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Sample records for adiponectin cardiac geometry

  1. Plasma adiponectin: a contributing factor for cardiac changes in visceral obesity-associated hypertension.

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    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Licata, Anna; Argano, Christiano; Duro, Giovanni; Corrao, Salvatore; Scaglione, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    This study has been designed to evaluate the impact of adiponectin levels on left ventricular geometry and function in visceral obesity-associated hypertension. 94 consecutive subjects, 53 of them were hypertensives and 41 normotensives with age ≤ 65 years, subgrouped according to the presence or absence of visceral obesity, were studied. Total adiponectin levels were measured by a validated competitive radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular telediastolic internal diameter, interventricular septum, posterior wall thickness, total left ventricular mass (LVM) and normalized for height to the 2.7 power (LVM/h(2.7)), relative wall thickness, left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography and isovolumic relaxation time, E/A ratio and deceleration time of E velocity, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly lower in visceral obesity-associated hypertensives than lean hypertensives (p hypertensive groups, and in visceral obesity-associated normotensives in comparison with lean normotensives. Adiponectin levels correlated inversely with LVM/h(2.7) but only in normotensives (adjusted R squared 0.77, p hypertensives (0.67, p obesity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that adiponectin levels remain significantly associated (p obesity-associated normotensive and hypertensive subjects. In this last group, adiponectin, more than blood pressure, may be able to explain the development of cardiac damage.

  2. Temporal and Molecular Analyses of Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Remodeling following Pressure Overload in Adiponectin Deficient Mice.

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    Keith Dadson

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, circulating levels of which are reduced in obesity and diabetes, mediates cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling in response to pressure overload (PO. Here, we performed a detailed temporal analysis of progressive cardiac ECM remodelling in adiponectin knockout (AdKO and wild-type (WT mice at 3 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the induction of mild PO via minimally invasive transverse aortic banding. We first observed that myocardial adiponectin gene expression was reduced after 4 weeks of PO, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected in cardiac homogenates at this time despite decreased circulating levels of adiponectin. Scanning electron microscopy and Masson's trichrome staining showed collagen accumulation increased in response to 2 and 4 weeks of PO in WT mice, while fibrosis in AdKO mice was notably absent after 2 weeks but highly apparent after 4 weeks of PO. Time and intensity of fibroblast appearance after PO was not significantly different between AdKO and WT animals. Gene array analysis indicated that MMP2, TIMP2, collagen 1α1 and collagen 1α3 were induced after 2 weeks of PO in WT but not AdKO mice. After 4 weeks MMP8 was induced in both genotypes, MMP9 only in WT mice and MMP1α only in AdKO mice. Direct stimulation of primary cardiac fibroblasts with adiponectin induced a transient increase in total collagen detected by picrosirius red staining and collagen III levels synthesis, as well as enhanced MMP2 activity detected via gelatin zymography. Adiponectin also enhanced fibroblast migration and attenuated angiotensin-II induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. In conclusion, these data indicate that increased myocardial bioavailability of adiponectin mediates ECM remodeling following PO and that adiponectin deficiency delays these effects.

  3. Effects of adiponectin on oxidative stress and apoptosis in human cardiac myocytes cultured with high glucose

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    LI Xing; LI Mei-rong; GUO Zhi-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients.Oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy.This study aimed to investigate the effects of adiponectin on oxidative stress and apoptosis in human cardiac myocytes (HCM) cultured with high glucose.Methods The cells were assigned to three group: control group,high glucose group and high glucose plus adiponectin group.After culture for 24,48,72 hours,oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the supernatant of culture media.The expression of p66Shc and Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Flow cytometry was designed to observe and detect cellular apoptosis.Results Our findings showed significant increase in MDA levels and decrease in SOD activity in the high glucose group compared with the control group (P <0.05).However,MDA levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity was significantly increased in the adiponectin group compared with those in the high-glucose group (P <0.05).The mRNA expression of HO-1 in the high glucose group was significantly increased in a time-dependent manner compared with that in the control group (P <0.05).Adiponectin further increased the mRNA expression of HO-1 induced by high glucose in a time-dependent manner (P <0.05).The expression of p66Shc was significantly increased in high glucose group compared with that in the control group (P <0.05).Adiponectin significantly suppressed the upregulation of p66Shc induced by high glucose (P <0.05).The apoptotic rate of cardiomyocytes was significantly increased in the high glucose group compared with that in the control group while the apoptotic rate in the adiponectin group was remarkably declined in comparison with that in the high glucose group.Conclusion Adiponectin reduces high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis and plays a

  4. Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Adiponectin Production in Chronic Systolic Heart Failure: Relation to Severity of Cardiac Dysfunction

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    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Shrestha, Kevin; Tong, Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Troughton, Richard W.; Borowski, Allen G.; Klein, Allan L.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic adipokine elevated in heart failure (HF) that may protect against endothelial dysfunction by influencing underlying nitric oxide bioavailablity. In this study, we examine the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and measures of nitric oxide bioavailability and myocardial performance in patients with chronic systolic HF. In 139 ambulatory patients with stable, chronic systolic HF (left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction ≤40%, New York Heart Association [NYHA] class I to IV), we measured plasma levels of adiponectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and global arginine bioavailability (GABR), and performed comprehensive echocardiography with assessment of cardiac structure and performance. Adverse events (all-cause mortality or cardiac transplantation) were prospectively tracked for a median of 39 months. Plasma adiponectin levels directly correlated with plasma ADMA levels (Spearman’s r=0.41, p<0.001) and NT-proBNP levels (r=0.55, p<0.001), inversely correlated with GABR (r= −0.39, p<0.001), and were not associated with hsCRP (p=0.81) or MPO (p=0.07). Interestingly, increased plasma adiponectin levels remained positively correlated with plasma ADMA levels only in patients with elevated NT-proBNP levels (r= 0.33, p=0.009). Higher plasma adiponectin levels were associated with worse LV diastolic dysfunction (rank sums p=0.002), RV systolic dysfunction (rank sums p=0.002), and RV diastolic dysfunction (rank sums p=0.011), but not after adjustment for plasma ADMA and NT-proBNP levels. Plasma adiponectin levels predicted increased risk of adverse clinical events (HR [95% CI]: 1.45 [1.02–2.07], p=0.038) but not after adjustment for plasma ADMA and NT-proBNP levels, or echocardiographic indices of diastolic or RV systolic dysfunction. In patients with chronic systolic HF, adiponectin production is more closely linked with nitric oxide bioavailability than inflammation, and appears to be more robust

  5. High fat diet enhances cardiac abnormalities in SHR rats: Protective role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis

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    Cao Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Methods The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome. Results Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function, and higher coronary resistance (CR as compared to controls (p 2- levels in SHR fed a HF diet (p Conclusion In conclusion, this novel study demonstrates that up-regulation of HO-1 improves cardiac and vascular dysfunction by blunting oxidative stress, COX-2 levels and increasing adiponectin levels in hypertensive rats on HF diet.

  6. N-acetylcysteine and allopurinol synergistically enhance cardiac adiponectin content and reduce myocardial reperfusion injury in diabetic rats.

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    Tingting Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays a central role in the development of diabetic myocardial complications. Adiponectin (APN, an adipokine with anti-diabetic and anti-ischemic effects, is decreased in diabetes. It is unknown whether or not antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC and/or allopurinol (ALP can attenuate APN deficiency and myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R injury in the early stage of diabetes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Control or streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats were either untreated (C, D or treated with NAC (1.5 g/kg/day or ALP (100 mg/kg/day or their combination for four weeks starting one week after STZ injection. Plasma and cardiac biochemical parameters were measured after the completion of treatment, and the rats were subjected to MI/R by occluding the left anterior descending artery for 30 min followed by 2 h reperfusion. Plasma and cardiac APN levels were decreased in diabetic rats accompanied by decreased cardiac APN receptor 2 (AdipoR2, reduced phosphorylation of Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS but increased IL-6 and TNF-α (all P<0.05 vs. C. NAC but not ALP increased cardiac APN concentrations and AdipoR2 expression in diabetic rats. ALP enhanced the effects of NAC in restoring cardiac AdipoR2 and phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3 and eNOS in diabetic rats. Further, NAC and ALP, respectively, decreased postischemic myocardial infarct size and creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB release in diabetic rats, while their combination conferred synergistic protective effects. In addition, exposure of cultured rat cardiomyocytes to high glucose resulted in significant reduction of cardiomyocyte APN concentration and AdipoR2 protein expression. APN supplementation restored high glucose induced AdipoR2 reduction in cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NAC and ALP synergistically restore myocardial APN and AdipoR2

  7. Adiponectin as a routine clinical biomarker.

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    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein synthesized and secreted predominantly by adipocytes into the peripheral blood. However, circulating adiponectin level is inversely related with body weight, especially visceral fat accumulation. The mechanism of this paradoxical relation remains obscure. Low circulating adiponectin concentrations (hypoadiponectinemia; metabolic syndrome, hyperuricemia), atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease), sleep apnea, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, gastritis and gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, pancreatitis, osteoporosis, and cancer (endometrial cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, leukemia, colon cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer). On the other hand, hyperadiponectinemia is associated with cardiac, renal and pulmonary diseases. This review article focuses on the significance of adiponectin as a clinical biomarker of obesity-related diseases. Routine measurement of adiponectin in patients with lifestyle-related diseases is highly recommended.

  8. Relationship between adiponectin and cardiac damage induced by aldosterone in SD rats%脂联素与醛固酮介导的SD大鼠心脏损害的关系

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    王川; 严励; 张少玲; 程桦

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationship between adiponectin and cardiac damage induced by aldosterone in SD rats. Methods Male SD rats were treated with aldosterone infusion for 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured every week. At the end of experiment, the myocardial structure was observed, the levels of adiponectin in plasma and adiponectin mRNA expression of adipose tissue in epididymal fat pad were measured. 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with 10-8 and 10-6 moL/L aldosterone for 24 and 48 h, adiponectin mRNA expressions and adiponectin concentrations in culture medium were measured. Results Aldosterone induced only a slight increase in the SBP of SD rats[(123±7)mm Hg, P<0.05]. However, aldosterone significantly induced cardiac ultrastructure changes, such as mitochondrial swelling and disordered internal structures. Furthermore, the level of plasma adiponectin decreased 22.8% after aldosterone treatment for 4 weeks ( P<0. 05 ). When 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with 10-8 and 10-6 mol/L aldosterone for 24 h, adiponectin concentrations in culture medium decreased 21.8% and 27. 2%, respectively (P < 0. 05); for 48 h, adiponctin mRNA expressions decreased 22.1% and 37.4%, respectively ( P<0. 05 ). The effect of aldosterone was reversed by spironolactone,which was partly independent of SBP. Conclusions Low level of adiponectin may be involved in cardiac damage induced by aldosterone in SD rats.%目的 探讨脂联素与醛固酮介导的SD大鼠心肌损害的关系.方法 雄性SD大鼠0.75μg/h皮下持续输注醛固酮4周,观察血压、心肌结构改变,测定血浆脂联素水平和附睾脂肪垫脂肪组织脂联素基因表达.体外培养3T3-L1脂肪细胞,10-8和10-6 mol/L醛固酮作用24和48 h,观察脂联素基因表达和培养液中脂联素浓度的变化.结果 醛固酮作用SD大鼠4周,血压轻微上升[(123±7)mm Hg,P<0.05],但心肌超微结构已有明显损伤如线粒体肿胀、内部结构不清等;同时,大鼠血浆脂

  9. Adiponectin Provides Cardiovascular Protection in Metabolic Syndrome

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    Yoshihisa Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN) is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia) are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence...

  10. Postoperative Adiponectin Levels in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery

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    A. Thaler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes cytokines, including adiponectin, levels of which are negatively correlated with the severity of the inflammatory process. Aim. To assess the time course of adiponectin levels following open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and its correlation with early postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods. Blood samples were obtained from 24 children undergoing cardiac surgery and analyzed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and other inflammatory markers. Results. Baseline adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with patients’ preoperative weight and age. Postoperative adiponectin levels decreased compared to baseline ( and correlated negatively with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (, , length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (, , and the inotropic score (, . Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with sVCAM 1 levels; however, there was no correlation between adiponectin levels and sP selectin, tPA, MCP1, and sCD40. Conclusions. The inflammatory response after open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a reduction in adiponectin levels. Prolonged or more complicated surgery induced a more substantial inflammatory process characterized by a significant reduction in adiponectin levels over time and a delayed return to baseline levels.

  11. Effects of Adiponectin on Cell Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Human Cardiac Myocytes Cultured with High Glucose%脂联素对高糖环境心肌细胞氧化应激及凋亡的影响

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    李美蓉; 李兴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a myocardial cell oxidative stress model by cultivating human cardiac myocytes (HCM) in a high glucose environment, and to observe if there is a protective role of adiponectin (ADPN) on the oxidative stress and apoplosis of myocardial cells, and reveals the protection mechanism of the adiponectin. Methods The in vitro cultured HCM were divided into three groups;the control group, high glucose group, high glucose + adiponectin group, and these cells were cultured 24, 48, 72hours respectively. Then we observed the morphological change of the HCM under the inverted microscope and evaluated the level of superoxide dis-mutase ( SOD) by the xanthineoxidase method. The level of malondialdehyde ( MDA) was detected by benzodiazepines acid method. The expression of adaptin ( P66Shc) and heme oxygenase - 1 ( Ho - 1) in three time points was detected by real - time PCR, and the apoptosis rate of the HCM was tested by the flow cytometry. Results Our findings showed significant increase of MDA levels (P <0.05) and decrease of SOD activity(P<0.05) in the high glucose group compared with the control group. However,in the adiponectin group,MDA levels decreased (P<0.05) and SOD activity increased significantly (P <0.05) compared with those in the high - glucose group and they were time dependent. Compared with the control group,the expression of Ho-1 mRNA and P66Shc mRNA increased in the high -glucose group. The adiponectin group expressed a higher level of Ho - 1 mRNA but a lower level of P66Shc mRNA compared with the glucose group (P < 0.05) and they were time dependent. The apoptosis rate of the HCM in the high - glucose group was higher than the control group; while the apoptotic rate in the adiponectin group declined remarkably compared with the high glucose group. Conclusion The adiponectin has a protective effect on diabetes myocardial cells by upregulating the expression of Ho - 1 mRNA and downregulating the expression of P66Shc mRNA, which can

  12. Geometry

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    Pedoe, Dan

    1988-01-01

    ""A lucid and masterly survey."" - Mathematics Gazette Professor Pedoe is widely known as a fine teacher and a fine geometer. His abilities in both areas are clearly evident in this self-contained, well-written, and lucid introduction to the scope and methods of elementary geometry. It covers the geometry usually included in undergraduate courses in mathematics, except for the theory of convex sets. Based on a course given by the author for several years at the University of Minnesota, the main purpose of the book is to increase geometrical, and therefore mathematical, understanding and to he

  13. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease

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    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani,1 Somayeh Mohammadi,2 Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini,3 Parviz Fallah,4 Zahra Bazi5 1Nutrition Research Center, 2Department of Nutrition, 3Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, 5Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of

  14. ADIPONECTIN IN SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA

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    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations differ between patients with severe preeclampsia and those with normal pregnancies, and to explore the relationship between plasma adiponectin and the results of Doppler velocimetry of the uterine arteries. Methods This case-control study included two groups: (1) patients with severe preeclampsia (n=50) and (2) patients with normal pregnancies (n=150). Pulsed-wave and color Doppler ultrasound examination of the uterine arteries were performed. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Patients with severe preeclampsia had a higher median plasma concentration of adiponectin than that of normal pregnant women. (2) The median plasma adiponectin concentration did not differ between women with severe preeclampsia who had a high impedance to blood flow in the uterine arteries and those with normal impedance to blood flow. (3) Among patients with normal pregnancies, plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with BMI in the first trimester and at sampling. Conclusions Women with severe preeclampsia have a higher median plasma concentration of adiponectin than that of normal pregnant women. This may reflect a compensatory feedback mechanism to the metabolically-altered, anti-angiogenic and pro-atherogenic state of severe preeclampsia. PMID:17919115

  15. Computer-based analysis of cardiac state using entropies, recurrence plots and Poincare geometry.

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    Chua, K C; Chandran, V; Acharya, U R; Lim, C M

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate variability refers to the regulation of the sinoatrial node, the natural pacemaker of the heart by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability is important because it provides a window to observe the heart's ability to respond to normal regulatory impulses that affect its rhythm. A computer-based intelligent system for analysis of cardiac states is very useful in diagnostics and disease management. Parameters are extracted from the heart rate signals and analysed using computers for diagnostics. This paper describes the analysis of normal and seven types of cardiac abnormal signals using approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), recurrence plots and Poincare plot patterns. Ranges of these parameters for various cardiac abnormalities are presented with an accuracy of more than 95%. Among the two entropies, ApEn showed better performance for all the cardiac abnormalities. Typical Poincare and recurrence plots are shown for various cardiac abnormalities.

  16. Association between Inflammation and Cardiac Geometry in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the CRIC Study.

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    Jayanta Gupta

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and myocardial contractile dysfunction are independent predictors of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. The association between inflammatory biomarkers and cardiac geometry has not yet been studied in a large cohort of CKD patients with a wide range of kidney function.Plasma levels of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, high-sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen and serum albumin were measured in 3,939 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study participants. Echocardiography was performed according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography and interpreted at a centralized core laboratory.LVH, systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction were present in 52.3%, 11.8% and 76.3% of the study subjects, respectively. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetic status, current smoking status, systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin- creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate, hs-CRP (OR 1.26 [95% CI 1.16, 1.37], p<0.001, IL-1RA (1.23 [1.13, 1.34], p<0.0001, IL-6 (1.25 [1.14, 1.36], p<0.001 and TNF-α (1.14 [1.04, 1.25], p = 0.004 were associated with LVH. The odds for systolic dysfunction were greater for subjects with elevated levels of hs-CRP (1.32 [1.18, 1.48], p<0.001 and IL-6 (1.34 [1.21, 1.49], p<0.001. Only hs-CRP was associated with diastolic dysfunction (1.14 [1.04, 1.26], p = 0.005.In patients with CKD, elevated plasma levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 are associated with LVH and systolic dysfunction.

  17. Image-based reconstruction of three-dimensional myocardial infarct geometry for patient-specific modeling of cardiac electrophysiology

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    Ukwatta, Eranga, E-mail: eukwatt1@jhu.edu; Arevalo, Hermenegild; Pashakhanloo, Farhad; Prakosa, Adityo; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy [Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Rajchl, Martin [Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); White, James [Stephenson Cardiovascular MR Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 2T9 (Canada); Herzka, Daniel A.; McVeigh, Elliot [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Lardo, Albert C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 and Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins Institute of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224 (United States); Trayanova, Natalia A. [Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Institute of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of myocardial infarct geometry is crucial to patient-specific modeling of the heart aimed at providing therapeutic guidance in ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, myocardial infarct imaging is clinically performed using two-dimensional (2D) late-gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) techniques, and a method to build accurate 3D infarct reconstructions from the 2D LGE-CMR images has been lacking. The purpose of this study was to address this need. Methods: The authors developed a novel methodology to reconstruct 3D infarct geometry from segmented low-resolution (Lo-res) clinical LGE-CMR images. Their methodology employed the so-called logarithm of odds (LogOdds) function to implicitly represent the shape of the infarct in segmented image slices as LogOdds maps. These 2D maps were then interpolated into a 3D image, and the result transformed via the inverse of LogOdds to a binary image representing the 3D infarct geometry. To assess the efficacy of this method, the authors utilized 39 high-resolution (Hi-res) LGE-CMR images, including 36 in vivo acquisitions of human subjects with prior myocardial infarction and 3 ex vivo scans of canine hearts following coronary ligation to induce infarction. The infarct was manually segmented by trained experts in each slice of the Hi-res images, and the segmented data were downsampled to typical clinical resolution. The proposed method was then used to reconstruct 3D infarct geometry from the downsampled images, and the resulting reconstructions were compared with the manually segmented data. The method was extensively evaluated using metrics based on geometry as well as results of electrophysiological simulations of cardiac sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia in individual hearts. Several alternative reconstruction techniques were also implemented and compared with the proposed method. Results: The accuracy of the LogOdds method in reconstructing 3D

  18. Effect of long-term insulin treatment on plasma and cardiac adiponectin levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice%长期胰岛素治疗对Ⅰ型糖尿病小鼠血浆和心肌脂联素水平的影响

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    裴海峰; 马彦卓; 刘少伟; 司瑞; 冯世栋; 陶凌; 王海昌

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the time-course change of plasma and cardiac adiponectin levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, to determine the effect of insulin treatment on plasma and cardiac adiponectin levels and to discuss the possible mechanism of cardiac adiponectin in the protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.METHODS: Seventy-two male mice were randomly assigned to control, type 1 diabetes and insulin treatment groups.Adiponectin levels in plasma and cardiac tissues were longitudinally detected at days 1, 7, and 14 after STZ-induced diabetes was confirmed through ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively.To examine the changes of cardiac-derived adiponectin levels, hearts were isolated and perfused in a Langendorff preparation and then stained by TUNEL.RESULTS: Compared with control mice, plasma adiponectin level in type 1 diabetic mice increased at day7 but decreased at day 14 [D7:(5.23 ±1.05) mg/Lvs.(3.45 ±0.51) mg/L, P<0.01].Adiponectin mRNA level lowered gradually [D7: (0.50 ± 0.19 ) vs.( 1.76 ± 0.26 ), P < 0.05][D14: (0.10 ±0.05) vs.( 1.77 ±0.41 ), P <0.01].Compared with type 1 diabetic mice, plasma adiponectin level in insulin-treated mice was elevated [D14: ( 3.61 ± 0.71 ) vs.(2.16 ± 0.49 ), P < 0.05]and adiponectin mRNA levels in cardiomyocytes were also elevated [D7: ( 1.41 ± 0.19 ) vs.(0.50 ± 0.19), P <0.05][D14: (0.80 ± 0.17) vs.(0.l0 ±0.05), P < 0.05].After ischemia/reperfusion, cardiac infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in type 1 diabetic mice markedly increased when compared with control mice (P <0.01 ).Long-term insulin treatment decreased infarct sizes and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in hearts of type 1 diabetic mice (P <0.01 ).Compound C, an inhibitor of adiponectin downstream signaling molecule AMPK, partially attenuated the effect of long-term insulin treatment ( P < 0.01 ).CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels in type 1 diabetic mice show a bidirectional change throughout the course of the

  19. Spread of excitation in 3-D models of the anisotropic cardiac tissue. II. Effects of fiber architecture and ventricular geometry.

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    Franzone, P C; Guerri, L; Pennacchio, M; Taccardi, B

    1998-01-15

    We investigate a three-dimensional macroscopic model of wave-front propagation related to the excitation process in the left ventricular wall represented by an anisotropic bidomain. The whole left ventricle is modeled, whereas, in a previous paper, only a flat slab of myocardial tissue was considered. The direction of cardiac fibers, which affects the anisotropic conductivity of the myocardium, rotates from the epi- to the endocardium. If the ventricular wall is conceived as a set of packed surfaces, the fibers may be tangent to them or more generally may cross them obliquely; the latter case is described by an "imbrication angle." The effect of a simplified Purkinje network also is investigated. The cardiac excitation process, more particularly the depolarization phase, is modeled by a nonlinear elliptic equation, called an eikonal equation, in the activation time. The numerical solution of this equation is obtained by means of the finite element method, which includes an upwind treatment of the Hamiltonian part of the equation. By means of numerical simulations in an idealized model of the left ventricle, we try to establish whether the eikonal approach contains the essential basic elements for predicting the features of the activation patterns experimentally observed. We discuss and compare these results with those obtained in our previous papers for a flat part of myocardium. The general rules governing the spread of excitation after local stimulations, previously delineated for the flat geometry, are extended to the present, more realistic monoventricular model.

  20. Adiponectin provides cardiovascular protection in metabolic syndrome.

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    Okamoto, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-23

    Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN) is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia) are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence indicates that APN directly interacts with cardiovascular tissue and prevents cardiovascular pathology. Increasing plasma APN or enhancing APN signal transduction may be an ideal strategy to prevent and treat the cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. However, further studies are required to uncover the precise biological actions of APN.

  1. Investigation of saddle trajectories for cardiac CT imaging in cone-beam geometry

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    Pack, Jed D [Department of Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Noo, Frederic [Department of Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kudo, H [Department of Computer Science, Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-06-07

    This paper investigates cone-beam tomography for a wide class of x-ray source trajectories called saddles. In particular, a mathematical analysis of the number of intersections between a saddle and an arbitrary plane is given. This analysis demonstrates that axially truncated cone-beam projections acquired along a saddle can be used for exact reconstruction at any point in a large volume. The reconstruction can be achieved either using a new algorithm presented herein or using a formula recently introduced by Katsevich (2003 Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 21 1305-21). The shape of the reconstructed volume and the properties of saddles make saddles attractive for cardiac imaging. Three examples of saddles are presented with a discussion of implementation on devices similar to modern C-arm systems and multislice CT scanners. Reconstruction with one of these saddles has been tested using computer-simulated data, with and without truncation. The imaged phantom for the truncated data is a FORBILD head phantom (representing the heart) that has been modified and embedded inside the FORBILD thorax phantom. The non-truncated data were generated by excluding the thorax. The reconstructed images demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical results.

  2. Effects of insulin therapy on myocardial lipid content and cardiac geometry in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Drazenka Jankovic

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent evidence suggests a link between myocardial steatosis and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Insulin, as a lipogenic and growth-promoting hormone, might stimulate intramyocardial lipid (MYCL deposition and hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term effects of insulin therapy (IT on myocardial lipid content and morphology in patients with T2DM. METHODS: Eighteen patients with T2DM were recruited (age 56 ± 2 years; HbA1c: 10.5 ± 0.4%. In 10 patients with insufficient glucose control under oral medication IT was initiated due to secondary failure of oral glucose lowering therapy (IT-group, while 8 individuals did not require additional insulin substitution (OT-group. In order to assess MYCL and intrahepatic lipid (IHLC content as well as cardiac geometry and function magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and imaging (MRI examinations were performed at baseline (IT and OT and 10 days after initiation of IT. Follow up measurements took place 181 ± 49 days after IT. RESULTS: Interestingly, basal MYCLs were 50% lower in IT- compared to OT-group (0.41 ± 0.12 vs. 0.80 ± 0.11% of water signal; p = 0.034. After 10 days of IT, an acute 80%-rise in MYCL (p = 0.008 was observed, while IHLC did not change. Likewise, myocardial mass (+13%; p = 0.004, wall thickness in end-diastole (+13%; p = 0.030 and concentricity, an index of cardiac remodeling, increased (+28%; p = 0.026. In the long-term MYCL returned to baseline, while IHCL significantly decreased (-31%; p = 0.000. No acute changes in systolic left ventricular function were observed. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The initiation of IT in patients with T2DM was followed by an acute rise in MYCL concentration and myocardial mass.

  3. Adiponectin Provides Cardiovascular Protection in Metabolic Syndrome

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    Yoshihisa Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence indicates that APN directly interacts with cardiovascular tissue and prevents cardiovascular pathology. Increasing plasma APN or enhancing APN signal transduction may be an ideal strategy to prevent and treat the cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. However, further studies are required to uncover the precise biological actions of APN.

  4. Myocardial mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in mice lacking adiponectin.

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    Martin Braun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/- mice and wildtypes (WT. In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24% in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1α were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions.

  5. Myocardial mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in mice lacking adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Martin; Hettinger, Niko; Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Cimolai, Maria C; Hoffmann, Michael M; Osterholt, Moritz; Doenst, Torsten; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/-) mice and wildtypes (WT). In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24%) in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1α were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions.

  6. Adiponectin, leptin, and yoga practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Christian, Lisa M; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A; Emery, Charles F; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-12-05

    To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga's potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36% higher among novices compared to experts, P=.008. Analysis of adiponectin revealed a borderline effect of yoga expertise, P=.08; experts' average adiponectin levels were 28% higher than novices across the three visits. In contrast, experts' average adiponectin to leptin ratio was nearly twice that of novices, P=.009. Frequency of self-reported yoga practice showed significant negative relationships with leptin; more weeks of yoga practice over the last year, more lifetime yoga sessions, and more years of yoga practice were all significantly associated with lower leptin, with similar findings for the adiponectin to leptin ratio. Novices and experts did not show even marginal differences on behavioral and physiological dimensions that might represent potential confounds, including BMI, central adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet. Prospective studies addressing increased risk for type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have highlighted the importance of these adipocytokines in modulating inflammation. Although these health risks are clearly related to more extreme values then we found in our healthy sample, our data raise the possibility that longer-term and/or more intensive yoga practice could have beneficial health consequences by altering leptin and adiponectin production.

  7. Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2015-01-01

    participants experienced a CV event (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or CV death). RESULTS: Participants with increasing adiponectin had reduced risk of developing T2DM (p physical activity, alcohol...... prospective studies have consistently linked high adiponectin levels with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality, thus questioning the positive view on adiponectin. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin, incident T2DM and subsequently CV events. METHODS: We...

  8. Association of adiponectin gene polymorphism with adiponectin levels and risk for insulin resistance syndrome

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    Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We observed the very strong association of the adiponectin 45-276 genotypes and haplotypes with adiponectin levels in healthy north Indian population and TG haplotypes also associated with metabolic parameters of the IR syndrome.

  9. Serum Adiponectin in Women with Gestational Diabetes

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    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue adipokin that may contribute to obesity and insulin resistantance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (GDM.Materials & Methods: Serum adiponectin levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C, insulin levels and blood lipids were measured in 66 women with GDM and 70 pregnant women without GDM. The associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA–IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI.Results: There were statistically significant between-group differences in FBS, HbA1C and HOMA–IR. Adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different in GDM women in comparison with the control group. However, GDM women above the age of 30 have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than those without GDM. Adiponectin was positively associated with QUICKI (r = 0.268, P < 0.03 and inversely related to HOMA–IR (r = 0.238, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Adiponectin is significantly decreased in older women with GDM. Deficiency of adiponectin may correlate with insulin resistance in GDM.

  10. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

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    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  11. Relationship between adiponectin, obesity and insulin resistance

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    Guilherme Ardenghi Balsan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the conditions of obesity and overweight pose a major risk for a number of comorbidities, including clinical syndromes resulting from atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies strongly indicate that adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes bioactive factors such as adipokines. Adiponectin appears to have a regulatory role in the mechanism of insulin resistance and in the development of atherosclerosis. This systematic review aims to evaluate the anti-atherogenic effects of adiponectin and its properties to improve and mimic metabolic and vascular actions of insulin and its influence on endothelial function. Methods: a qualitative, exploratory and literature review was performed in the PubMed, Portal Capes and Scielo databases using as key-words "adiponectin", "obesity", "insulin resistance", "anti-inflammatory", "therapeutic strategies" and "future prospects". Results: evidence suggests that adiponectin has anti-atherogenic properties with anti-inflammatory effects on the vascular wall. Moreover, it modifies the vascular intracellular signaling and has indirect antioxidant effects on the human myocardium. On the other hand, there are studies suggesting that increased levels of adiponectin are paradoxically associated with a worse prognosis in heart failure syndrome, although the mechanisms are not clear. Conclusion: it is not clear whether adiponectin levels have any clinical significance for risk stratification in cardiovascular disease or if they simply reflect the activation of complex underlying mechanisms. Changes in lifestyle and some drug treatments for hypertension and coronary heart disease have shown significant effect to increase adiponectin levels, and simultaneously decrease in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

  12. Geometry from Information Geometry

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    Caticha, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    We use the method of maximum entropy to model physical space as a curved statistical manifold. It is then natural to use information geometry to explain the geometry of space. We find that the resultant information metric does not describe the full geometry of space but only its conformal geometry -- the geometry up to local changes of scale. Remarkably, this is precisely what is needed to model "physical" space in general relativity.

  13. Adiponectin Signaling Regulates Lipid Production in Human Sebocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Ra; Lee, Jin-Hyup; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Hong, Seung-Phil; Seo, Seong-Jun; Kim, Seong-Jin; Im, Myung

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin plays important roles in metabolic function, inflammation and multiple biological activities in various tissues. However, evidence for adiponectin signaling in sebaceous glands is lacking, and its role remains to be clarified. This study investigated the role of adiponectin in lipid production in sebaceous glands in an experimental study of human sebocytes. We demonstrated that human sebaceous glands in vivo and sebocytes in vitro express adiponectin receptor and that adiponectin increased cell proliferation. Moreover, based on a lipogenesis study using Oil Red O, Nile red staining and thin layer chromatography, adiponectin strongly upregulated lipid production in sebocytes. In three-dimensional culture of sebocytes, lipid synthesis was markedly enhanced in sebocytes treated with adiponectin. This study suggested that adiponectin plays a significant role in human sebaceous gland biology. Adiponectin signaling is a promising target in the clinical management of barrier disorders in which sebum production is decreased, such as in atopic dermatitis and aged skin. PMID:28081218

  14. LOW CIRCULATING MATERNAL ADIPONECTIN IN PATIENTS WITH PYELONEPHRITIS: ADIPONECTIN AT THE CROSSROADS OF PREGNANCY AND INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Kim, Sun Kwon; Gotsch, Francesca; Lamont, Ronald; Ogge, Giovanna; Pacora, Percy; Goncalves, Luis; Kim, Chong Jai; Gomez, Ricardo; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Objective An emerging theme in modern biology is that adipose tissue can respond to metabolic stress, and to inflammatory stimuli, by regulating the secretion of a complex network of soluble mediators, termed adipokines. Adiponectin, the most prevalent circulating adipokine in human, has profound insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Indeed, the notion that adiponectin plays an important role in the interactions between the metabolic and the immune systems has been strongly suggested. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with changes in maternal serum adiponectin concentrations. Study design This cross-sectional study included women in the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=200); and 2) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n=50). Maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median maternal plasma adiponectin concentration was lower in patients with pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy (p<0.001); 2) among pregnant women with a normal weight, patients with pyelonephritis had a lower median plasma adiponectin concentration than those with a normal pregnancy (p<0.001); 3) similarly, among overweight/obese patients, those with pyelonephritis had a lower median plasma adiponectin concentration than those with a normal pregnancy (p<0.001); and 4) the presence of pyelonephritis was independently associated with maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations after adjustment for maternal age, smoking, gestational age at sampling, and pre-gestational BMI. Conclusion 1) The findings that acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy is characterized by low maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin in both lean and overweight/obese patients are novel and concur with the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin; and 2) the results of this study support the notion that adiponectin may play a role in the

  15. Is adiponectin a risk factor for transient ischaemic attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Ufuk; Uludag, Irem Fatma; Kose, Sukran; Ozcelik, Murat; Zorlu, Yasar

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine, and it plays a role in atherosclerosis. The role of adiponectin in the development of ischaemic stroke is controversial. Up to now, adiponectin was not evaluated in transient ischaemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin and transient ischaemic attack. Forty patients with transient ischaemic attack were included into the study. In all patients, traditional risk factors of ischaemic stroke and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries were determined. Also, the relationship between these parameters and adiponectin levels were examined. No difference was found in terms of adiponectin levels between patients and healthy subjects. In addition, there was no association between adiponectin levels and traditional risk factors. Our results suggest that adiponectin may not be a predictive risk factor of transient ischaemic attack.

  16. Adiponectin Trajectories Before Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabák, Adam G.; Carstensen, Maren; Witte, Daniel R.; Brunner, Eric J.; Shipley, Martin J.; Jokela, Markus; Roden, Michael; Kivimäki, Mika; Herder, Christian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of adiponectin in the natural history of diabetes is not well characterized. We set out to characterize prediagnosis trajectories of adiponectin in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a case-cohort study (335 incident diabetes case and 2,474 noncase subjects) nested in the Whitehall II study, serum adiponectin was measured up to three times per participant (1991–1993, 1997–1999, and 2003–2004). Multilevel models adjusted for age and ethnicity were fitted to assess 13-year trajectories of log-transformed adiponectin preceding diabetes diagnosis or a randomly selected time point during follow-up (year0) based on 755/5,095 (case/noncase) person-examinations. RESULTS Adiponectin levels were lower in diabetes case than in noncase subjects (median 7,141 [interquartile range 5,187–10,304] vs. 8,818 [6,535–12,369] ng/mL at baseline, P < 0.0001). Control subjects showed a modest decline in adiponectin throughout follow-up (0.3% per year, P < 0.0001) at higher levels in women than in men (difference at year0: 5,358 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Female case and early-onset case (age at diagnosis <52 years) subjects had a steeper decline than control subjects (slope difference −1.1% per year, P = 0.001 in females, −1.6% per year in early-onset case subjects, P = 0.034). In men, adiponectin slopes for case and noncase subjects were parallel. The slope differences by diabetes onset were largely attenuated after adjustment for changes in obesity, whereas the sex-specific slope differences were independent of obesity. CONCLUSIONS Lower adiponectin levels were observed already a decade before the diagnosis of diabetes. The marked sex difference in trajectories suggests that sex-specific mechanisms affect the association between adiponectin levels and diabetes development. PMID:22933430

  17. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, protects arterial walls against atherosclerosis, and regulates glucose metabolism, and is decreased in obese, insulin resistant, and type 2 diabetic patients. Adiponectin circulates in plasma as high, medium, and low molecular weight forms (HMW, MMW...

  18. Adiponectin increases secretion of rat submandibular gland via adiponectin receptors-mediated AMPK signaling.

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    Chong Ding

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/2 are expressed in various tissues and are involved in the regulation of multiple functions such as energy metabolism and inflammatory responses. However, the effect of adiponectin and AdipoRs in submandibular glands has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, we found that mRNA and protein of both adiponectin and AdipoR1/2 were expressed in rat submandibular glands and in the SMG-C6 cell line, as evidenced by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence staining showed that adiponectin was diffused in the cytoplasm, while AdipoR1/2 was concentrated in the membrane of acinar cells. Saliva flow was significantly increased by full length adiponectin (fAd or globular adiponectin (gAd perfusion in isolated rat submandibular glands. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR, an adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK activator, also increased saliva secretion. fAd, gAd, and AICAR all increased the average width of apical tight junctions in perfused submandibular glands, and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER in SMG-C6 cells, suggesting that adiponectin promoted secretion by modulating paracellular permeability. fAd and gAd increased p-AMPK levels, while AraA, an AMPK antagonist, abolished fAd- and gAd-induced changes in secretion, tight junction ultrastructure, and TER. Moreover, both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were required for fAd- or gAd-induced p-AMPK and TER responses, suggesting from their inhibition following AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 knockdown, and co-knockdown of AdipoRs by RNA interference. Our results suggest that adiponectin functions as a promoter of salivary secretion in rat submandibular glands via activation of AdipoRs, AMPK, and paracellular permeability.

  19. Adiponectin and plant-derived mammalian adiponectin homolog exert a protective effect in murine colitis

    KAUST Repository

    Arsenescu, Violeta

    2011-04-11

    Background: Hypoadiponectinemia has been associated with states of chronic inflammation in humans. Mesenteric fat hypertrophy and low adiponectin have been described in patients with Crohn\\'s disease. We investigated whether adiponectin and the plant-derived homolog, osmotin, are beneficial in a murine model of colitis. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were injected (i.v.) with an adenoviral construct encoding the full-length murine adiponectin gene (AN+DSS) or a reporter-LacZ (Ctr and V+DSS groups) prior to DSS colitis protocol. In another experiment, mice with DSS colitis received either osmotin (Osm+DSS) or saline (DSS) via osmotic pumps. Disease progression and severity were evaluated using body weight, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, colon lengths, and histology. In vitro experiments were carried out in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Results: Mice overexpressing adiponectin had lower expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β), adipokines (angiotensin, osteopontin), and cellular stress and apoptosis markers. These mice had higher levels of IL-10, alternative macrophage marker, arginase 1, and leukoprotease inhibitor. The plant adiponectin homolog osmotin similarly improved colitis outcome and induced robust IL-10 secretion. LPS induced a state of adiponectin resistance in dendritic cells that was reversed by treatment with PPARγ agonist and retinoic acid. Conclusion: Adiponectin exerted protective effects during murine DSS colitis. It had a broad activity that encompassed cytokines, chemotactic factors as well as processes that assure cell viability during stressful conditions. Reducing adiponectin resistance or using plant-derived adiponectin homologs may become therapeutic options in inflammatory bowel disease. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning in rats involves upregulating adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Wenjing; Duan, Jun; Ma, Ming; Kong, Wei; Ke, Yuannan; Li, Gang; Zheng, Jingang

    2017-02-20

    It has been reported that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adiponectin (APN) are cardioprotective in many cardiovascular disorders. However, whether APN mediates the effect of IPC on myocardial injury has not been elucidated. This study was conducted to investigate whether IPC affects myocardial ischemic injury by increasing APN expression. Male adult rats with cardiac knockdowns of APN and its receptors via intramyocardial small-interfering RNA injection were subjected to IPC and then myocardial infarction (MI) at 24 h post-IPC. Globular APN (gAd) was injected at 10 min before MI. APN mRNA and protein levels in myocardium as well as the plasma APN concentration were markedly high at 6 and 12 h after IPC. IPC ameliorated myocardial injury as evidenced by improved cardiac functions and a reduced infarct size. Compared with the control MI group, rats in the IPC + MI group had elevated levels of left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and a smaller MI size (PIPC are partially due to upregulation of APN, and provide a further insight into IPC-mediated signaling effects.

  1. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced ventricular dilation and decrease in mitochondrial enzymes despite no change in adiponectin

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    O'Shea Karen M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological left ventricular (LV hypertrophy frequently progresses to dilated heart failure with suppressed mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Dietary marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA up-regulate adiponectin and prevent LV dilation in rats subjected to pressure overload. This study 1 assessed the effects of ω-3 PUFA on LV dilation and down-regulation of mitochondrial enzymes in response to pressure overload; and 2 evaluated the role of adiponectin in mediating the effects of ω-3 PUFA in heart. Methods Wild type (WT and adiponectin-/- mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC and were fed standard chow ± ω-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, echocardiography was performed to assess LV function, mice were terminated, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were evaluated. Results TAC induced similar pathological LV hypertrophy compared to sham mice in both strains on both diets. In WT mice TAC increased LV systolic and diastolic volumes and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activities, which were attenuated by ω-3 PUFA without increasing adiponectin. In contrast, adiponectin-/- mice displayed no increase in LV end diastolic and systolic volumes or decrease in mitochondrial enzymes with TAC, and did not respond to ω-3 PUFA. Conclusion These findings suggest ω-3 PUFA attenuates cardiac pathology in response to pressure overload independent of an elevation in adiponectin.

  2. Serum adiponectin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhograj, Abhijit; Suryanarayana, K. M.; Nayak, Ashwini; Murthy, N. S.; Dharmalingam, Mala; Kalra, Pramila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.[1] Pregnancy is a unique situation in which there is a physiological temporary increase in insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms responsible for the gestational-induced IR are not completely understood. The current study was undertaken to compare adiponectin levels during 24–28 weeks period of gestation in drug-naive newly diagnosed GDM women with a cohort of normoglycemic pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A total of 47 pregnant women in the age group of 18–40 years were included in this cross-sectional study, of which 13 were GDM cases and 34 were normoglycemic controls. Serum adiponectin level was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean adiponectin level was 16.92 ng/ml (standard deviation [SD] = 2.78) and 19.38 ng/ml (SD = 2.71) in case and control groups, respectively, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.008). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated decreased serum adiponectin levels in women with GDM when compared with age- and body mass index-matched euglycemic pregnant women. PMID:27867874

  3. The Relationship among Carotid Artery Remodeling, Cardiac Geometry, and Serum N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level in Asymptomatic Asians: Sex-Differences and Longitudinal GEE Study.

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    Chen-Yen Chien

    Full Text Available Carotid artery remodeling is known to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is limited information regarding gender differences in carotid remodeling. We sought to investigate the associations among blood pressure (BP, carotid artery remodeling and cardiac geometries, and further explore gender differences.In a large cohort of asymptomatic adults undergoing routine health screening with repeated observations, we related measures of carotid artery diameter (CCAD to various BP components, cardiac geometries and blood N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP level, both from baseline cross-sectional and longitudinal dataset using generalized estimating equations (GEE.A total of 2,914 person-visits (baseline: n=998, mean age: 47 ± 8.9 years, 34% female were studied (median: 6 ± 1.73 years follow up. We observed that CCAD was larger in men (p=300pg/mL; AUROC: 0.79, CCAD cut-off: 7.95mm, all p<0.05, which remained significant in multi-variate and longitudinal models. There was a prominent sex interaction (p for interaction with age and systolic BP: 0.004 and 0.028 respectively, where the longitudinal associations of age and systolic BP with increasing CCAD as more pronounced in women than men.These data demonstrated that carotid artery remodeling may parallel subclinical biomarker of cardiac dysfunction, and further showed greater effects of aging and higher blood pressure on such remodeling process in women than men. Further study is warranted to understand how this predisposition of elderly hypertensive women to vascular remodeling may play a role in clinical settings.

  4. Adiponectin and Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Patrick H. Dessein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the potential impact of adiponectin on carotid ultrasound determined atherosclerosis in 210 (119 black and 91 white RA patients in mixed regression models. Total adiponectin concentrations were smaller in patients with compared to those without the metabolic syndrome (MetS defined waist criterion (median (range = 6.47 (1.23–34.54 versus 8.38 (0.82–85.30 ng/mL, P=0.02, resp.; both total and high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin concentrations were larger in patients with compared to those without joint deformities (7.97 (0.82–85.30 and 3.51 (0.01–35.40 versus 5.36 (1.29–19.49 and 2.34 (0.01–19.49 ng/mL, P=0.003 and 0.02, resp.. Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations were associated with carotid artery plaque in patients with MetS waist (odds ratio (95% CI = 0.87 (0.76–0.99 and 0.92 (0.85–0.99 per 1-standard deviation increment, P=0.02 for both and those without joint deformities (odds ratio (95% CI = 0.94 (0.88–0.99 and 0.94 (0.89–0.99, P=0.03 for both. Plaque prevalence was lower in patients without compared to those with joint deformities (23.4% versus 42.6, P=0.004 in multivariable analysis. In RA patients with abdominal obesity or no clinically evident joint damage, adiponectin concentrations are reduced but nevertheless associated with decreased carotid atherosclerosis.

  5. Serum adiponectin levels in advanced-stage Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Erica; Cancello, Raffaella; Cavanna, Ferruccio; Maestrini, Sabrina; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pezzoli, Gianni; Barichella, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) experience body weight loss and reductions in the most common cardiovascular risk factors. At present, the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin, which possesses antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, are associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to determine adiponectin serum concentrations in PD patients. Thirty PD patients underwent a full nutritional status assessment, including the determination of adiponectin serum concentrations. Mean ± SD adiponectin concentrations were 9.59 ± 5.9 μg/mL (interquartile range: 5.92-12.9 μg/mL). In PD patients, adiponectin serum levels were similar to those in normal-weight, healthy, young subjects and significantly higher than that in an aged-matched group of morbidly obese subjects. Further studies are warranted to establish the role of adiponectin in the management of PD patients.

  6. Chemerin and adiponectin contribute reciprocally to metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hui Chu

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are considered chronic inflammatory states. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, may play an important role in linking MetS and inflammation. We investigated the association of chemerin with inflammatory markers and with characteristics of MetS in apparently healthy overweight and obese adults. We studied 92 adults; 59 men and 33 women whose average body mass index (BMI was 28.15 ± 5.08 kg/m(2. Anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance indices, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, pentraxin 3 (PTX3, adiponectin, and chemerin were measured. Controlling for age, gender, and BMI, serum chemerin level was positively correlated with body fat and serum triglyceride, and negatively correlated with adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- C, and was not correlated with altered hsCRP or PTX3 levels. Among the low, moderate and high chemerin groups, high chemerin individuals are more likely to have lower HDL-C. Conversely, individuals in the low adiponectin group are more likely to have lower HDL-C and show more MetS phenotypic traits than moderate and high adiponectin subjects. To determine the relationships of chemerin and adiponectin to MetS and its components, participants were stratified into four groups based on their chemerin and adiponectin levels (high chemerin/high adiponectin, high chemerin/low adiponectin, low chemerin/high adiponectin, or low chemerin/low adiponectin. Participants who were in the high chemerin/low adiponectin group more likely to have dyslipidemia and MetS (OR: 5.79, 95% CI:1.00-33.70 compared to the other three group. Our findings suggest that chemerin and adiponectin may reciprocally participate in the development of MetS.

