glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xia Yi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the ‘side effects’ of our modern lifestyle is a range of metabolic diseases: the incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases has grown to pandemic proportions. This increase, which shows no sign of reversing course, has occurred despite education and new treatment options, and is largely due to a lack of knowledge about the precise pathology and etiology of metabolic disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that the communication pathways linking the brain, gut and adipose tissue might be promising intervention points for metabolic disorders. To maintain energy homeostasis, the brain must tightly monitor the peripheral energy state. This monitoring is also extremely important for the brain’s survival, because the brain does not store energy but depends solely on a continuous supply of nutrients from the general circulation. Two major groups of metabolic inputs inform the brain about the peripheral energy state: short-term signals produced by the gut system and long-term signals produced by adipose tissue. After central integration of these inputs, the brain generates neuronal and hormonal outputs to balance energy intake with expenditure. Miscommunication between the gut, brain and adipose tissue, or the degradation of input signals once inside the brain, lead to the brain misunderstanding the peripheral energy state. Under certain circumstances, the brain responds to this miscommunication by increasing energy intake and production, eventually causing metabolic disorders. This poster article overviews current knowledge about communication pathways between the brain, gut and adipose tissue, and discusses potential research directions that might lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metabolic disorders.

  3. Molecular clock integration of brown adipose tissue formation and function

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Deokhwa; Yechoor, Vijay K.; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The circadian clock is an essential time-keeping mechanism that entrains internal physiology to environmental cues. Despite the well-established link between the molecular clock and metabolic homeostasis, an intimate interplay between the clock machinery and the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) is only emerging. Recently, we came to appreciate that the formation and metabolic functions of BAT, a key organ for body temperature maintenance, are under an orchestrated circ...

  4. Systems genetic analysis of brown adipose tissue function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Saba, L. M.; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Trnovská, J.; Škop, V.; Hüttl, M.; Marková, I.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Smith, H.; Tabakoff, B.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2018), s. 52-66 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-04420S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brown adipose tissue * coexpression modules * quantitative trait locus * recombinant inbred strains * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Human genetics Impact factor: 3.044, year: 2016

  5. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz T; Bomfim GF; Webb RC

    2013-01-01

    Theodora Szasz,1 Gisele Facholi Bomfim,2 R Clinton Webb1 1Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle...

  6. Longitudinal Profiling of the Tissue-Specific Expression of Genes Related with Insulin Sensitivity in Dairy Cows during Lactation Focusing on Different Fat Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Behnam; Winand, Sarah; Friedrichs, Paula; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Häussler, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT) is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c.) AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each) were biopsied covering week −3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation. PMID:24465964

  7. Coexpression network analysis in abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue reveals regulatory genetic loci for metabolic syndrome and related phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josine L Min

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is highly prevalent and has considerable public health impact, but its underlying genetic factors remain elusive. To identify gene networks involved in MetS, we conducted whole-genome expression and genotype profiling on abdominal (ABD and gluteal (GLU adipose tissue, and whole blood (WB, from 29 MetS cases and 44 controls. Co-expression network analysis for each tissue independently identified nine, six, and zero MetS-associated modules of coexpressed genes in ABD, GLU, and WB, respectively. Of 8,992 probesets expressed in ABD or GLU, 685 (7.6% were expressed in ABD and 51 (0.6% in GLU only. Differential eigengene network analysis of 8,256 shared probesets detected 22 shared modules with high preservation across adipose depots (D(ABD-GLU = 0.89, seven of which were associated with MetS (FDR P100,000 individuals; rs10282458, affecting expression of RARRES2 (encoding chemerin, was associated with body mass index (BMI (P = 6.0×10(-4; and rs2395185, affecting inter-depot differences of HLA-DRB1 expression, was associated with high-density lipoprotein (P = 8.7×10(-4 and BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (P = 2.4×10(-4. Since many genes and their interactions influence complex traits such as MetS, integrated analysis of genotypes and coexpression networks across multiple tissues relevant to clinical traits is an efficient strategy to identify novel associations.

  8. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Galván-Portillo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  9. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galván-Portillo Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  10. Nitro-fatty acid pharmacokinetics in the adipose tissue compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Jorkasky, Diane K; Li, Lihua; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A

    2017-02-01

    Electrophilic nitro-FAs (NO 2 -FAs) promote adaptive and anti-inflammatory cell signaling responses as a result of an electrophilic character that supports posttranslational protein modifications. A unique pharmacokinetic profile is expected for NO 2 -FAs because of an ability to undergo reversible reactions including Michael addition with cysteine-containing proteins and esterification into complex lipids. Herein, we report via quantitative whole-body autoradiography analysis of rats gavaged with radiolabeled 10-nitro-[ 14 C]oleic acid, preferential accumulation in adipose tissue over 2 weeks. To better define the metabolism and incorporation of NO 2 -FAs and their metabolites in adipose tissue lipids, adipocyte cultures were supplemented with 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO 2 -OA), nitro-stearic acid, nitro-conjugated linoleic acid, and nitro-linolenic acid. Then, quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on adipocyte neutral and polar lipid fractions, both before and after acid hydrolysis of esterified FAs. NO 2 -FAs preferentially incorporated in monoacyl- and diacylglycerides, while reduced metabolites were highly enriched in triacylglycerides. This differential distribution profile was confirmed in vivo in the adipose tissue of NO 2 -OA-treated mice. This pattern of NO 2 -FA deposition lends new insight into the unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacologic actions that could be expected for this chemically-reactive class of endogenous signaling mediators and synthetic drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Comparison of chondrocytes produced from adipose tissue-derived stem cells and cartilage tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric, Aysenur; Yenigun, Alper; Yenigun, Vildan Betul; Dogan, Remzi; Ozturan, Orhan

    2013-05-01

    Spontaneous cartilage regeneration is poor after a cartilage defect occurs by trauma, surgical, and other reasons. Importance of producing chondrocytes from stem cells and using tissues to repair a defect is getting popular. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of injectable cartilage produced by chondrocytes differentiated from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocyte cells isolated directly from cartilage tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat adipose tissue and characterized by cell-surface markers. Then, they were differentiated to chondrocyte cells. The function of differentiated chondrocyte cells was compared with chondrocyte cells directly isolated from cartilage tissue in terms of collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion. Then, both chondrocyte cell types were injected to rats' left ears in liquid and gel form, and histologic evaluation was done 3 weeks after the injection. Adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the CD44 and CD73 mesenchymal markers. Differentiated chondrocyte cells and chondrocyte cells directly isolated from cartilage tissue had relative collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion results. However, histologic evaluations did not show any cartilage formation after both chondrocyte cell types were injected to rats. Strong CD44- and CD73-positive expression indicated that adipose-derived cells had the stem cell characters. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion results demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells were successfully differentiated to chondrocyte cells.

  12. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P

  13. Activation of natriuretic peptides and the sympathetic nervous system following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with gonadal adipose tissues browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neinast, Michael D.; Frank, Aaron P.; Zechner, Juliet F.; Li, Quanlin; Vishvanath, Lavanya; Palmer, Biff F.; Aguirre, Vincent; Gupta, Rana K.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective method of weight loss and remediation of type-2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms leading to these improvements are unclear. Additionally, adipocytes within white adipose tissue (WAT) depots can manifest characteristics of brown adipocytes. These ‘BRITE/beige’ adipocytes express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and are associated with improvements in glucose homeostasis and protection from obesity. Interestingly, atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides (NPs) promote BRITE/beige adipocyte enrichment of WAT depots, an effect known as “browning.” Here, we investigate the effect of RYGB surgery on NP, NP receptors, and browning in the gonadal adipose tissues of female mice. We propose that such changes may lead to improvements in metabolic homeostasis commonly observed following RYGB. Methods Wild type, female, C57/Bl6 mice were fed a 60% fat diet ad libitum for six months. Mice were divided into three groups: Sham operated (SO), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and Weight matched, sham operated (WM-SO). Mice were sacrificed six weeks following surgery and evaluated for differences in body weight, glucose homeostasis, adipocyte morphology, and adipose tissue gene expression. Results RYGB and calorie restriction induced similar weight loss and improved glucose metabolism without decreasing food intake. β3-adrenergic receptor expression increased in gonadal adipose tissue, in addition to Nppb (BNP), and NP receptors, Npr1, and Npr2. The ratio of Npr1:Npr3 and Npr2:Npr3 increased in RYGB, but not WM-SO groups. Ucp1 protein and mRNA, as well as additional markers of BRITE/beige adipose tissue and lipolytic genes increased in RYGB mice to a greater extent than calorie-restricted mice. Conclusions Upregulation of Nppb, Npr1, Npr2, and β3-adrenergic receptors in gonadal adipose tissue following RYGB was associated with increased markers of browning. This browning of gonadal adipose tissue may underpin the positive

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra; Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong

    2017-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall, this study shows the efficacy

  15. White adipose tissue re-growth after partial lipectomy in high fat diet induced obese wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Allain Amador; Habitante, Carlos Alexandre; Oyama, Lila Missae; Estadella, Débora; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria

    2011-01-01

    The effects of partial removal of epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissues (partial lipectomy) on the triacylglycerol deposition of high fat diet induced obese rats were analyzed, aiming to challenge the hypothesized body fat regulatory system. Male 28-day-old wistar rats received a diet enriched with peanuts, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits during the experimental period. At the 90th day of life, rats were submitted to either lipectomy (L) or sham surgery. After 7 or 30 days, RET, EPI, liver, brown adipose tissue (BAT), blood and carcass were obtained and analyzed. Seven days following surgery, liver lipogenesis rate and EPI relative weight were increased in L. After 30 days, L, RET and EPI presented increased lipogenesis, lipolysis and percentage of small area adipocytes. L rats also presented increased liver malic enzyme activity, BAT lipogenesis, and triacylglycerol and corticosterone serum levels. The partial removal of visceral fat pads affected the metabolism of high fat diet obese rats, which leads to excised tissue re-growth and possibly compensatory growth of non-excised depots at a later time.

  16. Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yunfan He; Feng Lu

    2016-01-01

    Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and recon...

  17. Extracellular vesicles from adipose tissue - a potential role in obesity and type 2 diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xuan; Salomon, Carlos; Freeman, Dilys J.

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and its pathological sequelae, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dysfunction in the adipose tissue response to storing excess fatty acids as triglyceride can lead to adipose tissue inflammation and spillover of fatty acids from this tissue and accumulation of fatty acids as lipid droplets in ectopic sites, such as liver and muscle. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from adipocytes and...

  18. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  19. Brown Adipose Tissue Bioenergetics: A New Methodological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon‐Dominguez, María; Alcalá, Martín; Sebastián, David; Zorzano, Antonio; Viana, Marta; Serra, Dolors

    2017-01-01

    The rediscovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans and its capacity to oxidize fat and dissipate energy as heat has put the spotlight on its potential as a therapeutic target in the treatment of several metabolic conditions including obesity and diabetes. To date the measurement of bioenergetics parameters has required the use of cultured cells or extracted mitochondria with the corresponding loss of information in the tissue context. Herein, we present a method to quantify mitochondrial bioenergetics directly in BAT. Based on XF Seahorse Technology, we assessed the appropriate weight of the explants, the exact concentration of each inhibitor in the reaction, and the specific incubation time to optimize bioenergetics measurements. Our results show that BAT basal oxygen consumption is mostly due to proton leak. In addition, BAT presents higher basal oxygen consumption than white adipose tissue and a positive response to b‐adrenergic stimulation. Considering the whole tissue and not just subcellular populations is a direct approach that provides a realistic view of physiological respiration. In addition, it can be adapted to analyze the effect of potential activators of thermogenesis, or to assess the use of fatty acids or glucose as a source of energy. PMID:28435771

  20. Advantages of Sheep Infrapatellar Fat Pad Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Parviz; Soleimanirad, Jafar; Roshangar, Leila; Shafaei, Hajar; Jarolmasjed, Seyedhosein; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study has been to evaluate adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) from infrapatellar fat pad and characterize their cell surface markers using anti-human antibodies, as adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) have great potential for cellular therapies to restore injured tissues. Adipose tissue was obtained from infrapatellar fat pad of sheep. Surface markers evaluated by flow cytometry. In order to evaluate cell adhesion, the Polycaprolactone (PCL) was sterilized under Ultraviolet (UV) light and about 1×10(5) cells were seeded on PCL. Then, ASCs- PCL construct were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (Mira3 Te Scan, Czech Republic). We showed that adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) maintain their fibroblastic-like morphology during different subcultures and cell adhesion. They were positive for CD44 and CD90 markers and negative for CD31 and Cd45 markers by human antibodies. Our results suggest that ASCs surface markers can be characterized by anti-human antibodies in sheep. As stem cells, they can be used in tissue engineering.

  1. The effect of diabetes on the wound healing potential of adipose-tissue derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sue Min; Kim, Yun Ho; Jun, Young Joon; Yoo, Gyeol; Rhie, Jong Won

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether diabetes mellitus affects the wound-healing-promoting potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells, we designed a wound-healing model using diabetic mice. We compared the degree of wound healing between wounds treated with normal adipose tissue-derived stem cells and wounds treated with diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells. We evaluated the wound-healing rate, the epithelial tongue distance, the area of granulation tissue, the number of capillary and the number of Ki-67-stained cells. The wound-healing rate was significantly higher in the normal adipose tissue-derived stem cells group than in the diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells group; it was also significantly higher in the normal adipose tissue-derived stem cells group than in the control group. Although the diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells group showed a better wound-healing rate than the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. Similar trends were observed for the other parameters examined: re-epithelisation and keratinocyte proliferation; granulation tissue formation; and dermal regeneration. However, with regard to the number of capillary, diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells retained their ability to promote neovasculisation and angiogenesis. These results reflect the general impairment of the therapeutic potential of diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells in vivo. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell yield and growth characteristics are affected by the tissue-harvesting procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oedayrajsingh-Varma, M. J.; van Ham, S. M.; Knippenberg, M.; Helder, M. N.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Schouten, T. E.; Ritt, M. J. P. F.; van Milligen, F. J.

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a stromal vascular fraction that can be easily isolated and provides a rich source of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC). These ASC are a potential source of cells for tissue engineering. We studied whether the yield and growth characteristics of ASC were

  3. GLUT4 defects in adipose tissue are early signs of metabolic alterations in Alms1GT/GT, a mouse model for obesity and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Favaretto

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue leading to insulin resistance can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Alström Syndrome, a recessive ciliopathy, caused by mutations in ALMS1, is characterized by progressive metabolic alterations such as childhood obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated the role of Alms1 disruption in AT expansion and insulin responsiveness in a murine model for Alström Syndrome. A gene trap insertion in Alms1 on the insulin sensitive C57BL6/Ei genetic background leads to early hyperinsulinemia and a progressive increase in body weight. At 6 weeks of age, before the onset of the metabolic disease, the mutant mice had enlarged fat depots with hypertrophic adipocytes, but without signs of inflammation. Expression of lipogenic enzymes was increased. Pre-adipocytes isolated from mutant animals demonstrated normal adipogenic differentiation but gave rise to mature adipocytes with reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Assessment of whole body glucose homeostasis revealed glucose intolerance. Insulin stimulation resulted in proper AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue. However, the total amount of glucose transporter 4 (SLC4A2 and its translocation to the plasma membrane were reduced in mutant adipose depots compared to wildtype littermates. Alterations in insulin stimulated trafficking of glucose transporter 4 are an early sign of metabolic dysfunction in Alström mutant mice, providing a possible explanation for the reduced glucose uptake and the compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The metabolic signaling deficits either reside downstream or are independent of AKT activation and suggest a role for ALMS1 in GLUT4 trafficking. Alström mutant mice represent an interesting model for the development of metabolic disease in which adipose tissue with a reduced glucose uptake can expand by de novo lipogenesis to an obese state.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and β-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants.