  7. Adiponectin--a key adipokine in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J P; Richards, A A; Hickman, I J; Macdonald, G A; Prins, J B

    2006-05-01

    Adiponectin is a recently described adipokine that has been recognized as a key regulator of insulin sensitivity and tissue inflammation. It is produced by adipose tissue (white and brown) and circulates in the blood at very high concentrations. It has direct actions in liver, skeletal muscle and the vasculature, with prominent roles to improve hepatic insulin sensitivity, increase fuel oxidation [via up-regulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity] and decrease vascular inflammation. Adiponectin exists in the circulation as varying molecular weight forms, produced by multimerization. Recent data indicate that the high-molecular weight (HMW) complexes have the predominant action in the liver. In contrast to other adipokines, adiponectin secretion and circulating levels are inversely proportional to body fat content. Levels are further reduced in subjects with diabetes and coronary artery disease. Adiponectin antagonizes many effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) and this, in turn, suppresses adiponectin production. Furthermore, adiponectin secretion from adipocytes is enhanced by thiazolidinediones (which also act to antagonize TNF-alpha effects). Thus, adiponectin may be the common mechanism by which TNF-alpha promotes, and the thiazolidinediones suppress, insulin resistance and inflammation. Two adiponectin receptors, termed AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have been identified and these are ubiquitously expressed. AdipoR1 is most highly expressed in skeletal muscle and has a prominent action to activate AMPK, and hence promote lipid oxidation. AdipoR2 is most highly expressed in liver, where it enhances insulin sensitivity and reduces steatosis via activation of AMPK and increased peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligand activity. T-cadherin, which is expressed in endothelium and smooth muscle, has been identified as an adiponectin-binding protein with preference for HMW adiponectin multimers. Given the low

  8. Serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-ping; YANG Cheng-ti; GAO Xing-yu; ZHANG Ling; HU Hou-xiang; CHEN Li

    2004-01-01

    To explore the serum levels of adiponectin in patients with essential hypertension and the relationbetween adiponectin and blood pressure. Methods: Forty-five cases with essential hypertension and 43 healthy control sub-jects have been taken fasting blood samples for measurements of plasma glucose, plasma lipids, insulin, C-peptide, thyroidhormones, TNF-α, leptin and adiponectin. Glucose tolerance was assessed by 75-g oral glucose tolerance est. Results: Theconcentrations of adiponectin in cases with essential hypertension were significantly lower than those in the control group(4.15 ± 1.99 vs 7.04 ± 3.13 mg/ml, P = 0.000). Pearson relation analysis showed that serum adiponectin concentrationswere negatively and significantly correlated with body-mass index ( r = - 0. 274, P = 0. 038 ), total cholesterol(r = -0.257, P = 0.048)in control groups, while adiponectin concentrations were negatively and significantly correlatedwith systolic blood pressure ( r = - 0.356, P = 0.016), triglyceride ( r = - 0.367, P = 0.013), tumor necrosis factor-al-pha ( r = - 0. 298, P = 0.047) and triiodothyronine ( r = - 0.317, P = 0. 034) in essential hypertension group. Multipleregression analysis showed that body-mass index was the independent factor to adiponectin levels, and SBP and TNF-α wereadiponectin independent factors in the essential hypertension group. Conclusion: The serum adiponectin concentrations aresignificant lower in patients with essential hypertension, and there is negative and significantly correlation between adiponec-tin and blood pressure.

  9. Adiponectin is partially associated with exosomes in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoonsawat, Worrawalan; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Sonoyama, Kei

    2014-06-06

    Exosomes are membrane vesicles 30-120 nm in diameter that are released by many cell types and carry a cargo of proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA. Cultured adipocytes reportedly release exosomes that may play a role in cell-to-cell communication during the development of metabolic diseases. However, the characteristics and function of exosomes released from adipocytes in vivo remain to be elucidated. Clearly, adipocyte-derived exosomes could exist in the circulation and may be associated with adipocyte-specific proteins such as adipocytokines. We isolated exosomes from serum of mice by differential centrifugation and analyzed adiponectin, leptin, and resistin in the exosome fraction. Western blotting detected adiponectin but no leptin and only trace amounts of resistin in the exosome fraction. The adiponectin signal in the exosome fraction was decreased by proteinase K treatment and completely quenched by a combination of proteinase K and Triton X-100. Quantitative ELISA showed that the exosome fraction contains considerable amounts of adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin. The concentration of adiponectin in the serum and the ratio of adiponectin to total protein in the exosome fraction were lower in obese mice than in lean mice. These results suggest that a portion of adiponectin exists as a transmembrane protein in the exosomes in mouse serum. We propose adiponectin as a marker of exosomes released from adipocytes in vivo.

  10. Association between circulating adiponectin levels and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira); K. Shafique (Kashif); A.R. Shaikh (Abdul Rauf); N.A. Khan (Naveed Ali); M. Anwar Qureshi (Masood)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Low adiponectin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been largely attributed to obesity which is common among these patients. In addition, evidence also suggests that low adiponectin in PCOS may be related to insulin resistance (IR) in these women. However, studi

  11. Adiponectin gene ADIPOQ SNP associations with serum adiponectin in two female populations and effects of SNPs on promoter activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J.; Spencer-Jones, Nicola J.; Malcolm, Claire; Wang, Xiaoling; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Burling, Keith A.; Hart, Deborah J.; Spector, Tim D.; O'Dell, Sandra D.

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is an insulin sensitiser in muscle and liver, and low serum levels characterise obesity and insulin resistance. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene and promoter were selected, and association with serum adiponectin was tested, in two independent sampl

  12. Activation of AMPK by berberine promotes adiponectin multimerization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Wang, Pengcheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Lin, Huan; Li, Yehua; Liu, Ling; Meng, Qinghang; Cui, Ting; Liu, Jing; Li, Zhen

    2011-06-23

    Adiponectin is assembled into trimer (LMW), hexamer (MMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) multimer in adipocytes. The HMW adiponectin is more metabolically active and closely associated with peripheral insulin sensitivity. In this study, we reported that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with insulin-sensitizing effect, inhibits the expression of adiponectin, but promotes the assembly of HMW adiponectin and increases the ratio of HMW to total adiponectin. Berberine activates AMPK. Knockdown of AMPKα1 abolishes the effect of berberine. Activation of AMPK by AICAR also increases the level of HMW adiponectin. Our study suggested that activation of AMPK by berberine promotes adiponectin multimerization.

  13. Impact of Adiponectin Overexpression on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah G. Verbout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important risk factor for asthma. Obese individuals have decreased circulating adiponectin, an adipose-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that transgenic overexpression of adiponectin would attenuate allergic airways inflammation and mucous hyperplasia in mice. To test this hypothesis, we used mice overexpressing adiponectin (Adipo Tg. Adipo Tg mice had marked increases in both serum adiponectin and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid adiponectin. Both acute and chronic ovalbumin (OVA sensitization and challenge protocols were used. In both protocols, OVA-induced increases in total BAL cells were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice. In the acute protocol, OVA-induced increases in several IL-13 dependent genes were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, even though IL-13 per se was not affected. With chronic exposure, though OVA-induced increases in goblet cells numbers per millimeter of basement membrane were greater in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, mRNA abundance of mucous genes in lungs was not different. Also, adiponectin overexpression did not induce M2 polarization in alveolar macrophages. Our results indicate that adiponectin protects against allergen-induced inflammatory cell recruitment to the airspaces, but not development of goblet cell hyperplasia.

  14. Effect of the diet components on adiponectin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. G. Reis

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, which requires nutritional interventions for its effective control. Adiponectin has antiinflammatory capacity, improves glucose tolerance and presents decreased plasma expression and concentration in obese individuals. Studies with animals reveal improvement in insulin resistance after the infusion of adiponectin; in humans, caloric restriction increases its levels. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of dietary components on gene expression and plasma concentration of adiponectin. Sixteen articles were found following a literature review -seven with interventions in animal models and nine in human. The results in animal models demonstrate that the consumption of hyperlipidemic diets, rich in saturated fat, reduces the levels of adiponectin, while the diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and supplementation with omega-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid increase its gene expression and plasma levels. In humans, the consumption of a healthy and Mediterranean diet are positively associated with adiponectin levels, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. Due to the importance of adiponectin in preventing metabolic diseases and reducing cardiovascular risk, more research are needed on food strategies to promote the increase of adiponectin levels. Therefore, studies must be carried out to evaluate the response to different sources and levels of various dietary components and the safety of the supplementation of specific nutrients.

  15. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  16. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Guggenheimer, Heinrich W

    1977-01-01

    This is a text of local differential geometry considered as an application of advanced calculus and linear algebra. The discussion is designed for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate study, and presumes of readers only a fair knowledge of matrix algebra and of advanced calculus of functions of several real variables. The author, who is a Professor of Mathematics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York, begins with a discussion of plane geometry and then treats the local theory of Lie groups and transformation groups, solid differential geometry, and Riemannian geometry, leading to a

  17. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new......-onset diabetes mellitus after Tx, (ii) describe which parameters that influence the ADPN concentration before and after Tx. Fifty-seven nondiabetic kidney allograft recipients and 40 nondiabetic uraemic patients were included. The Tx group was examined at baseline and 3 and 12 months after Tx. The uraemic...... analysis, whereas an ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed no predictive characteristic of ADPN for aggravation of the glucose tolerance after Tx. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is accompanied by a significant reduction in ADPN concentration. Several factors determine the ADPN concentration...

  18. Adiponectin promotes coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis by suppression of acute anti-viral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, A; Holzhauser, L; Löbel, M; Savvatis, K; Wilk, S; Weithäuser, A; Pinkert, S; Tschöpe, C; Klingel, K; Poller, W; Scheibenbogen, C; Schultheiss, H P; Skurk, C

    2014-05-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is an immunomodulatory adipocytokine that improves outcome in patients with virus-negative inflammatory cardiomyopathy and mice with autoimmune myocarditis. Here, we investigated whether APN modulates cardiac inflammation and injury in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis. Myocarditis was induced by CVB3 infection of APN-KO and WT mice. APN reconstitution was performed by adenoviral gene transfer. Expression analyses were performed by qRT-PCR and immunoblot. Cardiac histology was analyzed by H&E-stain and immunohistochemistry. APN-KO mice exhibited diminished subacute myocarditis with reduced viral load, attenuated inflammatory infiltrates determined by NKp46, F4/80 and CD3/CD4/CD8 expression and reduced IFNβ, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-12 levels. Moreover, myocardial injury assessed by necrotic lesions and troponin I release was attenuated resulting in preserved left ventricular function. Those changes were reversed by APN reconstitution. APN had no influence on adhesion, uptake or replication of CVB3 in cardiac myocytes. In acute CVB3 myocarditis, cardiac viral load did not differ between APN-KO and WT mice. However, APN-KO mice displayed an enhanced acute immune response, i.e. increased expression of myocardial CD14, IFNβ, IFNγ, IL-12, and TNFα resulting in increased cardiac infiltration with pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and activated NK cells. Up-regulation of cardiac CD14 expression, type I and II IFNs and inflammatory cell accumulation in APN-KO mice was inhibited by APN reconstitution. Our observations indicate that APN promotes CVB3 myocarditis by suppression of toll-like receptor-dependent innate immune responses, polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages and reduction of number and activation of NK cells resulting in attenuated acute anti-viral immune responses.

  19. Adiponectin action: a combination of endocrine and autocrine/paracrine effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eSweeney

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The widespread physiological actions of adiponectin have now been well characterized as clinical studies and work in animal models have established strong correlations between circulating adiponectin levels and various disease-related outcomes. Thus, conventional thinking attributes many of adiponectins beneficial effects to endocrine actions of adipose-derived adiponectin. However, it is now clear that several tissues can themselves produce adiponectin and there is growing evidence that locally produced adiponectin can mediate functionally important autocrine or paracrine effects. In this review article we discuss regulation of adiponectin production, its mechanism of action via receptor isoforms and signaling pathways and its principal physiological effects (ie. metabolic and cardiovascular. The role of endocrine actions of adiponectin and changes in local production of adiponectin or its receptors in whole body physiology is discussed.

  20. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial.

  1. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappala, Giovanna, E-mail: zappalag@mail.nih.gov [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rechler, Matthew M. [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

  2. Elevated serum leptin, adiponectin and leptin to adiponectin ratio is associated with chronic kidney disease in Asian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ciwei Lim

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR with CKD in a population-based sample of Asian adults.We conducted a case-control study (450 CKD cases and 920 controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity involving Chinese and Indian adults aged 40-80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (2007-2011. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate 0.1.Higher levels of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR were positively associated with CKD independent of traditional risk factors in this Asian population.

  3. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O;

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk....... In conclusion, obese hypertensive men have similar serum concentrations of adiponectin as obese normotensive men. In combination with the in vitro data, these findings question a pathogenic role of adiponectin in human hypertension....... of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional in vivo study and in an experimental in vitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130...

  4. Expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 in the porcine uterus, conceptus, and trophoblast during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Nina; Maleszka, Anna; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Kiezun, Marta; Szeszko, Karol; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-15

    Adiponectin, one of the several adipocytokines secreted mainly by the adipose tissue, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and controls female fertility. Female reproductive functions are closely associated with nutritional status, and adiponectin seems to be an important factor linking the regulation of metabolic homeostasis with reproductive processes. The biological activity of adiponectin is mediated by two distinct receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). The objective of this study was to determine the presence of and changes in the gene and protein expression pattern of adiponectin and its receptors in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy and on Days 10 to 11 of the estrous cycle and in the conceptus and trophoblast. The highest level of adiponectin transcript was observed on Days 15 to 16 of gestation, Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the endometrium, and Days 15 to 16 of gestation in the myometrium. The highest expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes was detected on Days 10 to 11 of gestation in the endometrium, and Days 12 to 13 in the myometrium. The highest content of adiponectin protein was noted on Days 12 to 13 and 30 to 32 of gestation in the endometrium and Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the myometrium. The expression of adiponectin protein was higher on Days 27 to 28 and 30 to 32 in the conceptuses. AdipoR1 protein content in the myometrium was highest on Days 12 to 13 and 30 to 32. In contrast, in the endometrium, it was more constant. The highest content of AdipoR2 protein was detected on Days 15 to 16 and 30 to 32 of gestation, Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the endometrium, and Days 10 to 11 of gestation in the myometrium. In the conceptuses, the highest AdipoR1 protein content was observed on Days 15 to 16, and the highest AdipoR2 protein expression was determined on Days 15 to 16 and 27 to 28. In the trophoblasts, AdipoR1 protein content was higher on Days 27 to 28 than on Days 30

  5. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  6. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Graustein, William C

    2006-01-01

    This first course in differential geometry presents the fundamentals of the metric differential geometry of curves and surfaces in a Euclidean space of three dimensions. Written by an outstanding teacher and mathematician, it explains the material in the most effective way, using vector notation and technique. It also provides an introduction to the study of Riemannian geometry.Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, the text presupposes a knowledge of calculus. The first nine chapters focus on the theory, treating the basic properties of curves and surfaces, the mapping of

  7. Beautiful geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2014-01-01

    If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur

  8. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-ming; Duan, Xue-ning; Cui, Shu-de; Tian, Fu-guo; Cao, Xu-chen; Geng, Cui-zhi; Fan, Zhi-min; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-chuan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-hai; Liang, Hong; Yang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Hai-bo; Wang, Qi-tang; Li, Guo-lou; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-guang; Zuo, Wen-shu; Liu, Li-yuan; Wang, Lu; Ma, Dan-dan; Liu, Shu-chen; Xiang, Yu-juan; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-miao; Zhou, Wen-zhong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-xiang; Ma, Zhong-bing; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family history of breast cancer (P=0.024). We analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and breast cancer risk in 6 subgroups. Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was also negatively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.020, 0.014, 0.035) in the subgroups of postmenopausal women, negative family history of breast cancer, BMI>=24.0. Total adiponectin was positively associated with breast cancer (P=0.028) in the subgroup of BMIbreast cancer risk (P=0.034, 0.0116). This study showed different forms of circulating adiponectin levels might play different roles in breast cancer risk. A higher circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal, without family history of breast cancer or BMI>=24.0 subgroups, whereas higher circulating HMW adiponectin levels is a risk factor in women with a family history of breast cancer. Further investigation of different forms of adiponectin on breast cancer risk is needed.

  9. SSA 04-3 LEPTIN/ADIPONECTIN IN CARDIOMETABOLIC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Attention has focused on the visceral adipose tissue production of cytokines (adipokines) in metabolic syndrome and DM2, as the levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin are decreased, while proinflammatory cytokines are elevated, creating a proinflammatory state associated with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. We have give special attention to the role of the leptin/adiponectin ratio and we have demonstrated that in individuals with severe coronary artery disease, abdominal obesity (AO) was uniquely related to decreased plasma concentrations of adiponectin and increased leptin levels. Leptin/adiponectin imbalance was associated with increased waist circumference and a decreased vascular response to acetylcholine and increased vasoconstriction due to angiotensin II. Leptin and adiponectin have opposite effects on subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance. Leptin upregulates proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-I and interleukin-6; these are associated with insulin resistance, DM2, and CVD. In contrast, adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties and downregulates the expression and release of a number of proinflammatory immune mediators. Its concentrations are negatively regulated by the accumulation of visceral fat, and clinical studies implicate hypoadiponectinemia in the pathogenesis of DM

  10. Algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.

  11. Relationships between inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS represents a cluster of physiological and anthropometric abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the levels of inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in subjects with MS. The inclusion criteria for MS, according to the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, were applied to the case group (n = 72. The control group (n = 105 comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, an oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes activities [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx] were measured. Subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of inflammatory markers and lower adiponectin level, and lower antioxidant enzymes activities than the control subjects. The levels of inflammatory markers and adiponectin were significantly correlated with the components of MS. The level of hs-CRP was significantly correlated with the oxidative stress marker. The IL-6 level was significantly correlated with the SOD and GPx activities, and the adiponectin level was significantly correlated with the GPx activity. A higher level of hs-CRP (≥1.00 mg/L, or IL-6 (≥1.50 pg/mL or a lower level of adiponectin (<7.90 µg/mL were associated with a significantly greater risk of MS. In conclusion, subjects suffering from MS may have a higher inflammation status and a higher level of oxidative stress. A higher inflammation status was significantly correlated with decreases in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and adiponectin and an increase in the risk of MS.

  12. [Adipokines: adiponectin, leptin, resistin and coronary heart disease risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopff, Barbara; Jegier, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Visceral obesity is among the known risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. As long as adipose tissue was considered only an inert store of excess energy, accumulated in triglycerides, explanation of the mechanisms causing increased cardiovascular risk in obesity was difficult. Finding that the adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ and that the adipokines secreted in it influence several metabolic processes, allowed better understanding of this correlation. Several disturbances in secretion, function and balance of adipokines occur in the course of obesity. Changes of adiponectin, leptin and resistin concentrations are among the reasons of accelerated atherosclerosis occurring in the visceral adiposity. Adiponectin concentrations are decreased in visceral adiposity. Adiponectin is adipokine possessing antiatherogenic properties. It's effects exerted though the specific receptors in skeletal muscles and liver include decreased insulin resistance and improved plasma lipid profile. Acting directly in the vessel wall adiponectin prevents development of atheromatic lesions by inhibiting production of adhesive molecules and formation of foam cells. It has been found that decreased adiponectin concentrations are connected not only with increased coronary risk but also with progression of atherosclerosis in coronary vessels. Moreover it was found that adiponectin plasma concentration is significantly decreased in acute coronary incidences. Leptin regulates energy metabolism and balance. The concentrations of this adipokine are increased in obesity and correlate with insulin resistance. Hiperleptinemia has been also recognized as cardiovascular diseases risk factor. Resistin is considered to be a substance increasing insulin resistance, however the exact mechanisms are not known. Resistin plasma concentrations are increased in obese subjects and correlate with the inflammatory state that underlies the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic

  13. Adiponectin as a protective factor in hepatic steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahum Méndez-Sánchez; Norberto C. Chávez-Tapia; Antonio R. Villa; Karla Sánchez-Lara; Daniel Zamora-Valdés; Martha H. Ramos; Misael Uribe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Obesityand insulin resistance (IR) are closely related to hepatic steatosis (HS), and adiponectin is a hepatic insulin sensitizer that has important effects in liver function.This study aims at investigating the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and the presence of HS.METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in a check-up unit of a University Hospital in Mexico City. We enrolled 196 subjects, comprising 98 subjects with HS (27 women, 71 men) and 98 controls (37 women and 61men). Anthropometric, metabolic and biochemical variables were measured in the two groups. Serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations were determined,their association with grade of HS tested, and concentrations,according to quartiles, compared between cases and controls. χ2 analysis for linear trends was used to test for a dose-response relationship and logistic regression analysis was conducted to test for a protective effect of adiponectin.RESULTS: The HS subjects were older and more obese than controls, with a central obesity pattern. In the fourth quartile of adiponectin concentrations, HS was less common and severe. In a multivariate model of the fourth quartile of the adiponectin concentrations, we observed a protective effect (OR = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.04-0.67, P= 0.01).In subjects with more severe HS, we observed higher leptin concentrations, and caloric intakes, total fat and iron consumption were higher than in controls.CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that a high serum concentration of adiponectin is associated with a protective effect against HS.

  14. The inverse association of incident cardiovascular disease with plasma bilirubin is unaffected by adiponectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Boersema, Jeltje; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bilirubin may protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heme oxygenase pathway is crucial for bilirubin generation, and is stimulated by adiponectin. We tested the relationship of plasma bilirubin with adiponectin, and determined whether the association of incident

  15. Evidence that adiponectin receptor 1 activation exacerbates ischemic neuronal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thundyil John

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Adiponectin is a hormone produced in and released from adipose cells, which has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory actions in peripheral cells. Two cell surface adiponectin receptors (ADRs mediate the majority of the known biological actions of adiponectin. Thus far, ADR expression in the brain has been demonstrated in the arcuate and the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, where its activation affects food intake. Recent findings suggest that levels of circulating adiponectin increase after an ischemic stroke, but the role of adiponectin receptor activation in stroke pathogenesis and its functional outcome is unclear. Methods- Ischemic stroke was induced in C57BL/6 mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 1 h, followed by reperfusion. Primary cortical neuronal cultures were established from individual embryonic neocortex. For glucose deprivation (GD, cultured neurons were incubated in glucose-free Locke's medium for 6, 12 or 24 h. For combined oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD, neurons were incubated in glucose-free Locke's medium in an oxygen-free chamber with 95% N2/5% CO2 atmosphere for either 3, 6, 9, 12 or 24 h. Primary neurons and brain tissues were analysed for Adiponectin and ADRs using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunoblot and immunochemistry methods. Results- Cortical neurons express ADR1 and ADR2, and that the levels of ADR1 are increased in neurons in response to in vitro or in vivo ischemic conditions. Neurons treated with either globular or trimeric adiponectin exhibited increased vulnerability to oxygen and glucose deprivation which was associated with increased activation of a pro-apoptotic signaling cascade involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Conclusions- This study reveals a novel pathogenic role for adiponectin and adiponectin receptor activation in ischemic stroke. We show that

  16. LDL but not HDL increases adiponectin release of primary human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Neumeier, Markus; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Dada, Ashraf; Schmitz, Gerd; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Buechler, Christa

    2013-12-01

    Adipocytes in obesity have inappropriately low cholesterol while adiponectin release is reduced. Cholesterol shortage may contribute to low adiponectin and 3T3-L1 cells treated with lovastatin have diminished adiponectin in cell supernatants. LDL and HDL deliver cholesterol to adipocytes. LDL but not HDL increases adiponectin in cell supernatants of primary human adipocytes. The effect of LDL is not blocked by receptor associated protein suggesting that members of the LDL-receptor family are not involved. To evaluate whether these in vitro observations translate into changes in systemic adiponectin, adiponectin was measured in serum of three patients before, immediately after and 3d after LDL-apheresis. Whereas circulating lipoproteins are reduced immediately after apheresis adiponectin is not changed. Therefore, acute lowering of lipoproteins does not affect systemic adiponectin also excluding that plenty of adiponectin is bound to lipoprotein particles. Accordingly, levels of adiponectin in purified lipoproteins are quite low. Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) is a rare disorder associated with low plasma LDL. Serum adiponectin is, however, similar compared to healthy controls. Thus, neither LDL nor HDL directly contributes to circulating adiponectin concentrations.

  17. Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Levels and Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Horáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the potential use of lower total and HMW adiponectin levels for predicting cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Concentrations of total adiponectin or high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin decrease in association with the development of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity, insulin resistance, or T2DM. Increased adiponectin levels are associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease. A total of 551 individuals were assessed. The first group comprised metabolically healthy participants (143 females, and 126 males and the second group were T2DM patients (164 females, and 118 males. Both total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin in diabetic patients were significantly lower when compared with the group of metabolically healthy individuals. There was a weak monotonic correlation between HMW adiponectin levels and triglycerides levels. Binary logistic regression analysis, gender adjusted, showed a higher cardiovascular risk in diabetic persons when both total adiponectin (OR = 1.700 and HMW adiponectin (OR = 2.785 levels were decreased. A decrease in total adiponectin levels as well as a decrease in its HMW adiponectin is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk in individuals with T2DM. This association suggests that adiponectin levels may be potentially used as an epidemiological marker for cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.

  18. Adiponectin is associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine insulin resistance, markers of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and serum adiponectin concentrations in pre-menopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. This cross-sectional study examined 119 pre-menopausal women (76 Hispanic, 45 NHW) for markers of the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria), level of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), CVD risk factors, and serum total adiponectin concentrations. Relationships between variables were assessed using Student's t-tests, Pearson's and Spearman's Rho correlations, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Hispanic women had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than NHW women, even after controlling for body fat (%) (P women combined and for NHW women (P ≤ 0.04), but not for Hispanic women. Insulin resistance was inversely related to adiponectin for all women and for NHW women (P women. Adiponectin concentration was not significantly associated with number of CVD risk factors for these women. While adiponectin was associated with markers of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance for all women of this study and despite lower adiponectin concentrations for Hispanic women than NHW women, the role of adiponectin to these conditions among Hispanics remains unclear. There was no significant association between adiponectin and CVD risk for these women. Future research should focus on understanding mechanisms for up-regulating adiponectin secretion and if ethnicity affects adiponectin gene expression and secretion given the beneficial effects derived from elevated adiponectin levels.

  19. Gene Expression of Adiponectin and Adiponectin Receptor 1 in Type 2 Diabetic Rats and the Relationship with the Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Hui; LING Hanhua; WANG Hongwei; ZHANG Longjiang; HUANG Xiaoyan; XIA Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to confirm whether the mRNA levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue and mRNA levels of AdipoR1 in the skeletal muscles were correlated with the serum parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and to clarify the regulation of adiponectin receptor gene expression in diabetic states, serum adiponectin, mRNA levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue and mRNA levels of AdipoR1 in the skeletal muscles were examined in type 2 diabetic rats. The model of type 2 diabetes was prepared by feeding high fat diet and injecting low dosage of streptozotocin (STZ). The diabetic rats were screened out by oral glucose tolerance test. One group of type 2 diabetic rats received rosiglitazone. The serum adiponectin concentration was detected by using ELISA and mRNA levels were examined by RT-PCR. The serum adiponectin levels and mRNA levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic rats were significantly decreased as compared with the normal control rats (P<0.05, P<0.01 respectively). No siglificant changes were observed in the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic rats. The mRNA levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue were reversely correlated with serum insulin (r=-0.66, P<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.58, P<0.05), cholesterol (r=-0.49, P<0.05), interleukin-6 (r=-0.49, P<0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (r=-0.43, P<0.05). The expression of adiponectin receptors was not altered in the skeletal muscle of Type 2 diabetic rats. The decreased serum adiponectin was caused by the decreased expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue rather than the adiponectin receptors in the skeletal muscle, which could be improved by rosiglitazone.

  20. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  1. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  2. Plasma Adiponectin Concentrations and Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Bronchial Asthma in the Chinese Li Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of changes in the plasma  adiponectin  concentration  in  patients  with  bronchial  asthma  and  to  test  the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs2241766 and rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene and bronchial asthma in the Chinese Li population.We selected 120 cases and 120 controls, and plasma adiponectin, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor  necrosis  factor-alpha  (TNF-α  levels  were  measured  by  enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In addition, we genotyped two tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs and evaluated their association with bronchial asthma using the χ2 test and genetic model analysis.Compared to controls, patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma showedsignificantly lower adiponectin and significantly higher IL-6 and TNF-α levels (p<0.01. Apositive association was found between the rs1501299 SNP and acute exacerbation (OR =1.62; 95% CI= 1.08-2.43; p= 0.019.The inverse correlation between the plasma adiponectin concentration and asthma exacerbation indicates that adiponectin may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Meanwhile, our findings suggest that ADIPOQ polymorphisms influence the risk of developing bronchial asthma in Chinese Li population.

  3. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  4. Uncovering Adiponectin Replenishing Property of Sujiaonori Algal Biomaterial in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Mamoru; Inoue, Masataka; Kanbara, Sakiko; Nojima, Sayumi

    2017-02-08

    The replenishment of adiponectin-an adipocyte-derived hormone with salutary health effects-has recently been proposed as a new approach to treat hypertension, also ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic risks. We conducted a prospective placebo-controlled, non-randomized and investigator-blinded dietary intervention study to evaluate the health effects of dietary intake of Sujiaonori (Ulva/Enteromorpha prolifera Müller) algal biomaterial (SBM), especially on adiponectin production, blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) in human subjects. Participants (N = 32) were divided into two equally sized groups (n = 16 for each group): SBM group (subjects supplemented with 3 g SBM powder twice a day during meal) and the control group (subjects who took 3 g of a supplement made of 70% corn starch powder and 30% spinach twice a day) for four weeks. Two health survey questionnaires (dietary and current health questionnaires) were completed anonymously, saliva sampling was done for adiponectin measurement by ELISA, and blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters were measured at baseline and four weeks later. Student paired t-test was performed to compare baseline and post-intervention data on outcome variables between the two study groups. Results showed a 2.24-fold increase in adiponectin level in SBM group (2.81 and 6.26 ng/mL at baseline and at the end of study, respectively) (p 0.05). In SBM subjects, an improvement of BP profile was noted with a significant decrease in systolic BP (p < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between SBM supplementation and adiponectin level, whereas an inverse correlation was noted between SBM supplementation and blood pressure, and also BMI. These findings suggest that SBM-increased adiponectin level and improved BP in a sample of Japanese young adults, and has the potential to improve blood pressure in humans.

  5. Adipokines (adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhhibitor-1 in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (MS, which strongly predicts the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Adipokines may contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance and may be a causal link between MS, diabetes and CVD. Hence, we studied the adipokines - adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 - in subjects with MS. Materials and Methods: We studied 50 subjects with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometry, body fat analysis by bioimpedance, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, insulin, adiponectin, and PAI-1 measurement. Results: Subjects with MS had lower adiponectin (4.01 ± 2.24 vs. 8.7 ± 1.77 μg/ml; P < 0.0001 and higher PAI-1 (53.85 ± 16.45 vs. 17.35 ± 4.45 ng/ml; P < 0.0001 levels than controls. Both were related with the number of metabolic abnormalities. Adiponectin was negatively and PAI-1 was positively associated with body mass index, waist hip ratio (WHR, body fat mass, percent body fat, and all the parameters of MS, except HDL where the pattern reversed. WHR and triglycerides were independent predictors of adipokines in multiple regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that adiponectin (6.7 μg/ml and PAI-1 (25.0 ng/ml levels predicted the MS with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in Indian population. Conclusions: Subjects with MS have lower adiponectin and higher PAI-1 levels compared to healthy controls. Lifestyle measures have been shown to improve the various components of MS, and hence there is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent the ongoing epidemic of diabetes and CVD.

  6. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo eOtvos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC. In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399. The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400 was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400 at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  7. Architectural geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, A.; Wallner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural

  8. Adiponectin and Metabolic Syndrome in Women at Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowska, Aneta; Nowak, Lena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with premature atherosclerosis, as well as with many metabolic alterations including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Visceral fat accumulation, particularly, is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. The menopause transition, as well as the early postmenopausal period, is associated with increase in total and central obesity. Among adipocytokines secreted by the adipose tissue adiponectin is the only one that has a protective role in the development of obesity-related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to present a role that adiponectin may play during the progress of menopause in relation to development of menopausal metabolic syndrome.

  9. Common Polymorphisms in the Adiponectin Gene ACDC Are Not Associated With Diabetes in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; Hanson, Robert L; Funahashi, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    Adiponectin is an abundant adipose tissue-derived protein with important metabolic effects. Plasma adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and low adiponectin levels predict insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Two variants in the adiponectin gene ACDC have been previously...... diabetes, BMI, serum lipid levels, serum adiponectin levels, and measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion. None of the ACDC variants were associated with type 2 diabetes, BMI, or measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. One variant, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-12823, was associated...

  10. Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Varrica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. S100B protein, previously proposed as a consolidated marker of brain damage in congenital heart disease (CHD newborns who underwent cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, has been progressively abandoned due to S100B CNS extra-source such as adipose tissue. The present study investigated CHD newborns, if adipose tissue contributes significantly to S100B serum levels. Methods. We conducted a prospective study in 26 CHD infants, without preexisting neurological disorders, who underwent cardiac surgery and CPB in whom blood samples for S100B and adiponectin (ADN measurement were drawn at five perioperative time-points. Results. S100B showed a significant increase from hospital admission up to 24 h after procedure reaching its maximum peak (P0.05 have been found all along perioperative monitoring. ADN/S100B ratio pattern was identical to S100B alone with the higher peak at the end of CPB and remained higher up to 24 h from surgery. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that, in CHD infants, S100B protein is not affected by an extra-source adipose tissue release as suggested by no changes in circulating ADN concentrations.

  11. Adiponectin Expression in the Porcine Ovary during the Oestrous Cycle and Its Effect on Ovarian Steroidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maleszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and is also involved in the control of the reproductive system. The goal of the present study was to investigate changes in adiponectin gene and protein expression in porcine ovarian structures during the oestrous cycle and to examine the effects of in vitro administration of adiponectin on basal and gonadotrophin- and/or insulin-induced secretion of ovarian steroid hormones. Both gene and protein expression of adiponectin were enhanced during the luteal phase of the cycle. Adiponectin affected basal secretion of progesterone by luteal cells, oestradiol by granulosa cells, and testosterone by theca interna cells. The gonadotrophin/insulin-induced release of progesterone from granulosa and theca interna cells and the release of oestradiol and androstenedione from theca cells was also modified by adiponectin. In conclusion, the presence of adiponectin mRNA and protein in the porcine ovary coupled with our previous results indicating adiponectin receptors expression suggest that adiponectin may locally affect ovarian functions. The changes in adiponectin expression throughout the oestrous cycle seem to be dependent on the hormonal status of pigs related to the stage of the oestrous cycle. The effect of adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis suggests that this adipokine influences reproductive functions in pigs.

  12. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  13. Adiponectin self-regulates its expression and multimerization in adipose tissue: an autocrine/paracrine mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huan; Li, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin, a 30-kDa peptide hormone discovered in the mid 1990s, is secreted abundantly and exclusively by adipose tissue. Adiponectin exists in three major forms: a low molecular weight (LMW) trimer, a medium molecular weight (MMW) hexamer, and a high molecular weight (HMW) 18-36 oligomer. The HMW oligomer has the most potent insulin-sensitizing activity therefore impaired adiponectin multimerization may lead to impaired glycemic control. Decreased ratio of HMW/total adiponectin has been observed in patients with obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance-related metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have indicated that berberine or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR)-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppresses the expression of adiponectin but promotes adiponectin multimerization in adipocytes. Since adiponectin activates AMPK through adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) in the membranes of adipocytes, we speculate that adiponectin self-regulates its expression and multimerization in adipose tissue. The hypothesis suggests a potential drug target for treating insulin resistance and provides new interpretation of several clinical observations. In addition, we propose a rapid method for one-step detection of the distribution of adiponectin oligomers in approximately 30 min, based on the open sandwich immunoassay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology. With the development of this new method, the ratio of HMW/total adiponectin may be applied in clinical diagnosis as a novel biomarker for insulin resistance and metabolic disorders.

  14. Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intended for a one year course, this text serves as a single source, introducing readers to the important techniques and theorems, while also containing enough background on advanced topics to appeal to those students wishing to specialize in Riemannian geometry. This is one of the few Works to combine both the geometric parts of Riemannian geometry and the analytic aspects of the theory. The book will appeal to a readership that have a basic knowledge of standard manifold theory, including tensors, forms, and Lie groups. Important revisions to the third edition include: a substantial addition of unique and enriching exercises scattered throughout the text; inclusion of an increased number of coordinate calculations of connection and curvature; addition of general formulas for curvature on Lie Groups and submersions; integration of variational calculus into the text allowing for an early treatment of the Sphere theorem using a proof by Berger; incorporation of several recent results about manifolds with posit...

  15. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kreyszig, Erwin

    1991-01-01

    An introductory textbook on the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, presented in its simplest, most essential form, but with many explanatory details, figures and examples, and in a manner that conveys the theoretical and practical importance of the different concepts, methods and results involved. With problems at the end of each section, and solutions listed at the end of the book. Includes 99 illustrations.

  16. Influence of androgens on circulating adiponectin in male and female rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua F Yarrow

    Full Text Available Several endocrine factors, including sex-steroid hormones are known to influence adiponectin secretion. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of testosterone and of the synthetic non-aromatizable/non-5α reducible androgen 17β-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone on circulating adiponectin and adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat. Young male and female F344 rats underwent sham surgery (SHAM, gonadectomy (GX, or GX plus supraphysiologic testosterone-enanthate (TE administration. Total circulating adiponectin was 39% higher in intact SHAM females than SHAM males (p<0.05. GX increased total adiponectin by 29-34% in both sexes (p<0.05, while TE reduced adiponectin to concentrations that were 46-53% below respective SHAMs (p≤0.001 and ablated the difference in adiponectin between sexes. No differences in high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were observed between sexes or treatments. Adiponectin concentrations were highly and negatively associated with serum testosterone (males: r = -0.746 and females: r = -0.742, p≤0.001; however, no association was present between adiponectin and estradiol. In separate experiments, trenbolone-enanthate (TREN prevented the GX-induced increase in serum adiponectin (p≤0.001 in young animals, with Low-dose TREN restoring adiponectin to the level of SHAMs and higher doses of TREN reducing adiponectin to below SHAM concentrations (p≤0.001. Similarly, TREN reduced adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat (p<0.05. In adult GX males, Low-dose TREN also reduced total adiponectin and visceral fat mass to a similar magnitude as TE, while increasing serum HMW adiponectin above SHAM and GX animals (p<0.05. Serum adiponectin was positively associated with visceral fat mass in young (r = 0.596, p≤0.001 and adult animals (r = 0.657, p≤0.001. Our results indicate that androgens reduce circulating total adiponectin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, while maintaining HMW

  17. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Approach to cardiac arrest and life-threatening ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 63. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Cardiac arrest and audden aardiac death. In: ...

  18. Adiponectin and thiazolidinedione targets CRTC2 to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Sil; Ryu, Dongryeol; Lee, Min Woo; Hong, Sungpyo; Koo, Seung Hoi

    2009-08-31

    During fasting periods, hepatic glucose production is enhanced by glucagon to provide fuels for other organs. This process is mediated via cAMP-dependent induction of the CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC) 2, a critical transcriptional activator for hepatic gluconeogenesis. We have previously shown that CRTC2 activity is regulated by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members. Here we show that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione directly regulate AMPK to modulate CRTC2 activity in hepatocytes. Adiponectin or thiazolidinedione lowered glucose production from primary hepatocytes. Treatment of both reagents reduced gluconeogenic gene expression as well as cAMP-mediated induction of CRE reporter, suggesting that these reagents directly affect CREB/CRTC2- dependent transcription. Furthermore, adiponectin or thiazolidinedione mediated repression of CRE activity is largely blunted by co-expression of phosphorylation defective mutant CRTC2, underscoring the importance of serine 171 residue of this factor. Taken together, we propose that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione promote the modulation of AMPK-dependent CRTC2 activity to influence hepatic gluconeogenesis.

  19. Study the relationship between adiponectin and coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Hui Yang; Li-Xin Zhao; Yan-Hong Lu; Xiao-Jun Li; Jun Shi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study whether adiponectin in serum of patients with coronary heart disease is reduced, and compare with the test results in total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), blood glucose (GLU), C-reactive protein (CRP). Method: We selected 80 cases of coronary heart disease patients as the experimental group, 50 healthy subjects as control group. The coronary heart disease group compared with the control group, we know the changes of adiponectin in coronary heart disease group and compared coronary heart disease group with control group in test results of blood lipid, blood glucose, C-reactive protein. Results: Adiponectin in coronary heart disease group was (0.47±0.09) mg/L, which decreased significantly comparing to control group’s level (t=-18.4, P<0.001), HDL-C in coronary heart disease group was (1.24±0.04) mmol/L, which decreased significantly comparing to control group’s level (t=-27.67, P<0.001). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The level’s adiponectin in patients of coronary heart disease dropped, which lead to hypoadiponectinemia, Hypoadiponectinemia may be one of the risk factors of coronary heart disease.

  20. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Toussirot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3±1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7±0.6 μg/mL; =.01. As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined.

  1. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection andtherapeutic profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina Peta; Carlo Torti; Natasa Milic; Alfredo Focà; Ludovico Abenavoli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients withchronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closelyassociated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis ismore common in genotype 3 infection owing to a directcytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely tobe the result of the alterations in host metabolism;metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormonesinvolved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has beendemonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in thepathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as thedecreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrixprotein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, areassociated with liver steatosis. Various studies haveshown that steatosis is strongly correlated negativelywith adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection.The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus inducedsteatosis is still not completely understood, but therelationship between adiponectin low levels and liversteatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectinto protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulationby increasing β-oxidation of free fatty acid and thusdecreasing de novo free fatty acid production.

  2. Crosstalk between adiponectin and IGF-IR in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana eMauro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic and multifactorial disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. It is characterized by an enlarged mass of adipose tissue caused by a combination of size increase of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy and de novo adipocyte differentiation (hyperplasia. Obesity is related to many metabolic disorders like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and it is associated with an increased risk of cancer development in different tissues including breast. Adipose tissue is now regarded as not just a storage reservoir for excess energy, but rather as an endocrine organ, secreting a large number of bioactive molecules called adipokines. Among these, adiponectin represents the most abundant adipose tissue-excreted protein, which exhibits insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The serum concentrations of adiponectin are inversely correlated with body mass index. Recently, low levels of plasma adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk for obesity-related cancers and development of more aggressive phenotype, concomitantly with alterations in the bioavailability of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I and IGF-I Receptor (IGF-IR signaling pathways. In this review we discuss the cross-talk between adiponectin/AdipoR1 and IGF-I/IGF-IR in breast cancer.

  3. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  4. Uncovering Adiponectin Replenishing Property of Sujiaonori Algal Biomaterial in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Mamoru; Inoue, Masataka; Kanbara, Sakiko; Nojima, Sayumi

    2017-01-01

    The replenishment of adiponectin—an adipocyte-derived hormone with salutary health effects—has recently been proposed as a new approach to treat hypertension, also ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic risks. We conducted a prospective placebo-controlled, non-randomized and investigator-blinded dietary intervention study to evaluate the health effects of dietary intake of Sujiaonori (Ulva/Enteromorpha prolifera Müller) algal biomaterial (SBM), especially on adiponectin production, blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) in human subjects. Participants (N = 32) were divided into two equally sized groups (n = 16 for each group): SBM group (subjects supplemented with 3 g SBM powder twice a day during meal) and the control group (subjects who took 3 g of a supplement made of 70% corn starch powder and 30% spinach twice a day) for four weeks. Two health survey questionnaires (dietary and current health questionnaires) were completed anonymously, saliva sampling was done for adiponectin measurement by ELISA, and blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters were measured at baseline and four weeks later. Student paired t-test was performed to compare baseline and post-intervention data on outcome variables between the two study groups. Results showed a 2.24-fold increase in adiponectin level in SBM group (2.81 and 6.26 ng/mL at baseline and at the end of study, respectively) (p 0.05). In SBM subjects, an improvement of BP profile was noted with a significant decrease in systolic BP (p < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between SBM supplementation and adiponectin level, whereas an inverse correlation was noted between SBM supplementation and blood pressure, and also BMI. These findings suggest that SBM-increased adiponectin level and improved BP in a sample of Japanese young adults, and has the potential to improve blood pressure in humans. PMID:28208744

  5. Enhanced fatty acid flux triggered by adiponectin overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shoba; Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Cho, You-Ree; Brown, Jonathan; Plutzky, Jorge; Muise, Eric S; Horton, Jay D; Scherer, Philipp E; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin overexpression in mice increases insulin sensitivity independent of adiposity. Here, we combined stable isotope infusion and in vivo measurements of lipid flux with transcriptomic analysis to characterize fatty acid metabolism in transgenic mice that overexpress adiponectin via the aP2-promoter (ADNTg). Compared with controls, fasted ADNTg mice demonstrated a 31% reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentrations (P = 0.008), a doubling of ketones (P = 0.028), and a 68% increase in free fatty acid turnover in plasma (15.1 ± 1.5 vs. 25.3 ± 6.8 mg/kg · min, P = 0.011). ADNTg mice had 2-fold more brown adipose tissue mass, and triglyceride synthesis and turnover were 5-fold greater in this organ (P = 0.046). Epididymal white adipose tissue was slightly reduced, possibly due to the approximately 1.5-fold increase in the expression of genes involved in oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, and uncoupling protein 3). In ADNTg liver, lipogenic gene expression was reduced, but there was an unexpected increase in the expression of retinoid pathway genes (hepatic retinol binding protein 1 and retinoic acid receptor beta and adipose Cyp26A1) and liver retinyl ester content (64% higher, P < 0.02). Combined, these data support a physiological link between adiponectin signaling and increased efficiency of triglyceride synthesis and hydrolysis, a process that can be controlled by retinoids. Interactions between adiponectin and retinoids may underlie adiponectin's effects on intermediary metabolism.

  6. Circulating leptin and adiponectin levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Enrica; Petramala, Luigi; Caliumi, Chiara; Cotesta, Darlo; De Toma, Giorgio; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Panzironi, Giuseppe; Diacinti, Daniele; Minisola, Savatore; D' Erasmo, Emilio; Mazzuoli, Gian Franco; Letizia, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has been associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Moreover, many metabolic abnormalities are frequently present in patients with PHPT. Several substances (such as leptin and adiponectin) are secreted from adipocytes, which may contribute to regulate energy homeostasis and the development of cardiovascular diseases. We examined the relationship between leptin and adiponectin levels and metabolic disorders in 67 newly diagnosed never-treated patients with PHPT and in 46 healthy subjects (HS). Twenty (29.8%) patients with PHPT presented a metabolic syndrome (as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria). Serum leptin and adiponectin levels in HS were 6.28 +/- 3.3 ng/mL (range, 1.7-19.2 ng/mL) and 6.65 +/- 1.7 microg/mL (range, 3.72-10.86 microg/mL), respectively. In all patients with PHPT, the mean leptin levels (34.28 +/- 20.4 ng/mL) were significantly higher than those of HS (P < .01) and, in particular, in PHPT patients with metabolic syndrome (52.63 +/- 31.2 ng/mL) and positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, and cholesterol. The mean adiponectin level was significantly lower (4.34 +/- 3.5 mug/mL) only in PHPT patients with metabolic syndrome (P < .005) and negatively correlated with waist circumference and fasting glucose. We concluded that increased serum level of leptin and decreased serum level of adiponectin coexist in patients with PHPT and may represent a pathogenetic factor for cardiovascular disease in this condition.

  7. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarlet, Philippe G

    2007-01-01

    This book gives the basic notions of differential geometry, such as the metric tensor, the Riemann curvature tensor, the fundamental forms of a surface, covariant derivatives, and the fundamental theorem of surface theory in a selfcontained and accessible manner. Although the field is often considered a classical one, it has recently been rejuvenated, thanks to the manifold applications where it plays an essential role. The book presents some important applications to shells, such as the theory of linearly and nonlinearly elastic shells, the implementation of numerical methods for shells, and

  8. The ratio of high-molecular weight adiponectin and total adiponectin differs in preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2009-05-01

    Adiponectin consists of three subspecies (high-, middle- and low-molecular weight adiponectin). Among these, high-molecular weight adiponectin (H-adn) is suggested to be an active form of this protein. To assess the relationship between H-adn and postnatal growth in preterm infants (PIs), serum H-adn and total adiponectin (T-adn) were measured in 46 PIs at birth and at corrected term, and 26 term infants (TI) at birth. T-adn and H-adn concentrations, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly greater in TI and PI at corrected term than in PI at birth (p adn and H-adn concentrations in PI at corrected term were similar to those in TI, but H/T-adn in PI at corrected term was less than that in TI (p adn and serum concentrations of T- and H-adn in PI at corrected term were different from those in TI. These data suggest that quality of early postnatal growth in PIs is different from that in normally developed TI. Postnatal growth accompanying adipose tissue similar to TI may be important for PI to prevent future development of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with plasma adiponectin but not with the leptin : adiponectin ratio independently of metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A recent report showed no benefit of the leptin: adiponectin ratio (L: A ratio) over individual adipokine levels in CHD prediction [ 8]. We determined associations of carotid intima media thickness (IMT) with the L: A ratio taking account of cardiovascular risk factors in a high risk popula

  10. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  11. Correlation between Serum Level of Adiponectin and Severity of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Juan; Zhou Shuxian; Xue Shengneng; Zhang Yuling; Fang Chang; Luo Niansang

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the correlation between serum level of adiponectin and severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Methods Coronary angiographies were performed and serum levels of adiponectin were measured in 88 patients with suspected coronary heart disease (CHD). Patients were divided into groups according to the coronary angiographies and Gensini's scores of coronary artery atherosclerosis. The serum levels of adiponectin were compared in different groups, and multiple regressions were used to analyze the correlation factors of adiponectin. Results ①Serum adiponectin concentration in CHD group [ 7.1 mg/L(2.4 ~21.1 mg/L) ] was decreased as compared with that in control group [ 11.6 mg/L(4.4 ~ 28.2 mg/L),P<0.01 ]; ②The serum levels of adiponectin fell while the Gensini' s scores of coronary artery atherosclerosis increased ( P<0.05, P<0.01 ); ③Serum level of adiponectin was positively correlated with the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while negatively correlated with the Gensini' s score of coronary artery atherosclerosis and triglyceride (P<0.01 ). Conclusions Serum adiponectin concentration was decreased in patients with CHD.Low serum levels of adiponectin reflected the severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Adiponectin was a protective factor of cardiovascular system.