  5. Exercise Prevents Diet-Induced Cellular Senescence in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Marissa J.; White, Thomas A.; Evans, Glenda; Tonne, Jason M.; Verzosa, Grace C.; Stout, Michael B.; Mazula, Daniel L.; Palmer, Allyson K.; Baker, Darren J.; Jensen, Michael D.; Torbenson, Michael S.; Miller, Jordan D.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Tchkonia, Tamara; van Deursen, Jan M.; Kirkland, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates cellular senescence in the biology of aging and chronic disease. Diet and exercise are determinants of healthy aging; however, the extent to which they affect the behavior and accretion of senescent cells within distinct tissues is not clear. Here we tested the hypothesis that exercise prevents premature senescent cell accumulation and systemic metabolic dysfunction induced by a fast-food diet (FFD). Using transgenic mice that express EGFP in response to activation of the senescence-associated p16INK4a promoter, we demonstrate that FFD consumption causes deleterious changes in body weight and composition as well as in measures of physical, cardiac, and metabolic health. The harmful effects of the FFD were associated with dramatic increases in several markers of senescence, including p16, EGFP, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) specifically in visceral adipose tissue. We show that exercise prevents the accumulation of senescent cells and the expression of the SASP while nullifying the damaging effects of the FFD on parameters of health. We also demonstrate that exercise initiated after long-term FFD feeding reduces senescent phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue while attenuating physical impairments, suggesting that exercise may provide restorative benefit by mitigating accrued senescent burden. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which exercise mediates its beneficial effects and reinforces the effect of modifiable lifestyle choices on health span. PMID:26983960

  6. n-3 PUFA: bioavailability and modulation of adipose tissue function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondřej; Brauner, Petr; Jílková, Zuzana; Staňková, B.; Tvrzická, E.; Bryhn, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (2009), s. 361-369 ISSN 0029-6651. [Meeting of the Nutrition Society. Edinburgh, 07.04.2009-08.04.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/08/0664; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : n-3 PUFA * DHA * adipose tissue Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.321, year: 2009

  7. Effect of oral oleoyl-estrone on adipose tissue composition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesar, X; Fernández-López, J A; Blay, M T; Savall, P; Salas, A; Díaz-Silva, M; Esteve, M; Grasa, M M; Alemany, M

    2002-08-01

    To determine whether the oral administration of oleoyl-estrone has similar mass-decreasing effects on the main different sites of white adipose tissue (WAT). Adult male Zucker lean rats were given a daily oral gavage of oleoyl-estrone (OE, 10 micromol/kg) in 0.2 ml of sunflower oil for 10 days, and were compared with controls receiving only the oil. The mass of the main WAT sites: subcutaneous, epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, gluteal, perirenal and interscapular, as well as perirenal and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), were dissected and studied. The tissue weight, DNA, protein, lipid and total cholesterol content, together with the levels of leptin and acyl-estrone in the larger WAT and BAT masses, were measured. The weights of WAT depots were correlated with body weight but those of BAT were not. Cell size was maximal for epididymal and mesenteric and minimal for subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT and BAT. Differences were detected in DNA, and in protein and lipid content between distinct WAT sites. OE treatment tended to decrease cell number and cell size in WAT; only small differences in composition were found between WAT locations inside the visceral cavity and those outside. Decreases in lipid content were maximal in mesenteric fat. Leptin and acyl-estrone content were fairly uniform at the different WAT sites, except for high concentrations in gluteal WAT. OE induced a greater decrease in leptin and acyl-estrone than in DNA and lipids; changes in these hormones were fairly parallel in all sites. In general, the differences in composition between visceral and peripheral subcutaneous WAT and their responses to OE were less marked than the individual differences observed between specific sites, regardless of location. WAT sites are fairly diverse in composition, but their response to OE treatment was uniform. OE decreased the weight of WAT through reduction of both cell numbers and size; but did not change the mass or composition of BAT

  8. Lean and obese coronary perivascular adipose tissue impairs vasodilation via differential inhibition of vascular smooth muscle K+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, Jillian N.; Owen, Meredith K.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Sassoon, Daniel J.; Tune, Johnathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effects of coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on vasomotor tone are influenced by an obese phenotype and are distinct from other adipose tissue depots. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of lean and obese coronary PVAT on end-effector mechanisms of coronary vasodilation and to identify potential factors involved. Approach and Results Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed similarities in coronary perivascular adipocyte size between lean and obese Ossabaw swine. Isometric tension studies of isolated coronary arteries from Ossabaw swine revealed that factors derived from lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuated vasodilation to adenosine. Lean coronary PVAT inhibited KCa and KV7, but not KATP channel mediated dilation in lean arteries. In the absence of PVAT, vasodilation to KCa and KV7 channel activation was impaired in obese arteries relative to lean arteries. Obese PVAT had no effect on KCa or KV7 channel mediated dilation in obese arteries. In contrast, obese PVAT inhibited KATP channel mediated dilation in both lean and obese arteries. The differential effects of obese versus lean PVAT were not associated with changes in either coronary KV7 or KATP channel expression. Incubation with calpastatin attenuated coronary vasodilation to adenosine in lean but not obese arteries. Conclusions These findings indicate that lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuates vasodilation via inhibitory effects on vascular smooth muscle K+ channels and that alterations in specific factors such as calpastatin are capable of contributing to the initiation and/or progression of smooth muscle dysfunction in obesity. PMID:25838427

  9. Role of the sympathoadrenergic system in adipose tissue metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Lorentsen, J; Enevoldsen, L H

    2001-01-01

    .8 +/- 0.7 ml (100 g)(-1) min(-1) (Cl), 0.6 +/- 0.3 ml (100 g)(-1) min(-1) (Um)). Accordingly, in both adipose tissues lipolysis increased less in SCI compared with healthy subjects, indicating that circulating catecholamines are important for the exercise-induced increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue...... (P important for the exercise-induced increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis while sympathetic nerve activity is not....

  10. A Protein Profile of Visceral Adipose Tissues Linked to Early Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su-Jin; Chae, Sehyun; Kim, Hokeun; Mun, Dong-Gi; Back, Seunghoon; Choi, Hye Yeon; Park, Kyong Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Sang-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ playing important pathophysiological roles in metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as opposed to subcutaneous adipose tissue, is closely linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. Despite the importance of VAT, its molecular signatures related to the pathogenesis of T2DM have not been systematically expl...

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. ...

  12. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to influence adipose tissue function

    OpenAIRE

    Westerink, Jan; Visseren, Frank LJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is associated with metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, inflammation and hypercoagulobility which can all be understood as consequences of adipose tissue dysfunction. The potential role for adipose tissue derived cytokines and adipokines in the development of vascular disease and diabetes may produce a clinical need to influence adipose tissue function. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions affect plasma cytokine and adipokine levels. The...

  13. Characterization of Brown Adipose-Like Tissue in Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Elizabeth A; Dickerson, Austin R; Davis, Thomas A; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Davis, Alan R; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO), the abnormal formation of bone within soft tissues, is a major complication after severe trauma or amputation. Transient brown adipocytes have been shown to be a critical regulator of this process in a mouse model of HO. In this study, we evaluated the presence of brown fat within human HO lesions. Most of the excised tissue samples displayed histological characteristics of bone, fibroproliferative cells, blood vessels, and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed extensive expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a definitive marker of brown adipocytes, within HO-containing tissues but not normal tissues. As seen in the brown adipocytes observed during HO in the mouse, these UCP1 + cells also expressed the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α. However, further characterization showed these cells, like their mouse counterparts, did not express PR domain containing protein 16, a key factor present in brown adipocytes found in depots. Nor did they express factors present in beige adipocytes. These results identify a population of UCP1 + cells within human tissue undergoing HO that do not entirely resemble either classic brown or beige adipocytes, but rather a specialized form of brown adipocyte-like cells, which have a unique function. These cells may offer a new target to prevent this unwanted bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adipose tissue engineering using adipose-derived stem cells enclosed within an injectable carboxymethylcellulose-based hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogushi, Yuko; Sakai, Shinji; Kawakami, Koei

    2013-11-01

    In situ gelation of an aqueous solution of carboxymethylcellulose derivative bearing phenolic hydroxyl groups (CMC-Ph) that contained suspended adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) was studied in vitro and in vivo for evaluating feasibility in adipose tissue-engineering strategies. The rat ASCs that were enclosed in the CMC-Ph gels through a horseradish peroxidase-catalysed reaction showed 92.8% viability, good proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in vitro. Ten weeks after the subcutaneous injection of ASCs-suspending CMC-Ph for in situ gelation, clearly visible new vascularized adipose tissue formed at the injection site. The number of blood vessels and the area occupied by adipose tissues were five and eight times larger, respectively, than those found in the implanted acellular gel. The adipogenesis and neovascularization were further enhanced by incorporation of fibroblast growth factor into the CMC-Ph gel containing ASCs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Exercise decreases lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissue and alters adipocyte cellularity during weight regain after weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Danielle Giles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity. Mature, obese rats were weight-reduced for 2 weeks with or without daily treadmill exercise (EX. Rats were weight maintained for 6 weeks, followed by relapse on: a ad libitum low fat diet (LFD, b ad libitum LFD plus EX, or c a provision of LFD to match the positive energy imbalance of exercised, relapsing animals. 24h retention of dietary- and de novo-derived fat were assessed directly using 14C palmitate/oleate and 3H20, respectively. Exercise decreased the size, but increased the number of adipocytes in both retroperitoneal (RP and subcutaneous (SC adipose depots, and prevented the relapse-induced increase in adipocyte size. Further, exercise decreased the expression of genes involved in lipid uptake (CD36 & LPL, de novo lipogenesis (FAS, ACC1, and triacylglycerol synthesis (MGAT & DGAT in RP adipose during relapse following weight loss. This was consistent with the metabolic data, whereby exercise reduced retention of de novo-derived fat even when controlling for the positive energy imbalance. The decreased trafficking of dietary fat to adipose tissue with exercise was explained by reduced energy intake which attenuated energy imbalance during refeeding. Despite having decreased expression of lipogenic genes, the net retention of de novo-derived lipid was higher in both the RP and SC adipose of exercising

  16. The fractionation of adipose tissue procedure to obtain stromal vascular fractions for regenerative purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Joris A.; Stevens, Hieronymus P.; Parvizi, Mojtaba; van der Lei, Berend; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    Autologous adipose tissue transplantation is clinically used to reduce dermal scarring and to restore volume loss. The therapeutic benefit on tissue damage more likely depends on the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue than on the adipocyte fraction. This stromal vascular fraction can be

  17. Phenotypical and functional characterization of freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varma, Maikel J. Oedayrajsingh; Breuls, Roel G. M.; Schouten, Tabitha E.; Jurgens, Wouter J. F. M.; Bontkes, Hetty J.; Schuurhuis, Gerrit J.; van Ham, S. Marieke; van Milligen, Florine J.

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that is a rich source of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs are multipotent and in vitro-expanded ASCs have the capacity to differentiate, into amongst others, adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and myocytes. For tissue

  18. TUSC5 regulates insulin-mediated adipose tissue glucose uptake by modulation of GLUT4 recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Beaton

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Collectively, these findings establish TUSC5 as an adipose tissue-specific protein that enables proper protein recycling, linking the ubiquitous vesicle traffic machinery with tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipose tissue and the maintenance of a healthy metabolic phenotype in mice and humans.

  19. VLDL triglyceride accumulation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Nielsen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insulin resistance is closely linked to accumulation of lipid outside adipose tissue (ectopic fat storage). VLDL particles transport lipids from the liver to peripheral tissues. However, whether abnormalities in VLDL-triglyceride storage in muscle and adipose tissue exist in ty...

  20. Adipose tissue was traditionally been viewed as an inert storage depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Science

    difference between Jersey and Holstein was observed for all genes, and modern and traditional Holstein groups differed for the previously described LEP and IL10 SNP. Although allele frequency differences between modern and traditional Holsteins may reflect the effect of selection pressure for production traits on.

  1. Adipose tissue was traditionally been viewed as an inert storage depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Science

    Genetic diversity in candidate genes for fitness and production traits was explored in three populations of dairy cattle. The study focused on adipokines, including leptin (LEP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), .... advantage observed in cows homozygous for the T allele, could represent a major economic advantage to.

  2. Serially Transplanted Nonpericytic CD146(-) Adipose Stromal/Stem Cells in Silk Bioscaffolds Regenerate Adipose Tissue In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Trivia P; Bowles, Annie; Lee, Stephen; Abbott, Rosalyn; Tucker, Hugh A; Kaplan, David; Wang, Mei; Strong, Amy; Brown, Quincy; He, Jibao; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Progenitors derived from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of white adipose tissue (WAT) possess the ability to form clonal populations and differentiate along multiple lineage pathways. However, the literature continues to vacillate between defining adipocyte progenitors as "stromal" or "stem" cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that a nonpericytic subpopulation of adipose stromal cells, which possess the phenotype, CD45(-) /CD31(-) /CD146(-) /CD34(+) , are mesenchymal, and suggest this may be an endogenous progenitor subpopulation within adipose tissue. We hypothesized that an adipose progenitor could be sorted based on the expression of CD146, CD34, and/or CD29 and when implanted in vivo these cells can persist, proliferate, and regenerate a functional fat pad over serial transplants. SVF cells and culture expanded adipose stromal/stem cells (ASC) ubiquitously expressing the green fluorescent protein transgene (GFP-Tg) were fractionated by flow cytometry. Both freshly isolated SVF and culture expanded ASC were seeded in three-dimensional silk scaffolds, implanted subcutaneously in wild-type hosts, and serially transplanted. Six-week WAT constructs were removed and evaluated for the presence of GFP-Tg adipocytes and stem cells. Flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopy demonstrated GFP-Tg cell persistence, proliferation, and expansion, respectively. Glycerol secretion and glucose uptake assays revealed GFP-Tg adipose was metabolically functional. Constructs seeded with GFP-Tg SVF cells or GFP-Tg ASC exhibited higher SVF yields from digested tissue, and higher construct weights, compared to nonseeded controls. Constructs derived from CD146(-) CD34(+) -enriched GFP-Tg ASC populations exhibited higher hemoglobin saturation, and higher frequency of GFP-Tg cells than unsorted or CD29(+) GFP-Tg ASC counterparts. These data demonstrated successful serial transplantation of nonpericytic adipose-derived progenitors that can

  3. Growth Hormone's Effect on Adipose Tissue: Quality versus Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; List, Edward O

    2017-07-26

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation or expansion of adipose tissue (AT) due to an increase in either the size and/or number of its characteristic cell type, the adipocyte. As one of the most significant public health problems of our time, obesity and its associated metabolic complications have demanded that attention be given to finding effective therapeutic options aimed at reducing adiposity or the metabolic dysfunction associated with its accumulation. Growth hormone (GH) has therapeutic potential due to its potent lipolytic effect and resultant ability to reduce AT mass while preserving lean body mass. However, AT and its resident adipocytes are significantly more dynamic and elaborate than once thought and require one not to use the reduction in absolute mass as a readout of efficacy alone. Paradoxically, therapies that reduce GH action may ultimately prove to be healthier, in part because GH also possesses potent anti-insulin activities along with concerns that GH may promote the growth of certain cancers. This review will briefly summarize some of the newer complexities of AT relevant to GH action and describe the current understanding of how GH influences this tissue using data from both humans and mice. We will conclude by considering the therapeutic use of GH or GH antagonists in obesity, as well as important gaps in knowledge regarding GH and AT.

  4. Hypothalamic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, but the strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT is important for cold protection by producing heat using lipids and glucose as metabolic fuels. This thermogenic action causes increased energy expenditure and significant lipid/glucose disposal. In addition, BAT in white adipose tissue (WAT or beige cells have been found and they also exhibit the thermogenic action similar to BAT. These data provide evidence indicating BAT/beige cells as a potential target for combating obesity and diabetes. Recent discoveries of active BAT and beige cells in adult humans have further highlighted this potential. Growing studies have also shown the importance of central nervous system in the control of BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning using animal models. This review is focused on central neural thermoregulation, particularly addressing our current understanding of the importance of hypothalamic neural signaling in the regulation of BAT/beige thermogenesis and energy homeostasis.

  5. Evolution of subcutaneous adipose tissue fibrosis after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, K; Gauthier, M-S; Garneau, P Y; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n=11) or insulin-resistant (n=12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI Matsuda ). Homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used for longitudinal evaluation of insulin resistance. Fibrosis was quantified by Masson's trichrome staining on microscopy, and mRNA levels of fibrosis-related genes were examined in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies collected during and 6 months after bariatric surgery (SAT only). Despite their similar age, body mass index and fat mass, SAT fibrosis was significantly higher in diabetic vs insulin-sensitive patients (Psurgery and significant weight loss, fibrosis levels remained unchanged in SAT, although IR was significantly reduced in all groups (Psurgery. Overall, these results show a significant but, most likely, transient association between SAT fibrosis and IR in obese humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Laura; Dijkman, Petra E; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2016-07-01

    In regenerative medicine, adult stem cells are the most promising cell types for cell-based therapies. As a new source for multipotent stem cells, human adipose tissue has been introduced. These so called adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered to be ideal for application in regenerative therapies. Their main advantage over mesenchymal stem cells derived from other sources, e.g. from bone marrow, is that they can be easily and repeatable harvested using minimally invasive techniques with low morbidity. ADSCs are multipotent and can differentiate into various cell types of the tri-germ lineages, including e.g. osteocytes, adipocytes, neural cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic β-cells, and hepatocytes. Interestingly, ADSCs are characterized by immunosuppressive properties and low immunogenicity. Their secretion of trophic factors enforces the therapeutic and regenerative outcome in a wide range of applications. Taken together, these particular attributes of ADSCs make them highly relevant for clinical applications. Consequently, the therapeutic potential of ADSCs is enormous. Therefore, this review will provide a brief overview of the possible therapeutic applications of ADSCs with regard to their differentiation potential into the tri-germ lineages. Moreover, the relevant advancements made in the field, regulatory aspects as well as other challenges and obstacles will be highlighted.

  7. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  8. MicroRNA Transcriptomes Relate Intermuscular Adipose Tissue to Metabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhou Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermuscular adipose tissue is located between the muscle fiber bundles in skeletal muscles, and has similar metabolic features to visceral adipose tissue, which has been found to be related to a number of obesity-related diseases. Although various miRNAs are known to play crucial roles in adipose deposition and adipogenesis, the microRNA transcriptome of intermuscular adipose tissue has not, until now, been studied. Here, we sequenced the miRNA transcriptomes of porcine intermuscular adipose tissue by small RNA-sequencing and compared it to a representative subcutaneous adipose tissue. We found that the inflammation- and diabetes-related miRNAs were significantly enriched in the intermuscular rather than in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. A functional enrichment analysis of the genes predicted to be targeted by the enriched miRNAs also indicated that intermuscular adipose tissue was associated mainly with immune and inflammation responses. Our results suggest that the intermuscular adipose tissue should be recognized as a potential metabolic risk factor of obesity.