  12. Adiponectin and leptin are secreted through distinct trafficking pathways in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linglin; O'Reilly, Cormac P; Chapes, Stephen K; Mora, Silvia

    2008-02-01

    Adiponectin and leptin are two adipokines secreted by white adipose tissue that regulate insulin sensitivity. Previously we reported that adiponectin but not leptin release depends on GGA-coated vesicle formation, suggesting that leptin and adiponectin may follow different secretory routes. Here we have examined the intracellular trafficking pathways that lead to the secretion of these two hormones. While adiponectin and leptin displayed distinct localization in the steady-state, treatment of adipocytes with brefeldin A inhibited both adiponectin and leptin secretion to a similar level, indicating a common requirement for class III ADP-ribosylating factors and an intact Golgi apparatus. Adiponectin secretion was significantly reduced by endosomal inactivation in both 3T3L1 and rat isolated adipocytes, whereas this treatment had no effect on leptin secretion. Importantly, endosomal inactivation completely abolished the insulin stimulatory effect on adiponectin release in rat adipocytes. Confocal microscopy studies revealed colocalization of adiponectin with endogenous rab11 a marker for the recycling endosome, and with expressed rab5-GFP mutant (rab5Q75L) a marker for the early endosome compartment. Colocalization of adiponectin and rab5Q75L was increased in endosome inactivated cells. Consistent with these findings adiponectin secretion was reduced in cells expressing mutants of Rab11 and Rab5 proteins. In contrast, expression of an inactive (kinase dead) mutant of Protein Kinase D1 moderately but significantly inhibited leptin secretion without altering adiponectin secretion. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin and adiponectin secretion involve distinct intracellular compartments and that endosomal compartments are required for adiponectin but not for leptin secretion.

  13. Adiponectin receptor as a key player in healthy longevity and obesity-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2013-02-05

    Adiponectin is a fat-derived hormone whose reduction plays central roles in obesity-linked diseases including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. The cloning of Adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 has stimulated adiponectin research, revealing pivotal roles for AdipoRs in pleiotropic adiponectin actions, as well as some postreceptor signaling mechanisms. Adiponectin signaling has thus become one of the major research fields in metabolism and clinical medicine. Studies on AdipoRs will further our understanding of the role of adiponectin in obesity-linked diseases and shortened life span and may guide the design of antidiabetic and antiaging drugs with AdipoR as a target.

  14. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... an etiologic role in development of obesity in Pima Indians. Therefore, the predictive effect of low plasma adiponectin concentrations on the development of type 2 diabetes seems to be mediated by factors other than increased adiposity....

  15. The rab11 effector protein FIP1 regulates adiponectin trafficking and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Brian P; Del Bas, Josep Maria; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Mora, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by white adipocytes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Secretion of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the endosomal system, however, the intracellular machinery involved in mediating adiponectin release is unknown. We have previously reported that intracellular adiponectin partially compartmentalizes with rab 5 and rab11, markers for the early/sorting and recycling compartments respectively. Here we have examined the role of several rab11 downstream effector proteins (rab11 FIPs) in regulating adiponectin trafficking and secretion. Overexpression of wild type rab11 FIP1, FIP3 and FIP5 decreased the amount of secreted adiponectin expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas overexpression of rab11 FIP2 or FIP4 had no effect. Furthermore shRNA-mediated depletion of FIP1 enhanced adiponectin release whereas knock down of FIP5 decreased adiponectin secretion. Knock down of FIP3 had no effect. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, endogenous FIP1 co-distributed intracellularly with endogenous adiponectin and FIP1 depletion enhanced adiponectin release without altering insulin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut4. While adiponectin receptors internalized with transferrin receptors, there were no differences in transferrin receptor recycling between wild type and FIP1 depleted adipocytes. Consistent with its inhibitory role, FIP1 expression was decreased during adipocyte differentiation, by treatment with thiazolidinediones, and with increased BMI in humans. In contrast, FIP1 expression increased upon exposure of adipocytes to TNFα. In all, our findings identify FIP1 as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release.

  16. The rab11 effector protein FIP1 regulates adiponectin trafficking and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Carson

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by white adipocytes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Secretion of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the endosomal system, however, the intracellular machinery involved in mediating adiponectin release is unknown. We have previously reported that intracellular adiponectin partially compartmentalizes with rab 5 and rab11, markers for the early/sorting and recycling compartments respectively. Here we have examined the role of several rab11 downstream effector proteins (rab11 FIPs in regulating adiponectin trafficking and secretion. Overexpression of wild type rab11 FIP1, FIP3 and FIP5 decreased the amount of secreted adiponectin expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas overexpression of rab11 FIP2 or FIP4 had no effect. Furthermore shRNA-mediated depletion of FIP1 enhanced adiponectin release whereas knock down of FIP5 decreased adiponectin secretion. Knock down of FIP3 had no effect. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, endogenous FIP1 co-distributed intracellularly with endogenous adiponectin and FIP1 depletion enhanced adiponectin release without altering insulin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut4. While adiponectin receptors internalized with transferrin receptors, there were no differences in transferrin receptor recycling between wild type and FIP1 depleted adipocytes. Consistent with its inhibitory role, FIP1 expression was decreased during adipocyte differentiation, by treatment with thiazolidinediones, and with increased BMI in humans. In contrast, FIP1 expression increased upon exposure of adipocytes to TNFα. In all, our findings identify FIP1 as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release.

  17. Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, David; Ha, Andrew C T; Gula, Lorne J; Chakrabarti, Santabhanu; Beanlands, Rob S B; Nery, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest clinically manifest cardiac involvement occurs in 5% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis. The principal manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. Data indicate that an 20% to 25% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis have asymptomatic (clinically silent) cardiac involvement. An international guideline for the diagnosis and management of CS recommends that patients be screened for cardiac involvement. Most studies suggest a benign prognosis for patients with clinically silent CS. Immunosuppression therapy is advocated for clinically manifest CS. Device therapy, with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, is recommended for some patients.

  18. Identification of adiponectin receptor agonist utilizing a fluorescence polarization based high throughput assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Sun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (--arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases.

  19. Adiponectin deficiency promotes tumor growth in mice by reducing macrophage infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutong; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-08-05

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has been implicated in regulating angiogenesis, but the role of adiponectin in regulating this process is still controversial. In this study, in order to determine whether adiponectin affects tumor growth and tumor induced vascularization, we implanted B16F10 melanoma and Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into adiponectin knockout and wild-type control mice, and found that adiponectin deficiency markedly promoted the growth of both tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that adiponectin deficiency reduced macrophage recruitment to the tumor, but did not affect cancer cell mitosis, apoptosis, or tumor-associated angiogenesis. In addition, treatment with recombinant adiponectin did not affect the proliferation of cultured B16F10 tumor cells. Importantly, the restoration of microphage infiltration at an early stage of tumorigenesis by means of co-injection of B16F10 cells and macrophages reversed the increased tumor growth in adiponectin knockout mice. Thus, we conclude that the enhanced tumor growth observed in adiponectin deficient mice is likely due to the reduction of macrophage infiltration rather than enhanced angiogenesis.

  20. Adiponectin deficiency promotes tumor growth in mice by reducing macrophage infiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutong Sun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has been implicated in regulating angiogenesis, but the role of adiponectin in regulating this process is still controversial. In this study, in order to determine whether adiponectin affects tumor growth and tumor induced vascularization, we implanted B16F10 melanoma and Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into adiponectin knockout and wild-type control mice, and found that adiponectin deficiency markedly promoted the growth of both tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that adiponectin deficiency reduced macrophage recruitment to the tumor, but did not affect cancer cell mitosis, apoptosis, or tumor-associated angiogenesis. In addition, treatment with recombinant adiponectin did not affect the proliferation of cultured B16F10 tumor cells. Importantly, the restoration of microphage infiltration at an early stage of tumorigenesis by means of co-injection of B16F10 cells and macrophages reversed the increased tumor growth in adiponectin knockout mice. Thus, we conclude that the enhanced tumor growth observed in adiponectin deficient mice is likely due to the reduction of macrophage infiltration rather than enhanced angiogenesis.

  1. Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lena Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High adiponectin/leptin ratio may be protective from metabolic risks imparted by high triglyceride, low HDL, and insulin resistance. Methods. This cross-sectional study examines plasma adipokine levels in 428 adult men who were subgrouped according to low (<6.5 μg/mLand high (≥6.5 μg/mLadiponectin levels or a low or high ratio of adiponectin/leptin. Results. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower plasma triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol than those with low ratio. Similarly, those with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and HOMA2-IR than those with low ratio. In contrast, levels of adiponectin or the ratio of adiponectin/leptin did not associate with systolic blood pressure. But the ratio of adiponectin/leptin decreased progressively with the increase in the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Adipokine levels may reflect adipose tissue triglyceride storage capacity and insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an index of fat mass, and adiponectin is a biomarker of triglyceride metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratios have better triglyceride profile and insulin sensitivity than men with a low ratio regardless of waist girth.

  2. Role of redox environment on the oligomerization of higher molecular weight adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez Martha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory actions. The assembly of trimeric, hexameric, and higher molecular weight (HMW species of adiponectin is a topic of significant interest because physiological actions of adiponectin are oligomer-specific. In addition, adiponectin assembly is an example of oxidative oligomerization of multi-subunit protein complexes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Results We previously reported that trimers assemble into HMW adiponectin via intermediates stabilized by disulfide bonds, and complete oxidation of available cysteines locks adiponectin in hexameric conformation. In this study, we examined the effects of redox environment on the rate of oligomer formation and the distribution of oligomers. Reassembly of adiponectin under oxidizing conditions accelerated disulfide bonding but favored formation of hexamers over the HMW species. Increased ratios of HMW to hexameric adiponectin could be achieved rapidly under oxidizing conditions by promoting disulfide rearrangement. Conclusions Based upon these observations, we propose oxidative assembly of multi-subunit adiponectin complexes in a defined and stable redox environment is favored under oxidizing conditions coupled with high rates of disulfide rearrangement.

  3. Circulating Adiponectin Is Associated with Renal Function Independent of Age and Serum Lipids in West Africans

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    A. P. Doumatey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, a protein secreted by adipose tissue, has been associated with renal dysfunction. However, these observations have not been adequately investigated in large epidemiological studies of healthy individuals in general and in African populations in particular. Hence, we designed this study to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin and renal function in a large group of nondiabetic West Africans. Total adiponectin was measured in 792 participants. MDRD and Cockroft-Gault (CG- estimated GFR were used as indices of renal function. Linear and logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between adiponectin and renal function. Adiponectin showed an inverse relationship with eGFR in univariate (BetaMDRD=-0.18, BetaCG=-0.26 and multivariate (BetaMDRD=-0.10, BetaCG=-0.09 regression analyses. The multivariate models that included age, sex, BMI, hypertension, smoking, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and adiponectin explained 30% and 55.6% of the variance in GFR estimated by MDRD and CG methods, respectively. Adiponectin was also a strong predictor of moderate chronic kidney disease (defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We demonstrate that adiponectin is associated with renal function in nondiabetic West Africans. The observed relationship is independent of age and serum lipids. Our findings suggest that adiponectin may have clinical utility as a biomarker of renal function.

  4. Adiponectin modulates excitability of rat paraventricular nucleus neurons by differential modulation of potassium currents.

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    Hoyda, Ted D; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2010-07-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin acts at two seven-transmembrane domain receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2, present in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate neuronal excitability and endocrine function. Adiponectin depolarizes rat parvocellular preautonomic neurons that secrete either thyrotropin releasing hormone or oxytocin and parvocellular neuroendocrine corticotropin releasing hormone neurons, leading to an increase in plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone concentrations while also hyperpolarizing a subgroup of neurons. In the present study, we investigate the ionic mechanisms responsible for these changes in excitability in parvocellular paraventricular nucleus neurons. Patch clamp recordings of currents elicited from slow voltage ramps and voltage steps indicate that adiponectin inhibits noninactivating delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in a majority of neurons. This inhibition produced a broadening of the action potential in cells that depolarized in the presence of adiponectin. The depolarizing effects of adiponectin were abolished in cells pretreated with tetraethyl ammonium (0/15 cells depolarize). Slow voltage ramps performed during adiponectin-induced hyperpolarization indicate the activation of voltage-independent potassium current. These hyperpolarizing responses were abolished in the presence of glibenclamide [an ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel blocker] (0/12 cells hyperpolarize). The results presented in this study suggest that adiponectin controls neuronal excitability through the modulation of different potassium conductances, effects which contribute to changes in excitability and action potential profiles responsible for peptidergic release into the circulation.

  5. Relationship between Adiponectin Level, Insulin Sensitivity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

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    Kristina Blaslov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin is known to be decreased in insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome (MS which can be present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin level, MS, and insulin sensitivity in T1DM. Research Design and Methods. The study included 77 T1DM patients divided into two groups based on the total plasma adiponectin median value. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with the equation for eGDR, and MS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results. Patients with higher adiponectin level ( had significantly lower waist circumference (, fasting venous glucose levels (, higher HDL3-cholesterol (, and eGDR ( in comparison to the group with lower adiponectin who showed higher prevalence of MS (. eGDR increased for 1.09 mg/kg−1 min−1 by each increase of 1 µg/mL total fasting plasma adiponectin (. In the logistic regression model, adiponectin was inversely associated with the presence of MS (. Conclusion. Higher adiponectin concentration is associated with lower prevalence of MS in T1DM. Whether higher adiponectin concentration has a protective role in the development of the MS in T1DM needs to be clarified in future follow-up studies.

  6. Relationship between Adiponectin Level, Insulin Sensitivity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaslov, Kristina; Zibar, Karin; Duvnjak, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Adiponectin is known to be decreased in insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS) which can be present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin level, MS, and insulin sensitivity in T1DM. Research Design and Methods. The study included 77 T1DM patients divided into two groups based on the total plasma adiponectin median value. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with the equation for eGDR, and MS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results. Patients with higher adiponectin level (n = 39) had significantly lower waist circumference (P < 0.002), fasting venous glucose levels (P < 0.001), higher HDL3-cholesterol (P = 0.011), and eGDR (P = 0.003) in comparison to the group with lower adiponectin who showed higher prevalence of MS (P = 0.045). eGDR increased for 1.09 mg/kg−1 min−1 by each increase of 1 µg/mL total fasting plasma adiponectin (P = 0.003). In the logistic regression model, adiponectin was inversely associated with the presence of MS (P = 0.014). Conclusion. Higher adiponectin concentration is associated with lower prevalence of MS in T1DM. Whether higher adiponectin concentration has a protective role in the development of the MS in T1DM needs to be clarified in future follow-up studies. PMID:23956744

  7. Nutrients can modulate the adiponectin concentrations in apparently healthy young adults

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    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adiponectin, an adipocyte derived peptide, has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects, and improves insulin sensitivity. However, little is known about dietary predictors and their interactions with lifestyle on adiponectin concentrations, in apparently healthy young adults. Objective: To evaluate the associations between plasma concentrations of adiponectin with dietary components and lifestyle in apparently healthy young adults. Methods: Anthropometric and body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diet and lifestyle data of 157 healthy young adults, aged 18 and 35, were collected and analyzed. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 12 hours to determine adiponectin concentrations. Dietary and anthropometric indexes were calculated and analyzed. Results: Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher for women compared to men; and there was an indirect and significant correlation between adiponectin concentrations with BMI. There was a significant association between adiponectin concentrations with the healthy eating index, calories, lipids, proteins, fibers, riboflavin, and phosphorus, among others; and a tendency with carbohydrates and niacin. In multiple linear regression analysis, fiber and riboflavin (r² = 0.0928; p = 0.0013 and carbohydrates and phosphorus were associated with the concentrations of adiponectin. The association with carbohydrates and phosphorus suffered interaction with gender (r²= 0.2400; p < 0.0001, as well as the association with phosphorus also suffered interaction with physical activity (r²= 0.1275; p = 0.0003. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, in healthy young adults, seem to be modulated by components of diet depending on gender and physical activity.

  8. Adiponectin, a key adipokine in obesity related liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christa Buechler; Josef Wanninger; Markus Neumeier

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprising hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),and progressive liver fibrosis is considered the most common liver disease in western countries. Fatty liver is more prevalent in overweight than normal-weight people and liver fat positively correlates with hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic steatosis is regarded as a benign stage of NAFLD but may progress to NASH in a subgroup of patients. Besides liver biopsy no diagnostic tools to identify patients with NASH are available, and no effective treatment has been established. Visceral obesity is a main risk factor for NAFLD and inappropriate storage of triglycerides in adipocytes and higher concentrations of free fatty acids may add to increased hepatic lipid storage, insulin resistance, and progressive liver damage. Most of the adipose tissue-derived proteins are elevated in obesity and may contribute to systemic inflammation and liver damage. Adiponectin is highly abundant in human serum but its levels are reduced in obesity and are even lower in patients with hepatic steatosis or NASH. Adiponectin antagonizes excess lipid storage in the liver and protects from inflammation and fibrosis. This review aims to give a short survey on NAFLD and the hepatoprotective effects of adiponectin.

  9. Adiponectin: linking the metabolic syndrome to its cardiovascular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Karen R; Kamari, Yehuda; Avni, Irit; Grossman, Ehud; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2005-05-01

    Obesity and its related disorders, glucose intolerance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, collectively named the metabolic syndrome, result in substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent data point to several underlying regulatory mechanisms through which obesity links these various outcomes. Adipose tissue is now understood to function not merely as a passive energy storage depot but as an active endocrine organ, producing a variety of bioactive substances termed adipocytokines. Adiponectin, an adipocytokine first described as the most abundant protein produced by adipocytes, appears to serve as a central regulatory protein in many of the physiologic pathways controlling lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and to mediate various vascular processes. Adiponectin displays both anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. Unlike other adipocytokines, its levels are paradoxically decreased in obesity and insulin-resistance states including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as hypertension and coronary artery disease. This review will detail the relationship of adiponectin to various features of obesity and insulin-resistance syndromes, as well as its relationship to the cardiovascular complications of these disorders.

  10. Cardiac Malpositions

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    Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Chung Gie; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Hasn, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Cardiac Malposition refers to any position of the heart other than a left-sided heart in a situs solitus individual. Associated cardiac malformations are so complex that even angiocardiographic and autopsy studies may not afford an accurate information. Although the terms and classifications used to describe the internal cardiac anatomy and their arterial connections in cardiac malpositions differ and tend to be confusing, common agreement exists on the need for a segmental approach to diagnosis. Authors present 18 cases of cardiac malpositions in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between 1971 and 1979. Authors analyzed the clinical, radiographic, operative and autopsy findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases with cardiac malpositions, 6 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus, 9 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus and 3 cases had levocardia with situs inversus. 2. There was no genuine exception to visceroatrial concordance rule. 3. Associated cardiac malpositions were variable and complex with a tendency of high association of transposition and double outlet varieties with dextrocardia in situs solitus and levocardia in situs inversus. Only one in 6 cases of dextrocardia with situs inversus had pure transposition. 4. In two cases associated pulmonary atresia was found at surgery which was not predicted by angiocardiography. 5. Because many of the associated complex lesions can be corrected surgically provided the diagnosis is accurate, the selective biplane angiocardiography with or without cineradiography is essential.

  11. High fat diet induced changes in gastric vagal afferent response to adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Stephen J; Ratcliff, Kyle; Li, Hui; Wittert, Gary A; Page, Amanda J

    2015-12-01

    Food intake is regulated by vagal afferent signals from the stomach. Adiponectin, secreted primarily from adipocytes, also has a role in regulating food intake. However, the involvement of vagal afferents in this effect remains to be established. We aimed to determine if adiponectin can modulate gastric vagal afferent (GVA) satiety signals and further whether this is altered in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a HFD for 12weeks. Plasma adiponectin levels were assayed, and the expression of adiponectin in the gastric mucosa was assessed using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The location of adiponectin protein within the gastric mucosa was determined by immunohistochemistry. To evaluate the direct effect of adiponectin on vagal afferent endings we determined adiponectin receptor expression in whole nodose ganglia (NDG) and also specifically in GVA neurons using retrograde tracing and qRT-PCR. An in vitro preparation was used to determine the effect of adiponectin on GVA response to mechanical stimulation. HFD mice exhibited an increased body weight and adiposity and showed delayed gastric emptying relative to SLD mice. Plasma adiponectin levels were not significantly different in HFD compared to SLD mice. Adiponectin mRNA was detected in the gastric mucosa of both SLD and HFD mice and presence of protein was confirmed immunohistochemically by the detection of adiponectin immunoreactive cells in the mucosal layer of the stomach. Adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) and 2 (ADIPOR2) mRNA was present in both the SLD and HFD whole NDG and also specifically traced gastric mucosal and muscular neurons. There was a reduction in ADIPOR1 mRNA in the mucosal afferents of the HFD mice relative to the SLD mice. In HFD mice adiponectin potentiated gastric mucosal afferent responses to mucosal stroking, an effect not observed in SLD mice. Adiponectin reduced

  12. Design and development of a peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist for cancer treatment

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    Lovas Sandor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, a fat tissue-derived adipokine, exhibits beneficial effects against insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory conditions, and cancer. Circulating adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and this feature correlates with increased risk of developing several metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases. Thus, pharmacological replacement of adiponectin might prove clinically beneficial, especially for the obese patient population. At present, adiponectin-based therapeutics are not available, partly due to yet unclear structure/function relationships of the cytokine and difficulties in converting the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug. Results We aimed to generate adiponectin-based short peptide that can mimic adiponectin action and be suitable for preclinical and clinical development as a cancer therapeutic. Using a panel of 66 overlapping 10 amino acid-long peptides covering the entire adiponectin globular domain (residues 105-254, we identified the 149-166 region as the adiponectin active site. Three-dimensional modeling of the active site and functional screening of additional 330 peptide analogs covering this region resulted in the development of a lead peptidomimetic, ADP 355 (H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2. In several adiponectin receptor-positive cancer cell lines, ADP 355 restricted proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at 100 nM-10 μM concentrations (exceeding the effects of 50 ng/mL globular adiponectin. Furthermore, ADP 355 modulated several key signaling pathways (AMPK, Akt, STAT3, ERK1/2 in an adiponectin-like manner. siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that ADP 355 effects can be transmitted through both adiponectin receptors, with a greater contribution of AdipoR1. In vivo, intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg/kg/day ADP 355 for 28 days suppressed the growth of orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts by ~31%. The peptide

  13. Protective role of adiponectin in a rat model of intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury

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    Liu, Xu-Hui; Yang, Yue-Wu; Dai, Hai-Tao; Cai, Song-Wang; Chen, Rui-Han; Ye, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the potential protective role of adiponectin in intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: A rat model of intestinal I/R injury was established. The serum level of adiponectin in rats with intestinal I/R injury was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also measured by ELISA. Apoptosis of intestinal cells was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and villous injury scores were also measured. RESULTS: Adiponectin was downregulated in the serum of rats with intestinal I/R injury compared with sham rats. No significant changes in the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 were found between sham and I/R rats. Pre-treatment with recombinant adiponectin attenuated intestinal I/R injury. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in rats with intestinal I/R injury was reduced by adiponectin pre-treatment. The production of MDA was inhibited, and the release of SOD was restored by adiponectin pre-treatment in rats with intestinal I/R injury. Adiponectin pre-treatment also inhibited cell apoptosis in these rats. Treatment with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway inhibitor, compound C, or the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inhibitor, Snpp, attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin against intestinal I/R injury. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin exhibits protective effects against intestinal I/R injury, which may involve the AMPK/HO-1 pathway. PMID:26715807

  14. Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanand, Sunita J.; Ramanand, Jaiprakash B.; Ghongane, Balasaheb B.; Patwardhan, Milind H.; Patwardhan, Varsha M.; Ghanghas, Ravi; Halasawadekar, Nimish R.; Patil, Praveenkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder. PCOS women are at a high risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Adiponectin is positively related to insulin sensitivity. It has a preventive role in atherogenesis and MS. The present work was conducted to study the correlation between serum adiponectin levels and clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective study in 49 newly diagnosed (as per Rotterdam criteria) Indian PCOS women was conducted. PCOS women were clinically examined and investigated for biochemical parameters. Results: The mean serum adiponectin was 12 ± 9.4 μg/mL (range 0.47-45). Hypoadiponectinemia (serum adiponectin <4 μg/mL) was present in 22% patients. Age and adiponectin correlated significantly and inversely (r = −0.42, P = 0.027). Overweight/obese patients had lower mean adiponectin levels than normal weight (11.62 ± 9.5 vs 13.58 ± 9.5, P = 0.56). It was significantly lower in patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN) as compared with those without AN (8.4 ± 5.9 vs 15 ± 11, P = 0.038). Hirsute patients showed lower mean adiponectin levels than nonhirsute (10 ± 7.3 vs 13 ± 10, P = 0.57). A positive, insignificant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone, levels. A negative insignificant correlation existed between serum adiponectin and luteinizing hormone (LH), LH: FSH ratio, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia is present in one-fifth of women with PCOS. Adiponectin levels decrease as age advances. Low levels of adiponectin possibly contributes to the development of dermal manifestation (AN) of insulin resistance. PMID:24741521

  15. Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Sunita J Ramanand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder. PCOS women are at a high risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS. Adiponectin is positively related to insulin sensitivity. It has a preventive role in atherogenesis and MS. The present work was conducted to study the correlation between serum adiponectin levels and clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective study in 49 newly diagnosed (as per Rotterdam criteria Indian PCOS women was conducted. PCOS women were clinically examined and investigated for biochemical parameters. Results : The mean serum adiponectin was 12 ± 9.4 μg/mL (range 0.47-45. Hypoadiponectinemia (serum adiponectin <4 μg/mL was present in 22% patients. Age and adiponectin correlated significantly and inversely (r = −0.42, P = 0.027. Overweight/obese patients had lower mean adiponectin levels than normal weight (11.62 ± 9.5 vs 13.58 ± 9.5, P = 0.56. It was significantly lower in patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN as compared with those without AN (8.4 ± 5.9 vs 15 ± 11, P = 0.038. Hirsute patients showed lower mean adiponectin levels than nonhirsute (10 ± 7.3 vs 13 ± 10, P = 0.57. A positive, insignificant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, thyroid stimulating hormone, levels. A negative insignificant correlation existed between serum adiponectin and luteinizing hormone (LH, LH: FSH ratio, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia is present in one-fifth of women with PCOS. Adiponectin levels decrease as age advances. Low levels of adiponectin possibly contributes to the development of dermal manifestation (AN of insulin resistance.

  16. Adiponectin increases glucose-induced insulin secretion through the activation of lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patané, G; Caporarello, N; Marchetti, P; Parrino, C; Sudano, D; Marselli, L; Vigneri, R; Frittitta, L

    2013-12-01

    The expression of adiponectin receptors has been demonstrated in human and rat pancreatic beta cells, where globular (g) adiponectin rescues rat beta cells from cytokine and fatty acid-induced apoptosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether adiponectin has a direct effect on insulin secretion and the metabolic pathways involved. Purified human pancreatic islets and rat beta cells (INS-1E) were exposed (1 h) to g-adiponectin, and glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured. A significant increase in glucose-induced insulin secretion was observed in the presence of g-adiponectin (1 nmol/l) with respect to control cells in both human pancreatic islets (n = 5, p < 0.05) and INS-1E cells (n = 5, p < 0.001). The effect of globular adiponectin on insulin secretion was independent of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or glucose oxidation. In contrast, g-adiponectin significantly increased oleate oxidation (n = 5, p < 0.05), and the effect of g-adiponectin (p < 0.001) on insulin secretion by INS-1E was significantly reduced in the presence of etomoxir (1 μmol/l), an inhibitor of fatty acid beta oxidation. g-Adiponectin potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion in both human pancreatic islets and rat beta cells via an AMPK independent pathway. Increased fatty acid oxidation rather than augmented glucose oxidation is the mechanism responsible. Overall, our data indicate that, in addition to its anti-apoptotic action, g-adiponectin has another direct effect on beta cells by potentiating insulin secretion. Adiponectin, therefore, in addition to its well-known effect on insulin sensitivity, has important effects at the pancreatic level.

  17. The significance of adiponectin as a biomarker in metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease

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    Stojanović Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Adiponectin exerts profound protective actions during insulin resistence or prediabetes progression towards more severe clinical entities such as metabolic syndrome and/or cardiovascular disease. Since hypoadiponectinaemia contributes to the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease the level of circulating adiponectin may be an early marker of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between serum adiponectin levels and parameters of both insulin sensitivity and obesity in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease, as well as to assess predictive value of adiponectin serum levels as a biomarker of these entitetis. Methods. The study included 100 patients with metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease with different degree of insulin resistance and healthy, normoglycemic individuals. The control group comprising healthy, normoglycemic individuals was used for comparison. Serum level of adiponectin, fasting glucose, fasting insulinemia Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMAIR index and anthropometric parameters were determined in all the subjects. Adiponectin was measured by using the ultrasensitive ELISA method. Insulinemia was measured by the radioimmunoassay (RIA method. The presence of glycemic disorders was assessed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Results. Adiponectin level was inversely correlated with age (ρ = - 0.015, parameters of both obesity (R = 0.437; p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (R = 0.374; p < 0.01. Decreasing in the level of adiponectin was strongly implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Most importantly, a statistically significant rapid decrease in adiponectin was in the prediabetic stages (p < 0.01. The predictor value of adiponectin was 1,356.32 ± 402.65 рg/mL. Conclusions. The obtained resultats suggest that adiponectin may be a useful marker in

  18. DMPD: Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18336664 Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages...(.html) (.csml) Show Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. PubmedID 18...336664 Title Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macro

  19. Endocytosis of adiponectin receptor 1 through a clathrin-and Rab5-dependent pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiurong Ding; Zhenzhen Wang; Yan Chen

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, receptor endocytosis is a key event regulating signaling transduction. Adiponectin receptors belong to a new receptor family that is distinct from G-protein-coupled receptors and has critical roles in the pathogen-esis of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Here, we analyzed the endocytosis of adiponectin and adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and found that they are both internalized into transferrin-positive compartments that follow similar traffic routes. Blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis by expressing Epsl5 mutants or depleting K+ trapped AdipoRl at the plasma membrane, and K+ depletion abolished adiponectin internalization, indicating that the endocytosis of AdipoRl and adiponectin is clathrin-dependent. Depletion of K+ and overexpression of Eps15 mutants enhance adiponectin-stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, suggesting that the endocytosis of AdipoR1 might down-regulate adiponectin signaling. In addition, AdipoR1 colocalizes with the small GTPase Rab5, and a dominant negative Rab5 abrogates AdipoR1 endocytosis. These data indicate that AdipoRl is internalized through a clathrin- and Rab5-dependent pathway and that endocytosis may play a role in the regulation of adiponectin signaling.

  20. Adiponectin Isoforms and Leptin Impact on Rheumatoid Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Function

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    Urszula Skalska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and leptin have recently emerged as potential risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis. In this study we evaluated the effects of adiponectin and leptin on immunomodulatory function of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs derived from infrapatellar fat pad of RA patients. ASCs were stimulated with leptin, low molecular weight (LMW and high/middle molecular weight (HMW/MMW adiponectin isoforms. The secretory activity of ASCs and their effect on rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RA-FLS and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy donors have been analysed. RA-ASCs secreted spontaneously TGFβ, IL-6, IL-1Ra, PGE2, IL-8, and VEGF. Secretion of all these factors was considerably upregulated by HMW/MMW adiponectin, but not by LMW adiponectin and leptin. Stimulation with HMW/MMW adiponectin partially abolished proproliferative effect of ASC-derived soluble factors on RA-FLS but did not affect IL-6 secretion in FLS cultures. ASCs pretreated with HMW/MMW adiponectin maintained their anti-inflammatory function towards PBMCs, which was manifested by moderate PBMCs proliferation inhibition and IL-10 secretion induction. We have proved that HMW/MMW adiponectin stimulates secretory potential of rheumatoid ASCs but does not exert strong impact on ASCs function towards RA-FLS and PBMCs.

  1. Adiponectin Decreases Plasma Glucose and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetic Swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobo HU; Meihua SHE; Hongjie HOU; Qinkai LI; Qingyun SHEN; Yi LUO; Weidong YIN

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of recombinant human adiponectin on the metabolism of diabetic swine induced by feeding a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFSD), diabetic animal models were constructed by feeding swine with HFSD for 6 months. The effects of recombinant adiponectin were assessed by detecting the change of plasma glucose levels by commercially available enzymatic method test kits and evaluating the insulin sensitivity by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). About 1.5 g purified recombinant adiponectin was produced using a 15-liter fermenter. A single injection of purified recombinant human adiponectin to diabetic swine led to a 2- to 3-fold elevation in circulating adiponectin, which triggered a transient decrease in basal glucose level (P<0.05). This effect on glucose was not associated with an increase in insulin level. Moreover, after adiponectin injection, swine also showed improved insulin sensitivity compared with the control (P<0.05). Adiponectin might have the potential to be a glucose-lowering agent for metabolic disease. Adiponectin as a potent insulin enhancer linking adipose tissue and glucose metabolism could be useful to treat insulin resistance.

  2. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  3. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Negatively Associated with Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Minority Female Youth

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    B. Adar Emken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the relationship between adiponectin and physical activity (PA in minority female youth. Methods. Plasma adiponectin was measured in 39 females (mean age 9.2±0.9 years; 30 Latina, 9 African-American; 56% overweight. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Mean minutes per day spent in daily PA (DPA (≥3 metabolic equivalents (METs, moderate PA (MPA(4–7 METs, vigorous PA (VPA(≥7 METs, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA(≥4 METs were calculated. The association between adiponectin and PA, controlling for age, fat weight, lean weight, and insulin sensitivity (SI was analyzed using linear regression. Results. Adiponectin correlated with fat weight (r=-0.43, P<.01 and SI (r=0.52, P<.01. Minutes spent in DPA (β=-0.40, P=.02, MPA (β=-0.36, P=.04, or MVPA (β=-0.37, P=.03 were predictors of adiponectin in the adjusted model. Conclusions. Higher PA levels were related to lower adiponectin levels. Potential mechanisms include upregulation of adiponectin receptors or an increase in high-molecular weight adiponectin with increasing PA.

  4. Serum adiponectin level in hypertensive patients and its association with atherosclerotic risk factors

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    Bülent Uygungelen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Adiponectin is mainly synthesized by white adipose tissue; it is known to have anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells and macrophages. Methods. A total of 80 individuals including 48 hypertensive and 32 normotensive individuals were included in the study. Groups were separated as obese and non-obese. Results. It was found out that the patient group had statistically higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, high sensitive C reactive protein and microalbuminuria values than the control group while high density lipoprotein values were significantly lower (p<0.05. When adiponectin levels of the groups were compared, the patient group had an adiponectin level of 8.66±2.75 µg/mL and the control group had an adiponectin level of 15.01±3.99 µg/mL. There was a statistically significant difference between two groups (p<0.05. There was a negative correlation between adiponectin level and atherosclerotic risk factors. Conclusion. Adiponectin level was lower in hypertensive group when compared to the control group; there was also a significant association between adiponectin and atherosclerotic risk factors. A low adiponectin level constitutes an important risk for development of atherosclerosis.

  5. The association between adiponectin and ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms with obesity among young Jordanian women

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    Alomari Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk for multiple diseases and an independent cause of morbidity and mortality with staggering global rates. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived peptide associated with reduced obesity. In this study, the effect of ADIPOQ gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on obesity and adiponectin relationship was examined. The study was conducted on 389 adult females. Obesity was measured using body weight, BMI, percent body fat, and waist and hip ratio. ADIPOQ G276T and I164T SNPs were genotyped using RFLP procedure. Adiponectin plasma levels were quantified using ELISA technique. Adiponectin correlated with all obesity measures (p0.05 with GG and TT of the G276T SNP. With respect to` I164T SNP, the correlations between adiponectin and obesity measures remained in all genotypes except with W/H ratio and %Bf remained in the participants with CC genotype and with W/H ratio in CT/TT genotypes. Further analyses reveled that adiponectin was lower (p<0.05 in the participants with GT versus the GG and TT genotypes of G276T SNP. The data confirms the effect of adiponectin for obesity. It also shows the importance of ADIPOQ SNPs in the relationship between adiponectin and obesity in young adult females.

  6. Plasma resistin, adiponectin, and risk of incident atrial fibrillation : The Framingham Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michel; Sun, Jenny X.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Frankel, David S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Levy, Daniel; Magnani, Jared W.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Meigs, James B.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate whether higher concentrations of resistin and lower concentrations of adiponectin relate to incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and whether this association is mediated by AF risk factors and inflammation. Resistin and adiponectin are adipokines that have been asso

  7. Adiponectin potentiates the acute effects of leptin in arcuate Pomc neurons

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    Jia Sun

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a requirement for PI3K signaling in the acute adiponectin-induced effects on the cellular activity of arcuate melanocortin neurons. Moreover, these data provide evidence for PI3K as a substrate for both leptin and adiponectin to regulate energy balance and glucose metabolism via melanocortin activity.

  8. Longitudinal Analysis of Adiponectin through 20-Year Type 1 Diabetes Duration

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    Tamara J. LeCaire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the trajectory and determinants of adiponectin, a possible insulin sensitizer and marker for inflammation and endothelial function, across the duration of type 1 diabetes. The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study followed an incident cohort ≤30 years of age when diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during 1987–1992 up to 20-year duration. Adiponectin was concurrently and retrospectively (from samples frozen at −80°C measured for those participating in a 20-year exam (n=304, during 2007–2011. Adiponectin levels were higher in females, declined through adolescence, and increased with age thereafter. Lower levels were associated with greater body weight and waist circumference and with higher insulin dose, especially at longer diabetes durations. Higher levels were associated with higher HbA1c and, at longer durations, with higher albumin-creatinine ratio. Adiponectin levels showed consistency within individuals that was not explained by these factors. We conclude that markers for insulin resistance are associated with lower adiponectin, and markers for potential microvascular complications are associated with higher adiponectin. The previously reported relationship with HbA1c remains largely unexplained. Additional individual specific factors likely also influence adiponectin level. The relationship between adiponectin and urinary protein excretion may enable identification of those predisposed to kidney disease earlier in type 1 diabetes.

  9. A 7-d exercise program increases high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese adults

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    Kelly, Karen R; Blaszczak, Alecia; Haus, Jacob M;

    2012-01-01

    High-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is the biologically active form of adiponectin and is related to enhanced insulin sensitivity and metabolic function. Previously, we found that 7 d of exercise improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects; however, whether short-term exercise training aff...

  10. Adiponectin in Fresh Frozen Plasma Contributes to Restoration of Vascular Barrier Function After Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiyun; Cao, Yanna; Huby, Maria P; Duan, Chaojun; Baer, Lisa; Peng, Zhanglong; Kozar, Rosemary A; Doursout, Marie-Francoise; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles E; Ko, Tien C

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable deaths in civilian and military trauma. Use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients requiring massive transfusion is associated with improved outcomes. FFP contains significant amounts of adiponectin, which is known to have vascular protective function. We hypothesize that FFP improves vascular barrier function largely via adiponectin. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 19 severely injured patients in hemorrhagic shock (HS). Compared with normal individuals, plasma adiponectin levels decreased to 49% in HS patients before resuscitation (P < 0.05) and increased to 64% post-resuscitation (but not significant). In a HS mouse model, we demonstrated a similar decrease in plasma adiponectin to 54% but a significant increase to 79% by FFP resuscitation compared with baseline (P < 0.05). HS disrupted lung vascular barrier function, leading to an increase in permeability. FFP resuscitation reversed these HS-induced effects. Immunodepletion of adiponectin from FFP abolished FFP's effects on blocking endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro, and on improving lung vascular barrier function in HS mice. Replenishment with adiponectin rescued FFP's effects. These findings suggest that adiponectin is an important component in FFP resuscitation contributing to the beneficial effects on vascular barrier function after HS.

  11. Investigating the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a mendelian randomization approach

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    Husemoen, L. L. N.; Skaaby, T.; Martinussen, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim was to examine the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a multiple instrument Mendelian randomization approach. Subjects/Methods: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum total or high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured in two Da...... a causal relationship.......Background/Objectives: The aim was to examine the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a multiple instrument Mendelian randomization approach. Subjects/Methods: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum total or high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured in two...... doubling of 25(OH)D was 4.78, 95% CI: 1.96, 7.68, Pcausal effect in % was estimated to 61.46, 95% CI: 17.51, 120.28, P=0.003 higher adiponectin per doubling of 25(OH)D. In the MONICA10...

  12. Adiponectin deficiency contributes to the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi; Xu, Huan; Gu, Meng; Liu, Chong; Wang, Qiong; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Peng, Yubing; Cai, Zhikang; Zhou, Juan; Wang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is increasing among obese individuals, but few studies have fully explained the underlying mechanisms. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between obesity and BPH. Herein, we show that in prostatic epithelial and stromal cells, adiponectin exerts multifunctional effects including anti-proliferation, blocking of G1/S-phase progression and the promotion of apoptosis via inhibiting the MEK-ERK-p90RSK axis. Furthermore, we found that a high-fat diet (HFD) led to adiponectin deficiency and microscopic BPH in a mouse model of obesity. And an adiponectin supplement protected the obese mice from microscopic BPH. The present study provides evidence that adiponectin is a protective regulator in the development and progression of BPH and that adiponectin deficiency causally links BPH with obesity. PMID:28256562

  13. Adult Neurogenic and Antidepressant Effects of Adiponectin: A Potential Replacement for Exercise?

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    Li, Ang; Yau, Suk-Yu; Machado, Sergio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; So, Kwok-Fai

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise has long been recognized to benefit locomotor and cardiovascular systems. Although an increasing body of evidence also suggests it to be an effective non-medicinal remedy for mental disorders such as depression, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. A recent study has demonstrated that increases of the adipocyte-secreted hormone adiponectin in the central nervous system following exercise may be responsible for these neuropsychological changes, including enhanced generation of neurons in the adult hippocampus, as well as mitigation of depressive severity. The present review introduces the previously-reported functions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and adiponectin, and discusses the potential relevance of adiponectin signaling in exercise-induced neural changes. Revealing these novel biological effects of adiponectin in the brain may help hunt reliable biomarkers to better guide the anti-depressive therapy with exercise intervention; meanwhile, pharmaceutical agents that raise endogenous levels of adiponectin or mimic its biological effects might serve as a replacement for physical exercise.

  14.  Adiponectin in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Trine Bay

      Dato 31. januar 2006Title Adiponectin in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritisAuthors:Trine Bay Laurberg,Torkell Ellingsen,Jan Frystyk,Ib Hansen,Anette Jørgensen,Ulrik Tarp,Merete Lund Hetland,Kim Hørslev-Petersen,Nete Hornung,Jørgen Hjelm Poulsen,Allan Flyvbjerg......,Kristian Stengaard-PedersenBackground: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic, autoimmune disease, which affects the joints with inflammation leading to destruction of cartilage and bone. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterised by low level of chronic inflammation, slow...... diabetes mellitus. It is unknown if adiponectin is involved in the disease process of RA and OA.Objectives:  The aim was to quantify plasma adiponectin (p-adiponectin) from RA and OA patients and to evaluate p-adiponectin as a marker of treatment response to methotrexate (MTX) and disease activity in RA...

  15. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Huang, Ling-Hung; Tsai, Hung-Yueh; Chang, Hsin-I

    2016-07-14

    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM). Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1), Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts.

  16. Serum Adiponectin and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

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    Oliveira, Gustavo Bernardes de Figueiredo, E-mail: goliveira@cardiol.br; França, João Ítalo Dias; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The adipose tissue is considered not only a storable energy source, but mainly an endocrine organ that secretes several cytokines. Adiponectin, a novel protein similar to collagen, has been found to be an adipocyte-specific cytokine and a promising cardiovascular risk marker. To evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), as well as the correlations between adiponectin and metabolic, inflammatory, and myocardial biomarkers. We recruited 114 patients with ACS and a mean 1.13-year follow-up to measure clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers were compared according to adiponectin quartiles. Cox proportional hazard regression models with Firth's penalization were applied to assess the independent association between adiponectin and the subsequent risk for both primary (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/non-fatal stroke) and co-primary outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal AMI/non-fatal stroke/ rehospitalization requiring revascularization). There were significant direct correlations between adiponectin and age, HDL-cholesterol, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and significant inverse correlations between adiponectin and waist circumference, body weight, body mass index, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, triglycerides, and insulin. Adiponectin was associated with higher risk for primary and co-primary outcomes (adjusted HR 1.08 and 1.07/increment of 1000; p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). In ACS patients, serum adiponectin was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In addition to the anthropometric and metabolic correlations, there was a significant direct correlation between adiponectin and BNP.

  17. Association between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese men

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    Nakayama Kunio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein that plays a role in obesity, insulin resistant, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammation. Hypoadiponectinemia may be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that adiponectin levels are modulated by lifestyle factors, but little is known about the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese people. We therefore investigated the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in general Japanese men. Methods The subjects were 202 Japanese male workers who participated in an annual health check. They provided details about anthropometrical data, blood collection, their use of prescribed medication, and the clinical history of their families. They also completed a self-administered questionnaire about their lifestyles. Results Subjects with plasma adiponectin levels below 4.0 μg/ml had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of BMI, SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, FBG, and platelets than did subjects with higher adiponectin levels. In multiple logistic regression after multiple adjustment, a plasma adiponectin level below 4.0 μg/ml was significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.30, a daily diet rich in deep-yellow vegetables (OR = 0.25, 95% CI= 0.07–0.91, frequent eating out (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.19–5.08, and physical exercise two or more times a week (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.74. Conclusion Our findings show that adiponectin levels in general Japanese men are independently related to smoking, dietary factors, and physical exercise. We think that lifestyle habits might independently modulate adiponectin levels and that adiponectin might be the useful biomarker helping people to avoid developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease by modifying their lifestyles.

  18. Adiponectin and its receptors in rodent models of fatty liver disease and liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markus Neumeier; Jürgen Sch(o)lmerich; Christa Buechler; Claus Hellerbrand; Erwin G(a)bele; Roland Buettner; Cornelius Bollheimer; Johanna Weigert; Andreas Sch(a)ffler; Thomas S Weiss; Monika Lichtenauer

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine circulating and hepatic adiponectin in rodents with fatty liver disease or liver cirrhosis and investigate expression of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 on the mRNA and protein level and AdipoR2 on the mRNA level.METHODS: Fat fed rats were used as a model for fatty liver disease and bile duct ligation in mice to investigate cirrhotic liver. Expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA was determined by real time RT-PCR. AdipoR1 protein was analysed by immunoblot. Adiponectin was measured by ELISA.RESULTS: Systemic adiponectin is reduced in fat fed rats but is elevated in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). Hepatic adiponectin protein is lower in steatotic liver but not in the liver of BDL-mice when compared to controls. Adiponectin mRNA was not detected in human liver samples or primary human hepatocytes nor in rat liver but recombinant adiponectin is taken up by isolated hepatocytes in-vitro. AdipoR1 mRNA and AdipoR1 protein levels are similar in the liver tissue of control and fat fed animals whereas AdipoR2 mRNA is induced. AdipoR2 mRNA and AdipoR1 mRNA and protein is suppressed in the liver of BDL-mice.CONCLUSION: Our studies show reduced circulating adiponectin in a rat model of fatty liver disease whereas circulating adiponectin is elevated in a mouse model of cirrhosis and similar findings have been described in humans. Diminished hepatic expression of adiponectin receptors was only found in liver cirrhosis.

  19. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin and hepatocellular carcinoma with HCV infection.