  9. Marrow Adipose Tissue: Skeletal Location, Sexual Dimorphism, and Response to Sex Steroid Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Lecka-Czernik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marrow adipose tissue (MAT is unique with respect to origin, metabolism, and function. MAT is characterized with high heterogeneity which correlates with skeletal location and bone metabolism. This fat depot is also highly sensitive to various hormonal, environmental, and pharmacologic cues to which it responds with changes in volume and/or metabolic phenotype. We have demonstrated previously that MAT has characteristics of both white (WAT and brown (BAT-like or beige adipose tissue, and that beige phenotype is attenuated with aging and in diabetes. Here, we extended our analysis by comparing MAT phenotype in different locations within a tibia bone of mature C57BL/6 mice and with respect to the presence of sex steroids in males and females. We report that MAT juxtaposed to trabecular bone of proximal tibia (pMAT is characterized by elevated expression of beige fat markers including Ucp1, HoxC9, Prdm16, Tbx1, and Dio2, when compared with MAT located in distal tibia (dMAT. There is also a difference in tissue organization with adipocytes in proximal tibia being dispersed between trabeculae, while adipocytes in distal tibia being densely packed. Higher trabecular bone mass (BV/TV in males correlates with lower pMAT volume and higher expression of beige markers in the same location, when compared with females. However, there is no sexual divergence in the volume and transcriptional profile of dMAT. A removal of ovaries in females resulted in decreased cortical bone mass and increased volume of both pMAT and dMAT, as well as volume of gonadal WAT (gWAT. Increase in pMAT volume was associated with marked increase in Fabp4 and Adiponectin expression and relative decrease in beige fat gene markers. A removal of testes in males resulted in cortical and trabecular bone loss and the tendency to increased volume of both pMAT and dMAT, despite a loss of gWAT. Orchiectomy did not affect the expression of white and beige adipocyte gene markers. In conclusion

  10. Critical illness induces alternative activation of M2 macrophages in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langouche, Lies; Marques, Mirna B; Ingels, Catherine; Gunst, Jan; Derde, Sarah; Vander Perre, Sarah; D'Hoore, André; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of critically ill patients. Classically activated macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is a known feature of obesity, where it is linked with increasing insulin resistance. However, the characteristics of adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in critical illness remain unknown. We studied macrophage markers with immunostaining and gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from healthy control subjects (n = 20) and non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients (n = 61). For comparison, also subcutaneous in vivo adipose tissue biopsies were studied from 15 prolonged critically ill patients. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies from non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients displayed a large increase in macrophage staining. This staining corresponded with elevated gene expression of "alternatively activated" M2 macrophage markers arginase-1, IL-10 and CD163 and low levels of the "classically activated" M1 macrophage markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunostaining for CD163 confirmed positive M2 macrophage staining in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from critically ill patients. Surprisingly, circulating levels and tissue gene expression of the alternative M2 activators IL-4 and IL-13 were low and not different from controls. In contrast, adipose tissue protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor required for M2 differentiation and acting downstream of IL-4, was markedly elevated in illness. In subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies from surviving critically ill patients, we could confirm positive macrophage staining with CD68 and CD163. We also could confirm elevated arginase-1 gene expression and elevated PPARγ protein levels. Unlike obesity, critical illness evokes adipose tissue accumulation of alternatively activated M2

  11. Remodeling of adipose tissue at experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Konovalova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM type 1 is chronіc disease whith progressive selective destruction of β- cells pancreatic islets (of Langerhans and whith development of absolute insulin failure. Active immune mechanisms take part in pathogenesis of this disease. Recently many publication appeared which report about the role of adipose tissue. In such way adipose tissue is not only the main metabolic regulator and endocrine organ synthesizing more than 30 regulatory proteins- adipokines, but it is one of the organs of immune system. Dysregulation of adipose tissue leads to morphological restructuring- remodeling of adipocytes, and the development of inflammation of adipose tissue in its turn is integral component of progression of many diseases. The aim of research The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional state of parapancreatic fibre adipocytes in male Wistar rats in experimental diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods The study has been carried out on 20 male Wistar rats with weight 115-135 g. The animals were divided into 2 groups. The control group, which were injected 0,5 ml 0,1 М citrate buffer intraperitoneally (1group. Rats with 7 day experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus were in the 2nd group. Adipose tissue was examined on the seventh day. For histological examination sections were colored with haematoxylin and eosin. Images were taken by using a fluorescence microscope PrimoStar(ZEISS,Germany with a computer-assisted video system AxioCam 5c (ZEISS,Germany including the NIH-Image software (NIH Image version 1·46. All statistical analyses were performed using EXCEL MS Office 2010 (Microsoft Corp., USA, STATISTICA 6.0 (Stat-Soft, 2001 software. Results were expressed as mean values ± SEM. Differences were considered statistically significant if the p value was <0.05. Results Injection of streptozotocin to experimental animals led to the development of experimental diabetes mellitus

  12. Implications of thermogenic adipose tissues for metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlein, Christian; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-08-01

    Excess and ectopic fat accumulation in obesity is a major risk factor for developing hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The activation of brown and/or beige adipocytes is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders as the combustion of excess energy by these thermogenic adipocytes may help losing weight and improving plasma parameters including triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose levels. The regulation of heat production by thermogenic adipose tissues is based on a complex crosstalk between the autonomous nervous system, intracellular and secreted factors. This multifaceted alignment regulates thermogenic demands to environmental circumstances in dependence on available energy resources. This review summarizes the current knowledge how thermogenic tissues can be targeted to combat the burden of diseases with a special focus on lipid metabolism and diseases related to lipoprotein metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New adipose tissue formation by human adipose-derived stem cells with hyaluronic acid gel in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was surveyed by inverted light microscopy. For in vivo studies, HA gel containing hASCs, hASCs without HA gel, HA gel alone were allocated and subcutaneously injected into the subcutaneous pocket in the back of nude mice (n=6) in each group. At eight weeks post-injection, the implants were harvested for histological examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, Oil-Red O stain and immunohistochemical staining. The human-specific Alu gene was examined. hASCs were well attachment and proliferation on the HA gel. In vivo grafts showed well-organized new adipose tissue on the HA gel by histologic examination and Oil-Red O stain. Analysis of neo-adipose tissues by PCR revealed the presence of the Alu gene. This study demonstrated not only the successful culture of hASCs on HA gel, but also their full proliferation and differentiation into adipose tissue. The efficacy of injected filler could be permanent since the reduction of the volume of the HA gel after bioabsorption could be replaced by new adipose tissue generated by hASCs. This is a promising approach for developing long lasting soft tissue filler.

  14. Extensive characterization and comparison of endothelial cells derived from dermis and adipose tissue : Potential use in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsuur, H.N.; Weijers, E.M.; Niessen, F.B.; Gefen, A.; Koolwijk, P.; Gibbs, S.; van den Broek, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs need to become quickly vascularized in order to ensure graft take. One way of achieving this is to incorporate endothelial cells (EC) into the construct. The adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (adipose-SVF) might provide an alternative source for endothelial cells

  15. Lipid Profiling of In Vitro Cell Models of Adipogenic Differentiation: Relationships With Mouse Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V; Siviski, Matthew E; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Rosen, Clifford J; Baker, Paul R S; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P H

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MS(ALL) . Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-derived BAT-C1 cells were also characterized. Over 3000 unique lipid species were quantified. Principal component analysis showed that perirenal versus inguinal white adipose tissues varied in lipid composition of triacyl- and diacylglycerols, sphingomyelins, glycerophospholipids and, notably, cardiolipin CL 72:3. In contrast, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins distinguished brown from white adipose. Adipocyte differentiation models showed broad differences in lipid composition among themselves, upon adipogenic differentiation, and with adipose tissues. Palmitoyl triacylglycerides predominate in 3T3-L1 differentiation models, whereas cardiolipin CL 72:1 and SM 45:4 were abundant in brown adipose-derived cell differentiation models, respectively. MS/MS(ALL) data suggest new lipid biomarkers for tissue-specific lipid contributions to adipogenesis, thus providing a foundation for using in vitro models of adipogenesis to reflect potential changes in adipose tissues in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2182-2193, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A new approach for adipose tissue treatment and body contouring using radiofrequency-assisted liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Malcolm; Mulholland, Robert Stephen

    2009-09-01

    A new liposuction technology for adipocyte lipolysis and uniform three-dimensional tissue heating and contraction is presented. The technology is based on bipolar radiofrequency energy applied to the subcutaneous adipose tissue and subdermal skin surface. Preliminary clinical results, thermal monitoring, and histologic biopsies of the treated tissue demonstrate rapid preaspiration liquefaction of adipose tissue, coagulation of subcutaneous blood vessels, and uniform sustained heating of tissue.

  17. Metabolic effects of interleukin-6 in human splanchnic and adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was infused intravenously for 2.5 h in seven healthy human volunteers at a dose giving rise to a circulating IL-6 concentration of approximately 35 ng l(-1). The metabolic effects of this infusion were studied in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the anterior abdominal wall...... and in the splanchnic tissues by the Fick principle after catheterizations of an artery, a subcutaneous vein draining adipose tissue, and a hepatic vein, and measurements of regional adipose tissue and splanchnic blood flows. In control studies without IL-6 infusion subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was studied...... infusion. It is concluded that IL-6 elicits lipolytic effects in human adipose tissue in vivo, and that IL-6 also has effects on the splanchnic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism....

  18. Reversal of high pancreatic islet and white adipose tissue blood flow in type 2 diabetic GK rats by administration of the beta3-adrenoceptor inhibitor SR-59230A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, U S; Henriksnäs, J; Jansson, L

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a nonobese type 2 diabetes model, has an increased white adipose tissue (WAT) and islet blood flow when compared with control rats. The aim of the study was to examine if these increased blood flow values in GK rats could be affected by the beta(3)-adrenoceptor antagonist SR-59230A. We measured organ blood flow with a microsphere technique 10 min after administration of SR-59230A (1 mg/kg body wt), or the corresponding volume of 0.9% NaCl solution (1 ml/kg body wt) in rats anaesthetized with thiobutabarbital. The GK rat had an increased blood flow in all intra-abdominal adipose tissue depots except for the sternal fat pad compared with Wistar-Furth (WF) rats. However, no differences were seen in the blood perfusion of subcutaneous white or brown adipose tissue. The blood flow was also increased in both the pancreas and in the islets in the GK rat compared with WF rats. SR-59230A treatment affected neither WAT nor pancreatic blood flow in WF rats. In GK rats, on the other hand, SR-59230A decreased both WAT and islet blood flow values to values similar to those seen in control WF rats. The whole pancreatic blood flow was not affected by SR-59230A administration in GK rats. Interestingly, the brown adipose tissue blood flow in GK rats increased after SR-59230A administration. These results suggest that beta(3)-adrenoceptors are involved in regulation of blood flow both in islet and in adipose tissue.

  19. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T.; Ones, Tunc; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese

    2016-01-01

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing 18 F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  20. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  1. Exercise Prevents Diet-Induced Cellular Senescence in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Marissa J; White, Thomas A; Evans, Glenda; Tonne, Jason M; Verzosa, Grace C; Stout, Michael B; Mazula, Daniel L; Palmer, Allyson K; Baker, Darren J; Jensen, Michael D; Torbenson, Michael S; Miller, Jordan D; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Tchkonia, Tamara; van Deursen, Jan M; Kirkland, James L; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

    2016-06-01

    Considerable evidence implicates cellular senescence in the biology of aging and chronic disease. Diet and exercise are determinants of healthy aging; however, the extent to which they affect the behavior and accretion of senescent cells within distinct tissues is not clear. Here we tested the hypothesis that exercise prevents premature senescent cell accumulation and systemic metabolic dysfunction induced by a fast-food diet (FFD). Using transgenic mice that express EGFP in response to activation of the senescence-associated p16(INK4a) promoter, we demonstrate that FFD consumption causes deleterious changes in body weight and composition as well as in measures of physical, cardiac, and metabolic health. The harmful effects of the FFD were associated with dramatic increases in several markers of senescence, including p16, EGFP, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) specifically in visceral adipose tissue. We show that exercise prevents the accumulation of senescent cells and the expression of the SASP while nullifying the damaging effects of the FFD on parameters of health. We also demonstrate that exercise initiated after long-term FFD feeding reduces senescent phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue while attenuating physical impairments, suggesting that exercise may provide restorative benefit by mitigating accrued senescent burden. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which exercise mediates its beneficial effects and reinforces the effect of modifiable lifestyle choices on health span. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Young Park

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2 and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  3. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2010-01-01

    abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples...

  4. Predictors of adipose tissue carotenoid and retinol levels in nine countries: The EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.

    1996-01-01

    The adipose tissue carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene) and retinol levels and their predictors were determined in 686 male and 339 female middle-aged and elderly subjects from eight European countries and Israel during the years 1991 to 1992. Adipose tissue carotenoid levels in

  5. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and depression in different age groups from Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamalakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of cross-sectional studies on the relationship of depression with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been described. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids, an objective index or biomarker of long-term or habitual

  6. Contact with existing adipose tissue is inductive for adipogenesis in matrigel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, John L

    2006-07-01

    The effect of adipose tissue on inductive adipogenesis within Matrigel (BD Biosciences) was assessed by using a murine chamber model containing a vascular pedicle. Three-chamber configurations that varied in the access to an adipose tissue source were used, including sealed- and open-chamber groups that had no access and limited access, respectively, to the surrounding adipose tissue, and a sealed-chamber group in which adipose tissue was placed as an autograft. All groups showed neovascularization, but varied in the amount of adipogenesis seen in direct relation to their access to preexisting adipose tissue: open chambers showed strong adipogenesis, whereas the sealed chambers had little or no adipose tissue; adipogenesis was restored in the autograft chamber group that contained 2- to 5-mg fat autografts. These showed significantly more adipogenesis than the sealed chambers with no autograft ( p < 0.01). Autografts with 1mg of fat were capable of producing adipogenesis but did so less consistently than the larger autografts. These findings have important implications for adipose tissue engineering strategies and for understanding de novo production of adipose tissue.

  7. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  8. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  9. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory states of adipose tissue in transgenic mice bearing a single TCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ayaka; Taniguchi, Kaori; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is accompanied by chronic, low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue, which is associated with insulin resistance and consequent multiple metabolic diseases. In addition to M1 macrophage infiltration, multiple involvements of adipose tissue T lymphocytes in the progression of inflammation have been highlighted recently. Here, we isolated a specific Vα5/Vβ8.2 TCR-bearing T cell that accumulated in obese adipose tissue of mice, and generated transgenic mice expressing this TCR. Under lean conditions with a normal chow diet, CD4+FoxP3+ Treg cells and M2 macrophages increased in adipose tissue with ageing in wild-type mice, but not in transgenic mice. However, both mice exhibited no obvious adipose tissue inflammation such as the formation of crown-like structures (CLSs) of infiltrating macrophages. When fed a high-fat diet, the proportion of adipose tissue Treg cells was markedly small at a similar level in transgenic and wild-type mice. Both types of mice exhibited comparable inflammatory states in adipose tissue, including vast formation of macrophage CLSs, accompanied by insulin resistance. Together, our findings suggest that the absence of an increase in Treg cells and M2 macrophages is not sufficient to initiate inflammatory macrophage infiltration in lean adipose tissue and also provide a new view about the involvement of T cells in promoting obesity-associated inflammation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society for Immunology.

  10. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); J.C. van den Beukel (Anneke); A.F. van Houten (A.); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed

  11. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to influence adipose tissue function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visseren Frank LJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is associated with metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, inflammation and hypercoagulobility which can all be understood as consequences of adipose tissue dysfunction. The potential role for adipose tissue derived cytokines and adipokines in the development of vascular disease and diabetes may produce a clinical need to influence adipose tissue function. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions affect plasma cytokine and adipokine levels. The effects of these interventions depend on weight loss per se, changes in fat distribution without weight loss and/or direct effects on adipose tissue inflammation. Weight loss, as a result of diet, pharmacology and surgery, positively influences plasma adipokines and systemic inflammation. Several classes of drugs influence systemic inflammation directly through their anti-inflammatory actions. PPAR-γ agonism positively influences adipose tissue inflammation in several classes of intervention such as the thiazolidinediones and perhaps salicylates, CB1-antagonists and angiotensin II receptor blockers. Furthermore, within drug classes there are differential effects of individual pharmacologic agents on adipose tissue function. It can be concluded that several commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have unintended influences on adipose tissue function. Improving adipose tissue function may contribute to reducing the risk of vascular diseases and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations: the fore...

  13. Metabolic alterations in adipose tissue during the early phase of experimental endotoxemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoener, P; Vietheer, A; Sayk, F; Schaaf, B; Lehnert, H; Dodt, C

    2011-10-01

    Adipose tissue plays an important role in energy homeostasis; however, there is only little knowledge about its metabolic activity during critical illness or sepsis. We assessed adipose tissue metabolic activity and local blood flow during experimental endotoxemia in otherwise healthy humans. In a prospective, placebo controlled and randomized experiment we measured changes in lactate, glycerol, and pyruvate concentrations in microdialysate samples of femoral adipose tissue after an intravenous bolus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 4 ng/kg). Intravenous endotoxin caused an early and constant increase in interstitial pyruvate, while formation of lactate in adipose tissue was not affected. In contrast, lactate levels in serum were elevated significantly after 90 min (pendotoxemia. While adipose tissue is a major source of serum glycerol and lactate in humans during physiological conditions, it contributes only little to increased serum lactate and glycerol levels during endotoxemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging....... Adipose tissue fluxes of glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and glucose were measured by Fick's principle after catherisation of a radial artery and a vein draining the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue.Results:ATBF increased similarly in both groups during the adrenaline...

  15. Histone deacetylase 3 prepares brown adipose tissue for acute thermogenic challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmett, Matthew J.; Lim, Hee-Woong; Jager, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ that dissipates chemical energy as heat to protect animals against hypothermia and to counteract metabolic disease1. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that determine the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue before environmental cold...... are unknown. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required to activate brown adipose tissue enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude. Mice with brown adipose tissue-specific genetic ablation of HDAC3 become severely hypothermic and succumb to acute cold exposure. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1...... of oestrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) in brown adipose tissue. HDAC3 coactivation of ERRα is mediated by deacetylation of PGC-1α and is required for the transcription of Ucp1, Ppargc1a (encoding PGC-1α), and oxidative phosphorylation genes. Importantly, HDAC3 promotes the basal transcription of these genes...

  16. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...... leaving the adipose tissue. Seven male subjects performed two repeated bouts of 60-min exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power, separated by a 60-min recovery period. The exercise-induced increases in extracellular glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue and in plasma glycerol concentrations were...... levels were lower during the second exercise bout. The results suggest that adipose tissue lipolysis during aerobic exercise of moderate intensity is enhanced when an exercise bout is preceded by exercise of the same intensity and duration performed 1 h before. This response pattern is associated...

  17. Effect of training on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis determined by microdialysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1995-01-01

    glycerol concentrations (Tr: 129 +/- 36 microM; Sed: 119 +/- 56) did not differ between groups. It is concluded that in intact subcutaneous adipose tissue epinephrine-stimulated blood flow is enhanced, whereas lipolytic sensitivity to epinephrine is the same in trained compared with untrained subjects.......Trained humans (Tr) have a higher fat oxidation during submaximal physical work than sedentary humans (Sed). To investigate whether this reflects a higher adipose tissue lipolytic sensitivity to catecholamines, we infused epinephrine (0.3 nmol.kg-1.min-1) for 65 min in six athletes and six...... sedentary young men. Glycerol was measured in arterial blood, and intercellular glycerol concentrations in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by microdialysis. Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by 133Xe-washout technique. From these measurements adipose tissue lipolysis was calculated...