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    Shuji Sumie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is shown to be inversely associated with development and progression of various cancers. We evaluated whether adiponectin level was associated with the prevalence and histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 97 HCC patients (cases and 97 patients (controls matched for sex, Child-Pugh grade and platelet count in patients with HCV infection. The serum total and high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and examined in their association with the prevalence of HCC. In addition, the relationship between these adiponectin levels and body mass index (BMI, progression of liver fibrosis, and histological grade of HCC was also evaluated. Liver fibrosis was assessed using the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the serum total and HMW adiponectin levels between cases and controls. Moreover, there were no inverse associations between serum total and HMW adiponectin levels and BMI in both cases and controls. On the other hand, serum total and HMW adiponectin levels are positively correlated with APRI in both cases (r = 0.491, P<0.001 and r = 0.485, P<0.001, respectively and controls (r = 0.482, P<0.001 and r = 0.476, P<0.001, respectively. Interestingly, lower serum total (OR 11.76, 95% CI: 2.97-46.66 [P<0.001] and HMW (OR 10.24, CI: 2.80-37.40 [P<0.001] adiponectin levels were independent risk factors of worse histological grade of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that serum total and HMW adiponectin levels were predictors of liver fibrosis, but not prevalence of HCC in patients with HCV infection. Moreover, low these adiponectin levels were significantly associated with worse histological grades.

  20. Decreased adiponectin and increased inflammation expression in epicardial adipose tissue in coronary artery disease

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    Sun Zongquan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disorders of endocrine substances in epicardial adipose tissue are known causes of coronary artery disease (CAD. Adiponectin is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, expression of adiponectin in epicardial adipose tissue and its function in CAD pathogenesis is unclear. This study investigates adiponectin expression in epicardial adipose tissue in CAD patients. Methods Vessels or adipose tissue samples collected from CAD patients and non-CAD controls were examined after immunochemical staining. Adiponectin, cytokines of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression level in adipose tissue were measured using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Adiponectin concentrations in peripheral and coronary sinus vein plasma were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral vein plasma biochemistries were performed with routine laboratory techniques. Monocytes were collected from blood using lymphocyte separation medium. Expression level of cytokines and transcription factor NF-κB were measured to learn the effect of adiponectin on stearic acid-stimulated monocytes. Percentage of TLR4 positive monocytes was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results Histological examination revealed increased macrophage infiltration into epicardial adipose tissue of CAD patients. Decreased adiponectin displayed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR was associated with enhanced cytokines of IL-6 and TNF-α or TLR4 expression level in epicardial adipose tissue, suggesting decreased circulating adiponectin may be useful as a more sensitive predictor for coronary atherosclerosis than routine laboratory examinations. Adiponectin suppressed secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in stimulated monocytes and TLR4 was expressed on cell surfaces. Conclusions Endocrine disorders in epicardial adipose tissue are strongly linked to CAD, and adiponectin has a protective effect by inhibiting macrophage

  1. Adiponectin-Mediated Analgesia and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Rat.

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    Tommaso Iannitti

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue-derived protein, adiponectin, has significant anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of disease conditions. Recent evidence that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are expressed in central nervous system, suggests that it may also have a central modulatory role in pain and inflammation. This study set out to investigate the effects of exogenously applied recombinant adiponectin (via intrathecal and intraplantar routes; 10-5000 ng on the development of peripheral inflammation (paw oedema and pain hypersensitivity in the rat carrageenan model of inflammation. Expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein was characterised in dorsal spinal cord using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein were found to be constitutively expressed in dorsal spinal cord, but no change in mRNA expression levels was detected in response to carrageenan-induced inflammation. Adiponectin mRNA, but not protein, was detected in dorsal spinal cord, although levels were very low. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin, both pre- and 3 hours post-carrageenan, significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin post-carrageenan also reduced peripheral inflammation. Intraplantar administration of adiponectin pre-carrageenan dose-dependently reduced thermal hyperalgesia but had no effect on mechanical hypersensitivity and peripheral inflammation. These results show that adiponectin functions both peripherally and centrally at the spinal cord level, likely through activation of AdipoRs to modulate pain and peripheral inflammation. These data suggest that adiponectin receptors may be a novel therapeutic target for pain modulation.

  2. Cardiac cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, Mark I

    2011-05-01

    Cardiac imaging with radiotracers plays an important role in patient evaluation, and the development of suitable imaging instruments has been crucial. While initially performed with the rectilinear scanner that slowly transmitted, in a row-by-row fashion, cardiac count distributions onto various printing media, the Anger scintillation camera allowed electronic determination of tracer energies and of the distribution of radioactive counts in 2D space. Increased sophistication of cardiac cameras and development of powerful computers to analyze, display, and quantify data has been essential to making radionuclide cardiac imaging a key component of the cardiac work-up. Newer processing algorithms and solid state cameras, fundamentally different from the Anger camera, show promise to provide higher counting efficiency and resolution, leading to better image quality, more patient comfort and potentially lower radiation exposure. While the focus has been on myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography, increased use of positron emission tomography is broadening the field to include molecular imaging of the myocardium and of the coronary vasculature. Further advances may require integrating cardiac nuclear cameras with other imaging devices, ie, hybrid imaging cameras. The goal is to image the heart and its physiological processes as accurately as possible, to prevent and cure disease processes.

  3. Adiponectin protects rat myocardium against chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Wenxiao Ding

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is associated with many cardiovascular disorders such as heart failure, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia and so on. Of the many associated factors, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH in particular is the primary player in OSAS. To assess the effects of CIH on cardiac function secondary to OSAS, we established a model to study the effects of CIH on Wistar rats. Specifically, we examined the possible underlying cellular mechanisms of hypoxic tissue damage and the possible protective role of adiponectin against hypoxic insults. In the first treatment group, rats were exposed to CIH conditions (nadir O2, 5-6% for 8 hours/day, for 5 weeks. Subsequent CIH-induced cardiac dysfunction was measured by echocardiograph. Compared with the normal control (NC group, rats in the CIH-exposed group experienced elevated levels of left ventricular end-systolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic volume and depressed levels of left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening (p<0.05. However, when adiponectin (Ad was added in CIH + Ad group, we saw a rescue in the elevations of the aforementioned left ventricular function (p<0.05. To assess critical cardiac injury, we detected myocardial apoptosis by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL analysis. It was showed that the apoptosis percentage in CIH group (2.948% was significantly higher than that in NC group (0.4167% and CIH + Ad group (1.219% (p<0.05. Protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved-caspase-12 validated our TUNEL results (p<0.05. Mechanistically, our results demonstrated that the proteins expressed with endoplasmic reticulum stress and the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS were significantly elevated under CIH conditions, whereas Ad supplementation partially decreased them. Overall, our results suggested that Ad augmentation could improve CIH

  4. RELATIONSHIP OF SERUM ADIPONECTIN LEVELS WITH ADIPOSITY, GLUCOCORTICOIDS, LEPTIN AND INSULIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖; 唐金凤; 汪启迪; 李凤英; 顾卫琼; 洪洁; 张一波; 周丽斌; 李荣英; 陈名道

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels with adiposity,glucocorticoids , insulin and leptin in Cushing' s syndrome, obesity and non-obese subjects. Methods The serum adiponectin concentrations were measured in 104 non-obese and 57 overweight or obese (BMI≥25) subjects by RIA. 15 patients with Cushing's syndrome, 10 with obesity and 9 non-obese subjects were investigated, with their serum adiponectin, glucocorticoids, insulin and leptin levels measured at 8: 00, 12: 00, 16: 00, 20: 00, 24: 00 and 3:00. Dexamethasone suppression tests in both obesity and Cushing's syndrome were performed at the dose of lmg,2mg and 5mg. Results The serum adiponectin concentrations in non-obese were (10.15±6.33) mg/L in male and (13.82 ±6. 09 ) mg/L in female, and those in overweight or obese ones were(5. 78 ±3.55)mg/L in male and (8. 13 ± 4. 32 ) mg/L in female. In both men and women, the fasting adiponectin levels in overweight or obese subjects were lower than those of the non-obese ones, and serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly nagetively correlated with BMI, % Fat and waist circumference. The circadian rhythmicity of adiponectin was not distinct, but the adiponectin levels in obesity were lower than those of the non-obese subjects at all 6 time spots. The serum adiponectin area under curve (AUC) were significantly nagetively correlated with BMI, waist circumference and insulin AUC. The adiponectin levels with dexamethasone administration for a short-term both at higher doses and lower doses did not change, but was decreased after surgery. Conclusion Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes which may intimately related to obese and insulin resistance. Therefore, any treatment that could be used to increase adiponectin should be beneficial. Neither long-term endogenous hyper-glucocorticoid nor short-term dexamethasone administration may affect the adiponectin levels, and similarly, no change with elevated postprandial

  5. Lower levels of human milk adiponectin predict offspring weight for age: a study in a lean population of Filipinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Justine; McKinley, Kassielle; Onugha, Jason; Duazo, Paulita; Chernoff, Meytal; Quinn, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies have reported a significant, inverse association between adiponectin in human milk and offspring growth velocity. Less is known about this association in populations characterised by a loss of weight for age z-scores (WAZs) in early life. We investigated the association between maternal body composition and milk adiponectin in a sample of Filipino mothers. We then tested for an association between milk adiponectin and size for age in their infants. A total of 117 Filipino mothers nursing infants from 0 to 24 months were recruited from Cebu, Philippines. Anthropometrics, interviews and milk samples were collected and analysed using standard protocols. Mean milk adiponectin in this sample was 7.47 ± 5.75 ng mL(-1) . Mean infant WAZ and weight for length (WLZ) decreased with age. Maternal body composition was not associated with milk adiponectin content. Milk adiponectin had a significant, positive association with infant WAZ and WLZ. Prior reports have found an inverse association between milk adiponectin and infant WAZ. Here, we report that in lean populations with lower milk adiponectin, there is a positive association with infant WAZ, possibly reflecting pleiotropic biological functions of adiponectin for post-natal growth. This study increases the understanding of normal biological variation in milk adiponectin and the consequences of low levels of milk adiponectin for offspring growth.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of the main transcription factors for adiponectin gene promoter in regulation of adiponectin levels: association analysis in three European cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla Kedenko

    Full Text Available Adiponectin serum concentrations are an important biomarker in cardiovascular epidemiology with heritability etimates of 30-70%. However, known genetic variants in the adiponectin gene locus (ADIPOQ account for only 2%-8% of its variance. As transcription factors are thought to play an under-acknowledged role in carrying functional variants, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for the main transcription factors for the ADIPOQ promoter influence adiponectin levels. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at these genes were selected based on the haplotype block structure and previously published evidence to be associated with adiponectin levels. We performed association analyses of the 24 selected SNPs at forkhead box O1 (FOXO1, sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG and transcription factor activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta (TFAP2B gene loci with adiponectin levels in three different European cohorts: SAPHIR (n = 1742, KORA F3 (n = 1636 and CoLaus (n = 5355. In each study population, the association of SNPs with adiponectin levels on log-scale was tested using linear regression adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, applying both an additive and a recessive genetic model. A pooled effect size was obtained by meta-analysis assuming a fixed effects model. We applied a significance threshold of 0.0033 accounting for the multiple testing situation. A significant association was only found for variants within SREBF1 applying an additive genetic model (smallest p-value for rs1889018 on log(adiponectin = 0.002, β on original scale = -0.217 µg/ml, explaining ~0.4% of variation of adiponectin levels. Recessive genetic models or haplotype analyses of the FOXO1, SREBF1, SIRT1, TFAPB2B genes or sex-stratified analyses did not reveal additional information on the regulation of adiponectin levels. The role of genetic

  7. Genetic Polymorphisms of the Main Transcription Factors for Adiponectin Gene Promoter in Regulation of Adiponectin Levels: Association Analysis in Three European Cohorts

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    Kiesslich, Tobias; Kapur, Karen; Bergmann, Sven; Waterworth, Dawn; Heid, Iris M.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Kedenko, Igor; Kronenberg, Florian; Paulweber, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin serum concentrations are an important biomarker in cardiovascular epidemiology with heritability etimates of 30–70%. However, known genetic variants in the adiponectin gene locus (ADIPOQ) account for only 2%–8% of its variance. As transcription factors are thought to play an under-acknowledged role in carrying functional variants, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for the main transcription factors for the ADIPOQ promoter influence adiponectin levels. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at these genes were selected based on the haplotype block structure and previously published evidence to be associated with adiponectin levels. We performed association analyses of the 24 selected SNPs at forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and transcription factor activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) gene loci with adiponectin levels in three different European cohorts: SAPHIR (n = 1742), KORA F3 (n = 1636) and CoLaus (n = 5355). In each study population, the association of SNPs with adiponectin levels on log-scale was tested using linear regression adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, applying both an additive and a recessive genetic model. A pooled effect size was obtained by meta-analysis assuming a fixed effects model. We applied a significance threshold of 0.0033 accounting for the multiple testing situation. A significant association was only found for variants within SREBF1 applying an additive genetic model (smallest p-value for rs1889018 on log(adiponectin) = 0.002, β on original scale = −0.217 µg/ml), explaining ∼0.4% of variation of adiponectin levels. Recessive genetic models or haplotype analyses of the FOXO1, SREBF1, SIRT1, TFAPB2B genes or sex-stratified analyses did not reveal additional information on the regulation of adiponectin levels. The

  8. Globular adiponectin induces differentiation and fusion of skeletal muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tania Fiaschi; Domenico Cirelli; Giuseppina Comito; Stefania Gelmini; Giampietro Ramponi; Maria Serio; Paola Chiarugi

    2009-01-01

    The growing interest in skeletal muscle regeneration is associated with the opening of new therapeutic strategies for muscle injury after trauma, as well as several muscular degenerative pathologies, including dystrophies, muscu-lar atrophy, and cachexia. Studies focused on the ability of extracellular factors to promote myogenesis are therefore highly promising. We now report that an adipocyte-derived factor, globular adiponectin (gAd), is able to induce mus-cle gene expression and cell differentiation, gAd, besides its well-known ability to regulate several metabolic func-tions in muscle, including glucose uptake and consumption and fatty acid catabolism, is able to block cell cycle entry of myoblasts, to induce the expression of specific skeletal muscle markers such as myosin heavy chain or eaveolin-3, as well as to provoke cell fusion into multinucleated syneytia and, finally, muscle fibre formation, gAd exerts its pro-differentiative activity through redox-dependent activation of p38, Akt and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase path-ways. Interestingly, differentiating myoblasts are autocrine for adiponectiu, and the mimicking of pro-inflammatory settings or exposure to oxidative stress strongly increases the production of the hormone from differentiating cells. These data suggest a novel function of adiponectin, directly coordinating the myogenic differentiation program and serving an autocrine function during skeletal myogenesis.

  9. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: role of adiponectin (preliminary results

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    Yulia Nikolaevna Gorbunova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical value of the disorders and diseases integrated within the metabolic syndrome (MS is in the combination of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD, which significantly accelerates the development of cardiovascular events (CVEs. The detection rate for MS in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA is shown to be higher than in the controls regardless of the diagnostic criteria for MS. At present, there are confusing data on the role of adipokins in RA. Objective: to determine the rate of MS and its components in RA patients and the association of the level of adipokin (adiponectin with the components of MS in relation to the duration of RA. Subjects and methods: The investigation enrolled 69 RA patients divided into two groups: 1 34 patients with early-stage (<2-year RA and 2 35 patients with end-stage (>2-year RA. Results. MS occurred in 12 (17.4% of the 69 patients with RA. There was central (abdominal obesity in 37 (53.6% patients with RA, hypertension in 29 (42%, low high-density cholesterol levels in 20 (29%, hyperglycemia in 11 (15.9%, and hypertriglyceridemia in 10 (14.5%. According to the presence or absence of MS, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 12 patients with MS; 2 57 without MS. In the patients with RA and MS, the duration of the disease was shorter; DAS28 and CDAI were higher than in those without MS: 15.4 [7; 24] months versus 51.8 [6; 72] months; DAS28 was 5.8 [4.9; 6.7] scores versus 5.1 [4.5; 5.8] scores; CDAI: 34.8 [21.8; 41.4] scores versus 24.2 [18; 31] scores, respectively (p < 0.05 in all cases. The serum level of adiponectin was lower: 13.1 [5.7; 10.7] ng/ml versus 20.6 [6.9; 30.9] ng/ml in the patients with RA and MS as compared to those without MS; but there were no significant differences. In the patients with early-end RA, the rate of MS was twice higher than that in those with end-stage RA; however, the differences were statistically insignificant (p = 0.1. The components of MS

  10. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases Adiponectin and Normalizes IUGR-Induced Changes in Rat Adipose Deposition

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    Heidi N. Bagley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPARγ increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a PPARγ agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPARγ, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI- induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1 normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPARγ expression in male rats and (2 increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR.

  11. Corticosteroid-binding globulin affects the relationship between circulating adiponectin and cortisol in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Pugeat, Michel; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bornet, Hubert; Ricart, Wifredo

    2005-05-01

    Inflammatory pathways are increasingly recognized to be tightly associated with insulin resistance in humans. The promoter region of the adiponectin gene--Apm1--encompasses consensus sequences for glucocorticosteroid receptor responsive element. Dexamethasone induced downregulation of adiponectin secretion in vitro, whereas prednisolone administration increased circulating adiponectin concentrations. As previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), body mass index, and insulin resistance, we studied whether CBG could explain cortisol-to-adiponectin relationship. One hundred twenty-two healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Plasma CBG and serum cortisol concentration were measured by radioimmunoassay. The cortisol-to-CBG ratio was used to calculate free cortisol. An RIA kit (Linco Research, St Louis, MO) was used to measure adiponectin levels. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostatis model of assessment (HOMA) value. Circulating adiponectin was associated with serum CBG ( r = 0.38, P fasting cortisol ( P = .019) contributed to 14% and 4%, respectively, of CBG variance. In summary, circulating adiponectin, CBG concentration, and fasting cortisol were significantly interrelated in healthy subjects. A significant sexual dimorphism exists in this association.

  12. The role of leptin/adiponectin ratio in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

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    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; López-López, Jose; López-López, Cristina; Martínez-Ortega, Javier; Gómez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Triana-Cubillos, Stefany

    2014-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Attention has focused on the visceral adipose tissue production of cytokines (adipokines) in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as the levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin are decreased, while proinflammatory cytokines are elevated, creating a proinflammatory state associated with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we will give special attention to the role of the leptin/adiponectin ratio. We have previously demonstrated that in individuals with severe coronary artery disease, abdominal obesity was uniquely related to decreased plasma concentrations of adiponectin and increased leptin levels. Leptin/adiponectin imbalance was associated with increased waist circumference and a decreased vascular response to acetylcholine and increased vasoconstriction due to angiotensin II. Leptin and adiponectin have opposite effects on subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance. Leptin upregulates proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6; these are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties and downregulates the expression and release of a number of proinflammatory immune mediators. Therefore, it appears that interactions between angiotensin II and leptin/adiponectin imbalance may be important mediators of the elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases associated with abdominal obesity.

  13. Relationship between Visceral Adiposity and Plasma Adiponectin Concentration: Effect of Weight Loss

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    E Nasseri

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic protein that has a protective effect against athero­sclero­sis and diabetes. It is exclusively secreted by adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with pa­rame­ters of overall adiposity including body mass index (BMI, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 76 women we sought to evaluate if adiponectin is associated primarily with central adi­pos­ity rather than overall adiposity. We also assessed adiponectin changes after weight loss in a subgroup of 42 obese sub­jects.Results: Waist to hip ratio (WHR, an index of central obesity, was the only variable independently associated to adi­ponectin (Beta= 0.25, P< 0.05. A mean increase of 8.2±24.2% in adiponectin concentration was observed in response to the dietary restriction and weight loss (P= 0.03. Our findings provide evidence for association of serum adiponectin level with visceral fat, represented by waist to hip ratio index.Conclusion: Moderate weight loss result in significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and provide another bio­logi­cal explanation for the beneficial effect of body weight loss on reducing cardiovascular and diabetes risks in obese pa­tients.

  14. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

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    Christina Kopp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ≤ 0.001 and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ≤ 0.05 and chemerin (p ≤ 0.01. Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ≤ 0.001. The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows.

  15. Adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors in relation with glycemic control in type 2 diabetics

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    Aniebetabasi S. Obot

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Type 2 diabetes, though the mechanism of association is still uncertain. The adiponectin levels and lipid profile in relation to glycemic control were investigated in type 2 diabetics. Methods: Forty two diabetic subjects (35-64 years and 33 age-matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited into this case control study. Socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric indices and blood pressure were obtained. Total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein, (HDL, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c were estimated using colorimetric methods, atherogenic index (AI was calculated, while serum adiponectin was determined by ELISA method. Results: Adiponectin levels of type 2 diabetics were not significantly different from the non-diabetics studied (p>0.05. Higher TG levels were observed in diabetics with poor glycemic control compared with those with good glycemic control (p0.05. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics do not have lower adiponectin levels. Gender, duration of diabetes and glycemic control does not seem to exert any influence on adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin may be associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis through its effects on HDL cholesterol metabolism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 563-570

  16. Exendin-4 Upregulates Adiponectin Level in Adipocytes via Sirt1/Foxo-1 Signaling Pathway

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    Wang, Anping; Li, Ting; An, Ping; Yan, Wenhua; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Baoan; Mu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor plays an essential role in regulating glucose metabolism. GLP-1 receptor agonists have been widely used for treating diabetes and other insulin resistance-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 on the expression of adiponectin, an insulin sensitizing hormone. We found that exendin-4 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin both in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that exendin-4 upregulated adiponectin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in adipocytes and adipose tissues. The effects of exendin-4 on adiponectin expression were dependent on the GLP-1 receptor. We further demonstrated important roles of Sirt1 and transcriptional factor Foxo-1 in mediating the function of exendin-4 in regulating adiponectin expression. Suppression of Sirt1 or Foxo-1 expression significantly impaired exendin-4-induced adiponectin expression. Consistently, exendin-4 up-regulated Sirt1 and Foxo-1 expression in vivo. Our work is the first study demonstrating the role of Sirt1/Foxo-1 in regulating the regulatory function of a GLP-1 receptor agonist in adiponectin expression both in vitro and in vivo. The results provide important information for the mechanism underlying the function of GLP-1R on improving insulin resistance and related diseases. PMID:28122026

  17. Beneficial effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament cells under normal and regenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jepsen, Søren; Jäger, Andreas; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  18. Association of adiponectin genotype polymorphisms at positions 45 and 276 with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Su; Xilong Zhang; Shicheng Su

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between adiponectin genotype polymorphisms and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: Using the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method, the single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP)at positions 45 and 276 in the adiponectin gene were determined in Chinese of the Han nationality in the Nanjing district. The OSAHS group consisted of 78 patients, and the control group contained 40 subjects. The association of adiponectin genotype polymorphisms at positions 45 and 276 with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome was analyzed. Results: No evidence of a direct association was found between OSAHS and adiponectin genotype SNP at positions 45 and 276(P> 0.05). However, compared with those OSAHS patients having G/T+T/T genotype at position 276, the OSAHS patients with the G/G genotype showed a greater neck circumference(NC), a prolonged duration of the longest apnea event, and elevated levels of blood cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(P < 0.05). Conclusion: No direct association was detected between OSAHS and adiponectin genotype distribution at positions 45 and 276 in Chinese of Han nationality in the Nanjing district. However, OSAHS patients with the adiponectin GIG genotype at position 276 had a larger NC and the longest apnea event compared to those having the adiponectin SNP276 G/T +T/T genotype. This may have an indirect influence on the development of OSAHS.

  19. A preliminary study on correlation between adiponectin genotype polymorphisms and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Juan; SU Shi-cheng; HUANG Han-peng; DING Ning; YIN Min; HUANG Mao; ZHANG Xi-long

    2012-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is regarded as a disease with strong genetic background and associated with hypoadiponectinemia.It is worthwhile to investigate the possible correlation between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene and OSAHS.Methods With the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method,the SNPs at positions 45 and 276 in the adiponectin gene were determined in Chinese of Han nationality in Nanjing district consisting of 103 OSAHS patients (OSAHS group) and 67 normal controls (control group).The association of adiponectin genotype polymorphisms at positions 45 and 276 with OSAHS was analyzed.Results No evidence of a direct association was found between OSAHS and adiponectin genotype SNP at positions 45 and 276 (P >0.05).However,compared with those OSAHS patients having G/T+T/T genotype at position 276,the OSAHS patients with G/G genotype showed a longer neck circumference,a prolonged duration of the longest apnea event,and an elevated level of blood cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P <0.05).Conclusions No direct association was suggested between OSAHS and adiponectin genotype distribution at positions 45 and 276 in Chinese of Han nationality in Nanjing district.However,in OSAHS patients,those with adiponectin G/G genotype at position 276,seemed to have a higher potential risk in development of OSAHS than those having adiponectin SNP276 G/T +T/T genotype.

  20. Promotion of adiponectin multimerization by emodin: a novel AMPK activator with PPARγ-agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifen; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Junyang; Yang, Zhuanbo; Zhang, Zhijie; Li, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    Adiponectin is an important insulin-sensitizing adipokine with multiple beneficial effects on obesity-associated medical complications. It is secreted from adipocytes into circulation as high, medium, and low molecular weight forms (HMW, MMW, and LMW). Each oligomeric form of adiponectin exerts non-overlapping biological functions, with the HMW oligomer possessing the most potent insulin-sensitizing activity. In this study, we reported that emodin, a natural product and active ingredient of various Chinese herbs, activates AMPK in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and 293T cells. Activation of AMPK by emodin promotes the assembly of HMW adiponectin and increases the ratio of HMW adiponectin to total adiponectin in 3T1-L1 adipocytes. Emodin might activate AMPK by an indirect mechanism similar to berberine. We also found that emodin activates PPARγ and promotes differentiation and adiponectin expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Therefore, emodin is a novel AMPK activator with PPARγ-agonist activity. Our results demonstrate that the effects of emodin on adiponectin expression and multimerization are the ultimate effects resulting from both AMPK activation and PPARγ activation. The dual-activity makes emodin or the derivatives potential drug candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  1. Effects of Fenofibrate on Adiponectin Expression in Retinas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Ying-Jung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression.

  2. Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions

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    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  3. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

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    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease.

  4. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

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    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  5. Genetic Architecture of Plasma Adiponectin Overlaps With the Genetics of Metabolic Syndrome–Related Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Peter; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Frants, Rune R.; Zorkoltseva, Irina V.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Frolich, Marijke; Oostra, Ben A.; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Adiponectin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, is of particular interest in metabolic syndrome, because it is inversely correlated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. However, it is not known to what extent the genetics of plasma adiponectin and the genetics of obesity and insulin sensitivity are interrelated. We aimed to evaluate the heritability of plasma adiponectin and its genetic correlation with the metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome–related traits and the association between these traits and 10 ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We made use of a family-based population, the Erasmus Rucphen Family study (1,258 women and 967 men). Heritability analysis was performed using a polygenic model. Genetic correlations were estimated using bivariate heritability analyses. Genetic association analysis was performed using a mixed model. RESULTS Plasma adiponectin showed a heritability of 55.1%. Genetic correlations between plasma adiponectin HDL cholesterol and plasma insulin ranged from 15 to 24% but were not significant for fasting glucose, triglycerides, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein. A significant association with plasma adiponectin was found for ADIPOQ variants rs17300539 and rs182052. A nominally significant association was found with plasma insulin and HOMA-IR and ADIPOQ variant rs17300539 after adjustment for plasma adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS The significant genetic correlation between plasma adiponectin and HDL cholesterol and plasma insulin should be taken into account in the interpretation of genome-wide association studies. Association of ADIPOQ SNPs with plasma adiponectin was replicated, and we showed association between one ADIPOQ SNP and plasma insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:20067957

  6. Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Disorders

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    T. V. Antonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze leptin and adiponectin serum levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C in comparison with metabolic syndrome components, biochemical features and stage of hepatitis.Materials and methods: In 93 patients with chronic HCV in age 20-55 with a few symptomatic HCV-infection and minimal liver fibrosis stage serum leptin and adiponectin was measured. Associations between leptin, adiponectin and metabolic abnormalities, biochemical features, and hepatic fibrosis were determined.Results: Abdominal obesity was revealed at 40% patients, overweight – at 41%, insulin resistance – at 36,6% cases. The leptin and adiponectin levels were within normal limits range at most patients. Patients with minimal liver fibrosis had higher index of leptin by comparison to patients with moderate and severe fibrosis (r= – 0,402, р= 0,018. In patients with HCV genotype 3a the adiponectin level was below, than in HCV genotype 1b. Patients with abdominal obesity and overweight had higher leptin and lower adiponectin indexes by comparison to patients without these metabolic abnormalities. Direct cross-correlation between the leptin level and body mass index (r=0,358, p=0,001, waist circumference (r=0,292, p=0,01; negative cross-correlation between the adiponectin level and body mass index (r=- 0,435, р <0,021, waist circumference (r=- 0,386, р =0,001 were displayed.Conclusion: Leptin and adiponectin blood levels in HCVpatientis associated with abdominal obesity and overweight. The connection of leptin level and liver fibrosis stage was revealed. Difference of adiponectin level in HCV-patients with 3a and 1b genotypes of virus was found.

  7. Cardiac echinococcosis

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    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  8. Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Rory B; Baggish, Aaron L

    2012-01-01

    Early investigations in the late 1890s and early 1900s documented cardiac enlargement in athletes with above-normal exercise capacity and no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Such findings have been reported for more than a century and continue to intrigue scientists and clinicians. It is well recognized that repetitive participation in vigorous physical exercise results in significant changes in myocardial structure and function. This process, termed exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR), is characterized by structural cardiac changes including left ventricular hypertrophy with sport-specific geometry (eccentric vs concentric). Associated alterations in both systolic and diastolic functions are emerging as recognized components of EICR. The increasing popularity of recreational exercise and competitive athletics has led to a growing number of individuals exhibiting these findings in routine clinical practice. This review will provide an overview of EICR in athletes.

  9. High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations

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    Oller do Nascimento Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues. Results Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose

  10. Low adiponectin levels and increased risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake...... in skeletal muscle and insulin secretion. In healthy humans, low plasma adiponectin levels associate with increased risk of T2DM; however, the relationship between adiponectin and T2DM in patients with MI has never been investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively included 666 patients with ST-segment...

  11. The rapid increase of circulating adiponectin in neonatal calves depends on colostrum intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesser, J; Hill, M; Heinz, J F L; Koch, C; Rehage, J; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Hammon, H M; Mielenz, B; Sauerwein, H; Sadri, H

    2015-10-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, regulates metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Considering that the transplacental transfer of maternal proteins of high molecular weight is hindered in ruminants, this study tested the hypothesis that the blood concentration of adiponectin in neonatal calves largely reflects their endogenous synthesis whereby the intake of colostrum might modify the circulating concentrations. We thus characterized the adiponectin concentrations in neonatal and young calves that were fed either colostrum or formula. Three trials were performed: in trial 1, 20 calves were all fed colostrum for 3 d, and then formula until weaning. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before colostrum feeding), and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 postnatum. In trial 2, 14 calves were studied for the first 4 d of life. They were fed colostrum (n=7) or formula (n=7), and blood samples were taken right after birth and before each morning feeding on d 2, 3, and 4. In trial 3, calves born preterm (n=7) or at term received colostrum only at 24 h postnatum. Blood was sampled at birth, and before and 2 h after feeding. Additionally, allantoic fluid and blood from 4 Holstein cows undergoing cesarean section were sampled. Adiponectin was quantified by ELISA. In trial 1, the serum adiponectin concentrations recorded on d 3 were 4.7-fold higher than before colostrum intake. The distribution of the molecular weight forms of adiponectin differed before and after colostrum consumption. In trial 2, the colostrum group had consistently greater plasma adiponectin concentrations than the formula group after the first meal. In trial 3, the preterm calves tended to have lower concentrations of plasma adiponectin than the term calves at birth and before and 2 h after feeding. Furthermore, the adiponectin concentrations were substantially lower in allantoic fluid than in the sera from neonatal calves and from cows at parturition. Our results show that calves are born with very low

  12. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of future heart problems, and to improve your health and quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programs increase ... exercise routine at home or at a local gym. You may also continue to ... health concerns. Education about nutrition, lifestyle and weight loss ...

  13. Genetic variants of adiponectin receptor 2 are associated with increased adiponectin levels and decreased triglyceride/VLDL levels in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göke Burkhard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin acts as an antidiabetic, antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic adipokine. These effects are assumed to be mediated by the recently discovered adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine whether variations in the AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes may contribute to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation. Methods We sequenced all seven coding exons of both genes in 20 unrelated German subjects with metabolic syndrome and tested genetic variants for association with glucose, lipid and inflammatory parameters. Results We identified three AdipoR2 variants (+795G/A, +870C/A and +963C/T in perfect linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 1 with a minor allele frequency of 0.125. This haplotype was associated with higher plasma adiponectin levels and decreased fasting triglyceride, VLDL-triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol levels. No association, however, was observed between the AdipoR2 SNP cluster and glucose metabolism. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify an association between genetic variants of the adiponectin receptor genes and plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, our data suggest that AdipoR2 may play an important role in triglyceride/VLDL metabolism.

  14. Real Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mahé, Louis; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1992-01-01

    Ten years after the first Rennes international meeting on real algebraic geometry, the second one looked at the developments in the subject during the intervening decade - see the 6 survey papers listed below. Further contributions from the participants on recent research covered real algebra and geometry, topology of real algebraic varieties and 16thHilbert problem, classical algebraic geometry, techniques in real algebraic geometry, algorithms in real algebraic geometry, semialgebraic geometry, real analytic geometry. CONTENTS: Survey papers: M. Knebusch: Semialgebraic topology in the last ten years.- R. Parimala: Algebraic and topological invariants of real algebraic varieties.- Polotovskii, G.M.: On the classification of decomposing plane algebraic curves.- Scheiderer, C.: Real algebra and its applications to geometry in the last ten years: some major developments and results.- Shustin, E.L.: Topology of real plane algebraic curves.- Silhol, R.: Moduli problems in real algebraic geometry. Further contribu...

  15. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

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    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  16. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    , double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT......), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and thigh subcutaneous fat area (TFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Adiponectin levels were measured using an in-house immunofluorometric assay. Coefficients (b) represent the placebo-controlled mean effect of intervention. RESULTS: LEFM was decreased (b=–0......OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6...

  17. Evolving role of adiponectin in cancer-controversies and update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnav Katira; Peng H Tan

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine produced by adipocytes, has been shown to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated malignancies. Through its receptor interactions, APN may exert its anti-carcinogenic effects including regulating cell survival, apoptosis and metastasis via a plethora of signalling pathways. Despite the strong evidence supporting this notion, some work may indicate otherwise. Our review addresses all controversies critically. On the whole, hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with increased risk of several malignancies and poor prognosis. In addition, various genetic polymorphisms may predispose individuals to increased risk of obesity-associated malignancies. We also provide an updated summary on therapeutic interventions to increase APN levels that are of key interest in this field. To date efforts to manipulate APN levels have been promising, but much work remains to be done.

  18. Digital Differential Geometry Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Guo Liu; Hu-Jun Bao; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2006-01-01

    The theory and methods of digital geometry processing has been a hot research area in computer graphics, as geometric models serves as the core data for 3D graphics applications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some recent advances in digital geometry processing, particularly mesh fairing, surface parameterization and mesh editing, that heavily use differential geometry quantities. Some related concepts from differential geometry, such as normal, curvature, gradient,Laplacian and their counterparts on digital geometry are also reviewed for understanding the strength and weakness of various digital geometry processing methods.

  19. Significance of adiponectin in the risk of coronary lesions in patients with impaired glucose regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄珊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of impaired glucose regulation and adiponectin(APN) with the clinical severity of coronary lesions. Methods A total of 210 cases of suspected coronary heart disease were examined

  20. Adiponectin and peak bone mass in men: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, M; Abrahamsen, B; Nielsen, T L

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin, a protein classically known to be secreted by adipocytes, is also secreted by bone-forming cells. Results of previous studies have been contradictory as to whether serum adiponectin and bone mineral density (BMD) are associated. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible...... association between serum adiponectin and BMD in young, healthy men at a time of peak bone mass. BMD in the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine were measured in this population-based cross-sectional study of 700 men aged 20-29 years participating in the Odense Androgen Study. Magnetic resonance imaging...... was inversely associated with total hip BMD in men at the time of peak bone mass, but this association may be explained by factors related to muscle size and function. The observed association between adiponectin and femoral bone marrow size was retained even after adjustment for potential covariates....

  1. Adiponectin: an attractive marker for metabolic disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Andrea; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Turchiarelli, Viviana; Nigro, Ersilia; Corbi, Graziamaria; Scudiero, Olga; Sofia, Matteo; Daniele, Aurora

    2013-10-14

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease which may be complicated by development of co-morbidities including metabolic disorders. Metabolic disorders commonly associated with this disease contribute to lung function impairment and mortality. Systemic inflammation appears to be a major factor linking COPD to metabolic alterations. Adipose tissue seems to interfere with systemic inflammation in COPD patients by producing a large number of proteins, known as "adipokines", involved in various processes such as metabolism, immunity and inflammation. There is evidence that adiponectin is an important modulator of inflammatory processes implicated in airway pathophysiology. Increased serum levels of adiponectin and expression of its receptors on lung tissues of COPD patients have recently highlighted the importance of the adiponectin pathway in this disease. Further, in vitro studies have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory activity for this adipokine at the level of lung epithelium. This review focuses on mechanisms by which adiponectin is implicated in linking COPD with metabolic disorders.

  2. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Adiponectin as Predictors of Atherosclerotic Risk among Obese Egyptian Children

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    Enas R. Abdel Hameed

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.

  3. Adiponectin may improve osseointegration of dental implants in T2DM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun; Yin, Guozhu; Luo, En

    2011-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. Compared with the general population, a higher failure rate is seen in T2DM patients. There is also evidence that chronically high levels of plasma glycemia leads to inflammatory effect and a negative influence on bone formation and remodeling, and reduce osseointegration of implants. Recently studies reveal that adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, and closely associated with T2DM. Adiponectin has potent anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to increase bone density by inhibiting osteoclast formation and promoting the formation of osteoblasts. We therefore hypothesize systemically infused or locally used adiponectin could accelerate osseointegration of dental implants in T2DM. Our hypothesis could help to create an option to improve success ratio of dental implants in T2DM by the replenishment of adiponectin in T2DM patients.

  4. Adiponectin serum levels correlate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleidi, Shereen; Issa, Ala; Bustanji, Haidar; Khalil, Mohammad; Bustanji, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    The adipose tissue is not only an inert storage depot for lipids, but also it secretes a variety of bioactive molecules, known as adipokines, which affect whole-body homeostasis. Adiponectin is the most abundant of these adipocytokines and is known to have a regulatory effect on the metabolism of glucose and lipid. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the serum levels of adiponectin and to establish a correlation between adiponectin serum levels and the degree of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty participants were enrolled in this study; 61 type 2 diabetic patients and 19 apparently healthy subjects. Serum level of adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each participant. Data collection sheet was filled with all required information for each participant. Adiponectin level in the diabetic patients (5.05 ± 2.61 μg/ml) was lower than in non-diabetic healthy controls (5.71 ± 2.35 μg/ml). When the results were compared according to gender, diabetic females showed significantly higher adiponectin levels (5.76 ± 2.64 μg/ml) than diabetic males (4.366 ± 2.43 μg/ml, P = 0.035). In addition, female diabetic patients with abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) ⩾ 88 cm) had lower adiponectin levels (5.58 ± 2.58 μg/ml) than diabetic females without abdominal obesity (6.96 ± 3.12 μg/ml). The correlation analysis indicated that adiponectin had a significant positive correlation with age (r = −0.450, P < 0.001). In conclusion, female diabetic patients had a statistically significant higher adiponectin level than male diabetic patients which could indicate a gender effect. Adiponectin levels were inversely related to insulin resistance; as patients with abdominal obesity had lower serum levels of adiponectin. PMID:26106273

  5. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

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    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Klegeris, Andis [Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Little, Jonathan P., E-mail: jonathan.little@ubc.ca [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  6. Hyperthyroidism-Associated Insulin Resistance Is Not Mediated by Adiponectin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsun Chu

    2011-01-01

    values were significantly decreased after management of hyperthyroidism. Pearson's correlation revealed that insulin and HOMA-IR values positively correlated with triiodothyronine (T3 and free thyroxine (FT4 levels. However, adiponectin did not correlate with T3, FT4, insulin, HOMA-IR and thyrotropin receptor autoantibody (TRAb levels. In conclusion, insulin resistance associated with hyperthyroidism is not mediated by the levels of plasma adiponectin.

  7. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay Monique; Loucif Yacine; Methot Julie; Brisson Diane; Gaudet Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Met...

  8. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pglycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  9. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  10. High-molecular-weight adiponectin does not predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Aso, Yoshimasa; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Inukai, Toshihiko; Brix, Johanna; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2009-04-01

    Low circulating high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between HMW adiponectin and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. The investigation took place in a specialized outpatient clinic for metabolic diseases and included 147 patients with T2DM following a cross-sectional and a prospective study protocol. Ninety patients had macrovascular disease at baseline defined as preexisting coronary artery disease, previous stroke, or peripheral artery disease. HMW adiponectin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan) and routine clinical parameters were determined in all patients at baseline. The occurrence of new cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause mortality) during the follow-up period was evaluated. No significant correlations between traditional cardiovascular risk markers and HMW adiponectin could be detected. HMW adiponectin did not differ between subjects with and without macrovascular disease at baseline (3.5 [interquartile range [IQR]: 2.2-5.7] mg/L vs 4.0 [IQR: 2.5-7.1] mg/L). During a follow-up of 19.3 (IQR: 16-25) months, 61 endpoints (41 myocardial infarctions, 10 strokes, and 10 deaths) were observed. A 1-standard-deviation increment of log-transformed HMW adiponectin was not significantly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events (Adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-1.54; P = 0.835). In conclusion, HMW adiponectin was not related to present macrovascular disease and is not associated with future cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with T2DM. It is unlikely that HMW adiponectin has significant vasoprotective effects in these patients.

  11. Adiponectin alleviates contractile dysfunction of genioglossus in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-jing; LU Gan; DING Ning; HUANG Han-peng; DING Wen-xiao; ZHANG Xi-long

    2013-01-01

    Background Genioglossal dysfuntion takes an important role in pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in which chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is the major pathological origin.Recent studies have suggested genioglossal injury induced by CIH might be improved by adiponectin.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adiponectin on genioglossus contractile properties in rats exposed to CIH.Methods Thirty-nine healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups:normal control (NC),CIH and adiponectin supplement (CIH+Ad) with 13 rats in each.Rats in NC were kept breathing normal air,while rats in CIH and CIH+Ad experienced the same CIH environment eight hours per day for 35 successive days.Rats in CIH+Ad were given intravenous adiponectin of 10 μg twice a week for 30 successive days.Rats in the NC and CIH were injected with normal saline as a control.After 35 days' CIH exposure,the levels of serum adiponectin and genioglossus contractile properties were compared.Results Serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in CIH than in NC (1210 ng/ml vs.2236 ng/ml).Serum adiponectin level in CIH+Ad (1844 ng/ml) was significantly higher than CIH but lower than NC.Twitch tension,time to peak tension,half relaxation time and tetanic tension were significantly lower in CIH than NC and improved in CIH+Ad.All mean tetanic fatigue indices decreased more rapidly in the first 20 seconds than during the subsequent 100 seconds.Tetanic fatigue indices in NC and CIH+Ad were significantly higher compared to CIH.Conclusions CIH could lead to hypoadiponectinaemia,impaired genioglossus contractile properties and decreased fatigue resistance in rats.Such changes could be partially offset by supplementation of adiponectin.

  12. Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Role for Aldosterone and the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric E. Essick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and hypertension, major risk factors for the metabolic syndrome, render individuals susceptible to an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, such as adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure. There has been much investigation into the role that an increase in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS plays in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and in particular, how aldosterone mediates left ventricular hypertrophy and increased cardiac fibrosis via its interaction with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR. Here, we review the pertinent findings that link obesity with elevated aldosterone and the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis associated with the metabolic syndrome. These studies illustrate a complex cross-talk between adipose tissue, the heart, and the adrenal cortex. Furthermore, we discuss findings from our laboratory that suggest that cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in the metabolic syndrome may involve cross-talk between aldosterone and adipokines (such as adiponectin.

  13. Riemann-Finsler geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Enli; MO Xiaohuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,a survey on Riemann-Finsler geometry is given.Non-trivial examples of Finsler metrics satisfying different curvature conditions are presented.Local and global results in Finsler geometry are analyzed.

  14. Geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Walter J

    2006-01-01

    Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...

  15. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P. Castro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  16. Serum adiponectin and transient elastography as non-invasive markers for postoperative biliary atresia

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    Udomsinprasert Wanvisa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biliary atresia (BA is a progressive inflammatory disorder of the extrahepatic bile ducts leading to the obliteration of bile flow. The purpose of this study was to determine serum adiponectin in BA patients and to investigate the relationship of adiponectin with clinical parameters and liver stiffness scores. Methods Sixty BA patients post Kasai operation and 20 controls were enrolled. The mean age of BA patients and controls was 9.6 ± 0.7 and 10.1 ± 0.7 years, respectively. BA patients were classified into two groups according to their serum total bilirubin (TB levels (non-jaundice, TB Results BA patients had markedly higher serum adiponectin levels (15.5 ± 1.1 vs. 11.1 ± 1.1 μg/ml, P = 0.03 and liver stiffness than controls (30.1 ± 3.0 vs. 5.1 ± 0.5 kPa, P P P r = 0.58, r = 0.46, and r = 0.60, P Conclusions Serum adiponectin and liver stiffness values were higher in BA patients compared with normal participants. The elevated serum adiponectin levels also positively correlated with the degree of hepatic dysfunction and liver fibrosis. Accordingly, serum adiponectin and transient elastography could serve as the useful non-invasive biomarkers for monitoring the severity and progression in postoperative BA.

  17. Evidence of a causal relationship between adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, He; Fall, Tove; van Dam, Rob M; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Zethelius, Björn; Ingelsson, Erik; Hägg, Sara

    2013-04-01

    The adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin is associated with insulin sensitivity in observational studies. We aimed to evaluate whether this relationship is causal using a Mendelian randomization approach. In a sample of Swedish men aged 71 years (n = 942) from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM), insulin sensitivity (M/I ratio) was measured by the euglycemic insulin clamp. We used three genetic variants in the ADIPOQ locus as instrumental variables (IVs) to estimate the potential causal effect of adiponectin on insulin sensitivity and compared these with results from conventional linear regression. The three ADIPOQ variants, rs17300539, rs3774261, and rs6444175, were strongly associated with serum adiponectin levels (all P ≤ 5.3 × 10(-9)) and were also significantly associated with M/I ratio in the expected direction (all P ≤ 0.022). IV analysis confirmed that genetically determined adiponectin increased insulin sensitivity (β = 0.47-0.81, all P ≤ 0.014) comparable with observational estimates (β = 0.50, all P(difference) ≥ 0.136). Adjustment for BMI and waist circumference partly explained the association of both genetically determined and observed adiponectin levels with insulin sensitivity. The observed association between higher adiponectin levels and increased insulin sensitivity is likely to represent a causal relationship partly mediated by reduced adiposity.

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis Impacts on the Independent Relationships between Circulating Adiponectin Concentrations and Cardiovascular Metabolic Risk

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    Patrick H. Dessein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and leptin are likely involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and therefore potential new therapeutic targets. Adiponectin inhibition could be expected to enhance cardiovascular metabolic risk. However, it is unknown whether RA changes the influence of adipokines on cardiovascular metabolic risk. We determined whether RA impacts on the independent relationships of circulating leptin and adiponectin concentrations with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in 277 black African subjects from a developing population; 119 had RA. RA impacted on the relationships of adiponectin concentrations with lipid concentrations and blood pressure, independent of confounders including adiposity (interaction P<0.05. This translated into an association of adiponectin concentrations with more favorable lipid variables including HDL cholesterol (P=0.0005, non-HDL cholesterol (P=0.007, and triglyceride (P=0.005 concentrations, total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol (P=0.0002 and triglycerides-HDL cholesterol (P=0.0003 ratios, and higher systolic (P=0.0006, diastolic (P=0.0004, and mean blood pressure (P=0.0007 in RA but not non-RA subjects. Leptin was not associated with metabolic risk after adjustment for adiposity. The cIMT did not differ by RA status, and adipokine concentrations were unrelated to atherosclerosis. This study suggests that leptin and adiponectin inhibition may not alter overall cardiovascular risk and disease in RA.