  18. Estradiol Regulates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis via Hypothalamic AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B.; González-García, Ismael; Martins, Luís; Lage, Ricardo; Fernández-Mallo, Diana; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Ruíz-Pino, Francisco; Liu, Ji; Morgan, Donald A.; Pinilla, Leonor; Gallego, Rosalía; Saha, Asish K.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Rahmouni, Kamal; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; López, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in a feeding-independent manner. Genetic activation of AMPK in the VMH prevented E2-induced increase in BAT-mediated thermogenesis and weight loss. Notably, fluctuations in E2 levels during estrous cycle also modulate this integrated physiological network. Together, these findings demonstrate that E2 regulation of the VMH AMPK-SNS-BAT axis is an important determinant of energy balance and suggest that dysregulation in this axis may account for the common changes in energy homeostasis and obesity linked to dysfunction of the female gonadal axis. PMID:24856932

  19. Brown adipose tissue: The heat is on the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Hindle, Allyson G; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2016-06-01

    The study of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has gained significant scientific interest since the discovery of functional BAT in adult humans. The thermogenic properties of BAT are well recognized; however, data generated in the last decade in both rodents and humans reveal therapeutic potential for BAT against metabolic disorders and obesity. Here we review the current literature in light of a potential role for BAT in beneficially mediating cardiovascular health. We focus mainly on BAT's actions in obesity, vascular tone, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, we discuss the recently discovered endocrine factors that have a potential beneficial role in cardiovascular health. These BAT-secreted factors may have a favorable effect against cardiovascular risk either through their metabolic role or by directly affecting the heart. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Brain insulin controls adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Thomas; O’Hare, James; Diggs-Andrews, Kelly; Schweiger, Martina; Cheng, Bob; Lindtner, Claudia; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Vempati, Prashant; Su, Kai; Dighe, Shveta; Milsom, Thomas; Puchowicz, Michelle; Scheja, Ludger; Zechner, Rudolf; Fisher, Simon J.; Previs, Stephen F.; Buettner, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY White adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Unrestrained WAT lipolysis results in increased fatty acid release leading to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, while impaired de novo lipogenesis in WAT decreases the synthesis of insulin sensitizing fatty acid species like palmitoleate. Here we show that insulin infused into the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of Sprague Dawley rats increases WAT lipogenic protein expression, and inactivates hormone sensitive lipase (Hsl) and suppresses lipolysis. Conversely, mice that lack the neuronal insulin receptor exhibit unrestrained lipolysis and decreased de novo lipogenesis in WAT. Thus, brain and in particular hypothalamic insulin action play a pivotal role in WAT functionality. PMID:21284985

  1. The evolution of the adipose tissue: a neglected enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Enzo; Malagoli, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    The complexity of the anatomical distribution and functions of adipose tissue (AT) has been rarely analyzed in an evolutionary perspective. From yeast to man lipid droplets are stored mainly in the form of triglycerides in order to provide energy during periods when energy demands exceed caloric intake. This simple scenario is in agreement with the recent discovery of a highly conserved family of proteins for fat storage in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. However, the evolutionary history of organs such as the fat body in insects, playing a role in immunity and other functions besides energy storage and thermal insulation, and of differently distributed subtypes of AT in vertebrates is much less clear. These topics still await a systematic investigation using up-to-date technologies and approaches that would provide information useful for understanding the role of different AT subtypes in normal/physiological conditions or in metabolic pathologies of humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from...

  3. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from...

  4. Role of miRNAs in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in CAD Patients with T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Fu, Wenbo; Lu, Mu; Huai, Shitao; Song, Yaqin; Wei, Yutao

    2016-01-01

    Background. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is identified as an atypical fat depot surrounding the heart with a putative role in the involvement of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. We profiled miRNAs in EAT of metabolic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) versus metabolically healthy patients by microarray. Compared to metabolically healthy patients, we identified forty-two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with CAD and T2DM from Xinjiang, China. Eleven miRNAs were selected as potential novel miRNAs according to P value and fold change. Then the potential novel miRNAs targeted genes were predicted via TargetScan, PicTar, and miRTarbase, and the function of the target genes was predicted via Gene Ontology (GO) analysis while the enriched KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNAs targeted genes were performed by bioinformatics software DAVID. Then protein-protein interaction networks of the targeted gene were conducted by online software STRING. Finally, using microarray, bioinformatics approaches revealed the possible molecular mechanisms pathogenesis of CAD and T2DM. A total of 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and among them, hsa-miR-4687-3p drew specific attention. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that insulin signaling pathway is the central way involved in the progression of metabolic disorders. Conclusions. The current findings support the fact that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in EAT of CAD patients with T2DM, and validation of the results of these miRNAs by independent and prospective study is certainly warranted.

  5. Role of miRNAs in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in CAD Patients with T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is identified as an atypical fat depot surrounding the heart with a putative role in the involvement of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. We profiled miRNAs in EAT of metabolic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM versus metabolically healthy patients by microarray. Compared to metabolically healthy patients, we identified forty-two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with CAD and T2DM from Xinjiang, China. Eleven miRNAs were selected as potential novel miRNAs according to P value and fold change. Then the potential novel miRNAs targeted genes were predicted via TargetScan, PicTar, and miRTarbase, and the function of the target genes was predicted via Gene Ontology (GO analysis while the enriched KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNAs targeted genes were performed by bioinformatics software DAVID. Then protein-protein interaction networks of the targeted gene were conducted by online software STRING. Finally, using microarray, bioinformatics approaches revealed the possible molecular mechanisms pathogenesis of CAD and T2DM. A total of 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and among them, hsa-miR-4687-3p drew specific attention. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that insulin signaling pathway is the central way involved in the progression of metabolic disorders. Conclusions. The current findings support the fact that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in EAT of CAD patients with T2DM, and validation of the results of these miRNAs by independent and prospective study is certainly warranted.

  6. Leanness of Lou/C rats does not require higher thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouze, Maud; Sibille, Brigitte; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Teulier, Loïc; Baetz, Delphine; Koubi, Harry; Servais, Stéphane; Duchamp, Claude

    2011-10-24

    Lou/C rats, an inbred strain of Wistar origin, remain lean throughout life and therefore represent a remarkable model of obesity resistance. To date, the exact mechanisms responsible for the leanness of Lou/C rats remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the leanness of Lou/C rats relies on increased thermogenic capacities in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Results showed that although daily energy expenditure was higher in Lou/C than in Wistar rats, BAT thermogenic capacity was not enhanced in Lou/C rats kept at thermoneutrality as demonstrated by reduced thermogenic response to norepinephrine in vivo, similar oxidative activity of BAT isolated mitochondria in vitro, similar levels of UCP1 mRNA and lower abundance of UCP1 protein in interscapular BAT depots. Relative abundance of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA was lower in Lou/C BAT while that of GLUT4, FABP or CPT1 was not altered. Activity-related energy expenditure was however considerably increased at thermoneutrality as Lou/C rats demonstrated an impressively high spontaneous running activity in voluntary running wheels. Prolonged cold-exposure (4 °C) depressed the spontaneous running activity of Lou/C rats while BAT thermogenic capacity was increased as reflected by rises in BAT mass, oxidative activity and UCP1 expression. It is concluded that the leanness of Lou/C rats cannot be ascribed to higher thermogenic capacity of brown fat but rather to, at least in part, increased locomotor activity. BAT is not deficient in this rat strain as it can be stimulated by cold exposure when locomotor activity is reduced suggesting some substitution between these thermogenic processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aging and Adipose Tissue: Potential Interventions for Diabetes and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Allyson K.; Kirkland, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction occurs with aging and has systemic effects, including peripheral insulin resistance, ectopic lipid deposition, and inflammation. Fundamental aging mechanisms, including cellular senescence and progenitor cell dysfunction, occur in adipose tissue with aging and may serve as potential therapeutic targets in age-related disease. In this review, we examine the role of adipose tissue in healthy individuals and explore how aging leads to adipose tissue dysfunction, redistribution, and changes in gene regulation. Adipose tissue plays a central role in longevity, and interventions restricted to adipose tissue may impact lifespan. Conversely, obesity may represent a state of accelerated aging. We discuss the potential therapeutic potential of targeting basic aging mechanisms, including cellular senescence, in adipose tissue, using type II diabetes and regenerative medicine as examples. We make the case that aging should not be neglected in the study of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine strategies, as elderly patients make up a large portion of individuals in need of such therapies. PMID:26924669

  8. Impact of training state on fasting-induced regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertholdt, Lærke; Gudiksen, Anders; Stankiewicz, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Recruitment of fatty acids from adipose tissue is essential during fasting. However, the molecular mechanisms behind fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue and the potential impact of training state in this are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investig......Recruitment of fatty acids from adipose tissue is essential during fasting. However, the molecular mechanisms behind fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue and the potential impact of training state in this are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study...... was to investigate 1) fasting-induced regulation of lipolysis and glyceroneogenesis in human adipose tissue as well as 2) the impact of training state on basal oxidative capacity and fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue. Untrained (VO2max 55ml......RNA content were higher in trained subjects than untrained subjects. In addition, trained subjects had higher adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase Ser660 phosphorylation and adipose triglyceride lipase protein content as well as higher plasma free fatty acids concentration than untrained subjects during...

  9. Thermogenic activation represses autophagy in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairó, M; Villarroya, J; Cereijo, R; Campderrós, L; Giralt, M; Villarroya, F

    2016-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is an adaptive process, essential for energy expenditure and involved in the control of obesity. Obesity is associated with abnormally increased autophagy in white adipose tissue. Autophagy has been proposed as relevant for brown-vs-white adipocyte differentiation; however, its role in the response of BAT to thermogenic activation is unknown. The effects of thermogenic activation on autophagy in BAT were analyzed in vivo by exposing mice to 24 h cold condition. The effects of norepinephrine (NE), cAMP and modulators of lysosomal activity were determined in differentiated brown adipocytes in the primary culture. Transcript expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and specific proteins were determined by immunoblot. Transmission electron microscopy, as well as confocal microscopy analysis after incubation with specific antibodies or reagents coupled to fluorescent emission, were performed in BAT and cultured brown adipocytes, respectively. Autophagy is repressed in association with cold-induced thermogenic activation of BAT in mice. This effect was mimicked by NE action in brown adipocytes, acting mainly through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway. Inhibition of autophagy in brown adipocytes leads to an increase in UCP1 protein and uncoupled respiration, suggesting a repressing role for autophagy in relation to the activity of BAT thermogenic machinery. Under basal conditions, brown adipocytes show signs of active lipophagy, which is suppressed by a cAMP-mediated thermogenic stimulus. Our results show a noradrenergic-mediated inverse relationship between autophagy and thermogenic activity in BAT and point toward autophagy repression as a component of brown adipocyte adaptive mechanisms to activate thermogenesis.

  10. Sexual dimorphism in hepatic, adipose tissue and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity in obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper W. ter Horst

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and lipid metabolism differ between men and women, and women tend to have better whole-body or muscle insulin sensitivity. This may be explained, in part, by differences in sex hormones and adipose tissue distribution. Few studies have investigated gender differences in hepatic, adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity between severely obese men and women. In this study, we aimed to determine the differences in glucose metabolism between severely obese men and women using tissue-specific measurements of insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity was compared between age and body mass index (BMI-matched obese men and women by a two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose. Basal endogenous glucose production and insulin sensitivity of the liver, adipose tissue and peripheral tissues were assessed. Liver fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a subset of included subjects. We included 46 obese men and women (age, 48±2 vs 46±2 years, p=0.591; BMI, 41±1 vs 41±1 kg/m2, p=0.832. There was no difference in basal endogenous glucose production (14.4±1.0 vs 15.3±0.5 µmol•kg fat-free mass-1•min-1, p=0.410, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acids, 71.6±3.6 vs 76.1±2.6%, p=0.314 or peripheral insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated rate of disappearance of glucose, 26.2±2.1 vs 22.7±1.7 µmol•kg-1•min-1, p=0.211. Obese men were characterized by lower hepatic insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production, 61.7±4.1 vs 72.8±2.5% in men vs women, resp., p=0.028. Finally, these observations could not be explained by differences in liver fat content (men vs women, 16.5±3.1 vs 16.0±2.5%, p=0.913, n=27.We conclude that obese men have lower hepatic, but comparable adipose tissue and peripheral tissue, insulin sensitivity compared to similarly obese women. Hepatic insulin resistance may

  11. Immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luzia; Moreira, João; Melo, Joana; Bezerra, Filipa; Marques, Raquel M; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ferreira, Paula G; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. Nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. Previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. Therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently affected. Early in infection, parasites were detected in the adipose tissue and by 7 days of infection increased numbers of macrophages, regulatory T (Treg) cells and T-bet+ cells were observed in gonadal, mesenteric, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Increased expression of interferon-γ was also detected in gonadal adipose tissue of infected mice. Two months after infection, parasite DNA was no longer detected in these tissues, but T helper type 1 (Th1) cell numbers remained above control levels in the infected mice. Moreover, the Th1/Treg cell ratio was higher than that of controls in the mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, chronically infected mice presented a marked increase of serum leptin, a molecule that plays a role in energy balance regulation as well as in promoting Th1-type immune responses. Altogether, we show that an apicomplexa parasitic infection influences immune cellular composition of adipose tissue throughout the body as well as adipokine production, still noticed at a chronic phase of infection when parasites were already cleared from that particular tissue. This strengthens the emerging view that infections can have long-term consequences for the physiology of adipose tissue. PMID:25581844

  12. Characteristics of mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells and therapeutic comparisons between syngeneic and allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cell transplantation in experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Wha; Shin, Il Seob; Park, So Young; Yoon, Eun Ji; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we found that the intravenous administration of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells was a promising therapeutic option for autoimmune thyroiditis even when the cells were transplanted into a xenogeneic model without an immunosuppressant. Therefore, we explored the comparison between the therapeutic effects of syngeneic and allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells on an experimental autoimmune thyroiditis mouse model. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with porcine thyroglobulin. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells derived from C57BL/6 mice (syngeneic) or BALB/c mice (allogeneic) or saline as a vehicle control were administered intravenously four times weekly. Blood and tissue samples were collected 1 week after the last transplantation. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells from mice were able to differentiate into multiple lineages in vitro; however, mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells did not have immunophenotypes identical to those from humans. Syngeneic and allogeneic administrations of adipose tissue-derived stem cells reduced thyroglobulin autoantibodies and the inflammatory immune response, protected against lymphocyte infiltration into the thyroid, and restored the Th1/Th2 balance without any adverse effects. However, different humoral immune responses were observed for infused cells from different stem cell sources. The strongest humoral immune response was induced by xenogeneic transplantation, followed by allogeneic and syngeneic administration, in that order. The stem cells were mostly found in the spleen, not the thyroid. This migration might be because the stem cells primarily function in systemic immune modulation, due to being given prior to disease induction. In this study, we confirmed that there were equal effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in treating autoimmune thyroiditis between syngeneic and allogeneic transplantations.

  13. Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunfan; Lu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, as most tissue engineering techniques are new and highly experimental, there are still many practical challenges that must be overcome before laboratory research can lead to large-scale clinical applications. Tissue engineering is currently a growing field of medical research; in this review, we will discuss the progress in research on biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering applications using adipose stem cells.

  14. Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfan He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, as most tissue engineering techniques are new and highly experimental, there are still many practical challenges that must be overcome before laboratory research can lead to large-scale clinical applications. Tissue engineering is currently a growing field of medical research; in this review, we will discuss the progress in research on biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering applications using adipose stem cells.

  15. Macrophages Undergo M1-to-M2 Transition in Adipose Tissue Regeneration in a Rat Tissue Engineering Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijin; Xu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhifa; Dai, Taiqiang; Ma, Chao; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yanpu

    2016-10-01

    Macrophages are involved in the full processes of tissue healing or regeneration and play an important role in the regeneration of a variety of tissues. Although recent evidence suggests the role of different macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue expansion, metabolism, and remodeling, the spectrum of macrophage phenotype in the adipose tissue engineering field remains unknown. The present study established a rat model of adipose tissue regeneration using a tissue engineering chamber. Macrophage phenotypes were assessed during the regenerative process in the model. Neo-adipose tissue was generated 6 weeks after implantation. Macrophages were obvious in the chamber constructs 3 days after implantation, peaked at day 7, and significantly decreased thereafter. At day 3, macrophages were predominantly M1 macrophages (CCR7+), and there were few M2 macrophages (CD206+). At day 7, the percentage of M2 macrophages significantly increased and remained stable at day 14. M2 macrophages became the predominant macrophage population at 42 days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated transition of cytokines from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory, which was consistent with the transition of macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2. These results showed distinct transition of macrophage phenotypes from a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to an anti-inflammatory M2 in adipose tissue regeneration in our tissue engineering model. This study provides new insight into macrophage phenotype transition in the regeneration of adipose tissue. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rorα deficiency and decreased adiposity are associated with induction of thermogenic gene expression in subcutaneous white adipose and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick; Tuong, Zewen K; Wang, Shu-Ching; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Goode, Joel M; Thomas, Gethin P; Cowin, Gary J; Pearen, Michael A; Mardon, Karine; Stow, Jennifer L; Muscat, George E O

    2015-01-15

    The Rar-related orphan receptor-α (Rorα) is a nuclear receptor that regulates adiposity and is a potential regulator of energy homeostasis. We have demonstrated that the Rorα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mice display a lean and obesity-resistant phenotype. Adaptive Ucp1-dependent thermogenesis in beige/brite and brown adipose tissue serves as a mechanism to increase energy expenditure and resist obesity. DEXA and MRI analysis demonstrated significantly decreased total fat mass and fat/lean mass tissue ratio in male chow-fed sg/sg mice relative to wt mice. In addition, we observed increased Ucp1 expression in brown adipose and subcutaneous white adipose tissue but not in visceral adipose tissue from Rorα-deficient mice. Moreover, this was associated with significant increases in the expression of the mRNAs encoding the thermogenic genes (i.e., markers of brown and beige adipose) Pparα, Errα, Dio2, Acot11/Bfit, Cpt1β, and Cidea in the subcutaneous adipose in the sg/sg relative to WT mice. These changes in thermogenic gene expression involved the significantly increased expression of the (cell-fate controlling) histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 1 (Ehmt1), which stabilizes the Prdm16 transcriptional complex. Moreover, primary brown adipocytes from sg/sg mice displayed a higher metabolic rate, and further analysis was consistent with increased uncoupling. Finally, core body temperature analysis and infrared thermography demonstrated that the sg/sg mice maintained greater thermal control and cold tolerance relative to the WT littermates. We suggest that enhanced Ucp1 and thermogenic gene expression/activity may be an important contributor to the lean, obesity-resistant phenotype in Rorα-deficient mice. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Interleukin-1β regulates fat-liver crosstalk in obesity by auto-paracrine modulation of adipose tissue inflammation and expandability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Nov

    Full Text Available The inflammasome has been recently implicated in obesity-associated dys-metabolism. However, of its products, the specific role of IL-1β was clinically demonstrated to mediate only the pancreatic beta-cell demise, and in mice mainly the intra-hepatic manifestations of obesity. Yet, it remains largely unknown if IL-1β, a cytokine believed to mainly function locally, could regulate dysfunctional inter-organ crosstalk in obesity. Here we show that High-fat-fed (HFF mice exhibited a preferential increase of IL-1β in portal compared to systemic blood. Moreover, portally-drained mesenteric fat transplantation from IL-1βKO donors resulted in lower pyruvate-glucose flux compared to mice receiving wild-type (WT transplant. These results raised a putative endocrine function for visceral fat-derived IL-1β in regulating hepatic gluconeogenic flux. IL-1βKO mice on HFF exhibited only a minor or no increase in adipose expression of pro-inflammatory genes (including macrophage M1 markers, Mac2-positive crown-like structures and CD11b-F4/80-double-positive macrophages, all of which were markedly increased in WT-HFF mice. Further consistent with autocrine/paracrine functions of IL-1β within adipose tissue, adipose tissue macrophage lipid content was increased in WT-HFF mice, but significantly less in IL-1βKO mice. Ex-vivo, adipose explants co-cultured with primary hepatocytes from WT or IL-1-receptor (IL-1RI-KO mice suggested only a minor direct effect of adipose-derived IL-1β on hepatocyte insulin resistance. Importantly, although IL-1βKOs gained weight similarly to WT-HFF, they had larger fat depots with similar degree of adipocyte hypertrophy. Furthermore, adipogenesis genes and markers (pparg, cepba, fabp4, glut4 that were decreased by HFF in WT, were paradoxically elevated in IL-1βKO-HFF mice. These local alterations in adipose tissue inflammation and expansion correlated with a lower liver size, less hepatic steatosis, and preserved insulin

  18. Post-exercise abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in fasting subjects is inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Polak, Jan; Simonsen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    .c., abdominal adipose tissue metabolism, before, during and after exercise in healthy, fasting, young male subjects. The adipose tissue net releases of fatty acids and glycerol were measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe...

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  6. The effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue and splanchnic lipid metabolism in overweight type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Henriksen, O; Enevoldsen, L H

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that adipose tissue lipolysis is enhanced in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, we examined the effect of exercise on regional adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid mobilisation and measured the acute effects of exercise on the co-ordination of adipose tissue...

  7. Essential role of CD11a in CD8+ T-cell accumulation and activation in adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    T-cells, particularly CD8+ T-cells, are major participants in obesity-linked adipose tissue inflammation. We examined the mechanisms of CD8+ T-cell accumulation and activation in adipose tissue and the role of CD11a, a beta2 integrin. CD8+ T-cells in adipose tissue of obese mice showed activated phe...

  8. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  9. Adipose Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells Viability and Differentiating Features for Orthopaedic Reparative Applications: Banking of Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Roato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is characterized by loss of articular cartilage also due to reduced chondrogenic activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from patients. Adipose tissue is an attractive source of MSCs (ATD-MSCs, representing an effective tool for reparative medicine, particularly for treatment of osteoarthritis, due to their chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation capability. The treatment of symptomatic knee arthritis with ATD-MSCs proved effective with a single infusion, but multiple infusions could be also more efficacious. Here we studied some crucial aspects of adipose tissue banking procedures, evaluating ATD-MSCs viability, and differentiation capability after cryopreservation, to guarantee the quality of the tissue for multiple infusions. We reported that the presence of local anesthetic during lipoaspiration negatively affects cell viability of cryopreserved adipose tissue and cell growth of ATD-MSCs in culture. We observed that DMSO guarantees a faster growth of ATD-MSCs in culture than trehalose. At last, ATD-MSCs derived from fresh and cryopreserved samples at −80°C and −196°C showed viability and differentiation ability comparable to fresh samples. These data indicate that cryopreservation of adipose tissue at −80°C and −196°C is equivalent and preserves the content of ATD-MSCs in Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF, guaranteeing the differentiation ability of ATD-MSCs.

  10. Refeeding-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Glycogen Hyper-Accumulation in Mice Is Mediated by Insulin and Catecholamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, Christopher M.; Bobe, Alexandria M.; Yu, Justin C.; Volden, Paul A.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT) glycogen levels within 4–12 hours (hr) of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT). Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology. PMID:23861810

  11. Refeeding-induced brown adipose tissue glycogen hyper-accumulation in mice is mediated by insulin and catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, Christopher M; Bobe, Alexandria M; Yu, Justin C; Volden, Paul A; Brady, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT) glycogen levels within 4-12 hours (hr) of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT). Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology.

  12. Refeeding-induced brown adipose tissue glycogen hyper-accumulation in mice is mediated by insulin and catecholamines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Carmean

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT glycogen levels within 4-12 hours (hr of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT. Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology.

  13. Glucocorticoids Suppress the Browning of Adipose Tissue via miR-19b in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yi-Fan; Yu, Jing; Sheng, Yun-Lu; Huang, Min; Kong, Xiao-Cen; Di, Wenj-Juan; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Hong; Liang, Hui; Ding, Guo-Xian

    2018-01-01

    Physiological levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) are required for proper metabolic control, and excessive GC action has been linked to a variety of pandemic metabolic diseases. MicroRNA (miRNA)-19b plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of GC-induced metabolic diseases. This study explored the potential of miRNA-based therapeutics targeting adipose tissue. Our results showed that overexpressed miR-19b in stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue had the same effects as dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on the inhibition of adipose browning and oxygen consumption rate. The inhibition of miR-19b blocked DEX-mediated suppression of the expression of browning marker genes as well as the oxygen consumption rate in differentiated SVF cells derived from subcutaneous and brown adipose tissue. Overexpressed miR-19b in SVF cells derived from brown adipose tissue had the same effects as DEX treatment on the inhibition of brown adipose differentiation and energy expenditure. Glucocorticoids transcriptionally regulate the expression of miR-19b via a GC receptor-mediated direct DNA binding mechanism. This study confirmed that miR-19b is an essential target for GC-mediated control of adipose tissue browning. It is hoped that the plasticity of the adipose organ can be exploited in the next generation of therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  14. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah R.; Samaan, M. Constantine; Kemp, Bruce E.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver. AMPK and ACC are key enzymes regulating fatty acid metabolism, liver fat content, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity but the importance of this pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity with HIIT is unknown. Methods In the current study, the effects of 6 weeks of HIIT were examined using obese mice with serine–alanine knock-in mutations on the AMPK phosphorylation sites of ACC1 and ACC2 (AccDKI) or wild-type (WT) controls. Results HIIT lowered blood glucose and increased exercise capacity, food intake, basal activity levels, carbohydrate oxidation and liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed WT and AccDKI mice. These changes occurred independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, inflammation and liver lipid content. Conclusions These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC. PMID:26909307

  15. Sexual dimorphism in clock genes expression in human adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was carried out to investigate whether sex-related differences exist in the adipocyte expression of clock genes from subcutaneous abdominal and visceral fat depots in severely obese patients. METHODS: We investigated 16 morbidly obese patients, eight men and eight women (mean age 45 +/- 2...

  16. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauwens, Matthias; Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn; Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter; Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, 18 F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to 18 F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc-sestamibi, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 18 F-fluorodopa and 18 F-14(R,S)-[ 18 F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  17. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  18. Wound healing potential of adipose tissue stem cell extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, You Kyung; Ban, Jae-Jun; Lee, Mijung; Im, Wooseok; Kim, Manho

    2017-03-25

    Adipose tissue stem cells (ATSCs) are considered as a promising source in the field of cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In addition to direct cell replacement using stem cells, intercellular molecule exchange by stem cell secretory factors showed beneficial effects by reducing tissue damage and augmentation of endogenous repair. Delayed cutaneous wound healing is implicated in many conditions such as diabetes, aging, stress and alcohol consumption. However, the effects of cell-free extract of ATSCs (ATSC-Ex) containing secretome on wound healing process have not been investigated. In this study, ATSC-Ex was topically applied on the cutaneous wound and healing speed was examined. As a result, wound closure was much faster in the cell-free extract treated wound than control wound at 4, 6, 8 days after application of ATSC-Ex. Dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) production are critical aspects of wound healing, and the effects of ATSC-Ex on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) was examined. ATSC-Ex augmented HDF proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and migration ability was enhanced by extract treatment. Representative ECM proteins, collagen type I and matrix metalloproteinase-1, are significantly up-regulated by treatment of ATSC-Ex. Our results suggest that the ATSC-Ex have improving effect of wound healing and can be the potential therapeutic candidate for cutaneous wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Histone deacetylase 3 prepares brown adipose tissue for acute thermogenic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Matthew J; Lim, Hee-Woong; Jager, Jennifer; Richter, Hannah J; Adlanmerini, Marine; Peed, Lindsey C; Briggs, Erika R; Steger, David J; Ma, Tao; Sims, Carrie A; Baur, Joseph A; Pei, Liming; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Seale, Patrick; Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2017-06-22

    Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ that dissipates chemical energy as heat to protect animals against hypothermia and to counteract metabolic disease. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that determine the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue before environmental cold are unknown. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required to activate brown adipose tissue enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude. Mice with brown adipose tissue-specific genetic ablation of HDAC3 become severely hypothermic and succumb to acute cold exposure. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is nearly absent in brown adipose tissue lacking HDAC3, and there is also marked downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes resulting in diminished mitochondrial respiration. Remarkably, although HDAC3 acts canonically as a transcriptional corepressor, it functions as a coactivator of oestrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) in brown adipose tissue. HDAC3 coactivation of ERRα is mediated by deacetylation of PGC-1α and is required for the transcription of Ucp1, Ppargc1a (encoding PGC-1α), and oxidative phosphorylation genes. Importantly, HDAC3 promotes the basal transcription of these genes independently of adrenergic stimulation. Thus, HDAC3 uniquely primes Ucp1 and the thermogenic transcriptional program to maintain a critical capacity for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue that can be rapidly engaged upon exposure to dangerously cold temperature.

  20. Calcium sensing receptor as a novel mediator of adipose tissue dysfunction: mechanisms and potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bravo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is currently a serious worldwide public health problem, reaching pandemic levels. For decades, dietary and behavioral approaches have failed to prevent this disease from expanding, and health authorities are challenged by the elevated prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Understanding how obesity-associated diseases develop from a basic science approach is recognized as an urgent task to face this growing problem. White adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ, with a crucial influence on whole-body homeostasis. White adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role linking obesity with its associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Among the regulators of white adipose tissue physiology, the calcium-sensing receptor has arisen as a potential mediator of white adipose tissue dysfunction. Expression of the receptor has been described in human preadipocytes, adipocytes, and the human adipose cell lines LS14 and SW872. The evidence suggests that calcium-sensing receptor activation in the visceral (i.e. unhealthy white adipose tissue is associated with an increased proliferation of adipose progenitor cells and elevated adipocyte differentiation. In addition, exposure of adipose cells to calcium-sensing receptor activators in vitro elevates proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. An increased proinflammatory environment in white adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of white adipose tissue dysfunction that leads to peripheral organ fat deposition and insulin resistance, among other consequences. We propose that calcium-sensing receptor may be one relevant therapeutic target in the struggle to confront the health consequences of the current worldwide obesity pandemic.

  1. Deformations experienced in the human skin, adipose tissue, and fascia in osteopathic manipulative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hans; Bukiet, Bruce; Ji, Zhiming; Stecco, Antonio; Findley, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    Osteopathic manipulative medicine techniques involve compressive and tangential forces to target the fascia. These forces are transmitted to the skin and adipose tissue before the fascia is encountered. Knowing the extent of deformation of these 2 tissue layers relative to the fascia will assist osteopathic physicians in evaluating techniques for manual therapies and adjusting these therapies to reduce patient discomfort and improve results. To determine the magnitude of the forces transmitted to the skin, adipose tissue, and fascia, and to determine the magnitude of deformation produced in the skin and adipose tissue relative to the fascia using a mathematical model. The large deformation theory of elasticity, valid for 3-dimensional deformations, was used to evaluate the forces that need to be applied such that a specified deformation is produced in any region of the skin, adipose tissue, or fascia layers. Similarly, if the forces are specified, then the deformation produced can be determined. The normal and tangential forces required to produce a deformation of 9% compression and 4% shear for the skin were 50 N and 11 N, respectively. Normal and tangential forces of about 100 N and 22 N were found for a similar deformation of fascia. For adipose tissue, these forces were 36 N and 8 N, respectively. In addition, the skin experienced more compression and shear-about 1.5 times as much as the fascia, and the adipose tissue experienced about 2.5 to 3.5 times the deformation of the fascia and 50% more than the skin when a given force was applied to the skin. The forces applied to the surface of the skin were transmitted through this layer and the adipose layer entirely to the fascia. Therefore, the skin and adipose tissue experienced the same magnitude of force as the fascia. However, the skin and adipose tissue experienced more compression and shear than the fascia. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  2. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7......), myristoleic (14:1n-5) and trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t). Negative correlation was found with baseline oleic acid (18:1n-9). Lower baseline monounsaturated fatty acids (14:1n-5, 16:1n-7 and trans 16:1n-7) in adipose tissue triglycerides predict better weight maintenance. Lower oleic acid predicts lower...

  3. Tissue Sodium Content is Elevated in the Skin and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Women with Lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, Rachelle; Marton, Adriana; Donahue, Paula M C; Mahany, Helen B; Lants, Sarah K; Wang, Ping; Beckman, Joshua A; Donahue, Manus J; Titze, Jens

    2018-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that tissue sodium and adipose content are elevated in patients with lipedema; if confirmed, this could establish precedence for tissue sodium and adipose content representing a discriminatory biomarker for lipedema. Participants with lipedema (n = 10) and control (n = 11) volunteers matched for biological sex, age, BMI, and calf circumference were scanned with 3.0-T sodium and conventional proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Standardized tissue sodium content was quantified in the calf skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and muscle. Dixon MRI was employed to quantify tissue fat and water volumes of the calf. Nonparametric statistical tests were applied to compare regional sodium content and fat-to-water volume between groups (significance: two-sided P ≤ 0.05). Skin (P = 0.01) and SAT (P = 0.04) sodium content were elevated in lipedema (skin: 14.9 ± 2.9 mmol/L; SAT: 11.9 ± 3.1 mmol/L) relative to control participants (skin: 11.9 ± 2.0 mmol/L; SAT: 9.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L). Relative fat-to-water volume in the calf was elevated in lipedema (1.2 ± 0.48 ratio) relative to control participants (0.63 ± 0.26 ratio; P lipedema, potentially providing objective imaging-based biomarkers for differentially diagnosing the under-recognized condition of lipedema from obesity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  4. Regional fat metabolism in human splanchnic and adipose tissues; the effect of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Bülow, Jens; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of splanchnic and adipose tissue in the regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism at rest, during 1 h of semi-recumbent cycle exercise at 60 % of maximal power output and 3 h of recovery. In six post-absorptive healthy volunteers catheters were placed...... in a radial artery, hepatic vein and a subcutaneous vein on the anterior abdominal wall. Whole body, and regional splanchnic and adipose tissue FA metabolism were measured by a constant infusion of the stable isotopes [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol and according to Fick's principle. The whole body...... that adipose tissue can metabolize glycerol....

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor - Activation Promotes Infiltration of Alternatively Activated Macrophages into Adipose Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, R.; Duval, C.N.C.; Keshtkar Ghiasabadi, S.; Laak, van der J.; Kersten, A.H.; Müller, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Adipose macrophages may contribute to an elevated inflammatory status by secreting a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Recent data suggest that during

  6. PPARγ activation promotes infiltration of alternatively activated macrophages into adipose tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Rinke; Duval, C.N.C.; Keshtkar, Shohreh; Laak, van der Jeroen; Kersten, Sander; Muller, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Adipose macrophages may contribute to an elevated inflammatory status by secreting a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators, including TNFalpha and IL-6. Recent data suggest that during diet-induced obesity the

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation promotes infiltration of alternatively activated macrophages into adipose tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, R.; Duval, C.; Keshtkar, S.; Laak, J. ter; Kersten, S.; Muller, M.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Adipose macrophages may contribute to an elevated inflammatory status by secreting a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Recent data suggest that during

  8. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance: the DIOGENES study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunesova, M.; Hlavaty, P.; Tvrzicka, E.; Stankova, B.; Kalouskova, P.; Viguerie, N.; Larsen, T.M.; van Baak, M.A.; Jebb, S.A.; Martinez, J.A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.; Kafatos, A.; Handjieva Darlenska, T.; Hill, M.; Langin, D.; Zak, A.; Astrup, A.; Saris, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. To assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES

  9. A FSI-based structural approach for micromechanical characterization of adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfi, Behzad; Sabzalinejad, Masoumeh; Haddad, Seyed M. H.; Fatouraee, Nasser; Samani, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel computational method for micromechanical modeling of adipose tissue. The model can be regarded as the first step for developing an inversion based framework that uses adipose stiffness data obtained from elastography to determine its microstructural alterations. Such information can be used as biomarkers for diseases associated with adipose tissue microstructure alteration (e.g. adipose tissue fibrosis and inflammation in obesity). In contrast to previous studies, the presented model follows a multiphase structure which accounts for both solid and fluid components as well as their mechanical interaction. In the model, the lipid droplets and extracellular matrix were considered as the fluid and solid phase, respectively. As such, the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem was solved using finite element method. In order to gain insight into how microstructural characteristics influence the macro scale mechanical properties of the adipose tissue, a compression mechanical test was simulated using the FSI model and its results were fitted to corresponding experimental data. The simulation procedure was performed for adipocytes in healthy conditions while the stiffness of extracellular matrix in normal adipose tissue was found by varying it systematically within an optimization process until the simulation response agreed with experimental data. Results obtained in this study are encouraging and show the capability of the proposed model to capture adipose tissue macroscale mechanical behavior based on its microstructure under health and different pathological conditions.