  19. Adiponectin regulates expression of hepatic genes critical for glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Yuan, Bingbing; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Patterson, Heide Christine; Sun, Yutong; Lodish, Harvey F

    2012-09-04

    The effects of adiponectin on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at transcriptional level are largely unknown. We profiled hepatic gene expression in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by RNA sequencing. Compared with WT mice, adiponectin KO mice fed a chow diet exhibited decreased mRNA expression of rate-limiting enzymes in several important glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty-acid activation and synthesis, triglyceride synthesis, and cholesterol synthesis. In addition, binding of the transcription factor Hnf4a to DNAs encoding several key metabolic enzymes was reduced in KO mice, suggesting that adiponectin might regulate hepatic gene expression via Hnf4a. Phenotypically, adiponectin KO mice possessed smaller epididymal fat pads and showed reduced body weight compared with WT mice. When fed a high-fat diet, adiponectin KO mice showed significantly reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. These lipogenic defects are consistent with the down-regulation of lipogenic genes in the KO mice.

  20. Regulation of Serum Response Factor and Adiponectin by PPARγ Agonist Docosahexaenoic Acid

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    Clayton Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that significant health benefits involving the regulation of signaling proteins result from the consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs. Serum response factor (SRF is involved in transcriptional regulation of muscle growth and differentiation. SRF levels are increased in the aging heart muscle. It has not been examined whether SRF is made by adipocytes and whether SRF secretion by adipocytes is modulated by PPARγ agonist DHA. Adiponectin is made exclusively by adipocytes. We and others have previously reported that PUFAs such as DHA increase adiponectin levels and secretion in adipocytes. Here we show that DHA downregulates SRF with a simultaneous upregulation of adiponectin and that both these responses are reversible by PPARγ antagonist. Furthermore, there appears to be a direct relationship between DHA exposure and increased levels of membrane-associated high-density adiponectin, as well as lower levels of membrane-associated SRF. Thus, we find that the levels of SRF and adiponectin are inversely related in response to treatment with PPARγ agonist DHA. Decreased levels of SRF along with increase in membrane-associated adiponectin could in part mediate the health benefits of DHA.

  1. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide/ D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hitoshi Matsumoto; Yuji Matsuzawa; Iichiro Shimomura; Norio Hayashi; Shinji Tamura; Yoshihiro Kamada; Shinichi Kiso; Juichi Fukushima; Akira Wada; Norikazu Maeda; Shinji Kihara; Tohru Funahashi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of adiponectin on the functions of Kupffer cells, key modulators of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced liver injury.METHODS: D-galactosamine (GaIN) and LPS were injected intraperitoneally into adiponectin-/- mice and wild type mice. Kupffer cells, isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, were preincubated with or without adiponectin, and then treated with LPS.RESULTS: In knockout mice, GalN/LPS injection significantly lowered the survival rate, significantly raised the plasma levels of alanine transaminase and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and significantly reduced IL-10 levels compared with wild type mice. TNF-α gene expression in the liver was which higher and those of IL-10 were lower in knockout mice than in wild type mice. In cultured adiponectin-pre-treated Kupffer cells, LPS significantly lowered TNF-α levels and raised IL-10 levels in the culture media and their respective gene expression levels, compared with Kupffer cells without adiponectinpre-treatment.CONCLUSION: Adiponectin supresses TNF-α production and induces IL-10 production by Kupffer cells in response to LPS stimulation, and a lack of adiponectin enhances LPS-induced liver injury.

  2. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Related to Vitamin D and Adiponectin in Obese Children and Adolescents

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    Fatih Kardas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related diseases are becoming the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several studies have suggested an association between low levels of vitamin D and obesity. In addition, plasma adiponectin levels have been found to be lower in obese subjects. We evaluated the association of metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D levels. The study consisted of 114 obese and healthy subjects. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] levels were positively correlated with adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (T-C, triglyceride (TG, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA index, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The mean 25(OHD levels in the obese and nonobese groups were and  ng/mL, respectively (. The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was lower than that in the nonobese group (. Lower vitamin D and adiponectin levels were strongly associated with metabolic risk factors and obesity in Turkish children and adolescents.

  3. Is adiponectin level a predictor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in nondiabetic male patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haluk Sargin; Mehmet Sargin; Hülya Gozu; Asuman Orcun; Gülcan Baloglu; Murat Ozisik; Mesut Seker; Oya Uygur-Bayramicli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the levels of adiponectin in nondiabetic patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in comparison with control group.METHODS: Thirty-five patients who had elevated serum aminotransferase levels with bright liver and 34 healthy volunteers without liver disease were evaluated. Age,gender and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, proinsulin and lipid profile were measured. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with insulin response was performed and the index of insulin resistance was calculated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method.RESULTS: According to the OGTT results, none of the participants had diabetes. Serum adiponectin levels were statistically significantly lower in patients with NAFLD than in control group (8.14±3.4 μg/mL vs12.4±9.4 μg/mL,respectively, P<0.01). A statistically significant correlation was found between adiponectin and BMI (r: -0.33, P<0.01),HOMA (r: -0.26, P<0.05), proinsulin (r: -0.32, P<0.01),AST (r: -0.25, P<0.05), ALT (r: -0.26, P<0.05) or GGT (r: -0.22, P<0.05). In multiple regression analysis models,adiponectin levels were the only predictor of NAFLD in males, whereas in female group it was the BMI.CONCLUSION: Low adiponectin level might be a predictor of NAFLD especially in male nondiabetics.

  4. Serum adiponectin level in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张希龙; 殷凯生; 毛辉; 王虹; 杨玉

    2004-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, secreted by adipocytes, has been found to be associated with diabetes, obesity and some cardiovascular diseases. Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is also closely related to obesity and easily complicated with diabetes and some cardiovascular diseases. This study was carried out to explore the change of serum adiponectin level in patients with OSAHS.Methods Polysomnography was performed in 71 patients with OSAHS (OSAHS group) and 26 simple obese controls (control group). The two groups had no significant difference in age and body mass index (BMI). Radioimmunoassy was used to test serum adiponectin level.Results Serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in OSAHS group [(5.03±1.01) mg/L] than that in the control group [(7.09±1.29) mg/L, P<0.05]. The differences between two groups were independent of gender. In OSAHS groups, serum adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (r=-0.78, P<0.01), BMI (r=-0.13, P<0.05), waist circumsference (r=-0.36, P<0.01), and neck circumference (r=-0.42, P<0.01), but positively correlated with the minimal pulse oxyhemoglobin saturation (r=0.48, P<0.01). Conclusion OSAHS may contribute to the decrease of serum adiponectin level independent of obesity.

  5. Effects of sympatholytic therapy with moxonidine on serum adiponectin levels in hypertensive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinç, H; Ozkurt, Z N; Ebinç, F A; Ucardag, D; Caglayan, O; Yilmaz, M

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether moxonidine influences lipid profile, insulin resistance, adiponectin levels, renal function and microalbuminuria in women with essential hypertension in a study of 55 non-diabetic hypertensive patients and 53 normotensive women. Hypertensive patients received moxonidine for 12 weeks. At baseline the hypertensive group had significantly higher mean blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, urinary albumin excretion and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), together with significantly lower mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine clearance and serum adiponectin than the normotensive group. Moxonidine significantly decreased blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR and albumin excretion, but significantly increased serum adiponectin. The change in adiponectin level was negatively correlated with the change in HOMA-IR. Moxonidine treatment may improve unfavourable metabolic status related to insulin resistance by increasing adiponectin levels in patients with essential hypertension. Since it can improve adiponectin levels, it may be used in the antihypertensive treatment of patients at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and blood adiponectin in diabetic males

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    Mojtaba Izadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity-related disorders characterized by insulin resistance such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes are associated with decreased adiponectin levels. The purpose of the present study was to determine association of lipid profile and obesity markers with serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetes adult males. Methods: For this purpose, forty one adult males with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study randomly. Blood samples were collected after a 10-12 hour overnight fasting for measuring serum glucose and lipid profile and adiponectin. The anthropometrical indices were measured too. A multivariate linear regression analysis used to predict relation between variables. Results: The data analysis showed that circulatory adiponectin had significant negative association with glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, visceral fat and cholesterol/HDL ratio (P ≤0.05. There were no significant correlation between adiponectin level and HDL and LDL. Conclusion: Our findings support negative relationship between serum adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients.

  7. Adiponectin concentrations increase during acute FFA elevation in humans treated with rosiglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, K; Mittermayer, F; Krugluger, W; Roden, M; Schernthaner, G; Wolzt, M

    2007-10-01

    The adipocytokine adiponectin is released by adipocytes upon activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). PPAR gamma has binding sites for thiazolidinediones and free fatty acids (FFAs). To evaluate if adiponectin serum concentrations are synergistically regulated by FFAs and thiazolidinediones IN VIVO plasma FFAs were acutely elevated in healthy subjects pre-treated with rosiglitazone or placebo. Sixteen healthy male subjects (23-37 years) were included in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Rosiglitazone 8 mg or placebo was administered daily for 21 days. On the last day plasma FFA concentrations were increased by an intravenous triglyceride/heparin infusion. Blood for determination of adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, resistin, FFAs, glucose, and insulin was drawn at baseline and on day 21 before and after 5 hours of triglyceride/heparin infusion. Adiponectin concentrations increased and FFA levels decreased in subjects receiving rosiglitazone (all p<0.05 VS. baseline). Lipid infusion significantly increased FFA plasma concentrations, with an attenuated elevation in rosiglitazone-treated subjects. However, adiponectin concentrations were only increased in subjects on rosiglitazone (p=0.018 VS. before lipid infusion), but not in controls. Leptin increased during lipid infusion in subjects receiving placebo but not in those on rosiglitazone. CRP and resistin were not affected by rosiglitazone or FFAs. The acute increase in circulating adiponectin concentrations during acutely elevated FFA depends on PPAR gamma activation in healthy subjects.

  8. AdipoRon, an adiponectin receptor agonist, attenuates PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation through inhibition of mTOR signaling independent of AMPK: Implications toward suppression of neointimal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairaq, Arwa; Shawky, Noha M; Osman, Islam; Pichavaram, Prahalathan; Segar, Lakshman

    2017-02-22

    Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Although adiponectin replenishment mitigates neointimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis in mouse models, adiponectin therapy has been hampered in a clinical setting due to its large molecular size. Recent studies demonstrate that AdipoRon (a small-molecule adiponectin receptor agonist) improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetic mice and attenuates postischemic cardiac injury in adiponectin-deficient mice, in part, through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To date, it remains unknown as to whether AdipoRon regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, which plays a major role in neointima formation. In the present study, oral administration of AdipoRon (50mg/kg) in C57BL/6J mice significantly diminished arterial injury-induced neointima formation by ∼57%. Under in vitro conditions, AdipoRon treatment led to significant inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation, DNA synthesis, and cyclin D1 expression. While AdipoRon induced a rapid and sustained activation of AMPK, it also diminished basal and PDGF-induced phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream targets, including p70S6K/S6 and 4E-BP1. However, siRNA-mediated AMPK downregulation showed persistent inhibition of p70S6K/S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, indicating AMPK-independent effects for AdipoRon inhibition of mTOR signaling. In addition, AdipoRon treatment resulted in a sustained and transient decrease in PDGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Furthermore, PDGF receptor-β tyrosine phosphorylation, which controls the phosphorylation state of Akt and ERK, was diminished upon AdipoRon treatment. Together, the present findings suggest that orally-administered AdipoRon has the potential to limit restenosis after angioplasty by targeting mTOR signaling independent of AMPK activation.

  9. Cardiac Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Joorabian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a spectrum of different types of cardiac"ncalcifications with the importance and significance"nof each type of cardiac calcification, especially"ncoronary artery calcification. Radiologic detection of"ncalcifications within the heart is quite common. The"namount of coronary artery calcification correlates"nwith the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD."nCalcification of the aortic or mitral valve may indicate"nhemodynamically significant valvular stenosis."nMyocardial calcification is a sign of prior infarction,"nwhile pericardial calcification is strongly associated"nwith constrictive pericarditis. A spectrum of different"ntypes of cardiac calcifications (linear, annular,"ncurvilinear,... could be seen in chest radiography and"nother imaging modalities. So a carful inspection for"ndetection and reorganization of these calcifications"nshould be necessary. Numerous modalities exist for"nidentifying coronary calcification, including plain"nradiography, fluoroscopy, intravascular ultrasound,"nMRI, echocardiography, and conventional, helical and"nelectron-beam CT (EBCT. Coronary calcifications"ndetected on EBCT or helical CT can be quantifie,"nand a total calcification score (Cardiac Calcification"nScoring may be calculated. In an asymptomatic"npopulation and/or patients with concomitant risk"nfactors like diabetes mellitus, determination of the"npresence of coronary calcifications identifies the"npatients at risk for future myocardial infarction and"ncoronary artery disease. In patients without coronary"ncalcifications, future cardiovascular events could"nbe excluded. Therefore, detecting and recognizing"ncalcification related to the heart on chest radiography"nand other imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy, CT"nand echocardiography may have important clinical"nimplications.

  10. Succination of thiol groups in adipose tissue proteins in diabetes: succination inhibits polymerization and secretion of adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, Norma; Rajesh, Mathur; Jepson, Matthew J; Nagai, Ryoji; Carson, James A; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2009-09-18

    S-(2-Succinyl)cysteine (2SC) is formed by reaction of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate with cysteine residues in protein, a process termed succination of protein. Both fumarate and succination of proteins are increased in adipocytes cultured in high glucose medium (Nagai, R., Brock, J. W., Blatnik, M., Baatz, J. E., Bethard, J., Walla, M. D., Thorpe, S. R., Baynes, J. W., and Frizzell, N. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 34219-34228). We show here that succination of protein is also increased in epididymal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue of diabetic (db/db) mice and that adiponectin is a major target for succination in both adipocytes and adipose tissue. Cys-39, which is involved in cross-linking of adiponectin monomers to form trimers, was identified as a key site of succination of adiponectin in adipocytes. 2SC was detected on two of seven monomeric forms of adiponectin immunoprecipitated from adipocytes and epididymal adipose tissue. Based on densitometry, 2SC-adiponectin accounted for approximately 7 and 8% of total intracellular adiponectin in cells and tissue, respectively. 2SC was found only in the intracellular, monomeric forms of adiponectin and was not detectable in polymeric forms of adiponectin in cell culture medium or plasma. We conclude that succination of adiponectin blocks its incorporation into trimeric and higher molecular weight, secreted forms of adiponectin. We propose that succination of proteins is a biomarker of mitochondrial stress and accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates in adipose tissue in diabetes and that succination of adiponectin may contribute to the decrease in plasma adiponectin in diabetes.

  11. Introduction to projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wylie, C R

    2008-01-01

    This lucid introductory text offers both an analytic and an axiomatic approach to plane projective geometry. The analytic treatment builds and expands upon students' familiarity with elementary plane analytic geometry and provides a well-motivated approach to projective geometry. Subsequent chapters explore Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry as specializations of the projective plane, revealing the existence of an infinite number of geometries, each Euclidean in nature but characterized by a different set of distance- and angle-measurement formulas. Outstanding pedagogical features include w

  12. Geometry essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque

  13. Symplectic geometries on supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2007-01-01

    Extension of symplectic geometry on manifolds to the supersymmetric case is considered. In the even case it leads to the even symplectic geometry (or, equivalently, to the geometry on supermanifolds endowed with an non-degenerate Poisson bracket) or to the geometry on an even Fedosov supermanifolds. It is proven that in the odd case there are two different scalar symplectic structures (namely, an odd closed differential 2-form and the antibracket) which can be used for construction of different symplectic geometries on supermanifolds.

  14. Association of adiponectin with cardiovascular events in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Elokely

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a novel collagen-like protein synthesized by white adipose tissue. Its levels are decreased in obesity, type-2 diabetes and insulin-resistant states, and are increased in chronic renal failure. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. This study was planned to evaluate the levels of adiponectin in uremic patients with and without diabetes and to find any relationship between adiponectin levels and some cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine the possible predictive value of adiponectin for cardiovascular complications (CVC. The study included 100 subjects, 20 of them were healthy subjects and served as the control group (group I, 40 were uremic non-diabetic patients (group II (half of them were without CVC, group IIA, and the other half were patients with CVC, group IIB and, lastly, 40 uremic diabetic patients (group III (half of them were without CVC, group IIIA, and the other half were patients with CVC, group IIIB. All subjects were subjected to complete clinical examination, including determination of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio, routine laboratory investigations, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, lipid profile (cholesterol, TG, LDL, HDL, determination of insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR and estimation of serum levels of adiponectin. There was a significant increase in serum adiponectin levels in all the uremic patients (group II and group III when compared with the control (group I group, P <0.01; also, serum adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in uremic diabetic patients (group III when compared with uremic non-diabetic patients (group II, P <0.01; but this was still higher than in the controls. The patients with CVC, whether uremic non-diabetic (group IIB or uremic diabetic (group IIIB, had a significant decrease in serum adiponectin levels when compared with patients without CVC (group IIA and

  15. Methods for euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Byer, Owen; Smeltzer, Deirdre L

    2010-01-01

    Euclidean plane geometry is one of the oldest and most beautiful topics in mathematics. Instead of carefully building geometries from axiom sets, this book uses a wealth of methods to solve problems in Euclidean geometry. Many of these methods arose where existing techniques proved inadequate. In several cases, the new ideas used in solving specific problems later developed into independent areas of mathematics. This book is primarily a geometry textbook, but studying geometry in this way will also develop students' appreciation of the subject and of mathematics as a whole. For instance, despite the fact that the analytic method has been part of mathematics for four centuries, it is rarely a tool a student considers using when faced with a geometry problem. Methods for Euclidean Geometry explores the application of a broad range of mathematical topics to the solution of Euclidean problems.

  16. Generalized Kahler geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Generalized Kahler geometry is the natural analogue of Kahler geometry, in the context of generalized complex geometry. Just as we may require a complex structure to be compatible with a Riemannian metric in a way which gives rise to a symplectic form, we may require a generalized complex structure to be compatible with a metric so that it defines a second generalized complex structure. We explore the fundamental aspects of this geometry, including its equivalence with the bi-Hermitian geometry on the target of a 2-dimensional sigma model with (2,2) supersymmetry, as well as the relation to holomorphic Dirac geometry and the resulting derived deformation theory. We also explore the analogy between pre-quantum line bundles and gerbes in the context of generalized Kahler geometry.

  17. Drosophila adiponectin receptor in insulin producing cells regulates glucose and lipid metabolism by controlling insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Kwak

    Full Text Available Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are key regulators of metabolism in animals. Adiponectin, one of the adipokines, modulates pancreatic beta cell function to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, significant conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian metabolism has been discovered. Drosophila insulin like peptides (Dilps regulate energy metabolism similarly to mammalian insulin. However, in Drosophila, the regulatory mechanism of insulin producing cells (IPCs by adipokine signaling is largely unknown. Here, we describe the discovery of the Drosophila adiponectin receptor and its function in IPCs. Drosophila adiponectin receptor (dAdipoR has high homology with the human adiponectin receptor 1. The dAdipoR antibody staining revealed that dAdipoR was expressed in IPCs of larval and adult brains. IPC- specific dAdipoR inhibition (Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri showed the increased sugar level in the hemolymph and the elevated triglyceride level in whole body. Dilps mRNA levels in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies were similar with those of controls. However, in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies, Dilp2 protein was accumulated in IPCs, the level of circulating Dilp2 was decreased, and insulin signaling was reduced in the fat body. In ex vivo fly brain culture with the human adiponectin, Dilp2 was secreted from IPCs. These results indicate that adiponectin receptor in insulin producing cells regulates insulin secretion and controls glucose and lipid metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. This study demonstrates a new adipokine signaling in Drosophila and provides insights for the mammalian adiponectin receptor function in pancreatic beta cells, which could be useful for therapeutic application.

  18. A genome-wide association study reveals variants in ARL15 that influence adiponectin levels.

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    J Brent Richards

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and coronary heart disease (CHD. We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531 and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 5 additional cohorts (n = 6,202. Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their relationship with adiponectin (P< or =5x10(-8. We then tested whether these 5 SNPs were associated with risk of T2D and CHD using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P< or =0.011 to declare statistical significance for these disease associations. SNPs at the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus demonstrated the strongest associations with adiponectin levels (P-combined = 9.2x10(-19 for lead SNP, rs266717, n = 14,733. A novel variant in the ARL15 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 gene was associated with lower circulating levels of adiponectin (rs4311394-G, P-combined = 2.9x10(-8, n = 14,733. This same risk allele at ARL15 was also associated with a higher risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = 8.5x10(-6, n = 22,421 more nominally, an increased risk of T2D (OR = 1.11, P = 3.2x10(-3, n = 10,128, and several metabolic traits. Expression studies in humans indicated that ARL15 is well-expressed in skeletal muscle. These findings identify a novel protein, ARL15, which influences circulating adiponectin levels and may impact upon CHD risk.

  19. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

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    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice. RESULTS: Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  20. Circulating adiponectin levels in various malignancies: an updated meta-analysis of 107 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tai; Ye, Peng; Peng, Xin; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2016-07-26

    Early detection of cancers is challenging for lack of specific biomarkers. Adiponectin is an adipokine predominantly derived from adipocytes and hypoadiponectinemia has been reported to associate with risk of many types of cancers. However, available evidence is controversial. Some studies show that increased adiponectin levels correlate with cancer risk. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between circulating adiponectin levels and cancer development. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Wiley Online Library and Cochrane Library was conducted for eligible studies involving circulating adiponectin and malignancies from inception to August 8, 2015. Standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by use of a random-effect model. Funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test were conducted to examine the risk of publication bias. 107 studies were included with 19,319 cases and 25,675 controls. The pooled analysis indicated that circulating adiponectin levels were lower in patients with various cancers than in controls, with a pooled SMD of -0.334 μg/ml (95% CI, -0.465 to -0.203, P = 0.000). No evidence of publication bias was observed. Circulating high molecular weight adiponectin levels were also lower in cancer patients than in controls, with a pooled SMD of -0.502 μg/ml (95% CI, -0.957 to -0.047, P = 0.000). This meta-analysis provides further evidence that decreased adiponectin levels is associated with risk of various cancers. Hypoadiponectinemia may represent a useful biomarker for early detection of cancers.

  1. Adiponectin haploinsufficiency promotes mammary tumor development in MMTV-PyVT mice by modulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice B B Lam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipokine possessing beneficial effects on obesity-related medical complications. A negative association of adiponectin levels with breast cancer development has been demonstrated. However, the precise role of adiponectin deficiency in mammary carcinogenesis remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, MMTV-polyomavirus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice with reduced adiponectin expressions were established and the stromal effects of adiponectin haploinsufficiency on mammary tumor development evaluated. In mice from both FVB/N and C57BL/6J backgrounds, insufficient adiponectin production promoted mammary tumor onset and development. A distinctive basal-like subtype of tumors, with a more aggressive phenotype, was derived from adiponectin haplodeficient MMTV-PyVT mice. Comparing with those from control MMTV-PyVT mice, the isolated mammary tumor cells showed enhanced tumor progression in re-implanted nude mice, accelerated proliferation in primary cultures, and hyperactivated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/beta-catenin signaling, which at least partly attributed to the decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN activities. Further analysis revealed that PTEN was inactivated by a redox-regulated mechanism. Increased association of PTEN-thioredoxin complexes was detected in tumors derived from mice with reduced adiponectin levels. The activities of thioredoxin (Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1 were significantly elevated, whereas treatment with either curcumin, an irreversible inhibitor of TrxR1, or adiponectin largely attenuated their activities and resulted in the re-activation of PTEN in these tumor cells. Moreover, adiponectin could inhibit TrxR1 promoter-mediated transcription and restore the mRNA expressions of TrxR1. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin haploinsufficiency facilitated mammary tumorigenesis by down-regulation of PTEN activity and activation of PI3K

  2. The Geometry Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Bárány, Imre; Vilcu, Costin

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents easy-to-understand yet surprising properties obtained using topological, geometric and graph theoretic tools in the areas covered by the Geometry Conference that took place in Mulhouse, France from September 7–11, 2014 in honour of Tudor Zamfirescu on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. The contributions address subjects in convexity and discrete geometry, in distance geometry or with geometrical flavor in combinatorics, graph theory or non-linear analysis. Written by top experts, these papers highlight the close connections between these fields, as well as ties to other domains of geometry and their reciprocal influence. They offer an overview on recent developments in geometry and its border with discrete mathematics, and provide answers to several open questions. The volume addresses a large audience in mathematics, including researchers and graduate students interested in geometry and geometrical problems.

  3. The role of adiponectin in human vascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiopoulos, Aristeidis G; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2012-03-08

    Adiponectin (ApN) is an adipose tissue-derived hormone which is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including energy metabolism, inflammation, and vascular physiology via actions on a broad spectrum of target organs including liver, skeletal muscle, and vascular endothelium. Besides possessing insulin sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties ApN also exerts a pivotal role in vascular protection through activation of multiple intracellular signaling cascades. Enhancement of nitric oxide generation and attenuation of reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells along with reduced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration constitute some of ApN's vasoprotective actions. Additionally, recent data indicate that ApN has direct myocardio-protective effects. Decreased plasma ApN levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis and may serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker as well as a rational pharmaco-therapeutic target to treat these disorders. This review article summarizes recent work on the cardiovascular actions of ApN.

  4. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ

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    Qing-Ming An

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5 of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2 were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3 and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5 and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg. In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits.

  5. Associations of Adiponectin with Individual European Ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

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    Aurelian eBidulescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AA exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA for the African Americans enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS. We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods: Plasma specimens from 1,439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1,447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA.Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years, the median (interquartile range of PEA was 15.8 (9.3%. Body mass index (p = 0.04 and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001 modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03 among non-obese (n = 673 and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1,141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001, but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold effect was detected for non-obese participants.Conclusions: In a large African American population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin

  6. Euclidean geometry and transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Clayton W

    1972-01-01

    This introduction to Euclidean geometry emphasizes transformations, particularly isometries and similarities. Suitable for undergraduate courses, it includes numerous examples, many with detailed answers. 1972 edition.

  7. Revolutions of Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull

  8. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  9. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  10. Three-month treatment with pioglitazone reduces circulating C1q-binding adiponectin complex to total-adiponectin ratio, without changes in body mass index, in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Kishida, Ken; Kobayashi, Hironori; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    We measured circulating C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) levels before and after 3-month treatment with pioglitazone in people with type 2 diabetes. The results indicate 3-month treatment with pioglitazone reduces circulating levels of C1q-APN/total-adiponectin ratio without changes in body mass index.

  11. Ratiometric measurements of adiponectin by mass spectrometry in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus with iron overload reveal an association with insulin resistance and glucagon

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    Benjamin A Neely

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight (HMW adiponectin levels are reduced in humans with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Similar to humans with insulin resistance, managed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus diagnosed with hemochromatosis (iron overload have higher levels of 2 h post-prandial plasma insulin than healthy controls. A parallel reaction monitoring assay for dolphin serum adiponectin was developed based on tryptic peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Using identified post-translational modifications, a differential measurement was constructed. Total and unmodified adiponectin levels were measured in sera from dolphins with (n=4 and without (n=5 iron overload. This measurement yielded total adiponectin levels as well as site specific percent unmodified adiponectin that may inversely correlate with HMW adiponectin. Differences in insulin levels between iron overload cases and controls were observed 2 h post-prandial, but not during the fasting state. Thus, post-prandial as well as fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured to determine whether adiponectin and insulin would follow similar patterns. There was no difference in total adiponectin or percent unmodified adiponectin from case or control fasting animals. There was no difference in post-prandial total adiponectin levels between case and control dolphins (mean ± S.D. at 763 ± 298 and 727 ± 291 pmol/ml, respectively (p = 0.91; however, percent unmodified adiponectin was significantly higher in post-prandial cases compared controls (30.0 ± 6.3 versus 17.0 ± 6.6%, respectively; p = 0.016. Interestingly, both total and percent unmodified adiponectin were correlated with glucagon levels in controls (r = 0.999, p < 0.001, but not in cases, which is possibly a reflection of insulin resistance. Although total adiponectin levels were not significantly different, the elevated percent unmodified adiponectin follows a trend similar to HMW adiponectin reported for humans with

  12. ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphism: Association with adiponectin and lipoproteins levels restricted to men

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    Luciane Viater Tureck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipokine inversely correlated with obesity, which has beneficial effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Considering its potential as a therapeutic target in the metabolic disorder contexts, and in order to add knowledge in the area, our study evaluated the ADIPOQ 276G > T polymorphism effect on adiponectin levels, and on lipoproteins of clinical interest in a population sample composed of 211 healthy individuals. Significant effects were observed only among men: the carriers of heterozygous genotype (GT showed high levels of adiponectin (p = 0.018, while the rare homozygous genotype (TT gave its carriers a negative phenotype, represented by higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005 and total cholesterol (TC (p = 0.010 and p = 0.005 compared to carriers of other genotypes (GG and GT respectively, the independent effect of SNP on LDL-C and TC levels was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (p = 0.008 and p = 0.044. We found no evidence of correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and biochemical markers, which suggests, therefore, an SNP 276G > T independent effect on adiponectin levels and on lipoprotein metabolism in men enrolled in this study.

  13. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  14. Study of Leptin and Adiponectin as Disease Markers in Subjects with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Sana Al Mutairi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Published studies showed conflicting results of the associations between adiponectin and leptin levels and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. In obese patients, plasma leptin is elevated and adiponectin is decreased, and we postulate that these adipokines could be potential markers of clinical and metabolic perturbations in patients with OSA. Methods. 147 patients with suspected OSA had polysomnography to determine the Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI. We measured fasting plasma glucose (FPG, fasting serum insulin, plasma leptin, adiponectin, and full lipid profile. Patients were classified on the basis of the RDI, degree of adiposity, and insulin resistance (IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR. Results. 28.6% of subjects had normal polysomnography, 34.8% had mild OSA, 19.6% had moderate OSA, and 17% had severe OSA. Obesity was more prevalent in subjects with moderate-severe OSA (47%. Adiponectin decreased significantly (P=0.041 with increasing severity of OSA. Though BMI was significantly higher in subjects with severe OSA, paradoxically, leptin was lowest in those subjects independent of gender dimorphism. Conclusions. Adiponectin is an independent marker of disease severity in patients with OSA. The paradoxical decrease in circulating leptin, which suggests impaired secretion, deserves further studies as a potential marker of severe OSA.

  15. Relation of Serum Adiponectin Levels to Number of Traditional Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma...... or nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p...

  16. Preliminary evidence of genetic determinants of adiponectin response to fenofibrate in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein that has been linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and inflammatory patterns. Although fenofibrate therapy can raise adiponectin levels, treatment response is heterogeneous and heritable, suggesting a role f...

  17. The association of circulating adiponectin levels with pancreatic cancer risk : A study within the prospective EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, Verena A.; Rohrmann, Sabine; Dossus, Laure; Nieters, Alexandra; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Stegger, Jakob; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Teucher, Birgit; Becker, Susen; Montonen, Jukka; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Argueelles, Marcial; Duell, Eric J.; Molina-Montes, Esther; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Jeurnink, Suzanne M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Bjoern; Johansen, Dorthe; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Crowe, Francesca L.; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Jenab, Mazda; Romaguera, Dora; Michaud, Dominique S.; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Excess body weight and type 2 diabetes mellitus, risk factors of pancreatic cancer, are characterized by decreased levels of adiponectin. In addition to anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions, adiponectin has an important role in regulating glucose metabolism, i.e., decreasing circulating

  18. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M;

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  19. Serum adiponectin level in obese and non-obese COPD patients during acute exacerbation and stable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mohammad Omar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Serum adiponectin was significantly higher in obese and nonobese COPD than controls, the rising is more during exacerbation than stable condition and more in non obese than obese COPD and non significant correlation between changes in adiponectin and ventilatory functions was found.

  20. The plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio predicts first cardiovascular event in men : A prospective nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van Beek, Andre P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The plasma leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio has been proposed as a preferential marker of atherosclerosis susceptibility compared to leptin and adiponectin alone. We determined the extent to which the L/A ratio predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) taking account of clinical risk f

  1. Adiponectin expression is induced by vitamin E via a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrier, Jean-François; Gouranton, Erwan; El Yazidi, Claire; Malezet, Christiane; Balaguer, Patrick; Borel, Patrick; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe

    2009-12-01

    Adiponectin is a well-known adipokine secreted by adipocytes that presents insulin-sensitizing properties. The regulation of expression of this adipokine by micronutrients is largely unknown. We demonstrate here that adiponectin expression is induced in adipocytes after exposure to tocopherols via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) pathway. Vitamin E force feeding resulted in an induction of adiponectin in mice at both mRNA and protein levels. Adiponectin mRNA and protein secretion were also increased by vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) in 3T3-L1 cells, together with PPARgamma mRNA, independent of an antioxidant effect. In transient transfections, both alpha- and gamma-vitamers induced the luciferase gene reporter under the control of a human adiponectin promoter via a PPAR-responsive element. The induction of adiponectin by tocopherols seems to be PPARgamma dependent, because it was blocked by the specific antagonist GW9662. Finally, we showed that intracellular concentrations of a PPARgamma endogenous ligand, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2, increased after treatment with tocopherols in 3T3-L1 cells. In summary, vitamin E up-regulates adiponectin expression via a mechanism that implicates PPARgamma together with its endogenous ligand 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2. The induction of adiponectin via an original molecular mechanism could be considered as the basis for the beneficial effect of vitamin E on insulin sensitivity.

  2. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability and compares it to…

  3. Supersymmetric Sigma Model geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lindström, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of how sigma models formulated in Superspace have become important tools for understanding geometry. Topics included are: The (hyper)k\\"ahler reduction; projective superspace; the generalized Legendre construction; generalized K\\"ahler geometry and constructions of hyperk\\"ahler metrics on Hermitean symmetric spaces.

  4. Designs and finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  5. Supersymmetric Sigma Model Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Lindström

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of how sigma models formulated in Superspace have become important tools for understanding geometry. Topics included are: The (hyper)k\\"ahler reduction; projective superspace; the generalized Legendre construction; generalized K\\"ahler geometry and constructions of hyperk\\"ahler metrics on Hermitean symmetric spaces.

  6. Geometry of multihadron production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.

  7. Dual doubled geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio; Alvarez-Gaumé, L.

    2011-01-01

    We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes. i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundam

  8. A Lorentzian quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotz, Andreas

    2011-10-07

    In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.

  9. Reference values for serum total adiponectin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2015-01-01

    optimization. RESULTS: In a generalized linear model adjusted for BMI SDS, total serum adiponectin concentrations were correlated to age in girls (psexes combined (psexes was found. Reference intervals were calculated using...... age as a continuous variable. The best fitted reference curve for both sexes was: 50th percentile: Y=-0.1478∗X+6.046; 2.5th percentile: Y=-0.06256∗X+2.34; 97.5th percentile: Y=-0.4086∗X+22.39, where Y=adiponectin in μg/mL and X=years of age (from 6 to 18years). CONCLUSION: We developed a pediatric...... reference levels for total serum adiponectin in a sample of 1193 Danish children and adolescents aged 6-18years. A correlation with age was demonstrated in children, but no significant difference was seen between the sexes....

  10. Elevated levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, H.; Andersen, K.K.; Frystyk, J.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that type 1 diabetic patients have elevated total levels of the adipocyte-derived adipocytokine adiponectin. However, adiponectin circulates in three different subforms, and the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subform is believed to be the primary biologically...... active form. The effects of the medium-molecular-weight (MMW) subform and the low-molecular-weight (LMW) subform are still unresolved. PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of the three molecular subforms of adiponectin in well-characterized groups of type 1 diabetics...... with varying degrees of nephropathy as well as in healthy control subjects. STUDY POPULATION: Two hundred seven individuals were included: 58 type 1 diabetics with normoalbuminuria, 46 with microalbuminuria, 46 with macroalbuminuria, and 57 matched controls. METHODS: The HMW, MMW, and LMW subforms were...

  11. Association of Atherosclerotic Peripheral Arterial Disease with Adiponectin Genes SNP+45 and SNP+276: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Gherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We hypothesized that adiponectin gene SNP+45 (rs2241766 and SNP+276 (rs1501299 would be associated with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Furthermore, the association between circulating adiponectin levels, fetuin-A, and tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease was investigated. Method. Several blood parameters (such as adiponectin, fetuin-A, and TNF-α were measured in 346 patients, 226 with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD and 120 without symptomatic PAD (non-PAD. Two common SNPs of the ADIPOQ gene represented by +45T/G 2 and +276G/T were also investigated. Results. Adiponectin concentrations showed lower circulating levels in the PAD patients compared to non-PAD patients (P0.05. Conclusion. The results of our study demonstrated that neither adiponectin SNP+45 nor SNP+276 is associated with the risk of PAD.

  12. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with C

  13. Association between adiponectin concentrations and diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Xiaohong; Wu Qunhong; Li Yuan; Hao Yanhua; Ning Ning; Kang Zheng; Cui Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have investigated the association between adiponectin concentrations and diabetic retinopathy (DR) caused by type 2 diabetic mellitus.However,the results remain conflicting.We performed a metaanalysis to explore the relationship between adiponectin concentrations and risk of DR caused by type 2 diabetic mellitus from published articles.Methods A published literature search was performed through the PubMed,Cochrane Library,EMBASE,Science Citation Index Expanded database,Chinese CNKI,and Chinese Wan Fang databases for articles published in English and Chinese.Pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% Cls) were calculated using random or fixed effects model.Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochrane Q test and/2 statistics.Results Nineteen studies with a total of 1 545 cases and 1 502 controls were retrieved.The original meta-analysis found a significant difference in the adiponectin concentrations between the DR and non-DR (NDR) groups.After excluding the high heterogeneity studies,the second meta-analysis also demonstrated the significant association (SMD (95% CI) =-0.62 (-0.80 to-0.44),P=0.0001).According to the available data,there was statistical significance in the adiponectin concentrations considering non-proliferative DR (NPDR) versus NDR,PDR versus NPDR in Chinese populations with high heterogeneity.Conclusion Adiponectin concentrations are correlated with DR; however,the relationship between adiponectin concentrations and DR needs more in-depth investigations with larger sample sizes.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide induces a downregulation of adiponectin receptors in-vitro and in-vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipose tissue contributes to the inflammatory response through production of cytokines, recruitment of macrophages and modulation of the adiponectin system. Previous studies have identified a down-regulation of adiponectin in pathologies characterised by acute (sepsis and endotoxaemia and chronic inflammation (obesity and type-II diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that LPS would reduce adiponectin receptor expression in a murine model of endotoxaemia and in adipoocyte and myocyte cell cultures.Methods. 25 mg/kg LPS was injected intra-peritoneally into C57BL/6J mice, equivalent volumes of normal saline were used in control animals. Mice were killed at 4 or 24 h post injection and tissues harvested. Murine adipocytes (3T3-L1 and myocytes (C2C12 were grown in standard culture, treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml–10 µg/ml and harvested at 4 and 24 h. RNA was extracted and qPCR was conducted according to standard protocols and relative expression was calculated.Results. After LPS treatment there was a significant reduction after 4 h in gene expression of adipo R1 in muscle and peri-renal fat and of adipo R2 in liver, peri-renal fat and abdominal wall subcutaneous fat. After 24 h, significant reductions were limited to muscle. Cell culture extracts showed varied changes with reduction in adiponectin and adipo R2 gene expression only in adipocytes.Conclusions. LPS reduced adiponectin receptor gene expression in several tissues including adipocytes. This reflects a down-regulation of this anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising pathway in response to LPS. The trend towards base line after 24 h in tissue depots may reflect counter-regulatory mechanisms. Adiponectin receptor regulation differs in the tissues investigated.

  15. Adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Malgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Malgorzata; Borkowska, Anna; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to examine the associations of these markers with clinical and cognitive parameters. A biochemical evaluation was performed of 62 seniors with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and MCI, and 132 seniors with T2DM but without MCI (controls). Serum leptin and IL-1 β levels were higher and adiponectin concentration was lower in MCI patients than controls. In MCI subjects, adiponectin level was negatively correlated with leptin, IL-1 β levels and BMI. Leptin concentration was correlated with IL-1 β level. Univariate logistic regression models revealed that the factors which increased the likelihood of diagnosis of MCI in elderly patients with T2DM were higher levels of HbA1c, leptin, IL-1 β and triglycerides, as well as lower levels of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol. Similarly, previous CVD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, retinopathy, nephropathy, hypoglycemia, longer duration of diabetes, increased number of co-morbidities, older age, fewer years of formal education were found to be associated with MCI. The multivariable model indicated fewer years of formal education, previous CVD, hypertension, increased number of co-morbidities, higher HbA1c and IL-1 β levels and lower adiponectin level. Elderly diabetic patients with MCI have higher levels of leptin and IL-1 β and lower levels of adiponectin. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the role of these markers in the progression to dementia.

  16. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  17. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors in Human Placenta and Its Possible Implication in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa F. Al Husseini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Similar to obese patients and type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectin levels are reduced in former Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM patients and are lower in GDM women during late pregnancy compared with pregnant control subjects matched for BMI. Diabetic insult at later stages in gestation, such as may occur in gestational diabetes, will foremost lead to short-term changes in a variety of molecules for key functions including gene expression in the placenta. Approach: In this study we assessed the expression of adiponectin receptors in human placenta to identify the site (s of expression and to clarify the effect of gestational diabetes in this expression. This study was carried on 10 normoglycemic pregnant women and 20 GDM women. The placental tissue was collected immediately after delivery and tissue biopsies were taken from both fetal and maternal sides of each placenta. One step-RT-PCR for ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 was done by Real Time PCR using Syber Green technique. Relative quantification of mRNA of the ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes was measured using ABI7900 Real Time machine. Results: Both types of Adiponectin Receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 are expressed in human placenta. ADIPOR1 is more highly expressed than ADIPOR2 in both fetal and maternal sides of GDM cases and normal pregnant women. ADIPOR1 mRNA expression was significantly up regulated in GDM women compared to normal pregnant women, whereas no significant difference in the expression of ADIPOR2 was detected between the two groups. There was no evidence of maternal-fetal side difference in the expression of adiponectin receptors in GDM cases but in normal pregnant women there is a statistically significant difference between both sides in the expression of both ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2. Conclusion: We concluded that adiponectin plays an important role in mediation the glucose metabolism in fetal tissues through its receptors, mainly Adiponectin Receptor 1 (ADIPOR1.

  18. STUDY ON OBESITY RELATED FACTORS: FFA, LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN IN SUBJECTS WITH VARYING GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾卫琼; 洪洁; 张翼飞; 宁光; 陈名道; 唐金凤

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the fasting serum levels of obesity related factors: FFA, leptin and adiponectin in subjects with varying glucose tolerance and their relationship with BMI, insulin sensitivity index and islet beta-cell function. Methods Serum levels of FFA, leptin and adiponectin in 24 normal, 32 simple obese, 34IGT and 36 T2DM subjects were measured by ACS-ACOD assay or RIA. Results The serum levels of leptin and FFA in three groups: simple obese, IGT and DM were much higher than those in normal control (P<0. 001 ). In contrast, serum level of adiponectin of simple obese, IGT and DM groups were significant lower than that of normal control, among them DM subjects had the lowest level ( P<0. 001 ). Correlation analysis showed that FFA was positively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, fasting insulin level and negatively correlated to SI; adiponectin was negatively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, PBG, but positively correlated to SI and AIRg; and leptin was positively correlated to BMI, fasting insulin and AIRg when negatively correlated to FBG and SI. None of them was correlated to age.Conclusion Subjects with insulin resistance have high serum FFA and leptin levels but low serum adiponectin level.With the glucose tolerance deterioration, serum FFA level increases much higher while the adiponectin deceases much lower. Unlike insulin, none of these obesity related factors can be used as the simple indicating or determining factor of SI, though each of them, to different extent, takes part in the development of insulin resistance.

  19. Novel immunomodulatory effects of adiponectin on dendritic cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Julia Yuen Shan; Li, Daxu; Ho, Derek; Peng, Jiao; Xu, Aimin; Lamb, Jonathan; Chen, Yan; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang

    2011-05-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory properties. Although it has been reported that ADN can inhibit the immunostimulatory function of monocytes and macrophages, little is known of its effect on dendritic cells (DC). Recent data suggest that ADN can regulate immune responses. DCs are uniquely specialised antigen presenting cells that play a central role in the initiation of immunity and tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the immuno- modulatory effects of ADN on DC functions. We found that ADN has only moderate effect on the differentiation of murine bone marrow (BM) derived DCs but altered the phenotype of DCs. The expression of major histocompatibilty complex class II (MHCII), CD80 and CD86 on ADN conditioned DCs (ADN-DCs) was lower than that on untreated cells. The production of IL-12p40 was also suppressed in ADN-DCs. Interestingly, ADN treated DCs showed an increase in the expression of the inhibitory molecule, programmed death-1 ligand (PDL-1) compared to untreated cells. In vitro co-culture of ADN-DCs with allogeneic T cells led to a decrease in T cell proliferation and reduction of IL-2 production. Concomitant with that, a higher percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was detected in co-cultures of T cells and ADN-DCs. Blocking PD-1/PDL-1 pathway could partially restore T cell function. These findings suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of ADN on immune responses could be at least partially be mediated by its ability to alter DC function. The PD-1/PDL-1 pathway and the enhancement of Treg expansion are implicated in the immunomodulatory mechanisms.

  20. Adiponectin level in psoriasis and its association with disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Bilgili Tutkun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which pathogenesis has not been completely understood yet. Adiponectin(AN produced by adipocytes has antidiabetic, antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies demonstrated that metabolic syndrome is related with low levels of AN. In literature, a few studies have been found that investigate AN levels in psoriasis. In this study, we purposed to investigate the levels of AN in psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Forty six patients with psoriasis and age and sex matched 40 healthy individuals as a control group were included in our study. Dermatological examinations were performed and psoriasis area severity index (PASI was calculated. In both groups, demographic features were questioned and body mass index were defined. Serum AN and C-reactive protein (CRP levels were determined in both groups and were compared statistically. Results: The mean serum AN levels were numerically lower in patients than in control group, but no significant statistical difference was detected between groups. Serum levels of AN were not found to be associated with age, age at onset of disease and disease duration. It was demonstrated that as levels of CRP increased, levels of AN decreased in psoriasis group. As PASI increased, a significant statistically difference was observed in levels of serum AN levels. No statistical difference was detected between PASI and body mass index. Conclusion Serum levels of AN in psoriasis may be an indicator of comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome. Also it can be used for assessing the severity of disease in psoriasis. But, for assessing the role of AN in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and to clarify this association, studies in different clinical models are needed.

  1. Adiponectin and leptin trajectories in Mexican-American children from birth to 9 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Volberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines, over childhood. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS. We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years. RESULTS: Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 0-2, 2-5, and 5-9-year periods increased for both leptin (r = 0.06, 0.31 and 0.62 and adiponectin (r = 0.25, 0.41 and 0.46. Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable] and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]. While leptin groups were most separated over the 2-9-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR = 1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L. Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to

  2. Adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to examine the associations of these markers with clinical and cognitive parameters. A biochemical evaluation was performed of 62 seniors with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and MCI, and 132 seniors with T2DM but without MCI (controls). Serum leptin and IL-1 β levels were higher and adiponectin concentration was lower in MCI patient...

  3. Effects of pioglitazone on serum leptin and adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome patients with insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of pioglitazone on serum leptin and adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS)patients with insulin resistance(IR).Methods Thirty-five PCOS patients with IR were treated with pioglitazone 15mg/d for 12 weeks.The results of ovulation induction were observed.The changes of fasting plasma glucose(FPG),fasting serum insulin(FINS),serum levels of leptin,adiponectin,follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH),luteinizing hormone(LH),testosterone(T)and blood fat were examined at the ...

  4. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin have similar utility for the identification of insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance (IR and related metabolic disturbances are characterized by low levels of adiponectin. High molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA is considered the active form of adiponectin and a better marker of IR than total adiponectin. The objective of this study is to compare the utility of total adiponectin, HMWA and the HMWA/total adiponectin index (SA index for the identification of IR and related metabolic conditions. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed in a group of ambulatory subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, in Mexico City. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for total, HMWA and the SA index were plotted for the identification of metabolic disturbances. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for the identification of IR were calculated. Results The study included 101 men and 168 women. The areas under the ROC curve for total and HMWA for the identification of IR (0.664 vs. 0.669, P = 0.74, obesity (0.592 vs. 0.610, P = 0.32, hypertriglyceridemia (0.661 vs. 0.671, P = 0.50 and hypoalphalipoproteinemia (0.624 vs. 0.633, P = 0.58 were similar. A total adiponectin level of 8.03 μg/ml was associated with a sensitivity of 57.6%, a specificity of 65.9%, a positive predictive value of 50.0%, a negative predictive value of 72.4%, and an accuracy of 62.7% for the diagnosis of IR. The corresponding figures for a HMWA value of 4.25 μg/dl were 59.6%, 67.1%, 51.8%, 73.7% and 64.2%. The area under the ROC curve of the SA index for the identification of IR was 0.622 [95% CI 0.554-0.691], obesity 0.613 [95% CI 0.536-0.689], hypertriglyceridemia 0.616 [95% CI 0.549-0.683], and hypoalphalipoproteinemia 0.606 [95% CI 0.535-0.677]. Conclusions Total adiponectin, HMWA and the SA index had similar utility for the identification of IR and metabolic disturbances.