  10. Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Dandan; Zhu, Yingguo; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Li, Jian; Huang, Chao; Zou, Yuanfeng; Li, Lixia; Wu, De; Feng, Bin

    2017-10-18

    The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue.

  11. Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue.

  12. Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Dandan; Zhu, Yingguo; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Li, Jian; Huang, Chao; Li, Lixia; Wu, De

    2017-01-01

    The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue. PMID:29057818

  13. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) specific vaspin expression is increased after obesogenic diets and cold exposure and linked to acute changes in DNA-methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Juliane; Rohde, Kerstin; Krause, Kerstin; Zieger, Konstanze; Klöting, Nora; Kralisch, Susan; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Böttcher, Yvonne; Heiker, John T

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated anti-diabetic and anti-obesogenic properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) and so evoked its potential use for treatment of obesity-related diseases. The aim of the study was to unravel physiological regulators of vaspin expression and secretion with a particular focus on its role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) biology. We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT) and plasma levels. Vaspin expression was analyzed in isolated white and brown adipocytes during adipogenesis and in response to adrenergic stimuli. DNA-methylation within the vaspin promoter was analyzed to investigate acute epigenetic changes after cold-exposure in BAT. Our results demonstrate a strong induction of vaspin mRNA and protein expression specifically in BAT of both cold-exposed and high-fat (HF) or high-sugar (HS) fed mice. While obesogenic diets also upregulated hepatic vaspin mRNA levels, cold exposure tended to increase vaspin gene expression of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) depots. Concomitantly, vaspin plasma levels were decreased upon obesogenic or thermogenic triggers. Vaspin expression was increased during adipogenesis but unaffected by sympathetic activation in brown adipocytes. Analysis of vaspin promoter methylation in AT revealed lowest methylation levels in BAT, which were acutely reduced after cold exposure. Our data demonstrate a novel BAT-specific regulation of vaspin gene expression upon physiological stimuli in vivo with acute epigenetic changes that may contribute to cold-induced expression in BAT. We conclude that these findings indicate functional relevance and potentially beneficial effects of vaspin in BAT function.

  14. Developmental programming, adiposity, and reproduction in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, M E; Dellschaft, N; Pope, M; Birtwistle, M; Alagal, R; Keisler, D; Budge, H

    2016-07-01

    Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region. Its main role is the rapid generation of heat due to activation of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 at birth. The fetal adipose tissue response to suboptimal maternal food intake at defined stages of development differs between the perirenal abdominal and pericardial depots, with the latter being more sensitive. Fetal adipose tissue growth may be mediated in part by changes in leptin status of the mother which are paralleled in the fetus. Then, over the first month of life plasma leptin is higher in females than males despite similar adiposity, when fat is the fastest growing tissue with the sternal/neck depot retaining uncoupling protein 1, whereas other depots do not. Future studies should take into account the respective effects of fetal number and sex to provide more detailed insights into the mechanisms by which adipose and related tissues can be programmed in utero. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the Crosstalk between Adipose Tissue and the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a clinical entity critically involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is characterised by variable expansion of adipose tissue (AT) mass across the body as well as by phenotypic alterations in AT. AT is able to secrete a diverse spectrum of biologically active substances called adipocytokines, which reach the cardiovascular system via both endocrine and paracrine routes, potentially regulating a variety of physiological and pathophysiological responses in the vasculature and heart. Such responses include regulation of inflammation and oxidative stress as well as cell proliferation, migration and hypertrophy. Furthermore, clinical observations such as the “obesity paradox,” namely the fact that moderately obese patients with CVD have favourable clinical outcome, strongly indicate that the biological “quality” of AT may be far more crucial than its overall mass in the regulation of CVD pathogenesis. In this work, we describe the anatomical and biological diversity of AT in health and metabolic disease; we next explore its association with CVD and, importantly, novel evidence for its dynamic crosstalk with the cardiovascular system, which could regulate CVD pathogenesis. PMID:28955384

  16. Periparturient lipolysis and oxylipid biosynthesis in bovine adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, G Andres; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; de Souza, Jonas; Gandy, Jeff; Mavangira, Vengai; Lock, Adam L; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2017-01-01

    The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipolysis in adipose tissues (AT), which induces the release of free fatty acids (FFA) into circulation. Among FFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and can modulate inflammatory responses during lipolysis within AT. Linoleic and arachidonic acid oxidized products (oxylipids) such as hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODE) and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETE), were recently identified as products of lipolysis that could modulate AT inflammation during lipolysis. However, the effect of lipolysis intensity during the transition from gestation to lactation on fatty acid substrate availability and subsequent AT oxylipid biosynthesis is currently unknown. We hypothesized that in periparturient dairy cows, alterations in AT and plasma fatty acids and oxylipid profiles coincide with changes in lipolysis intensity and stage of lactation. Blood and subcutaneous AT samples were collected from periparturient cows at -27±7 (G1) and -10±5 (G2) d prepartum and at 8±3 d postpartum (PP). Targeted lipidomic analysis was performed on plasma and AT using HPLC-MS/MS. We report that FFA concentrations increased as parturition approached and were highest at PP. Cows exhibiting high lipolysis rate at PP (FFA>1.0 mEq/L) had higher body condition scores at G1 compared to cows with low lipolysis rate (FFAoxylipids including 5- and 15-HETE and 13-HODE. These results support a role for certain linoleic and arachidonic acid-derived oxylipids as positive and negative modulators of AT inflammation during periparturient lipolysis.

  17. Adipose tissue and sustainable development: a connection that needs protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eTremblay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is generally considered as an excess body fat that increases the risk to develop ergonomic, metabolic and psychosocial problems. As suggested in this paper, body fat gain is also a protective adaptation that prevents body lipotoxicity, contributes to the secretion of molecules involved in metabolic regulation, and dilutes lipid soluble persistent organic pollutants (POPs. Recent literature shows that this protective role of adipose tissue is more solicited in a modern context in which unsuspected factors can affect energy balance to a much greater extent than what is generally perceived by health care professionals. These factors include short sleep duration, demanding mental work, and chemical pollution whose impact is more detectable in a context dominated by economic productivity and competitiveness. Since these factors might also include the increase in atmospheric CO2, it is likely that obesity prevention will need the support of a promotion in sustainable development, whether it is for human health and well-being or global ecological protection.

  18. Brown adipose tissue: Updates in cellular and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is mainly composed of adipocytes, it is highly vascularized and innervated, and can be activated in adult humans. Brown adipocytes are responsible for performing non-shivering thermogenesis, which is exclusively mediated by uncoupling protein (UCP) -1 (a protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane), the hallmark of BAT, responsible for the uncoupling of the proton leakage from the ATP production, therefore, generating heat (i.e. thermogenesis). Besides UCP1, other compounds are essential not only to thermogenesis, but also to the proliferation and differentiation of BAT, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family, PPARgamma coactivator 1 (PGC1)-alpha, and PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain protein containing protein (PRDM) -16. The sympathetic nervous system centrally regulates thermogenesis through norepinephrine, which acts on the adrenergic receptors of BAT. This bound leads to the initialization of the many pathways that may activate thermogenesis in acute and/or chronic ways. In summary, this mini-review aims to demonstrate the latest advances in the knowledge of BAT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of adipose tissue for autologous fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Sieber, David A; Van Beek, Allen L; Cunningham, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Fat grafting is a common procedure in aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, but variable graft retention limits its utility. Unpredictable clinical outcomes with fat grafting can be explained in part by the lack of standardized protocols for harvesting, processing, and transplanting adipose tissue (AT). Historically, plastic surgeons have relied on trial and error and their clinical experience to develop fat grafting protocols. Optimization of fat grafting protocols requires systematic assessment of the impact that key variables have on the quality of the AT preparation at each step of the procedure. In this article, we review recent findings regarding the composition and quality of AT prepared for fat grafting and the strengths and limitations of existing AT characterization assays. We discuss the need for an assessment of the viability of intact AT (ie, conventionally harvested AT that has not been disrupted further) by means of an operator-independent, quantitative assay that can be performed in real time and generates reproducible data. Promising assays for the characterization of cell product quality have been developed for other therapeutic applications, such as transplantation of pancreatic islet cells. The development or adaptation of a gold-standard assay to determine the quality of an AT preparation may help to standardize fat grafting protocols and improve clinical outcomes. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness and Ablation Outcome of Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Yun, Chun-Ho; Lai, Yau-Huei; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Yu; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Yeh, Hung-I; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Epicardial fat was closely related to atrial fibrillation (AF). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has been proposed to be a convenient imaging tool in assessing epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the EAT thickness measured on TTE was a useful parameter in predicting procedural outcomes of AF ablations. Methods and Results A total of 227 paroxysmal AF (PAF) and 56 non-paroxysmal AF (non-PAF) patients receiving catheter ablations from 2008-2010 were enrolled. Echocardiography-derived regional EAT thickness from parasternal long-axis view was quantified for each patient. Free of recurrence was defined as the absence of atrial arrhythmias without using antiarrhythmic agents after ablations. The mean EAT thickness of the study population was 6.1 ± 0.8 mm. Non-PAF patients had a thicker EAT than that of PAF patients (7.0 ± 0.7 mm versus 5.9 ± 0.7 mm, p value EAT thickness were independent predictors of recurrence after catheter ablations. At a cutoff value of 6 mm for PAF and 6.9 mm for non-PAF, the measurement of EAT thickness could help us to identify patients at risk of recurrences. Conclusions EAT thickness may serve as a useful parameter in predicting recurrences after AF ablations. Compared to other imaging modalities, TTE can be an alternative choice with less cost and time in assessing the effects of EAT on ablation outcomes. PMID:24066158

  1. Glucocorticoids modulate human brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotney, Hannah; Symonds, Michael E; Law, James; Budge, Helen; Sharkey, Don; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos N

    2017-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ with substantial metabolic capacity and has important roles in the maintenance of body weight and metabolism. Regulation of BAT is primarily mediated through the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) pathway. The in vivo endocrine regulation of this pathway in humans is unknown. The objective of our study was to assess the in vivo BAT temperature responses to acute glucocorticoid administration. We studied 8 healthy male volunteers, not pre-selected for BAT presence or activity and without prior BAT cold-activation, on two occasions, following an infusion with hydrocortisone (0.2mg.kg -1 .min -1 for 14h) and saline, respectively. Infusions were given in a randomized double-blind order. They underwent assessment of supraclavicular BAT temperature using infrared thermography following a mixed meal, and during β-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (25ng.kg fat-free mass -1 .min -1 for 60min) in the fasting state. During hydrocortisone infusion, BAT temperature increased both under fasting basal conditions and during β-AR stimulation. We observed a BAT temperature threshold, which was not exceeded despite maximal β-AR activation. We conclude that BAT thermogenesis is present in humans under near-normal conditions. Glucocorticoids modulate BAT function, representing important physiological endocrine regulation of body temperature at times of acute stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Central neural control of thermoregulation and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-04-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the homeostatic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the experimental underpinnings of our current model of the CNS pathways controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction controlling heat loss, and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these effectors is regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific, core efferent pathways within the CNS that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. Via the lateral parabrachial nucleus, skin thermal afferent input reaches the hypothalamic preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control heat production by inhibiting thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to thermogenesis-controlling premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation of spinal circuits necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus sympathetic premotor neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. The model proposed for central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation and elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Leptin receptor in peripheral adipose tissues of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Sun Junjiang; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei; Han Liu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between leptin receptor and obesity by studying the leptin receptor density B max and dissociation constant K d in peripheral adipose tissue in subjects with different body weight mass (BMI). Methods: Leptin receptor density B max and K d were assayed via radioligand method in 71 cases, including 32 classified as obese, 19 over-weight and 20 normal control. Results: With the escalating of BMI, the leptin receptor density significantly decreased in obese and over-weight group compared with that in normal control (both P d values were of no differences among all three groups suggesting no correlation between the binding ability of leptin to its receptor and BMI. A negative correlation between BMI and B max (r=-0.76, P<0.01) displayed after all. Conclusion: Leptin receptor density correlates with the BMI in obese cases and it suggests that the down-regulation of leptin receptor may contribute to the occurrence of leptin resistance and obesity after-wards

  4. Molecular clock integration of brown adipose tissue formation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Deokhwa; Yechoor, Vijay K; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is an essential time-keeping mechanism that entrains internal physiology to environmental cues. Despite the well-established link between the molecular clock and metabolic homeostasis, an intimate interplay between the clock machinery and the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) is only emerging. Recently, we came to appreciate that the formation and metabolic functions of BAT, a key organ for body temperature maintenance, are under an orchestrated circadian clock regulation. Two complementary studies from our group uncover that the cell-intrinsic clock machinery exerts concerted control of brown adipogenesis with consequent impacts on adaptive thermogenesis, which adds a previously unappreciated temporal dimension to the regulatory mechanisms governing BAT development and function. The essential clock transcriptional activator, Bmal1, suppresses adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation, whereas the clock repressor, Rev-erbα, promotes these processes. This newly discovered temporal mechanism in fine-tuning BAT thermogenic capacity may enable energy utilization and body temperature regulation in accordance with external timing signals during development and functional recruitment. Given the important role of BAT in whole-body metabolic homeostasis, pharmacological interventions targeting the BAT-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders, particularly those associated with circadian dysregulation.

  5. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Ying, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5–11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  6. Automated adipose study for assessing cancerous human breast tissue using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yu; Yao, Xinwen; Chang, Ernest W.; Bin Amir, Syed A.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer is the third leading cause of death in women in the United States. In human breast tissue, adipose cells are infiltrated or replaced by cancer cells during the development of breast tumor. Therefore, an adipose map can be an indicator of identifying cancerous region. We developed an automated classification method to generate adipose map within human breast. To facilitate the automated classification, we first mask the B-scans from OCT volumes by comparing the signal noise ratio with a threshold. Then, the image was divided into multiple blocks with a size of 30 pixels by 30 pixels. In each block, we extracted texture features such as local standard deviation, entropy, homogeneity, and coarseness. The features of each block were input to a probabilistic model, relevance vector machine (RVM), which was trained prior to the experiment, to classify tissue types. For each block within the B-scan, RVM identified the region with adipose tissue. We calculated the adipose ratio as the number of blocks identified as adipose over the total number of blocks within the B-scan. We obtained OCT images from patients (n = 19) in Columbia medical center. We automatically generated the adipose maps from 24 B-scans including normal samples (n = 16) and cancerous samples (n = 8). We found the adipose regions show an isolated pattern that in cancerous tissue while a clustered pattern in normal tissue. Moreover, the adipose ratio (52.30 ± 29.42%) in normal tissue was higher than the that in cancerous tissue (12.41 ± 10.07%).

  7. Treatment of Rats with a Self-Selected Hyperlipidic Diet, Increases the Lipid Content of the Main Adipose Tissue Sites in a Proportion Similar to That of the Lipids in the Rest of Organs and Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María del Mar; Roy, Stéphanie; Pouillot, Karl; Feito, Marisol; Esteve, Montserrat; Grasa, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1–1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28–63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38–44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in “other organs” was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the ”rest” of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed. PMID:24603584

  8. Treatment of rats with a self-selected hyperlipidic diet, increases the lipid content of the main adipose tissue sites in a proportion similar to that of the lipids in the rest of organs and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Mar Romero

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents. Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1-1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28-63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle 38-44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in "other organs" was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle, as well as in the "rest" of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose or not-specialized (liver, muscle tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed.

  9. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2015-10-27

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be "epithelial"-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727.

  10. Adipose tissue deficiency and chronic inflammation in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Xue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2DM is a heterogeneous group of diseases that is progressive and involves multiple tissues. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats are a polygenic model with elevated blood glucose, peripheral insulin resistance, a non-obese phenotype, and exhibit many degenerative changes observed in human T2DM. As part of a systems analysis of disease progression in this animal model, this study characterized the contribution of adipose tissue to pathophysiology of the disease. We sacrificed subgroups of GK rats and appropriate controls at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age and carried out a gene array analysis of white adipose tissue. We expanded our physiological analysis of the animals that accompanied our initial gene array study on the livers from these animals. The expanded analysis included adipose tissue weights, HbA1c, additional hormonal profiles, lipid profiles, differential blood cell counts, and food consumption. HbA1c progressively increased in the GK animals. Altered corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin profiles were also documented in GK animals. Gene array analysis identified 412 genes that were differentially expressed in adipose tissue of GKs relative to controls. The GK animals exhibited an age-specific failure to accumulate body fat despite their relatively higher calorie consumption which was well supported by the altered expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of these animals, including Fasn, Acly, Kklf9, and Stat3. Systemic inflammation was reflected by chronically elevated white blood cell counts. Furthermore, chronic inflammation in adipose tissue was evident from the differential expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and activation of natural immunity, including two interferon regulated genes, Ifit and Iipg, as well as MHC class II genes. This study demonstrates an age specific failure to accumulate adipose tissue in the GK rat and the presence of chronic

  11. Different modulation by dietary restriction of adipokine expression in white adipose tissue sites in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Overweight male rats had their food intake reduced a 40% compared with free-feeding controls. On day ten, the rats were killed; circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triacylglycerols and other parameters were measured. The main WAT sites were dissected: mesenteric, retroperitoneal, epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal, which were weighed and frozen. Later all subcutaneous WAT was also dissected and weighed. Samples were used for DNA (cellularity analysis and mRNA extraction and semiquantitarive RT-PCR analysis of specific cytokine gene expressions. Results There was a good correlation between serum leptin and cumulative WAT leptin gene mRNA, but not for adiponectin. Food restriction reduced WAT size, but not its DNA content (except for epididymal WAT. Most cytokines were correlated to WAT site weight, but not to DNA. There was WAT site specialization in the differential expression (and probably secretion of adipokines: subcutaneous WAT showed the highest concentration for leptin, CD68 and MCP-1, mesenteric WAT for TNFα (and both tissues for the interleukins 1β and 6; resistin was highly expressed in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT. Conclusion Food restriction induced different patterns for mesenteric and the other WAT sites, which may be directly related to both the response to intestine-derived energy availability, and an inflammatory-related response. However, retroperitoneal WAT, and to a lower extent, subcutaneous and epididymal, reacted decreasing the expression of

  12. Carboxylesterase 1 gene duplication and mRNA expression in adipose tissue are linked to obesity and metabolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    involved in the control of mRNA expression. Here, we investigated mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and its association with measures of adiposity and metabolic function in a population of elderly twins. Furthermore, the heritability of mRNA expression level in adipose tissue and the effect of gene...