  5. Riemann-Finsler Geometry with Applications to Information Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information geometry is a new branch in mathematics, originated from the applications of differential geometry to statistics. In this paper we briefly introduce RiemannFinsler geometry, by which we establish Information Geometry on a much broader base,so that the potential applications of Information Geometry will be beyond statistics.

  6. Serum adiponectin predicts all-cause mortality and end stage renal disease in patients with type I diabetes and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, A.; Tarnow, L.; Frystyk, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin levels are increased in patients with type I diabetes especially in the presence of microangiopathy. Here we determined the predictive value of serum adiponectin levels and 8 adiponectin gene polymorphisms for mortality, cardiovascular events and end-stage renal disease in type I...... predicted end stage renal disease in a covariate-adjusted analysis. Two of eight gene polymorphisms, found in the 878 patients, were associated with increased serum adiponectin levels but none of the polymorphisms were associated with a renal or cardiovascular outcome. These studies show that high serum...... adiponectin levels predict mortality and progression to end stage renal disease in type I diabetic patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...

  7. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kulczycki, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff

  8. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bonola, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This is an excellent historical and mathematical view by a renowned Italian geometer of the geometries that have risen from a rejection of Euclid's parallel postulate. Students, teachers and mathematicians will find here a ready reference source and guide to a field that has now become overwhelmingly important.Non-Euclidean Geometry first examines the various attempts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate-by the Greeks, Arabs, and mathematicians of the Renaissance. Then, ranging through the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it considers the forerunners and founders of non-Euclidean geometry, such

  9. Discrete and computational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Devadoss, Satyan L

    2011-01-01

    Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well a

  10. ALICE Geometry Database

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, J

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE Geometry Database project consists of the development of a set of data structures to store the geometrical information of the ALICE Detector. This Database will be used in Simulation, Reconstruction and Visualisation and will interface with existing CAD systems and Geometrical Modellers.At the present time, we are able to read a complete GEANT3 geometry, to store it in our database and to visualise it. On disk, we store different geometry files in hierarchical fashion, and all the nodes, materials, shapes, configurations and transformations distributed in this tree structure. The present status of the prototype and its future evolution will be presented.

  11. Statistical discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Kosasih, Jusak Sali; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy Permana

    2016-01-01

    Following our earlier work, we construct statistical discrete geometry by applying statistical mechanics to discrete (Regge) gravity. We propose a coarse-graining method for discrete geometry under the assumptions of atomism and background independence. To maintain these assumptions, restrictions are given to the theory by introducing cut-offs, both in ultraviolet and infrared regime. Having a well-defined statistical picture of discrete Regge geometry, we take the infinite degrees of freedom (large n) limit. We argue that the correct limit consistent with the restrictions and the background independence concept is not the continuum limit of statistical mechanics, but the thermodynamical limit.

  12. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  13. STUDY OF SERUM ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC INDIVIDUALS & ITS COR R ELATION WITH BMI AND WAIST HIP RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is not simply an inert storage depot for lipids but an important endocrine organ. It secretes many hormones called Adipocytokines which include Adiponectin , which increase insulin sensitivity , has an ti - inflammatory and anti atherogenic properties. OBJECTIVES: To study serum Adiponectin levels in type II DM individuals and compare the results with healthy controls and also to study the effect of BMI and WHR on serum Adiponectin levels. MATERIALS AND ME THOD: The study was carried out in seventy seven subjects who included 6 healthy male controls and 6 healthy female controls , 30 diabetic males and 35 diabetic female individuals. The healthy controls both male and female of age around 40 to 50 years (+5 years were selected with no history of diabetes or hypertension. The study group were selected of the same age as the control group from the Outpatient Department , Diabetology unit , of our Medical College. Individuals Height , Weight and Waist Hip Ratio we re measured and BMI was calculated with the formula - Weight in Kg/ Height in m². Estimation of serum Adiponectin with Human Adiponectin/Acrp 30 Immunoassay by Solid - phase ELISA which employs – Quantitative Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassay Technique. Plasma Gluc ose by GOD/POD method. RESULTS: The result shows that 1. Males have low levels of Adiponectin when compared to females which is not statistically significant and could be due to androgens like testosterone which inhibits the secretion of Adiponectin from a dipocytes. 2. Comparison of serum Adiponectin levels in type 2 DM subjects and healthy controls shows statistically significant decrease in Serum Adiponectin levels (P Value < 0.05 in type II DM subjects. 3. Negative correlation between serum Adiponectin and WHR and BMI but it is not statistically significant. CONCLUSION : Serum Adiponectin levels are decreased in Type II DM individuals. Adiponectin may be considered as one of the significant novel markers in

  14. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Ying Wang; Hu Liu; Li-Juan Ma; Jian-Ying Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes,which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats,which were fed different diets.Methods:Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular,high-fat,or low-fat diets) for 6 months.The rats were randomly divided into six groups.They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n 10),nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n =14),smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10),smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n =14).A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods.Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air.Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group,serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t =6.932,11.026;all P < 0.001).BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r =-0.751,P =0.012).Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6,t =4.196,3.480;P < 0.01,P =0.001;TNF-α,t =4

  15. Expression of adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in normal colon epithelium and colon cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Kyoko; Tomimoto, Ayako; Endo, Hiroki; Iida, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Michiko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Mawatari, Hironori; Nozaki, Yuichi; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Noriko; Wada, Koichiro; Nagashima, Yoji; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Uozaki, Hitoshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2008-09-01

    Adiponectin is secreted by adipocytes and is a key hormone responsible for insulin sensitization. Recent studies have shown that plasma adiponectin is decreased in patients with breast, endometrial and gastric cancer. However, the effect of adiponectin on colorectal carcinogenesis is controversial. It is now well known that the adiponectin receptor exists in two isoforms, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). We examined the expression of the adiponectin receptors on normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissues in a human study using real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1/AdipoR2, were expressed in normal colon epithelial and colon cancer cells. Furthermore, laser microdissection was performed to confirm our results. These results suggest that adiponectin may exert some effects on normal colon epithelium or colon cancer cells directly through adiponectin receptors. Further studies are required to elucidate the function of the AdipoRs activated by adiponectin and the downstream mechanisms of AdipoRs in colon cancer cells.

  16. Derived logarithmic geometry I

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Sagave; Timo, Schurg; Gabriele, Vezzosi

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop the foundations of logarithmic derived geometry, we introduce a model category of logarithmic simplicial rings and a notion of derived log \\'etale maps and use this to define derived log stacks.

  17. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  18. Geometry and Combinatorics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D.-thesis is somewhere in between continuous and discrete geometry. Chapter 2 treats the geometry of finite point sets in semi-Riemannian hyperquadrics,using a matrix whose entries are a trigonometric function of relative distances in a given point set. The distance...... to the geometry of a simplex in a semi-Riemannian hyperquadric. In chapter 3 we study which finite metric spaces that are realizable in a hyperbolic space in the limit where curvature goes to -∞. We show that such spaces are the so called leaf spaces, the set of degree 1 vertices of weighted trees. We also...... establish results on the limiting geometry of such an isometrically realized leaf space simplex in hyperbolic space, when curvature goes to -∞. Chapter 4 discusses negative type of metric spaces. We give a measure theoretic treatment of this concept and related invariants. The theory developed...

  19. Observer dependent geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Hohmann, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    From general relativity we have learned the principles of general covariance and local Lorentz invariance, which follow from the fact that we consider observables as tensors on a spacetime manifold whose geometry is modeled by a Lorentzian metric. Approaches to quantum gravity, however, hint towards a breaking of these symmetries and the possible existence of more general, non-tensorial geometric structures. Possible implications of these approaches are non-tensorial transformation laws between different observers and an observer-dependent notion of geometry. In this work we review two different frameworks for observer dependent geometries, which may provide hints towards a quantization of gravity and possible explanations for so far unexplained phenomena: Finsler spacetimes and Cartan geometry on observer space. We discuss their definitions, properties and applications to observers, field theories and gravity.

  20. Lectures on Symplectic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Ana Cannas

    2001-01-01

    The goal of these notes is to provide a fast introduction to symplectic geometry for graduate students with some knowledge of differential geometry, de Rham theory and classical Lie groups. This text addresses symplectomorphisms, local forms, contact manifolds, compatible almost complex structures, Kaehler manifolds, hamiltonian mechanics, moment maps, symplectic reduction and symplectic toric manifolds. It contains guided problems, called homework, designed to complement the exposition or extend the reader's understanding. There are by now excellent references on symplectic geometry, a subset of which is in the bibliography of this book. However, the most efficient introduction to a subject is often a short elementary treatment, and these notes attempt to serve that purpose. This text provides a taste of areas of current research and will prepare the reader to explore recent papers and extensive books on symplectic geometry where the pace is much faster. For this reprint numerous corrections and cl...

  1. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  2. Elementary differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pressley, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Curves and surfaces are objects that everyone can see, and many of the questions that can be asked about them are natural and easily understood Differential geometry is concerned with the precise mathematical formulation of some of these questions, and with trying to answer them using calculus techniques It is a subject that contains some of the most beautiful and profound results in mathematics yet many of these are accessible to higher-level undergraduates Elementary Differential Geometry presents the main results in the differential geometry of curves and surfaces while keeping the prerequisites to an absolute minimum Nothing more than first courses in linear algebra and multivariate calculus are required, and the most direct and straightforward approach is used at all times Numerous diagrams illustrate both the ideas in the text and the examples of curves and surfaces discussed there The book will provide an invaluable resource to all those taking a first course in differential geometry, for their lecture...

  3. Implosions and hypertoric geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dancer, A.; Kirwan, F.; Swann, A.

    2013-01-01

    The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion.......The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion....

  4. Higher prequantum geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Urs

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of motivations, constructions and applications of higher prequantum geometry. In section 1 we highlight the open problem of prequantizing local field theory in a local and gauge invariant way, and we survey how a solution to this problem exists in higher differential geometry. In section 2 we survey examples and problems of interest. In section 3 we survey the abstract cohesive homotopy theory that serves to make all this precise and tractable.

  5. Brans-Dicke geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R

    2008-01-01

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying omega-->0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking constrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  6. Brans-Dicke geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Raffaele [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: raffaele.punzi@desy.de; Schuller, Frederic P. [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail: fps@aei.mpg.de; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R. [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.de

    2008-12-11

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying {omega}{yields}0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking contrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  7. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  8. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Combination on Plasma Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Patients with Dyslipidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study examined whether the increase of adiponectin associated with extended-release (ER niacin/laropiprant combination attenuates the adverse effect of niacin on glucose and insulin resistance in Hong Kong Chinese patients with dyslipidaemia. Methods. Patients (N=121 were treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1 g/20 mg for 4 weeks and then the dose was doubled for an additional 8 weeks. Measurements of fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were performed at baseline and during the study. Results. There were significant (P<0.001 increases in glucose (9.4 ± 13.1%, insulin (70.2 ± 91.0%, HOMA-IR (87.8 ± 103.9%, and adiponectin (169.3 ± 111.6%. The increase in adiponectin was significantly associated with increase in glucose (r=0.221, P<0.05, insulin (r=0.184, P<0.05, and HOMA-IR (r=0.237, P<0.01 and the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in body weight or body fat mass. Conclusion. Treatment with ER niacin/laropiprant led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels but worsening of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and the increase in adiponectin and insulin resistance were correlated suggesting the increase in adiponectin did not ameliorate the deterioration in insulin resistance. Clinical trial is registered with number on WHO-ICTRP: ChiCTR-ONC-10001038.

  9. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Combination on Plasma Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Patients with Dyslipidaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ling; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether the increase of adiponectin associated with extended-release (ER) niacin/laropiprant combination attenuates the adverse effect of niacin on glucose and insulin resistance in Hong Kong Chinese patients with dyslipidaemia. Methods. Patients (N = 121) were treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1 g/20 mg for 4 weeks and then the dose was doubled for an additional 8 weeks. Measurements of fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were performed at baseline and during the study. Results. There were significant (P < 0.001) increases in glucose (9.4 ± 13.1%), insulin (70.2 ± 91.0%), HOMA-IR (87.8 ± 103.9%), and adiponectin (169.3 ± 111.6%). The increase in adiponectin was significantly associated with increase in glucose (r = 0.221, P < 0.05), insulin (r = 0.184, P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.237, P < 0.01) and the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in body weight or body fat mass. Conclusion. Treatment with ER niacin/laropiprant led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels but worsening of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and the increase in adiponectin and insulin resistance were correlated suggesting the increase in adiponectin did not ameliorate the deterioration in insulin resistance. Clinical trial is registered with number on WHO-ICTRP: ChiCTR-ONC-10001038. PMID:26063948

  10. Adiponectin is associated with cardiovascular disease in male renal transplant recipients: baseline results from the LANDMARK 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudge David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is a major adipocyte-derived protein with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. Adiponectin levels correlate inversely with renal function and higher levels are predictive of lower cardiovascular disease (CVD in patients with normal renal function and chronic kidney disease. No data exists on the association between adiponectin and CVD in renal transplant recipients (RTR. Methods Standard biochemistry, clinical data and adiponectin were collected from 137 RTR recruited to the LANDMARK 2 study at baseline. The LANDMARK 2 study is an ongoing randomized controlled study that compares the outcome of aggressive risk factor modification for cardiovascular disease versus standard post-transplant care in renal transplant recipients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus. Results Mean patient age was 53.4 ± 12 years and the median post-transplantation period was 5 (0.5-31.9 years. Mean serum adiponectin level was 12.3 ± 7.1 μg/mL. On univariate analysis, adiponectin was positively associated with female gender (P = 0.01 and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (P Conclusion In conclusion, adiponectin is positively correlated with inflammation, dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance in RTR. Furthermore, hypoadiponectinemia correlated with increased baseline CVD in male RTR.

  11. Inverse Correlation between Adiponectin and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-aged Japanese Male Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki,Motonobu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a close association between adiponectin and both hypertension and type 2 diabetes, the relationship between adiponectin and metabolic syndrome has not yet been well-investigated. To examine and evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome based on Japanese diagnostic criteria, we analyzed adiponectin and anthropometric parameters in 869 male employees aged 40-59 who belonged to a health insurance society in Fukuoka Prefecture and who underwent annual health check-ups from August 2006 to July 2007. Two hundred and thirty-two of the 869 subjects (26.7% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The serum adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the non-metabolic syndrome group. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the top quartile of serum adiponectin (adjusted odds ratio:0.36;95% confidence interval:0.21-0.63 and the second (adjusted odds ratio:0.51;95% confidence interval:0.31-0.84 quartile had a significantly decreased risk for metabolic syndrome in comparison to the bottom quartile. The dose-response relationship between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome was significant (p for trend 0.0001 after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, and drinking status. The current findings suggest that hypoadiponectinemia is inversely correlated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese male workers.

  12. Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulidou, Anastasia; Roumeliotis, Athanasios; Roumeliotis, Stefanos; Giannakopoulou, Efstathia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Passadakis, Ploumis; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Vargemezis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We sought to determine the association between levels of adiponectin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in patients with diabetic nephropathy as well as their effect on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods. Adiponectin and ox-LDL were determined in 25 diabetic patients without nephropathy and 94 patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy including subjects on hemodialysis. cIMT was measured using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Results. Plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly with severity of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.002), on the contrary to ox-LDL which decreased with disease severity (P < 0.001). cIMT was significantly higher at late stages of diabetic nephropathy compared with early stages (P = 0.022). Adiponectin was a significant negative predictor of ox-LDL levels (β = −5.45, P = 0.023), independently of confounding factors. There was no significant correlation between cIMT and adiponectin or ox-LDL either in the total sample population or according to disease staging. Cluster analysis showed that patients with the highest cIMT values, highest levels of adiponectin, and lowest levels of ox-LDL were included in one cluster and all assigned to stage 5 of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions. There was no significant association between adiponectin or ox-LDL and cIMT and, therefore, other factors affecting this surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease in diabetic nephropathy should be sought. PMID:26064982

  13. Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tavridou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. We sought to determine the association between levels of adiponectin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL in patients with diabetic nephropathy as well as their effect on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT. Methods. Adiponectin and ox-LDL were determined in 25 diabetic patients without nephropathy and 94 patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy including subjects on hemodialysis. cIMT was measured using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Results. Plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly with severity of diabetic nephropathy (P=0.002, on the contrary to ox-LDL which decreased with disease severity (P<0.001. cIMT was significantly higher at late stages of diabetic nephropathy compared with early stages (P=0.022. Adiponectin was a significant negative predictor of ox-LDL levels (β=-5.45, P=0.023, independently of confounding factors. There was no significant correlation between cIMT and adiponectin or ox-LDL either in the total sample population or according to disease staging. Cluster analysis showed that patients with the highest cIMT values, highest levels of adiponectin, and lowest levels of ox-LDL were included in one cluster and all assigned to stage 5 of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions. There was no significant association between adiponectin or ox-LDL and cIMT and, therefore, other factors affecting this surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease in diabetic nephropathy should be sought.

  14. Effects of Simvastatin on adiponectin and endothelial function in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Liu; Donghua Yin; Ming Gui; Kejiang Cao

    2009-01-01

    0bjective:To investigate the effects of simvastatin,a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A(HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor,on adiponectin and markers of endothelial function in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice at an early stage of atherosclerosis.Methods:Twenty-four 6-week old male apoE-deficient mice were randomly divided into two groups:control group(normal saline) and treatment group[simvastatin(5 mg/(kg·d)].Simvastatin was administered to treatment group mice by gavage and the same volume of normal saline was administered to control group mice by the same method for 4 weeks.Total cholesterol(TC),superoxide dismutase(SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA),and nitric oxide(NO) were measured by biochemical analysis,and adiponectin was measured by an ABC-ELISA method.Results:There was no significant difference in serum TC between control and treatment groups.Compared with the control animals,simvastafin-treated animals exhibited a significant increase in serurn levels of adponectin,SOD and NO,and decrease in serum MDA(P <0.01).Conclusion:Simvastatin protects endothelial function by increasing serum adiponectin,which may increase serum SOD and NO,and decrease serum MDA.This study suggests that sirnvastatin has therapeutic advantages,unrelated to its cholesterol-lowering effect,that are mediated by adiponectin.

  15. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  16. Total Adiponectin and Risk of Symptomatic Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Joshipura, Kaumudi J.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Bertoia, Monica L.; Rimm, Eric B.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective-Lower concentrations of adiponectin have been linked to subsequent risk of coronary heart disease in healthy individuals. Whether similar relationships exist for the development of systemic atherosclerosis, such as peripheral artery disease (PAD), is uncertain. We investigated the associat

  17. New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Nigro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”, on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  18. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: The Look AHEAD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. ...

  19. Adiponectin deficiency enhances colorectal carcinogenesis and liver tumor formation induced by azoxymethane in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamao Nishihara; Shinji Tamura; Norio Hayashi; Hiroyasu Iishi; Iichiro Shimornura; Miyako Baba; Morihiro Matsuda; Masahiro Inoue; Yasuko Nishizawa; Atsunori Fukuhara; Hiroshi Arald; Shinji Kihara; Tohru Funahashi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the causal relationship between hypoadiponectinemia and colorectal carcinogenesis in in vivo experimental model, and to determine the con-tribution of adiponectin deficiency to colorectal cancer development and proliferation. METHODS: We examined the influence of adiponectin deficiency on colorectal carcinogenesis induced by the administration of azoxymethane (AOM) (7.5 mg/kg, in-traperitoneal injection once a week for 8 wk), by using adiponectin-knockout (KO) mice. RESULTS: At 53 wk after the first AOM treatment, KOmice developed larger and histologically more progres-sive colorectal tumors with greater frequency com-pared with wild-type (WT) mice, although the tumor incidence was not different between WT and KO mice. KO mice showed increased cell proliferation of colorec-tal tumor cells, which correlated with the expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the colorectal tumors. In addition, KO mice showed higher incidence and frequency of liver tumors after AOI treatment. Thirteen percent of WT mice developed liver tumors, and these WT mice had only a single tumor. In contrast, 50% of K.O mice developed liver tumors, and 58% of these KO mice had multiple tumors. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin deficiency enhances colorectal carcinogenesis and liver tumor formation induced by AOM in mice. This study strongly suggests that hypoadiponectinemia could be involved in the pathogenesis for colorectal cancer and liver tumor in human subjects.

  20. Serum resistin and adiponectin concentrations in patients with overweight and obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rong; LI Xiao-ping; ZHAO Yan

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the serum levels of resistin and adiponectin in patients with overweight and obesity. Methods: Fifty-eight cases with normal weight and 24 patients with overweight and obesity have taken fasting blood samples for measurements of plasma glucose, plasma lipids, insulin, C-peptide,thyroid hormones, C-response protein, interleukin-6, TNF-α, leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Results:The concentrations of resistin in cases with overweight and obesity were significant higher than those in the normal weight cases (16.01± 8. 60 vs 11. 63+ 9. 05 ng/ml, P = 0. 047). Pearson relation analysis showed that serum resistin concentrations were positively correlated with age (r= 0. 476, P= 0. 019), but negatively correlated with C-peptide (r=- 0.45, P = 0. 024), and adiponectin concentrations were positively correlated with HDL-c (r=0. 463, P=0. 023) and systolic blood pressure (r=0. 409, P=0. 047) in overweight and obesity cases. Conclusion: The concentrations of resistin in cases with over-weight and obesity are higher, and there is no correlation between resistin and blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin,while the serum adiponectin concentrations positively correlated with HDL-c and systolic blood pressure.

  1. Characterization of the Expression of CTRP9, a Paralog of Adiponectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ziwen; CUI Ting; LIU Jing; ZHUANG Yuan; MENG Qinghang; TAO Litao; LI Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the hormones secreted exclusively by the adipose tissue with anti-diabetic,anti-inflammatory,anti-atherogenic,anti-atherosclerotic,and insulin-sensitizing effects.Adiponectin has structural features including a signal peptide at the N terminus,a short variable region,a collagenous domain,and a C-terminal globular domain homologous to Clq.The family of proteins containing this globular domain is called the Clq/tumor necrosis factor-α-related proteins (CTRP).Among all the CTRPs characterized so far,the CTRP9 protein has the highest homology to adiponectin.However,little is known about the functions of CTRP9.This study examines the tissue expression of CTRP9 as well as the ex-pression of CTRP9 during mouse development and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.The effects of LPS,TNFα,and starvation on the expression of CTRP9 were also investigated.CTRP9 mRNA is shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues including the adipose tissues.The expression profile of CTRP9 dif-fers from that of adiponectin,implying that they are functionally diverse although structurally homologous.

  2. Adiponectin: a biomarker of obesity-induced insulin resistance in adipose tissue and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Ying; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chang, Lin-Chau; Huang, Ying-Shing; Chi, Yu-Chiao; Su, Ta-Chan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2008-09-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most thoroughly studied adipocytokines. Low plasma levels of adiponectin are found to associate with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and many other human diseases. From animal experiments and human studies, adiponectin has been shown to be a key regulator of insulin sensitivity. In this article, we review the evidence and propose that hypo-adiponectinemia is not a major cause of obesity. Instead, it is the result of obesity-induced insulin resistance in the adipose tissue. Hypo-adiponectinemia then mediates the metabolic effects of obesity on the other peripheral tissues, such as liver and skeletal muscle and may also exert some direct effects on end-organ damage. We propose that deciphering the molecular details governing the adiponectin gene expression and protein secretion will lead us to more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of insulin resistance in the adipose tissue and provide us new avenues for the therapeutic intervention of obesity and insulin resistance-related human disorders.

  3. Evaluation of body weight, insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Aysegul; Bilgici, Birsen; Ecemis, Gulcin Cengiz; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan

    2013-12-01

    The effects of hyperprolactinemia on metabolic parameters are not clear and a few data evaluating adiponectin levels in prolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperprolactinemia on body weight, insulin resistance, beta cell function, and leptin and adiponectin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinemia. Forty premenopausal women with prolactinoma or idiopathic hyperprolactinemia were compared to 41 age-matched healthy premenopausal women with regard to body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio, fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index, beta cell function measured by HOMA-β index, leptin and adiponectin levels. Plasma insulin levels and HOMA indexes (both insulin resistance and beta indexes) were significantly higher in hyperprolactinemic women. The other parameters were similar between both groups. There was a positive correlation between prolactin levels and fasting plasma glucose in hyperprolactinemic women. The results of this study showed that high prolactin levels may be associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. This effect seems to be independent of body weight, leptin and adiponectin levels. High prolactin levels may directly stimulate insulin secretion from pancreas and directly cause hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance.

  4. Adiponectin and leptin induce VCAM-1 expression in human and murine chondrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Conde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, the most common rheumatic diseases, are characterized by irreversible degeneration of the joint tissues. There are several factors involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases including pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and adhesion molecules. OBJECTIVE: Up to now, the relationship between adipokines and adhesion molecules at cartilage level was not explored. Thus, the aim of this article was to study the effect of leptin and adiponectin on the expression of VCAM-1 in human and murine chondrocytes. For completeness, intracellular signal transduction pathway was also explored. METHODS: VCAM-1 expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis upon treatment with leptin, adiponectin and other pertinent reagents in cultured human primary chondrocytes. Signal transduction pathways have been explored by using specific pharmacological inhibitors in the adipokine-stimulated human primary chondrocytes and ATDC5 murine chondrocyte cell line. RESULTS: Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that leptin and adiponectin increase VCAM-1 expression in human and murine chondrocytes. In addition, both adipokines have additive effect with IL-1β. Finally, we demonstrate that several kinases, including JAK2, PI3K and AMPK are at a play in the intracellular signalling of VCAM-1 induction. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that leptin and adiponectin could perpetuate cartilage-degrading processes by inducing also factors responsible of leukocyte and monocyte infiltration at inflamed joints.

  5. Leptin, not adiponectin, predicts hypertension in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Flyvbjerg, Allan;

    2010-01-01

    blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fibrinogen, and glucose, and with leptin and adiponectin included...

  6. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Timpson, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European an...

  7. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Patel, H.; Ouchi, N.; Kihara, S.; Funahashi, T.; Heine, R.J.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumers have enhanced insulin sensitivity and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, has been found to be negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with insulin sens

  8. Adiponectin Potentially Contributes to the Antidepressive Effects of Baduanjin Qigong Exercise in Women With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessie S M; Li, Ang; Ng, Siu-Man; Ho, Rainbow T H; Xu, Aimin; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Wang, Xiao-Min; So, Kwok-Fai; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-03-13

    Our recent study demonstrates that adiponectin signaling plays a significant role in mediating physical exercise-exerted effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepression in mice. Whether the findings can be translated to humans remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on adiponectin and to evaluate whether adiponectin is involved in the antidepressive effects of Qigong exercise on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like illness. This is a randomized, waitlist-controlled trial. One hundred eight female participants were randomly assigned to either Qigong exercise or waitlist groups. Sixteen 1.5-h Qigong lessons were conducted. Outcome measures were taken at three time points. Baseline adiponectin levels were negatively associated with body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist/hip ratio in women with CFS-like illness. Compared with the waitlist control, Qigong exercise significantly reduced anxiety and depression symptoms and significantly raised plasma adiponectin levels (median = 0.8 vs. -0.1, p Qigong exercise were associated with decreases in depression scores for the Qigong group (r = -0.38, p = 0.04). Moreover, adjusted linear regression analysis further identified Qigong exercise and change in adiponectin levels as the significant factors accounting for reduction of depression symptoms. Baduanjin Qigong significantly increased adiponectin levels in females with CFS-like illness. Decreases in depression symptoms were associated with increases in adiponectin levels following Qigong exercise, indicating that the potential contribution of adiponectin to Qigong exercise elicited antidepressive effects in human subjects.

  9. Serum Level of Adiponectin and Its Association with Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Iranian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is a protein produced exclusively by adipose tissue; the reduced level of which has been shown to be involved in a variety of obesity-related disorders, such as insulin resistance and diabetes, in different ethnic groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine adiponectin level and its association with insulin sensitivity in 20 adult overweight type-2 diabetic and 20 healthy over-weight non-diabetic Iranian men for the first time. Methods: Body fat mass (Bio-electric impedance, serum level of adiponectin (ELISA, fasting blood sugar and fasting insulin were measured. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using QUICKI. Results: As expected, the mean adiponectin concentration was lower in diabetics (7.7 ±3µg/ml than non-diabetics (8.1 ± 2µg/ml; however, the difference did not achieve statistical significance (P= 0.5. Adiponectin negatively correlated with fat mass. This correlation was stronger in diabetics with a higher fat mass (r= -0.3 in diabetics vs. r= -0.01 in non-diabetics; p: N.S.. Adiponectin positively related with insulin sensitivity in both groups, although this relation was only statistically significant in non-diabetics (r= +0.5; P= 0.04. The relation between insulin sensitivity and mean of adiponectin level was marginally significant even after adjustment for group (diabetic and non-diabetic, age and fat mass. Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the studies on different ethnic groups which have indicated lower adiponectin levels in diabetics. Also our results confirm the relationship between a low adiponectin level and insulin sensitivity reported in earlier studies.

  10. The Role of Adiponectin in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Meng; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, De-Zong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Published results suggests that high adiponectin level may decrease the risk of breast cancer. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. Therefore a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between blood adiponectin and breast cancer risk. PubMed database, Web of Science, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to March 2013. Meta-analysis was performed on the combined effect values (OR) as well as standardized mean difference (SMD) including 17 studies. Fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected on the basis of homogeneity test among studies. The publication bias was assessed by the Egger’s regression asymmetry test and Begg’s rank correlation test with Begg’s funnel plot. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A total of 13 studies involving 3578 breast cancer cases and 4363 controls contributed to the OR analysis. The high adiponectin level did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.773–1.053). After excluding articles that were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, the OR of high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.744–0.943). There was a significantly association between high adiponectin level and postmenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.752, 95%CI=0.604-0.936); and it was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.638-1.256). The result of pooled measure on SMD was that the high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (SMD= -0.348, 95% CI= -0.533--0.614) after excluding articles which were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that high adiponectin level might decrease the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with

  11. The role of adiponectin in breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yuan Liu

    Full Text Available Published results suggests that high adiponectin level may decrease the risk of breast cancer. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. Therefore a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between blood adiponectin and breast cancer risk. PubMed database, Web of Science, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to March 2013. Meta-analysis was performed on the combined effect values (OR as well as standardized mean difference (SMD including 17 studies. Fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected on the basis of homogeneity test among studies. The publication bias was assessed by the Egger's regression asymmetry test and Begg's rank correlation test with Begg's funnel plot. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A total of 13 studies involving 3578 breast cancer cases and 4363 controls contributed to the OR analysis. The high adiponectin level did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.773-1.053. After excluding articles that were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, the OR of high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.744-0.943. There was a significantly association between high adiponectin level and postmenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.752, 95%CI=0.604-0.936; and it was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.638-1.256. The result of pooled measure on SMD was that the high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (SMD= -0.348, 95% CI= -0.533--0.614 after excluding articles which were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that high adiponectin level might decrease the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with

  12. Adiponectin is protective against oxidative stress induced cytotoxicity in amyloid-beta neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ho Chan

    Full Text Available Beta-amyloid (Aβ neurotoxicity is important in Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis. Aβ neurotoxicity causes oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial damage resulting in neuronal degeneration and death. Oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial failure are also pathophysiological mechanisms of type 2 diabetes (T(2DM which is characterized by insulin resistance. Interestingly, T(2DM increases risk to develop AD which is associated with reduced neuronal insulin sensitivity (central insulin resistance. We studied the potential protective effect of adiponectin (an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties against Aβ neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y transfected with the Swedish amyloid precursor protein (Sw-APP mutant, which overproduced Aβ with abnormal intracellular Aβ accumulation. Cytotoxicity was measured by assay for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released upon cell death and lysis. Our results revealed that Sw-APP transfected SH-SY5Y cells expressed both adiponectin receptor 1 and 2, and had increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation compared to control empty-vector transfected SH-SY5Y cells. Importantly, adiponectin at physiological concentration of 10 µg/ml protected Sw-APP transfected SH-SY5Y cells against cytotoxicity under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. This neuroprotective action of adiponectin against Aβ neurotoxicity-induced cytotoxicity under oxidative stress involved 1 AMPK activation mediated via the endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 (adaptor protein with phosphotyrosine binding, pleckstrin homology domains and leucine zipper motif and possibly 2 suppression of NF-κB activation. This raises the possibility of novel therapies for AD such as adiponectin receptor agonists.

  13. Role of adiponectin and leptin on body development in infants during the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparoni Antonella

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of growth and nutritional status in the foetus and neonate is a complex mechanism, in which also hormones produced by adipose tissue, such as adiponectin and leptin are involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin in appropriate (AGA and small for gestational age (SGA children during the 1st year of life and to correlate these with auxological parameters. Methods In 33 AGA and 29 SGA infants, weight, length, head circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels were evaluated at the second day of life, and at one, six and twelve months, during which a portion of SGA could show catch-up growth (rapid growth in infants born small for their gestational age. Results Both total and isoform adiponectin levels were comparable between AGA and SGA infants at birth and until age one year. These levels significantly increased from birth to the first month of life and then decreased to lower values at 1 year of age in all subjects. Circulating leptin concentrations were higher in AGA (2.1 ± 4.1 ng/ml than in SGA neonates (0.88 ± 1.03 ng/ml, p st and the 6th month of age, but they increased in SGA from six months to one year, when they showed catch-up growth. Circulating insulin levels were not statistically different in AGA and SGA neonates at any study time point. Insulin levels in both AGA and SGA infants increased over the study period, and were significantly lower at birth compared to one, six and 12 months of age. Conclusions During the first year of life, in both AGA and SGA infants a progressive decrease in adiponectin levels was observed, while a difference in leptin values was correlated with the nutritional status.

  14. Control of whole heart geometry by intramyocardial mechano-feedback: a model study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Arts

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Geometry of the heart adapts to mechanical load, imposed by pressures and volumes of the cavities. We regarded preservation of cardiac geometry as a homeostatic control system. The control loop was simulated by a chain of models, starting with geometry of the cardiac walls, sequentially simulating circulation hemodynamics, myofiber stress and strain in the walls, transfer of mechano-sensed signals to structural changes of the myocardium, and finalized by calculation of resulting changes in cardiac wall geometry. Instead of modeling detailed mechano-transductive pathways and their interconnections, we used principles of control theory to find optimal transfer functions, representing the overall biological responses to mechanical signals. As biological responses we regarded tissue mass, extent of contractile myocyte structure and extent of the extra-cellular matrix. Mechano-structural stimulus-response characteristics were considered to be the same for atrial and ventricular tissue. Simulation of adaptation to self-generated hemodynamic load rendered physiologic geometry of all cardiac cavities automatically. Adaptation of geometry to chronic hypertension and volume load appeared also physiologic. Different combinations of mechano-sensors satisfied the condition that control of geometry is stable. Thus, we expect that for various species, evolution may have selected different solutions for mechano-adaptation.

  15. Cardiac tamponade (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac tamponade is a condition involving compression of the heart caused by blood or fluid accumulation in the space ... they cannot adequately fill or pump blood. Cardiac tamponade is an emergency condition that requires hospitalization.

  16. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  17. Geometry of hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cecil, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    This exposition provides the state-of-the art on the differential geometry of hypersurfaces in real, complex, and quaternionic space forms. Special emphasis is placed on isoparametric and Dupin hypersurfaces in real space forms as well as Hopf hypersurfaces in complex space forms. The book is accessible to a reader who has completed a one-year graduate course in differential geometry. The text, including open problems and an extensive list of references, is an excellent resource for researchers in this area. Geometry of Hypersurfaces begins with the basic theory of submanifolds in real space forms. Topics include shape operators, principal curvatures and foliations, tubes and parallel hypersurfaces, curvature spheres and focal submanifolds. The focus then turns to the theory of isoparametric hypersurfaces in spheres. Important examples and classification results are given, including the construction of isoparametric hypersurfaces based on representations of Clifford algebras. An in-depth treatment of Dupin hy...

  18. Integral Geometry and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-01-01

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we...

  19. Lectures on discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...

  20. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  1. Supersymmetry and noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Beenakker, Wim; Suijlekom, Walter D van

    2016-01-01

    In this work the question whether noncommutative geometry allows for supersymmetric theories is addressed. Noncommutative geometry has seen remarkable applications in high energy physics, viz. the geometrical interpretation of the Standard Model, however such a question has not been answered in a conclusive way so far. The book starts with a systematic analysis of the possibilities for so-called almost-commutative geometries on a 4-dimensional, flat background to exhibit not only a particle content that is eligible for supersymmetry, but also have a supersymmetric action. An approach is proposed in which the basic `building blocks' of potentially supersymmetric theories and the demands for their action to be supersymmetric are identified. It is then described how a novel kind of soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian arises naturally from the spectral action. Finally, the above formalism is applied to explore the existence of a noncommutative version of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. This book is ...

  2. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  3. Students Discovering Spherical Geometry Using Dynamic Geometry Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…

  4. Geometry and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi

  5. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  6. A programmer's geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, Adrian

    1983-01-01

    A Programmer's Geometry provides a guide in programming geometric shapes. The book presents formulas and examples of computer representation and coding of geometry. Each of the nine chapters of the text deals with the representation and solution of a specific geometrical problem, such as areas, vectors, and volumes. The last chapter provides a brief discussion on generating image through a computer. The codes presented in the book are written in FORTRAN 77. The text will be of great use to programmers who are working on projects that involve geometric calculations.

  7. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  8. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

  9. Study of changes in adiponectin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of berberis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Hemmati

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous extract of barberry is effective in reducing triglyceride and FBS. An increased level of adiponectin due to using barberry extract can play a role in the regulation of lipid profile in diabetes.

  10. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on plasma acylation stimulating protein, leptin, and adiponectin: Relationships with metabolic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity were determined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty two over...

  11. Study of Adiponectin Level in Diabetic Adolescent Girls in Relation to Glycemic Control and Complication of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha M. Abd El Dayem

    2015-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Serum adiponectin level is high in adolescent type 1 diabetic girls. It can be used as a predictor of diabetes complications rather than a sensitive biochemical marker for glycemic control.

  12. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  13. Spacetime and Euclidean Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, D R; Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the "spacetime Pythagoras theorem".

  14. Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-04-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

  15. Towards a Nano Geometry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies I.M. Gelfand's distinction between adequate and non-adequate use of mathematical language in different contexts to the newly opened window of model-based measurements of intracellular dynamics. The specifics of geometry and dynamics on the mesoscale of cell physiology are elabo...

  16. Universal correlators from geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Korteweg-de Vries Institute for Mathematics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Temuerhan, Mine; Sinkovics, Annamaria [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: sinkovic@science.uva.nl

    2004-11-01

    Matrix model correlators show universal behaviour at short distances. We provide a derivation for these universal correlators by inserting probe branes in the underlying effective geometry. We generalize these results to study correlators of branes and their universal behaviour in the Calabi-Yau crystals, where we find a role for a generalized brane insertion. (author)

  17. Universal Correlators from Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Temurhan, Mine

    2004-11-01

    Matrix model correlators show universal behaviour at short distances. We provide a derivation for these universal correlators by inserting probe branes in the underlying effective geometry. We generalize these results to study correlators of branes and their universal behaviour in the Calabi-Yau crystals, where we find a role for a generalized brane insertion.

  18. Universal Correlators from Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Temurhan, M; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Temurhan, Mine

    2004-01-01

    Matrix model correlators show universal behaviour at short distances. We provide a derivation for these universal correlators by inserting probe branes in the underlying effective geometry. We generalize these results to study correlators of branes and their universal behaviour in the Calabi-Yau crystals, where we find a role for a generalized brane insertion.

  19. Geometry and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyah, Michael; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Hitchin, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    We review the remarkably fruitful interactions between mathematics and quantum physics in the past decades, pointing out some general trends and highlighting several examples, such as the counting of curves in algebraic geometry, invariants of knots and four-dimensional topology. PMID:20123740

  20. Origami, Geometry and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…

  1. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  2. Emergent Hyperbolic Network Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    A large variety of interacting complex systems are characterized by interactions occurring between more than two nodes. These systems are described by simplicial complexes. Simplicial complexes are formed by simplices (nodes, links, triangles, tetrahedra etc.) that have a natural geometric interpretation. As such simplicial complexes are widely used in quantum gravity approaches that involve a discretization of spacetime. Here, by extending our knowledge of growing complex networks to growing simplicial complexes we investigate the nature of the emergent geometry of complex networks and explore whether this geometry is hyperbolic. Specifically we show that an hyperbolic network geometry emerges spontaneously from models of growing simplicial complexes that are purely combinatorial. The statistical and geometrical properties of the growing simplicial complexes strongly depend on their dimensionality and display the major universal properties of real complex networks (scale-free degree distribution, small-world and communities) at the same time. Interestingly, when the network dynamics includes an heterogeneous fitness of the faces, the growing simplicial complex can undergo phase transitions that are reflected by relevant changes in the network geometry.

  3. Geometry Euclid and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hartshorne, Robin

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, I have been teaching a junior-senior-level course on the classi­ cal geometries. This book has grown out of that teaching experience. I assume only high-school geometry and some abstract algebra. The course begins in Chapter 1 with a critical examination of Euclid's Elements. Students are expected to read concurrently Books I-IV of Euclid's text, which must be obtained sepa­ rately. The remainder of the book is an exploration of questions that arise natu­ rally from this reading, together with their modern answers. To shore up the foundations we use Hilbert's axioms. The Cartesian plane over a field provides an analytic model of the theory, and conversely, we see that one can introduce coordinates into an abstract geometry. The theory of area is analyzed by cutting figures into triangles. The algebra of field extensions provides a method for deciding which geometrical constructions are possible. The investigation of the parallel postulate leads to the various non-Euclidean geometries. And ...

  4. Advanced geometries and regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S. [Univeristy of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio, 46-I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague, Czech Republic and Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague (Czech Republic); Antici, P. [Dipartimento di Energetica ed INFM, Università di Roma, La Sapienza, 00165 Roma (Italy); Margarone, D.; Korn, G. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-26

    We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project.

  5. Diophantine geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hindry, Marc

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.

  6. High serum adiponectin predicts incident fractures in elderly men: Osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Helena; Odén, Anders; Lerner, Ulf H; Jutberger, Hans; Lorentzon, Mattias; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Karlsson, Magnus K; Ljunggren, Osten; Smith, Ulf; McCloskey, Eugene; Kanis, John A; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan

    2012-06-01

    Adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common progenitor, and there is, therefore, potential for both autocrine and endocrine effects of adiponectin on skeletal metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine whether high serum adiponectin was associated with an increased risk of fracture in elderly men. We studied the relationship between serum adiponectin and the risk of fracture in 999 elderly men drawn from the general population and recruited to the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Baseline data included general health questionnaires, lifestyle questionnaires, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), serum adiponectin, osteocalcin, and leptin. Men were followed for up to 7.4 years (average, 5.2 years). Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin, other risk variables and the time-to-event hazard function of fracture. Median levels of serum adiponectin at baseline were 10.4 µg/mL (interquartile range, 7.7-14.3). During follow-up, 150 men sustained one or more fractures. The risk of fracture increased in parallel with increasing serum adiponectin (hazard ratio [HR]/SD, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.72) and persisted after multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR/SD, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.55). Serum adiponectin shows graded stepwise association with a significant excess risk of fracture in elderly men that was independent of several other risk factors for fracture. Its measurement holds promise as a risk factor for fracture in men.

  7. Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Tavridou; Anastasia Georgoulidou; Athanasios Roumeliotis; Stefanos Roumeliotis; Efstathia Giannakopoulou; Nikolaos Papanas; Ploumis Passadakis; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Vassilis Vargemezis

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We sought to determine the association between levels of adiponectin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in patients with diabetic nephropathy as well as their effect on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods. Adiponectin and ox-LDL were determined in 25 diabetic patients without nephropathy and 94 patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy including subjects on hemodialysis. cIMT was measured using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Results. Plasma adiponecti...

  8. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Monica

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

  9. A Comparative Study on the Expression, Purification and Functional Characterization of Human Adiponectin in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A. Rothan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is one of the most bioactive substances secreted by adipose tissue and is involved in the protection against metabolic syndrome, artherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Research into the use of adiponectin as a promising drug for metabolic syndromes requires production of this hormone in high quantities considering its molecular isoforms. The objective of this study is to produce recombinant human adiponectin by Pichia pastoris (P-ADP as a cheap and convenient eukaryotic expression system for potential application in pharmaceutical therapy. For comparison, adiponectin was also expressed using the Escherichia coli (E-ADP expression system. Adiponectin was constructed by overlap-extension PCR, and cloned in standard cloning vector and hosts. Recombinant expression vectors were cloned in the P. pastoris and E. coli host strains, respectively. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used to detect and analyse expressed recombinant protein in both systems. Adiponectin was purified by affinity chromatography and quantified using the Bradford Assay. The results of this study indicated that P-ADP quantity (0.111 mg/mL was higher than that of E-ADP (0.04 mg/mL and both were produced in soluble form. However, P-ADP was able to form high molecular weights of adiponectin molecules, whilst E-ADP was not able to form isoforms higher than trimer. In addition, P-ADP was more active in lowering blood glucose compared with E-ADP. The two types of proteins were equally efficient and significantly decreased blood triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein. We conclude that P. pastoris is able to produce high quantity of bioactive adiponectin for potential use in treatment of metabolic syndromes.

  10. Salivary adiponectin levels are associated with training intensity but not with bone mass or reproductive function in elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Maïmoun, Laurent; Mamali, Irene; Coste, Olivier; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2014-01-01

    Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RGs) constitute a unique metabolic model and they are prone to developing Anorexia Athletica. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of training intensity on salivary adiponectin levels and assess a possible role of salivary adiponectin levels as a predictive factor of reproductive dysfunction and bone mass acquisition in elite RGs. The study included 80 elite female RGs participating in the World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship tournament held in Montpellier, France on September 2011. Anthropometric values were assessed, training data and menstrual pattern were recorded, bone mass was measured with Broadband ultrasound attenuation (dB/Mhz) and baseline salivary adiponectin levels were determined. The athletes were classified as intensely and very intensely trained, considering the mean training intensity (40.84h/week). Moreover, considering their reproductive status, they were divided into RG's with normal menstruation, primary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. All comparisons were adjusted to age, BMI and body fat percentage differences. Very intensely trained RGs showed higher salivary adiponectin levels (p=0.05). Moreover, salivary adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with training intensity (r=0.409, p=0.003). On the other hand, no association of salivary adiponectin levels was documented with either reproductive function or bone mass acquisition. The results of the present study suggest that, in elite RGs, salivary adiponectin levels are associated with the intensity of training, possibly reflecting the deterioration of energy balance rather than the training stress. On the other hand, a predictive role of salivary adiponectin levels in reproductive dysfunction or bone mass acquisition could not be supported.

  11. Mechanisms of cardiac pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Robert D; Garrett, Kennon M; Blair, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    Angina pectoris is cardiac pain that typically is manifested as referred pain to the chest and upper left arm. Atypical pain to describe localization of the perception, generally experienced more by women, is referred to the back, neck, and/or jaw. This article summarizes the neurophysiological and pharmacological mechanisms for referred cardiac pain. Spinal cardiac afferent fibers mediate typical anginal pain via pathways from the spinal cord to the thalamus and ultimately cerebral cortex. Spinal neurotransmission involves substance P, glutamate, and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors; release of neurokinins such as nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kb) in the spinal cord can modulate neurotransmission. Vagal cardiac afferent fibers likely mediate atypical anginal pain and contribute to cardiac ischemia without accompanying pain via relays through the nucleus of the solitary tract and the C1-C2 spinal segments. The psychological state of an individual can modulate cardiac nociception via pathways involving the amygdala. Descending pathways originating from nucleus raphe magnus and the pons also can modulate cardiac nociception. Sensory input from other visceral organs can mimic cardiac pain due to convergence of this input with cardiac input onto spinothalamic tract neurons. Reduction of converging nociceptive input from the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract can diminish cardiac pain. Much work remains to be performed to discern the interactions among complex neural pathways that ultimately produce or do not produce the sensations associated with cardiac pain.

  12. An introduction to Minkowski geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental ideas of Minkowski geometries are presented. Learning about Minkowski geometries can sharpen our students' understanding of concepts such as distance measurement. Many of its ideas are important and accessible to undergraduate students. Following a brief overview, distance and orthogonality in Minkowski geometries are thoroughly discussed and many illustrative examples and applications are supplied. Suggestions for further study of these geometries are given. Indeed, Minkowski geometries are an excellent source of topics for undergraduate research and independent study.