  13. Periparturient lipolysis and oxylipid biosynthesis in bovine adipose tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Andres Contreras

    Full Text Available The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipolysis in adipose tissues (AT, which induces the release of free fatty acids (FFA into circulation. Among FFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and can modulate inflammatory responses during lipolysis within AT. Linoleic and arachidonic acid oxidized products (oxylipids such as hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODE and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETE, were recently identified as products of lipolysis that could modulate AT inflammation during lipolysis. However, the effect of lipolysis intensity during the transition from gestation to lactation on fatty acid substrate availability and subsequent AT oxylipid biosynthesis is currently unknown. We hypothesized that in periparturient dairy cows, alterations in AT and plasma fatty acids and oxylipid profiles coincide with changes in lipolysis intensity and stage of lactation. Blood and subcutaneous AT samples were collected from periparturient cows at -27±7 (G1 and -10±5 (G2 d prepartum and at 8±3 d postpartum (PP. Targeted lipidomic analysis was performed on plasma and AT using HPLC-MS/MS. We report that FFA concentrations increased as parturition approached and were highest at PP. Cows exhibiting high lipolysis rate at PP (FFA>1.0 mEq/L had higher body condition scores at G1 compared to cows with low lipolysis rate (FFA<1.0 mEq/L. Concentrations of plasma linoleic and arachidonic acids were increased at PP. In AT, 13-HODE, and 5-, 11- and 15-HETE were increased at PP compared to G1 and G2. Concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate were positively correlated with those of 13-HODE and 15-HETE in AT. Plasma concentrations of 5- and 20-HETE were increased at PP. These data demonstrate that prepartum adiposity predisposes cows to intense lipolysis post-partum and may exacerbate AT inflammation because of increased production of pro-inflammatory oxylipids including 5- and 15-HETE and 13-HODE. These results

  14. Uric Acid Secretion from Adipose Tissue and Its Increase in Obesity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Yu; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Nagao, Hirofumi; Shirakura, Takashi; Kato, Kenta; Imaizumi, Keiichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Mizuho; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, purine metabolism in various tissues, especially regarding uric acid production, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report, using mouse models, that adipose tissue could produce and secrete uric acid through xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and that the production was enhanced in obesity. Plasma uric acid was elevated in obese mice and attenuated by administration of the XOR inhibitor febuxostat. Adipose tissue was one of major organs that had abundant expression and activities of XOR, and adipose tissues in obese mice had higher XOR activities than those in control mice. 3T3-L1 and mouse primary mature adipocytes produced and secreted uric acid into culture medium. The secretion was inhibited by febuxostat in a dose-dependent manner or by gene knockdown of XOR. Surgical ischemia in adipose tissue increased local uric acid production and secretion via XOR, with a subsequent increase in circulating uric acid levels. Uric acid secretion from whole adipose tissue was increased in obese mice, and uric acid secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased under hypoxia. Our results suggest that purine catabolism in adipose tissue could be enhanced in obesity. PMID:23913681

  15. Prolactin suppresses malonyl-CoA concentration in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, L. A.; Roepstorff, Carsten; Kiens, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Prolactin is best known for its involvement in lactation, where it regulates mechanisms that supply nutrients for milk production. In individuals with pathological hyperprolactinemia, glucose and fat homeostasis have been reported to be negatively influenced. It is not previously known, however......, whether prolactin regulates lipogenesis in human adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolactin on lipogenesis in human adipose tissue in vitro. Prolactin decreased the concentration of malonyl-CoA, the product of the first committed step in lipogenesis, to 77......+/-6% compared to control 100+/-5% (p=0.022) in cultured human adipose tissue. In addition, prolactin was found to decrease glucose transporter 4 ( GLUT4) mRNA expression, which may cause decreased glucose uptake. In conclusion, we propose that prolactin decreases lipogenesis in human adipose tissue...

  16. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid...... metabolism during a 3 h post-exercise period. Six subjects were studied twice. In one experiment, they exercised for 90 min at 40% of maximal O2 consumption (VO2,max) and in the other experiment they exercised at 60% VO2,max for 60 min. For both experiments, catheters were inserted in an artery......, a subcutaneous abdominal vein and a femoral vein. Adipose tissue metabolism and skeletal muscle (leg) metabolism were measured using Fick's principle. The results show that the lipolytic rate in adipose tissue during exercise was the same in each experiment. Post-exercise, there was a very fast decrease...

  17. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine...

  18. Effect of training on insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Larsen, J J; Mikines, K J

    2000-01-01

    Training increases insulin sensitivity of both whole body and muscle in humans. To investigate whether training also increases insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, we performed a three-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in eight endurance-trained (T) and eight sedentary (S) young men...... (glucose only). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. In the basal state, adipose tissue blood flow tended to be higher in T compared with S subjects, and in both groups blood flow was constant during the clamp. The change from basal in arterial-interstitial glucose concentration......-time: T, 44 +/- 9 min (n = 7); S, 102 +/- 23 min (n = 5); P training enhances insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in subcutaneous adipose tissue and in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, interstitial glycerol data suggest that training also increases insulin sensitivity of lipolysis...

  19. Adipose tissue and adrenal glands: novel pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Atil Y; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or "adipokines" have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of "cross talk" between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  20. Link Between GIP and Osteopontin in Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlqvist, Emma; Osmark, Peter; Kuulasmaa, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophage-derived cytokine osteopontin (OPN) in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis...... and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored whether GIP directly would stimulate OPN expression in adipose tissue and thereby induce insulin resistance. GIP stimulated OPN protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in rat primary adipocytes. The level of OPN mRNA was higher...... for transmembrane activity. Carriers of the A allele with a reduced receptor function showed lower adipose tissue OPN mRNA levels and better insulin sensitivity. Together, these data suggest a role for GIP not only as an incretin hormone but also as a trigger of inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue...

  1. The role of innate immune cells in obese adipose tissue inflammation and development of insulin resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Chung, K.-J.; Chavakis, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2013), s. 399-406 ISSN 0340-6245 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Obesity * adipose tissue * inflammation * review * leukocytes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.760, year: 2013

  2. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4......Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression.......5, and 6 h in response to exercise (n = 8) compared with preexercise samples and compared with the resting control group (n = 7, P = 0.001). Visfatin mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not influenced by exercise. The exercise-induced increase in adipose tissue visfatin was, however, not accompanied...

  3. RNA-seq analysis of bovine intramuscular, subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xihui; Ni, Hemin; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Junya; Zhang, Lupei; Guo, Yong

    2014-03-01

    The deposition of intramuscular fat is an important factor affecting the beef quality, such as flavour and palatability. In this study, for further identifying the differential molecular mechanisms regulating the deposition of fat between intramuscular and external adipose tissues, particularly subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, it was designed to obtain transcript sequence data and compare the transcriptomes among intramuscular, subcutaneous, and perirenal adipose tissues by RNA-Seq. A total of 66,206,912, 55,114,070 and 67,320,426 fragments were sequenced for the intramuscular (IAT), subcutaneous (SAT), and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) respectively. Among them, total 953, 1,534, 2,026 genes showing differential expression between IAT and SAT, IAT and PAT, SAT and PAT, were identified respectively (FDR fat deposition, especially intramuscular fat, at a fine scale.

  4. Altered Protein Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gertow

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: These findings demonstrate that adipose tissue of CKD patients shows signs of inflammation and disturbed functionality, thus potentially contributing to the unfavorable metabolic profile and increased risk of CVD in these patients.

  5. The Pericytic Phenotype of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells Is Promoted by NOTCH2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlizzi, Vincenzo; Kolibabka, Matthias; Burgess, Janette Kay; Hammes, Hans Peter; Harmsen, Martin Conrad

    Long-term diabetes leads to macrovascular and microvascular complication. In diabetic retinopathy (DR), persistent hyperglycemia causes permanent loss of retinal pericytes and aberrant proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells (ECs). Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) may serve to

  6. Validation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of pericardial adipose tissue volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Prashanthan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary artery disease. To date its assessment has been restricted to the use of surrogate echocardiographic indices such as measurement of epicardial fat thickness over the right ventricular free wall, which have limitations. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR offers the potential to non-invasively assess total PAT, however like other imaging modalities, CMR has not yet been validated for this purpose. Thus, we sought to describe a novel technique for assessing total PAT with validation in an ovine model. Methods 11 merino sheep were studied. A standard clinical series of ventricular short axis CMR images (1.5T Siemens Sonata were obtained during mechanical ventilation breath-holds. Beginning at the mitral annulus, consecutive end-diastolic ventricular images were used to determine the area and volume of epicardial, paracardial and pericardial adipose tissue. In addition adipose thickness was measured at the right ventricular free wall. Following euthanasia, the paracardial adipose tissue was removed from the ventricle and weighed to allow comparison with corresponding CMR measurements. Results There was a strong correlation between CMR-derived paracardial adipose tissue volume and ex vivo paracardial mass (R2 = 0.89, p ex vivo paracardial mass (R2 = 0.003, p = 0.878. Conclusion In this ovine model, CMR-derived paracardial adipose tissue volume, but not the corresponding and conventional measure of paracardial adipose thickness over the RV free wall, accurately reflected paracardial adipose tissue mass. This study validates for the first time, the use of clinically utilised CMR sequences for the accurate and reproducible assessment of pericardial adiposity. Furthermore this non-invasive modality does not use ionising radiation and therefore is ideally suited for future studies of PAT and its role in cardiovascular risk prediction and

  7. Generating an Engineered Adipose Tissue Flap Using an External Suspension Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinlin; Dong, Ziqing; Lei, Chen; Lu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    The tissue-engineering chamber technique can generate large volumes of adipose tissue, which provides a potential solution for the complex reconstruction of large soft-tissue defects. However, major drawbacks of this technique are the foreign-body reaction and the volume limitation imposed by the chamber. In this study, the authors developed a novel tissue-engineering method using a specially designed external suspension device that generates an optimized volume of adipose flap and avoids the implantation of foreign material. The rabbits were processed using two different tissue-engineering methods, the external suspension device technique and the traditional tissue-engineering chamber technique. The adipose flaps generated by the external suspension device had a normal adipose tissue structure that was as good as that generated by the traditional tissue-engineering chamber, but the flap volume was much larger. The final volume of the engineered adipose flap grew between weeks 0 and 36 from 5.1 ml to 30.7 ml in the traditional tissue-engineering chamber group and to 80.5 ml in the external suspension device group. During the generation process, there were no marked differences between the two methods in terms of structural and cellular changes of the flap, except that the flaps in the traditional tissue-engineering chamber group had a thicker capsule at the early stage. In addition, the enlarged flaps generated by the external suspension device could be reshaped into specific shapes by the implant chamber. This minimally invasive external suspension device technique can generate large-volume adipose flaps. Combined with a reshaping method, this technique should facilitate clinical application of adipose tissue engineering.

  8. Adipose Tissue and Adipokines: The Association with and Application of Adipokines in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad; Joseph, Frank

    2014-01-01

    2014 marks the 20th anniversary of adipokines. Through the identification of leptin, our perceived understanding of adipose tissue was changed instantaneously. From a simple dormant site of energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as an integral hub of various hormones known as adipokines. Although great strides have been made in characterizing these hormones in health, research also shows they are significantly implicated in a series of pathologies. One such condition is obesity. Def...

  9. Metabolic adaptation of white adipose tissue to nutritional and environmental challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of main findings When adipose tissue is present in excessive amounts, as in obesity, it predisposes to a number of pathologies. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial condition as it influences many endogenous genetic, endocrine, and inflammatory pathways. Excess dietary intake is one of the important factors which are responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity. For the understanding of the reciprocity between consumed diet and excessive amounts of adipose tissue, it is essent...

  10. Adipose Tissue and Adrenal Glands: Novel Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kargi, Atil Y.; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unkn...

  11. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may prov...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  12. Effects of glucose and insulin on secretion of amyloid?? by human adipose tissue cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tharp, William G.; Gupta, Dhananjay; Smith, Joshua; Jones, Karen P.; Jones, Amanda M.; Pratley, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are risk factors for developing Alzheimer disease. Overlapping patterns of metabolic dysfunction may be common molecular links between these complex diseases. Amyloid?? (A?) precursor protein and associated ?? and ??secretases are expressed in adipose tissue. A? precursor protein is up?regulated with obesity and correlated to insulin resistance. A? may be secreted by adipose tissue, its production may be regulated through metabolic pathways, and ...

  13. Adipose tissue inflammation and cancer cachexia: the role of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelaender, Marilia C L; Batista, Miguel Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation plays a role in the etiology of many chronic diseases, and has been the focus of much attention in the context of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Similarly, during cancer cachexia, a syndrome that markedly increases cancer-associated morbidity and mortality, local adipose inflammation is reported in animal models and in patients, potentially contributing to the chronic systemic inflammation that constitutes the hallmark of this condition. We discuss, on the basis of information generated by obesity-related studies, the possible relation between adipose tissue inflammation and compromised steroid hormone secretion and action in cachexia.

  14. Hypoxia Enhances Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells toward the Smooth Muscle Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Fink, Trine; Maeda, Yasuko; Emmersen, Jeppe

    2018-02-08

    Smooth muscle differentiated adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a valuable resource for regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues, such as the gut and sphincters. Hypoxia has been shown to promote adipose tissue-derived stem cells proliferation and maintenance of pluripotency, but the influence of hypoxia on their smooth myogenic differentiation remains unexplored. This study investigated the phenotype and contractility of adipose-derived stem cells differentiated toward the smooth myogenic lineage under hypoxic conditions. Oxygen concentrations of 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% were used during differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression of smooth muscle cells-specific markers, including early marker smooth muscle alpha actin, middle markers calponin, caldesmon, and late marker smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. The specific contractile properties of cells were verified with both a single cell contraction assay and a gel contraction assay. Five percent oxygen concentration significantly increased the expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin heavy chain in adipose-derived stem cell cultures after 2 weeks of induction ( p Cells differentiated in 5% oxygen conditions showed greater contraction effect ( p cells from adipose stem cells and 5% oxygen was the optimal condition to generate smooth muscle cells that contract from adipose stem cells.

  15. Sympathetic denervation of one white fat depot changes norepinephrine content and turnover in intact white and brown fat depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth B.S.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that the sympathetic nervous system regulates adipocyte metabolism and recently it has been reported that sensory afferents from white fat overlap anatomically with sympathetic efferents to white fat. The studies described here characterize the response of intact fat pads to selective sympathectomy (local 6-hydroxydopamine injections) of inguinal (ING) or epididymal (EPI) fat in male NIH Swiss mice and provide in vivo evidence for communication between individual white and brown fat depots. The contralateral ING pad, both EPI pads, perirenal and mesenteric pads were significantly enlarged four weeks after denervating one ING pad, but only intrascapular brown fat (IBAT) increased when both ING pads were denervated. Denervation of one or both EPI pad had no effect on fat depot weights. In an additional experiment, NE turnover was inhibited in ING, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and IBAT two days after denervation of both EPI or of both ING pads. NE content was reduced to 10-30% of control values in all fat depots. There was no relation between early changes in NE turnover and fat pad weight 4 weeks after denervation, even though the reduction in NE content of intact fat pads was maintained. These data demonstrate that there is communication among individual fat pads, presumably through central integration of activity of sensory afferent and sympathetic efferent fibers,that changes sympathetic drive to white adipose tissue in a unified manner. In specific situations, removal of sympathetic efferents to one pad induces a compensatory enlargement of other intact depots. PMID:22513494

  16. The "Big Bang" in obese fat: Events initiating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensveen, Felix M; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Polić, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which is an important underlying cause of insulin resistance and progression to diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Although the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in disease development is established, the initiating events leading to immune cell activation remain elusive. Lean adipose tissue is predominantly populated with regulatory cells, such as eosinophils and type 2 innate lymphocytes. These cells maintain tissue homeostasis through the excretion of type 2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which keep adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in an anti-inflammatory, M2-like state. Diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in VAT, characterized by IFN-γ. A key event is a shift of ATMs toward an M1 phenotype. Recent studies show that obesity-induced adipocyte hypertrophy results in upregulated surface expression of stress markers. Adipose stress is detected by local sentinels, such as NK cells and CD8(+) T cells, which produce IFN-γ, driving M1 ATM polarization. A rapid accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in VAT follows, leading to inflammation. In this review, we provide an overview of events leading to adipose tissue inflammation, with a special focus on adipose homeostasis and the obesity-induced loss of homeostasis which marks the initiation of VAT inflammation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The relationship between bone mineral density and adipose tissue of postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, HwaMyeong Iisin christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and obesity due to changes in hormones. The relationship between osteoporosis and body weight is known, and its relation with body fat mass is discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density(BMD) changes of epicardial adipose tissue(EAT) and abdominal subcutaneous fat. The subjects of this study were 160 postmenopausal women who underwent BMD and echocardiography. The thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue was measured in three sections and the BMD were meassured according to the diagnostic criteria. The results of this study that age increase the risk of osteoporosis increases, and as the weight and BMI decrease, the risk of osteoporosis increases(p<0.05). The relationship between changes in bone mineral density and adipose tissue in postmenopausal women, increased epicardial adipose tissue was negatively correlated with the bone mineral density(p<0.05). conversely, increased abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was positively correlated with bone mineral density(p<0.05). In other words, the effect of bone mineral density on the location of adipose tissue was different. If Echocardiography is used to periodically examine changes in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue, it may be prevented before proceeding to osteoporosis.