  13. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor system in the rat adrenal gland: ontogenetic and physiologic regulation, and its involvement in regulating adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Lukasz; Zemleduch, Tomasz; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-09-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is a regulatory peptide secreted mostly by adipose tissue and acting via two receptors: AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Our aim was to investigate expression of adiponectin system genes in the rat adrenal gland as well as its ontogenetic and physiological control. Furthermore, we examined the effects of acute and prolonged activation of HPA axis on ADN system in adipose tissue. By means of QPCR, ADN and AdipoR1 expression was demonstrated in rat adrenal cortex both at mRNA and protein levels, while AdipoR2 could only be detected at mRNA levels. ADN expression level was significantly upregulated in a developing and regenerating adrenal cortex. Globular domain of adiponectin at 10(-9) M stimulated corticosterone output and BrdU incorporation by cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Moreover, both acute (ACTH and ether stress) and prolonged (ACTH) adrenal stimulation resulted in lowered ADN levels, while expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was upregulated by the acute treatment. Depending on its site of origin, visceral (VAT) or subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue responded differently to alterations in HPA axis. VAT expression of ADN and its receptors remained almost unchanged by experimental manipulations. In SAT, on the other hand, expression of ADN and AdipoR2 was markedly increased by ACTH treatment and stress, while dexamethasone suppressed ADN and AdipoR1 mRNA levels. The results of this study provide new evidence for direct and indirect interactions between adipokines and HPA axis.

  14. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Adiponectin in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Da Chen

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been suggested to be associated with low levels of adiponectin. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is the gold standard treatment for OSA; however, previous studies assessing the effect of CPAP on adiponectin in patients with OSA yielded conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was performed to determine whether CPAP therapy could increase adiponectin levels.Two reviewers independently searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase and Web of Science before February 2015. Information on characteristics of subjects, study design and pre- and post-CPAP treatment of serum adiponectin was extracted for analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD was used to analyze the summary estimates for CPAP therapy.Eleven studies involving 240 patients were included in this meta-analysis, including ten observational studies and one randomized controlled study. The meta-analysis showed that there was no change of adiponectin levels before and after CPAP treatment in OSA patients (SMD = 0.059, 95% confidence interval (CI = -0.250 to 0.368, z = 0.37, p = 0.710. Subgroup analyses indicated that the results were not affected by age, baseline body mass index, severity of OSA, CPAP therapy duration, sample size and racial differences.This meta-analysis suggested that CPAP therapy has no impact on adiponectin in OSA patients, without significant changes in body weight. Further large-scale, well-designed long-term interventional investigations are needed to clarify this issue.

  15. A meta-analysis of adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuju Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the correlation between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk. However, the results were not conclusive with each other. Therefore, to overcome this obstacle, we performed this meta-analysis to further explicate the adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility. Case-control or cohort studies focused on adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk were electronic searched in the databases of Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, Excerpta Medica database(EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. All the potentially relevant studies were included in this meta-analysis. The association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke was expressed by odds ratio with its confidence interval. Publication bias has been assessed by begg’s funnel plot. All the analyses have been performed by Revman 5.1 statistical software. Finally, a total of six studies with 1,345 cases and 1,421 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk (p<0.05. People with G single nucleotide of adiponectin gene have the increased risk of developing ischemic stroke compared to T single nucleotide.

  16. ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A. [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia); Whitehead, Jonathan P., E-mail: j.whitehead1@uq.edu.au [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)

    2010-02-05

    The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

  17. Obesity indices and metabolic markers are related to hs-CRP and adiponectin levels in overweight and obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanip, Zulkefli; Ariffin, Farah Diana; Al-Tahami, Belqes Abdullah Mohammed; Sulaiman, Wan Azman Wan; Rasool, Aida Hanum Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Obese subjects had increased serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), decreased adiponectin levels, and impaired microvascular endothelial function compared to lean subjects. We investigated the relationships of serum hs-CRP, adiponectin and microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers in overweight and obese female subjects. Anthropometric profile, body fat composition, biochemical analysis, serum hs-CRP and adiponectin levels, and microvascular endothelial function were measured in 91 female subjects. Microvascular endothelial function was determined using laser Doppler fluximetry and the process of iontophoresis. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) of subjects were 34.88 (7.87) years and 32.93 (4.82) kg/m(2). hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat and visceral fat. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-%S), and inversely correlated with waist hip ratio, triglyceride, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). No relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function and obesity indices, and metabolic markers. In overweight and obese female subjects, hs-CRP levels were correlated with obesity indices while adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with obesity indices and metabolic markers. No significant relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers including hs-CRP and adiponectin in female overweight and obese subjects.

  18. Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Obese and Nonobese Asthmatic School Children in relation to Asthma Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atqah Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of a positive correlation between asthma and obesity in children and adults. Leptin and adiponectin regulate several metabolic and inflammatory functions. This study aims to evaluate serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations in asthmatic school children to investigate their association with obesity and the degree of asthma control. Obese asthmatic (OA and nonobese asthmatic (NOA children, aged 7 to 14, were randomly enrolled in this prospective study. Data on demographic, anthropometric, serum lipids, and spirometric measures and allergy status were collected and analyzed. Serum leptin was significantly higher (25.8±11.1 versus 8.7±11.1; P<0.0001 and adiponectin levels were lower (2.5±1.2 versus 5.4±2.9; P<0.0001 in OA compared to NOA children. The uncontrolled group had higher leptin and lower adiponectin levels compared to well and partially controlled asthma. BMI was positively correlated with leptin (r=0.79; P<0.001 and negatively with adiponectin (r=-0.73; P<0.001. Mean BMI and leptin levels were observed to be higher in girls compared to boys. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher BMI and female gender had significant effect on serum leptin levels. Among asthmatic children higher serum leptin and lower adiponectin levels were significantly associated with obesity and showed no significant association with degree of asthma controls.

  19. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidulescu Aurelian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA, modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT, known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p 3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p 3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p  Conclusion In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men.

  20. Effect of Weight Reduction Following Bariatric Surgery on Serum Visfatin and Adiponectin Levels in Morbidly Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipokines are signaling and mediator proteins secreted from adipose tissue. A novel adipokine, visfatin, was reported as a protein which was mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. Controversial results have been shown regarding the changes of adipokines following weight reduction. So we investigated the effects of weight reduction on serum concentrations of adiponectin and visfatin in morbidly obese subjects. Methods: 35 severely obese patients (26 females and 9 males, aged 15-58 years, were studied. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical parameters as well as adiponectin and visfatin were analyzed before and 6 weeks after weight reduction. Results: Anthropometric indices decreased significantly. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were reduced significantly. The reduction of visfatin and the elevation of adiponectin were significant as well. However, other parameters like fasting glucose and insulin did not change. Moreover, we could not find any significant correlation between the change of serum visfatin and that of adiponectin. Conclusions: 6-week weight reduction after bariatric surgery resulted in decreased serum visfatin and increased adiponectin levels. However, we cannot find any significant correlation between changes of adiponectin, visfatin, BMI, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. Further studies with different design are suggested to clarify these associations.

  1. Association of adiponectin and leptin with relative telomere length in seven independent cohorts including 11,448 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Linda; Raschenberger, Julia; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Codd, Veryan; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Gieger, Christian; Haun, Margot; Henneman, Peter; Herder, Christian; Hovatta, Iiris; Laser, Annika; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kollerits, Barbara; Moilanen, Eeva; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Quaye, Lydia; Rissanen, Aila; Roden, Michael; Surakka, Ida; Valdes, Ana M; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Thorand, Barbara; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Kaprio, Jaakko; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Samani, Nilesh J; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to accelerated age-related relative telomere length (RTL) shortening. Both conditions are strongly linked to leptin and adiponectin, the most prominent adipocyte-derived protein hormones. As high leptin levels and low levels of adiponectin have been implicated in inflammation, one expects adiponectin to be positively associated with RTL while leptin should be negatively associated. Within the ENGAGE consortium, we investigated the association of RTL with adiponectin and leptin in seven independent cohorts with a total of 11,448 participants. We performed partial correlation analysis on Z-transformed RTL and LN-transformed leptin/adiponectin, adjusting for age and sex. In extended models we adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Adiponectin showed a borderline significant association with RTL. This appeared to be determined by a single study and when the outlier study was removed, this association disappeared. The association between RTL and leptin was highly significant (r = -0.05; p = 1.81 × 10(-7)). Additional adjustment for BMI or CRP did not change the results. Sex-stratified analysis revealed no difference between men and women. Our study suggests that high leptin levels are associated with short RTL.

  2. Adiponectin and Leptin Synovial Fluid Concentration as a Marker for the Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Mart Salim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic degenerative joint disorder of the synovial joint characterized by loss of articular cartilage, osteophyte formation, and alterations of subchondral bone. An increase of weight bearing affect on knee joint biomechanically and alter concentration of adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin. Herein we reported a correlation between adiponectin and leptin synovial fluid concentration with the severity of knee OA in obese patients. Material and Methods: Totally 45 patients were included in this research. ELISA was used to determine adiponectin and leptin concentrations of synovial fluid. The severity of knee OA was classified by Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS for windows. Results: Based on the leptin measurement, it was shown that leptin concentrations were correlated positively with the severity of knee OA. Vice versa, adiponectin concentrations were correlated negative. Conclusion: Our study was support the biomarker function of adiponectin and leptin concentration on synovial fluids, in which those concentrations were related with the severity of OA. Those results also suggested the function of leptin and adiponectin on OA. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 746-756

  3. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru;

    2002-01-01

    -induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and also increase whole-body insulin sensitivity. To further characterize the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity in humans, we examined 1) the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin......Adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, has been found to be negatively associated with degree of adiposity and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in Pima Indians and other populations. Moreover, adiponectin administration to rodents has been shown to increase insulin...... concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity...

  4. The Effects of Combined Adiponectin-Metformin on Glucose and Lipids Levels in Mice and Acute Toxicity and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity of Adiponectin Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alshawsh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted entirely by abdominal fat tissue. It exhibits various biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of metformin alone or in combination with adiponectin on blood glucose, TG (triglyceride, CHOL (Total cholesterol, LDL (Low density lipoprotein and HDL (High density lipoprotein levels in mice and also to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of adiponectin against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Three groups of mice were gavaged with 1% volume/body weight high fat-sucrose. Metformin at a dosage of 250 mg/kg was added to the feed and a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg adiponectin was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. Blood glucose was measured at one hour intervals for five hours. Blood concentrations of TG, CHOL, LDL and HDL were also measured at the end of the fifth hour of the experiment. On the other hand, four groups of adult healthy rats were i.p. injected with distilled water, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg adiponectin one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour the rats were sacrificed and the ulcer areas of the gastric walls were determined. Furthermore, an acute toxicity study has indicated no mortality with 5 mg/kg dose of adiponectin injected i.p in rats and no major clinical signs of toxicity were observed. The results indicate that the effect of a combination of metformin and adiponectin on blood glucose and HDL is quite effective. Histology of the gastric wall of negative control rats revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either omeprazole or adiponectin extract where there was marked gastric protection along with reduction or inhibition of edema and leucocytes infiltration. The results suggest that combination of metfomin and adiponectin give a promising antidiabetic

  5. Serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin as a marker for the evaluation and care of subjects with metabolic syndrome and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Seino-Yoshihara, Yoshie; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Saito, Ikuo

    2010-12-26

    In 1996, adiponectin was reported to be the most abundant transcript in adipose tissue. Animal studies revealed that administering adiponectin improves insulin resistance and blood glucose levels and inhibits atherosclerosis. In the present article, we review the significance of measuring serum high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels in human subjects. Our cross-sectional studies revealed that the serum HMW adiponectin concentration was 1.9 times higher in healthy Japanese females than males and had a strong positive correlation with HDL-cholesterol but a negative correlation with BMI and the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). They also indicated that the serum HMW adiponectin concentration had a stronger association with HOMA-IR and metabolic syndrome than the total adiponectin concentration. Our longitudinal study, a 6-year follow-up of Japanese men, suggested that a decreased level of HMW adiponectin is a predictor of progression to metabolic syndrome. In another intervention study, lifestyle modification for 3 months induced a decrease in BMI and waist circumference and an increase in serum HMW adiponectin but not the total adiponectin level in 16 Japanese males with metabolic syndrome. Administering thiazolidinediones to diabetic patients increased the serum HMW adiponectin concentration 3 fold and improved glucose and lipid profiles and blood pressure. Some people may inherit a lower serum concentration of adiponectin, and have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.It is suggested that HMW adiponectin is a useful marker for the evaluation and care of subjects with metabolic syndrome and related disorders.

  6. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  7. Spectral Geometry and Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Kopf, T

    1996-01-01

    For a physical interpretation of a theory of quantum gravity, it is necessary to recover classical spacetime, at least approximately. However, quantum gravity may eventually provide classical spacetimes by giving spectral data similar to those appearing in noncommutative geometry, rather than by giving directly a spacetime manifold. It is shown that a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold can be given by spectral data. A new phenomenon in the context of spectral geometry is observed: causal relationships. The employment of the causal relationships of spectral data is shown to lead to a highly efficient description of Lorentzian manifolds, indicating the possible usefulness of this approach. Connections to free quantum field theory are discussed for both motivation and physical interpretation. It is conjectured that the necessary spectral data can be generically obtained from an effective field theory having the fundamental structures of generalized quantum mechanics: a decoherence functional and a choice of...

  8. Renyi Entropy and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeongseog; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2014-01-01

    Entanglement entropy in even dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) contains well-known universal terms arising from the conformal anomaly. Renyi entropies are natural generalizations of the entanglement entropy that are much less understood. Above two spacetime dimensions, the universal terms in the Renyi entropies are unknown for general entangling geometries. We conjecture a new structure in the dependence of the four-dimensional Renyi entropies on the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the entangling surface. We provide evidence for this conjecture by direct numerical computations in the free scalar and fermion field theories. The computation involves relating the four-dimensional free massless Renyi entropies across cylindrical entangling surfaces to corresponding three-dimensional massive Renyi entropies across circular entangling surfaces. Our numerical technique also allows us to directly probe other interesting aspects of three-dimensional Renyi entropy, including the massless renormalized Reny...

  9. Multivariate calculus and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dineen, Seán

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate calculus can be understood best by combining geometric insight, intuitive arguments, detailed explanations and mathematical reasoning. This textbook has successfully followed this programme. It additionally provides a solid description of the basic concepts, via familiar examples, which are then tested in technically demanding situations. In this new edition the introductory chapter and two of the chapters on the geometry of surfaces have been revised. Some exercises have been replaced and others provided with expanded solutions. Familiarity with partial derivatives and a course in linear algebra are essential prerequisites for readers of this book. Multivariate Calculus and Geometry is aimed primarily at higher level undergraduates in the mathematical sciences. The inclusion of many practical examples involving problems of several variables will appeal to mathematics, science and engineering students.

  10. Quercetin enhances adiponectin secretion by a PPAR-gamma independent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wein, Silvia; Behm, Norma; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed;

    2010-01-01

    To study possible insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of the flavonol quercetin, rats were fed a high-fat diet (19%, w/w) with (HFQ) or without (HF) 0.03% quercetin or a flavonoid-poor low-fat (5%, w/w) maintenance diet (LF) over 4 weeks. Body weight was measured...... and WAT mRNA levels of adiponectin were elevated compared with the HF group, however, PPAR-gamma mRNA concentration in WAT was decreased (HFQ vs. HF). Compared to both other groups quercetin feeding significantly reduced oxidative stress, measured by plasma 8-iso-PGF(2alpha), while body weight gain, body...... composition and plasma leptin levels were not affected. Neither quercetin nor its metabolites induced PPAR-gamma-mediated transactivation in vitro. Adiponectin stimulating effects of quercetin are PPAR-gamma-independent and prevent impairment of insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight...

  11. Six new chalcones from Angelica keiskei inducing adiponectin production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnogi, Hiromu; Kudo, Yoko; Tahara, Kenichi; Sugiyama, Katsumi; Enoki, Tatsuji; Hayami, Shoko; Sagawa, Hiroaki; Tanimura, Yuko; Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Kato, Ikunoshin; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba in Japanese), a traditional herb in Japan, contains abundant prenylated chalcones. It has been reported that the chalcones from A. keiskei showed such bioactivities as anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. Xanthoangelol, 4-hydroxyderricin and six new chalcones were isolated in this study from an ethanol extract of A. keiskei by octadecyl silyl (ODS) and silica gel chromatography, and identified by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses. The chalcones from A. keiskei markedly increased the expression of the adiponectin gene and the production of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the chalcones from A. keiskei might be useful for preventing the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Ethnic differences in leptin and adiponectin levels between Greenlandic Inuit and Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels-Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish...... and Inuit children. Methods. In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7–17.1 years) had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Results. Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741–3,005)] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95......leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively...

  13. Lifestyle-induced decrease in fat mass improves adiponectin secretion in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Solomon, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    with either a low-glycemic index diet (∼40 U) plus exercise (LoGIX) or a high-glycemic index diet (∼80 U) diet plus exercise (HiGIX) on plasma leptin and adiponectin (total and high molecular weight [HMW]) in 27 older obese adults (age = 65 ± 0.5 yr, body mass index = 34.5 ± 0.7 kg·m). METHODS: Insulin...... = 0.003) after the 12-wk intervention. Total body fat was reduced after both interventions. Visceral fat mass was inversely correlated with HMW adiponectin, whereas subcutaneous fat correlated with leptin. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that exercise training, independent of dietary glycemic index...

  14. The role of peptide hormones (adiponectin, leptin, insulin in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Smetnev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain the main problem in the world and in Russia in particular. The study of the causes and progression of atherosclerosis is a critical moment in the fight against CVD. Adipose tissue and processes that occur in it attracts attention in recent years. The important role of adipose tissue as an endocrine and immune organ is revealed as well as its participation in the development of the inflammatory process. This leads to the development of initial manifestations of atherosclerosis a precursor of many metabolic disorders and CVD. Particular attention causes adipokines regulatory peptide hormones in the adipose tissue, as well as insulin, due to its close relationship with the adipose tissue and especially with adiponectin and leptin. Recent data on the role of adiponectin, leptin and insulin in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in order to identify new potential targets among peptide hormones for the treatment of atherosclerosis are presented. 

  15. Serum Adiponectin and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ortega Moreno

    Full Text Available High serum adiponectin has been increased in several conditions of kidney disease. Only sparse and conflicting results have been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, a subgroup of individuals who are at high risk for renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to fill up this gap of knowledge by investigating such association in a large sample of Italian diabetic patients. The association between serum adiponectin levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration CKD-EPI equation was investigated in 1,243 patients with T2D from two cross-sectional Italian studies: 878 from San Giovanni Rotondo (SGR and 365 from Foggia (FG. Serum adiponectin was inversely associated with eGFR in SGR [β (standard error, SE for 1 standard deviation (SD of adiponectin = -3.26 (0.64] and in FG [β(SE=-5.70(1.28] sample, as well as in the two studies combined [β(SE=-3.99(0.59];(p<0.0001 for all. In this combined analysis, the association was still significant after adjusting for sex, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, albumin creatinine ratio (ACR and anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive and anti-dyslipidemic treatments [β (SE= -2.19 (0.59, p = 0.0001]. A stronger association between each SD adiponectin increment and low eGFR was observed among patients with micro-/macro-albuminuria, as compared to those with normo-albuminuria [adjusted β(SE=-4.42(1.16 ml/min/1.73m2 vs. -1.50 (0.67 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively; p for adiponectin-by-albuminuric status = 0.022]. For each adiponectin SD increment, the odds of having eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 increased by 41% (odds ratio, OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.21-1.64 in SGR sample, 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.21-1.94 in FG sample, and 44% (OR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.27-1.64 in the two studies considered together (p<0.0001 for all. In the combined sample, further adjustment for the above

  16. Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tschinkel, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    The two volumes of "Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry: In Honor of Y.I. Manin" are composed of invited expository articles and extensions detailing Manin's contributions to the subjects, and are in celebration of his 70th birthday. The well-respected and distinguished contributors include: Behrend, Berkovich, Bost, Bressler, Calaque, Carlson, Chambert-Loir, Colombo, Connes, Consani, Dabrowski, Deninger, Dolgachev, Donaldson, Ekedahl, Elsenhans, Enriques, Etingof, Fock, Friedlander, Geemen, Getzler, Goncharov, Harris, Iskovskikh, Jahnel, Kaledin, Kapranov, Katz, Kaufmann, Kollar, Kont

  17. Inflation from quantum geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2002-12-23

    Quantum geometry predicts that a universe evolves through an inflationary phase at small volume before exiting gracefully into a standard Friedmann phase. This does not require the introduction of additional matter fields with ad hoc potentials; rather, it occurs because of a quantum gravity modification of the kinetic part of ordinary matter Hamiltonians. An application of the same mechanism can explain why the present day cosmological acceleration is so tiny.

  18. Geometry and Destiny

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, L M; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Turner, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    The recognition that the cosmological constant may be non-zero forces us to re-evaluate standard notions about the connection between geometry and the fate of our Universe. An open Universe can recollapse, and a closed Universe can expand forever. As a corollary, we point out that there is no set of cosmological observations we can perform that will unambiguously allow us to determine what the ultimate destiny of the Universe will be.

  19. Geometry of Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2007-12-01

    Preface; 1. Convexity, colours and statistics; 2. Geometry of probability distributions; 3. Much ado about spheres; 4. Complex projective spaces; 5. Outline of quantum mechanics; 6. Coherent states and group actions; 7. The stellar representation; 8. The space of density matrices; 9. Purification of mixed quantum states; 10. Quantum operations; 11. Duality: maps versus states; 12. Density matrices and entropies; 13. Distinguishability measures; 14. Monotone metrics and measures; 15. Quantum entanglement; Epilogue; Appendices; References; Index.

  20. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  1. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  2. Hilbert, completeness and geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Venturi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show how the mathematical content of Hilbert's Axiom of Completeness consists in an attempt to solve the more general problem of the relationship between intuition and formalization. Hilbert found the accordance between these two sides of mathematical knowledge at a logical level, clarifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for a good formalization of geometry. We will tackle the problem of what is, for Hilbert, the definition of geometry. The solution of this problem will bring out how Hilbert's conception of mathematics is not as innovative as his conception of the axiomatic method. The role that the demonstrative tools play in Hilbert's foundational reflections will also drive us to deal with the problem of the purity of methods, explicitly addressed by Hilbert. In this respect Hilbert's position is very innovative and deeply linked to his modern conception of the axiomatic method. In the end we will show that the role played by the Axiom of Completeness for geometry is the same as the Axiom of Induction for arithmetic and of Church-Turing thesis for computability theory. We end this paper arguing that set theory is the right context in which applying the axiomatic method to mathematics and we postpone to a sequel of this work the attempt to offer a solution similar to Hilbert's for the completeness of set theory.

  3. Integral geometry and valuations

    CERN Document Server

    Solanes, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Valuations are finitely additive functionals on the space of convex bodies. Their study has become a central subject in convexity theory, with fundamental applications to integral geometry. In the last years there has been significant progress in the theory of valuations, which in turn has led to important achievements in integral geometry. This book originated from two courses delivered by the authors at the CRM and provides a self-contained introduction to these topics, covering most of the recent advances. The first part, by Semyon Alesker, is devoted to the theory of convex valuations, with emphasis on the latest developments. A special focus is put on the new fundamental structures of the space of valuations discovered after Alesker's irreducibility theorem. Moreover, the author describes the newly developed theory of valuations on manifolds. In the second part, Joseph H. G. Fu gives a modern introduction to integral geometry in the sense of Blaschke and Santaló, based on the notions and tools presented...

  4. Integral geometry and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-10-01

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts — points, distances and angles — are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.

  5. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of osteoprotegerin are associated with obesity in healthy subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ashley, David T

    2011-07-01

    An increase in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the severity of vascular calcification, and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relationship between OPG and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity influence circulating OPG in healthy subjects. A total of 100 subjects (36 lean, 41 overweight, and 23 obese) with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram stress test result volunteered for this study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test with oral glucose insulin sensitivity analysis. Osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL),soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and adiponectin were analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoprotegerin (P < .01) and adiponectin (P < .001) were significantly decreased in the obese compared with lean subjects. There was no significant difference between BMI categories for TRAIL or sRANKL. Controlling for age and sex, there was a significant correlation between OPG and adiponectin (r = 0.391, P < .001), BMI (r = -0.331, P < .001), waist circumference (r = -0.268, P < .01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.222, P < .05), and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (r = 0.221, P < .05). Both OPG and adiponectin were negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting plasma insulin while being positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (P < .05). Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, TRAIL was positively related to fat mass (r = 0.373, P < .001) and waist circumference (r = 0.257, P < .05). In contrast to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating OPG is lower in obese, but otherwise healthy subjects and is positively correlated

  6. Association between nutritional status, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and HOMA-AD in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Gomes Domingos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In children, the presence of obesity is a major risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases on the adulthood. Objective: To evaluate the association of anthropometry, body composition, clinical variables and biochemical profile with C-reactive protein and adiponectin levels, and insulin resistance in children in the municipality of Nova Era, Brazil. Methods: Nested case-control study following a crosssectional study. We evaluated 178 children, 57 of them classified as obese and 121 as normal-weight from a population of 1024 schoolchildren 6 to 10 years old: Blood samples were collected after 12-hour fast to obtain serum and plasma. We collected anthropometric and body composition measures, systolic and diastolic blood pressure data. Sexual maturation was assessed according to the stage of sexual development. We performed Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson's correlation, Spearman's test and multiple linear regression analysis. Independent variables with p < 0.05 were included in the multiple regression model. Residual analysis was performed to assess model validity. Results: Among obese children, C-reactive protein levels were associated with triacylglycerol levels and body fat percentage estimated by skinfold thickness (R²adjusted = 27.6%, p < 0.001. Adiponectin was associated with HOMA-IR, HOMA-AD and body fat percentage estimated by skinfold thickness (R²adjusted = 75.5%, p < 0.001. HOMA-AD index was associated with HOMA-IR, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and weight (R²adjusted = 90.7%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Significant associations were found between body composition, anthropometry, clinical variables, biochemical profile and adiponectin and C-reactive protein levels and insulin resistance in obese and normal-weight children.

  7. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms and acute respiratory distress syndrome susceptibility and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Ahasic

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that is the most abundant gene product of adipose tissue. Lower levels have been observed in obesity, insulin resistance, and in critical illness. However, elevated levels early in acute respiratory failure have been associated with mortality. Polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2 have been examined for relationships with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and to circulating adipokine levels, but many gaps in knowledge remain. The current study aims to assess the association between potentially functional polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS risk and mortality. METHODS: Consecutive patients with risk factors for ARDS admitted to the ICU were enrolled and followed prospectively for development of ARDS. ARDS cases were followed through day 60 for all-cause mortality. 2067 patients were successfully genotyped using the Illumina CVD BeadChip high-density platform. Of these, 567 patients developed ARDS. Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were successfully genotyped. Of these, 9 SNPs were hypothesized to be functional based on their location (promoter, exon, or 3' untranslated region. These 9 SNPs were analyzed for association with ARDS case status and mortality among ARDS cases. RESULTS: After multivariable analysis and adjustment for multiple comparisons, no SNPs were significantly associated with ARDS case status. Among ARDS cases, homozygotes for the minor allele of rs2082940 (ADIPOQ had increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.36-5.00, p = 0.0039 after adjustment for significant covariates. The significance of this association persisted after adjustment for multiple comparisons (FDR_q = 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: A common and potentially functional polymorphism in ADIPOQ may impact survival in ARDS. Further

  8. Increased Hs-CRP/adiponectin ratio is associated with increase carotid intima-media thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Huocheng; Li, Zhiming; Zheng, Dongdan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Chun; Wang, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Background High sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and adiponectin (APN) are two critical cytokines and exert inverse effects on atherosclerosis initiation and progression. The purpose of our study was to investigate the value of Hs-CRP and ANP ratio (Hs-CRP/APN ratio) on evaluating atherosclerosis progression. Method One hundred sixty consecutive participants underwent carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by ultrasound were enrolled and drawn fasting blood samples for plasma l...

  9. Effect of strength training on serum levels of adiponectin, testosterone, and cortisol in sedentary lean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatah Moradi

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Performing a period of strength training can improve body weight, body mass index, and cardio respiratory function of sedentary lean men, while it results in no significant change in body fat percent. Also, since testosterone has anti-diabetic role, strength training can be useful through increasing testosterone levels in sedentary lean men. It doesn’t appear that twelve weeks strength training has effect on circulating levels of adiponectin and cortisol in sedentary lean men.

  10. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    OpenAIRE

    Newson, RB; M. Jones; Forsberg, B; Janson, C; Bossios, A; Dahlen, S-E; Toskala, EM; Al-Kalemji, A; Kowalski, ML; Rymarcsyk, B; Salagean, EM; van Drunen, CM; Bachert, C; Wehrend, T; Krämer, User

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. Objective We wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with ast...

  11. Decreased levels of plasma adiponectin associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayaka; Otake; Hiroaki; Takeda; Shoichiro; Fujishima; Tadahisa; Fukui; Tomohiko; Orii; Takeshi; Sato; Yu; Sasaki; Shoichi; Nishise; Sumio; Kawata

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between adiponectin levels and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer (early and advanced).METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a cohort of hospital-based patients was conducted between January 2004 and March 2006 at Yamagata University Hospital. Male subjects, who had colorectal tumors detected by endoscopic examination, were enrolled according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Based on the T factor of the TNM system, intraepithelial carcinoma and submucosally invasive c...

  12. Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on insulin resistance and adiponectin in male monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janice D; Zhang, Li; Shadoan, Melanie K; Kavanagh, Kylie; Chen, Haiying; Tresnasari, Kristianti; Kaplan, Jay R; Adams, Michael R

    2008-07-01

    Isoflavones may influence insulin action by means of their well-known receptor-mediated estrogenic activity. However, isoflavones also bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) that are strongly associated with insulin action. Soy protein with its isoflavones has previously been shown to improve glycemic control in diabetic postmenopausal women and to improve insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized monkeys. The purpose of the current report was to extend our studies of dietary soy protein to male monkeys and determine effects of the soy isoflavones on insulin resistance. Two studies are reported here. Study one involved 91 male monkeys consuming 3 diets differing only by the source of protein (casein-lactalbumin, soy protein with a low isoflavone concentration, or soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were done, and plasma adiponectin and lipoprotein concentrations were determined after 25 months of study. Samples of visceral fat were obtained at 31 months for assessment of adiponectin and PPARgamma expression. The second study involved 8 monkeys in a Latin-square design that compared the effects of diets with casein/lactalbumin, soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration, or soy protein that was alcohol-washed to deplete the isoflavones. After 8 weeks of treatment, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipoproteins were assessed. At 10 weeks, a biopsy of the skeletal muscle was performed for determination of insulin receptor, PPARalpha, and PPARgamma content. The major findings were that consumption of isoflavone-containing soy protein dose-dependently increased insulin responses to the glucose challenge and decreased plasma adiponectin, whereas isoflavone-depleted soy protein decreased body weight and had no effect on plasma adiponectin concentrations. Muscle PPARalpha and gamma expression was also increased with the isoflavone-depleted soy relative to either casein or soy protein containing the

  13. Generalised Geometry and Flux Vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Larfors, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    This note discusses the connection between generalised geometry and flux compactifications of string theory. Firstly, we explain in a pedestrian manner how the supersymmetry constraints of type II ${\\mathcal{N}}=1$ flux compactifications can be restated as integrability constraints on certain generalised complex structures. This reformulation uses generalised complex geometry, a mathematical framework that geometrizes the B-field. Secondly, we discuss how exceptional generalised geometry may provide a similar geometrization of the RR fields. Thirdly, we examine the connection between generalised geometry and non-geometry, and finally we present recent developments where generalised geometry is used to construct explicit examples of flux compactifications to flat space.

  14. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L C; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R; Lee, Tatia M C; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-11-04

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood-brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression.

  15. Correlation of Progranulin, Granulin, Adiponectin and Vaspin with Metaflammation (hs-CRP in Indonesian Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia E Napitupulu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is closely related to chronic, low grade systemic inflammation (metaflammation and it leads to further metabolic complications such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes due to the adipocytokine imbalance. This study was carried out to assess the correlation between progranulin, granulin, adiponectin and visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (Vaspin with metaflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in centrally obese men. METHODS: This study was observational with a cross sectional design involving 60 men aged 30-60 years, consisted of 43 obese men (waist circumference (WC ≥90 cm and 13 non obese men (WC 105 cm. CONCLUSIONS: We found metaflammation (hs-CRP was significantly correlated with Vaspin, but not with progranulin, granulin and adiponectin, in obese men. We suggest the possibility of a dynamic expression of adipokines related to WC that are subjected to adipocytes hypertrophy-hyperplasia phenomenon. KEYWORDS: progranulin, granulin, adiponectin, Vaspin, hs-CRP, metaflammation, central obesity.

  16. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Nazir Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Gojwari, Tariq A.; Dar, Tariq A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL), the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i) to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii) effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3) μg/L) and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027) as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029), with a further decline at 6 months (P prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities. PMID:27042412

  17. Plasma insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin, and melatonin in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients treated with melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonciarz, Maciej; Bielański, Wladyslaw; Partyka, Robert; Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Piotr C; Eszyk, Jerzy; Celiński, Krzysztof; Reiter, Russel J; Konturek, Stanislaw J

    2013-03-01

    Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and an abnormal production of adipokines and cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recently, we reported a significant improvement in plasma liver enzymes among patients with NASH treated with melatonin. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin, administered at a dose of 10 mg/day for 28 days to 16 patients with histologically proven NASH on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), on the plasma levels of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, and resistin. Additionally, plasma levels of aminotransferases and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase as well as plasma concentrations of melatonin were evaluated. Median baseline values of HOMA-IR, leptin (ng/mL), and resistin (pg/mL) in patients with NASH were significantly higher in comparison with controls: 4.90 versus 1.60, 10.70 versus 4.30, and 152 versus 91, respectively. Median adiponectin level (μg/mL) was decreased in patients compared to controls: 6.40 versus 16.25; no significant difference in ghrelin levels between patients and controls was found. After melatonin treatment, the median value of HOMA-IR was significantly reduced by 60% as compared to baseline values, whereas adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin plasma levels rose significantly by 119%, 33%, and 20%, respectively; the difference between pre-/posttreatment in plasma resistin levels was not significant. These findings make melatonin a suitable candidate for testing in patients with NASH in the large controlled clinical trials.

  18. Gender-Specific Differences in the Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms with Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Amoli, Mahsa M.; Heshmat, Ramin; Sajadi, Mohammadali; Derakhshan, Reza; Amiri, Parvin; Namakchian, Mahsa; Rezazadeh, Ebrahim; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Larijani, Bagher

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The study evaluated possible associations of +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms with body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and blood pressure in diabetic and non-diabetic Iranians. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved two groups of subjects: 243 diabetic patients and 173 non-diabetic subjects recruited from Rafsanjan city in the south-east of Iran. RESULTS: No significant association was found between +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms and systolic or diastolic blood pressure. However, male carriers of the TT genotype of +45T/G had a significantly higher mean BMI than male GG homozygotes (p = 0.018). Also, male carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean BMI than male GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.041). Female carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean WC than female GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significantly higher BMI in women, and GA or AA carriers of -11391G/A polymorphism. Also, there was a significantly lower WC in females and GG carriers of +45T/G. These results point to a gender-specific impact of the studied genotypes on BMI and WC. PMID:21409316

  19. Polymorphism of adiponectin (45T/G) and adiponectin receptor-2 (795G/A) in an Iranian population: relation with insulin resistance and response to treatment with pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvaran, Fatemeh; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Azarpira, Negar; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-05-01

    Adiponectin, an adipose-derived plasma protein, is reduced in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thiazolidinediones can increase adiponectin levels and improve insulin sensitivity. This study investigated the associations between type 2 diabetes and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the adiponectin (45T/G) and adiponectin receptor-2 gene (795G/A), and investigated whether these genetic variants affect the response to pioglitazone in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. We genotyped 128 non-diabetic participants and 101 patients with type 2 diabetes for 45T/G and 795G/A with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. Patients were treated with pioglitazone for 12 weeks, after which we compared laboratory parameters in these two groups. Fasting blood sugar differed significantly in individuals with different 795G/A genotypes after pioglitazone treatment (P = 0.009). The mean decrease in insulin/glucose ratio after treatment also differed significantly in individuals with different 45T/G genotypes (P = 0.035). The T allele frequency for 45T/G was 87.11% in controls versus 81.68% in patients (P = 0.071). The TG and GG genotypes were more frequent in patients (P = 0.032). The G allele frequency for 795G/A was 76.17% in controls versus 80.20% in patients (P = 0.179). 795G/A variants were not significantly different between patient and control group. The adiponectin gene 45T/G mutation may be an important determinant of type 2 diabetes in the Iranian population. However, adiponectin 45T/G and adiponectin receptor-2 795G/A polymorphisms were not significantly associated with the response to pioglitazone in our sample.

  20. Size, Shape and Stamina: The Impact of Left Ventricular Geometry on Exercise Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Carolyn S.P.; Grewal, Jasmine; Borlaug, Barry A.; Ommen, Steve R.; Kane, Garvan C.; McCully, Robert B.; Pellikka, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    While several studies have examined the cardiac functional determinants of exercise capacity, few have investigated the effects of structural remodeling. The current study evaluated the association between cardiac geometry and exercise capacity. Subjects with ejection fraction ≥ 50% and no valvular disease, myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias were identified from a large prospective exercise echocardiography database. Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were used to classif...

  1. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  2. Geometry for the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalem, D.

    1977-01-01

    A sequential but non-axiomatic high school geometry course which includes Euclidean, transformation, and analytic geometry and vectors and matrices, and emphasizes the invariance property of transformations, is outlined. Sample problems, solutions, and comments are included. (MN)

  3. Linear connections on matrix geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Madore, J; Mourad, J; Madore, John; Masson, Thierry; Mourad, Jihad

    1994-01-01

    A general definition of a linear connection in noncommutative geometry has been recently proposed. Two examples are given of linear connections in noncommutative geometries which are based on matrix algebras. They both possess a unique metric connection.

  4. Introductory non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Henry Parker

    1963-01-01

    This fine and versatile introduction begins with the theorems common to Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry, and then it addresses the specific differences that constitute elliptic and hyperbolic geometry. 1901 edition.

  5. Adiponectin and AMP kinase activator stimulate proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamauchi Mika

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is a key mediator of the metabolic syndrome that is caused by visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin and its receptors are known to be expressed in osteoblasts, but their actions with regard to bone metabolism are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Results Adiponectin receptor type 1 (AdipoR1 mRNA was detected in the cells by RT-PCR. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase was phosphorylated by both adiponectin and a pharmacological AMP kinase activator, 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR, in the cells. AdipoR1 small interfering RNA (siRNA transfection potently knocked down the receptor mRNA, and the effect of this knockdown persisted for as long as 10 days after the transfection. The transfected cells showed decreased expressions of type I collagen and osteocalcin mRNA, as determined by real-time PCR, and reduced ALP activity and mineralization, as determined by von Kossa and Alizarin red stainings. In contrast, AMP kinase activation by AICAR (0.01–0.5 mM in wild-type MC3T3-E1 cells augmented their proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. BrdU assay showed that the addition of adiponectin (0.01–1.0 μg/ml also promoted their proliferation. Osterix, but not Runx-2, appeared to be involved in these processes because AdipoR1 siRNA transfection and AICAR treatments suppressed and enhanced osterix mRNA expression, respectively. Conclusion Taken together, this study suggests that adiponectin stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts via the AdipoR1 and AMP kinase signaling pathways in autocrine and/or paracrine fashions.

  6. Geometry success in 20 mins

    CERN Document Server

    Editors, LearningExpress

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're new to geometry or just looking for a refresher, this completely revised and updated third edition of Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day offers a 20-step lesson plan that provides quick and thorough instruction in practical, critical skills. Stripped of unnecessary math jargon but bursting with geometry essentials, Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day is an invaluable resource for both students and adults.

  7. Elementary algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kendig, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Designed to make learning introductory algebraic geometry as easy as possible, this text is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have taken a one-year course in algebra and are familiar with complex analysis. This newly updated second edition enhances the original treatment's extensive use of concrete examples and exercises with numerous figures that have been specially redrawn in Adobe Illustrator. An introductory chapter that focuses on examples of curves is followed by a more rigorous and careful look at plane curves. Subsequent chapters explore commutative ring th

  8. From geometry to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Flegg, H Graham

    2001-01-01

    This excellent introduction to topology eases first-year math students and general readers into the subject by surveying its concepts in a descriptive and intuitive way, attempting to build a bridge from the familiar concepts of geometry to the formalized study of topology. The first three chapters focus on congruence classes defined by transformations in real Euclidean space. As the number of permitted transformations increases, these classes become larger, and their common topological properties become intuitively clear. Chapters 4-12 give a largely intuitive presentation of selected topics.

  9. Geometry and trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This stimulating volume offers a broad collection of the principles of geometry and trigonometry and contains colorful diagrams to bring mathematical principles to life. Subjects are enriched by references to famous mathematicians and their ideas, and the stories are presented in a very comprehensible way. Readers investigate the relationships of points, lines, surfaces, and solids. They study construction methods for drawing figures, a wealth of facts about these figures, and above all, methods to prove the facts. They learn about triangle measure for circular motion, sine and cosine, tangent

  10. Kinematic geometry of gearing

    CERN Document Server

    Dooner, David B

    2012-01-01

    Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat

  11. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  12. Geometry of conics

    CERN Document Server

    Akopyan, A V

    2007-01-01

    The book is devoted to the properties of conics (plane curves of second degree) that can be formulated and proved using only elementary geometry. Starting with the well-known optical properties of conics, the authors move to less trivial results, both classical and contemporary. In particular, the chapter on projective properties of conics contains a detailed analysis of the polar correspondence, pencils of conics, and the Poncelet theorem. In the chapter on metric properties of conics the authors discuss, in particular, inscribed conics, normals to conics, and the Poncelet theorem for confoca

  13. Geometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Geometry I includes methods of proof, points, lines, planes, angles, congruent angles and line segments, triangles, parallelism, quadrilaterals, geometric inequalities, and geometric

  14. Teaching of Geometry in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankov, Kiril

    2013-01-01

    Geometry plays an important role in the school mathematics curriculum all around the world. Teaching of geometry varies a lot (Hoyls, Foxman, & Kuchemann, 2001). Many countries revise the objectives, the content, and the approaches to the geometry in school. Studies of the processes show that there are not common trends of these changes…

  15. Adiponectin promotes VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis by inhibiting miR-27b through a CaMKII/AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yin; Chang, An-Chen; Chen, Hsien-Te; Wang, Shih-Wei; Lo, Yuan-Shun; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-09-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequently occurring type of bone malignancy characterized by distant metastatic propensity. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is the major lymphangiogenic factor, and makes crucial contributions to tumour lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes. In recent years, adiponectin has also been indicated as facilitating tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the effect of adiponectin on VEGF-C regulation and lymphangiogenesis in chondrosarcoma has remained largely a mystery. In the present study, we have shown a clinical correlation between adiponectin and VEGF-C, as well as tumour stage, in human chondrosarcoma tissues. We further demonstrated that adiponectin promoted VEGF-C expression and secretion in human chondrosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium from adiponectin-treated cells significantly induced tube formation and migration of human lymphatic endothelial cells. In addition, adiponectin knock down inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo We also found that adiponectin-induced VEGF-C is mediated by the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the expression of miR-27b was negatively regulated by adiponectin via the CaMKII, AMPK and p38 cascade. The present study is the first to describe the mechanism of adiponectin-promoted lymphangiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF-C expression in chondrosarcomas. Thus, adiponectin could serve as a therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis and lymphangiogenesis.

  16. Correlation Between Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Insulin Resistance and Atherogenic Dyslipidemia in Non Diabetic Central Obese Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Ninghayu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity raises the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD through many risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is characterized by high levels of triglyceride, increased small dense low density lipoprotein particles, and reduced levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The exact mechanisms of central obesity and this atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP is not clearly understood. Central obesity is characterized by a state of systemic low grade inflammation and insulin resistance. Adipose tissue has recently been shown to secrete a variety of bioactive peptides, called adipocytokines, that can potentially affect glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to observe the role of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and insulin resistance in atherogenic dyslipidemia in nondiabetic central obese males. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 75 non-diabetic central obese male subjects (waist circumferences >90 cm. Adiponectin and TNF-α testing were performed by ELISA; insulin resistance was assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA index, triglyceride was assessed by GPO-PAP, HDL cholesterol and small dense LDL were measured by homogenous method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS for Windows v. 11.5 with a significance level at p<0.05. The Pearson and Spearman’s Rho correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between various anthropometric and biochemical parameters. RESULTS: There were 75 patients aged 38.0±6.3 years, Adiponectin concentration was 3.55±1.38 μg/ml, HOMA index was 2.28±1.63, TNF-α was 12.42±11.25 pg/ml, triglyceride was 185.17±109.00, HDL-cholesterol was 44.15±9.23 mg/dL, small dense LDL 23.22±12.26 mg/dL. This study revealed that there were correlations between adiponectin and triglyceride (r=-0.236, p=0.042, adiponectin and HDL cholesterol (r=0.300, p=0.009, adiponectin and atherogenic

  17. Filter paper blood spot enzyme linked immunoassay for adiponectin and application in the evaluation of determinants of child insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts as a marker of insulin sensitivity. Bloodspot sampling by fingerstick onto filter paper may increase the feasibility of large-scale studies of the determinants of insulin sensitivity. We first describe the validation of an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA for quantifying adiponectin from dried blood spots and then demonstrate its application in a large trial (PROBIT. METHODS: We quantified adiponectin from 3-mm diameter discs (≈3 µL of blood punched from dried blood spots obtained from: i whole blood standards (validation; and ii PROBIT trial samples (application in which paediatricians collected blood spots from 13,879 children aged 11.5 years from 31 sites across Belarus. We examined the distribution of bloodspot adiponectin by demographic and anthropometric factors, fasting insulin and glucose. RESULTS: In the validation study, mean intra-assay coefficients of variation (n=162 were 15%, 13% and 10% for 'low' (6.78 µg/ml, 'medium' (18.18 µg/ml and 'high' (33.13 µg/ml internal quality control (IQC samples, respectively; the respective inter-assay values (n=40 were 23%, 21% and 14%. The correlation coefficient between 50 paired whole bloodspot versus plasma samples, collected simultaneously, was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.93. Recovery of known quantities of adiponectin (between 4.5 to 36 µg/ml was 100.3-133%. Bloodspot adiponectin was stable for at least 30 months at -80°C. In PROBIT, we successfully quantified fasting adiponectin from dried blood spots in 13,329 of 13,879 (96% children. Mean adiponectin (standard deviation concentrations were 17.34 µg/ml (7.54 in boys and 18.41 µg/ml (7.92 in girls and were inversely associated with body mass index, fat mass, triceps and subscapular skin-fold thickness, waist circumference, height and fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Bloodspot ELISA is suitable for measuring adiponectin in very small volumes of blood collected on filter paper

  18. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Updated:Sep 16,2016 If you've had ... degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) you have. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Angioplasty Also known as Percutaneous Coronary Interventions [PCI], ...

  19. [Advances in cardiac pacing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carranza, María-José Sancho-Tello; Fidalgo-Andrés, María Luisa; Ferrer, José Martínez; Mateas, Francisco Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a review of the current status of remote monitoring and follow-up involving cardiac pacing devices and of the latest developments in cardiac resynchronization therapy. In addition, the most important articles published in the last year are discussed.

  20. Adiponectin inhibits neutrophil apoptosis via activation of AMP kinase, PKB and ERK 1/2 MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandra; Lord, Janet M

    2013-12-01

    Neutrophils are abundant, short-lived leukocytes that play a key role in the immune defense against microbial infections. These cells die by apoptosis following activation and uptake of microbes and will also enter apoptosis spontaneously at the end of their lifespan if they do not encounter a pathogen. Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophil antimicrobial functions, but whether this abundant adipokine influences neutrophil apoptosis is unknown. Here we report that adiponectin in the physiological range (1-10 μg/ml) reduced apoptosis in resting neutrophils, decreasing caspase-3 cleavage and maintaining Mcl-1 expression by stabilizing this anti-apoptotic protein. We show that adiponectin induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (PKB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK, PKB and ERK 1/2 ablated the pro-survival effects of adiponectin and treatment of neutrophils with an AMPK specific activator (AICAR) and AMPK inhibitor (compound C) respectively decreased and increased apoptosis. Finally, activation of AMPK by AICAR or adiponectin also decreased ceramide accumulation in the neutrophil cell membrane, a process involved in the early stages of spontaneous apoptosis, giving another possible mechanism downstream of AMPK activation for the inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis.

  1. Fish Oil N-3 Fatty Acids Increase Adiponectin and Decrease Leptin Levels in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI score (p ˂ 0.023 in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ˂ 0.026 and decreased leptin levels (p ˂ 0.024 compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE.

  2. The Myocyte Expression of Adiponectin Receptors and PPARδ Is Highly Coordinated and Reflects Lipid Metabolism of the Human Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Ordelheide

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle lipid oxidation is stimulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR δ or adiponectin receptor signalling. We studied human myocyte expression of the PPARδ and adiponectin receptor genes and their relationship to lipid parameters of the donors. The mRNA levels of the three adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin, were highly interrelated (r≥0.91. However, they were not associated with GPBAR1, an unrelated membrane receptor. In addition, the adiponectin receptors were positively associated with PPARδ expression (r≥0.75. However, they were not associated with PPARα. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, PPARδ was a significant determinant of T-cadherin (P=.0002. However, pharmacological PPARδ activation did not increase T-cadherin expression. The myocyte expression levels of AdipoR1 and T-cadherin were inversely associated with the donors' fasting plasma triglycerides (P<.03. In conclusion, myocyte expression of PPARδ and the adiponectin receptors are highly coordinated, and this might be of relevance for human lipid metabolism in vivo.

  3. Relationships between serum adiponectin and soluble TNF-α receptors and glucose and lipid oxidation in lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, A; Nikołajuk, A; Karczewska-Kupczewska, M; Kowalska, I; Otziomek, E; Górska, M; Strączkowski, M

    2012-02-01

    Insulin resistance might be associated with an impaired ability of insulin to stimulate glucose oxidation and inhibit lipid oxidation. Insulin action is also inversely associated with TNF-α system and positively related to adiponectin. The aim of the present study was to analyze the associations between serum adiponectin, soluble TNF-α receptors concentrations and the whole-body insulin sensitivity, lipid and glucose oxidation, non-oxidative glucose metabolism (NOGM) and metabolic flexibility in lean and obese subjects. We examined 53 subjects: 25 lean (BMI 25 kg × m(-2)) with normal glucose tolerance. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and indirect calorimetry were performed. An increase in respiratory exchange ratio in response to insulin was used as a measure of metabolic flexibility. Obese subjects had lower insulin sensitivity, adiponectin and higher sTNFR1 (all P rate of glucose (r = 0.47, P flexibility (r = 0.36, P = 0.007). Serum sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 were associated with the rate of glucose (r = -0.45, P = 0.001; r = -0.51, P flexibility (r = -0.47 and r = -0.51, respectively, both P < 0.001) in an opposite manner than adiponectin. Our data suggest that soluble TNF-α receptors and adiponectin have multiple effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity.

  4. Serum Adiponectin, Vitamin D, and Alpha-Fetoprotein in Children with Chronic Hepatitis C: Can They Predict Treatment Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Mohamed Ahmed; Sira, Ahmad Mohamed; Saber, Magdy Anwar; Raia, Gamal Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims. The currently available treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in children is costly and with much toxicity. So, predicting the likelihood of response before starting therapy is important. Methods. Serum adiponectin, vitamin D, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured before starting pegylated-interferon/ribavirin therapy for 50 children with CHC. Another 21 healthy children were recruited as controls. Results. Serum adiponectin, vitamin D, and AFP were higher in the CHC group than healthy controls (p < 0.0001, p = 0.071, and p = 0.87, resp.). In univariate analysis, serum adiponectin was significantly higher in responders than nonresponders (p < 0.0001) and at a cutoff value ≥8.04 ng/mL it can predict treatment response by 77.8% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity, while both AFP and viremia were significantly lower in responders than nonresponders, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003, respectively, and at cutoff values ≤3.265 ng/mL and ≤235,384 IU/mL, respectively, they can predict treatment response with a sensitivity of 83.3% for both and specificity of 85.7% and 78.6%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, adiponectin was found to be the only independent predictor of treatment response (p = 0.044). Conclusions. The pretreatment serum level of adiponectin can predict the likelihood of treatment response, thus avoiding toxicities for those unlikely to respond to therapy.

  5. Serum Adiponectin, Vitamin D, and Alpha-Fetoprotein in Children with Chronic Hepatitis C: Can They Predict Treatment Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Khedr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims. The currently available treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC in children is costly and with much toxicity. So, predicting the likelihood of response before starting therapy is important. Methods. Serum adiponectin, vitamin D, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were measured before starting pegylated-interferon/ribavirin therapy for 50 children with CHC. Another 21 healthy children were recruited as controls. Results. Serum adiponectin, vitamin D, and AFP were higher in the CHC group than healthy controls (p<0.0001, p=0.071, and p=0.87, resp.. In univariate analysis, serum adiponectin was significantly higher in responders than nonresponders (p<0.0001 and at a cutoff value ≥8.04 ng/mL it can predict treatment response by 77.8% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity, while both AFP and viremia were significantly lower in responders than nonresponders, p<0.0001 and p=0.0003, respectively, and at cutoff values ≤3.265 ng/mL and ≤235,384 IU/mL, respectively, they can predict treatment response with a sensitivity of 83.3% for both and specificity of 85.7% and 78.6%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, adiponectin was found to be the only independent predictor of treatment response (p=0.044. Conclusions. The pretreatment serum level of adiponectin can predict the likelihood of treatment response, thus avoiding toxicities for those unlikely to respond to therapy.

  6. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  7. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  8. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and measures of glucose and lipid metabolism following pioglitazone treatment in a randomized placebo-controlled study in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Frystyk, J.; Hojlund, K.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that the effect of adiponectin on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism is mediated primarily by the high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin. In the present study we evaluated total and HMW adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients...

  9. Real algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bochnak, Jacek; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1998-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of real algebraic geometry, a subject that has strong interrelation with other areas of mathematics: singularity theory, differential topology, quadratic forms, commutative algebra, model theory, complexity theory etc. The careful and clearly written account covers both basic concepts and up-to-date research topics. It may be used as text for a graduate course. The present edition is a substantially revised and expanded English version of the book "Géometrie algébrique réelle" originally published in French, in 1987, as Volume 12 of ERGEBNISSE. Since the publication of the French version the theory has made advances in several directions. Many of these are included in this English version. Thus the English book may be regarded as a completely new treatment of the subject.

  10. Covariant Macroscopic Quantum Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, Craig J

    2012-01-01

    A covariant noncommutative algebra of position operators is presented, and interpreted as the macroscopic limit of a geometry that describes a collective quantum behavior of the positions of massive bodies in a flat emergent space-time. The commutator defines a quantum-geometrical relationship between world lines that depends on their separation and relative velocity, but on no other property of the bodies, and leads to a transverse uncertainty of the geometrical wave function that increases with separation. The number of geometrical degrees of freedom in a space-time volume scales holographically, as the surface area in Planck units. Ongoing branching of the wave function causes fluctuations in transverse position, shared coherently among bodies with similar trajectories. The theory can be tested using appropriately configured Michelson interferometers.

  11. Advanced geometries and regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Bulanov, S. V.; Turchetti, G.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Stockem, A.; Fiuza, F.; Silva, L. O.; Antici, P.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.

    2013-08-01

    We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project. At the request of the Proceedings Editors and Dr. Stepan Bulanov, University of California, Berkeley, the above article has been updated to include three additional authors: A. Stockem, F. Fiuza, and L. O. Silva. All additional authors have consented to their name being added to the paper. Furthermore, the updated article PDF contains amendments to a number of references as detailed within the pages attached to the end of the updated article PDF file. The updated article was re-published on 8 August 2013.

  12. Critique of information geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skilling, John, E-mail: skilling@eircom.net [Maximum Entropy Data Consultants Ltd, Kenmare (Ireland)

    2014-12-05

    As applied to probability, information geometry fails because probability distributions do not form a metric space. Probability theory rests on a compelling foundation of elementary symmetries, which also support information (aka minus entropy, Kullback-Leibler) H(p;q) as the unique measure of divergence from source probability distribution q to destination p. Because the only compatible connective H is from≠to asymmetric, H(p;q)≠H(q;p), there can be no compatible geometrical distance (which would necessarily be from=to symmetric). Hence there is no distance relationship compatible with the structure of probability theory. Metrics g and densities sqrt(det(g)) interpreted as prior probabilities follow from the definition of distance, and must fail likewise. Various metrics and corresponding priors have been proposed, Fisher's being the most popular, but all must behave unacceptably. This is illustrated with simple counter-examples.

  13. Linear geometry thyratron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, S.

    1985-03-01

    The low pressure gas-filled thyratron is scalable in the long dimension. Internally the tube is formed as a tetrode, with an auxiliary grid placed between the cathode and the control grid. A dc or pulsed power source drives the auxiliary grid both to insure uniform cathode emission and to provide a grid-cathode plasma prior to commutation. The high voltage holdoff structure consists of the anode, the control grid and its electrostatic shielding baffles, and a main quartz insulator. A small gas flow supply and exhaust system is used that eliminates the need for a hydrogen reservoir and permits other gases, such as helium, to be used. The thyratron provides a low inductance, high current, long lifetime switch configuration: useful for switch-on applications involving large scale lasers and other similar loads that are distributed in a linear geometry.

  14. Adiponectin concentration is associated with muscle insulin sensitivity, AMPK phosphorylation and ceramide content in skeletal muslce of men, but not women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise Dalgas; Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine that regulates metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity. Mechanisms behind this insulin sensitizing effect have been investigated in rodents, but little is known in humans especially in skeletal muscle. Women have higher serum concentrations of adiponectin than men...

  15. 循环脂联素:肝细胞癌的一种潜在预后指标%Circulating adiponectin: a potential prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed E. E. Shams; Mohammed M. H. Al-Gayyar; Enaase A. M. E. Barakat; Mohamed A. Ebrahim; Mamdouh M. El-Shishtawy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We planned this study to investigate the relation between serum adiponectin level and hepatocel-lular carcinoma (HCC): risk, features and prognosis. Methods: The study included 100 patients with HCC and 40 healthy control subjects. Adiponectin levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: In the subset of patients with compensated cirrhosis, the mean serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in HCC cases compared to healthy controls (88.6 versus 115 ng/mL; P = 0.012). In addition, serum adiponectin levels correlated negatively with tumor size (P = 0.004) and were significantly lower in patients with vascular invasion and distant metastases (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02 respectively). Furthermore, the median overall survival was significantly higher in the high adiponectin group than the low adiponectin group (median 12.5 versus 9.5 months; log rank = 4.6, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Decreased circulating adiponectin level may play a role in the development of HCC and is a potential poor prognostic marker. These data should be validated in further prospective studies. Also the mechanisms by which adiponectin affect the course of HCC need to be clarified.

  16. Clear detection of ADIPOQ locus as the major gene for plasma adiponectin: Results of genome-wide association analyses including 4659 European individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Heid (Iris); P. Henneman (Peter); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); S. Coassin (Stefan); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); K. Song (Kijoung); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Timpson (Nicholas); J.B. Richards (Brent); J.R.B. Perry (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N. Amin (Najaf); B. Kollerits (Barbara); I. Pichler (Irene); B.A. Oostra (Ben); B. Thorand (Barbara); R.R. Frants (Rune); T. Illig (Thomas); J. Dupuis (Josée); B. Glaser (Beate); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); J.M. Egan (Josephine); J.C. Florez (Jose); D.M. Evans (David); N. Soranzo (Nicole); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); O.D. Carlson (Olga); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); K.A. Burling (Keith); G.D. Smith; V. Mooser (Vincent); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.B. Meigs (James); P. Vollenweider (Peter); K.W.v. Dijk; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); F. Kronenberg (Florian); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Plasma adiponectin is strongly associated with various components of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes. Concentrations are highly heritable and differ between men and women. We therefore aimed to investigate the genetics of plasma adiponectin in m

  17. Reduced plasma adiponectin concentrations may contribute to impaired insulin activation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, K.; Frystyk, J.; Levin, K.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Circulating levels of adiponectin are negatively associated with multiple indices of insulin resistance, and the concentration is reduced in humans with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms by which adiponectin improves insulin sensitivity remain unclea...

  18. Mendelian randomization studies do not support a causal role for reduced circulating adiponectin levels in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Yaghootkar (Hanieh); C. Lamina (Claudia); R.A. Scott (Robert); Z. Dastani (Zari); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); L.L. Warren (Liling); A. Stancáková (Alena); S.G. Buxbaum (Sarah); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); P. Henneman (Peter); Y. Wu (Ying); C.Y.Y. Cheung (Chloe); J.S. Pankow (James); A.U. Jackson (Anne); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); J.H. Zhao (Jing); C. Ballantyne (Christie); W. Xie (Weijia); R.N. Bergman (Richard); M. Boehnke (Michael); F. El Bouazzaoui (Fatiha); F.S. Collins (Francis); S.H. Dunn (Sandra); J. Dupuis (Josée); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); J. Hong (Jaeyoung); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); L. Kedenko (Lyudmyla); F. Kronenberg (Florian); A. Doria (Andrea); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); E. Ferrannini (Ele); T. Hansen (Torben); K. Hao (Ke); H. Häring (Hans); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); J.J. Nolan (John); J. Paananen (Jussi); O. Pedersen (Oluf); T. Quertermous (Thomas); U. Smith (Ulf); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); A.D. Morris (Andrew); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); J. Viikari (Jorma); N. Zhu (Na); C. Langenberg (Claudia); E. Ingelsson (Erik); R.K. Semple (Robert); A. Sinaiko (Alan); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); M. Walker (Mark); K.S.L. Lam (Karen); B. Paulweber (Bernhard); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Bidulescu (Aurelian); N.J. Wareham (Nick); M. Laakso (Markku); D. Waterworth (Dawn); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J.B. Meigs (James); J.B. Richards (J. Brent); T.M. Frayling (Timothy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAdiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used gene

  19. Adiponectin and Insulin in Gray Seals during Suckling and Fasting: Relationship with Nutritional State and Body Mass during Nursing in Mothers and Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K A; Hughes, J; Stamatas, S; Brand, S; Foster, N L; Moss, S E W; Pomeroy, P P

    2015-01-01

    Animals that fast during breeding and/or development, such as phocids, must regulate energy balance carefully to maximize reproductive fitness and survival probability. Adiponectin, produced by adipose tissue, contributes to metabolic regulation by modulating sensitivity to insulin, increasing fatty acid oxidation by liver and muscle, and promoting adipogenesis and lipid storage in fat tissue. We tested the hypotheses that (1) circulating adiponectin, insulin, or relative adiponectin gene expression is related to nutritional state, body mass, and mass gain in wild gray seal pups; (2) plasma adiponectin or insulin is related to maternal lactation duration, body mass, percentage milk fat, or free fatty acid (FFA) concentration; and (3) plasma adiponectin and insulin are correlated with circulating FFA in females and pups. In pups, plasma adiponectin decreased during suckling (linear mixed-effects model [LME]: T = 4.49; P nutritional state, were also positively related to body mass (LME: T = 3.58; P = 0.004). Adiponectin and insulin levels did not change during lactation and were unrelated to milk FFA or percentage milk fat in adult females. Our data suggest that adiponectin, in conjunction with insulin, may facilitate fat storage in seals and is likely to be particularly important in the development of blubber reserves in pups.

  20. Mendelian Randomisation Studies Do Not Support a Causal Role for Reduced Circulating Adiponectin Levels in Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lamina, Claudia; Scott, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic varian...

  1. Magnetism in curved geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Fischer, Peter; Kronast, Florian; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Sheka, Denis D.; Gaididei, Yuri; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2016-09-01

    Extending planar two-dimensional structures into the three-dimensional space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring the geometry of an object, e.g. its local curvature. In a generic electronic system, curvature results in the appearance of scalar and vector geometric potentials inducing anisotropic and chiral effects. In the specific case of magnetism, even in the simplest case of a curved anisotropic Heisenberg magnet, the curvilinear geometry manifests two exchange-driven interactions, namely effective anisotropy and antisymmetric exchange, i.e. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-like interaction. As a consequence, a family of novel curvature-driven effects emerges, which includes magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning, resulting in theoretically predicted unlimited domain wall velocities, chirality symmetry breaking and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons. The broad range of altered physical properties makes these curved architectures appealing in view of fundamental research on e.g. skyrmionic systems, magnonic crystals or exotic spin configurations. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of three-dimensionally shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications, spin-wave filters, advanced magneto-encephalography devices for diagnosis of epilepsy or for energy-efficient racetrack memory devices. These recent developments ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication of three-dimensionally curved magnetic thin films, hollow cylinders or wires, to their characterization using integral means as well as the development of advanced tomography approaches are in the focus of this review.

  2. Klein geometries, parabolic geometries and differential equations of finite type

    CERN Document Server

    Abadoglu, Ender

    2009-01-01

    We define the infinitesimal and geometric orders of an effective Klein geometry G/H. Using these concepts, we prove i) For any integer m>1, there exists an effective Klein geometry G/H of infinitesimal order m such that G/H is a projective variety (Corollary 9). ii) An effective Klein geometry G/H of geometric order M defines a differential equation of order M+1 on G/H whose global solution space is G (Proposition 18).

  3. Globular adiponectin protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells against apoptosis through adiponectin receptor 1/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yu; ZHAO Min; YI Tong-ning; ZHANG Jin

    2011-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.Apoptosis may lead to endothelial dysfunction and contribute to vascular complications. However, no study has addressed apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by an intermittent high-glucose media and its association with adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1), adipoR2, or adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK).Methods HUVECs were cultured in continuous normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L), continuous high glucose (25 mmol/L),alternating normal and high glucose and mannitol. In the alternating normal and high-glucose media, HUVECs were treated under different conditions. First, cells were transfected with the adipoR1-specific small-interfering RNA (siRNA)and then stimulated with globular adiponectin (gAD). Second, cells were cultured in both gAD and the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). Third, cells were cultured in the AMPK inhibitor adenine-9-β-D-arabino-furanoside (araA), gAD, and in AICAR.Results HUVEC apoptosis increased more significantly in an intermittent high-glucose medium than in a constant high-glucose medium. HUVEC apoptosis induced by an intermittent high-glucose medium was inhibited when the cells were pretreated with 3 μg/ml gAD, which rapidly activated AMPK and adipoR1 in HUVECs. However, adipoR2 was not activated.Conclusions We found that adipoR1, not adipoR2, is involved in mediating intermittent high-concentration glucoseevoked apoptosis in endothelial cells. gAD activated AMPK through adipoR1, leads to the partial inhibition of HUVEC apoptosis. A fluctuating glucose medium is more harmful than a constant high-glucose medium to endothelial cells.

  4. Thyroid status influence on adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and complement C3 in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianhua

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid abnormalities (hyperthyroid and hypothyroid are accompanied by changes in intermediary metabolism including alterations in body weight, insulin resistance and lipid profile. The aims of this study were to examine plasma ASP, its precursor C3 and adiponectin in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls. Methods A total of 99 subjects were recruited from endocrinology/out-patient clinics: 46 hyperthyroid subjects, 23 hypothyroid subjects and 30 control subjects. Subjects were evaluated for FT4, FT3, TSH, glucose, insulin, complete lipid profile and the adipokines: adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and complement C3. Results Hyperthyroidism was associated with a 95% increase in adiponectin (p = 0.0002, a 47% decrease in C3 (p Conclusion These changes suggest that thyroid disease may be accompanied by changes in adipokines, which may contribute to the phenotype expressed.

  5. Characterisation of adiponectin multimers and the IGF axis in humans with a heterozygote mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Low levels of adiponectin, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, and IGFBP-2, and high levels of leptin correlate with several indices of insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. However, in insulin receptoropathies plasma adiponectin is paradoxically increased despite severe insulin r...... in insulin receptor deficient individuals.......Objective: Low levels of adiponectin, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, and IGFBP-2, and high levels of leptin correlate with several indices of insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. However, in insulin receptoropathies plasma adiponectin is paradoxically increased despite severe insulin...... resistance, whereas the IGF-axis is sparsely described. Here, we aimed to characterize the multimeric distribution of adiponectin and the IGF-axis in humans with a heterozygous INSR mutation (Arg1174Gln).Methods: Blood samples obtained in six Arg1174Gln-carriers and 10 lean, healthy controls before and after...

  6. Higher geometry an introduction to advanced methods in analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Frederick S

    2005-01-01

    For students of mathematics with a sound background in analytic geometry and some knowledge of determinants, this volume has long been among the best available expositions of advanced work on projective and algebraic geometry. Developed from Professor Woods' lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it bridges the gap between intermediate studies in the field and highly specialized works.With exceptional thoroughness, it presents the most important general concepts and methods of advanced algebraic geometry (as distinguished from differential geometry). It offers a thorough study

  7. A rabbit model of pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis:The role of adiponectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Fen Fu; Yan-Lan Fang; Li Liang; Chun-Lin Wang; Fang Hong; Guan-Ping Dong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To create a rabbit model of pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and to evaluate the role of adiponectin in the process. METHODS: Thirty-two specific pathogen-free male New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into three groups: (1) the normal control group ( n = 10) was fed with standard diet for 12 wk; (2) the model group A ( n = 11); and (3) model group B ( n = 11) were fed with a highfat diet (standard diet + 10% lard + 2% cholesterol) for 8 and 12 wk, respectively. Hepatic histological changes were observed and biochemical parameters as well as serum levels of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. RESULTS: Typical histological hepatic lesions of NASH were observed in both model groups described as liver steatosis, liver inflammatory infiltration, cytologic ballooning, perisinusoidal fibrosis and overall fibrosis.Compared with the normal control group, there were significant increases in model groups A and B in weight gain (1097.2 ± 72.3, 1360.5 ± 107.6 vs 928.0 ± 58.1, P < 0.05, P < 0.01), liver weight (93.81 ± 6.64, 104.6 ± 4.42 vs 54.4 ± 1.71, P < 0.01), Lg (ALT) (1.9 ± 0.29, 1.84 ± 0.28 vs 1.60 ± 0.17, P < 0.01), and Lg (TG) (1.03 ± 0.24, 1.16 ± 0.33 vs 0.00 ± 0.16, P < 0.01). Weight gain was much more in model group B than in model group A (1360.5 ± 107.6 vs 1097.2 ± 72.3, P < 0.05). But, there was no significant difference between the two groups concerning the other indexes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) increased in model group B compared with that of control and model group A (IL-6: 1.86 ± 0.21 vs 1.41 ± 0.33, 1.38 ± 0.42, P < 0.01; TNF-α: 1.18 ± 0.07 vs 0.66 ± 0.08, 0.86 ± 0.43, P < 0.01, P < 0.05),whereas serum adiponectin and IL-10 decreased in model groups compared with that in the control (adiponectin:A: 21.87 ± 4.84 and B: 21.48 ± 4.60 vs 27.36 ± 7.29,P < 0.05. IL-10: A: 1.72 ± 0.38 and B: 1.83 ± 0.39 vs 2.26 ± 0.24, P < 0.01). Lg (TC) and

  8. Roles of adipocyte derived hormone adiponectin and resistin in insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ling Lu; Hong-Wei Wang; Yu Wen; Mu-Xun Zhang; Han-Hua Lin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect plasma levels of new adipocyte derived hormone adiponectin and resistin in type 2 diabetes patients and to explore their potential roles in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.METHODS: According to the body mass index (BMI),60 type 2 diabetes patients were divided into two groups, one group was non-obese diabetes patients with BMI < 25Kg/M2 (30 cases) and the other group was obese diabetes patients with BMI >25Kg/M2 (30 cases).There were 28 healthy persons in the control group.ELISA technique was employed to determine the plasma adiponectin and resistin concentrations. The fasting blood glucose, insulin and blood lipid were detected respectively by electrocheminescence immunoassay and immunoturbidimetric assay. Insulin resistance index and insulin sensitive index were calculated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMO).RESULTS: The levels of plasma adiponectin were decreased significantly in diabetes group compared to that in control group (non-obese: 8.58±0.86, obese: 6.22±1.34 vs 10.53±1.47 P<0.05); moreover, adiponectin concentration in obese diabetes group was significantly decreased compared to that in non-obese diabetes group (6.22±1.34 vs 8.58±0.86, P<0.05). The levels of plasma resistin were increased significantly in diabetes group compared to that in control group (obese: 18.64 ± 4.65, non-obese: 24.05±9.07 vs 14.16±5.25, P<0.05,P< 0.05); furthermore, the levels of resistin in obese diabetes group were increased significantly compared to that in non-obese diabetes group (P<0.05). Plasma adiponectin was correlated negatively with BMI, blood glucose, insulin resistance index and triglyceride (respectively, r=-0.55, P<0.01; r=-0.51, P<0.05; r=-0.52,P<0.05; r=-0.39, P<0.05), while it was positively correlated with insulin sensitive index (r=0.45, P< 0.05).Conversely, plasma resistin correlated positively with BMI, blood glucose, triglyceride and insulin resistance index (respectively, r=0.40, P<0.05; r=0

  9. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Rekha; Herrmann, Joerg

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001-0.03% in most autopsy series). They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1) thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2) cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3) primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  10. Effect of Weight Gain on Cardiac Autonomic Control During Wakefulness and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Taro; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Calvin, Andrew D.; Singh, Prachi; Romero-Corral, Abel; van der Walt, Christelle; Davison, Diane E.; Bukartyk, Jan; Konecny, Tomas; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Somers, Virend K.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness, but the effect on sleep-related sympathetic modulation is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fat gain on cardiac autonomic control during wakefulness and sleep in humans. We performed a randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on heart rate variability (HRV). We recruited 36 healthy volunteers, who were randomized to either a standardized diet to gain approximately 4 kg over 8 weeks followed by an 8 week weight loss period (n=20), or to serve as a weight-maintainer control (n=16). An overnight polysomnogram with power spectral analysis of HRV was performed at baseline, after weight gain, and after weight loss to determine the ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF) power, and to examine the relationship between changes in HRV and changes in insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels. Mean weight gain was 3.9 kg in the fat gain group versus 0.1 kg in the maintainer group. LF/HF increased both during wakefulness and sleep after fat gain and returned to baseline after fat loss in the fat gain group, and did not change in the control group. Insulin, leptin and adiponectin also increased after fat gain and fell after fat loss, but no clear pattern of changes were seen that correlated consistently with changes in HRV. Short-term fat gain in healthy subjects is associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness and sleep but the mechanisms remain unclear. PMID:21357280

  11. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad Pala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL, the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3 μg/L and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.001 as compared to age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Estradiol concentration of controls was higher than that of patients (P = 0.018. Patients with prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027 as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029, with a further decline at 6 months (P < 0.001 of cabergoline therapy. Furthermore, there was a significant decrement of BMI (P < 0.001, waist circumference (P = 0.003, waist-hip ratio (P = 0.03, total body fat (P = 0.003, plasma glucose (P < 0.001, leptin levels (P = 0.013, and an increase in estradiol concentration (P = 0.03 at 6 months of cabergoline treatment. Conclusion: Patients with prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities.

  12. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  13. Adiponectin gene polymorphism is selectively associated with the concomitant presence of metabolic syndrome and essential hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Bang Leu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular risk increases with the presence of both metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypertension (HTN. Although the adiponectin (ADIPOQ gene has been reported to be involved in MetS, its association with HTN remained undetermined. This study aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ gene with the phenotypes of HTN and MetS. METHODS: A total of 962 participants from 302 families from the Taiwan young-onset hypertension genetic study were enrolled. Plasma adiponectin were measured, and association analysis was conducted by using GEE regression-based method. Another study, of 1448 unrelated participants, was conducted to replicate the association between ADIPOQ gene and variable phenotypes of MetS with or without HTN. RESULTS: Among 962 subjects from family samples, the lowest plasma adiponectin value was observed in MetS with HTN component (9.3±0.47 µg/ml compared with hypertensives (13.4±0.74 µg /ml or MetS without HTN (11.9±0.60 µg/ml, P<0.05. The SNP rs1501299 (G276T in ADIPOQ gene was found associated with the presence of HTN in MetS (odds ratio for GG+GT vs. TT = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.14-5.3, p = 0.02, but not rs2241766 (T45G. No association of ADIPOQ gene with HTN alone or MetS without HTN was observed. The significant association of the SNP rs1501299 (G276T with the phenotype of presence of HTN in MetS was confirmed (odds ratio for GG+GT vs. TT = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.1-4.3 in the replication study. CONCLUSIONS: ADIPOQ genetic variants were selectively and specifically associated with the concomitant presence of MetS and HTN, suggesting potential genetic linkage between MetS and HTN.

  14. Leptin and adiponectin, but not IL18, are related with insulin resistance in treated HIV-1-infected patients with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Sergi; Escoté, Xavier; Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; López-Dupla, Miguel; Peraire, Joaquim; Viladés, Consuelo; Domingo, Pere; Castro, Antoni; Olona, Montserrat; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Leal, Manuel; Vendrell, Joan; Richart, Cristóbal; Vidal, Francesc

    2012-05-01

    Leptin, adiponectin and IL18 are adipokines related with obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in the general population. Treated HIV-1-infected patients with lipodystrophy may develop insulin resistance and proatherogenic dyslipidemia. We assessed the relationship between plasma adipokine levels, adipokine genetics, lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbances. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and IL18 levels were assessed in 446 individuals: 282 HIV-1-infected patients treated with antiretroviral drugs (132 with lipodystrophy and 150 without) and 164 uninfected controls (UC). The LEP2410A>G, LEPRQ223R, ADIPQ276G>T, ADIPOR2-Intron5A>G and IL18-607C>A polymorphisms were validated by sequencing. Leptin levels were higher in UC than in HIV-1-infected, either with or without lipodystrophy (plipodystrophy compared with those without lipodystrophy (p=0.006). In patients with lipodystrophy, leptin had a positive correlation with insulin and with HOMA-IR. Adiponectin levels were non-significantly different in UC and HIV-1-infected patients. Patients with lipodystrophy had lower adiponectin levels than non-lipodystrophy subjects (plipodystrophy, adiponectin was negatively correlated with insulin, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Plasma IL18 levels were higher in HIV-1-infected patients compared with UC (plipodystrophy. In patients with lipodystrophy there was a negative correlation between IL18 levels and LDLc. Genetic analyses indicated no significant associations with lipodystrophy nor with insulin resistance or with lipid abnormalities. In conclusion, HIV-1-infected patients have reduced plasma leptin levels. This reduction is magnified in patients with lipodystrophy whose adiponectin levels were lower than that of non-lipodystrophy subjects. Plasma IL18 levels are increased in infected patients irrespective of the presence of lipodystrophy. The polymorphisms assessed are not associated with lipodystrophy or metabolic disturbances in treated HIV-1-infected patients.

  15. The association of adiponectin gene promoter variations with non-small cell lung cancer in a Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfu Li

    Full Text Available Recently, in vitro studies have demonstrated that adiponectin has antiangiogenic and tumor growth-limiting properties. Additionally, serum adiponectin levels have been associated with the risk of several cancers; specifically, serum adiponectin was significantly lower in lung cancer patients with advanced-stage disease. In this study, we examined the association of adiponectin gene promoter variations associated with adiponectin gene expression and plasma levels in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in a Han Chinese population. A total of 319 patients with NSCLC and 489 healthy individuals were recruited to evaluate the association of four adiponectin gene promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (SNP-12140G>A, SNP-11426A>G, SNP-11391G>A and SNP-11377C>G with NSCLS risk. Additionally, we constructed haplotypes of these four SNPs and evaluated the association of these haplotypes with NSCLS risk. Our results showed that among these four SNPs, only SNP-12140G>A was associated with NSCLC risk (P0.05. Additionally, an association analysis of the four SNPs stratified into pathologic stages I+II and III+IV showed that these SNPs did not exhibit significant differences between pathologic stages I+II and III+IV. Moreover, we did not observe any differences in allele and genotype frequency for these SNPs between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Our results indicated that the G allele of SNP-12140 may be a risk factor for NSCLC (OR = 1.516; 95% CI: 1.098-2.094 in this Han Chinese population.

  16. Adiponectin and highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels in obese children aged 9 to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frecillia Regina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is a widespread and growing problem associated with health problems such problem associated with health problems such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade chronic inflammatory state, reflected by decreased adiponectin and increased highly sensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP levels, may play a role in metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Objective To assess and compare adiponectin and hsCRP levels in obese and normal weight children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled study in Manado from May to July 2010. Subjects were selected from obese, but otherwise healthy childrenaged 9-15 years. Control subjects were schoolmates with normal body mass index (BMI. We performed physical examinations, measured blood pressure, weight and height, and calculated BMI for all subjects. After an overnight fast, all subjects were tested for fasting blood glucose, adiponectin and hsCRP levels. Results The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was 3.6 ug/mL (SD 1.43, lower than that of the normoweight group, 4.8 ug/mL (SD 1.67 P < 0.0001. the mean hsCRP level in the obese group was 3.3 mg/L (SD 1.39 (P < 0.0001. There was no inverse correlation between adiponectin and hsCRP levels in obese group (r = 0.048, P = 0.362. Conclusions Lower adiponectin and higher hsCRP levels in the obese group is consistent with a low-grade chronic inflammatory further evaluation. Early intervention is needed to reduce body weight in obese children. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:7-11].

  17. Role of the adipose PPARγ-adiponectin axis in susceptibility to stress and depression/anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M; Li, C; Lei, Y; Xu, S; Zhao, D; Lu, X-Y

    2016-12-13

    Adaptive responses to stressful stimuli involving behavioral, emotional and metabolic changes are orchestrated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Adipose tissue has been recognized as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ, secreting adipokines that operate as hormones to mediate the crosstalk with other organs including the brain. The role of adipose tissue in sensing and responding to emotional stress and in behavioral regulation, however, remains largely unknown. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key transcriptional factor controlling adipokine gene expression. Here we show that chronic social defeat stress decreases messenger RNA and protein levels of PPARγ in adipose tissue of susceptible but not resilient mice, which was correlated with social avoidance behavior. A corresponding reduction in adipose adiponectin production was observed in susceptible mice. Rosiglitazone, a blood-brain barrier-impermeant PPARγ-selective agonist, elicited antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like behavioral effects in wild-type mice, with a concurrent increase in plasma adiponectin levels. These effects of rosiglitazone were absent in mice lacking adiponectin but having normal PPARγ expression in adipose tissue and brain. Moreover, pretreatment with the PPARγ-selective antagonist GW9662 blocked rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin expression and antidepressant/anxiolytic-like effects. Together, these results suggest that the behavioral responses to rosiglitazone are mediated through PPARγ-dependent induction of adiponectin. Our findings support an important role for the adipose PPARγ-adiponectin axis in susceptibility to stress and negative emotion-related behaviors. Selectively targeting PPARγ in adipose tissue may offer novel strategies for combating depression and anxiety.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 13 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.225.

  18. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venojärvi Mika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  19. Relatively high levels of serum adiponectin in obese women, a potential indicator of anti-inflammatory dysfunction: Relation to sex hormone-binding globulin

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    Altan Onat, Gülay Hergenç, Dursun Dursunoğlu, Zekeriya Küçükdurmaz, Serkan Bulur, Günay Can

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether serum adiponectin concentrations diminish linearly with increasing adiposity and, if not, which factors codetermine this association. These issues were investigated cross-sectionally in 1188 men and women, representative of middle-aged and elderly Turkish adults. Serum total adiponectin was assayed by ELISA. Serum adiponectin values in men, though declining significantly in transition from the bottom to the mid tertile of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, were similar in the two respective upper tertiles. In women, serum adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different in any tertile of these indices, were significantly correlated with BMI or WC within the low tertiles and not within the two higher tertiles. In a linear regression analysis for WC (or BMI in a subset of the sample in which serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG was available and which additionally comprised adiponectin, fasting insulin and other confounders, only insulin and, in women SHBG, were significantly associated, but not adiponectin. In linear regression analyses for covariates of adiponectin in two models comprising 12 variables, insulin and SHBG concentrations were significantly associated in both genders though not BMI. Whereas in men HDL-cholesterol and CRP were covariates of adiponectin (both p<0.01, SHBG and apolipoprotein B positively associated in women (p<0.001, independent of BMI and fasting insulin levels. Conclusions: Relationship between excess adiposity and adiponectin levels is inconsistent in Turkish adults. Independently from obesity and hyperinsulinemia, serum adiponectin discloses significant relationship with inflammatory markers and HDL only in men, not in women in whom it is influenced by SHBG, with consequent attenuation of its anti-inflammatory activities.

  20. An introduction to incidence geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruyn, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...

  1. Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, Homocysteine and Insulin Resistance Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Salehpour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, homocysteine, insulin resistance andother biochemical factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is controversial.We review how the expanded role of these factors in reproduction might impact ourunderstanding of PCOS. For purposes of our review, we accessed the PUBMED databaseduring the past 10 years. Our review confirms that these factors can have etiopathogeneticimportance in some enigmatic reproductive disturbances such as PCOS. Moreoverunderstanding the role of these biochemical factors might be useful for new treatments inPCOS.

  2. In contrast to matrix metalloproteinases, serum adiponectin concentrations increase after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, remodel extracellular matrix under physiological and pathological conditions and are implicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and in chronic inflammation. We have endeavoured to assess whether concentrations of MMPs, TIMPs, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin are altered by pharmacological treatment of acute thyrotoxicosis or by radioiodine therapy (RIT. Material and methods We measured serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and adiponectin, TSH, free T4 (FT4 and free T3 (FT3 in 15 patients (4 males, age (years 51.8±15.3 (mean±SD with hyperthyroidism treated with thiamazole (Group 1 and in 20 subjects (2 males, treated for thyrotoxicosis with radioiodine, age 52.3±12.4 (Group 2, where blood samples were taken before RIT, visit 1 (V1, seven days post RIT, visit 2 (V2, and two to three months post RIT, visit 3 (V3. Results In Group 1 there was no significant change in concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 or adiponectin, despite a fall in FT4 and FT3 (8.74±4.79 pg/ml vs 3.54±2.40 pg/ml, for FT3, and 4.48 ±2.21 ng/ml vs 1.02±1.07 ng/ml, for FT4, p4 and FT3 from 24.4±15.4 pmol/l (V1 to 14.7±10.6 pmol/l (V3, and from 10.0±5.65 (V1 to 6.1±4.8 pmol/l (V2, p4 and FT3, respectively. Conclusions Radioiodine therapy of thyrotoxicosis does not alter serum MMP-2, MMP-9 or TIMP-1 concentrations either acutely or after about three months of observation. An increase in serum adiponectin might reflect favourable effects of radioiodine administration on cardiovascular risk factors, while an increase in TIMP-2 (principal MMP-2 inhibitor might lead to a decrease in free MMP-2 concentrations.

  3. Ethnic differences in leptin and adiponectin levels between Greenlandic Inuit and Danish children

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    Thor Munch-Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish and Inuit children. Methods. In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7–17.1 years had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Results. Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741–3,005] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI] compared to both northern [2,076 (2,525–1,706] (p<0.001 and southern (2,515 (3,137–2,016 (p<0.001 living Inuit boys and higher in Danish girls [6,988 (8,353–5,847] compared to southern living Inuit girls [4,910 (6,370–3,785] (p=0.021 and tended to be higher compared to northern living Inuit girls [5,131 (6,444–4,085] (p=0.052. Plasma adiponectin was higher for both Danish boys [22,359 (2,573–19,428] [ng/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI] and girls [26,609 (28,994–24,420] compared to southern living Inuit boys [15,306 (18,406–12,728] and girls [18,864 (22,640–15,717] (both p<0.001, respectively. All differences remained after adjustment for body fat percentage (BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively. These differences were eliminated after adjustment for BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. Conclusions. In contrast to our hypothesis, plasma leptin was higher in Danish children despite a more healthy metabolic profile compared to Inuit children. As expected, plasma adiponectin was lowest in Inuit children with the most adverse metabolic profile.

  4. Adiponectin and its association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianxin Sheng; Kangjuan Yang

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine, which is expressed in adipose tissue and is thought to play an important role in glucose metabolism. Hypoadiponectinemia can cause reduction of fatty acid oxidation, decreased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells, and increased gluconeogenesis in hepatic cells. The level of plasma glucose can be increased. On the other hand, the decrease of fatty acid oxidation increases the level of free fatty acid (FFA), which increases the insulin resistance, and then decreases the glucose uptake, which ultimately causes increased plasma glucose and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This review describes the process from hypoadiponectinemia to T2D and the genesis of hypoadiponeetinemia at a molecular level.

  5. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  6. Guide to Computational Geometry Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Gravesen, Jens; Anton, François;

    be processed before it is useful. This Guide to Computational Geometry Processing reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. This is balanced with an introduction......, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations Reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces Examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes Describes...

  7. Phase structures in fuzzy geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R; Gupta, K S; Martin, X

    2012-01-01

    We study phase structures of quantum field theories in fuzzy geometries. Several examples of fuzzy geometries as well as QFT's on such geometries are considered. They are fuzzy spheres and beyond as well as noncommutative deformations of BTZ blackholes. Analysis is done analytically and through simulations. Several features like novel stripe phases as well as spontaneous symmetry breaking avoiding Colemen, Mermin, Wagner theorem are brought out. Also we establish that these phases are stable due to topological obstructions.

  8. Finding Proofs in Tarskian Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beeson, Michael; Wos, Larry

    2016-01-01

    We report on a project to use a theorem prover to find proofs of the theorems in Tarskian geometry. These theorems start with fundamental properties of betweenness, proceed through the derivations of several famous theorems due to Gupta and end with the derivation from Tarski's axioms of Hilbert's 1899 axioms for geometry. They include the four challenge problems left unsolved by Quaife, who two decades ago found some \\Otter proofs in Tarskian geometry (solving challenges issued in Wos's 1998...

  9. Linear algebra and projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text establishes that projective geometry and linear algebra are essentially identical. The supporting evidence consists of theorems offering an algebraic demonstration of certain geometric concepts. These focus on the representation of projective geometries by linear manifolds, of projectivities by semilinear transformations, of collineations by linear transformations, and of dualities by semilinear forms. These theorems lead to a reconstruction of the geometry that constituted the discussion's starting point, within algebra

  10. Adiponectin, orexin A and orexin B concentrations in the serum and uterine luminal fluid during early pregnancy of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Nina; Kiezun, Marta; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szeszko, Karol; Maleszka, Anna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-released protein that circulates in human plasma at high concentrations. The neuropeptides orexin A (OXA, hypocretin-1) and orexin B (OXB, hypocretin-2) are derived from a common precursor peptide, prepro-orexin and are produced mainly by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus. It has been demonstrated that the peptides such as adiponectin and orexins have an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism and neuroendocrine functions. These hormones appear to be implicated in both normal and disturbed pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to determine adiponectin and orexin concentrations in the plasma and uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of pigs during early gestation and to explore the relationships between hormone concentrations and stages of pregnancy. The greatest plasma concentrations of adiponectin were observed on days 15-16 and 27-28 of pregnancy, and the least concentrations were on days 30-32 of gestation and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. In ULF, adiponectin concentrations were greater on days 15-16 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle than on days 10-11 and days 12-13 of pregnancy. The greatest OXA concentrations in the blood plasma were noted on days 10-16 of gestation, and the least OXA concentrations were on days 27-32 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. Orexin A concentrations in ULF were greater on days 10-11 of the cycle than throughout pregnancy. Serum OXB concentrations were greatest on days 10-11 and 30-32 of pregnancy, and least on days 12-28 of gestation. The greatest OXB concentrations in ULF were on days 10-13 of gestation, and the least OXB concentrations were on days 15-16 of pregnancy. This is first study to demonstrate the presence of adiponectin and orexins in the serum and ULF during early pregnancy of pigs as well as the relationships between adiponectin and orexin concentrations and the stage of pregnancy. The fluctuations in adiponectin

  11. Acute reduction of lipolysis reduces adiponectin and IL-18:evidence from an intervention study with acipimox and nsulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, B.; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Plomgaard, P.;

    2013-01-01

    and plasma IL-18 were reduced during both situations where lipolysis was inhibited (p TNF-α did not change during low NEFA concentrations...... assessed whether (1) overnight administration of a low dose of acipimox and/or (2) insulin-induced suppression of NEFA flux altered circulating plasma levels of adiponectin, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 in the basal condition and in a two-stage euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp combined with stable isotopes....... Conclusions/interpretation Using two different tools to manipulate lipolysis, the present study found that acute inhibition of lipolysis reduces levels of adiponectin and IL-18 in patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy....

  12. Levels of adiponectin and leptin at onset of type 1 diabetes have changed over time in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safai, Narges; Eising, Stefanie; Hougaard, David Michael;

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin and leptin are proteins secreted by the adipose tissue and have an influence on insulin sensitivity and on inflammatory markers. Altered levels could play a part in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. We determined adiponectin and leptin levels over a nine-year period...... in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in relation to the increasing incidence of T1D, and studied the impact of patient status, age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Data were derived from a population-based registry of diabetic children (DanDiabKids) from 1997 to 2005. Children with newly...

  13. Digital geometry in image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2013-01-01

    Exploring theories and applications developed during the last 30 years, Digital Geometry in Image Processing presents a mathematical treatment of the properties of digital metric spaces and their relevance in analyzing shapes in two and three dimensions. Unlike similar books, this one connects the two areas of image processing and digital geometry, highlighting important results of digital geometry that are currently used in image analysis and processing. The book discusses different digital geometries in multi-dimensional integral coordinate spaces. It also describes interesting properties of

  14. Initiation to global Finslerian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar-Zadeh, Hassan

    2006-01-01

    After a brief description of the evolution of thinking on Finslerian geometry starting from Riemann, Finsler, Berwald and Elie Cartan, the book gives a clear and precise treatment of this geometry. The first three chapters develop the basic notions and methods, introduced by the author, to reach the global problems in Finslerian Geometry. The next five chapters are independent of each other, and deal with among others the geometry of generalized Einstein manifolds, the classification of Finslerian manifolds of constant sectional curvatures. They also give a treatment of isometric, affine, p

  15. Null twisted geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Speziale, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We define and investigate a quantisation of null hypersurfaces in the context of loop quantum gravity on a fixed graph. The main tool we use is the parametrisation of the theory in terms of twistors, which has already proved useful in discussing the interpretation of spin networks as the quantization of twisted geometries. The classical formalism can be extended in a natural way to null hypersurfaces, with the Euclidean polyhedra replaced by null polyhedra with space-like faces, and SU(2) by the little group ISO(2). The main difference is that the simplicity constraints present in the formalims are all first class, and the symplectic reduction selects only the helicity subgroup of the little group. As a consequence, information on the shapes of the polyhedra is lost, and the result is a much simpler, abelian geometric picture. It can be described by an Euclidean singular structure on the 2-dimensional space-like surface defined by a foliation of space-time by null hypersurfaces. This geometric structure is na...

  16. Functional integration over geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Mottola, E

    1995-01-01

    The geometric construction of the functional integral over coset spaces {\\cal M}/{\\cal G} is reviewed. The inner product on the cotangent space of infinitesimal deformations of \\cal M defines an invariant distance and volume form, or functional integration measure on the full configuration space. Then, by a simple change of coordinates parameterizing the gauge fiber \\cal G, the functional measure on the coset space {\\cal M}/{\\cal G} is deduced. This change of integration variables leads to a Jacobian which is entirely equivalent to the Faddeev-Popov determinant of the more traditional gauge fixed approach in non-abelian gauge theory. If the general construction is applied to the case where \\cal G is the group of coordinate reparametrizations of spacetime, the continuum functional integral over geometries, {\\it i.e.} metrics modulo coordinate reparameterizations may be defined. The invariant functional integration measure is used to derive the trace anomaly and effective action for the conformal part of the me...

  17. Geometries from field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sinya; Kikuchi, Kengo; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    We propose a method to define a d+1-dimensional geometry from a d-dimensional quantum field theory in the 1/N expansion. We first construct a d+1-dimensional field theory from the d-dimensional one via the gradient-flow equation, whose flow time t represents the energy scale of the system such that trArr 0 corresponds to the ultraviolet and trArr infty to the infrared. We then define the induced metric from d+1-dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large-N limit, in the sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as 1/N due to the large-N factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) nonlinear σ model in two dimensions. We calculate the 3D induced metric, which is shown to describe an anti-de Sitter space in the massless limit. Finally, we discuss several open issues for future studies.

  18. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  19. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis.

  20. Wall shear stress indicators in abnormal aortic geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, occurs at specific locations in the arterial tree. Characterizing flow and forces at these locations is crucial to understanding the genesis of disease. Measures such as time average wall shear stress, oscillatory shear index, relative residence time and temporal wall shear stress gradients have been shown to identify plaque prone regions. The present paper examines these indices in three aortic geometries obtained from patients whose aortas are deformed due to a genetic pathology and compared to one normal geometry. This patient group is known to be prone to aortic dissection and our study aims to identify early indicators that will enable timely intervention. Data obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is used to reconstruct the aortic arch. The local unsteady flow characteristics are calculated, fully resolving the flow field throughout the entire cardiac cycle. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different red blood cell loading. The impact of the deformed aortic geometries is analyzed to identify flow patterns that could lead to arterial disease at certain locations.