  18. The Linkage between Breast Cancer, Hypoxia, and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K. Rausch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe development of breast cancer cells is linked to hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced factor HIF-1α influences metastasis through neovascularization. Hypoxia seems to decrease the responsiveness to hormonal treatment due to loss of estrogen receptors (ERs. Obesity is discussed to increase hypoxia in adipocytes, which promotes a favorable environment for tumor cells in mammary fat tissue, whereas, tumor cells profit from good oxygen supply and are influenced by its deprivation as target regions within tumors show. This review gives an overview of the current state on research of hypoxia and breast cancer in human adipose tissue.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed (2000–2016 by applying hypoxia and/or adipocytes and breast cancer as keywords. Review articles were excluded as well as languages other than English or German. There was no restriction regarding the study design or type of breast cancer. A total of 35 papers were found. Eight studies were excluded due to missing at least two of the three keywords. One paper was removed due to Russian language, and one was dismissed due to lack of adherence. Seven papers were identified as reviews. After applying exclusion criteria, 18 articles were eligible for inclusion.ResultsTwo articles describe the impairment of mammary epithelial cell polarization through hypoxic preconditioning. A high amount of adipocytes enhances cancer progression due to the increased expression of HIF-1α which causes the loss of ER α protein as stated in four articles. Four articles analyzed that increased activation of HIF’s induces a series of transcriptions resulting in tumor angiogenesis. HIF inhibition, especially when combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy, holds strong potential for tumor suppression as stated in further four articles. In two articles there is evidence of a strong connection between hypoxia, oxidative stress and a poor prognosis for breast cancer via HIF regulated

  19. The regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours. Studies using the 133-xenon wash-out technique continuously over 24 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1988-01-01

    A method for continuous measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours (SBF) is described. The method is based on the radioisotope wash-out principle using 133-Xenon. A portable semiconductor detector is placed just above a local depot of 1-2 microCi 133-Xenon...... indicator. Characteristic 24-hour blood flow patterns were unveiled in patients with normal peripheral circulation and in patients having ischaemic nocturnal rest pain. In normals SBF doubled from day to night. This is ascribed to the local veno-arteriolar sympathetic axon reflex, which induces arteriolar...... vasoconstriction when the transmural pressure of the veins exceeds approximately 25 mmHg. In patients having ischaemic rest pains SBF was reduced by 37% on the average from day to night. This was caused by nocturnal hypotension, which is reflected proportionally in the foot. As the resistance vessels most probably...

  20. Adipose tissue deficiency of hormone-sensitive lipase causes fatty liver in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bo; Cai, Guo He; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Mitchell, Grant A; Wu, Jiang Wei

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver is a major health problem worldwide. People with hereditary deficiency of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are reported to develop fatty liver. In this study, systemic and tissue-specific HSL-deficient mice were used as models to explore the underlying mechanism of this association. We found that systemic HSL deficient mice developed fatty liver in an age-dependent fashion between 3 and 8 months of age. To further explore the mechanism of fatty liver in HSL deficiency, liver-specific HSL knockout mice were created. Surprisingly, liver HSL deficiency did not influence liver fat content, suggesting that fatty liver in HSL deficiency is not liver autonomous. Given the importance of adipose tissue in systemic triglyceride metabolism, we created adipose-specific HSL knockout mice and found that adipose HSL deficiency, to a similar extent as systemic HSL deficiency, causes age-dependent fatty liver in mice. Mechanistic study revealed that deficiency of HSL in adipose tissue caused inflammatory macrophage infiltrates, progressive lipodystrophy, abnormal adipokine secretion and systemic insulin resistance. These changes in adipose tissue were associated with a constellation of changes in liver: low levels of fatty acid oxidation, of very low density lipoprotein secretion and of triglyceride hydrolase activity, each favoring the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, HSL-deficient mice revealed a complex interorgan interaction between adipose tissue and liver: the role of HSL in the liver is minimal but adipose tissue deficiency of HSL can cause age-dependent hepatic steatosis. Adipose tissue is a potential target for treating the hepatic steatosis of HSL deficiency.

  1. Alternative mechanism for white adipose tissue lipolysis after thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Li; Patsouris, David; Sadri, Ali-Reza; Dai, Xiaojing; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-29

    Extensively burned patients often suffer from sepsis, a complication that enhances post-burn hypermetabolism and contributes to increased incidence of multiple organ failure, morbidity and mortality. Despite the clinical importance of burn sepsis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of such infection-related metabolic derangements and organ dysfunction are still largely unknown. We recently found that upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the white adipose tissue (WAT) interacts with the liver via inflammatory and metabolic signals leading to profound hepatic alterations, including hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic fatty infiltration. We therefore hypothesized that burn plus infection causes an increase in lipolysis of WAT after major burn, partially through induction of ER stress, contributing to hyperlipidemia and profound hepatic lipid infiltration. We used a two-hit rat model of 60% total body surface area scald burn, followed by intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 3 days post-burn. One day later, animals were sacrificed and liver and epididymal WAT (EWAT) samples were collected for gene expression, protein analysis and histological study of inflammasome activation, ER stress, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. Our results showed that burn plus LPS profoundly increased lipolysis in WAT associated with significantly increased hepatic lipid infiltration. Burn plus LPS augmented ER stress by upregulating CHOP and activating ATF6, inducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and leading to increased apoptosis and lipolysis in WAT with a distinct enzymatic mechanism related to inhibition of AMPK signaling. In conclusion, burn sepsis causes profound alterations in WAT and liver which are associated with changes in organ function and structure.

  2. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Theodora Szasz,1 Gisele Facholi Bomfim,2 R Clinton Webb1 1Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT. Keywords: adipokines

  3. Ectopic brown adipose tissue in muscle provides a mechanism for differences in risk of metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almind, Katrine; Manieri, Monia; Sivitz, William I; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C Ronald

    2007-02-13

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice subjected to a high-fat diet develop metabolic syndrome with obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, whereas 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice are relatively protected from this disorder because of differences in higher basal energy expenditure in 129 mice, leading to lower weight gain. At a molecular level, this difference correlates with a marked higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a higher degree of uncoupling in vitro in mitochondria isolated from muscle of 129 versus B6 mice. Detailed histological examination, however, reveals that this UCP1 is in mitochondria of brown adipocytes interspersed between muscle bundles. Indeed, the number of UCP1-positive brown fat cells in intermuscular fat in 129 mice is >700-fold higher than in B6 mice. These brown fat cells are subject to further up-regulation of UCP1 after stimulation with a beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Thus, ectopic deposits of brown adipose tissue in intermuscular depots with regulatable expression of UCP1 provide a genetically based mechanism of protection from weight gain and metabolic syndrome between strains of mice.

  4. Molecular alterations induced by a high-fat high-fiber diet in porcine adipose tissues: variations according to the anatomical fat location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Vincent, Annie; Houée-Bigot, Magalie; Siegel, Anne; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Louveau, Isabelle; Causeur, David

    2016-02-18

    Changing the energy and nutrient source for growing animals may be an effective way of limiting adipose tissue expansion, a response which may depend on the genetic background of the animals. This study aims to describe the transcriptional modulations present in the adipose tissues of two pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake which were either fed a high-fat high-fiber (HF) diet or an isocaloric low-fat high-starch diet (LF). Transcriptomic analysis using a porcine microarray was performed on 48 pigs (n = 12 per diet and per line) in both perirenal (PRAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissues. There was no interaction between diet and line on either adiposity or transcriptional profiles, so that the diet effect was inferred independently of the line. Irrespective of line, the relative weights of the two fat depots were lower in HF pigs than in LF pigs after 58 days on dietary treatment. In the two adipose tissues, the most apparent effect of the HF diet was the down-regulation of several genes associated with the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which therefore may be associated with dietary-induced modulations in genes acting in apoptotic and cell cycle regulatory pathways. Genes involved in glucose metabolic processes were also down-regulated by the HF diet, with no significant variation or decreased expression of important lipid-related genes such as the low-density lipoprotein receptor and leptin in the two fat pads. The master regulators of glucose and fatty acid homeostasis SREBF1 and MLXIPL, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ and its heterodimeric partner RXRA were down-regulated by the HF diet. PPARγ which has pleiotropic functions including lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation, was however up-regulated by this diet in PRAT and SCAT. Dietary-related modulations in the expression of genes associated with immunity and inflammation were mainly revealed in PRAT. A high-fat high-fiber diet depressed glucose and

  5. Adipose Tissue Hypoxia in Obesity and Its Impact on Preadipocytes and Macrophages: Hypoxia Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Obese subjects exhibit lower adipose tissue oxygen consumption in accordance with the lower adipose tissue blood flow. Thus, compared with lean subjects, obese subjects have 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF expression together with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) activity also requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- and target of rapamycin (TOR)-mediated signaling. HIF-1alpha is an important signaling molecule for hypoxia to induce the inflammatory responses. Hypoxia affects a number of biological functions, such as angiogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and insulin resistance. Additionally, reactive oxygen radical (ROS) generation at mitochondria is responsible for propagation of the hypoxic signal. Actually mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production, but not oxygen consumption is required for hypoxic HIF-1alpha protein stabilization. Adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity is reduced in obese compared with non-obese adults. In this respect, mitochondrial dysfunction of adipocyte is associated with the overall adiposity. Furthermore, hypoxia also inhibits macrophage migration from the hypoxic adipose tissue. Alterations in oxygen availability of adipose tissue directly affect the macrophage polarization and are responsible from dysregulated adipocytokines production in obesity. Hypoxia also inhibits adipocyte differentiation from preadipocytes. In addition to stressed adipocytes, hypoxia contributes to immune cell immigration and activation which further aggravates adipose tissue fibrosis. Fibrosis is initiated in response to adipocyte hypertrophy in obesity.

  6. Role of arsenic exposure in adipose tissue dysfunction and its possible implication in diabetes pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renu, Kaviyarasi; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Madhyastha, Radha; Maruyama, Masugi; Arunachlam, Sankarganesh; V G, Abilash

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water can stimulate a diverse number of diseases that originate from impaired lipid metabolism in adipose and glucose metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. Arsenic inhibits differentiation of adipocyte and mediates insulin resistance with diminutive information on arsenicosis on lipid storage and lipolysis. This review focused on different mechanisms and pathways involved in adipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue during arsenic-induced diabetes. Though arsenic is known to cause type2 diabetes through different mechanisms, the role of adipose tissue in causing type2 diabetes is still unclear. With the existing literature, this review exhibits the effect of arsenic on adipose tissue and its signalling events such as SIRT3- FOXO3a signalling pathway, Ras -MAP -AP-1 cascade, PI(3)-K-Akt pathway, endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP10) and GPCR pathway with role of adipokines. There is a need to elucidate the different types of adipokines which are involved in arsenic-induced diabetes. The exhibited information brings to light that arsenic has negative effects on a white adipose tissue (WAT) by decreasing adipogenesis and enhancing lipolysis. Some of the epidemiological studies show that arsenic would causes obesity. Few studies indicate that arsenic might induces lipodystrophy condition. Further research is needed to evaluate the mechanistic link between arsenic and adipose tissue dysfunction which leads to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  8. Diet-induced weight loss decreases adipose tissue oxygen tension with parallel changes in adipose tissue phenotype and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, R.G.; Roumans, N.J.; Čajlaković, M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Fazelzadeh, P.; Vogel, M.A.A.; Blaak, E.E.; Mariman, E.C.; Baak, van M.A.; Goossens, G.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background/objectives: Although adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia is present in rodent models of obesity, evidence for this in humans is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss (WL) on abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygen tension (pO 2), AT blood flow (ATBF), AT capillary

  9. Regulation of Microvascular Function by Adipose Tissue in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence of an Adipose-Vascular Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanrui; Zhang, Cuihua

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the general concept has emerged that chronic low-grade inflammation is the condition linking excessive development of adipose tissue and obesity-associated pathologies such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by a diminished production of protective factors such as adiponectin and increased detrimental adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemoa...

  10. Fat Depots, Free Fatty Acids, and Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon O. Ebbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Body fat deposition and excess free fatty acid (FFA metabolism contribute to dyslipidemia and the adverse health consequences of obesity. Individuals with upper body obesity have impaired functioning of adipocytes, the primary fatty acid storage site. Excess visceral fat is strongly associated with impaired suppression of FFA release in response to insulin, as well as with hypertriglyceridemia and low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. High FFA concentrations can induce insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Furthermore, failure of hyperinsulinemia to normally suppress FFA is associated with impaired carbohydrate oxidation and muscle glucose storage, reduced hepatic insulin clearance and elevated triglycerides. Understanding the impact of body fat distribution on FFA metabolism and dyslipidemia is critical for determining the link between overweight and obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. In the current review, we will explore the relationship between adipose tissue, body fat depots, and FFA metabolism.

  11. Epicardial adipose tissue is associated with visceral fat, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Muñoz, María J; Basurto Acevedo, Lourdes; Córdova Pérez, Nydia; Vázquez Martínez, Ana Laura; Tepach Gutiérrez, Nayive; Vega García, Sara; Rocha Cruz, Alberto; Díaz Martínez, Alma; Saucedo García, Renata; Zárate Treviño, Arturo; González Escudero, Eduardo Alberto; Degollado Córdova, José Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has been associated with several obesity-related parameters and with insulin resistance. Echocardiographic assessment of this tissue is an easy and reliable marker of cardiometabolic risk. However, there are insufficient studies on the relationship between epicardial fat and insulin resistance during the postmenopausal period, when cardiovascular risk increases in women. The objective of this study was to examine the association between epicardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, body mass index, and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome. All participants underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram and body composition analysis. A positive correlation was observed between epicardial fat and visceral adipose tissue, body mass index, and waist circumference. The values of these correlations of epicardial fat thickness overlying the aorta-right ventricle were r = 0.505 (P < .003), r = 0.545 (P < .001), and r = 0.515 (P < .003), respectively. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome than in those without this syndrome (mean [standard deviation], 544.2 [122.9] vs 363.6 [162.3] mm(2); P = .03). Epicardial fat thickness measured by echocardiography was associated with visceral adipose tissue and other obesity parameters. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, echocardiographic assessment of epicardial fat may be a simple and reliable marker of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber-based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p > 0.05, N = 3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p > 0.05, N = 3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing.

  13. Nutrition-dependent changes of mouse adipose tissue compositions monitored by NMR, MS, and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkova, Yulia; Meusel, Andrej; Breitfeld, Jana; Schleinitz, Dorit; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Dannenberger, Dirk; Kovacs, Peter; Schiller, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Many diseases nowadays are assumed to be genetically determined. Therefore, many knockout mouse models have been established and are widely used. Unfortunately, nutrition (in particular the fat content of food) is often neglected in studies on these disease models. In this study the effects of nutrition on the lipid (triacylglycerol, TAG) compositions of different mouse adipose tissues were investigated. Mice were subjected to different diets [high fat (HF) vs. standard diet (SD)] and different adipose tissue samples (brown, visceral, and subcutaneous fat) were isolated after 12 weeks. Subsequent to lipid extraction, the organic extracts were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MALDI and ESI), high-resolution (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and gas chromatography (GC). In adipose tissue of mice fed with HF diet, (a) decreased double bond contents and (b) decreased fatty acyl chain lengths of tissue TAGs were observed; this trend could be concomitantly monitored by all methods used. However, the adipose tissue still contained significant amounts of slightly unsaturated fatty acyl residues (18:1). Thus, a certain double bond content seems necessary to maintain the properties of adipose tissues.

  14. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  15. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J

    2001-01-01

    1. Adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue may increase with training. The rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis is catalysed by the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We studied the effect of exercise training on the activity of the total and the activated form of HSL......, n = 12) or sedentary (S, n = 12). Then RE and ME adipose tissue and the EDL and soleus muscles were incubated for 20 min with 4.4 microM adrenaline. 3. HSL enzyme activities in adipose tissue were higher in T compared with S rats. Furthermore, in RE adipose tissue, training also doubled HSL protein...... not differ between T and S rats (P > 0.05). 4. In conclusion, training increased the amount of HSL and the sensitivity of HSL to stimulation by adrenaline in intra-abdominal adipose tissue, the extent of the change differing between anatomical locations. In contrast, in skeletal muscle the amount of HSL...

  16. Rapamycin Blocks Induction of the Thermogenic Program in White Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cassie M; Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Ye, Lan; Frederick, David W; Kissig, Megan; Davis, James G; Lamming, Dudley W; Seale, Patrick; Baur, Joseph A

    2016-04-01

    Rapamycin extends life span in mice, yet paradoxically causes lipid dysregulation and glucose intolerance through mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Whole-body energy balance can be influenced by beige/brite adipocytes, which are inducible by cold and other stimuli via β-adrenergic signaling in white adipose depots. Induction of beige adipocytes is considered a promising strategy to combat obesity because of their ability to metabolize glucose and lipids, dissipating the resulting energy as heat through uncoupling protein 1. Here, we report that rapamycin blocks the ability of β-adrenergic signaling to induce beige adipocytes and expression of thermogenic genes in white adipose depots. Rapamycin enhanced transcriptional negative feedback on the β3-adrenergic receptor. However, thermogenic gene expression remained impaired even when the receptor was bypassed with a cell-permeable cAMP analog, revealing the existence of a second inhibitory mechanism. Accordingly, rapamycin-treated mice are cold intolerant, failing to maintain body temperature and weight when shifted to 4°C. Adipocyte-specific deletion of the mTORC1 subunit Raptor recapitulated the block in β-adrenergic signaling. Our findings demonstrate a positive role for mTORC1 in the recruitment of beige adipocytes and suggest that inhibition of β-adrenergic signaling by rapamycin may contribute to its physiological effects. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Pecht

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose