WorldWideScience

Sample records for adipokines

  1. Epigenetic Regulation of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue expansion in obesity leads to changes in the expression of adipokines, adipocyte-specific hormones that can regulate whole body energy metabolism. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a mechanism by which cells can alter gene expression through the modifications of DNA and histones. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are intimately tied to energy metabolism due to their dependence on metabolic intermediates such as S-adenosylmethionine and acetyl-CoA. Altered expression of adipokines in obesity may be due to epigenetic changes. The goal of this review is to highlight current knowledge of epigenetic regulation of adipokines.

  2. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Christa; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-06-29

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively.

  4. Adipokines in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Bae, Yoon Ju; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-01-01

    The review describes the molecular characteristics of so far detected breast milk adipokines and ranks their breast milk level compared to the respective levels in maternal and infant blood. Moreover, analytical knowledge for measurements of breast milk adipokines will be delineated. Next, we summarized data about two main potential influencing factors on adipokine concentration in breast milk, maternal weight and pasteurization of milk. Finally, associations between adipokines in breast milk and weight gain in infants as well as the putative mechanisms for effects of breast milk adipokines on food intake and weight gain in later life will debated. Our findings suggest that a source of adipokines in human breast milk cannot be uniformly defined. In dependence on the ratio between serum and breast milk levels the major quantity of these proteins may be derived from peripheral tissues, from the breast tissue itself or from both. Thus, leptin and in part adiponectin levels in breast milk are dependent on a plenty of influencing factors with an important relevance of maternal anthropometric characteristics There is some evidence that leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin levels in breast milk may be associated with growth gain of infants and even with increased risk for being overweight during infancy or childhood. We hypothesize that a dysregulation in adipokine homeostasis in early life could promote obesity and metabolic disturbance in later life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarification of the regulatory processes about hepatic insulin resistance by adipokines in rodents and human would seem essential in order to understand the mechanism of type 2 diabetes and for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat it. PMID:23762871

  6. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ADIPOKINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye. Myasoyedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disorders and dyslipidemia with hypothyroidism. Reference data are presented that are devoted to the study of adipokines content with hypothyroidism and their effect on echocardiographic indicators.

  7. Adipokines mediate inflammation and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Pessin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years, adipose tissue was considered as an inert energy storage organ that accumulates and stores triacylglycerols during energy excess and releases fatty acids in times of systemic energy need. However, over the last two decades adipose tissue depots have been established as highly active endocrine and metabolically important organs that modulate energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. In rodents, brown adipose tissue plays an essential role in non-shivering thermogenesis and in energy dissipation that can serve to protect against diet-induced obesity. White adipose tissue collectively referred too as either subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue is responsible for the secretion of an array of signaling molecules, termed adipokines. These adipokines function as classic circulating hormones to communicate with other organs including brain, liver, muscle, the immune system and adipose tissue itself. The dysregulation of adipokines has been implicated in obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recently, inflammatory responses in adipose tissue have been shown as a major mechanism to induce peripheral tissue insulin resistance. Although leptin and adiponectin regulate feeding behavior and energy expenditure, these adipokines are also involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Adipose tissue secrete various pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines to modulate inflammation and insulin resistance. In obese humans and rodent models, the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines is enhanced to induce insulin resistance. Collectively, these findings have suggested that obesity-induced insulin resistance may result, at least in part, from an imbalance in the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. Thus we will review the recent progress regarding the physiological and molecular functions of adipokines in the obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance with perspectives on future directions.

  8. Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.

  9. Sputum as a source of adipokines in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mineev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four patients with allergic (ABA and non-allergic (NABA variants of bronchial asthma (BA were examined to evaluate levels of key adipokines (leptin, resistin, adiponectin in sputum in different variants of BA. Adipokines in sputum and blood plasma were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The indices that reflect the percentage of adipokines in sputum regarding adipokines in plasma of the same patients were worked out to evaluate the ratio of levels of corresponding adipokines in plasma and sputum in patients with BA. Two regularities are clearly seen in the study: the first - levels of proinflammatory adipokines (leptin, resistin in sputum in ABA correlate directly with indicators of respiratory function but levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines (adiponectin in sputum correlate inversely with indicators of respiratory function; the second -correlation of levels of the studied adipokines with indicators of respiratory function are almost not revealed in NABA. The first regularity reflects the important fact that the content of adipokines in bronchial secretion is to a certain extent one of regulating local mechanisms in target organ controlled system levels of corresponding adipokines in exacerbation of BA.

  10. Adipokines in Semen: Physiopathology and Effects on Spermatozoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaelle Elfassy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and could be the link between obesity and infertility. Different studies investigated the involvement of adipokines in reproductive functions but only a few have looked into the male part. This review assesses adipokine functions on male reproductive parameters. Adiponectin seems to have a positive effect on sperm parameters, whereas other adipokines such as resistin or chemerin would have a rather deleterious effect on spermatogenesis. Semen parameters seem to be impacted when resistin and chemerin are increased: indeed, there is a decrease of sperm motility. Sperm morphology is improved when adiponectin is increased. The most studied adipokine, leptin, has a dual effect with a positive effect on sperm at physiological levels and a negative one for high seminal concentrations. Many semen parameters and fertility itself are disturbed according to semen adipokine levels, even if it is not the only interfering element. Taken together, adipokines are found in human and animal semen and most of them or their receptors are expressed in male genital tract. Although the pathophysiological role of adipokines in semen is not clearly elucidated, the adipokines could influence sperm functionality and could be potential biomarkers of male fertility.

  11. Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Josette M; Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Wigle, Jeffrey T

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on the role of adipokines in the maintenance of a healthy cardiovascular system, and the mechanisms by which these factors mediate the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Adipocytes are the major cell type comprising the adipose tissue. These cells secrete numerous factors, termed adipokines, into the blood, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, and visfatin. Adipose tissue is a highly vascularised endocrine organ, and different adipose depots have distinct adipokine secretion profiles, which are altered with obesity. The ability of many adipokines to stimulate angiogenesis is crucial for adipose tissue expansion; however, excessive blood vessel growth is deleterious. As well, some adipokines induce inflammation, which promotes cardiovascular disease progression. We discuss how these 7 aforementioned adipokines act upon the various cardiovascular cell types (endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, cardiomyocytes, and cardiac fibroblasts), the direct effects of these actions, and their overall impact on the cardiovascular system. These were chosen, as these adipokines are secreted predominantly from adipocytes and have known effects on cardiovascular cells.

  12. Correlation between obesity, adipokines and the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Regini Silveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide health problem and the increase in its incidence, risks and consequences are a matter of growing concern. Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the body. Many studies are currently investigating obesity and associated comorbidities in an attempt to clarify the mechanisms involved. Fat tissue is a dynamic organ that secretes several factors, including adipokines. Adipokines are bioactive peptides secreted by fat cells, which are important for energy regulation and inflammatory and immune responses. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin are the most studied adipokines. The aim of this review was to gather information about these adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin and their relationship with the immune response in obese individuals, as well as the susceptibility of these patients to infections. The results of the literature review permit some observations. The circulating levels of these adipokines are directly involved in the degree of obesity of the patient. High or low circulating concentrations of these adipokines may have beneficial or negative effects on immune competence, with obese patients being more susceptible to infection and inflammation than eutrophic individuals.Key words: Obesity; Adipokines; Leptin; Adiponectin; Resistin; Immune system.

  13. Exercise induced adipokine changes and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6) in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  14. Exercise Induced Adipokine Changes and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  15. Alterations in adipokines in feline hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, M; Abood, S K; Segev, G; Schenck, P A

    2013-01-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is associated with alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The adipokines, adiponectin, and leptin have lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin are altered in feline HL. Client-owned cats: 55 healthy and 45 with liver disease. Cats with liver disease were categorized as having HL (n = 20), HL and concurrent disease (n = 19), or other liver disease (n = 6), based on clinical signs, laboratory findings, abdominal ultrasound examination as well as liver cytopathology, histopathology, or both. Serum samples were collected and body condition score determined. Mean serum concentrations of adiponectin were higher in overweight cats with HL (4.5 μg/mL), HL and concurrent disease (4.4 μg/mL), or other liver disease (6.1 μg/mL), as compared with healthy cats (1.5 μg/mL; P < .001, P < .001, and P = .04, respectively). Mean serum concentration of leptin was higher in cats with HL (9.8 ng/mL) or HL and concurrent disease (10.7 ng/mL) than healthy cats (4.9 ng/mL, P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Cats with other liver disease had leptin concentration (4.9 ng/mL) similar to healthy cats. Concentrations of adiponectin were correlated with alanine aminotransferase activity (r = 0.40, P = .0069), and concentrations of leptin were correlated with alkaline phosphatase activity (r = 0.42, P = .0051) in cats with liver disease. Adipokine concentrations are altered in feline HL. Increased concentrations of adiponectin are related to liver disease, whereas increased concentrations of leptin are specifically related to HL. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. The Adipokine Chemerin Induces Apoptosis in Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodríguez-Penas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adipokine chemerin has been associated with cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of chemerin on viability and intracellular signalling in murine cardiomyocytes, and the effects of insulin and TNF-α on cardiomyocyte chemerin production. Methods: Hoechst dye vital staining and cell cycle analysis were used to analyse the viability of murine cardiac cells in culture. Western blot was used to explore the phosphorylation of AKT and caspase-9 activity in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cells. Finally, RT-qPCR, ELISA and western blot were performed to examine chemerin and CMKLR1 expression after insulin and TNF-α treatment in cardiac cells. Results: Chemerin treatment increased apoptosis, reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308 and increased caspase-9 activity in murine cardiomyocytes. Insulin treatment lowered chemerin and CMKLR1 mRNA and protein levels, and the amount of chemerin in the cell media, while TNF-α treatment increased chemerin mRNA and protein levels but decreased expression of the CMKLR1 gene. Conclusion: Chemerin induces apoptosis, reduces AKT phosphorylation and increases the cleavage of caspase-9 in murine cardiomyocytes. The expression of chemerin is regulated by important metabolic (insulin and inflammatory (TNF-α mediators at cardiac level. Our results suggest that chemerin could play a role in the physiopathology of cardiac diseases.

  17. Obesity-related adipokines predict patient-reported shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Perruccio, Anthony V; Rizek, Randy; Dessouki, Omar; Evans, Heather M K; Mahomed, Nizar N

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, an inflammatory modulating effect of adipokines within synovial joints is being recognized. To date, there has been no work examining a potential association between the presence of adipokines in the shoulder and patient-reported outcomes. This study undertakes an investigation assessing these potential links. 50 osteoarthritis patients scheduled for shoulder surgery completed a pre-surgery questionnaire capturing demographic information including validated, patient-reported function (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire) and pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire) measures. Synovial fluid (SF) samples were analyzed for leptin, adiponectin, and resistin levels using Milliplex MAP assays. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the association between adipokine levels and patient-reported outcomes, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and disease severity. 54% of the cohort was female (n = 27). The mean age (SD) of the sample was 62.9 (9.9) years and the mean BMI (SD) was 28.1 (5.4) kg/m(2). From regression analyses, greater SF leptin and adiponectin levels, but not regarding resistin, were found to be associated with greater pain (p < 0.05). Adipokine levels were not associated with functional outcome scores. The identified association between shoulder-derived SF leptin and adiponectin and shoulder pain is likely explained by the pro-inflammatory characteristics of the adipokines and represents potentially important therapeutic targets. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. A link between sleep loss, glucose metabolism and adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Padilha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review evaluates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering problems of glucose metabolism and the possible involvement of adipokines in this process. A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society, and a search of the current literature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations of nutritional and metabolic contexts. Studies suggest that sleep loss is associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism involved may be associated with the decreased efficacy of regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by negative feedback mechanisms in sleep-deprivation conditions. In addition, changes in the circadian pattern of growth hormone (GH secretion might also contribute to the alterations in glucose regulation observed during sleep loss. On the other hand, sleep deprivation stress affects adipokines - increasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decreasing leptin and adiponectin -, thus establishing a possible association between sleep-debt, adipokines and glucose metabolism. Thus, a modified release of adipokines resulting from sleep deprivation could lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of sleep loss in adipokine release and its relationship with glucose metabolism.

  19. Adipokines and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Multiple Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon E. Adolph

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence links obesity with low-grade inflammation which may originate from adipose tissue that secretes a plethora of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines termed adipokines. Adiponectin and leptin have evolved as crucial signals in many obesity-related pathologies including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Whereas adiponectin deficiency might be critically involved in the pro-inflammatory state associated with obesity and related disorders, overproduction of leptin, a rather pro-inflammatory mediator, is considered of equal relevance. An imbalanced adipokine profile in obesity consecutively contributes to metabolic inflammation in NAFLD, which is associated with a substantial risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC also in the non-cirrhotic stage of disease. Both adiponectin and leptin have been related to liver tumorigenesis especially in preclinical models. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of some adipokines in NAFLD and associated HCC.

  20. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sartori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  1. Ethnic Differences in Maternal Adipokines during Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two adipokines (adiponectin and resistin have opposite relations with insulin resistance and inflammation. Our major focus was to determine whether there were detectable ethnic differences in maternal adipokines during pregnancy. We also explored the correlation of the adipokines with maternal glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters. Pregnant women (n = 1634 were from a large prospective cohort study in Camden NJ (African-American 36.8%; Hispanic 47.6%; Caucasian 15.6%. Serum adiponectin and resistin were measured at entry (week 16.8 and the 3rd trimester (week 30.7 using the Luminex xMapTechnology. Significant differences were observed among ethnic groups, controlling for confounding variables. African American women were exceptional in that they had decreased adiponectin and increased resistin throughout the course of pregnancy (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001 and a greater than two fold risk of simultaneously exhibiting low adiponectin (lowest tertile and high resistin (highest tertile compared to Caucasians and/or Hispanics. The cohort as a whole and each ethnic group showed similar negative correlations between adiponectin, and glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters but there was lesser correspondence with resistin. Our data underscore the need for further research on ethnic variation in adipokines and other physiologic biomarkers during complicated and uncomplicated pregnancy.

  2. Serum Levels of the Adipokine Progranulin Depend on Renal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Judit; Focke, Denise; Ebert, Thomas; Kovacs, Peter; Bachmann, Anette; Lössner, Ulrike; Kralisch, Susan; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Beige, Joachim; Anders, Matthias; Bast, Ingolf; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Fasshauer, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Progranulin has recently been introduced as a novel adipokine inducing insulin resistance and obesity. In the current study, we investigated renal elimination, as well as association of the adipokine with markers of the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Progranulin serum levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and correlated to anthropometric and biochemical parameters of renal function and glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as inflammation, in 532 patients with stages 1–5 of chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESULTS Median serum progranulin levels adjusted for age, sex, and BMI were significantly different between CKD stages with highest values detectable in stage 5 (stage 1, 58.3 µg/L; stage 2, 63.0 µg/L; stage 3, 65.4 µg/L; stage 4, 68.8 µg/L; and stage 5, 90.6 µg/L). Furthermore, CKD stage was the strongest independent predictor of circulating progranulin in our cohort. In addition, high-sensitivity interleukin-6 and adiponectin remained significantly and independently correlated with the adipokine. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate that progranulin serum levels increase with deteriorating renal function. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that renal clearance is a major elimination route for circulating progranulin. Furthermore, the adipokine is positively and independently associated with markers of inflammation and adiponectin. PMID:23033238

  3. Obesity-Related Adipokines Predict Patient-Reported Shoulder Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gandhi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Increasingly, an inflammatory modulating effect of adipokines within synovial joints is being recognized. To date, there has been no work examining a potential association between the presence of adipokines in the shoulder and patient-reported outcomes. This study undertakes an investigation assessing these potential links. Methods: 50 osteoarthritis patients scheduled for shoulder surgery completed a pre-surgery questionnaire capturing demographic information including validated, patient-reported function (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire and pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire measures. Synovial fluid (SF samples were analyzed for leptin, adiponectin, and resistin levels using Milliplex MAP assays. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the association between adipokine levels and patient-reported outcomes, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and disease severity. Results: 54% of the cohort was female (n = 27. The mean age (SD of the sample was 62.9 (9.9 years and the mean BMI (SD was 28.1 (5.4 kg/m2. From regression analyses, greater SF leptin and adiponectin levels, but not regarding resistin, were found to be associated with greater pain (p Conclusions: The identified association between shoulder-derived SF leptin and adiponectin and shoulder pain is likely explained by the pro-inflammatory characteristics of the adipokines and represents potentially important therapeutic targets.

  4. Serum Adipokine and Ghrelin Levels in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yalniz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines and ghrelin play role in insulin resistance, the key pathophysiological abnormality in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. In the present study, relationship between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and serum adipokine and ghrelin levels was investigated. Thirty seven patients with biopsy-proven NASH and 25 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Ten of NASH patients (27% had diabetes mellitus (n=5 or impaired glucose tolerance (n=5. Body mass index (BMI was less than 30 kg/m2 in 67.6% of patients, while in the remaining 32.4% it was more than 30 kg/m2. Serum adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and ghrelin were determined. Serum leptin (15.49±4.84 vs 10.31±2.53 and TNF-α (12.1±2.7 vs 10.31±2.56 levels were significantly higher in the NASH group compared to in the control group (P30 or glucose tolerance was impaired or not (P>.05. Additionally, neither adipokines nor ghrelin was correlated with histopathological grade and stage (P>.05. In conclusion; there is a significant relationship between NASH and adipokines and ghrelin independent from BMI and status of the glucose metabolism. These cytokines that appear to have role in the pathogenesis of NASH, however, do not have any effect upon the severity of the histopathology.

  5. Circulating Adipokine levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating adipokine levels in the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), a-700 bed tertiary hospital centre in Lagos, Nigeria. 53 diabetic subjects and 27 non-diabetic controls with ...

  6. Omentin - a new adipokine with many roles to play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halabis Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is at a point of high interest in medical research, not only as an energy depot, but also because it secretes nearly more than 600 cytokines. These are termed‚ adipokines’. Human adipokines are involved in numerous metabolic processes, including the regulation of appetite, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, inflammation and cardiovascular activity. Thus, these could be clinically important as a markers of adipose tissue function and increased metabolic risk. The search for novel adipokines linking obesity to related co-morbidities has become a major topic in obesity research. In such work, there is an increasing need to define their function, their molecular targets and their potential clinical relevance as biomarkers or in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.

  7. Adipokine hormones and hand osteoarthritis: radiographic severity and pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Massengale

    Full Text Available Obesity's association with hand osteoarthritis cannot be fully explained by mechanical loading. We examined the relationship between adipokines and radiographic hand osteoarthritis severity and pain.In a pilot study of 44 hand osteoarthritis patients (39 women and 5 men, serum adipokine concentrations and hand x-ray Kallman-scores were analyzed using linear regression models. Secondary analyses examined correlates of hand pain.The cohort had a mean age of 63.5 years for women and 72.6 for men; mean (standard deviation Kallman-scores were 43.3(17.4 for women and 46.2(10.8 for men. Mean body-mass-index was 30 kg/m(2 for women and men. Mean leptin concentration was 32.2 ng/ml (women and 18.5 ng/ml (men; mean adiponectin-total was 7.9 ng/ml (women and 5.3 ng/ml (men; mean resistin was 7.3 ng/ml (women and 9.4 ng/ml (men. No association was found between Kallman-scores and adipokine concentrations (R(2 = 0.00-0.04 unadjusted analysis, all p-values>0.22. Secondary analyses showed mean visual-analog-scale pain of 4.8(2.4 for women and 6.6(0.9 for men. Leptin, BMI, and history of coronary artery disease were found to be associated with visual-analog-scale scores for chronic hand pain (R(2 = 0.36 unadjusted analysis, p-values≤0.04.In this pilot study, we found that adipokine serum concentrations were not associated with hand osteoarthritis radiographic severity; the most important correlates of joint damage were age and disease duration. Leptin serum concentration, BMI, and coronary artery disease were associated with the intensity of chronic hand OA pain.

  8. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  9. Serum adipokines as biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Minh Nguyet; Kolb, Hubert; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes.......We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  10. Effect of weight loss on adipokine levels in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hession M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (−32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus −0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (−17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus −3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss

  11. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Keustermans

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far. Here, we aim to establish the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells in obese children pre and post-lifestyle intervention compared to normal weight control children.13 obese children before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention were compared with an age and sex-matched normal weight control group of 15 children. Next to routine clinical and biochemical parameters, circulating adipokines were measured, and flow cytometric analysis of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and leptin receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets was performed.Obese children exhibited typical clinical and biochemical characteristics compared to controls, including a higher BMI-SD, blood pressure and circulating leptin levels, combined with a lower insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI. The 1-year lifestyle intervention resulted in stabilization of their BMI-SD. Overall, circulating leukocyte subsets showed distinct adipokine receptor expression profiles. While monocytes expressed high levels of all adipokine receptors, NK and iNKT cells predominantly expressed AdipoR2, and B-lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets expressed AdipoR2 as well as leptin receptor. Strikingly though, leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles were largely similar in obese children and controls. Obese children showed higher naïve B-cell numbers, and pre-intervention also

  12. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  14. Circulating adipokines data associated with insulin secretagogue use in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A.P. Wintrob

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral drugs stimulating endogenous insulin production (insulin secretagogues may have detrimental effects on breast cancer outcomes. The data presented shows the relationship between pre-existing insulin secretagogues use, adipokine profiles at the time of breast cancer (BC diagnosis and subsequent cancer outcomes in women diagnosed with BC and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The Pearson correlation analysis evaluating the relationship between adipokines stratified by T2DM pharmacotherapy and controls is also provided. This information is the extension of the data presented and discussed in “Insulin use, adipokine profiles and breast cancer prognosis” (Wintrob et al., in press [1].

  15. Beyond Fat Mass: Exploring the Role of Adipokines in Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Scotece

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloning of leptin in 1994 by Zhang et al. introduced a novel concept about white adipose tissue (WAT as a very dynamic organ that releases a plethora of immune and inflammatory mediators, such as adipokines and cytokines, which are involved in multiple diseases. Actually, adipokines exert potent modulatory actions on target tissues involved in rheumatic diseases including cartilage, synovial, bone and immune cells. The goal of this paper is to elucidate the recent findings concerning the involvement of adipokines in rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, osteoarthritis (OA, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

  16. Adipokine Profiling in Adult Women With Central Obesity and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Supriya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Central obesity and hypertension are common risk factors for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Studies have shown that it is more difficult to control blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage in obese individuals with hypertension compared to their non-obese counterparts, especially among women. Obese females have a 6 times higher risk of developing hypertension than non-obese females while obese males are at a 1.5 times higher risk of developing hypertension, compared to their non-obese counterparts. Indeed, the inter-relationship between obesity and hypertension is unclear. Adipokines have been proposed to play a mediating role in the relationship between obesity and hypertension and are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Therefore, this study sought to determine the role of adipokines (adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α in hypertensive Hong Kong Chinese women with central obesity. A total of 387 women aged 58 ± 11 years who were examined with a 2 × 2 factorial design for central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm and hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, were recruited from a pool of 1,492 Hong Kong Chinese adults who were previously screened for metabolic syndrome. Subjects with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia were excluded to eliminate confounding effects. Our findings revealed that hypertensive women with central obesity had a lower anti-inflammatory status (adiponectin and a higher pro-inflammatory status (TNF-α than obese alone or hypertensive alone women. Also, women with central obesity had higher circulatory PAI-1 and leptin concentrations than their non-obese counterparts. We conclude that obesity may shift toward a more pro-inflammatory state and may become more severe in the presence of hypertension or vice versa.

  17. Exercise Training Attenuates the Dysregulated Expression of Adipokines and Oxidative Stress in White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Sakurai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in white adipose tissue (WAT, which caused dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Moreover, current literature reports state that WAT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the enhanced production of ROS in obese WAT has been closely associated with the dysregulated expression of adipokines in WAT. Therefore, the reduction in excess WAT and oxidative stress that results from obesity is thought to be one of the important strategies in preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR not only brings about a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the adipokines in WAT. Furthermore, some reports indicate that TR affects the generation of oxidative stress in WAT. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression of inflammation-related adipokines and oxidative stress in WAT.

  18. Steroid replacement in primary adrenal failure does not appear to affect circulating adipokines

    OpenAIRE

    Fichna, Marta; Fichna, Piotr; Gryczy?ska, Maria; Czarnywojtek, Agata; ?urawek, Magdalena; Rucha?a, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous efforts for an optimal steroid replacement, recent observations suggest increased cardiometabolic risk and related mortality in primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). Adipokines are peptides from the adipose tissue, markers of cardiometabolic dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluate serum levels of adipokines: leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in PAI during conventional steroid substitution. The analysis comprised 63 patients (mean age 42.7???14.1?years) and 63 healthy c...

  19. Interstitial concentrations of adipokines in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    Adipokines play important regulatory roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We measured plasma and interstitial concentrations of the adipokines adiponectin, resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8...... plasma (approximately 100-fold, approximately 200-fold and approximately 1000-fold, respectively, PResistin concentrations did not differ significantly between compartments. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) showed no regional difference (P>0.05). The intra- and inter-subject variations of all...

  20. Identification and expression patterns of adipokine genes during adipocyte differentiation in the Tibetan goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueying; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jiazhong; Zhong, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

    2018-02-15

    Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the information regarding adipokines in goats is limited. PPARγ is a key gene in adipocyte differentiation and activates adipokine genes. Rosiglitazone is a PPARγ agonist and can promote the expression of PPARγ to increase the expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Therefore, investigation of the relationship between rosiglitazone and adipokines will help us to better understand the function of PPARγ in lipid metabolism in Tibetan goats. In this study, we cloned the resistin (RETN), apelin (APLN), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and visfatin (NAMPT) genes from non-pregnant female Tibetan goat adipose tissue. APLN and NAMPT were predominantly expressed in the kidney, and FGF21 was expressed at the highest levels in the liver in vivo. In fat tissues, the highest expression levels of FGF21 and RETN were detected in omental fat, whereas their expression in perirenal and subcutaneous fat was extremely weak. APLN and NAMPT were abundantly expressed in omental and subcutaneous fat in vivo. In addition, the four adipokines had different expression profiles during goat adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Oil red O staining showed that rosiglitazone could promote adipocyte differentiation and lipid droplet formation. In addition, rosiglitazone significantly increased the expression of FGF21 and RETN (pgoat adipocyte differentiation. And PPARγ could regulate the expression of the four adipokines, but the detailed regulatory mechanism still needs to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids and adipokines in Japanese adults without diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Goto, Atsushi; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Yamaji, Taiki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kato, Yumiko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently reported an association between circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or adipokines and insulin resistance; however, the association between BCAA and adipokine levels remains to be clarified. In this cross-sectional study involving 678 participants (435 men) without diabetes, plasma BCAA (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), adipokine (total and high molecular weight [HMW] adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) concentratio...

  2. Curcuminoids Plus Piperine Modulate Adipokines in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Khalili, Nahid; Sahebi, Ebrahim; Namazi, Soha; Atkin, Stephen L; Majeed, Muhammed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol derived from tumeric that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties with effects on adipokine and ghrelin levels. Adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin modulate energy homeostasis but each has modulatory effects on inflammatory cytokines and the immune system. Therefore, this analysis was performed to investigate the effect of curcumin on adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin. A double blind randomised control trial comparing curcumin 1000mg with 10mg of piperine daily to placebo over a 12 week period. 118 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited out of which 50 control and 50 active subjects completed the trial. Adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Between group comparison of the magnitude of changes showed serum levels of leptin (p<0.001), TNF-α (p<0.001) and leptin:adiponectin ratio (p<0.001) to be significantly reduced while serum adiponectin levels were elevated in the curcuminoids versus placebo group (p=0.032). Changes in serum ghrelin levels did not differ between the study groups (p=0.135). Curcumin supplementation increased adiponectin, whilst the the leptin:adiponectin ratio (a measure of atherosclerosis) and leptin levels were decreased independent of weight change and reflected a decrease in the inflammatory TNF-α levels. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. The Role of Adipokines in Understanding the Associations between Obesity and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie H. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Two major causes of disability, major depression and obesity, share overlapping psychosocial and pathophysiological etiologies. Studies are now focused on biological mechanisms linking the two illnesses, and there is interest in the role that adipokines may have in mediating the association between obesity and depression. We reviewed the literature to look at what is currently known about this association, focusing on the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. Methods. A MEDLINE search, citing articles from 1966 onward, supplemented by a review of bibliographies, was conducted to identify relevant studies. Results. This paper identified plausible pathways underlying a link between adipokines and depression. Only a few studies have yet been conducted specifically examining these biomarkers in patients with depression, but the results are intriguing. Conclusion. This paper is one of the first to examine the association between adipokines and depression. It provides an overview of the physiological role of adipokines and summarizes the data suggesting that they may be dysregulated in major depression. This area of research may become increasingly important as new treatment strategies are developed.

  4. Identification of novel adipokines in the joint. Differential expression in healthy and osteoarthritis tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Conde

    Full Text Available Emerging data suggest that several metabolic factors, released mainly by white adipose tissue (WAT and joint tissues, and collectively named adipokines, might have a role in the pathophysiology of OA. Recently, novel adipokines such as SERPINE2, WISP2, GPNMB and ITIH5 have been identified in WAT. The main goal of this study was to analyse the expression of these novel adipokines in synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes and to compare the expression of these molecules in healthy and OA tissues.Synovial tissues, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes were obtained from 36 OA patients (age 52-85; mean BMI 28.9 who underwent total knee replacement surgery. Healthy synovial tissues and infrapatellar fat pad were obtained from 15 traumatic knee patients (age 23-53; mean BMI 23.5. mRNA and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis respectively.All the novel adipokines, matter of our study, are expressed in OA synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes. Moreover, we detected a differential expression of SERPINE2 and ITIH5 in OA synovial tissues as compared to healthy samples. Finally, we also observed an increased expression of WISP2 in OA infrapatellar fat pad in comparison to healthy controls.In this study we demonstrated for the first time the expression of four novel adipokines in different joint tissues and how these molecules are differentially expressed in healthy and OA joint tissues.

  5. Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El husseny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM, insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.

  6. Adipokines: a treasure trove for the discovery of biomarkers for metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Stefan; Hartwig, Sonja; Sell, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ, releasing signaling and mediator proteins, termed adipokines, via which adipose tissue communicates with other organs. Expansion of adipose tissue in obesity alters adipokine secretion which may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. Consequently, this correlation has emphasized the importance to further characterize the adipocyte secretion profile, and several attempts have been made to characterize the complex nature of the adipose tissue secretome by utilizing diverse proteomic profiling approaches. Although the entirety of human adipokines is still incompletely characterized, to date more than 600 potentially secretory proteins were identified providing a rich source to identify putative novel biomarkers associated with metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Adipokines and nutritional status for patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzewicz, S; Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, E; Owczarzak, A; Debska-Slizień, A; Rutkowski, B; Łysiak-Szydłowska, W

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentration of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, and assess its relation to nutritional and inflammatory parameters in both overweight and normal weight patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 36 hemodialysis patients (27 M, 9 F; mean age 55.3 +/- 12 yr.) were examined and 23 additional healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. The concentrations of leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6, TNFa and CRP were measured by ELISA. Assessment of nutritional status was determined by the levels of albumin, BMI, percentage of body fat (%F), lean body mass (LBM), and Subjective Global Assessment Score (SGA). According to the SGA 7-points score and the albumin level, 20 patients were of good nutritional status (6-7 points), while 16 patients were mildly malnourished (4-5 points). The concentrations of CRP, resistin, adiponectin, and TNFa were statistically higher in hemodialysis patients than in the control group (p pound 0.05). The adiponectin level was inversely correlated with %F (R Spearman=-0.3; p pound 0.05). The level of leptin was positively correlated with %F as well as with BMI and SGA scores (R Spearman=0.4; p pound 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in the nutritional status between the nonoverweight (BMI 18.5-24.99) and overweight (BMI (3)25.0) groups of patients, in the nonoverweight group there were 12 patients (54.5%) with signs of mild malnutrition compared to 4 malnourished patients (28.5%) in the overweight group. Nonoverweight patients presented significantly lower leptin concentration (12.7 vs 27.8 ug/l) and higher adiponectin level (38.9 vs 32.5 ng/ml) when compared to overweight patients. The levels of IL-6 and TNFa were higher in the nonoverweight group of patients. Overweight patients also had shorter durations of stay in the hemodialysis program (30.5 vs. 87.6 months). The results of our study indicate that lean hemodialysis

  8. Steroid replacement in primary adrenal failure does not appear to affect circulating adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichna, Marta; Fichna, Piotr; Gryczyńska, Maria; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Żurawek, Magdalena; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Despite continuous efforts for an optimal steroid replacement, recent observations suggest increased cardiometabolic risk and related mortality in primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). Adipokines are peptides from the adipose tissue, markers of cardiometabolic dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluate serum levels of adipokines: leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in PAI during conventional steroid substitution. The analysis comprised 63 patients (mean age 42.7 ± 14.1 years) and 63 healthy controls. Serum adipokines, lipid profile, and plasma glucose were assessed in both cohorts. ACTH, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, DHEA-S, cortisol and 24 h urinary free cortisol were determined in PAI. Body mass composition was analyzed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Mean BMI in the control group was 24.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) and 23.7 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in the PAI cohort. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were similar in both groups, whereas resistin appeared significantly lower among affected subjects (p = 0.0002). Its levels were weakly correlated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.048). Leptin was independently correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, BMI, and body fat (p regression analysis only weight (p = 0.017), total and HDL cholesterol (p replacement. Serum adipokines in treated PAI follow similar correlations to those reported in healthy subjects. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify and explain plausible excess of cardiovascular mortality in PAI.

  9. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Adipokine-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep eGoktas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over a third of the US population is obese and at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is considered a chronic low grade inflammatory condition that is primarily attributed to expansion and inflammation of adipose tissues. Indeed, adipocytes produce and secrete numerous proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines known as adipokines. When the balance of these adipokines is shifted towards higher production of proinflammatory factors, local inflammation within adipose tissues and subsequently systemic inflammation occur. These adipokines including leptin, visfatin, resistin, apelin, vaspin, and retinol binding protein-4 can regulate inflammatory responses and contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes. These effects are mediated by key inflammatory signaling molecules including activated serine kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and serine kinases inhibitor κB kinase (IKK and insulin signaling molecules including insulin receptor substrates, protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Bariatric surgery can decrease body weight and improve insulin resistance in morbidly obese subjects. However, despite reports suggesting reduced inflammation and weight-independent effects of bariatric surgery on glucose metabolism, mechanisms behind such improvements are not yet well understood. This review article focuses on some of these novel adipokines and discusses their changes after bariatric surgery and their relationship to insulin resistance, fat mass, inflammation, and glucose homeostasis.

  10. Associations of objective physical activity with insulin sensitivity and circulating adipokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spartano, N L; Stevenson, M D; Xanthakis, V

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) to insulin sensitivity and adipokines. We assessed PA and SED using Actical accelerometers and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2109 participants (free of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus) from...

  11. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keustermans, Genoveva; Van Der Heijden, Laila B.; Boer, Berlinda; Scholman, Rianne; Nuboer, Roos; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Prakken, Berent; De Jager, Wilco; Kalkhoven, Eric; Janse, Arieke J; Schipper, Henk S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating

  12. Role of Adipokines in Atherosclerosis: Interferences with Cardiovascular Complications in Rheumatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Gómez, Rodolfo; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; González, Antonio; Lago, Francisca; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste

    2012-01-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatic patients, these alterations do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Obesity and its pathologic alteration of fat mass and dysfunction, due to an altered pattern of secretion of proinflammatory adipokines, could be one of the links between cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Indeed, the incidence of CVDs is augmented in obese individuals with rheumatic disorders. Thus, in this paper we explore in detail the relationships among adipokines, rheumatic diseases, and cardiovascular complications by giving to the reader a holistic vision and several suggestions for future perspectives and potential clinical implications. PMID:22910888

  13. Association of Parental Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus With Circulating Adipokines in Nonobese Nondiabetic Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariah, Justin P; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adipokines are implicated in the development of obesity-related traits. We hypothesized that nonobese participants without diabetes mellitus (DM) whose parents were obese or had DM would have altered circulating adipokines compared with those without parental history of these conditions....... METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants in the community-based Framingham Third Generation cohort who were not obese (body mass index ... of fetuin A, RBP4 (retinol binding protein 4), FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4), leptin, LEP-R (leptin receptor), and adiponectin were assayed. Parental DM was defined as occurring before age 60 years, and obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 before age 60 years. General estimating equations were...

  14. Proinflammatory tissue response and recovery of adipokines during 4 days of subcutaneous large-pore microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Trine Schnedler; Kaastrup, Peter; Stallknecht, Bente

    2009-01-01

    was originally designed for sampling of small molecules but recently the availability of catheters with large-pore membranes has made it possible to recover larger molecules such as adipokines. The present study investigated tissue response towards large-pore microdialysis catheters inserted into human SAT for 4......INTRODUCTION: Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is increasingly being recognized as a highly active tissue secreting adipokines involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Microdialysis is a technique used for in vivo sampling of interstitial fluid from e.g. SAT. The technique......: Insertion of a large-pore microdialysis catheter into human SAT results in tissue trauma leading to changes in the interstitial concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-alpha and adiponectin....

  15. Recently Discovered Adipokines and Cardio-Metabolic Comorbidities in Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria Barraco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available White adipose tissue (WAT asset, in terms of cell number, fat storage capacity and endocrine function, is largely determined in early stages of life and is pivotal for shaping the WAT pro-inflammatory behavior. WAT derived adipokines have been shown to play a main role in several cardio-metabolic abnormalities of obesity. This review focuses on the most recently identified adipokines, namely adipocyte-fatty acid-binding protein, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor-21, lipocalin-2, omentin-1 and vaspin; their role in the pathogenesis of obesity and associated cardio-metabolic abnormalities; and on their adaptive response to body weight change. Evidence consistently suggests a pathogenic role for A-FABP, chemerin and FGF-21. Nevertheless, large population studies are needed to verify whether they can be useful to predict the risk of cardio-metabolic abnormalities in adulthood and/or monitor the clinical response to therapeutic interventions.

  16. Prognostic Value of Adipokines in Predicting Cardiovascular Outcome: Explaining the Obesity Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Robert; Bertolet, Marnie; Singh, Prachi; Brooks, Maria M; Pratley, Richard E; Frye, Robert L; Mooradian, Arshag D; Rutter, Martin K; Calvin, Andrew D; Chaitman, Bernard R; Somers, Virend K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) prognostic value of adipokines in a large prospective cohort of patients participating in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial. The effects of the adipokine levels at baseline and change from baseline on the composite outcome (CV death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) were analyzed using unadjusted and fully adjusted Cox models in 2330 patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease who had participated in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial (from January 1, 2001, through December 1, 2008). In a fully adjusted model, baseline leptin and change from baseline leptin were protective for CV events, whereas baseline adiponectin, baseline tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), change from baseline TNF-α, baseline C-reactive protein (CRP), and change from baseline CRP were harmful. The effect of baseline leptin on CV events depended on the body mass index (BMI), such that the hazard ratios (HRs) varied between 0.6 and 1.4 across the BMI quintiles (interaction P=.03). The same was true for baseline adiponectin (HR varied from 0.7 to 1.7; interaction P=.01), change from baseline monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (HR varied from 0.8 to 1.8; interaction P=.03), change from baseline TNF-α (HR varied from 0.9 to 1.4; interaction P=.02), and change from baseline IL-6 (HR varied from 0.7 to 1.8; interaction P=.005). Adipokines are independent predictors of CV events in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The association between the specific adipokines and CV outcome varies depending on BMI. This reflects the complex pathophysiology of CV disease in obesity and may help explain the "obesity paradox." clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00006305. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile and hepatic expression of SOCS-3 gene in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Kamila; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-08-14

    To analyze adipokine concentrations, insulin resistance and hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 with normal body weight, glucose and lipid profile. The study group consisted of 31 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 9 healthy subjects. Total levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, omentin, osteopontin and insulin were measured using an ELISA kit. The hepatic expression of SOCS-3 was determined by the use of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly higher in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients without metabolic disorders compared to healthy controls (2.24 vs 0.59, P = 0.0003). Hepatic steatosis was observed in 32.2% of patients with HCV infection and was found in patients with increased HOMA-IR index (2.81 vs 1.99, P = 0.05) and reduced adiponectin level (5.96 vs 8.37, P = 0.04). Inflammatory activity (G ≥ 2) was related to increased osteopontin concentration (34.04 vs 23.35, P = 0.03). Advanced liver fibrosis (S ≥ 2) was associated with increased levels of omentin and osteopontin (436.94 vs 360.09, P = 0.03 and 32.84 vs 20.29, P = 0.03) and reduced resistin concentration (1.40 vs 1.74, P = 0.047). No correlations were reported between adipokine profile, HOMA-IR values and hepatic expression of the SOCS-3 gene. We speculated that no relationship between adipokines and HOMA-IR values may indicate that HCV can induce insulin resistance itself. Some adipokines appear to be biochemical markers of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inflammation Activation Contributes to Adipokine Imbalance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    Full Text Available Inflammation can be activated as a defensive response by the attack of acute coronary syndrome (ACS for ischemic tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of ACS-activated inflammation on adipokine imbalance and the effects of statins on the crosstalk between inflammation and adipokine imbalance during ACS. In this study, 586 subjects were categorized into: (1 control group; (2 SA (stable angina group; and (3 ACS group. Circulating levels of hs-CRP, adiponectin and resistin were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, forty C57BL/6 mice were randomized into: sham, AMI, low-statin (atorvastatin, 2 mg/kg/day and high-statin (atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg/day group. After 3 weeks, AMI models were established by surgical coronary artery ligation. Circulating levels and adipose expressions of adiponectin and resistin were assessed in animals. Besides, we investigate the effects of atorvastatin on ox-LDL-induced adipokine imbalance in vitro. As a result, we found that ACS patients had higher hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels. Our correlation analysis demonstrated hs-CRP concentrations were positively correlated with resistin but negatively with adiponectin levels in humans. Our animal findings indicated higher circulating hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels in AMI mice. Atorvastatin pre-treatment dose-dependently decreased hs-CRP and resistin levels but increased adiponectin levels in mice. The consistent findings were observed about the adipose expressions of resistin and adiponectin in mice. In study in vitro, ox-LDL increased cellular resistin expressions and otherwise for adiponectin expressions, which dose-dependently reversed by the addition of atorvastatin. Therefore, our study indicates that the ACS attack activates inflammation leading to adipokine imbalance that can be ameliorated by anti-inflammation of atorvastatin.

  19. Snoring, inflammatory markers, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic low-grade inflammation and adipokines dysregulation are linked to mechanisms underscoring the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Little is known about roles of these cytokines on the association between snoring and metabolic syndrome (MetS. We aimed to investigate whether a cluster of cytokines are related to snoring frequency and its association with MetS in apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: Current analyses used a population-based sample including 1059 Shanghai residents aged 35-54 years. Self-reported snoring frequency was classified as never, occasionally and regularly. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-18, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and leptin were measured. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Overweight/obese subjects had significantly higher prevalence of regular snorers than their normal-weight counterparts (34.8% vs. 11.5%, P<0.001. Regular snoring was associated with unfavorable profile of inflammatory markers and adipokines. However, those associations were abolished after adjustment for body mass index (BMI or waist circumference. The MetS risk (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 5.41, 95% confidence interval 3.72-7.88 was substantially higher in regular snorers compared with non-snorers. Controlling for BMI remarkably attenuated the association (2.03, 1.26-3.26, while adjusting for inflammatory markers and adipokines showed little effects. CONCLUSION: Frequent snoring was associated with an elevated MetS risk independent of lifestyle factors, adiposity, inflammatory markers and adipokines in apparently healthy Chinese. Whether snoring pattern is an economic and no-invasive indicator for screening high-risk persons needs to be addressed prospectively.

  20. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Erica F; Verpeut, Jessica; Horvat-Gordon, Maria; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Bartell, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  1. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  2. Adipokines and Insulin Resistance According to Characteristics of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eon Ju; Hong, Seong Yeon; Lee, Ji Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adipokines concentration and insulin resistance according to maternal age or obesity at pregnancy and weight change at diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women with GDM. This study included 57 pregnant women who were diagnosed with GDM at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. The subjects were classified into two or three groups according to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and HOMA2-%B were increased in the group with pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m². Leptin and HOMA-IR were positively correlated with BMI both before pregnancy and at screening for GDM. There were no significant correlations between HOMA-IR and adipokines. HOMA-IR showed positive correlation with HOMA2-%B and negative correlation with HOMA2-%S. Leptin and HOMA-IR at diagnosed GDM were increased in the GDM patients with obesity before pregnancy. They were positively correlated with BMI both before pregnancy and at screening for GDM. The effect of maternal age at pregnancy and weight change during pregnancy at GDM screening on adipokines and insulin resistance might be less pronounced than the effect of maternal obesity. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association

  3. Correlation of MMP-9, GA, HbA1c, and adipokines levels with DR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the correlation of matrix metalloproteinase -9(MMP-9, glycated albumin(GA, glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1cand adipokines(including visfatin, resistin and leptinwith diabetic retinopathy(DR. METHODS: From March 2015 to March 2017, 74 patients with DR were treated in our hospital, including 40 patients(80 eyeswith non proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRand 34 patients(68 eyeswith proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR, and diabetes mellitus 40 patients(80 eyeswith non DR(NDRand 40 healthy volunteers(80 eyeswere selected as controls, the levels of MMP-9, GA, HbA1c, visfatin, resistin and leptin in each group were detected. RESULTS: PDR group visfatin was 4.41±0.82ng/mL, was significantly lower than the NPDR group, NDR group and control group(PPPPrs=0.523, 0.461 and 0.414, Prs=-0.433, Prs=0.401 and 0.460, PCONCLUSION: MMP-9, GA, HbA1c, and adipokines may play a role in the development and progression of DR, in which MMP-9 is associated with adipokines, both are not significantly related to the levels of GA and HbA1c.

  4. Adipokines Do Not Mediate the Association of Obesity and Colorectal Adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcom, H. M. O.; Cannioto, R.; Nie, J.; Millen, A. E.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Chen, Z.; Thompson, C. L.; Li, L.; Tracy, R.

    2014-01-01

    The association between obesity and colon neoplasia is well established but the underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. Rates of both obesity and colon cancer differ by race. Adipokines have been postulated as contributors to the observed association; however, few studies have examined the mediating effect of adipokines on the obesity-colon adenoma association with consideration of racial differences. Methods. We determined prediagnostic levels of adiponectin and leptin in Caucasians (217 cases and 650 controls) and African Americans (175 cases and 378 controls) participating in the Case Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer Colon Adenoma Study. We evaluated mediating effects of adiponectin and leptin on the association of abdominal adiposity and colon adenoma separately according to race using mediational pathway analysis. Results. We observed differences in circulating adipokine concentrations by race; African Americans had higher levels of leptin and lower levels of adiponectin than Caucasians for both adenoma cases and controls ( P values <0.001). Leptin and adiponectin did not mediate the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) adenoma association in either group (all Sobel P values >0.27). Conclusions. We found no evidence that leptin or adiponectin mediates the abdominal obesity-colorectal adenoma pathway. Larger studies on how these associations vary by race, sex, and obesity are needed.

  5. Changes in inflammation, oxidative stress and adipokines following bariatric surgery among adolescents with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A S; Ryder, J R; Marlatt, K L; Rudser, K D; Jenkins, T; Inge, T H

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation, oxidative stress and dysregulation of adipokines are thought to be pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity to the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In adults, bariatric surgery reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, and beneficially changes the levels of several adipokines, but little is known about the postsurgical changes among adolescents. In two separate longitudinal cohorts we evaluated change from baseline of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL), adiponectin, leptin and resistin up to 12 months following elective laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. In cohort 1, which consisted of 39 adolescents (mean age 16.5±1.6 years; 29 females) undergoing either RYGB or VSG, IL-6 (baseline: 2.3±3.4 pg ml(-1) vs 12 months: 0.8±0.6 pg ml(-1), Padolescents (mean age 16.5±1.6 years; 10 females) undergoing RYGB, results were similar: IL-6 (baseline: 1.7±0.9 pg ml(-1) vs 12 months: 0.4±0.9 pg ml(-1), PBariatric surgery produced robust improvements in markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and several adipokines among adolescents with severe obesity, suggesting potential reductions in risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Differential Effect of Electroacupuncture on Inflammatory Adipokines in Two Rat Models of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline J.T. Liaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which are characterized by altered levels of production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. The dysregulation of the production of inflammatory adipokines and their functions in obese individuals leads to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and may promote obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Electroacupuncture (EA was tested to see if there was a difference in its effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokine levels in the blood serum and the white adipose tissue of obese Zucker fatty rats and high-fat diet-induced obese Long Evans rats. In the two rat models of obesity, on Day 12 of treatment, repeated applications of EA were seen to have had a significant differential effect for serum tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, the adiponectin:leptin ratio, and blood glucose. For the adipose tissue, there was a differential effect for adiponectin that was on the borderline of significance. To explore these changes further and how they might affect insulin resistance would require a modification to the research design to use larger group sizes for the two models or to give a greater number of EA treatments.

  7. Exercise, adipokines and pediatric obesity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, A; Ceballos-Ceballos, R J M; Poblete-Aro, C E; Hackney, A C; Mota, J; Ramírez-Vélez, R

    2017-04-01

    Adipokines are involved in the etiology of diabetes, insulin resistance, and the development of atherosclerosis and other latent-onset complications. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on adipokines in pediatric obesity. A computerized search was made using three databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of exercise interventions on adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin) in pediatric obesity (6-18 years old). Fourteen randomized controlled trials (347 youths) were included. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Exercise was associated with a significant increase in adiponectin (WMD=0.882 μg ml -1 , 95% CI, 0.271-1.493) but did not alter leptin and resistin level. Likewise, exercise intensity and change in body fat; as well as total exercise program duration, duration of the sessions, and change in body fat all significantly influenced the effect of exercise on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Exercise seems to increase adiponectin levels in childhood obesity. Our results also suggested that exercise on its own, without the concomitant presence of changes in body composition levels, does not affect leptin levels.

  8. Early changes in adipokines from overweight to obesity in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Machado Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Childhood obesity has been associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to compare plasma levels of traditional metabolic markers, adipokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNFR1 in overweight, obese and lean children. We also assessed the relationships of these molecules with classical metabolic risk factors. Methods: This study included 104 children and adolescents, which were grouped as: lean (n = 24, overweight (n = 30, and obese subjects (n = 50. They were subjected to anthropometrical, clinical and laboratorial measurements. All measurements were compared between groups. Correlation analyses were also performed to evaluate the association between clinical data, traditional metabolic markers, adipokines and sTNFR1. Results: Fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were comparable in lean, overweight and obese subjects. Plasma levels of sTNFR1 were similar in lean and overweight subjects, but significantly increased in obese group. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels did not differ when overweight were compared to obese subjects. However, all adipokines differed significantly when lean subjects were compared to overweight and obese individuals. Plasma levels of adiponectin were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI, whereas leptin, resistin and sTNFR1 concentrations positively correlated with BMI. Conclusion: Our results showed significant differences in circulating levels of the evaluated markers when lean, overweight and obese individuals were compared, suggesting that these biomarkers may change from lean to overweight and from overweight to obesity.

  9. Adipokines induce catabolism of newly synthesized matrix in cartilage and meniscus tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimuta, James F; Levenston, Marc E

    Altered synovial levels of various adipokines (factors secreted by fat as well as other tissues) have been associated with osteoarthritis (OA) onset and progression. However, the metabolic effects of adipokines on joint tissues, in particular the fibrocartilaginous menisci, are not well understood. This study investigated effects of several adipokines on release of recently synthesized extracellular matrix in bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants. After labeling newly synthesized proteins and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) with 3 H-proline and 35 S-sulfate, respectively; bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants were cultured for 6 days in basal medium (control) or media supplemented with adipokines (1 µg/ml of leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, or resistin) or 20 ng/ml interleukin-1 (IL-1). Release of radiolabel and sGAG to the media during culture and the final explant water, DNA, sGAG, and retained radiolabel were measured. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-3 activities were assessed using gelatin and casein zymography, respectively. Water and DNA contents were not significantly altered by any treatment. Visfatin, adiponectin, resistin, and IL-1 stimulated sGAG release from meniscus, whereas only IL-1 stimulated sGAG release from cartilage. Release of 3 H and 35 S was stimulated not only by resistin and IL-1 in meniscus but also by IL-1 in cartilage. Retained 3 H was unaltered by any treatment, while retained 35 S was reduced by visfatin, resistin, and IL-1 in meniscus and by only IL-1 in cartilage. Resistin and IL-1 elevated active MMP-2 and total MMP-3 in meniscus, whereas cartilage MMP-3 activity was elevated by only IL-1. Resistin stimulated rapid and extensive catabolism of meniscus tissue, similar to IL-1, whereas adipokines minimally affected cartilage. Release of newly synthesized matrix was similar to overall release in both tissues. These observations provide further indications that meniscal tissue is more sensitive to pro

  10. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Adipokine Levels in Breast Milk among Lactating Women of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Duk Hee; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-07

    Exposure to several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to alteration of lipid metabolism. Adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin, are hormones that play roles in lipid metabolism, and have been suggested as markers of health effects that may lead to obesity. To date, only serum adipokines have been associated with POPs exposure. In the present study, for the first time, the associations between leptin and adiponectin in breast milk, and several POPs in serum were investigated among 82 lactating Korean women between 25 and 46 years of age. Breast milk adipokines are important because adipokine intake of infant through breastfeeding may influence the growth of infants. The median concentrations of leptin and adiponectin in skimmed milk of the Korean lactating women were 17.9 ng/L and 16.5 μg/L, respectively. Leptin concentrations in breast milk were negatively associated with ∑hexachlorohexane (HCH), oxychlordane, ∑chlordane, or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB 153) levels in maternal serum. Linear relationships between adiponectin and POPs concentrations were not observed, however, nonmonotonic relationship which showed generally positive associations was suggested for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and ∑chlordane in quartile analysis. Our observations show that POPs at the current level of exposure may be associated with the alteration of lipid metabolism among lactating women. Implication of adipokine transfer to breastfed infants is of concern and deserves further investigation.

  11. Quantification and regulation of the adipokines resistin and progranulin in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Martin; Hochberg, Alexandra; Schmid, Andreas; Schlegel, Jutta; Karrasch, Thomas; Kaps, Manfred; Schäffler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines bearing the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are promising candidates for the endocrine regulation of central nervous processes and of a postulated fat-brain axis. Resistin and progranulin concentrations in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients undergoing neurological evaluation and spinal puncture were investigated. Samples of n = 270 consecutive patients with various neurological diseases were collected without prior selection. Adipokine serum and CSF concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum and CSF routine parameters by standard procedures. Anthropometric data, medication and patient history were available. Serum levels of resistin and progranulin were positively correlated among each other, with respective CSF levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and markers of systemic inflammation. CSF resistin concentrations were generally low. Progranulin CSF concentrations and CSF/serum progranulin ratio were significantly higher in patients with infectious diseases, with disturbed BBB function and with elevated CSF cell count and presence of oligoclonal bands. Both adipokines are able to cross the BBB depending on a differing patency that increases with increasing grade of barrier dysfunction. Whereas resistin represents a systemic marker of inflammation, CSF progranulin levels strongly depend on the underlying disease and dysfunction of blood-CSF barrier. Resistin and progranulin represent novel and putative regulators of the fat-brain axis by their ability to cross the BBB under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The presented data provide insight into the characteristics of BBB function regarding progranulin and resistin and the basis for future establishment of normal values for CSF concentrations and CSF/serum ratios. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  12. Systematic review of saturated fatty acids on inflammation and circulating levels of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Oliveira, Andreia; Lopes, Carla

    2013-09-01

    Diet is one factor that plays a part in coronary heart disease risk through multiple biological mechanisms including subclinical inflammation. In this review, we aimed to systematically assess and summarize evidence regarding the association of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with inflammatory markers and adipokines. An electronic search of the literature was conducted up to September 2010 using Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct (updated from September 2010 to August 2011 through Medline). Original studies that were written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French, and addressed the effects of SFA (not dietary sources or SFA-rich diets) on inflammatory markers or adipokines in adult populations were considered eligible. Data from 15 studies providing adjusted estimates were extracted. The publication year varied from 1995 to 2010 and the sample size from 54 to 4900. Most studies were cross sectional, with 3 studies using a prospective design. Twelve studies assessed total SFA, and 3 studies considered their subtypes, which were measured through dietary assessments (11 studies) or in blood samples (4 studies). Significant positive associations were observed between SFA and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6, whereas no significant associations were observed with E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, fibrinogen, and adiponectin. For high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2 studies showed significant positive associations, whereas 3 studies reported no significant associations. One study reported a significant inverse association of SFA with leptin, although the other 3 found no significant associations. Based on this systematic review, a potential positive association of SFA with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein but not with adipokines is suggested, which should be confirmed by future research. © 2013.

  13. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome as a Proinflammatory State: The Role of Adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Kyrou, Ioannis; Randeva, Harpal S

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder and the most common endocrinopathy amongst women of reproductive age. It is characterized by androgen excess, chronic anovulation and an altered cardiometabolic profile. PCOS is linked to impaired adipose tissue (AT) physiology and women with this disorder present with greater risk for insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia, central adiposity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than matched for age and body mass index (BMI) women without PCOS. Hyperandrogenaemia appears to be driving adipocyte hypertrophy observed in PCOS under the influence of a hyperinsulinaemic state. Changes in the function of adipocytes have an impact on the secretion of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors promoting susceptibility to low grade inflammation. In this article, we review the existing knowledge on the interplay between hyperandrogenaemia, insulin resistance, impaired adipocyte biology, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation in PCOS. In PCOS, more than one mechanisms have been suggested in the development of a chronic low-grade inflammation state with the most prevalent being that of a direct effect of the immune system on adipose tissue functions as previously reported in obese women without PCOS. Despite the lack of conclusive evidence regarding a direct mechanism linking hyperandrogenaemia to pro-inflammation in PCOS, there have been recent findings indicating that hyperandrogenaemia might be involved in chronic inflammation by exerting an effect on adipocytes morphology and attributes. Increasing evidence suggests that there is an important connection and interaction between proinflammatory pathways, hyperinsulinemia, androgen excess and adipose tissue hypertrophy and, dysfunction in PCOS. While lifestyle changes and individualized prescription of insulin-sensitizing drugs are common in managing PCOS, further studies are warranted to

  14. The effects of weight loss on adipokines and markers of inflammation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Joseph J; Struble, Angela M; Levine, Corri B; Bushey, Jennifer J; Laflamme, Dorothy P; Long, Grace M

    2011-10-01

    Evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived adipokines induce mild inflammation and may play a role in insulin resistance associated with diabetes. The present study was designed to examine a series of adipokines and markers of inflammation in dogs before and after a successful weight loss. The study included fasting serum samples from twenty-five dogs before and after a weight-loss programme. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured as indicators of chronic inflammation, while serum adipokines including total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, resistin and leptin were also examined. Medians for CRP (before, 10.0 (interquartile range 5.4-15.0) μg/ml; after, 5.6 (interquartile range 3.8-7.0) μg/ml) and MCP-1 (before, 212 (interquartile range 157-288) ng/ml; after, 185 (interquartile range 143-215) ng/ml) decreased significantly after weight loss. Medians for resistin showed a mild, yet significant reduction (before, 67.1 (interquartile range 44.4-88.5) pg/ml; after, 60.5 (interquartile range 32.3-67.1) pg/ml), while leptin showed a dramatic decrease after weight loss (before, 18.9 (interquartile range 10.8-35.4) ng/ml; after, 6.6 (interquartile range 3.9-10.2) ng/ml). Serum total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin were unchanged on all analyses performed. These data suggest that weight loss can decrease chronic inflammation; however, the clinical implications of this decrease are not well elucidated in dogs. Surprisingly, there was no increase in total or HMW serum adiponectin after weight loss, as observed previously in human subjects. The lack of change in total and HMW adiponectin might explain why insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are less prevalent in obese dogs when compared with humans and cats.

  15. Improvement in coronary heart disease risk factors during an intermittent fasting/calorie restriction regimen: Relationship to adipokine modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroeger Cynthia M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of an intermittent fasting (IF-calorie restriction (CR regimen (with or without liquid meals to modulate adipokines in a way that is protective against coronary heart disease (CHD has yet to be tested. Objective Accordingly, we examined the effects of an IFCR diet on adipokine profile, body composition, and markers of CHD risk in obese women. Methods Subjects (n = 54 were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F diet for 10 weeks. Results Greater decreases in body weight and waist circumference were noted in the IFCR-L group (4 ± 1 kg; 6 ± 1 cm versus the IFCR-F group (3 ± 1 kg; 4 ± 1 cm. Similar reductions (P Conclusion These findings suggest that IFCR with a liquid diet favorably modulates visceral fat and adipokines in a way that may confer protection against CHD.

  16. Serum adipokines might predict liver histology findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Raika; Razavizade, Mohsen; Arj, Abbas; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-07

    To assess significance of serum adipokines to determine the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients with persistent elevation in serum aminotransferase levels and well-defined characteristics of fatty liver at ultrasound were enrolled. Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis or known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed to confirm non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). The degrees of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis were determined based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver activity score (NAS) by a single expert pathologist. Patients with a NAS of five or higher were considered to have steatohepatitis. Those with a NAS of two or lower were defined as simple fatty liver. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of adipokines with histological findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to determine cut-off values of serum adipokines to discriminate the grades of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. Fifty-four participants aged 37.02 ± 9.82 were enrolled in the study. Higher serum levels of visfatin, IL-8, TNF-α levels were associated independently with steatosis grade of more than 33% [β = 1.08 (95%CI: 1.03-1.14), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.008-1.07), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004-1.08), P < 0.05]. Elevated serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated independently with advanced lobular inflammation [β = 1.4 (95%CI: 1.09-1.8), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.003-1.15), P < 0.05]. Similarly, higher TNF-α, resistin, and hepcidin levels were associated independently with advanced fibrosis stage [β = 1.06 (95%CI: 1.002-1.12), 19.86 (95%CI: 2.79-141.19), 560.72 (95%CI: 5.98-5255.33), P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 and TNF-α values were associated independently with the NAS score, considering a NAS score of 5 as the reference value [β = 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01-1.1), 1.13 (95%CI: 1.04-1.22), P < 0.05]. Certain adipokines may

  17. Adipokine pattern in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in comparison to normal glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Tönjes

    Full Text Available AIM: Altered adipokine serum concentrations early reflect impaired adipose tissue function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. It is not entirely clear whether these adipokine alterations are already present in prediabetic states and so far there is no comprehensive adipokine panel available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess distinct adipokine profiles in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or T2D. METHODS: Based on 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, 124 individuals were divided into groups of IFG (n = 35, IGT (n = 45, or NGT (n = 43. Furthermore, 56 subjects with T2D were included. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, chemerin, fetuin-A, leptin, interleukin (IL-6, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, vaspin, progranulin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOBR were measured by ELISAs. RESULTS: Chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A, and RBP4, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin serum concentrations were differentially regulated among the four investigated groups but only circulating chemerin was significantly different in patients with IGT compared to those with IFG. Compared to T2D the IFG subjects had higher serum chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A and RBP4 levels which was not detectable in the comparison of the T2D and IGT group. CONCLUSION: Alterations in adipokine serum concentrations are already detectable in prediabetic states, mainly for chemerin, and may reflect adipose tissue dysfunction as an early pathogenetic event in T2D development. In addition, distinct adipokine serum patterns in individuals with IFG and IGT suggest a specific role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of these prediabetic states.

  18. Role of adipokines signaling in the modulation of T cells function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eProcaccini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The field that links immunity and metabolism is rapidly expanding. Apparently non-immunological disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have been linked to immune dysregulation, suggesting that metabolic alterations can be induced by or be consequence of an altered self-immune tolerance. In this context, adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, termed adipokines, which can be considered as the bridge between obesity-related exogenous factors, such as nutrition and lifestyle, and the molecular events leading to metabolic syndrome, inflammatory and/or autoimmune conditions. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines impacts on multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, modulation of immune responses, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism, and so on. This report aims to discuss some of the recent topics of adipocytokine research and their related signaling pathways, that may be of particular importance as could lead to effective therapeutic strategies for obesity-associated diseases.

  19. Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Reduces Saliva Adipokine and Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Erkan; Işıl Saygun, N; Serdar, Muhittin A; Umut Bengi, V; Kantarcı, Alpdoğan

    2016-08-01

    Adipokines enhance the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play a role in extracellular matrix degeneration. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of some adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs in the saliva of patients with periodontitis and healthy individuals and to evaluate the changes after non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Of 32 individuals included in the study, 17 had periodontitis and 15 had healthy gingiva. Saliva samples were obtained from all individuals. In patients with periodontitis, samples were recollected 3 and 6 months after NSPT. Visfatin, chemerin, progranulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, MMP-8, and MMP-13 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In patients with periodontitis, all of the parameters measured in the saliva were higher than those of healthy individuals. At 3 months, visfatin, progranulin, IL-8, and MMP-8 levels were significantly decreased compared with baseline values. The levels of other biochemical parameters, chemerin and IL-1β, were significantly decreased compared with baseline values at 6 months, and the levels became similar to those in healthy individuals. In the periodontitis group, positive correlations were found among visfatin and IL-8 (r = 0.909, P periodontal tissue in periodontitis by stimulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs.

  20. RESISTIN, AN ADIPOKINE WITH NON-GENERALISED ACTIONS ON SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eBadoer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation has called obesity a global epidemic. There is a strong association between body weight gain and blood pressure. A major determinant of blood pressure is the level of activity in sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs. A characteristic of obesity, in both humans and in animal models, is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the skeletal muscle vasculature and to the kidneys. Obesity is now recognised as a chronic, low level inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated including those produced by adipose tissue. The most well known adipokine released from fat tissue is leptin. The adipokine, resistin,, is also released from adipose tissue. Resistin can act in the central nervous system to influence the sympathetic nerve activity. Here, we review the effects of resistin on sympathetic nerve activity and compare them with leptin. We build an argument that resistin and leptin may have complex interactions. Firstly, they may augment each other as both are excitatory on sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs; In contrast, they could antagonize each other’s actions on brown adipose tissue, a key metabolic organ. These interactions may be important in conditions in which leptin and resistin are elevated, such as in obesity.

  1. Increased Adipocyte Size, Macrophage Infiltration, and Adverse Local Adipokine Profile in Perirenal Fat in Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerink, Sean H P P; Wagenmakers, Margreet A E M; Langenhuijsen, Johan F; Ballak, Dov B; Rooijackers, Hanne M M; d'Ancona, Frank C; van Dielen, François M; Smit, Jan W A; Plantinga, Theo S; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Hermus, Ad R M M

    2017-08-01

    To analyze changes in fat cell size, macrophage infiltration, and local adipose tissue adipokine profiles in different fat depots in patients with active Cushing's syndrome. Subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue of 10 patients with Cushing's syndrome was compared to adipose tissue of 10 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched controls with regard to adipocyte size determined by digital image analysis on hematoxylin and eosin stainings, macrophage infiltration determined by digital image analysis on CD68 stainings, and adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin levels using fluorescent bead immunoassays and ELISA techniques. Compared to the controls, mean adipocyte size was larger in PR adipose tissue in patients. The percentage of macrophage infiltration of the PR adipose tissue and PR adipose tissue lysate leptin levels were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in SC and PR adipose tissue lysates in patients. The adiponectin levels were also lower in the SC adipose tissue supernatants of patients. Associations were found between the severity of hypercortisolism and PR adipocyte size. Cushing's syndrome is associated with hypertrophy of PR adipocytes and a higher percentage of macrophage infiltration in PR adipose tissue. These changes are associated with an adverse local adipokine profile. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Adipokines, cytokines and body fat stores in hepatitis C virus liver steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, Emilio; López-Prieto, Javier; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; Pelazas-González, Ricardo; Alemán-Valls, M Remedios; Pérez-Hernández, Onán; de-la-Vega-Prieto, M José; Gómez-Rodríguez, M Angeles; Martín-González, Candelaria; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-08

    To identify patients with or without liver steatosis and its severity in treatment-naïve patients affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We included 56 HCV infected patients, and assessed the amount of liver fat by histomorphometry, and its relationships with fat and lean mass at different parts of the body (by densitometry), hormones [insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)], adipokines (resistin, adiponectin, leptin), and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6). Although the intensity of liver steatosis is related to trunk fat mass and HOMA, 33% of patients showed no liver steatosis, and this finding was not related to body mass index or genotype. Besides trunk fat mass, no other factor was related to the presence or not of liver steatosis, or to the intensity of it, by multivariate analysis. Lean mass was not related to liver steatosis. Adiponectin levels were lower among patients. No differences were observed in leptin and resistin. Steatosis in HCV infection is common (67.2%), and closely related to trunk fat, and insulin resistance, but not with leg fat mass or adipokines.

  3. Adipokines, adiposity, and bone marrow adipocytes: Dangerous accomplices in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Emma V; Edwards, Claire M

    2018-06-26

    Obesity has become a global epidemic influencing the establishment and progression of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In 2016, International Agency for Research on Cancer reported that obesity is now associated with 13 different cancers, one of which is multiple myeloma (MM), a destructive cancer of plasma cells that predominantly reside in the bone marrow. Obesity is the accumulation of excess body fat, which causes metabolic, endocrine, immunologic, and inflammatory-like changes. Obesity is usually associated with an increase in visceral and/or subcutaneous fat; however, an additional fat depot that also responds to diet-induced changes is bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). There have been several studies over the past few decades that have identified BMAT as a key driver in MM progression. Adipocytes secrete numerous adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin, adipsin, and visfatin, which when secreted at normal controlled levels have protective properties. However, in obesity these levels of secretion change, coupled with an increase in adipocyte number and size causing a profound and lasting effect on the bone microenvironment, contributing to MM cell growth, survival, and migration as well as potentially fueling bone destruction. Obesity is a modifiable risk factor making it an attractive option for targeted therapy. This review discusses the link between obesity, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a benign condition that precedes MM), and myeloma, and the contribution of key adipokines to disease establishment and progression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Association of circulating adipokines with metabolic dyslipidemia in obese versus non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimlou, Mehran; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that circulating adipokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of some obesity related chronic disease such as dyslipidemia and type2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between vaspin, omentin-1 and retinol binding protein-4 levels with metabolic dyslipidemia (MD) criteria in obese and non-obese individuals. The study was conducted on 170 obese and 81 non-obese individuals. After collecting the blood samples, serum levels metabolic parameters as well as three circulating adipokines and body composition were measured. No significant difference was noted regarding the mean serum levels of omentin-1 and vaspin between the obese and non-obese groups, while, serum level of RBP4 was significantly higher in the non-obese group. We found the 0.22 increased risk of MD in obese individuals with higher RBP4 concentration. After the adjustment for confounding factors, this association was still significant. No significant association was noted between MD and its components relative risks with omentin-1 and vaspin levels. Our study demonstrated that circulating RBP4 was significantly higher in the obese individuals which may increase the risk of MD in them. Further researches are needed to address this association. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of a multi-component camp-based intervention on inflammatory markers and adipokines in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, T.; Larsen, K. T.; Moller, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of a multi-component camp-based intervention on inflammatory markers and adipokines in children. Methods. One hundred and fifteen children were recruited in Odense, Denmark (2012-2014). The participants were randomly allocated to either the day camp intervention ...

  6. The Effects of Exercise Training on Obesity-Induced Dysregulated Expression of Adipokines in White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Sakurai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. White adipose tissue (WAT is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. Additionally, because there is much evidence that obesity-induced inflammatory changes in WAT, which is caused by dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance, WAT has attracted special attention as an organ that causes diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR not only leads to a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the inflammation-related adipokines in WAT. Therefore, TR is widely used as a tool for preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression and secretory response of adipokines in WAT.

  7. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Caucasian and African-American Adolescents : Relationships with Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines, and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a

  8. Plasma concentrations and expressions of selected adipokines in subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy subjects during 24-hour hypertriglyceridaemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jan; Krušinová, E.; Klemontová, M.; Kazdová, L.; Mlejnek, Petr; Pravenec, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. S1 (2005), A36-A36 ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /41./. 10.09.2005-15.09.2005, Athen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipokines * insulin resistance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S.; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothes...

  10. Adipokines and their relation to maternal energy substrate production, insulin resistance and fetal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Ewald, Uwe; Jonsson, Björn; Forslund, Anders; Stridsberg, Mats; Gustafsson, Jan

    2013-05-01

    The role of adipokines in the regulation of energy substrate production in non-diabetic pregnant women has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that serum concentrations of adiponectin are related to fetal growth via maternal fat mass, insulin resistance and glucose production, and further, that serum levels of leptin are associated with lipolysis and that this also influences fetal growth. Hence, we investigated the relationship between adipokines, energy substrate production, insulin resistance, body composition and fetal weight in non-diabetic pregnant women in late gestation. Twenty pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance were investigated at 36 weeks of gestation at Uppsala University Hospital. Levels of adipokines were related to rates of glucose production and lipolysis, maternal body composition, insulin resistance, resting energy expenditure and estimated fetal weights. Rates of glucose production and lipolysis were estimated by stable isotope dilution technique. Median (range) rate of glucose production was 805 (653-1337) μmol/min and that of glycerol production, reflecting lipolysis, was 214 (110-576) μmol/min. HOMA insulin resistance averaged 1.5 ± 0.75 and estimated fetal weights ranged between 2670 and 4175 g (-0.2 to 2.7 SDS). Mean concentration of adiponectin was 7.2 ± 2.5mg/L and median level of leptin was 47.1 (9.9-58.0) μg/L. Adiponectin concentrations (7.2 ± 2.5mg/L) correlated inversely with maternal fat mass, insulin resistance, glucose production and fetal weight, r=-0.50, pinsulin resistance, r=0.76, pinsulin resistance as well as endogenous glucose production rates indicate that low levels of adiponectin in obese pregnant women may represent one mechanism behind increased fetal size. Maternal levels of leptin are linked to maternal fat mass and its metabolic consequences, but the data indicate that leptin lacks a regulatory role with regard to maternal lipolysis in late pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  11. High-intensity interval training improves inflammatory and adipokine profiles in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Flávia Mariel; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Figueiredo, Felipe da Cunha; Santos, Daniela Lopes Dos; Bresciani, Guilherme; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Courtes, Aline Alves; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Sangoi Cardoso, Manuela; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2018-02-12

    This study investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic levels of inflammatory and hormonal markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifteen postmenopausal women with MS completed the training on treadmills. Functional, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), and lipid profile were assessed before and after HIIT. Serum or plasma levels of cytokines and hormonal markers were measured along the intervention. The analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these cytokines was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). VO 2 max and some anthropometric parameters were improved after HIIT, while decreased levels of proinflammatory markers and increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were also found. Adipokines were also modulated after 12 weeks or training. The mRNA expression of the studied genes was unchanged after HIIT. In conclusion, HIIT benefits inflammatory and hormonal axis on serum or plasma samples, without changes on PBMC of postmenopausal MS patients.

  12. Association between UCP polymorphisms and adipokines with obesity in Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Huesca-Gómez, Claudia; López-Marure, Rebeca; Hernández-Cabrera, Ana-Karen; Rodríguez-Ventura, Ana; Tolentino, Maricruz; Morales, Rosa María; Gamboa, Ricardo

    2018-04-10

    It has been reported that the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can contribute to energy metabolism, and are thus involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. The objective of the study was to analyze the association between UCP polymorphisms, clinical parameters and leptin and adiponectin plasma levels in an adolescent population with overweight and obesity. We analyzed the UCP1 -3826 C/T, UCP2-866 G/A, Ala55Val and UCP3 -55 C/T polymorphisms and the levels of adipokines in adolescents with normal weight and with overweight or obesity. The study included 270 students aged between 12 and 18 years categorized according to the percentiles from Mexico City. Adipokines levels were measured by immunoassay methods and the UCP polymorphisms were determined using Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). No significant differences were found in the UCP polymorphisms in seven inheritance models studied. Most of the significant differences in the clinical parameters were found under a recessive model, the UCP2 -866 polymorphism was associated with diastolic blood pressure (p=0.008), triglycerides (p=0.045), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p=0.003), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p=0.050) and plasma levels of leptin (p<0.001). Also, the obese group was found to have higher leptin levels and lower adiponectin levels in GA+AA vs. GG (recessive model). This study demonstrated a direct relationship between the clinical characteristics and UCP2-866 in a recessive model, associated with high levels of leptin and decreased levels of adiponectin in an obese or overweight Mexican adolescent population.

  13. The action of D-dopachrome tautomerase as an adipokine in adipocyte lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Iwata

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a critical exchange center for complex energy transactions involving triacylglycerol storage and release. It also has an active endocrine role, releasing various adipose-derived cytokines (adipokines that participate in complex pathways to maintain metabolic and vascular health. Here, we found D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT as an adipokine secreted from human adipocytes by a proteomic approach. DDT mRNA levels in human adipocytes were negatively correlated with obesity-related clinical parameters such as BMI, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. Experiments using SGBS cells, a human preadipocyte cell line, revealed that DDT mRNA levels were increased in an adipocyte differentiation-dependent manner and DDT was secreted from adipocytes. In DDT knockdown adipocytes differentiated from SGBS cells that were infected with the adenovirus expressing shRNA against the DDT gene, mRNA levels of genes involved in both lipolysis and lipogenesis were slightly but significantly increased. Furthermore, we investigated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling, which phosphorylates and inactivates enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, in DDT knockdown adipocytes. The AMPK phosphorylation of HSL Ser-565 and ACC Ser-79 was inhibited in DDT knockdown cells and recovered in the cells treated with recombinant DDT (rDDT, suggesting that down-regulated DDT in adipocytes brings about a state of active lipid metabolism. Furthermore, administration of rDDT in db/db mice improved glucose intolerance and decreased serum free fatty acids levels. In the adipose tissue from rDDT-treated db/db mice, not only increased levels of HSL phosphorylated by AMPK, but also decreased levels of HSL phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA, which phosphorylates HSL to promote its activity, were observed. These results suggested that DDT acts on adipocytes to regulate lipid metabolism through

  14. Clinical Significance of Serum Adipokines according to Body Mass Index in Patients with Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyong Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of 7 circulating adipokines according to body mass index (BMI in Korean men with localized prostate cancer (PCa undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two of 65 prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent RP between 2015 and 2016 were evaluated. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to their BMI: non-obese (<25 kg/m2 and obese (≥25 kg/m2. The adipokines evaluated were interleukin-2, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, chemerin, C-X-C motif chemokine 10, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of advanced tumor stage. Results: We found that obese patients with PCa who underwent RP had a higher incidence of tumors with a high Gleason score (≥8, pathological T3 (pT3 stage, and positive extraprostatic extension than patients with a normal BMI. Additionally, patients with obesity showed significantly lower serum adiponectin and higher serum leptin levels, but did not show differences in other adipokines. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 (odds ratio [OR]=1.03 was identified as a predictor of advanced tumor stage (≥pT3 in the overall population. However, only leptin remained an independent predictive factor for advanced tumor stage (≥pT3 (OR=1.15 in patients with obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion, our results indicate that a higher leptin level in obese men can be considered a risk factor for aggressive PCa. This prospective study provides greater insight into the role of circulating adipokines in Korean patients with PCa undergoing RP, particularly in patients with obesity.

  15. The association of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in Western populations find that depression is associated with inflammation and obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipose-derived adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.Data were from 3289 community residents aged 50-70 from Beijing and Shanghai who participated in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China project. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D score of 16 or higher. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 were measured. Of the 3289 participants, 312 (9.5% suffered from current depressive symptoms. IL-6 level was higher in participants with depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts in the crude analyses (1.17 vs. 1.05 pg/mL, p = 0.023 and this association lost statistical significance after multiple adjustments (1.13 vs. 1.10 pg/mL, p = 0.520. Depressive symptoms were not associated with increased mean levels of any other inflammatory factors or adipokines in the unadjusted or adjusted analyses.We found no evidence that depressive symptoms were associated with inflammatory factors and adipokines in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Prospective studies and studies in clinically diagnosed patients are needed to confirm our results and clarify the relation of depression with inflammatory factors and adipokines.

  16. Sequence analysis of three canine adipokine genes revealed an association between TNF polymorphisms and obesity in Labrador dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowska, M; Stachowiak, M; Graczyk, A; Ciazynska, P; Gogulski, M; Nizanski, W; Switonski, M

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is an emerging health problem in purebred dogs. Due to their crucial role in energy homeostasis control, genes encoding adipokines are considered candidate genes, and their variants may be associated with predisposition to obesity. Searching for polymorphism was carried out in three adipokine genes (TNF, RETN and IL6). The study was performed on 260 dogs, including lean (n = 109), overweight (n = 88) and obese (n = 63) dogs. The largest cohort was represented by Labrador Retrievers (n = 136). Altogether, 24 novel polymorphisms were identified: 12 in TNF (including one missense SNP), eight in RETN (including one missense SNP) and four in IL6. Distributions of five common SNPs (two in TNF, two in RETN and one in IL6) were further analyzed with regard to body condition score. Two SNPs in the non-coding parts of TNF (c.-40A>C and c.233+14G>A) were associated with obesity in Labrador dogs. The obtained results showed that the studied adipokine genes are highly polymorphic and two polymorphisms in the TNF gene may be considered as markers predisposing Labrador dogs to obesity. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Alterations in mouse hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling following chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Bigford

    Full Text Available Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI results in an accelerated trajectory of several cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors and related aging characteristics, however the molecular mechanisms that are activated have not been explored. Adipokines and leptin signaling are known to play a critical role in neuro-endocrine regulation of energy metabolism, and are now implicated in central inflammatory processes associated with CVD. Here, we examine hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling in response to chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age. We demonstrate significant changes in fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF, resistin (Rstn, long-form leptin receptor (LepRb and suppressor of cytokine-3 (SOCS3 gene expression following chronic SCI and with advanced age. LepRb and Jak2/stat3 signaling is significantly decreased and the leptin signaling inhibitor SOCS3 is significantly elevated with chronic SCI and advanced age. In addition, we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activation of the uncoupled protein response (UPR as a biological hallmark of leptin resistance. We observe the activation of the ER stress/UPR proteins IRE1, PERK, and eIF2alpha, demonstrating leptin resistance in chronic SCI and with advanced age. These findings provide evidence for adipokine-mediated inflammatory responses and leptin resistance as contributing to neuro-endocrine dysfunction and CVD risk following SCI and with advanced age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to SCI and age related CVD may provide insight that will help direct specific therapeutic interventions.

  18. The Effect of Renal Denervation on Plasma Adipokine Profile in Patients with Treatment Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Eikelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN to lower blood pressure (BP at least partially via the reduction of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. A number of adipocyte-derived factors are implicated in BP control in obesity.Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether RDN may have salutary effects on the adipokine profile in patients with resistant hypertension (RH.Methods: Fifty seven patients with RH undergoing RDN program have been included in this study (65% males, age 60.8 ± 1.5 years, BMI 32.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, mean ± SEM. Throughout the study, the patients were on an average of 4.5 ± 2.7 antihypertensive drugs. Automated seated office BP measurements and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, adiponectin and resistin were assessed at baseline and the 3 months after RDN.Results: There was a significant reduction in mean office systolic (168.75 ± 2.57 vs. 155.23 ± 3.17 mmHg, p < 0.001 and diastolic (90.68 ± 2.31 vs. 83.74 ± 2.36 mmHg, p < 0.001 BP 3 months after RDN. Body weight, plasma leptin and resistin levels and heart rate remained unchanged. Fasting insulin concentration significantly increased 3 months after the procedure (20.05 ± 1.46 vs. 29.70 ± 2.51 uU/ml, p = 0.002. There was a significant drop in circulating NEFA at follow up (1.01 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.04 mEq/l, p < 0.001. Adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after RDN (5,654 ± 800 vs. 6,644 ± 967 ng/ml, p = 0.024.Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that RDN is associated with potentially beneficial effects on aspects of the adipokine profile. Increased adiponectin and reduced NEFA production may contribute to BP reduction via an effect on metabolic pathways.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00483808, NCT00888433.

  19. Ambient air pollution, adipokines, and glucose homeostasis: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Dorans, Kirsten S; Wilker, Elissa H; Rice, Mary B; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel D; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A; Gold, Diane R; Meigs, James B; Fox, Caroline S; Mittleman, Murray A

    2018-02-01

    To examine associations of proximity to major roadways, sustained exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and acute exposure to ambient air pollutants with adipokines and measures of glucose homeostasis among participants living in the northeastern United States. We included 5958 participants from the Framingham Offspring cohort examination cycle 7 (1998-2001) and 8 (2005-2008) and Third Generation cohort examination cycle 1 (2002-2005) and 2 (2008-2011), who did not have type 2 diabetes at the time of examination visit. We calculated 2003 annual average PM 2.5 at participants' home address, residential distance to the nearest major roadway, and daily PM 2.5 , black carbon (BC), sulfate, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and ozone concentrations. We used linear mixed effects models for fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which were measured up to twice, and used linear regression models for adiponectin, resistin, leptin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) which were measured only once, adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic position, lifestyle, time, and seasonality. The mean age was 51years and 55% were women. Participants who lived 64m (25th percentile) from a major roadway had 0.28% (95% CI: 0.05%, 0.51%) higher fasting plasma glucose than participants who lived 413m (75th percentile) away, and the association appeared to be driven by participants who lived within 50m from a major roadway. Higher exposures to 3- to 7-day moving averages of BC and NO x were associated with higher glucose whereas the associations for ozone were negative. The associations otherwise were generally null and did not differ by median age, sex, educational attainment, obesity status, or prediabetes status. Living closer to a major roadway or acute exposure to traffic-related air pollutants were associated with dysregulated glucose homeostasis but not with adipokines among participants from the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation

  20. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (Pcolloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (Pinsulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  1. Evaluation of Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers, and Sex Hormones in Simple and Complex Breast Cysts’ Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Madej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between levels of adipokines in the breast cyst fluid and in the circulation in relation to the type of cysts. Material and Measurements. A cross-sectional study involved 86 women with breast cysts (42 with simple cysts and 44 with complex cysts. Plasma and breast cyst fluid leptin, adiponectin, visfatin/NAMPT, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, in addition to serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin, and anthropometric parameters and body composition (by bioimpedance method, were measured. Results. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were significantly lower in breast cyst fluid than in plasma regardless of the cyst type. Contrarily, the levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α were significantly increased, and IL-6 levels were similar in the breast cyst fluid and plasma in both study groups. There was no correlation between corresponding levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, TNF-α, and IL-6 in breast cyst fluid and plasma. Conclusions. Higher levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α in the fluid from simple and complex breast cysts than in plasma suggest that their local production is related to inflammation.

  2. FGF21 as a hepatokine, adipokine, and myokine in metabolism and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eItoh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor (FGF family members are mostly secreted as signaling proteins with diverse functions in development and metabolism. FGF21 is a unique FGF with metabolic, but not proliferative activities. FGF21 is mostly induced by different kinds of stress and acts though FGF receptor 1c with β−Klotho as a cofactor in an endocrine or, in parts, autocirne/paracrine manner. Hepatic FGF21 directly acts on white adipocytes to inhibit lipolysis and acts through the brain to increase systemic glucocorticoid levels and suppress physical activity in response to starvation. It also protects against dioxin toxicity. Adipocytic FGF21 induces the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT and activates brown adipocytes in response to cold exposure. It also acts as an upstream effector of adiponectin in white adipocytes. Myocytic FGF21 protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, induces the browning of WAT, and protects against cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, Fgf21 polymorphisms are possibly related with metabolic diseases and FGF21 are biomarker of metabolic diseases. These findings indicate that FGF21 plays roles as a hepatokine, adipokine, and myokine in metabolism, injury protection, and diseases.

  3. Progranulin, a New Adipokine at the Crossroads of Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Bełtowski, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Progranulin is a multifunctional regulatory protein with growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antiinflammatory activities. Recent studies indicate that progranulin is one of the adipose tissue hormones (adipokines). Progranulin expression in visceral adipose tissue and circulating progranulin concentration are increased in obesity and hyperprogranulinemia is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Progranulin impairs insulin signaling and reduces insulin-induced glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo whereas progranulin deficiency protects from high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Several studies, including some prospective ones, have demonstrated the association between high progranulin and type 2 diabetes and its complications such as nephro- and retinopathy as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. It is quite well established that progranulin contributes to insulin resistance and resulting deterioration of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, progranulin may be associated with the development of diabetic microangiopathy, fatty liver disease and possibly with the increased risk of cancer in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, progranulin augments vasorelaxation, inhibits inflammatory reaction, is neuroprotective and reduces ischemiareperfusion injury. Progranulin has both detrimental and beneficial effects. More clinical studies including prospective ones are needed to clarify the role of progranulin in obesity-associated pathologies such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Effect of heat stress on adipokines and some blood metabolites in goats from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dawood, Amani

    2017-02-01

    To date and to the best of our knowledge, there have been no available data on the interaction between heat stress (HS) and secretion of adipokines and some blood metabolites in Baladi goats from Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the changes in leptin, adiponectin, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in Baladi goats under HS conditions in Jordan. Six goats were exposed to direct solar radiation versus six goats exposed to shade regimen. Blood samples were collected and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, NEFA and BHB were measured. Ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH) and body weight (BW) were recorded. Results indicated that leptin and adiponectin concentrations were significantly increased under HS. The concentration of NEFA was significantly increased under HS at the 7th and 14th days of the experiment, while mean total concentration of NEFA was not significantly affected by HS. Neither weekly nor mean total concentrations of BHB were significantly affected by HS during the experimental period. In conclusion, HS is associated with changes in leptin and adiponectin concentrations in Baladi goats. Heat-stressed goats were able to keep their blood NEFA and BHB concentrations similar to those of thermo-neutral goats. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Effect of different blood purification methods on adipokines and flammatory factor in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of in different type hemopurification techniques on adipokine and flammatory factor in diabetic nephropathy with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. Methods: A total of 81 diabetic nephropathy patients were randomly divided into on hemodialysis group (HD, n=27, hemodialysis with hemoperfusion group (HD+HP, n=27, online hemodiafiltration group (OL-HDF, n=27. Levels of adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were tested and compared before and after treatment. Results: Indicators of HD group have no statistical significance before and after treatment. HD+HP and OL-HDF group adiponectin level increased significantly, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α level decreased significantly before and after treatment; OL-HDF group resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α level decreased more significantly than HD+HP group after treatment. Conclusion: HD+HP and OL-HDF treatments have reliable curative effect on diabetic nephropathy patients, which can regulate adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α level. Effect of OL-HDF treatment eliminates resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α more markedly than HD+HP treatment.

  6. Serum biochemistry profile, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and cardiovascular findings in obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Di Loria, Antonio; Guccione, Jacopo; De Rosa, Angela; Fabbri, Silvia; Cortese, Laura; Carta, Sergio; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum biochemistry profile, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and cardiovascular findings in obese dogs. Twenty obese and 20 normal weight healthy pet dogs were recruited into the study, where they underwent blood testing and assessment of cardiovascular function (blood pressure analysis, electrocardiography and echocardiography). Higher concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate dehydrogenase, total serum proteins, α-globulins, total bilirubin, insulin, insulin:glucose ratio, alkaline phosphate and alanine aminotransferase were observed in obese dogs than dogs of normal weight. There were no differences in concentrations of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-6 between the two groups. Obese dogs had higher serum leptin but lower adiponectin concentrations than dogs of normal weight. Systolic arterial blood pressure was higher in obese dogs than dogs of normal weight. The values for the thickness of the free wall of the left ventricle and interventricular septal thickness were greater at end-diastole in obese dogs compared to dogs of normal weight. Four of 20 obese dogs were determined to have obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD). The findings indicate that a chronic inflammatory state is not necessarily evident in obese dogs, as has been described in human beings, and the criteria used for ORMD can be used to define this syndrome in dogs. In this study, canine obesity was associated with cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B.; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. PMID:26017184

  8. Serum adipokines (adiponectin and resistin) correlation in developing gestational diabetes mellitus: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khalid; George, Teena P; Nawaz, Shaik Sarfaraz; Shehata, Nevene; El-Sayed, Amel Ahmed; Khanam, Latifa

    2018-06-01

    Adiponectin and resistin are adipose tissue-derived proteins with antagonistic actions; adiponectin has insulin sensitive properties while resistin is involved in the development of insulin resistance. We analyzed adiponectin and resistin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women to evaluate the association of these adipokines in a very high diabetes prevalence population. An age-matched case-control study of GDM and normal pregnant women in Saudi population. We recruited 90 pregnant women at 24-32 weeks of gestation. Glucose levels (fasting, 1, 2, and 3 h) and lipid parameters (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol) were measured. Serum adiponectin and resistin levels were analyzed using Randox evidence biochip analyzer. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association of adiponectin and resistin with GDM risk factors. GDM women showed significantly low adiponectin and high resistin levels when compared with control group. Pearson's correlation analysis of adiponectin and resistin in all the subjects with various GDM risk factors showed a negative association of adiponectin (r = -0.32, p = .05) and a positive correlation of resistin (r = 0.41, p = .01) with LDL cholesterol. This study analyzes adiponectin and resistin levels together, as accumulating evidences shows that these are involved in the pathophysiology of GDM. This is going to help to determine in conjunction with traditional risk factors the incremental value of circulating adiponectin and resistin in developing GDM.

  9. Physical fitness and activity, metabolic profile, adipokines and endothelial function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha, Jociene Terra da; Gazolla, Fernanda Mussi; Carvalho, Cecília Noronha de Miranda; Madeira, Isabel Rey; Rodrigues-Junior, Flávio; Machado, Elisabeth de Amorim; Sicuro, Fernando Lencastre; Farinatti, Paulo; Bouskela, Eliete; Collett-Solberg, Paulo Ferrez

    2018-05-29

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is endothelial dysfunction in children with normal or excess weight, and whether the metabolic profile, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction would be more strongly associated with physical fitness or with physical activity levels. Cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-12 years. The evaluation included venous occlusion plethysmography, serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin, lipid profile, physical activity score (PAQ-C questionnaire), and physical fitness evaluation (Yo-Yo test). A total of 62 children participated in this study. Based on the body mass index, 27 were eutrophic, 10 overweight and 25 obese. Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and leptin were higher in the obese and excess-weight groups compared to the eutrophic group (pPAQ-C. The Yo-Yo test was significantly associated with HDL cholesterol (rho=-0.41; p=0.01), and this association remained after adjusting for body mass index z-score (rho=0.28; p=0.03). This study showed that endothelial dysfunction is already present in obese children, suggesting a predisposition to atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, HDL cholesterol levels were correlated with physical fitness, regardless of body mass index. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  10. Experimental Hyperthyroidism Decreases Gene Expression and Serum Levels of Adipokines in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Azevedo Melo Luvizotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Main Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C—fed with commercial chow ad libitum—and obese (OB—fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T3/100 BW (OT. The T3 dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. Results. T3 treatment was effective, increasing fT3 levels and decreasing fT4 and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T3 promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Conclusions. Our results suggest that T3 modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T3 and adipokines in obesity.

  11. Experimental hyperthyroidism decreases gene expression and serum levels of adipokines in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olímpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C)-fed with commercial chow ad libitum-and obese (OB)-fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB) and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T(3))/100 BW (OT). The T(3) dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. T(3) treatment was effective, increasing fT(3) levels and decreasing fT(4) and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T(3) promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Our results suggest that T(3) modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T(3) and adipokines in obesity.

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese Children and Its Relationship to Insulin Resistance and Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] are associated with insulin resistance in adults. Less data are available in pediatric populations. Serum 25(OHD serum concentrations were assessed in 125 obese and 31 nonobese children (age 11.9±2.7 y, range 6–16 y, 49% male living in Bonn, Germany. The relationship between 25(OHD, measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and measures of insulin sensitivity and adipokines adiponectin and resistin were analyzed. Seventy-six % of subjects were 25(OHD deficient (<20 ng/mL. Higher insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR r=−0.269, P=0.023, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c as well as lower quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI r=0.264, P=0.030 values were found in obese children with lower 25(OHD concentrations even after adjustment for gender, age, and body mass index. Furthermore, 25(OHD correlated significantly with adiponectin, but not with resistin. Our results suggest that hypovitaminosis D is a risk factor for developing insulin resistance independent of adiposity.

  13. Differential involvement of synovial adipokines in pain and physical function in female patients with knee osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, J; Orellana, C; Albiñana Giménez, N; Berenguer-Llergo, A; Caixàs, A; García-Manrique, M; Galisteo Lencastre, C; Navarro, N; Larrosa, M; Gratacós, J

    2018-02-01

    Adipokines have been reported to play a role in the development, progression and severity of knee osteoarthritis but the influence of the different adipokines are not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different synovial fluid adipokines with pain and disability knee osteoarthritis patients. Cross-sectional study with systematic inclusion of 115 symptomatic primary knee osteoarthritis female patients with ultrasound-confirmed joint effusion. Age, physical exercise, symptoms duration and different anthropometric measurements were collected. Radiographic severity was evaluated according to Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Pain and disability were assessed by WOMAC-total, -pain, -function subscales and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain and function scales. Seven adipokines and three inflammatory markers were measured by ELISA in synovial fluid. Partial Correlation Coefficient (PCC) and corresponding 95% confidence interval were used as a measure of association. Leptin, osteopontin and inflammatory factors, especially TNF-alpha, were associated to pain and function. After adjustment for potential confounders including inflammatory factors and all adipokines, an association was found for adiponectin with pain (PCC 0.240 [0.012, 0.444]) and for resistin and visfatin with function (PCC 0.336 [0.117, 0.524] and -0.262 [-0.463, -0.036]). No other adipokines or inflammatory markers were statistically and independently associated. An association between physical exercise and pain and disability remained after adjustment, whereas an attenuation of the influence of anthropometric measurements was observed. Different patterns of association between synovial fluid adipokines were observed regarding pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis patients. Specifically, adiponectin was associated to pain while resistin and visfatin were mainly related to function. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International

  14. Changes of serum inflammatory factors, adipokines and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurong Guri Maimaiti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of serum inflammatory factors, adipokines and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A total of 130 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted in our hospital from January 2015 to June 2016 were selected and divided into 41 cases with diabetic retinopathy (NDR, 44 cases with nonproliferative retinopathy (NPDR and 45 cases with proliferative retinopathy group (PDR, another 40 healthy volunteers in our hospital were selected as control group (NC, and the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP, leptin, adiponectin, MDA and SOD were detected. Results: There were significant differences in the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP in groups, PDR group was the highest, which were respectively (18.19 ± 3.84 pg/mL, (197.48 ± 13.78 ng/L and (8.13 ± 0.74 mg/L, significantly higher than that of NC group, NDR group and NPDR group, NPDR group followed, respectively (14.07 ± 3.62 pg/mL, (115.29 ± 20.08 ng/L and (5.62 ± 0.83 mg/L, which were significantly higher than that of NC and NDR groups. NDR group were (12.67 ± 3.93 pg/mL, (89.49 ± 10.49 ng/L and (3.91 ± 0.49 mg/L respectively, significantly higher than the NC group, the difference was statistically significant. There were significant differences among groups of leptin and adiponectin, the leptin level in PDR group was the highest, (23.19 ± 6.48 μg/mL, which was significantly higher than NC group, NDR group and NPDR group, adiponectin was the lowest (3.70 ± 1.02 g/mL, lower than that in NC group, NDR group and NPDR group, the levels of leptin in NPDR group were higher than NC group and NDR group while adiponectin were lower than the two groups. Leptin levels in NDR group were significantly higher than those in NC group while adiponectin were lower than those in NC group, the differences were statistically significant. The levels of MDA and SOD in each group were significantly different. MDA in PDR group was the highest, (17.77

  15. Changes of serum inflammatory factors, adipokines and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurong Guri Maimaiti; Akomatine Tuhuti

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum inflammatory factors, adipokines and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A total of 130 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted in our hospital from January 2015 to June 2016 were selected and divided into 41 cases with diabetic retinopathy (NDR), 44 cases with nonproliferative retinopathy (NPDR) and 45 cases with proliferative retinopathy group (PDR), another 40 healthy volunteers in our hospital were selected as control group (NC), and the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP, leptin, adiponectin, MDA and SOD were detected. Results: There were significant differences in the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP in groups, PDR group was the highest, which were respectively (18.19 ± 3.84) pg/mL, (197.48 ± 13.78) ng/L and (8.13 ± 0.74) mg/L, significantly higher than that of NC group, NDR group and NPDR group, NPDR group followed, respectively (14.07 ± 3.62) pg/mL, (115.29 ± 20.08) ng/L and (5.62 ± 0.83) mg/L, which were significantly higher than that of NC and NDR groups. NDR group were (12.67 ± 3.93) pg/mL, (89.49 ± 10.49) ng/L and (3.91 ± 0.49) mg/L respectively, significantly higher than the NC group, the difference was statistically significant. There were significant differences among groups of leptin and adiponectin, the leptin level in PDR group was the highest, (23.19 ± 6.48) μg/mL, which was significantly higher than NC group, NDR group and NPDR group, adiponectin was the lowest (3.70 ± 1.02) g/mL, lower than that in NC group, NDR group and NPDR group, the levels of leptin in NPDR group were higher than NC group and NDR group while adiponectin were lower than the two groups. Leptin levels in NDR group were significantly higher than those in NC group while adiponectin were lower than those in NC group, the differences were statistically significant. The levels of MDA and SOD in each group were significantly different. MDA in PDR group was the highest, (17.77 ± 4

  16. Bone status and adipokine levels in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-03-23

    Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) reflect bone status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Biochemical markers, which show global skeletal activity, were validated for the assessment of bone formation and resorption processes. Adipokines also play a significant role in the regulation of bone metabolism. To assess body composition, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and adipokine levels in relation to vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 53 vegetarian and 53 omnivorous prepubertal healthy children matched for age and sex (median age 7.0 years). Body composition and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathormone levels were measured by chemiluminescence method. Serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (CICP), total osteocalcin (OC) and its forms carboxylated (c-OC) and undercarboxylated (uc-OC), C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX), leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using immunoenzymatic assays. Both groups of children were comparable in terms of body composition, except for the percentage of fat mass, which was lower (19.24 vs. 21.77%, p = 0.018) in vegetarians. Mean values of total BMD z-score and lumbar spine BMD z-score were lower (-0.583 vs. -0.194, p = 0.009 and -0.877 vs. -0.496, p = 0.019, respectively) in vegetarians compared with omnivores. Serum leptin level was about 2-fold lower (1.39 vs. 2.94 ng/mL, p vegetarians, however, adiponectin concentration was similar in both groups. Vegetarians had similar concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but higher parathormone (40.8 vs. 32.1 pg/mL, p = 0.015) and CTX (1.94 vs. 1.76 ng/mL, p = 0.077) levels than omnivores. Total osteocalcin and CICP concentrations were comparable in both groups, however, c-OC/uc-OC ratio was higher (1.43 vs. 1.04 ng/mL, p vegetarians. We found positive correlation between c-OC and nutritional parameters adjusted for total energy intake (plant

  17. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase attenuates hepatocellular carcinoma cell adhesion stimulated by adipokine resistin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chen-Chieh; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chao, Jian-Kang; Lai, Yi-Liang; Chang, Wei-En; Hsu, Wen-Hsiu; Kuo, Wu-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Resistin, adipocyte-secreting adipokine, may play critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistin on HCC adhesion to the endothelium, and the mechanism underlying these resistin effects. Human SK-Hep1 cells were used to study the effect of resistin on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions as well as NF-κB activation, and hence cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, was used to determine the regulatory role of AMPK on HCC adhesion to the endothelium in regard to the resistin effects. Treatment with resistin increased the adhesion of SK-Hep1 cells to HUVECs and concomitantly induced NF-κB activation, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in SK-Hep1 cells. Using specific blocking antibodies and siRNAs, we found that resistin-induced SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs was through NF-κB-regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions. Moreover, treatment with AICAR demonstrated that AMPK activation in SK-Hep1 cells significantly attenuates the resistin effect on SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs. These results clarify the role of resistin in inducing HCC adhesion to the endothelium and demonstrate the inhibitory effect of AMPK activation under the resistin stimulation. Our findings provide a notion that resistin play an important role to promote HCC metastasis and implicate AMPK may be a therapeutic target to against HCC metastasis

  18. Serum adipokines, adipose tissue measurements and metabolic parameters in patients with advanced radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Eric; Michel, Fabrice; Béreau, Matthieu; Dehecq, Barbara; Gaugler, Béatrice; Wendling, Daniel; Grandclément, Emilie; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2017-11-01

    We conducted the present study to evaluate the serum levels of adipokines (leptin, total and high molecular adiponectin, resistin), a marker of cartilage breakdown (C2C), and ghrelin together with body composition in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty patients and 50 sex-matched healthy subjects (HS) were evaluated. Knee OA was scored according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade. Body composition parameters including lean mass and measurements of fat mass (total fat, adiposity, fat in the android and gynoid regions, visceral fat and trunk/legs fat ratio) were obtained using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most of the recruited patients (88%) had advanced knee OA with KL grade 3 or 4. The patients had higher body mass index than HS (p < 0.0001). Serum leptin, high molecular adiponectin, resistin and ghrelin levels did not differ between patients and HS. Total adiponectin was higher in women with OA compared to women from the HS group (p = 0.004). Total fat mass, adiposity and measurements of central adiposity (fat in the android region, trunk/lower limbs fat ratio and visceral fat) were increased in patients with knee OA (all p < 0.05). Total adiponectin was borderline associated with the severity of OA. Our results show that total adiponectin is significantly increased in women with advanced knee OA. Independently of gender, patients with severe knee OA were characterized by a significant excess of fat with a distribution toward the visceral region. This abnormal body composition may contribute to the cardiometabolic profile that is described in patients with knee OA.

  19. Serum adipokines and adipose tissue distribution in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. A comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIC eTOUSSIROT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and ankylosing spondylitis (AS are inflammatory rheumatic diseases that may modify body composition. Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various pathological processes, including the inflammatory/immune response. RA and AS are both associated with the development of cardiovascular complications. It is has been established that central/abdominal and particularly intra-abdominal or visceral adiposity is closely linked to cardiovascular events. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the body composition of patients with RA or AS compared to healthy controls (HC with a special emphasis on the visceral region. In parallel, we measured adipose products or adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin and its high molecular weight (HMW isoform, resistin, and ghrelin, a gastric peptide that plays a role in energetic balance. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and atherogenic index were used to evaluate cardiovascular risk. One hundred and twelve subjects were enrolled (30 patients with RA, 31 with AS and 51 HC. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA to determine total fat mass and lean mass, adiposity, fat in the android and gynoid regions, and visceral fat. Patients and HC did not differ in terms of body mass index. On the contrary, adiposity was increased in RA (p= 0.01 while visceral fat was also increased, but only in women (p=0.01. Patients with AS tended to have lower total fat mass (p=0.07 and higher lean mass compared to HC (p = 0.07. Leptin and leptin/fat mass were decreased in male patients with AS (p

  20. Running a marathon induces changes in adipokine levels and in markers of cartilage degradation--novel role for resistin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Vuolteenaho

    Full Text Available Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3, cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40 as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3:30:46±0:02:46 (h:min:sec. The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = -0.448, p = 0.002. YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009 and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001 and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008. The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT ON THE CHEMERIN ADIPOKINE AND OBESITY OF PROBIOTIC USE IN OBESE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensure Nur Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemerin is a new chemotactic protein that recently joined the adipokines family. It has been shown to play a role in adipogenesis and energy metabolism, including its role on obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Probiotics may play role in the prevention of obesity by various mechanisms and treatment of many diseases such as T2DM. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation of chemerin adipokines on serum levels and obesity markers in obese animal models. For this purpose 3 groups of experimental animals were formed. In the obtained serum samples, the effects of probiotic supplementation on chemerin and leptin level which are indicators of obesity will be examined. Weights of all the rats in the groups were weighed each week to monitor the obesity. The weight gain in the group fed with probiotic supplementation was 10,00±27,2 g for 4 weeks and the weight gain for the group fed with high fat diet was 26,200±7,085 g (p<0.05. After 8 weeks of feding the changes of BMI values of the rats were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between the leptin values of the groups, but the difference between the mean values of the chemerin values after 12 weeks of feeding was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05. As a result; this study showed that obese rats reduced the weight gain of probiotic supplementation without calorie restriction, positive effects on BMI and chemerin adipokine serum levels.

  2. Resistin, an adipokine, may affect the improvement of insulin sensitivity in the metabolic syndrome patient treated with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hong; Weng, Chunyan; Yang, Youbo; Huang, Lihua; Xing, Xiaowei

    2013-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders arising from insulin resistance, characterized by the presence of central obesity, impaired fasting glucose level, dyslipidemia and hypertension. As the first-line medication, metformin is commonly used for MS to reduce insulin resistance. Comparing with rosiglitazone, metformin does not increase cardiovascular mortality risk in patients with MS. However, metformin is not good enough in improving insulin sensitivity. Its molecular mechanism is still not clear. Recent studies have demonstrated that resistin, an adipokine, could induce IR by both AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent pathways. Though there were conflicting findings of resistin in metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus in different studies, resistin was significant decreased in the rosiglitazone treated patients than in the metformin-treated patients in most of studies. Here, we hypothesized that resistin, an adipokine, may affect the improvement of insulin sensitivity in the metabolic syndrome patient treated with metformin. This hypothesis could explain why rosiglitazone is superior to metformin in enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Different modulation by dietary restriction of adipokine expression in white adipose tissue sites in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Overweight male rats had their food intake reduced a 40% compared with free-feeding controls. On day ten, the rats were killed; circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triacylglycerols and other parameters were measured. The main WAT sites were dissected: mesenteric, retroperitoneal, epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal, which were weighed and frozen. Later all subcutaneous WAT was also dissected and weighed. Samples were used for DNA (cellularity analysis and mRNA extraction and semiquantitarive RT-PCR analysis of specific cytokine gene expressions. Results There was a good correlation between serum leptin and cumulative WAT leptin gene mRNA, but not for adiponectin. Food restriction reduced WAT size, but not its DNA content (except for epididymal WAT. Most cytokines were correlated to WAT site weight, but not to DNA. There was WAT site specialization in the differential expression (and probably secretion of adipokines: subcutaneous WAT showed the highest concentration for leptin, CD68 and MCP-1, mesenteric WAT for TNFα (and both tissues for the interleukins 1β and 6; resistin was highly expressed in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT. Conclusion Food restriction induced different patterns for mesenteric and the other WAT sites, which may be directly related to both the response to intestine-derived energy availability, and an inflammatory-related response. However, retroperitoneal WAT, and to a lower extent, subcutaneous and epididymal, reacted decreasing the expression of

  4. Serum adipokines and adipose tissue distribution in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Eric; Grandclément, Emilie; Gaugler, Béatrice; Michel, Fabrice; Wendling, Daniel; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are inflammatory rheumatic diseases that may modify body composition. Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various pathological processes, including the inflammatory/immune response. RA and AS are both associated with the development of cardiovascular complications. It is has been established that central/abdominal, and particularly intra-abdominal or visceral adiposity is closely linked to cardiovascular events. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the body composition of patients with RA or AS compared to healthy controls (HC), with a special emphasis on the visceral region. In parallel, we measured adipose products or adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin and its high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, resistin, and ghrelin, a gastric peptide that plays a role in energetic balance. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and atherogenic index were used to evaluate cardiovascular risk. One hundred and twelve subjects were enrolled (30 patients with RA, 31 with AS, and 51 HC). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine total fat mass and lean mass, adiposity, fat in the android and gynoid regions, and visceral fat. Patients and HC did not differ in terms of body mass index. On the contrary, adiposity was increased in RA (p = 0.01) while visceral fat was also increased, but only in women (p = 0.01). Patients with AS tended to have lower total fat mass (p = 0.07) and higher lean mass compared to HC (p = 0.07). Leptin and leptin/fat mass were decreased in male patients with AS (p ghrelin in any group of patients. HOMA-IR and the atherogenic index were not modified in RA and AS. These results confirm that body composition was altered in RA and AS, affecting distinct soft tissue compartments. The effect of the increased visceral adipose tissue on

  5. Prediction of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Via a Novel Panel of Serum Adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Raika; Arj, Abbas; Razavizade, Mohsen; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Considering limitations of liver biopsy for diagnosis of nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD), biomarkers’ panels were proposed. The aims of this study were to establish models based on serum adipokines for discriminating NAFLD from healthy individuals and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from simple steatosis. This case-control study was conducted in patients with persistent elevated serum aminotransferase levels and fatty liver on ultrasound. Individuals with evidence of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis, and known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed in the remaining patients to distinguish NAFLD/NASH. Histologic findings were interpreted using “nonalcoholic fatty liver activity score.” Control group consisted of healthy volunteers with normal physical examination, liver function tests, and liver ultrasound. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to ascertain the effects of independent variables on the likelihood that participants have NAFLD/NASH. Decreased serum adiponectin and elevated serum visfatin, IL-6, TNF-a were associated with an increased likelihood of exhibiting NAFLD. NAFLD discriminant score was developed as the following: [(−0.298 × adiponectin) + (0.022 × TNF-a) + (1.021 × Log visfatin) + (0.709 × Log IL-6) + 1.154]. In NAFLD discriminant score, 86.4% of original grouped cases were correctly classified. Discriminant score threshold value of (−0.29) yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 83% respectively, for discriminating NAFLD from healthy controls. Decreased serum adiponectin and elevated serum visfatin, IL-8, TNF-a were correlated with an increased probability of NASH. NASH discriminant score was proposed as the following: [(−0.091 × adiponectin) + (0.044 × TNF-a) + (1.017 × Log visfatin) + (0.028 × Log IL-8) − 1.787] In NASH model, 84% of original cases were correctly classified. Discriminant score threshold value of (−0.22) yielded a

  6. Effect of weight loss with or without exercise on inflammatory markers and adipokines in postmenopausal women : The SHAPE-2 Trial, a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gemert, Willemijn A.; May, Anne M.; Schuit, Albertine J.; Oosterhof, Blanche Y M; Peeters, Petra H.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We investigated the effect of equivalent weight loss, by a hypocaloric diet or mainly exercise, on inflammatory markers and adipokines in overweight postmenopausal women. Methods: Women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), mainly exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Goal of both

  7. Effect of Weight Loss with or without Exercise on Inflammatory Markers and Adipokines in Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Trial, A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A; May, Anne M; Schuit, Albertine J; Oosterhof, Blanche Y M; Peeters, Petra H M; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of equivalent weight loss, by a hypocaloric diet or mainly exercise, on inflammatory markers and adipokines in overweight postmenopausal women. METHODS: Women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), mainly exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Goal of both

  8. Effect of telmisartan on selected adipokines, insulin sensitivity, and substrate utilization during insulin-stimulated conditions in patients with metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wohl, P.; Krušinová, E.; Hill, M.; Kratochvílová, S.; Zídková, K.; Kopecký, J.; Neškudla, T.; Pravenec, Michal; Klementová, M.; Vrbíková, J.; Wohl, P.; Mlejnek, Petr; Pelikánová, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 4 (2010), s. 573-583 ISSN 0804-4643 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9359; GA MZd(CZ) NS10528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : telmisartan * insulin resistance * adipokines Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.482, year: 2010

  9. Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome - adipokine levels and effect of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Rabia; Amin, Shajrul; Hayat Bhat, M; Malik, Rawoof; Wani, Hilal Ahmad; Majid, Sabhiya

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a consequence of complex interactions among multiple genetic variants and environmental risk factors. This complex disorder is also characterized by changes in various adipokines. In this study, our objective was to estimate the levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin (ALR) in T2DM patients, besides studying the effect of various drugs on their levels. Study participants included 400 diabetic and 300 normal patients from the Department of Endocrinology and Department of Biochemistry, Govt Medical College Srinagar. Subjects were categorized under various groups, i.e., Group 1 (metformin treated) and Group 2 (glimepiride treated), and cases were also categorized as obese with T2DM (Group A), obese without T2DM (Group B), and T2DM only (Group C). The serum ALR levels were estimated by ELISA (Alere), and biochemical parameters were also evaluated before and after treatment. Adiponectin levels were found to be significantly lower in T2DM cases as compared to controls (12 ± 5.5 versus 22.5 ± 7.9 μg/ml), while leptin and resistin levels were found to be significantly higher than controls (14.3 ± 7.4 versus 7.36 ± 3.73 ng/ml) (13.4 ± 1.56 versus 7.236 ± 2.129 pg/ml). Taking the effect of drugs into consideration, the effect on adiponectin and resistin levels was found to be highly significant in Group 2 before and after treatment (11 ± 5 versus 19.2 ± 4.5 μg/ml) (13.6 ± 2.5 versus 7.3 ± 2.9 pg/ml), while more effect was observed in leptin among Group 1 (metformin)-treated cases (27 ± 15 ng/ml versus 15 ± 15 ng/ml). Further the adiponectin levels were found to be significantly lower in Group B, while leptin and resistin levels were found to be significantly higher among obese cases when compared to T2DM cases only. Glimepiride also shows more effect on FBG, HbA1c% levels, while metformin shows more effect on Lipid profile levels. From the study, it can be

  10. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guoyue; Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang; Zhou, Libin; Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang; Li, Lianxi; Yang, Ying; Mao, Chaoming; Chen, Mingdao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CRP increases TNF-α and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-γ mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. ► Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-α and leptin mRNA levels. ► CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-α and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-α, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-γ genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Guoyue, E-mail: yuanguoyue@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Zhou, Libin [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Li, Lianxi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Yang, Ying [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Mao, Chaoming [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Chen, Mingdao, E-mail: mingdaochensh@yahoo.com [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP increases TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-{gamma} mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin mRNA levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-{alpha}, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-{gamma} genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Omentin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing properties, is negatively associated with insulin resistance in normal gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benny; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Hemi, Rina; Yinon, Yoav; Schiff, Eyal; Mashiach, Roy; Kanety, Hannah; Sivan, Eyal

    2015-05-01

    Omentin, a newly identified adipokine, enhances insulin mediated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, thus, inducing systemic insulin-sensitizing effect. The aims of this study were to determine whether circulating maternal omentin levels are associated with insulin resistance indices and to assess which compartment, maternal, fetal, or placental, is the source of omentin in maternal circulation. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and omentin were determined in 25 healthy pregnant women at the third trimester, before and 3 days after elective cesarean section. Cord blood omentin was measured in the 25 term neonates. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity before and after delivery. Antepartum maternal omentin levels were negatively correlated with insulin levels (r=-0.41, P=0.04) and positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S; r=0.4, P=0.04). Postpartum omentin levels were negatively correlated with maternal body mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Median maternal omentin levels was comparable before and after delivery (57.2, inter-quartile range: 38.2-76.2 ng/mL vs. 53.4, 39.8-69.4 ng/mL, respectively, P=0.25) and highly correlated (r=0.83, Pinsulin resistance indices, suggesting that this adipokine may play a role in metabolic adaptations of normal gestation. The strong correlation between anteparum and postpartum maternal omentin levels, as well as the lack of association between maternal and neonatal omentin levels, suggest that placental or fetal compartments are unlikely as the main source of circulating maternal omentin.

  13. The role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines on exercise-induced bronchospasm in obese adolescents undergoing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patrícia Leão; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Sanches, Priscila Lima; Piano, Aline; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Carnier, June; Inoue, Daniela; do Nascimento, Claudia Mo; Oyama, Lila M; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sérgio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a greater prevalence in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in obese adolescents. However, the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines and the repercussions of obesity treatment on EIB need to be explored further. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines on EIB in obese adolescents evaluated after long-term interdisciplinary therapy. Thirty-five post-pubertal obese adolescents, including 20 non-EIB (body mass index [BMI] 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)) and 15 EIB (BMI 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)), were enrolled in this study. Body composition was measured by plethysmography, using the BOD POD body composition system, and visceral fat was analyzed by ultrasound. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were analyzed. EIB and lung function were evaluated according to the American Thoracic Society criteria. Patients were recruited to a 1-year interdisciplinary intervention of weight loss, consisting of medical, nutritional, exercise, and psychological components. Anthropometrics and lung function variables improved significantly after the therapy in both groups. Furthermore we observed a reduction in EIB occurrence in obese adolescents after treatment. There was an increase in adiponectin levels and a reduction in leptin levels after the therapy. In addition, a low FEV(1) value was a risk factor associated with EIB occurrence at baseline, and was correlated after treatment with changes in anthropometric and maximal O(2) consumption values as well as the adipokines profile. In the present study it was demonstrated that 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy decreased EIB frequency in obese adolescents, paralleled by an increase in lung function and improvement in pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines.

  14. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  15. The effects of an eight-week aerobic training program on plasma adipokine concentrations in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidlamir A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Obesity is currently a worldwide health epidemic which has incited major interest among researchers to look for the underlying mechanisms that regulate body weight. In fact, adiponectin and leptin concentrations that are called adipokines are altered in obesity with a decreased production of adiponectin and an increased production of leptin. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-insulin resistance properties, but increased levels of leptin are observed in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week aerobic training program on the plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in healthy middle-aged men. "n"nMethods : Thirty healthy middle-aged men were selected based on their body fat percentage and were assigned to two equal groups. The experimental group took the 8-week training, four days a week on alternate days with an intensity of 60-80% of their heart rate reserve but the control group lived their sedentary life. Blood samples were collected before and after the training program from all subjects and plasma adipokine levels were measured."n"nResults : Plasma adiponectin concentration increased while

  16. Relationship of adipokine to insulin sensitivity and glycemic regulation in obese women: The effect of body weight reduction by caloric restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velojić-Golubović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Visceral fat is highly active metabolic and endocrine tissue which secretes many adipokines that act both on local and systemic level. It is believed that adipokines and "low-grade inflammatory state" represent a potential link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Leptin and adiponectin are considered to be the most important adipokines with the potential metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Body weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and decreases risk for most complications associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate loss of body weight on the level of leptin and adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and abnormalities of glycoregulation in obese women, to determine whether and to what extent the secretory products of adipose tissue, leptin and adiponectin contribute to insulin sensitivity, as well as to assess their relationship and influence on glycemia and insulinemia during the period of losing body weight using a calorie restricted diet. Methods. The study involved 90 obese female subjects (BMI

  17. Adipokine serum concentrations, anthropometric measurements and socio-economic status in two ethnic groups with different prevalence levels for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, R; Paiker, J E; Crowther, N J

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is more common in African than Asian-Indian populations and yet type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are more common in the latter populations. The main purpose of the current study was therefore to determine whether ethnic differences in body fat distribution, adipokine levels, and socio-economic status may explain population differences in the prevalence of these metabolic disorders. Leptin, IL-6, CRP, visceral fat, education level, and socio-economic status were measured in 50 African and the same number of Indian women residing in Johannesburg, South Africa. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in Indian than African subjects (41.3±2.0 and 34.2±2.9 ng/ml, respectively; pAfrican group, (5.22±0.86 vs. 2.54±0.52 pg/ml; peconomic status (pAfrican subjects, however, adjusting for these variables in ANCOVA did not attenuate differences in adipokine or visceral fat levels. We hypothesise that one of the reasons for the higher prevalence of obesity in the African than Indian population may be related to lower leptin levels, whilst ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders cannot be explained by differences in adipokine levels, but maybe related to higher visceral adiposity in the Indian group. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · NewYork.

  18. Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: compartmentalization and physiological correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O Mendivil

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of hormone regulation in lung parenchyma is quite limited. We aimed to quantify a diverse array of biologically relevant protein mediators in alveolar lining fluid (ALF, compared to serum concentrations, and explore factors associated with protein compartmentalization on either side of the air-blood barrier.Participants were 24 healthy adult non-smoker volunteers without respiratory symptoms or significant medical conditions, with normal lung exams and office spirometry. Cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were analyzed for 24 proteins (including enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines using a highly sensitive multiplex ELISA. Measurements were normalized to ALF concentrations. The ALF:serum concentration ratios were examined in relation to measures of protein size, hydrophobicity, charge, and to participant clinical and spirometric values.ALF measurements from 24 individuals detected 19 proteins, including adiponectin, adipsin, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, C-reactive protein, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and visfatin. C-peptide and serpin E1 were not detected in ALF for any individual, and IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were not detected in either ALF or serum for any individual. In general, ALF levels were similar or lower in concentration for most proteins compared to serum. However, ghrelin, resistin, insulin, visfatin and GLP-1 had ALF concentrations significantly higher compared to serum. Importantly, elevated ALF:serum ratios of ghrelin, visfatin and resistin correlated with protein net charge and isoelectric point, but not with molecular weight or hydrophobicity.Biologically relevant enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines can be detected in the ALF of

  19. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  20. Aged interleukin-10tm1Cgn chronically inflamed mice have substantially reduced fat mass, metabolic rate, and adipokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan M Westbrook

    Full Text Available Interleukin 10tm1Cgn (IL 10tm mice have been utilized as a model of chronic inflammation and declining health span because of their propensity to develop chronic activation in NFkB pathways, skeletal muscle and cardiac changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesized that older IL 10tm frail mice would have alterations similar to frail, older humans in measured parameters of glucose metabolism, oxygen consumption (VO2, respiratory quotient (RQ, spontaneous locomotor activity, body composition and plasma adipokine levels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated these metabolic parameters in cohorts of 3, 10, and 20 month old IL 10tm female mice and age and gender matched C57Bl/6 mice. Insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, locomotor activity and RQ were not significantly altered between the two strains of mice. Interestingly, old IL 10tm mice had significantly decreased VO2 when normalized by lean mass, but not when normalized by fat mass or the lean/fat mass ratio. NMR based body composition analysis and dissection weights show that fat mass is decreased with age in IL 10tm mice compared to controls. Further, plasma adiponectin and leptin were also decreased in IL 10tm.These findings suggest that frailty observed in this mouse model of chronic inflammation may in part be driven by alterations in fat mass, hormone secretion and energy metabolism.

  1. Mechanism of Butyrate Stimulation of Triglyceride Storage and Adipokine Expression during Adipogenic Differentiation of Porcine Stromovascular Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yan

    Full Text Available Short chain fatty acids (SCFA, products of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, exert multiple metabolic effects in cells. Previously, we had demonstrated that soluble fiber influenced fat mass accumulation, gut microbial community structure and SCFA production in pigs. The current study was designed to identify effects of SCFA treatment during adipogenic differentiation of porcine stromovascular cells on lipid metabolism and adipokine expression. Differentiating cells were treated with varying concentrations of butyrate. Results show that butyrate treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, perhaps through upregulation of glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis and other mechanisms that include induction of SREBP-1c, C/EBPα/β, GLUT4, LPL, PPARγ, GPAT4, DGAT1 and DGAT2 expression. In addition, butyrate induced adiponectin expression, resulting in activation of downstream target genes, such as AMPK and AKT. Activation of AMPK by butyrate led to phosphorylation of ACC. Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Our studies also provide evidence that butyrate may inhibit lipolysis, perhaps in an FFAR3-dependent manner. Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity.

  2. Association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Murata, Miho; Otani, Taeko; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-e

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in 130 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-18, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured. Percentage body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured by abdominal CT. HS-CRP had significant positive correlations with percentage body fat and subcutaneous fat area, and a particularly significant positive correlation with visceral fat area. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with the subcutaneous and visceral fat areas, with the strongest correlation with the visceral fat area. Similar results were obtained for HMW adiponectin. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with a visceral fat area 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 . In contrast, serum HS-CRP showed a positive correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area 2 . These findings indicate that an increased visceral fat area is associated with inflammatory changes, and that inflammatory reactions may alter the functional properties of visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  3. Effects of clozapine on adipokine secretions/productions and lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Tsubai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA, is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT2C and histamine H1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin. Long-term exposure decreased leptin as well as adiponectin secretion, and further increased lipid droplets accumulation. However, short- and long-term exposures to blonanserin did not affect these parameters. A selective serotonin 5-HT2C, but not a histamine H1, receptor antagonist enhanced the decreased secretion of leptin induced by short-term exposure to clozapine, but did not affect the increased accumulation of lipid droplets. Our findings indicate that clozapine, but not blonanserin, strongly and directly affected the secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, in adipocytes and caused adipocyte enlargement.

  4. The adipose organ and multiple myeloma: Impact of adipokines on tumor growth and potential sites for therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Alessandro; Innao, Vanessa; Gerace, Demetrio; Allegra, Andrea Gaetano; Vaddinelli, Doriana; Bianco, Oriana; Musolino, Caterina

    2018-07-01

    In addition to its capacity to store lipids the adipose tissue is now identified as a real organ with both endocrine and metabolic roles. Preclinical results indicate that modifying adipose tissue and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) could be a successful multiple myeloma (MM) therapy. BMAT interrelates with bone marrow cells and other immune cells, and may influence MM disease progression. The BM adipocytes may have a role in MM progression, bone homing, chemoresistance, and relapse, due to local endocrine, paracrine, or metabolic factors. BM adipocytes isolated from MM subjects have been shown to increase myeloma growth in vitro and may preserve cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. By producing free fatty acids and emitting signaling molecules such as growth factors and adipokines, BM adipocytes are both an energy font and an endocrine signaling factory. This review should suggest future research approaches toward developing novel treatments to target MM by targeting BMAT and its products. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. RELATIONSHIP OF ADIPOKINES AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AMONG ASIAN INDIANS WITH OBESITY AND YOUTH ONSET TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Amutha, Anandakumar; Ranjani, Harish; Bibin, Subramanian Y; Balakumar, Mahalingam; Pandey, Gautam Kumar; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that inflammation is associated with diabetes, but it is unclear whether obesity mediates this association in individuals with youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-Y). We recruited individuals with T2DM-Y (age at onset obesity and categorized as: nonobese NGT (n = 100), Obese NGT (n = 50), nonobese T2DM-Y (n = 50), and obese T2DM-Y (n = 50). We compared adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1]) across groups. Compared to nonobese NGT, the other 3 groups (obese NGT, nonobese T2DM-Y, and obese T2DM-Y) were found to have lower adiponectin (7.7 vs. 5.7, 4.2, 3.8 μg/mL, Pobese T2DM-Y (141 pg/mL, Pobese T2DM, respectively. However, adjusted for same factors, leptin, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were associated with markedly higher odds (5- to 14-fold) of nonobese and obese T2DM. In young Asian Indians, leptin and proinflammatory cytokines are positively, and adiponectin negatively, associated with both nonobese and obese T2DM-Y compared to nonobese NGT individuals.

  6. Adipokines, inflammatory mediators, and insulin-resistance parameters may not be good markers of metabolic syndrome after liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, Lucilene Rezende; de Oliveira, Marina Chaves; Diniz, Kiara Gonçalves; Ferreira, Adaliene Matos Versiane; Lima, Agnaldo Soares; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia

    2016-09-01

    The role of adipokines in liver transplantation (LTx) recipients who have metabolic syndrome (MetS) has seldom been assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of adipokines, inflammatory mediators, and insulin-resistance markers in liver recipients with MetS and its components. Serum samples from 34 patients (55.9% male; 54.9 ± 13.9 y; 7.7 ± 2.9 y after LTx; 50% presented with MetS) were assessed for adiponectin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The dosages were uni- and multivariate analyzed to cover MetS (using the Harmonizing MetS criteria), its components, and dietary intake. A higher concentration of adiponectin (P < 0.05) was observed among patients with MetS (5.2 ± 3.2 μg/mL) compared with those without MetS (3.2 ± 1.2 μg/mL), as well as those with MetS components versus those without them: abdominal obesity (4.6 ± 2.6 μg/mL versus 2.6 ± 0.6 μg/mL), high triacylglycerols (TGs; 5.6 ± 3.1 μg/mL versus 3 ± 0.9 μg/mL) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 6.1 ± 2.7 μg/mL versus 3.3 ± 1.9 μg/mL). Increased TNF-α and HOMA-IR values were seen in patients with abdominal obesity. Patients with high TGs also had greater FFA values. Independent predictors for adiponectin were waist-to-hip ratio, low HDL and high TGs. High TGs and fasting blood glucose were independent predictors for HOMA-IR. Independent predictors could not be identified for CRP, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, or FFA. MetS and its components are related to an increased HOMA-IR concentration and FFA. Adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and CRP, were not associated with MetS in this sample of post-LTx patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex hormone imbalances and adipose tissue dysfunction impacting on metabolic syndrome; a paradigm for the discovery of novel adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Sairam, M Ram

    2014-02-01

    Sex hormone imbalance is causally related with visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction and visceral obesity - an etiological component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), associated with high risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. In general, premenopausal women appear to be protected from CVD and the dramatic decline in sex steroid hormone occurring during menopausal transitions or other sex-related disorders influence the regional distribution, function, and metabolism of AT and increase the risk of CVD. Visceral AT dysfunction, manifesting as abnormality of fatty acid metabolism, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and excessive production of adipokines have been proposed in the pathogenesis of MetS. However, direct evidence of molecular mechanisms of depot-specific AT alterations, and dysfunction causally related to MetS is limited in studies on postmenopausal women due to difficulty in collecting discrete AT specimens at different ages and repeated sampling from different fat depots. This can be overcome using animal models that can mimic the cluster of pathology leading to MetS and help establish the molecular basis of links between loss of gonadal function on various AT depots and their contribution to MetS. Our group used sex hormone imbalance FSH receptor knock out (FORKO) female mice to recapitulate different aspects of the MetS and addressed the mechanism of visceral obesity related to MetS and discover two novel sex steroid hormone-regulated deep mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipose (MEDAs) genes. Taken together, such recent studies raise hopes for pharmacologic intervention strategies targeting sex steroid hormone signaling in AT to provide protection against AT dysfunction.

  8. Periodontitis contributes to aberrant metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by stimulating the expression of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S; Yang, X; Wang, D; Ni, J; Wu, J; Xu, Z; Xuan, D; Zhang, J

    2016-08-01

    Periodontitis has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of local aberrant secretion of adipokines in diabetic rats on systemic metabolism. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used as a diabetic model and associated control, respectively. Periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature for 36 wk. Rats were grouped into OLETF with (OP+) or without (OP-) periodontitis and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka with (LP+) or without (LP-) periodontitis. Alveolar bone resorption and destruction were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining. After 20 wk of periodontitis induction, lipids, insulin, interleukin-1, leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were analyzed, and mRNA expressions of NF-κB, Mark8, TLR2 and -4, IKBKB and Nampt were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in adipose tissue. After ligation, OLETF rats exhibited typical periodontitis lesions with the clinical features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. When compared with the OP(-) group, the area under curve of the oral glucose tolerance test and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were significantly higher in the OP(+) group. Micro-computed tomography showed that the OP(+) group had more bone resorption than the OP(-) group. When compared with the OP(-) group, the OP(+) group also exhibited higher total cholesterol (p 0.05) and higher expression of Nampt (p periodontitis can alter lipid profiles in affected rats, elevate adipose tissue expression of Nampt and affect the metabolism of adipose tissue through the NF-κB pathway to inflame diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The levels of adipokines in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, normal-weight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wyskida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aim of this study was to assess the plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 levels in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, healthy, normal-weight women. Methods: The study involved 52 young, healthy, normal-weight women. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and levels of plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 in addition to serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androgens, SHBG and insulin concentrations were measured during a morning in fasting state three times: between days 2–4, days 12–14 and days 24–26 of the menstrual cycle. Results: Plasma adiponectin, omentin-1, resistin and visfatin/NAMPT, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 concentrations were stable during the menstrual cycle, while leptin and vaspin levels were significantly higher in both the midcycle and the luteal phases than those in the follicular phase. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that changes in leptin and vaspin levels between the follicular and the luteal phase are strongly related to changes in total testosterone levels. Conclusions: Our results revealed stable levels of adipokines during the phases of the physiological menstrual cycle, except for leptin and vaspin, which showed increased levels in both the midcycle and the luteal phases. This effect was significantly associated with changes in the secretion of testosterone, 17-OH progesterone and insulin in the luteal phase.

  10. Adipokines : rôle dans l’obésité et l’insulino‐résistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubert Roberte

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Le tissu adipeux longtemps considéré comme un organe de stockage est maintenant reconnu comme un organe endocrine. Cette revue étudie l’action de 3 adipokines sécrétées par le tissu adipeux et impliquées dans le contrôle de l’homéostasie énergétique et l’insulino‐résistance, la leptine, l’adiponectine et la résistine. La découverte de la leptine a permis la compréhension des mécanismes centraux de la prise alimentaire et de la dépense énergétique. L’espoir que la leptine puisse intervenir dans le traitement de l’obésité a été déçu, mais elle joue un rôle important dans l’insulino‐sensibilité. L’adiponectine circulante est diminuée dans l’obésité et la perte pondérale augmente son taux. Elle améliore la sensibilité à l’insuline en agissant sur le métabolisme glucidique et lipidique. Bien que pour le moment le rôle de la résistine soit encore mal défini, les études chez l’animal suggèrent qu’elle soit impliqués dans l’insulino‐résistance. Chez l’homme il n’y a pas de relation entre l’expression de la résistine et l’obésité. On peut donc se demander si la résistine, dans l’espèce humaine, est bien le lien entre obésité et diabète de type 2.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates adipokine and socs3 gene expression in mouse brain and pituitary gland in vivo, and in N-1 hypothalamic neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Russell; Imran, Syed A; Wilkinson, Michael

    2009-04-30

    Adipokines that modulate metabolic and inflammatory responses, such as resistin (rstn) and fasting-induced adipose factor (fiaf), are also expressed in mouse brain and pituitary gland. Since lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxinemia provokes an anorectic response via a hypothalamic-dependent mechanism we hypothesized that LPS would also modify hypothalamic adipokine expression. Challenging male CD-1 mice with LPS (5 mg/kg; s.c.) significantly reduced bodyweight (24 h) and realtime RT-PCR revealed time- and tissue-dependent increases in rstn, fiaf and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (socs-3) mRNA in hypothalamic, pituitary, cortical and adipose tissues. Gene expression was rapidly increased (3-6 h) in the hypothalamus and pituitary, but returned to normal within 24 h. In contrast, with the exception of rstn in fat, the expression of target genes remained elevated in cortex and visceral fat at 24 h post-injection. In order to more specifically examine the hypothalamic response to LPS we investigated its effects directly on N-1 hypothalamic neurons in vitro. LPS (25 microg/mL; 3 h) had no effect on rstn mRNA, but significantly stimulated fiaf and socs-3 expression. Although various toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonists (parthenolide, PD098059, and SB202190) did not prevent the LPS-induced increases in fiaf and socs-3, they did partially attenuate its stimulatory effects. We conclude that LPS treatment increases the expression of central, and possibly neuronal, adipokine genes which may influence local tissue repair and function, but could also have downstream consequences on the hypothalamic control of appetite and energy metabolism following an inflammatory insult.

  12. Effects of 17β-estradiol and progesterone on the production of adipokines in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Role of Rho-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektaş, Mehtap; Kurt, Akif Hakan; Ün, İsmail; Tiftik, Rukiye Nalan; Büyükafşar, Kansu

    2015-04-01

    Effect of female sex hormones on the production/release of adipocyte-derived cytokines has been debatable. Furthermore, whether the cellular signaling triggered by these hormones involve Rho-kinase has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, effects of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as well as the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632 on the level of adipokines such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α and IL-6 were investigated in 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes. Differentiation was induced in the post-confluent preadipocytes by the standard differentiation medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 10% fetal bovine serum together with the mixture of isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone and insulin) in the presence of 17β-estradiol (10(-8)-10(-7)M), progesterone (10(-6)-10(-5)M), the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632 (10(-5)M) and their combination for 8days. Measurements of the adipokines were performed in the culturing medium by ELISA kits using specific monoclonal antibodies. 17β-estradiol elevated resistin but decreased adiponectin and IL-6 levels; however, it did not alter the concentration of leptin and TNF-α. Y-27632 pretreatment inhibited the rise of resistin and the fall of adiponectin by 17β-estradiol without any effects by its own. Progesterone did not change resistin, leptin and TNF-α level; however, it elevated adiponectin and decreased IL-6 production. Neither 17β-estradiol nor Y-27632 was able to antagonize the increase of adiponectin and the reduction of IL-6 levels by progesterone. While Y-27632 alone lowered IL-6 level, it increased leptin and TNF-α concentration without altering resistin and adiponectin. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol could modify adipokine production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the actions some of which involve Rho-kinase mediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cutoff points of waist circumference and trunk and visceral fat for identifying children with elevated inflammation markers and adipokines: The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Moschonis, George; Polychronopoulou, Maria Christina; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2016-10-01

    Excessive fat storage is accompanied by several comorbidities in children and early identification of elevated abdominal fat may be extremely valuable in early prevention of cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the present study was to establish cutoff points for waist circumference trunk and visceral fat, thus identifying increased likelihood of elevated inflammatory markers and adipokines in children. A representative sample of schoolchildren (aged 9-13 y) participated in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study conducted in Greece. Anthropometric and physical examination data, biochemical indices, and socioeconomic information (collected from parents) were assessed for all children. Central adiposity markers (trunk and visceral fat) were collected with bioelectrical impedance analysis for 999 children. Specific cutoff values of abdominal adiposity indices indicating increased likelihood of elevated levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and leptin and decreased levels of adiponectin were calculated by sex. These cutoff values were; 67.5 cm for boys and 69.5 cm for girls for waist circumference, 17.75% for boys and 22.65% for girls for trunk fat mass percentage, and 3.95 for boys and 2.55 for girls for visceral fat rating. To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish simple cutoff points for abdominal adiposity indices identifying children at high risk for elevated inflammatory markers and decreased adipokine levels. Future studies are essential to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  15. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); others, and

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  16. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yea Eun Kang

    Full Text Available The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25. The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037 but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035 but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and

  17. Adipokines, insulin resistance, and adiposity as a predictors of metabolic syndrome in child survivors of lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Cortés, Lourdes; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Del Carmen Rodríguez-Zepeda, María; Rivera-Márquez, Hugo; de la Vega-Martínez, Alan; Martin-Trejo, Jorge; Shum-Luis, Juan; Solis-Labastida, Karina; López-Aguilar, Enrique; Matute-González, Guadalupe; Bernaldez-Rios, Roberto

    2017-02-13

    There is a growing body of evidence indicating that pediatric survivors of cancer are at a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome. This study evaluated some probable predictors of metabolic syndrome (MS), such as leptin and adiponectin concentrations, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, insulin resistance, and adiposity, in a sample of child survivors of lymphoma and leukemia in Mexico City. Fifty two children (leukemia n = 26, lymphoma n = 26), who were within the first 5 years after cessation of therapy, were considered as eligible to participate in the study. Testing included fasting insulin, glucose, adipokines and lipids; body fat mass was measured by DXA. The MS components were analyzed according to tertiles of adipokines, insulin resistance, and adiposity. Comparisons between continuous variables were performed according to the data distribution. The MS components were analyzed according to tertiles of adipokines, insulin resistance, and adiposity. With the purpose of assessing the risk of a present MS diagnosis, odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% IC) were obtained using logistic regression analysis according to the various metabolic markers. The median children age was 12.1 years, and the interval time from the completion of therapy to study enrollment was 4 years. Among the MS components, the prevalence of HDL-C low was most common (42%), followed by central obesity (29%). The HOMA-IR (OR 9.0, 95% CI 2.0; 41.1), body fat (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.6; 19.3), leptin level (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6; 20.2) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (OR 9.4, 95% CI 2.0; 49.8) in the highest tertile, were predictive factors of developing MS; whereas the lowest tertile of adiponectin was associated with a protective effect but not significant. Biomarkers such as HOMA-IR, leptin and leptin/adiponectin are associated with each of the components of the MS and with a heightened risk of suffering MS among children survivors of cancer. Given the close relationship

  18. Effects of CPAP therapy on visceral fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness and adipokines in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Susanna S S; Liu, Eric K H; Ma, Ronald C W; Chan, Tat-On; To, Kin-Wang; Chan, Ken K P; Ngai, Jenny; Yip, Wing-Ho; Ko, Fanny W S; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Hui, David S C

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This study explores the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with OSA on visceral and mesenteric fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adipokines. A randomized controlled study was conducted at a teaching hospital on 90 patients newly diagnosed with OSA to receive either therapeutic CPAP or subtherapeutic CPAP for 3 months. Visceral fat thickness and carotid IMT were measured with B-mode ultrasound; adipokine levels were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Altogether, 45 patients received therapeutic CPAP and 45 received subtherapeutic CPAP without significant differences in age 50.3 (10.1) versus 48.7 (9.0) years, BMI 28.2 (3.9) versus 28.2 (4.5) kg/m 2 , Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) 12.4 (5.9) versus 11.3 (4.7), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) 30.6 (21.4) versus 35.2 (25.5) /h, minimum SaO 2 79.6 (10.8) versus 76.7 (12.4) % and existing co-morbidities. CPAP usage was therapeutic 4.2 (2.1) versus subtherapeutic 4.1 (2.0) h/night over 3 months. Adiponectin and irisin levels changed significantly following therapeutic CPAP for 3 months versus subtherapeutic CPAP (-1.6 vs 7.3, P = 0.042; 0.1 vs -0.1, P = 0.028 respectively) while only serum level of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) at baseline was positively correlated with AHI (r = 0.278). No significant changes were observed in other adipokines, visceral fat thickness and IMT. Short-term therapeutic CPAP versus subtherapeutic CPAP does not significantly reduce visceral fat thickness and IMT, although it reduces adiponectin and increases irisin. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Exercise and dietary advice intervention for survivors of triple-negative breast cancer: effects on body fat, physical function, quality of life, and adipokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Anne K; Abraham, Jame; Bonner, Daniel; Gilleland, Diana; Hobbs, Gerald; Kurian, Sobha; Yanosik, Mary Anne; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Regular exercise and healthy eating are routinely recommended for breast cancer survivors, and past studies show benefits in quality of life and decreased inflammation. However, this has not been tested specifically in triple-negative breast cancer survivors. Increasing physical activity and losing body fat are thought to positively affect inflammatory biomarkers that have been associated with breast cancer. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an exercise and dietary counseling program can improve body fat, physical function, and quality of life in survivors of this aggressive breast cancer. Secondarily, we sought to determine if participation in the program had beneficial effects on obesity-related markers of the adipokine profile. Sixty-six survivors of triple-negative breast cancer with BMI >25 were invited to participate. Twenty-eight enrolled and 23 completed the randomized, controlled trial (13 intervention, 10 control). Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (150 min per week, for 12 weeks) and diet counseling were compared to usual care, education only. The primary outcome of interest was weight loss (body mass, BMI, % fat), and secondary outcomes included physical function (exercise capacity), quality of life (Function After Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B)), cytokines (C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-6), and adipokine profile (leptin, adiponectin, insulin). Participants in the program lost more body fat (2.4 % loss vs. 0.4 % gain, p life (FACT-B total score +14 pts) and decreased sedentary time but did not improve peak exercise capacity. The intervention had no effect on serum cytokines and adipokines after 12 weeks in the program. However, serum leptin and adiponectin and their ratio were significantly correlated with BMI in the intervention group (p life in survivors of triple-negative breast cancer. BMI was associated with favorable changes in leptin and adiponectin which may reflect a change in adiposity

  20. Hydrogenated fat intake during pregnancy and lactation modifies serum lipid profile and adipokine mRNA in 21-day-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Luciana P; Oyama, Lila M; Bueno, Allain A; Biz, Carolina; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia M

    2008-03-01

    We examined whether feeding pregnant and lactating rats hydrogenated fats rich in trans-fatty acids modifies the plasma lipid profiles and the expression of adipokines involved with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in their 21-d-old offspring. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were fed with a control diet (C group) or one enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T group). After delivery, male offspring were weighed weekly and killed at day 21 of life by decapitation. Blood and retroperitoneal, epididymal, and subcutaneous white adipose tissues were collected. Offspring of T-group rats had increased serum triacylglycerols and cholesterol, white adipose tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression, and carcass lipid content and decreased blood leptin and adiponectin and adiponectin gene expression. Ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat by the mother during gestation and lactation alters the blood lipid profiles and the expression of proinflammatory adipokynes by the adipose tissue of offspring aged 21 d.

  1. Adipokines, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: cross-sectional correlations and the effects of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Nikolaos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Macut, Djuro; Koiou, Ekaterini; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Delkos, Dimitrios; Tsourdi, Elena; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of weight loss on serum adipokine levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We determined serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin levels in 60 overweight/obese women with PCOS and 48 BMI-matched female volunteers. Measurements were repeated after 24 weeks of treatment with orlistat 120 mg 3 times per day along with an energy-restricted diet. At baseline, serum visfatin concentration was higher in patients with PCOS than in controls (p = 0.036); serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin did not differ between the two groups. After 24 weeks, a significant reduction in BMI and waist circumference was observed in both patients with PCOS and controls (p weight loss.

  2. Effect of aerobic interval training on serum IL-10, TNFα, and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis: possible relations with fatigue and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzade, Motahare; Ranjbar, Rouholah; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Patel, Darpan; Molanouri Shamsi, Mehdieh

    2017-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the relationship between these factors with fatigue and quality of life were assessed. Forty women with multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤3) were randomized into either a non-exercising control or training group. The training group performed 8-weeks of upper and lower limb aerobic interval training. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factorα, interleukin-10, leptin, and adiponectin were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Moreover, antropometric measures and measures for fatigue and quality of life were determined at the onset of and after exercise training. The results revealed that leptin and tumor necrosis factorα levels significantly decreased subsequent to the aerobic interval training. Although blood adiponectin levels considerably increased in the training group, interleukin-10 and interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factorα ratio underwent no substantial change after the exercise training. In addition, the aerobic interval training was associated with improvement in fatigue, quality of life, and maximal oxygen consumption. Our findings suggested that aerobic interval training can be an effective strategy for managing the immune system at least by its significant impact on inflammatory cytokines and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis. Additionally, this positive impact improved fatigue and adipose tissue indicators.

  3. Adipokines, myokines and cytokines in endometrial cancer patients: relations to obesity phenotype of excessive body mass and features of the tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev M. Berstein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study serum content of a number of known adipokines, myokines and cytokines and compare obtained data with overweight phenotype and characteristics of tumor in untreated patients with endometrial cancer (EC Materials and methods. The study included 88 patients with a mean age 60.08±0.67 years and a mean body mass index (BMI 32.90±0.83. Patients were subjected to anthropometry and analysis of laboratory parameters, including serum level of leptin, adiponectin, omentin, prefilin (Pref-1, myostatin, irisin, IL-6 as well as insulinemia and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR. On the basis of combination of anthropometric and laboratory data patients with overweight (BMI >25.0 were subdivided into the groups with "standard" (S and conditionally "metabolically healthy" (MH phenotype. Results. Levels of leptin, insulin and adiponectin in the serum of patients with EC are associated with BMI value and demonstrate significant differences between S and MH groups. Levels of prefilin, myostatin, and IL-6 are not associated with an increase in BMI, but are also different in patients with S and MH phenotype of overweight.For levels oа irisin, omentin, and TNF-alphathere is no peculiar dependence both, the BMI, and of belonging to a group with S or MH phenotype. Omentin level in the serum is associated with less favorable tumor differentiation (MH group, while IL-6 level – with a more advanced stage of the tumor (all patients and group S. Conclusion. Adipokines, myokines and cytokines circulating in blood of EC patients vary in their connections with BMI or with "standard" or "metabolically healthy" phenotype of its excess. They vary also in relation to EC features, which in sum may have practical importance.

  4. Detection of vitamin D in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and its effects on insulin resistance, adipokines and TNF-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jia Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect vitamin D levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and the influence and clinical effect of Vitamin D supplement on insulin resistance, fatty factors and TNF-α. Methods: A total of 100 patients with GDM from September 2014 to May 2015 in our hospital were selected as object of observation (GDM Group. 52 cases patients with Vitamin D deficiency were randomly divided into two groups. At the same time, 50 cases of healthy pregnant women were selected as normal group. Biochemical indexes of observation group and normal group were detected. Biosynthetic Human Insulin Injection were given to the patients in the control group. The patients in the observation group were supplemented with vitamin D drops on the basis of the treatment of control group. The level of insulin resistance, adipokines and TNF-α were detected in the 2 groups. Results: FBG, PBG, FINS, TG, Visfatin, TNF-α and HOMA-IR in GDM group were higher compared with that in normal group. 25(OHD3 and APN in GDM group decreased significantly compared with that in normal group. The comparison of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C in the two groups were not statistically significant. PBG, FINS, HOMA-IR, Visfatin and TNF-毩 in both groups after treatment significantly decreased compared with that before treatment. PBG, Visfatin and TNF-毩 in treatment group after treatment decreased more significantly than that in control group. FINS, HOMA-IR in treatment group after treatment increased more significantly than that in control group. The decrease of FBG was not obvious and there was no significant difference between the two groups after treatment. APN and 25(OHD3 in both groups after treatment significantly increased compared with that before treatment. And they in treatment group after treatment increased more significantly than that in control group. In the correlation analysis, 25(OH D3 in serum was positively correlated to the the level of APN. Also, it was negatively

  5. Effects of varying degrees of intermittent hypoxia on proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines in rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Intermittent hypoxia (IH, resulted from recurring episodes of upper airway obstruction, is the hallmark feature and the most important pathophysiologic pathway of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. IH is believed to be the most important factor causing systemic inflammation. Studies suggest that insulin resistance (IR is positively associated with OSA. In this study, we hypothesized that the recurrence of IH might result in cellular and systemic inflammation, which was manifested through the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines after IH exposure, and because IR is linked with inflammation tightly, this inflammatory situation may implicate an IR status. METHODS: We developed an IH 3T3-L1 adipocyte and rat model respectively, recapitulating the nocturnal oxygen profile in OSA. In IH cells, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB DNA binding reactions, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1, necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL -6, leptin, adiponectin mRNA transcriptional activities and protein expressions were measured. In IH rats, blood glucose, insulin, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin and adiponectin levels were analyzed. RESULTS: The insulin and blood glucose levels in rats and NF-κB DNA binding activities in cells had significantly statistical results described as severe IH>moderate IH>mild IH>sustained hypoxia>control. The mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1α and Glut-1 in severe IH group were the highest. In cellular and animal models, both the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin were the highest in severe IH group, when the lowest in severe IH group for adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/adipokines, which are the systemic inflammatory markers, are associated with IH closely and are proportional to the severity of IH. Because IR and glucose intolerance are linked with inflammation tightly, our results may implicate the clinical

  6. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  7. A prospective 4-year study of insulin resistance and adipokines in morbidly obese diabetic and non-diabetic patients after gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanavicius, Vaidotas; Juodeikis, Zygimantas; Dzenkeviciute, Vilma; Galkine, Aiste; Petrulioniene, Zaneta; Sapoka, Virginijus; Brimiene, Vilma; Vitkus, Dalius; Brimas, Gintautas

    2017-06-01

    There are insufficient data regarding the changes in adipokine levels after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) in diabetic and non-diabetic patients and their effects on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes remission. To assess leptin, adiponectin, and insulin resistance changes after LAGB in diabetic and non-diabetic morbidly obese patients. One hundred and three patients (37 with and 66 without type 2 diabetes) underwent LAGB from January 2009 to January 2010. Glycated hemoglobin, insulin, adipokine levels and insulin resistance were evaluated preoperatively, and 1 and 4 years after LAGB. The mean patient age was 45.9 ±11.7 years and mean preoperative body mass index was 47.5 ±7.3 kg/m 2 . A total of 80 of 103 patients (77.6%) completed the 4-year follow-up. After 4 years the mean excess weight loss was 38.8% and 39.5% in diabetic and non-diabetic patients respectively. Leptin levels decreased significantly in both groups at 1 year, but after 4 years this was noted only in non-diabetic patients. After 1 year adiponectin levels increased significantly only in non-diabetic patients (p = 0.003) and remained almost the same at 4 years. A significant decrease in insulin resistance was noted in both groups 1 year after LAGB and diabetes remission was observed in 23 (62.1%) patients. There was a negative correlation between preoperative insulin resistance and adiponectin levels throughout the follow-up period. Leptin levels positively correlated with BMI throughout the study period (baseline r = 0.45; p < 0.001; after 1 year r = 0.71; p < 0.001; after 4 years r = 0.68; p < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between leptin and adiponectin concentrations preoperatively or after 1 year; however, at 4 years it was significant (r = 0.27; p < 0.02). The most significant metabolic changes occurred within 1 year after LAGB. The 4-year follow-up revealed stabilization in metabolic indices rather than significant improvement.

  8. A Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic and Intense Exercise on the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Marker Adipokines, Adiponectin and Retinol Binding Protein-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With a more sedentary population comes growing rates of obesity and increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM risk. Exercise generally induces positive changes in traditional T2DM risk markers such as lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity; however alterations in concentrations of many circulating cytokines and their respective receptors are also becoming apparent. These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis. Plasma levels of two adipocyte-originating cytokines, adiponectin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4, alter following exercise. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-insulin resistance roles and its secretion increases with physical activity, whilst elevated RBP-4 leads to increased insulin resistance, and secretion decreases with increasing physical activity; thus these plasma adipokine levels alter favourably following exercise. Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations. Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term.

  9. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pdairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future.

  10. Polymorphism rs16147 of the Neuropeptide Y Gene Modifies the Response of Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers and Adipokines to Two Hypocaloric Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Aller, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the relationship of weight loss and changes in adipokine levels after two hypocaloric diets in obese subjects with polymorphism rs16147 of the neuropeptide Y gene. A population of 283 obese patients was analyzed. At the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated to one of two diets for a period of 3 months (diet I, low in carbohydrates; diet II, low in fat). With diet I and in both genotype groups (major versus minor allele), body mass index (BMI), weight, fat mass, waist circumference, and leptin decreased. With diet II and in all genotypes, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, and leptin decreased. With both diets and in subjects with the minor allele, insulin levels (diet I: major allele -1.7 ± 7.8 IU/L versus minor allele -4.2 ± 6.1 IU/L, p = 0.01; diet II: major allele -2.3 ± 6.1 IU/L versus minor allele -4.0 ± 5.2 IU/L, p = 0.02) and insulin resistance (diet I: major allele -0.2 ± 3.1 units versus minor allele -1.7 ± 3.0 units, p = 0.03; diet II: major allele -0.9 ± 2.0 units versus minor allele -1.7 ± 1.3 units, p = 0.01) decreased. The rs16147 genotype affected the reduction in insulin resistance and insulin levels in response to two different hypocaloric diets in obese subjects, with a lack of response in subjects with the major allele. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pheat-stressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future. PMID:26055916

  12. TNFα blockade for inflammatory rheumatic diseases is associated with a significant gain in android fat mass and has varying effects on adipokines: a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Éric; Mourot, Laurent; Dehecq, Barbara; Wendling, Daniel; Grandclément, Émilie; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the long-term consequences of TNFα inhibitors on body composition and fat distribution, as well as changes in serum adipokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Eight patients with RA and twelve with AS requiring a TNFα inhibitor were prospectively followed for 2 years. Body composition was evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and included measurements of total fat mass, lean mass, fat in the gynoid and android regions, and visceral fat. Serum leptin, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin were also assessed. There was a significant gain in body mass index (p = 0.05) and a tendency for weight (p = 0.07), android fat (p = 0.07), and visceral fat (p = 0.059) increase in patients with RA, while in AS, total fat mass significantly increased (p = 0.02) with a parallel weight gain (p = 0.07). When examining the whole population of patients, we observed after 2 years a significant increase in body weight (+1.9%; p = 0.003), body mass index (+2.5%; p = 0.004), total fat mass (+11.1%; p = 0.007), and fat in the android region (+18.3%; p = 0.02). There was a substantial, albeit nonsignificant gain in visceral fat (+24.3%; p = 0.088). Lean mass and gynoid fat were not modified. No major changes were observed for serum leptin, total adiponectin, and ghrelin, while HMW adiponectin and the HMW/total adiponectin ratio tended to decrease (-15.2%, p = 0.057 and -9.3%, p = 0.067, respectively). Resistin decreased significantly (-22.4%, p = 0.01). Long-term TNFα inhibition in RA and AS is associated with a significant gain in fat mass, with a shift to the android (visceral) region. This fat redistribution raises questions about its influence on the cardiovascular profile of patients receiving these treatments.

  13. Impact of the adipokine adiponectin and the hepatokine fetuin-A on the development of type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort- and cross-sectional phenotyping studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Stefan

    Full Text Available Among adipokines and hepatokines, adiponectin and fetuin-A were consistently found to predict the incidence of type 2 diabetes, both by regulating insulin sensitivity.To determine to what extent circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A are independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes in humans, and the major mechanisms involved.Relationships with incident diabetes were tested in two cohort studies: within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam study (628 cases and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 470 cases. Relationships with body fat compartments, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were studied in the Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program (TULIP; N = 358.Circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A, independently of several confounders and of each other, associated with risk of diabetes in EPIC-Potsdam (RR for 1 SD: adiponectin: 0.45 [95% CI 0.37-0.54], fetuin-A: 1.18 [1.05-1.32] and the NHS (0.51 [0.42-0.62], 1.35 [1.16-1.58]. Obesity measures considerably attenuated the association of adiponectin, but not of fetuin-A. Subjects with low adiponectin and concomitantly high fetuin-A had the highest risk. Whereas both proteins were independently (both p<1.8×10(-7 associated with insulin sensitivity, circulating fetuin-A (r = -0.37, p = 0.0004, but not adiponectin, associated with insulin secretion in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.We provide novel information that adiponectin and fetuin-A independently of each other associate with the diabetes risk. Furthermore, we suggest that they are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes via different mechanisms, possibly by mediating effects of their source tissues, expanded adipose tissue and nonalcoholic fatty liver.

  14. Secretion of One Adipokine Nampt/Visfatin Suppresses the Inflammatory Stress-Induced NF-κB Activity and Affects Nampt-Dependent Cell Viability in Huh-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ching Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nampt/visfatin acts in both intracellular and extracellular compartments to regulate multiple biological roles, including NAD metabolism, cancer, inflammation, and senescence. However, its function in chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has not been well-defined. Here we use Huh-7 hepatoma cells as a model to determine how Nampt/visfatin affects cellular survival under oxidative stress. We found that the transition of Nampt/visfatin from intracellular into extracellular form was induced by H2O2 treatment in 293T cells and confirmed that this phenomenon was not due to cell death but through the secretion of Nampt/visfatin. In addition, Nampt/visfatin suppressed cell viability in oxidative treatment in Huh-7 cells and acted on the inhibition of hepatoma cell growth. Oxidative stress also reduced the Nampt-mediated activation of NF-κB gene expression. In this study, we identify a novel feature of Nampt/visfatin which functions as an adipokine that can be secreted upon cellular stress. Our results provide an example to understand how adipokine interacts with chemotherapeutic treatment by oxidative stress in HCC.

  15. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Marchand, Maxime; Staub, Christophe; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Venturi, Éric; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Chartrin, Pascal; Lecompte, François; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented. We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens. We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt) unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet) unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition. Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue). In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P hen age. Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  16. Platyphylloside Isolated From Betula platyphylla Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation and Induce Lipolysis Via Regulating Adipokines Including PPARγ in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mina; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis, lipid contents of BPP on were measured using Oil Red O staining in 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of various adipokines were measured by Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Results: Platyphylloside showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed adipocyte differentiation even in the presence of troglitazone, a PPARγ agonist. Platyphylloside might suppress adipocyte differentiation through PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1-induced adipogenesis, which is synergistically associated with downstream adipocyte-specific gene promoters such as aP2, FAS, SCD-1, LPL, and Adiponectin. In addition, platyphylloside affected lipolysis by down-regulating perilipin and HSL and up-regulating TNFα. Conclusion: Taken together, the results reveal that platyphylloside has anti-adipogenic activity and highlight its potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity. SUMMARY The extract of B. platyphylla bark and its isolate, BPP, had anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells via suppression of adipocyte differentiation from preadipocytes.Treatment with BPP significantly down-regulated the expression of PPARγ, C/EBP, C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, SREBP1c, SCD-1, FAS, aP2 and LPL.BPP induced a lipolytic response in mature adipocytes via up-regulation krof TNFá and down

  17. Obesidade e adipocinas inflamatórias: implicações práticas para a prescrição de exercício Obesity and inflammatory adipokines: practical implications for exercise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Luiz do Prado

    2009-10-01

    tissue release a large amount of bioactive peptides called adipokines (which are proteins synthesized and released by adipose tissue. Thus, the aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between obesity and inflammatory adipokines, trying to discuss the role of physical exercise in the treatment of this pathology. The results have shown that one of the most important recent discoveries is the concept that obesity is characterized by a chronic inflammation state. Among all adipokines, IL-6, TNF- α, leptin (pro-inflammatory and adiponectin (anti-inflammatory, have received special attention from the specialized literature. High concentration of these adipokines promotes impact in several body functions, which is strongly linked with cardiovascular diseases. Since obesity is considered an inflammatory disease, and exercise directly modulates this process, it is essential that one of the main aims of exercise therapies is the improvement of the inflammatory response of obese individuals.

  18. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namya Mellouk

    Full Text Available Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented.We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens.We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition.Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P < 0.0001 lower growth than Ad hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue. In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P < 0.05 decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose and ADIPOQ, and fish oil supplementation decreased plasma levels of RARRES2. We also showed a positive correlation between insulin values and ADIPOQ or NAMPT or RARRES2 values, and a negative correlation of fat percentage to RARRES2 values. Moreover, the effects of the Rt diet and fish oil supplementation on the mRNA expression depended on the factors tested and the hen age.Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  19. 25. Novel adipokine tazarotene induced gene 2 correlations with increased cardiovascular risk determined by body composition, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabesity in Saudi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Habib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tazarotene induced gene 2 (TIG2 is a novel adipokine that is believed to be a mediator for the adipose tissue inflammation that occurs in obesity. The present study compared TIG2 levels between healthy and type 2 diabetic women matched for age and body composition. We also aimed to assess the relationship of serum TIG2 levels with body composition, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabesity in Saudi adult women. This observation case-control study was conducted at the Departments of Physiology and Medicine, Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September 2013 to April 2014. A total of 100 subjects were recruited, including 51 adult diabetic females, and a control group consisting of 49 healthy females. Finally 80 subjects were selected as per inclusion criteria. In the finally selected group, 45 of were diabetics and 35 were healthy subjects matched for age, BMI and body composition with age ranging between 30 and 65 years. Body composition analysis was estimated using Bioelectrical impendence analyzer. Fasting 10 ml venous blood samples were analyzed for glycemic markers, lipids and TIG2. Insulin resistance indexes were calculated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI using standard formulas. The two groups were matched for age, BMI, body fat percentage (BF%, basal metabolic rate (BMR, truncal fat and WHR. Serum TIG2 levels were higher in diabetics than controls (256.09 pm 57.01 vs 305.63 pm 73.66, p = 0.001. Systolic blood pressure (p = 0.001, weight (p = 0.040, fat mass (p = 0.045 and visceral fat (p = 0.025 were found to be significantly higher in diabetics when compared to controls. FBS, HBA1C, LDL, TG, insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICKIE and TIG2 were significantly higher and HDL was significantly lower in diabetics compared to controls. In Spearman’s correlation analysis. TIG2 correlated positively with age (r = 0.300, p = 0.007, WHR (r

  20. Effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on markers of β-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in obese, premenopausal women without diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabchi, Abbas E; McDaniel, Kristin A; Wan, Jim Y; Tylavsky, Frances A; Jacovino, Crystal A; Sands, Chris W; Nyenwe, Ebenezer A; Stentz, Frankie B

    2013-07-01

    To study the effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on various metabolic end points (glucoregulation, oxidative stress [dichlorofluorescein], lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde], proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6], adipokines, and resting energy expenditure [REE]) with high protein-low carbohydrate (HP) and high carbohydrate-low protein (HC) diets at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. We recruited obese, premenopausal women aged 20-50 years with no diabetes or prediabetes who were randomized to HC (55% carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 15% protein) or HP (40% carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 30% protein) diets for 6 months. The diets were provided in prepackaged food, which provided 500 kcal restrictions per day. The above metabolic end points were measured with HP and HC diet at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. After 6 months of the HP versus HC diet (12 in each group), the following changes were significantly different by Wilcoxon rank sum test for the following parameters: dichlorofluorescein (-0.8 vs. -0.3 µmol/L, P vs. -0.2 μmol/L, P = 0.0004), C-reactive protein (-2.1 vs. -0.8 mg/L, P = 0.0003), E-selectin (-8.6 vs. -3.7 ng/mL, P = 0.0007), adiponectin (1,284 vs. 504 ng/mL, P = 0.0011), tumor necrosis factor-α (-1.8 vs. -0.9 pg/mL, P vs. -0.4 pg/mL, P vs. 0.16 mmol/L, P = 0.0002), REE (259 vs. 26 kcal, P vs. 0.9, P vs. 2.1, P < 0.0001). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the significant advantages of a 6-month hypocaloric HP diet versus hypocaloric HC diet on markers of β-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in normal, obese females without diabetes.

  1. Possível papel das adipocinas no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e na artrite reumatoide Possible role of adipokines in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina de Souza Barbosa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos têm sido descritos mediadores sintetizados no tecido adiposo, chamados adipocinas. Eles apresentam ação hormonal, regulando o apetite e o metabolismo da glicose, mas também atuam como citocinas, com efeitos sobre o sistema imune, incluindo efeitos na autoimunidade. As adipocinas mais importantes são: leptina, adiponectina, visfatina e resistina. Algumas delas vêm sendo estudadas nas doenças autoimunes reumáticas, particularmente no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES e na artrite reumatoide (AR. Estudos mostram níveis elevados de leptina e de adiponectina no LES, porém a correlação com a atividade da doença ainda é discutida. Na AR, os estudos também mostram aumento dos níveis de leptina e de adiponectina, observando-se correlação com a atividade da doença e a erosão articular; os resultados, porém, são conflitantes. Esta revisão descreve os papéis da leptina e da adiponectina no sistema imune e suas atuações no LES e na AR.In recent years, mediators synthesized in the adipose tissue, the so-called adipokines, have been described. They have a hormonal action, regulating appetite and glucose metabolism, but also act as cytokines with effects on the immune system, including effects on autoimmunity. The most important adipokines are leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin, and some of them have been assessed in autoimmune rheumatic diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Studies have shown high levels of leptin and adiponectin in SLE, but correlation with disease activity is questionable. In RA, studies have also reported increased levels of leptin and adiponectin, and correlation with disease activity and joint erosion, but the results are confl icting. This review describes the role of leptin and adiponectin on the immune system, as well as on SLE and RA.

  2. Changes of Insulin Resistance and Adipokines Following Supplementation with Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Extract in Combination with a Low-Calorie Diet in Overweight and Obese Subjects: a Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adipose tissue is a highly active endocrine organ which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dried licorice extract along with a calorie restricted diet on body composition, insulin resistance and adipokines in overweight and obese subjects. Methods: Sixty-four overweight and obese volunteers (27 men, 37 women were recruited into this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the Licorice (n=32 or the placebo group (n=32, and each group received a low-calorie diet with either 1.5 g/day of Licorice extract or placebo for 8 weeks. Biochemical parameters, anthropometric indices, body composition and dietary intake were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: A total of 58 subjects completed the trial. No side effects were observed following licorice supplementation. At the end of the study, waist circumference, fat mass, serum levels of vaspin, zinc-α2 glycoprotein, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly decreased in the intervention group, but only the reduction in serum vaspin levels in the licorice group was significant when compared to the placebo group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Supplementation with dried licorice extract plus a low-calorie diet can increase vaspin levels in obese subjects. However, the anti-obesity effects of the intervention were not stronger than a low-calorie diet alone in the management of obesity.

  3. Adipocinas y síndrome metabólico: múltiples facetas de un proceso fisiopatológico complejo Adipokines and metabolic syndrome: multiple aspects of a complex pathophysiological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C Sánchez N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la alta morbimortalidad de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su relación con trastornos de base como la obesidad y el síndrome metabólico, es crucial entender cuáles son los mecanismos y procesos que desencadenan la alteración del metabolismo y a su vez la generación de dichas enfermedades. En tal sentido, el tejido adiposo y el adipocito tienen un papel fundamental en este proceso, mediante la producción de múltiples adipocinas, algunas clásicas y otras de reciente descripción, pero que hasta ahora empieza a dilucidarse en medio del complejo panorama de interacciones fisiopatológicas conducentes al desarrollo de resistencia a la insulina y del complejo desequilibrio metabólico que conlleva un sinnúmero de complicaciones clínicas. Un grupo de estas adipocinas tiene claros efectos proinflamatorios, mientras que otras pueden clasificarse como anti-inflamatorias, las cuales contrarrestan en cierta medida y hasta cierto punto las acciones de las otras. Cuando esta homeostasis se rompe, la cascada de inflamación crónica allí originada desencadena resistencia a la insulina y se inicia el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico a partir de la obesidad, que a su vez genera alteraciones de la respuesta del adipocito a diferentes estímulos. Esto, sumado a los efectos de otros elementos, configura un complejo cuadro de factores que es necesario tener en cuenta para el abordaje correcto de la obesidad y sus patologías asociadas.Due to the high morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and their relationship with basic disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, the understanding of the mechanisms and processes that trigger metabolic alterations and generate such diseases, is a crucial matter. In this regard, adipose tissue and adipocytes have a crucial role in this process through the production of multiple adipokines, some of them classical and others recently described; however, until now their role is beginning

  4. Fish-oil-derived n-3 PUFAs reduce inflammatory and chemotactic adipokine-mediated cross-talk between co-cultured murine splenic CD8+ T cells and adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; De Boer, Anna A; Brown, Morgan J; Power, Krista A; Ma, David Wl; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-04-01

    Obese adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is characterized by dysregulated adipokine production and immune cell accumulation. Cluster of differentiation (CD) 8+ T cell AT infiltration represents a critical step that precedes macrophage infiltration. n-3 (ω-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in obese AT, thereby disrupting AT inflammatory paracrine signaling. We assessed the effect of n-3 PUFAs on paracrine interactions between adipocytes and primary CD8+ T cells co-cultured at the cellular ratio observed in obese AT. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a 3% menhaden fish-oil + 7% safflower oil (FO) diet (wt:wt) or an isocaloric 10% safflower oil (wt:wt) control (CON) for 3 wk, and splenic CD8+ T cells were isolated by positive selection (via magnetic microbeads) and co-cultured with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Co-cultures were unstimulated (cells alone), T cell receptor stimulated, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated for 24 h. In LPS-stimulated co-cultures, FO reduced secreted protein concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 (-42.6%), tumor necrosis factor α (-67%), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α (-52%), MIP-1β (-62%), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 (-23%), and MCP-3 (-19%) vs. CON, which coincided with a 74% reduction in macrophage chemotaxis toward secreted chemotaxins in LPS-stimulated FO-enriched co-culture-conditioned media. FO increased mRNA expression of the inflammatory signaling negative regulators monocyte chemoattractant 1-induced protein (Mcpip; +9.3-fold) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3; +1.7-fold), whereas FO reduced activation of inflammatory transcription factors nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by 27% and 33%, respectively. Finally, mRNA expression of the inflammasome components Caspase1 (-36.4%), Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3; -99%), and Il1b (-68.8%) were decreased by FO compared with CON (P

  5. Genetic variation in adipokine genes and risk of colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechlivanis, S.; Bermejo, J. L.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodičková, Ludmila; Novotný, J.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel; Försti, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2009), s. 933-940 ISSN 0804-4643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA MZd NR8563 Grant - others:EU(SE) LSHC-CT-2004-503465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : colorectal cancer * diabetes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.539, year: 2009

  6. Adipokines and inflammation markers and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dossus, Laure; Franceschi, Silvia; Biessy, Carine

    2018-01-01

    Other than the influence of ionizing radiation and benign thyroid disease, little is known about the risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) which is an increasing common cancer worldwide. Consistent evidence shows that body mass is positively associated with TC risk. As excess weight...

  7. Severe Burn and Disuse in the Rat Independently Adversely Impact Body Composition and Adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Scopus and Google Scholar • Research which is freely available for redistribution Submit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submit Wade et al. Critical Care 2013, 17:R225 Page 12 of 12 http://ccforum.com/content/17/5/R225

  8. Relationship between red cell membrane fatty acids and adipokines in individuals with varying insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y; Lowy, C; Islam, S; Khan, F S; Swaminathan, R

    2011-06-01

    Plasma leptin and adiponectin, and membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition are implicated into the mechanism of insulin resistance but no clear pattern has emerged. Hence, this study examined these variables in subjects presenting to the diabetic clinic for a diagnostic glucose tolerance test. Body composition, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and red cell and plasma phospholipid fatty acids were assessed from 42 normal and 28 impaired glucose tolerant subjects. Insulin sensitivity was determined by homeostatic model assessment. The plasma phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition of the impaired glucose tolerant subjects was similar to that of normal subjects. However, the impaired glucose tolerant subjects had significantly lower linoleic (Pphosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine compared with the normal subjects. Moreover, red cell phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid correlated positively with adiponectin (r=0.290, Pinsulin (r=-0.335, Pinsulin resistance (r=-0.322, Pinsulin level whereas insulin was the only component that predicted the membrane fatty acids. We postulate that membrane phospholipids fatty acids have an indirect role in determining insulin concentration but insulin has a major role in determining membrane fatty acid composition.

  9. Adipokines in umbilical cord blood from children born large for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of childhood obesity and the associated morbidity is multifactorial. Recently, data suggesting a prenatal programming towards later childhood obesity and metabolic deregulation through the intrauterine environment has emerged. This study explored the concentrations......]). Children exposed to maternal diabetes, chronic disease and preeclampsia were excluded. RESULTS: The LGA group exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of leptin (p

  10. Mangiferin ameliorates insulin resistance by inhibiting inflammation and regulatiing adipokine expression in adipocytes under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Qiang; Xu, Jing-Hua; Yan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Bao-Lin; Liu, Kang; Huang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Adipose tissue hypoxia has been recognized as the initiation of insulin resistance syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mangiferin on the insulin signaling pathway and explore whether mangiferin could ameliorate insulin resistance caused by hypoxia in adipose tissue. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated under normal and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Protein expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines and HIF-1-dependent genes were tested by ELISA and q-PCR, respectively. The glucose uptake was detected by fluorescence microscopy. HIF-1α was abundantly expressed during 8 h of hypoxic incubation. Inflammatory reaction was activated by up-regulated NF-κB phosphorylation and released cytokines like IL-6 and TNF-α. Glucose uptake was inhibited and insulin signaling pathway was damaged as well. Mangiferin substantially inhibited the expression of HIF-1α. Lactate acid and lipolysis, products released by glycometabolism and lipolysis, were also inhibited. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced and the damaged insulin signaling pathway was restored to proper functional level. The glucose uptake of hypoxic adipocytes was promoted and the dysfunction of adipocytes was relieved. These results showed that mangiferin could not only improve the damaged insulin signaling pathway in hypoxic adipocytes, but also ameliorate inflammatory reaction and insulin resistance caused by hypoxia. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional Ingredients Modulate Adipokine Secretion and Inflammation in Human Primary Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romacho, Tania; Glosse, Philipp; Richter, Isabel; Elsen, Manuela; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; van Tol, Eric A.; Eckel, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional factors such as casein hydrolysates and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been proposed to exert beneficial metabolic effects. We aimed to investigate how a casein hydrolysate (eCH) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could affect human primary adipocyte function in vitro. Incubation conditions with the different nutritional factors were validated by assessing cell vitality with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neutral red incorporation. Intracellular triglyceride content was assessed with Oil Red O staining. The effect of eCH, a non-peptidic amino acid mixture (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on adiponectin and leptin secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intracellular adiponectin expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were analyzed by Western blot, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) release was explored by ELISA. The eCH concentration dependently increased adiponectin secretion in human primary adipocytes through its intrinsic peptide bioactivity, since the non-peptidic mixture, AA, could not mimic eCH’s effects on adiponectin secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and DHA combined with arachidonic acid (ARA) upregulated adiponectin secretion. However, only DHA and DHA/ARA exerted a potentanti-inflammatory effect reflected by prevention of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced NF-κB activation and MCP-1 secretion in human adipocytes. eCH and DHA alone or in combination with ARA, may hold the key for nutritional programming through their anti-inflammatory action to prevent diseases with low-grade chronic inflammation such as obesity or diabetes. PMID:25629558

  12. Nutritional Ingredients Modulate Adipokine Secretion and Inflammation in Human Primary Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Romacho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors such as casein hydrolysates and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been proposed to exert beneficial metabolic effects. We aimed to investigate how a casein hydrolysate (eCH and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could affect human primary adipocyte function in vitro. Incubation conditions with the different nutritional factors were validated by assessing cell vitality with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and neutral red incorporation. Intracellular triglyceride content was assessed with Oil Red O staining. The effect of eCH, a non-peptidic amino acid mixture (AA, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs on adiponectin and leptin secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Intracellular adiponectin expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation were analyzed by Western blot, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 release was explored by ELISA. The eCH concentration dependently increased adiponectin secretion in human primary adipocytes through its intrinsic peptide bioactivity, since the non-peptidic mixture, AA, could not mimic eCH’s effects on adiponectin secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and DHA combined with arachidonic acid (ARA upregulated adiponectin secretion. However, only DHA and DHA/ARA exerted a potentanti-inflammatory effect reflected by prevention of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α induced NF-κB activation and MCP-1 secretion in human adipocytes. eCH and DHA alone or in combination with ARA, may hold the key for nutritional programming through their anti-inflammatory action to prevent diseases with low-grade chronic inflammation such as obesity or diabetes.

  13. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Solution structure of CXCL5--a novel chemokine and adipokine implicated in inflammation and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mohan Sepuru

    Full Text Available The chemokine CXCL5 is selectively expressed in highly specialized cells such as epithelial type II cells in the lung and white adipose tissue macrophages in muscle, where it mediates diverse functions from combating microbial infections by regulating neutrophil trafficking to promoting obesity by inhibiting insulin signaling. Currently very little is known regarding the structural basis of how CXCL5 mediates its novel functions. Towards this missing knowledge, we have solved the solution structure of the CXCL5 dimer by NMR spectroscopy. CXCL5 is a member of a subset of seven CXCR2-activating chemokines (CAC that are characterized by the highly conserved ELR motif in the N-terminal tail. The structure shows that CXCL5 adopts the typical chemokine fold, but also reveals several distinct differences in the 30 s loop and N-terminal residues; not surprisingly, crosstalk between N-terminal and 30 s loop residues have been implicated as a major determinant of receptor activity. CAC function also involves binding to highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG, and the CXCL5 structure reveals a distinct distribution of positively charged residues, suggesting that differences in GAG interactions also influence function. The availability of the structure should now facilitate the design of experiments to better understand the molecular basis of various CXCL5 functions, and also serve as a template for the design of inhibitors for use in a clinical setting.

  15. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Suvarthi; Kumar, Ashutosh; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Tokar, Erik J.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates protein radical and 3-nitrotyrosine formation. ► BDCM exposure in obesity activates Kupffer cells and NADPH oxidase. ► BDCM/leptin synergy promotes necrotic cell-death and augments steatohepatitis

  16. Immunomodulatory Role of Diet and Adipokines in Multiple Sclerosis and Its Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    signaling pathways that are starting to be elucidated ( Mao , Kikani et al. 2006, Holland, Miller et al. 2011). AdipoR1 and R2 are expressed on various cell...been reported downstream of AdipoRs ( Mao , Kikani et al. 2006). Recently, it has been shown that adiponectin potently stimulates ceramidase activity...collaborator Prof. Lily Dong detailed protocols to produce recombinant full-length and globular adiponectin. We have encountered some technical issues in

  17. Regulation of adipokine production in human adipose tissue by propionic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, Sa'ad H.; Roelofsen, Han; Priebe, Marion; Weening, Desiree; Dijkstra, Martijn; Hoek, Annemieke; Rezaee, Farhad; Venema, Koen; Vonk, Roel J.

    P>Background Dietary fibre (DF) has been shown to be protective for the development of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acids, produced by colonic fermentation of DF might mediate this beneficial effect. Adipose tissue plays a key role in the regulation of energy

  18. Regulation of adipokine production in human adipose tissue by propionic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.H.; Roelofsen, H.; Priebe, M.; Weening, D.; Dijkstra, M.; Hoek, A.; Rezaee, F.; Venema, K.; Vonk, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre (DF) has been shown to be protective for the development of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acids, produced by colonic fermentation of DF might mediate this beneficial effect. Adipose tissue plays a key role in the regulation of energy

  19. Effect of Testosterone Treatment on Adipokines and Gut Hormones in Obese Men on a Hypocaloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Tang Fui, Mark; Hoermann, Rudolf; Grossmann, Mathis

    2017-04-01

    In obese men with lowered testosterone levels, testosterone treatment augments diet-associated loss of body fat. We hypothesized that testosterone treatment modulates circulating concentrations of hormonal mediators of fat mass and energy homeostasis in obese men undergoing a weight loss program. Prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Tertiary referral center. Obese men (body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 ) with a repeated total testosterone level ≤12 nmol/L. One hundred participants mean age 53 years (interquartile range 47 to 60 years) receiving 10 weeks of a very low-energy diet followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (cases, n = 49) or matching placebo (controls, n = 51). Eighty-two men completed the study. Between-group differences in leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin levels. At study end, compared with controls, cases had greater reductions in leptin [mean adjusted difference (MAD), -3.6 ng/mL (95% CI, -5.3 to -1.9); P diet-associated weight loss. Testosterone treatment may reduce leptin resistance in obese men.

  20. Leptin, An Adipokine With Central Importance in the Global Obesity Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Zhao, Shan; Garvey, W Timothy

    2017-12-13

    Leptin has central importance in the global obesity and cardiovascular disease problem. Leptin is principally secreted by adipocytes and acts in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and food intake, increase energy expenditure, and regulate body weight. Based on clinical translation of specific and networked actions, leptin affects the cardiovascular system and may be a marker and driver of cardiometabolic risk factors with interventions that are actionable by cardiologists. Leptin subnetwork analysis demonstrates a statistically significant role for ethnoculturally and socioeconomically appropriate lifestyle intervention in cardiovascular disease. Emergent mechanistic components and potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets include hexokinase 3, urocortins, clusterin, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 6, C-reactive protein, platelet glycoprotein VI, albumin, pentraxin 3, ghrelin, obestatin prepropeptide, leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1. Emergent associated symptoms include weight change, eating disorders, vascular necrosis, chronic fatigue, and chest pain. Leptin-targeted therapies are reported for lipodystrophy and leptin deficiency, but they are investigational for leptin resistance, obesity, and other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum Adipokines and Adipose Tissue Distribution in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis. A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toussirot, Éric; Grandclément, Émilie; Gaugler, Béatrice; Michel, Fabrice; Wendling, Daniel; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are inflammatory rheumatic diseases that may modify body composition. Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various pathological processes, including the inflammatory/immune response. RA and AS are both associated with the development of cardiovascular complications. It is has been established that central/abdominal, and particularly intra-abdominal or visceral...

  2. Serum adipokines and adipose tissue distribution in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. A comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    ERIC eTOUSSIROT; Emilie eGrandclement; Beatrice eGaugler; Fabrice eMichel; daniel eWendling; Philippe eSaas; Gilles eDumoulin; cic ebt

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are inflammatory rheumatic diseases that may modify body composition. Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various pathological processes, including the inflammatory/immune response. RA and AS are both associated with the development of cardiovascular complications. It is has been established that central/abdominal and particularly intra-abdominal or visceral ...

  3. Blood Pressure in Adolescence, Adipokines and Inflammation in Young Adults. The Rio de Janeiro Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Fonseca, Flávia Lopes; Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; Freitas, Elizabete Viana de; Brandão, Ayrton Pires

    2014-01-01

    The impact of blood pressure (BP) during adolescence on other cardiovascular risk factors in young adults is important for the primary prevention. To evaluate BP, anthropometric indexes, metabolic and inflammatory profiles in young individuals stratified by their BP behavior recorded for 18 years. A total of 116 individuals, of whom 63 were males, from the Rio de Janeiro study (follow-up of 17.76 ± 1.63 years), were assessed at two moments: A1 (12.40 ± 1.49 years) and A2 (30.09 ± 2.01 years). The 116 individuals were divided into two groups: GN (n = 71), of participants with normal BP at A1; and GH (n = 45), of those with abnormal BP at A1. BP, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured at A1 and A2. At A2, abdominal circumference (AC) and laboratory, metabolic and inflammatory variables were included. 1) No difference was observed between the groups as regards age and gender; 2) At A2, GH showed higher mean weight, BMI, BP, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 and A1 (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p < 0.010); and higher prevalences of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001), of increased AC (p < 0.001) and of hypertension (p < 0.02); 3) No difference was observed between the groups as regards the inflammatory variables; 4) There was a positive correlation of BP at A1 with BP, BMI, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR at A2 (p < 0.05). BP in adolescence was associated with higher values of BP, and anthropometric and metabolic variables in young adulthood, but not with inflammatory variables

  4. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suvarthi [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kumar, Ashutosh [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Seth, Ratanesh Kumar [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tokar, Erik J. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kadiiska, Maria B. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Mason, Ronald P. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh, E-mail: schatt@mailbox.sc.edu [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates protein radical and 3-nitrotyrosine formation. ► BDCM exposure in obesity activates Kupffer cells and NADPH oxidase. ► BDCM/leptin synergy promotes necrotic cell-death and augments steatohepatitis.

  5. Blood Pressure in Adolescence, Adipokines and Inflammation in Young Adults. The Rio de Janeiro Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves, E-mail: erikamaria@cardiol.br; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Fonseca, Flávia Lopes; Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; Freitas, Elizabete Viana de; Brandão, Ayrton Pires [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    The impact of blood pressure (BP) during adolescence on other cardiovascular risk factors in young adults is important for the primary prevention. To evaluate BP, anthropometric indexes, metabolic and inflammatory profiles in young individuals stratified by their BP behavior recorded for 18 years. A total of 116 individuals, of whom 63 were males, from the Rio de Janeiro study (follow-up of 17.76 ± 1.63 years), were assessed at two moments: A1 (12.40 ± 1.49 years) and A2 (30.09 ± 2.01 years). The 116 individuals were divided into two groups: GN (n = 71), of participants with normal BP at A1; and GH (n = 45), of those with abnormal BP at A1. BP, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured at A1 and A2. At A2, abdominal circumference (AC) and laboratory, metabolic and inflammatory variables were included. 1) No difference was observed between the groups as regards age and gender; 2) At A2, GH showed higher mean weight, BMI, BP, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 and A1 (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p < 0.010); and higher prevalences of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001), of increased AC (p < 0.001) and of hypertension (p < 0.02); 3) No difference was observed between the groups as regards the inflammatory variables; 4) There was a positive correlation of BP at A1 with BP, BMI, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR at A2 (p < 0.05). BP in adolescence was associated with higher values of BP, and anthropometric and metabolic variables in young adulthood, but not with inflammatory variables.

  6. Cardiac valve evaluation and adipokine levels in obese women treated with sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Sefa; Saraç, Fulden

    2010-06-01

    The aims of present study were 1) to evaluate cardiac valve characteristics, 2) to determine the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the obese women before and after 19 months sibutramine treatment in the obese women. Sixty obese women were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study. Thirty women received 10 mg once daily dose of sibutramine for 19 months. The rest of the obese women received 15 mg once daily dose of sibutramine for 19 months. All patients were evaluated with echocardiography. Plasma levels of adiponectin and TNF-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hsCRP by immunoturbimetric assay. Student paired and unpaired t tests were used to compare the 10 mg or 15 mg dose sibutramine effects either in groups or between the groups. There were no signs of significant regurgitation or thickening of the mitral and aortic valves on echocardiographic evaluation performed after 19 months of treatment. Parameters of systolic function after 10 or 15 mg treatment were not different from pretreatment characteristics. Minimal tricuspid regurgitation was found in one (1/27) patient treated with 10 mg sibutramine after 19 months. Among obese patients treated with 15 mg sibutramine one patient (1/28) had minimal mitral valve regurgitation and 2 patients (2/28) had minimal aortic insufficiency. Stage II diastolic dysfunction in the 15 obese treated with 15 mg regressed to stage I diastolic dysfunction (50%). Stage II diastolic dysfunction in the 10 obese treated with 10 mg regressed to stage I diastolic dysfunction (33.3%). Mean levels of TNF-alpha(p=0.04), fibrinogen (p=0.03) and hsCRP (p=0.04)i decreased and adiponectin (p=0.03) levels increased in the obese treated with 10 mg sibutramine. Likewise, in the patients treated with 15 mg sibutramine, mean levels of TNF- alpha(p=0.01), fibrinogen (p= 0.02), and hsCRP (p= 0.04) decreased and adiponectin (p= 0.02) levels increased. Nineteen months of sibutramine treatment does not affect heart valve and systolic functions, however, diastolic dysfunction severity reduced with sibutramine treatment. Also In addition, mean levels of adiponectin, TNF- alpha, fibrinogen and hs- CRP change with 19 months sibutramine treatment.

  7. Adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein regulated by growth hormone and linked to insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gajdosechova, Lucia; Vlcek, Miroslav; Janakova, Zuzana; Fedeles, Jozef; Pura, Mikulas; Gasperikova, Daniela; Smith, Steven R; Tkacova, Ruzena; Klimes, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic obesity is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and lipid-mobilizing activity of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Adipose tissue (AT) of growth hormone (GH) -deficient patients is characterized by extreme adipocyte hypertrophy due to defects in AT lipid metabolism. It was hypothesized that zinc-α2-glycoprotein is regulated by GH and mediates some of its beneficial effects in AT. AT from patients with GH deficiency and individuals with obesity-related GH deficit was obtained before and after 5-year and 24-month GH supplementation therapy. GH action was tested in primary human adipocytes. Relationships of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein with adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in nondiabetic patients with noncancerous cachexia and hypertrophic obesity. AT in GH-deficient adults displayed a substantial reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. GH therapy normalized AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Obesity-related relative GH deficit was associated with almost 80% reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in AT. GH increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in both AT of obese men and primary human adipocytes. Interdependence of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in regulating AT morphology and metabolic phenotype was evident from their relationship with adipocyte size and AT-specific and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The results demonstrate that GH is involved in regulation of AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein; however, the molecular mechanism linking GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in AT is yet unknown. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Programming of Adiposity in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations With Birth Weight and Cord Blood Adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joy; Smith, Andrew D A C; Fraser, Abigail; Sattar, Naveed; Lindsay, Robert S; Ring, Susan M; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Nelson, Scott M

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to maternal adiposity during pregnancy is associated with higher offspring birth weight and greater adiposity through childhood and adult life. As birth weight reflects the summation of lean and fat mass, the extent to which fat mass at birth tracks into later life is unknown. To determine whether fat mass at birth is associated with child and adolescent adiposity. UK birth cohort with markers of neonatal fat mass; cord blood leptin, adiponectin, and birth weight and adiposity outcomes at age 9 (n = 2775) and 17 years (n = 2138). Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-determined fat mass, and obesity at age 9 and 17 years. Higher cord blood leptin was associated with higher z scores of fat mass [difference in mean per 10 pg/mL: 0.03 standard deviation (SD); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.00 to 0.06], waist circumference (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.07), and BMI (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.08) at age 9. However, by age 17 the adjusted results were attenuated to the null. Cord blood adiponectin was not associated with measures of adiposity at age 9. At age 17, cord blood adiponectin was positively associated with fat mass (0.02 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.03) and waist circumference (0.04 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.05). Birth weight was positively associated with waist circumference (0.03 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.04) and BMI (0.02 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.03), but not fat mass or odds of obesity. Cord blood leptin and adiponectin were not associated with obesity at either age. Increased cord blood leptin and adiponectin, known surrogates of fetal fat mass, were weakly associated with increased fat mass in late childhood and adolescence, respectively.

  9. Lipocalin 2: a "sexy" adipokine that regulates 17Beta-estradiol and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this article we review the findings of Guo et. al. (Endocrinology, 153: 1183-1193) that the protein, Lipocalin 2 is more highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue than in gondal tissue of female mice. Of particular interest is that the paper by Guo et. al. observed that ablation of the Lip...

  10. Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) Is Predictive of an Altered Adipokine Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, M.; Pizzolanti, G.; Torregrossa, V.; Misiano, G.; Milano, S.; Giordano, C.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Although there is still no clear definition of "adipose tissue dysfunction" or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC), Hip Circumference (HC), Waist/Hip ratio (WHR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI)] and several ...

  11. Thymidine kinase 2 deficiency-induced mitochondrial DNA depletion causes abnormal development of adipose tissues and adipokine levels in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Villarroya

    Full Text Available Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT and brown (BAT adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2 H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues.

  12. Thymidine kinase 2 deficiency-induced mitochondrial DNA depletion causes abnormal development of adipose tissues and adipokine levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. © 2011 Villarroya et al.

  13. Visceral adiposity index (VAI is predictive of an altered adipokine profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco C Amato

    Full Text Available AIMS: Although there is still no clear definition of "adipose tissue dysfunction" or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Hip Circumference (HC, Waist/Hip ratio (WHR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI] and several adipocytokines [Visfatin, Resistin, Leptin, Soluble leptin receptors (sOB-R, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Adipsin, PAI-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-18] in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one DM2 patients (age: 65.25 ± 6.38 years; 42 men and 49 women in stable treatment for the last six months with metformin in monotherapy (1.5-2 g/day were cross-sectionally studied. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Serum adipocytokine levels were assayed with Luminex based kits. RESULTS: At the Pearson's correlation, among all the indices investigated, VAI showed a significant correlation with almost all adipocytokines analyzed [Visfatin, Resistin and hsCRP (all p<0.001; Adiponectin, sOb-R, IL-6, IL-18, HGF (all p<0.010; Ghrelin and VEGF (both p<0.05]. Through a two-step cluster analysis, 55 patients were identified with the most altered adipocytokine profile (patients with ATD. At a ROC analysis, VAI showed the highest C-statistic [0.767 (95% CI 0.66-0.84] of all the indices. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the VAI, among the most common indexes of adiposity assessment, shows the best correlation with the best known adipocytokines and cardiometabolic risk serum markers. Although to date we are still far from clearly identifying an ATD, the VAI would be an easy tool for clearly mirroring a condition of cardiometabolic risk, in the absence of an overt metabolic syndrome.

  14. Polymorphism of neuropeptide Y gene rs16147 modifies the response to a hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular risk biomarkers and adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Izaola, O; de la Fuente, B; Primo, D; Aller, R

    2017-04-01

    The main genetic variant described in NPY gene is rs16147 (G-399A) and it is located within the promoter region upstream of the gene for neropeptide Y (NPY). We evaluate the effects of the rs16147 NPY gene polymorphism on metabolic changes secondary to weight loss after 3 months of a hypocaloric diet in adult obese patients. A population of 82 obese patients was analysed in an interventional design of one arm. Before and after 3 months on a hypocaloric diet, an anthropometric evaluation, an assessment of nutritional intake and a biochemical analysis were performed. The statistical analysis was performed for combined GA and AA as a group (minor allele group) and GG as second group (major allele group) (dominant model). In A allele carriers, the mean (SD) decrease in weight was -2.8 (2.2) kg [decrease in non A allele carriers -2.6 (1.1) kg, P > 0.05), body mass index was -1.2 (0.6) kg m -2 [decrease in non A allele carriers -1.1 (0.8) kg m -2 , P > 0.05], fat mass was -1.7 (1.4) kg [decrease in non A allele carriers -1.9 (1.3) kg, P > 0.05], waist circumference was -5.5 (3.4) cm [decrease in non A allele carriers -3.7 (4.1) cm, P = 0.006], C-reactive protein (CRP) was -0.7 (0.6) mg dL -1 [decrease in non A allele carriers -0.1 (0.3) mg dL -1 , P = 0.02], insulin was -1.5 (0.4) mUI L -1 [decrease in non A allele carriers -0.8 (2.0) mUI L -1 , P = 0.001] and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was -0.4 (0.5) [decrease in non A allele carriers -0.2 (0.1), P = 0.005]. interleukin (IL)-6 changes were significant in A allele carriers [-0.7 (0.2) pg mL -1 ] versus non A allele carriers [-0.1 (0.3) pg mL -1 ] (P = 0.01). We found that the rs164147 genotype affected the reduction of waist circumference, HOMA-IR, insulin, CRP and IL-6 levels in response to weight loss diet in obese subjects. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Blood lipids and adipokines concentrations during a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention for metabolic syndrome treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courteix Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report changes in body weight, total and central fat mass, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in overweight people who participated in a six months weight loss intervention associating diet management and exercise. Subjects and Methods Fourteen subjects (10 M, 4 F, mean age 62.9 ± 6.9 years, BMI 30.4+/- 3.8 kg/m2 presenting the characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS were included in the survey. They followed a three weeks (D0 to D20 cure in a medical establishment and a six months (D20 to M3 and M6 follow up at home. During the cure, they receive a balanced diet corresponding to 500 Kcal deficit vs their dayly energy expenditure (DEE and they exercised 2 to 3 hours per day. At D0, D20, M3 and M6, body composition (lean mass, total and central fat mass was analyzed with DEXA, blood pressure was taken and blood was collected to evaluate glycaemia, triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels, CRP and pro-inflammatory interleukines IL1, IL.6 and TNFalpha. Results All parameters listed above except the cytokine were improved at D20, so that 4 subjects among 14 still presented the MS. After returning to home, these parameters remained stable. Conclusion The efficacy of therapeutic lifestyle modifications with education and exercise and diet was demonstrated, but the compliance to the new healthy lifestyle initiated during the cure was not optimal.

  16. Abnormal levels of adipokines in adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes - Results from the EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate long-term consequences of diabetes during pregnancy, we determined adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescents born by women with type 1 diabetic (T1D) or non-diabetic mothers, and determined associations between adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescence...... and the magnitude of intrauterine hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin and leptin and calculated leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR) in 271 offspring of T1D women (index offspring) (13-20years), and 297 matched control offspring. Anthropometry included total body fat (TBF) by dual......-energy X-ray absorptiometry and an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Adiponectin levels were lower in index females (-8.0% (95% CI; -13.9, -1.6)), but not in index males (0.4% (95% CI; -7.3, 8.6)). Leptin levels were approximately 30% higher in index than control offspring, irrespective of gender...

  17. Selected adipokines – plasma concentrations and adipose tissue expressions during 24-hour lipid infusion in healthy men

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, J.; Krušinová, E.; Klementová, M.; Kazdová, L.; Mlejnek, Petr; Pravenec, Michal; Hill, M.; Pelikánová, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2010), s. 89-96 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9359 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : TNFalpha * resistin * insulin resistance Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  18. Adipokines resistin and lipokalin-2 and its role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronenko N.Yu.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissues hormones resistin and lipocalin -2 play an important role in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammation and immune disorders, fertility and reproductive mechanisms. Obesity and overweight are significantly involved in the process of fertility decline. Women with obesity and metabolic syndrome have abnormal adypokine plasma levels. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between the women’s of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and energy metabolism. Methods: basal levels of resistin, lipocalin-2, follicular stimulating, luteinizing hormones, estradiol, total and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, dihydroepiandrosteron sulfate, androstenedione, cortisol, anti-mullerian hormone, prolactin, insulin, folistatin, homocysteine, interleukin-6 and sex-binding globulin were determined in the serum of 35 women of reproductive age with metabolic syndrome (MS, 33 patients of reproductive age with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and in 54 healthy contols. It is found that despite the normal values of hormones lipocalin-2 and resistin even in patients with obesity, their concentrations significantly correlated with anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. We established statistically significant stimulatory effects of lipocalin-2 and resistin on the synthesis of ovarian steroids and the significant inhibitory effect of lipocalin-2 and resistin on ovarian and adrenal androgens synthesis in normal physical condition and reproductive health. In MS and PCOS these relationships are not established. The results obtained allow us to propose the assumption of the existence of metabolic changes of the sensitivity of the reproductive system and the adrenal gland to the effects of lipocalin -2 and resistin in women with PCOS and metabolic syndrome.

  19. β3-Adrenergic receptors, adipokines and neuroendocrine activation during stress induced by repeated immune challenge in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanova, Agnesa; Hlavacova, Natasa; Hasiec, Malgorzata; Pokusa, Michal; Prokopova, Barbora; Jezova, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    The main hypothesis of the study is that stress associated with repeated immune challenge has an impact on β 3 -adrenergic receptor gene expression in the brain. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for five consecutive days. LPS treatment was associated with body weight loss and increased anxiety-like behavior. In LPS-treated animals of both sexes, β 3 -receptor gene expression was increased in the prefrontal cortex but not the hippocampus. LPS treatment decreased β 3 -receptor gene expression in white adipose tissue with higher values in males compared to females. In the adipose tissue, LPS reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, leptin and adiponectin gene expression, but increased interleukin-6 expression, irrespective of sex. Repeated immune challenge resulted in increased concentrations of plasma aldosterone and corticosterone with higher values of corticosterone in females compared to males. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in plasma were unaffected by LPS, while DHEA levels in the frontal cortex were lower in the LPS-treated animals compared to the controls. Thus, changes of DHEA levels in the brain take place irrespective of the changes of this neurosteroid in plasma. We have provided the first evidence on stress-induced increase in β 3 -adrenergic receptor gene expression in the brain. Greater reduction of β 3 -adrenergic receptor expression in the adipose tissue and of the body weight gain by repeated immune challenge in male than in female rats suggests sex differences in the role of β 3 -adrenergic receptors in the metabolic functions. LPS-induced changes in adipose tissue regulatory factors and hormone concentrations might be important for coping with chronic infections.

  20. Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Chen

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Nrg4 exerts pleiotropic beneficial effects on energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Biologic therapeutics based on Nrg4 may improve both type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in patients.

  1. Adipokines, C-reactive protein and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - results from a population- based ALS registry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Gabriele; Peter, Raphael S; Rosenbohm, Angela; Koenig, Wolfgang; Dupuis, Luc; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ludolph, Albert C

    2017-06-29

    To investigate the associations of leptin, adiponectin and high-sensitive (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) with risk and prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Data from a population-based case-control study in Southern Germany (10/2010-6/2014) of 289 ALS patients (mean age of 65.7 (SD 10.5) years, 59.5% men) and 506 controls were included. During median follow-up of 14.5 months of 279 ALS patients 104 (53.9% men, 68.9 (10.3) years) died. Serum samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin and hs-CRP. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ALS risk. Survival models were used to appraise the prognostic value. ALS patients were characterized by lower levels of school education, BMI and smoking prevalence. Adjusted for covariates, leptin was inversely associated with ALS risk (top vs. bottom quartile: OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.80), while for adiponectin a positive association was found (OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.78-4.68). Among ALS patients increasing leptin concentrations were associated with longer survival (p for trend 0.002), while for adiponectin no association was found (p for trend 0.55). For hs-CRP no association was found. Leptin and adiponectin, two key hormones regulating energy metabolism, were strongly and independently related with ALS risk. Leptin levels were further negatively related with overall survival of ALS patients.

  2. Body Composition, Lipid Profile, Adipokine Concentration, and Antioxidant Capacity Changes during Interventions to Treat Overweight with Exercise Programme and Whole-Body Cryostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of six-month-long physical exercise programme with a two-time exposure to whole-body cryostimulation (WBC in 20 sessions on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid profile, and body composition changes in obese people (30 adult subjects; BMI = 30.39 ± 4.31 kg/m2. Blood samples were taken before the programme, one month following the exercise programme, before and after the first WBC treatment, six months following the exercise programme, after the second WBC treatment, and finally one month after the intervention. Six months of moderate aerobic activity combined with WBC did not change body mass or fat and lean body mass percentages, or circulating adiponectin, leptin, and resistin concentrations. In response to intervention a significant decrease in the level of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides was observed, with a slight increase in high-density lipoprotein concentration. The nature of changes in the activity of respective antioxidant enzymes was not identical. After one month of increased physical activity, a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities was observed (13%, 8%, and 70%, resp.. The SOD activity increased significantly after successive whole-body cryostimulation sessions. As regards catalase, a significant progressive decrease in its activity was observed.

  3. Adipokines, Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein, and C-Reactive Protein Levels in Lean, Overweight, and Obese Portuguese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuparth, Maria João; Proença, Jorge Brandão; Santos-Silva, Alice; Coimbra, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Our aim was to study how different BMI scores may influence the levels of inflammation, oxidative stress, adipogenesis, glucose, and lipid metabolism, in lean, overweight, and obese Portuguese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We studied 28 lean, 38 overweight, and 17 obese patients with T2DM and 20 controls (gender and age matched). The circulating levels of oxLDL, CRP, and some adipokines—adiponectin, leptin, and chemerin—and the lipid profile were evaluated. Results. Obese patients presented significantly lower levels of adiponectin and higher leptin, oxLDL, and chemerin levels, as compared to the overweight, lean, and control groups. Overweight, compared to lean and control, subjects showed significantly lower adiponectin and higher leptin and chemerin levels; oxLDL values were significantly higher in overweight than in lean patients. Lean patients presented significantly higher chemerin values than the control. Obese patients presented significantly higher CRP values, as compared to lean patients and the control group. Obese and overweight patients presented significantly higher triglycerides values than lean patients. Except for CRP, all the observed significant changes between control and patients remained significant after statistical adjustment for the body mass index (BMI). Conclusion. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, oxLDL, CRP, and triglycerides in patients with T2DM seem to be more associated with obesity and less with diabetes. Chemerin levels were raised in lean, overweight, and obese patients, suggesting that, independently of BMI, an adipocyte dysfunction occurs. Moreover, chemerin may provide an important early biomarker of adipocyte dysfunction and a link between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24634792

  4. Inflammatory Adipokines Decrease Expression of Two High Molecular Weight Isoforms of Tropomyosin Similar to the Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Savill

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and cancer are increased in Type 2 diabetes. TPM1 and TPM4 genes encode proteins associated with cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. High (HMW and low (LMW molecular weight isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 are altered in several cancer cells and the 3'UTR of TPM1 mRNA is tumour suppressive. Leukocytes influence cardiovascular and neoplastic disease by immunosurveillance for cancer and by chronic inflammation in Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim was to determine changes in expression of isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 genes in leukocytes from Type 2 diabetic patients and to use the leukocyte cell line THP1 to identify possible mediators of changes in the patients. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. In diabetes, expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 were markedly decreased (0.55 v 1.00; p = 0.019 but HMW isoforms from TPM4 were not significantly different (0.76 v 1.00; p = 0.205. Within individual variance in expression of HMW isoforms was very high. The change in expression in HMW isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 was replicated in THP1 cells treated with 1 ng/ml TNFα (0.10 and 0.12 v 1.00 respectively or 10 ng/ml IL-1α (0.17 and 0.14 v 1.00 respectively. Increased insulin or glucose concentrations had no substantial effects on TPM1 or TPM4 expression. Decreased TPM1 mRNA resulted in decreases in HMW protein levels. Expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 is decreased in Type 2 diabetes. This is probably due to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1α in Type 2 diabetes. Lower levels of TPM1 mRNA reduce tumour suppression and could contribute to increased cancer risk in Type 2 diabetes. Decreased HMW tropomyosin isoforms are associated with cancer. Decreased HMW isoforms give rise to cells that are more plastic, motile, invasive and prone to dedifferentiation resulting in leukocytes that are more invasive but less functionally effective.

  5. Association of 1-y changes in diet pattern with cardiovascular disease risk factors and adipokines: results from the 1-y randomized Oslo Diet and Exercise Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.R.; Sluik, D.; Rokling-Andersen, M.H.; Anderssen, S.A.; Drevon, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We hypothesized that favorable changes in dietary patterns would lead to a reduction in body size and an improvement in metabolic status. Objective: The objective was to study changes in diet patterns relative to changes in body size, blood pressure, and circulating concentrations of

  6. Association of 1-y changes in diet pattern with cardiovascular disease risk factors and adipokines: results from the 1-y randomized Oslo Diet and Exercise Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David R; Sluik, Diewertje; Rokling-Andersen, Merethe H; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Drevon, Christian A

    2009-02-01

    We hypothesized that favorable changes in dietary patterns would lead to a reduction in body size and an improvement in metabolic status. The objective was to study changes in diet patterns relative to changes in body size, blood pressure, and circulating concentrations of lipids, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and other cytokines in the context of a 1-y randomized intervention study. For 1 y, 187 men aged 45 +/- 2 y, approximately 50% of whom met the criteria of the metabolic syndrome, were randomly assigned to a diet protocol (n = 45), an exercise protocol (n = 48), a protocol of diet plus exercise (n = 58), or a control protocol (n = 36). A previously defined a priori diet score was created by summing tertile rankings of 35 food group variables; a higher score generally reflected recommended dietary changes in the trial (mean +/- SD at baseline: 31 +/- 6.5; range: 15-47). Over the study year, the diet score increased by approximately 2 +/- 5.5 in both diet groups, with a decrease of an equivalent amount in the exercise and control groups. The weight change was -3.5 +/- 0.6 kg/10-point change in diet score (P smoking status. Weight change was attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for intervention group and percentage body fat. Subjects with an increased diet score had more favorable changes in other body size variables, systolic blood pressure, and blood lipid, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations. Change in diet score was unrelated to resistin and several cytokines. The change toward a more favorable diet pattern was associated with improved body size and metabolic profile.

  7. Early changes in adipokine levels and baseline limb fat may predict HIV lipoatrophy over 2 years following initiation of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calmy, A; Carey, D; Mallon, P W G

    2008-01-01

    levels during the first 6 months of ART, independently predicted a peripheral fat loss of > or = 2 kg [odds ratio (OR) 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-6.41; OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.34-7.35, respectively). VAT changes showed a borderline association with high baseline tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels...

  8. Serum Level of the Adipokine “Vaspin” in Relation to Metabolic Parameters: Short – Term Effect of Specific Dietary Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha I. A. Moaty

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The effect of the dietary supplements may play a role in alleviating the impact of the components of the MetS and may also sustain the level of the vaspin in the sensitization of the C-peptide in order to attain glucose homeostasis.

  9. Overexpressing the novel autocrine/endocrine adipokine WISP2 induces hyperplasia of the heart, white and brown adipose tissues and prevents insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünberg, John R; Hoffmann, Jenny M; Hedjazifar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    remained insulin sensitive, had increased glucose uptake by adipose cells and skeletal muscle in vivo and ex vivo, increased GLUT4, increased ChREBP and markers of adipose tissue lipogenesis. Serum levels of the novel fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) were increased and transplantation...

  10. Changes in IGF-I, urinary free cortisol and adipokines during dronabinol therapy in anorexia nervosa: Results from a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Frystyk, Jan; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterised by complex neuroendocrine disturbances due to severe underweight, physical hyperactivity and purging behaviour. Cannabinoid agonists are used to palliate cachexia of various causes, but their interactions with the hormonal systems that are involved...

  11. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is elevated in metabolically unhealthy obesity and affects lipid deposition, adipogenesis, and adipokine secretion of human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Berti

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The hepatokine FGF21 exerts weak lipogenic and anti-adipogenic actions and marked adiponectin-suppressive and leptin and interleukin-6 release-promoting effects in human differentiating preadipocytes. Together with the higher serum concentrations in MUHO subjects, our findings reveal FGF21 as a circulating factor promoting the development of metabolically unhealthy adipocytes.

  12. Adipokine CTRP6 improves PPARγ activation to alleviate angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Liyi; Hu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Wentao; Bai, Tiao; Zhang, Linjing; Zeng, Hua; Guo, Ruirui; Zhang, Yanhai; Tian, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is the most important component of angiotensin, which has been regarded as a major contributor to the incidence of hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction. The adipocytokine C1q/TNF-related protein 6 (CTRP6) was recently reported to have multiple protective effects on cardiac and cardiovascular function. However, the exact role of CTRP6 in the progression of AngII induced hypertension and vascular endothelial function remains unclear. Here, we showed that serum CTRP6 content was significantly downregulated in SHRs, accompanied by a marked increase in arterial systolic pressure and serum AngII, CRP and ET-1 content. Then, pcDNA3.1-mediated CTRP6 delivery or CTRP6 siRNA was injected into SHRs. CTRP6 overexpression caused a significant decrease in AngII expression and AngII-mediated hypertension and vascular endothelial inflammation. In contrast, CTRP6 knockdown had the opposite effect to CTRP6 overexpression. Moreover, we found that CTRP6 positively regulated the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a recently proven negative regulator of AngII, in the brain and vascular endothelium of SHRs. Finally, CTRP6 was overexpressed in endothelial cells, and caused a significant increase in PPARγ activation and suppression in AngII-mediated vascular endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. The effect of that could be rescued by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. In contrast, silencing CTRP6 suppressed PPARγ activation and exacerbated AngII-mediated vascular endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. In conclusion, CTRP6 improves PPARγ activation and alleviates AngII-induced hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction. - Highlights: • Serum CTRP6 was significantly decreased in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). • CTRP6 positively regulated the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. • CTRP6 negatively regulates PPARγ mediated Angiotensin II (AngII) expression. • CTRP6 alleviates AngII-induced hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction.

  13. Adiponectin levels correlate with the severity of hypertriglyceridaemia in glycogen storage disease Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, R. H. J.; Smit, G. P. A.; Reijngoud, D. -J.; Kuipers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is characterized by severe hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. Little is known about the aetiology of the hyperlipidaemia in GSD Ia. Adipokines play an important regulatory role in lipid metabolism. We investigated whether adipokine

  14. L-4F Inhibits Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein-induced Inflammatory Adipokine Secretion via Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A-CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β Signaling Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhu Xie

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: OxLDL induces C/EBPβ protein synthesis in a time-dependent manner and enhances MCP-1 secretion and expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. L-4F dose-dependently counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effect of oxLDL, and cyclic AMP/PKA-C/EBPβ signaling pathway may participate in it.

  15. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  16. Improvement in insulin resistance and favourable changes in plasma inflammatory adipokines after weight loss associated with two months' consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Fioravanti, Marisa; Klersy, Catherine; Cava, Edda; Edda, Cava; Paolini, Maddalena; Maddalena, Paolini; Scavone, Luciano; Luciano, Scavone; Ceccarelli, Paola; Paola, Ceccarelli; Castellaneta, Emanuela; Emanuela, Castellaneta; Savina, Claudia; Claudia, Savina; Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2013-10-01

    This randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 8 week trial assessed the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by a consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients (epigallocatechin gallate, capsaicins, piperine and L-carnitine) versus a placebo, as part of a therapeutic 'lifestyle change' diet, in 86 overweight subjects. Forty-one patients (2/14 F/M; age 43.7 ± 8.5; BMI 30.3 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the supplemented group and 45 (29/16; age 40.7 ± 10.2; BMI 30.0 ± 2.7) to the control group. We observed that consumption of the dietary supplement was associated with a significantly greater decrease in insulin resistance, assessed by homostasis model assessment (p < 0.001), leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.04), respiratory quotient (p < 0.008). LDL-cholesterol levels (p < 0.01). Moreover, statistically significant differences were recorded between the two groups in relation to urinary norepinephrine levels (p < 0.001). Leptin, ghrelin, C-reactive protein decreased and resting energy expenditure increased significantly in the supplemented group (p < 0.05, 0.03, 0.02 and 0,02 respectively), but not in the placebo group; adiponectin decreased significantly in the placebo group (0.001) but not in the supplemented group, although no statistical significance between the groups was elicited. BMI, fat mass (assessed by DXA) and vascular endothelial growth factor significantly decreased, whilst the resting energy expenditure/free fat mass significantly increased in both groups. In general, a greater change was recorded in the supplemented group compared to the placebo, although no statistically significant difference between the two groups was recorded. These results suggest that the combination of bioactive food ingredients studied might be useful for the treatment of obesity-related inflammatory metabolic dysfunctions.

  17. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M.; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean...

  18. Úloha adipokinů a ghrelinu v normální a nutričně modulované adjuvantní artritidě u potkanů

    OpenAIRE

    Štofková, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases, affecting as much as 5-7% of the general population, represent a considerable portion of human morbidity and many are known to be heritable. The clinical observations strongly suggest that even in genetically predisposed person, some trigger (an environmental exposure or change in the internal environment) is required for initiation of autoreactivity. However, for most autoimmune diseases, the trigger is unknown. Over the last decade, it has become ap...

  19. Curcuma longa polyphenols improve insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and attenuate proinflammatory response of 3T3-L1 adipose cells during oxidative stress through regulation of key adipokines and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Le Sage, Fanny; Hatia, Sarah; Catan, Aurélie; Janci, Laurent; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-07-08

    Plant polyphenols may exert beneficial action against obesity-related oxidative stress and inflammation which promote insulin resistance. This study evaluated the effect of polyphenols extracted from French Curcuma longa on 3T3-L1 adipose cells exposed to H2 O2 -mediated oxidative stress. We found that Curcuma longa extract exhibited high amounts of curcuminoids identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which exerted free radical-scavenging activities. Curcuma longa polyphenols improved insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene expression and adiponectin secretion which decreased in H2 O2 -treated cells. Curcuminoids attenuated H2 O2 -enhanced production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor κappa B. Moreover, they reduced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species elevated by H2 O2 and modulated the expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes. Collectively, these findings highlight that Curcuma longa polyphenols protect adipose cells against oxidative stress and may improve obesity-related metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):418-430, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Partridgeberry polyphenols protect rat primary cortical neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion-induced injury via suppression of inflammatory adipokines and regulation of HIF-1α and PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Khushwant S; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective ability of partridgeberry polyphenols in rat primary cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury in vitro and explore the underlying therapeutic mechanism(s). The OGD/R injury was induced in rat primary cortical neurons by incubation with deoxygenated glucose-free medium in a hypoxia chamber. The strongest activity in this regard was exhibited by partridgeberry-derived PPF2 and PPF3, i.e. the flavan-3-ol- and flavonol-rich polyphenol fractions of partridgeberry (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, partridgeberry polyphenol pre-treatment reduced the membrane damage in primary neurons, as measured by the lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, PPF2 and PPF3 pre-treatment (100 µg ml(-1)) for 24 hours, before OGD/R, resulted in the strongest suppression of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α induction by OGD/R injury, compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Additionally, the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) and PPARγ, quantified by ELISA presented a significant modulation following PPFs treatment (100 µg ml(-1)), favorably toward neuroprotection, compared with the respective controls after OGD/R injury in vitro (P ≤ 0.05). In summary, partridgeberry polyphenols at concentrations of 1-100 µg ml(-1), significantly induced a decline in OGD/R injury-triggered apoptosis in vitro, suppressed the inflammatory biomarkers in primary neurons, and modulated the activity of HIF-1α and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) following hypoxic injury.

  1. 3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid promotes adiopkine expression during murine 3T3-L1 fibroblast differentiation into adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifen Dong

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that ISA promoted adipogenesis by up-regulating expressions of C/EBP β, PPAR γ, C/EBP α, aP2 and FAS, and also stimulated adipokines during adipocyte differentiation. Further study should clarify the relationship between stimulation of adipokines and cognitive enhancing effect of ISA.

  2. Adipose tissue was traditionally been viewed as an inert storage depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Science

    these genomic regions, random genetic drift or sampling bias could also have contributed to the ... The project focused on genetic variation in genes that encode adipokines, including LEP, TNF, IL8 and. IL10. .... The biology of leptin: A review.

  3. Cord blood chemerin: differential effects of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, M.N.M.; Zeck, W.; Ulrich, D.; Schest, E.C.; Hirschmugl, B.; Lang, U.; Wadsack, C.; Desoye, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chemerin is a novel adipokine implicated in inflammation and obesity. We hypothesized that foetal chemerin would be elevated in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and correlate with foetal and maternal adiposity. Design Observational, longitudinal study. Subjects and measurements Foetal

  4. The relationship between obesity, leptin, adiponectin and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between obesity, adipokines and the components of ... women between adiponectin and age, BMI and fasting blood glucose, and positive .... or medians. Correlations between continuous variables were.

  5. Circulating Ghrelin, Leptin, and Soluble Leptin Receptor Concentrations and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a Community-Based Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ingelsson, Erik; Larson, Martin G.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Thomas J.; Meigs, James B.; Lipinska, Izabella; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Keaney, John F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The conjoint effects and relative importance of ghrelin, leptin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adipokines involved in appetite control and energy expenditure in mediating cardiometabolic risk, is unknown.

  6. Insights into the molecular mechanisms of diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad, Mohamed I.; Abdelkhalek, Taha M.; Saleh, Moustafa M.

    2015-01-01

    -associated metabolic disturbances (IR, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, dysregulated production of adipokines, defective incretin and gut hormones production/action, and oxidative stress) and ED, focusing on oxidative stress and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). In addition, we re...

  7. [Sleep disorder and lifestyle-related disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.

  8. The Regulation of Chemerin and CMKLR1 Genes Expression by TNF-α, Adiponectin, and Chemerin Analog in Bovine Differentiated Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Suzuki; Y. H. Hong; S. H. Song; A. Ardiyanti; D. Kato; K. H. So; K. Katoh; S. G Roh

    2012-01-01

    Adipokines, adipocyte-derived protein, have important roles in various kinds of physiology including energy homeostasis. Chemerin, one of adipocyte-derived adipokines, is highly expressed in differentiated adipocytes and is known to induce macrophage chemotaxis and glucose intolerance. The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes of chemerin and the chemokine-like-receptor 1 (CMKLR1) gene expression levels during differentiation of the bovine adipocyte and in differentiat...

  9. Resistin role in development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khalid; George, Teena P

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes is estimated to be one of the major causes of deaths in most countries due to its high prevalence rate, which was 8.8% in 2015. Hyperglycemia detected during pregnancy is known as gestational diabetes mellitus and it increases the potential risk of development of Type 2 diabetes in mothers with its varying prevalence rate of 1-14% in different populations. It also leads to the higher risk of developing abnormal glucose tolerance and obesity in their child at an early age. Recent studies show that potential mediators of insulin resistance such as adipokines - adiponectin, leptin and resistin are important for glucose and lipid metabolism. Adipokines are directly involved in the regulation of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue. It is also involved in inflammation, adipose tissue accumulation, adverse fat distribution and subsequently affects glucose metabolism. This review highlights the role of resistin (an adipokine) in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  10. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  11. Identification, characterisation, and function of adipokinetic hormones and receptor in the African malaria mosquito, "Anopheles Gambiae" (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christian; Betschart, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    En utilisant la bioinformatique et la biologie moléculaire, nous avons pu identifier chez le principal vecteur africain de la malaria, le moustique, Anopheles gambiae deux hormones adipokinétiques (AKHs): l'octapeptide, Anoga-AKH-I (pQLTFTPAWa) et le décapeptide, Anoga-AKH-II, (pQVTFSRDWNAa). La fonction principale des AKHs est d’induire une hyperlipémie (effet d’adipokinétique), ainsi qu’une hypertrehalosémie et une hyperprolinémie. En tant que membres de la famille des AKH, les deux neurope...

  12. MR spectroscopy of hepatic fat and adiponectin and leptin levels during testosterone therapy in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L V; Andersen, P E; Diaz, Alejandro Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often have lowered testosterone levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ectopic fat increases the risk of CVD, whereas subcutaneous gluteofemoral fat protects against CVD and has a beneficial adipokine-secreting profile. Testosterone...... replacement therapy (TRT) may reduce the content of ectopic fat and improve the adipokine profile in men with T2D. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 39 men aged 50-70 years with T2D and bioavailable testosterone levels...

  13. Short Communication Single nucleotide polymorphisms in five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity in candidate genes for fitness and production traits was explored in three populations of dairy cattle. The study focused on adipokines, including leptin (LEP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin-8 (IL8) and interleukin-10 (IL10) as candidate genes. The three populations of interest included young ...

  14. Identification of SNPs in chemerin gene and association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemerin is a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism via its own receptor. In this study, two novel SNPs (868A>G in exon 2 and 2692C>T in exon 5) of chemerin gene were identified by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing technology. The allele frequencies of the novel SNPs were determined ...

  15. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  16. The role of Tip60 in adipogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Besides providing insulation and protection against mechanical stress, white adipose tissue (WAT) has long been recognized as a storage depot for excess energy. WAT also releases a wide range of adipokines, which for example regulate immune responses, blood pressure and reproduction. Expansion of

  17. Molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity potential effect of Moringa oleifera in the experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateheya Mohamed Metwally

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: It is reasonable to assume that the anti-obesity, anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic properties of M. oleifera are mechanistically achieved via working directly on the adipokines of the visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, M. oleifera may be a good therapeutic candidate for the symptoms of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Resistin Regulates Pituitary Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodriguez-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipokine resistin is an insulin-antagonizing factor that also plays a regulatory role in inflammation, immunity, food intake, and gonadal function and also regulates growth hormone (GH secretion in rat adenopituitary cells cultures with the adipokine. Although adipose tissue is the primary source of resistin, it is also expressed in other tissues, including the pituitary. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible action of resistin on the lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland in vivo (rats in two different nutritional status, fed and fast, treated with resistin on acute and a chronic way and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine. Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we demonstrated that central acute and chronic administration of resistin enhance mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes which participated on lipolysis and moreover inhibiting mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes involved in lipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that resistin has a regulatory role on lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland providing a novel insight in relation to the mechanism by which this adipokine can participate in the integrated control of lipid metabolism.

  19. The association between the metabolic syndrome and alanine amino transferase is mediated by insulin resistance via related metabolic intermediates (the Cohort on diabetes and atherosclerosis Maastricht (CODAM) study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Ferreira, I.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as with insulin resistance, inflammatory adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, and higher plasma levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), all of which may also affect the development of NAFLD. Therefore, we

  20. Potential Mechanisms of Exercise in Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. This condition shares same array of underlying abnormalities as occurs in diabetes outside of pregnancy, for example, genetic and environmental causes. However, the role of a sedentary lifestyle and/or excess energy intake is more prominent in GDM. Physically active women are less likely to develop GDM and other pregnancy-related diseases. Weight gain in pregnancy causes increased release of adipokines from adipose tissue; many adipokines increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Increased intramyocellular lipids also increase cellular oxidative stress with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. A well-planned program of exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, in spite of old myths, is also recommended during pregnancy. This paper briefly reviews the role of adipokines in gestational diabetes and attempts to shed some light on the mechanisms by which exercise can be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in GDM. In this regard, we discuss the mechanisms by which exercise increases insulin sensitivity, changes adipokine profile levels, and boosts antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23691290

  1. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  2. Branched Chain Amino Acids Are Associated with Insulin Resistance Independent of Leptin and Adiponectin in Subjects with Varying Degrees of Glucose Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connelly, Margery A.; Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin influence insulin resistance and reflect adipocyte dysfunction. We examined the

  3. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine - Vol 22, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Periodontal Treatments Performed at the Periodontology Clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital: 22 Months Review. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... Circulating Adipokine levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria. T Oshodi, OAT Ebuehi, O Ojewunmi, I Udenze, ...

  4. Effect of acute hyperinsulinaemia with and without angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on resistin and adiponectin concentrations and expressions in healthy subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krušinová, E.; Klementová, M.; Kopecký, J.; Wohl, P.; Kazdová, L.; Mlejnek, Petr; Pravenec, Michal; Hill, M.; Pelikánová, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 4 (2007), s. 437-442 ISSN 0804-4643 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NR8821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : hyperinsulinemia * losartan * adipokines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.239, year: 2007

  5. Elevated resistin levels in cirrhosis are associated with the proinflammatory state and altered hepatic glucose metabolism but not with insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahr, Matthias J.; Ockenga, Johann; Boeker, Klaus H. W.; Manns, Michael P.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    The adipokine resistin has been implicated in obesity and insulin resistance. Liver cirrhosis is associated with decreased body fat mass and insulin resistance. We determined plasma resistin levels in 57 patients with cirrhosis, 13 after liver transplantation, and 30 controls and correlated these

  6. Resistin Is More Abundant in Liver Than Adipose Tissue and Is Not Up-Regulated by Lipopolysaccharide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szalowska, Ewa; Elferink, Marieke G. L.; Hoek, Annemiek; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Vonk, Roel J.

    Context: Resistin is an adipokine correlated with inflammatory markers and is predictive for cardiovascular diseases. There is evidence that serum resistin levels are elevated in obese patients; however, the role of resistin in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes remains controversial. Objective:

  7. Plasma resistin, adiponectin, and risk of incident atrial fibrillation : The Framingham Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michel; Sun, Jenny X.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Frankel, David S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Levy, Daniel; Magnani, Jared W.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Meigs, James B.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate whether higher concentrations of resistin and lower concentrations of adiponectin relate to incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and whether this association is mediated by AF risk factors and inflammation. Resistin and adiponectin are adipokines that have been

  8. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass and phospholipid transfer protein activity are associated with leptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; de Vries, R.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Tol, A.; Sluiter, W. J.

    Adipose tissue contributes to plasma levels of lipid transfer proteins and is also the major source of plasma adipokines. We hypothesized that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET, a measure of CETP

  9. Serum Vaspin Levels Are Associated with the Development of Clinically Manifest Arthritis in Autoantibody-Positive Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijer, Karen I.; Neumann, Elena; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Drop, Daniël A. C. A. D.; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H.; Choi, Ivy Y. K.; Gerlag, Daniëlle M.; de Hair, Maria J. H.; Tak, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that overweight may increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in autoantibody positive individuals. Adipose tissue could contribute to the development of RA by production of various bioactive peptides. Therefore, we examined levels of adipokines in serum and

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Oral Administration of Energy Drinks on Blood Chemistry, Tissue Histology and Brain Acetylcholine in Rabbits Abstract · Vol 22, No 1 (2012) - Articles Circulating Adipokine levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria Abstract · Vol 22, No 3 (2012) - Articles Aluminium-induced Liver and Testicular Damage: ...

  11. Resistin Regulates Pituitary Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Pacheco, F.; Novelle, M. G.; Vazquez, M. J.; Garcia-Escobar, E.; Soriguer, F.; Rojo-Martinez, G.; García-Fuentes, E.; Malagon, M. M.; Dieguez, C.

    2013-01-01

    The adipokine resistin is an insulin-antagonizing factor that also plays a regulatory role in inflammation, immunity, food intake, and gonadal function and also regulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in rat adenopituitary cells cultures with the adipokine. Although adipose tissue is the primary source of resistin, it is also expressed in other tissues, including the pituitary. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible action of resistin on the lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland in vivo (rats in two different nutritional status, fed and fast, treated with resistin on acute and a chronic way) and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine). Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we demonstrated that central acute and chronic administration of resistin enhance mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes which participated on lipolysis and moreover inhibiting mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes involved in lipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that resistin has a regulatory role on lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland providing a novel insight in relation to the mechanism by which this adipokine can participate in the integrated control of lipid metabolism. PMID:23710116

  12. The Regulation of Chemerin and CMKLR1 Genes Expression by TNF-α, Adiponectin, and Chemerin Analog in Bovine Differentiated Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Suzuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines, adipocyte-derived protein, have important roles in various kinds of physiology including energy homeostasis. Chemerin, one of adipocyte-derived adipokines, is highly expressed in differentiated adipocytes and is known to induce macrophage chemotaxis and glucose intolerance. The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes of chemerin and the chemokine-like-receptor 1 (CMKLR1 gene expression levels during differentiation of the bovine adipocyte and in differentiated adipocytes treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, adiponectin, leptin, and chemerin (peptide analog. The expression levels of the chemerin gene increased at d 6 and 12 of the differentiation period accompanied by increased cytoplasm lipid droplets. From d 6 onward, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPAR-γ2 gene expression levels were significantly higher than that of d 0 and 3. In contrast, CMKLR1 expression levels decreased at the end of the differentiation period. In fully differentiated adipocytes (i.e. at d 12, the treatment of TNF-α and adiponectin upregulated both chemerin and CMKLR1 gene expression levels, although leptin did not show such effects. Moreover, chemerin analog treatment was shown to upregulate chemerin gene expression levels regardless of doses. These results suggest that the expression of chemerin in bovine adipocyte might be regulated by chemerin itself and other adipokines, which indicates its possible role in modulating the adipokine secretions in adipose tissues.

  13. Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention...

  14. Aripiprazole-induced adverse metabolic alterations in polyl:C neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horská, K.; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Dražanová, Eva; Karpíšek, M.; Demlová, R.; Kašpárek, T.; Kotolová, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, SEP (2017), s. 148-158 ISSN 0028-3908 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : adipokine * aripiprazole * leptin * polyl:C * schizophrenia * wistar rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: 1.7 Other natural sciences Impact factor: 5.012, year: 2016

  15. Direct comparison of health effects by dietary polyphenols at equimolar doses in wildtype moderate high-fat fed C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Schothorst, E. M.; Bunschoten, A.; Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; van der Stelt, I.; Janovská, Petra; Venema, D.; Kopecký, Jan; Hollman, P. C. H.; Keijer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, part A (2014), s. 95-102 ISSN 0963-9969 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10059 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : polyphenols * intervention * adipokines * adipose tissue * transcriptomics Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.818, year: 2014

  16. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among...

  17. Serum Cytokines as Biomarkers in Islet Cell Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Torren, Cornelis R; Verrijn Stuart, Annemarie A; Lee, DaHae; Meerding, Jenny; van de Velde, Ursule; Pipeleers, Daniel; Gillard, Pieter; Keymeulen, Bart; de Jager, Wilco; Roep, Bart O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Islet cell transplantation holds a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, but many islet recipients do not reach long-lasting insulin independence. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether serum cytokines, chemokines and adipokines are associated with the clinical outcome of islet

  18. Potential Mechanisms of Exercise in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. This condition shares same array of underlying abnormalities as occurs in diabetes outside of pregnancy, for example, genetic and environmental causes. However, the role of a sedentary lifestyle and/or excess energy intake is more prominent in GDM. Physically active women are less likely to develop GDM and other pregnancy-related diseases. Weight gain in pregnancy causes increased release of adipokines from adipose tissue; many adipokines increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Increased intramyocellular lipids also increase cellular oxidative stress with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. A well-planned program of exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, in spite of old myths, is also recommended during pregnancy. This paper briefly reviews the role of adipokines in gestational diabetes and attempts to shed some light on the mechanisms by which exercise can be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in GDM. In this regard, we discuss the mechanisms by which exercise increases insulin sensitivity, changes adipokine profile levels, and boosts antioxidant mechanisms.

  19. Aerobic Exercise Modulates the Free Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Response During Obesity and Cancer Cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Alexandre Abilio de Souza; Lira, Fábio Santos; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Oliveira de Souza, Camila; Batatinha, Helena; Biondo, Luana A; Yamashita, Alex S; Junior, Edson A Lima; Neto, José Cesar Rosa

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is no longer considered a tissue whose main function is the storage of TAG. Since the discovery of leptin in 1994, several studies have elucidated the important role of WAT as an endocrine organ, the source of the adipokines. The low-grade inflammation observed in obese and cancer cachexia patients is explained, at least partially, by the exacerbated release of proinflammatory adipokines. Despite of the recent progress in the characterization of the various adipokines and lipokines produced by WAT, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the secretion of these molecules in different physiological and pathological circumstances. Chronic exercise is a nonpharmacological therapy employed in several chronic diseases and shows an anti-inflammatory effect through the regulation of the cytokine network. In this review, we address the potential mechanisms by which the aerobic physical exercise modulate the production and release of inflammatory adipokines, as well as the inflammation-lipolysis axis in WAT, with special focus in the therapeutic role of exercise in obesity-associated insulin resistance and cancer cachexia.

  20. Adiponectin concentration is associated with muscle insulin sensitivity, AMPK phosphorylation and ceramide content in skeletal muslce of men, but not women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise Dalgas; Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Lundsgaard, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine that regulates metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity. Mechanisms behind this insulin sensitizing effect have been investigated in rodents, but little is known in humans especially in skeletal muscle. Women have higher serum concentrations of adiponectin than men...

  1. Adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in preeclampsia in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adiponectin and Leptin are closely related adipokines that are associated with the oxidative stresses and endothelial dysfunction and proposed to participate in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. This study is to determine changes in serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in PE women in order to speculate a ...

  2. The relationship between obesity, leptin, adiponectin and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide. In South Africa, older and urbanised African women have significantly higher rates of obesity. Limited information is available on the relationship between anthropometric parameters, adipokines and metabolic health status of African women. This study investigated the ...

  3. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R. B.; Jones, M.; Forsberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. ObjectiveWe wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases wit...

  4. Adiponectin induced AMP-activated protein kinase impairment mediates insulin resistance in Bama mini-pig fed high-fat and high-sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks. Plasma glucose and blood biochemistry levels were measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Adipokines, including adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and glucose-induced insulin secretion were also examined by radioimmunoassay. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed by Pearce’s correlation analysis. Results Obese pigs showed hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and IL-6 amounts dramatically increased (p<0.05 in obese pigs both in serum and adipose tissue, corroborating data from obese mice and humans. However, circulating resistin and TNF-α showed no difference, while the values of TNF-α in adipose tissue were significantly higher in obese pigs, also in agreement with data from obese humans but not rodent models. Moreover, strong associations of skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adiponectin and HOMA-IR index were obtained. Conclusion AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. In addition, Bama mini-pig has the possibility of a conformable

  5. The role of adiponectin in reproduction: from polycystic ovary syndrome to assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos G; Segars, James H

    2010-11-01

    To summarize the effects of the adipokine adiponectin on the reproductive endocrine system, from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to the gonads and target tissues of the reproductive system. A Medline computer search was performed to identify relevant articles. Research institution. None. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that acts to reduce insulin resistance and atherogenic damage, but it also exerts actions in other tissues. Adiponectin mediates its actions in the periphery mainly via two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Adiponectin receptors are present in many reproductive tissues, including the central nervous system, ovaries, oviduct, endometrium, and testes. Adiponectin influences gonadotropin release, normal pregnancy, and assisted reproduction outcomes. Adiponectin, a beneficial adipokine, represents a major link between obesity and reproduction. Higher levels of adiponectin are associated with improved menstrual function and better outcomes in assisted reproductive cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Cato, Liam D; Miah, Mohammed A L; Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gonzalez, Ana M; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. PMID:27186074

  7. High serum resistin is associated with an increase in adiposity but not a worsening of insulin resistance in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; Degawa-Yamauchi, Mikako; Considine, Robert V

    2004-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine with putative prodiabetogenic properties. Like other hormones secreted by adipose tissue, resistin is being investigated as a possible etiologic link between excessive adiposity and insulin resistance. Although there is growing evidence that circulating levels...... of this adipokine are proportional to the degree of adiposity, an effect on insulin resistance in humans remains unproven. To evaluate the relations among resistin, obesity, and insulin resistance, we measured fasting serum resistin levels in 113 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (ages 29...... +/- 7 years, body fat 31 +/- 8%, resistin 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml [means +/- SD]), who were characterized for body composition (assessed by hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), whole-body insulin sensitivity (M; assessed by hyperinsulinemic clamp), basal hepatic glucose output (BHGO...

  8. Targeting the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ to Counter the Inflammatory Milieu in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Corzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue, which was once viewed as a simple organ for storage of triglycerides, is now considered an important endocrine organ. Abnormal adipose tissue mass is associated with defects in endocrine and metabolic functions which are the underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome. Many adipokines, hormones secreted by adipose tissue, regulate cells from the immune system. Interestingly, most of these adipokines are proinflammatory mediators, which increase dramatically in the obese state and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Drugs that target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of diabetes. These findings, and the link between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, will be reviewed here.

  9. Circulating ghrelin, leptin, and soluble leptin receptor concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in a community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelsson, Erik; Larson, Martin G; Yin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Thomas J; Meigs, James B; Lipinska, Izabella; Benjamin, Emelia J; Keaney, John F; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2008-08-01

    The conjoint effects and relative importance of ghrelin, leptin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adipokines involved in appetite control and energy expenditure in mediating cardiometabolic risk, is unknown. The objective of the study was to study the cross-sectional relations of these adipokines to cardiometabolic risk factors in a community-based sample. We measured circulating ghrelin, leptin, and sOB-R in 362 participants (mean age 45 yr; 54% women) of the Framingham Third Generation Cohort. Body mass index, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, lipid measures, fasting glucose, smoking, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were measured. Ghrelin and leptin concentrations were significantly higher in women (P risk.

  10. Obesity, Fat Mass and Immune System: Role for Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Francisco

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation associated with a dysfunctional fat mass. Adipose tissue is now considered an extremely active endocrine organ that secretes cytokine-like hormones, called adipokines, either pro- or anti-inflammatory factors bridging metabolism to the immune system. Leptin is historically one of most relevant adipokines, with important physiological roles in the central control of energy metabolism and in the regulation of metabolism-immune system interplay, being a cornerstone of the emerging field of immunometabolism. Indeed, leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system and leptin has been shown to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. This review discusses the latest data regarding the role of leptin as a mediator of immune system and metabolism, with particular emphasis on its effects on obesity-associated metabolic disorders and autoimmune and/or inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  11. Thyroid status influence on adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and complement C3 in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianhua

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid abnormalities (hyperthyroid and hypothyroid are accompanied by changes in intermediary metabolism including alterations in body weight, insulin resistance and lipid profile. The aims of this study were to examine plasma ASP, its precursor C3 and adiponectin in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls. Methods A total of 99 subjects were recruited from endocrinology/out-patient clinics: 46 hyperthyroid subjects, 23 hypothyroid subjects and 30 control subjects. Subjects were evaluated for FT4, FT3, TSH, glucose, insulin, complete lipid profile and the adipokines: adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and complement C3. Results Hyperthyroidism was associated with a 95% increase in adiponectin (p = 0.0002, a 47% decrease in C3 (p Conclusion These changes suggest that thyroid disease may be accompanied by changes in adipokines, which may contribute to the phenotype expressed.

  12. The potential role of biomarkers in predicting gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguette S Brink

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes (GD is a frequent complication during pregnancy and is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. It is suggested that a disturbing environment for the foetus, such as impaired glucose metabolism during intrauterine life, may result in enduring epigenetic changes leading to increased disease risk in adult life. Hence, early prediction of GD is vital. Current risk prediction models are based on maternal and clinical parameters, lacking a strong predictive value. Adipokines are mainly produced by adipocytes and suggested to be a link between obesity and its cardiovascular complications. Various adipokines, including adiponectin, leptin and TNFα, have shown to be dysregulated in GD. This review aims to outline biomarkers potentially associated with the pathophysiology of GD and discuss the role of integrating predictive biomarkers in current clinical risk prediction models, in order to enhance the identification of those at risk.

  13. Increased expression of resistin in ectopic endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon Kyung; Ha, Young Ran; Yi, Kyong Wook; Park, Hyun Tae; Shin, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun-Young

    2017-11-01

    Inflammation is a key process in the establishment and progression of endometriosis. Resistin, an adipocytokine, has biological properties linked to immunologic functions, but its role in endometriosis is unclear. Resistin gene expression was examined in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues from women with (n=25) or without (n=25) endometriosis. Resistin mRNA and protein levels were determined in endometrial tissue using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, following adipokine profiling arrays. Resistin protein was detected in human endometrial tissues using an adipokine array test. Resistin mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in ectopic endometrial tissue of patients with endometriosis than in normal eutopic endometrial tissue. Our results indicate that resistin is differentially expressed in endometrial tissues from women with endometriosis and imply a role for resistin in endometriosis-associated pelvic inflammation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Adiposity distribution influences circulating adiponectin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Mitchell; James, Roland; Marks, Jacqueline; Zhao, Shi; Szabo, Aniko; Kidambi, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Thirty percent of obese individuals are metabolically healthy and were noted have increased peripheral obesity. Adipose tissue is the primary source of adiponectin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Lower adiponectin levels are observed in individuals with obesity and those at risk for cardiovascular disease. Conversely, higher levels are noted in some obese individuals who are metabolically healthy. Our objective was to determine whether abdominal adipos...

  15. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya, E-mail: suzukis@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup −/−}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup −/−} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup −/−} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.

  16. Central insulin and leptin-mediated autonomic control of glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Joseph S.; Xu, Yong; Hill, Jennifer W.

    2011-01-01

    Largely as a result of rising obesity rates, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is escalating rapidly. Type 2 diabetes results from multi-organ dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Recent publications have highlighted hypothalamic insulin- and adipokine-sensing as a major determinant of peripheral glucose and insulin responsiveness. The preponderance of evidence indicates that the brain is the master regulator of glucose homeostasis, and that hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling in particular...

  17. Progranulin: At the interface of neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Andrew D.; Nguyen, Thi A.; Martens, Lauren Herl; Mitic, Laura L.; Farese, Robert V.

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin is a widely expressed, cysteine-rich, secreted glycoprotein originally discovered for its growth factor–like properties. Its subsequent identification as a causative gene for frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a devastating early-onset neurodegenerative disease, has catalyzed a surge of new discoveries about progranulin’s function in the brain. More recently, progranulin was recognized as an adipokine involved in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, revealing its metabolic fun...

  18. Visfatin expression analysis in association with recruitment and activation of human and rodent brown and brite adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Didier F.; Dumortier, Olivier; Beranger, Guillaume E.; Casamento, Virginie; Ghandour, Rayane A.; Giroud, Maude; Gautier, Nadine; Balaguer, Thierry; Chambard, Jean-Claude; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nuutila, Pirjo; Niemi, Tarja; Taittonen, Markku; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Hinault, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Human brown adipocytes are able to burn fat and glucose and are now considered as a potential strategy to treat obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders. Besides their thermogenic function, brown adipocytes are able to secrete adipokines. One of these is visfatin, a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase involved in nicotinamide dinucleotide synthesis, which is known to participate in the synthesis of insulin by pancreatic β cells. In a therapeutic context, it is of interest to establ...

  19. Dose-dependent effects of atorvastatin on myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarash O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olga Barbarash, Olga Gruzdeva, Evgenya Uchasova, Ekaterina Belik, Yulia Dyleva, Victoria KaretnikovaFederal State Budgetary Institution, Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, the Russian Federation Background: Dyslipidemia is a key factor determining the development of both myocardial infarction (MI and its subsequent complications. Dyslipidemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction, activation of inflammation, thrombogenesis, and formation of insulin resistance. Statin therapy is thought to be effective for primary and secondary prevention of complications associated with atherosclerosis.Methods: This study examined 210 patients with Segment elevated MI (ST elevated MI who were treated with atorvastatin from the first 24 hours after MI. Group 1 (n=110 were given atorvastatin 20 mg/day. Group 2 (n=100 were given atorvastatin 40 mg/day. At days 1 and 12 after MI onset, insulin resistance levels determined by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, lipid profiles, and serum glucose, insulin, adipokine, and ghrelin levels were measured.Results: Free fatty acid levels showed a sharp increase during the acute phase of MI. Treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg/day, and especially with 40 mg/day, resulted in a decrease in free fatty acid levels. The positive effect of low-dose atorvastatin (20 mg/day is normalization of the adipokine status. Administration of atorvastatin 20 mg/day was accompanied with a statistically significant reduction in glucose levels (by 14% and C-peptide levels (by 38%, and a decrease in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index on day 12.Conclusion: Determination of atorvastatin dose and its use during the in-hospital period and subsequent periods should take into account changes in biochemical markers of insulin resistance and adipokine status in patients with MI.Keywords: myocardial infarction, statin, insulin resistance, adipokines

  20. Serum Vaspin Levels Are Associated with the Development of Clinically Manifest Arthritis in Autoantibody-Positive Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen I Maijer

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that overweight may increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA in autoantibody positive individuals. Adipose tissue could contribute to the development of RA by production of various bioactive peptides. Therefore, we examined levels of adipokines in serum and synovial tissue of subjects at risk of RA.Fifty-one individuals positive for immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA, without arthritis, were included in this prospective study. Levels of adiponectin, vaspin, resistin, leptin, chemerin and omentin were determined in baseline fasting serum samples (n = 27. Synovial tissue was obtained by arthroscopy at baseline and we examined the expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin by immunohistochemistry.The development of clinically manifest arthritis after follow-up was associated with baseline serum vaspin levels (HR1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.020, also after adjustment for overweight (HR1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.5; p = 0.016. This association was not seen for other adipokines. Various serum adipokine levels correlated with BMI (adiponectin r = -0.538, leptin r = 0.664; chemerin r = 0.529 and systemic markers of inflammation such as CRP levels at baseline (adiponectin r = -0.449, omentin r = -0.557, leptin r = 0.635, chemerin r = 0.619, resistin r = 0.520 and ESR (leptin r = 0.512, chemerin r = 0.708, p-value<0.05. Synovial expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin was not associated with development of clinically manifest arthritis.In this exploratory study, serum adipokines were associated with an increased inflammatory state in autoantibody-positive individuals at risk of developing RA. Furthermore, serum vaspin levels may assist in predicting the development of arthritis in these individuals.

  1. Leptin Is Associated With Persistence of Hyperglycemia in Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James I.C.; Askelund, Kathryn J.; Premkumar, Rakesh; Phillips, Anthony R.J.; Murphy, Rinki; Windsor, John A.; Petrov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adipokines have many homeostatic roles, including modulation of glucose metabolism, but their role in the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia associated with acute and critical illnesses in general, and acute pancreatitis (AP) in particular, is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a panel of adipokines and hyperglycemia in the early course of AP, as well as the role of adipokines as predictors of AP severity. Adiponectin, leptin, omentin, resistin, and visfatin were measured on a daily basis in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. A first set of analyses was undertaken with admission glycemia stratified by severity, and a second set of analyses was undertaken based on persistence of early hyperglycemia. All of the analyses were adjusted for confounders. A total of 32 patients with AP were included in this study. None of the studied adipokines was significantly associated with glucose level on admission. Leptin was significantly (P = 0.003) increased in patients with persistent hyperglycemia. Adiponectin was significantly associated with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.015), visfatin with APACHE II score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.014), and omentin with APACHE II score in all of the patients regardless of the presence or absence of hyperglycemia (P = 0.021). Leptin is significantly associated with persistent hyperglycemia in the early course of AP. Omentin has a potential to become an accurate predictor of AP severity. PMID:26871770

  2. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigat...

  3. Visceral Fat Is a Negative Predictor of Bone Density Measures in Obese Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Melissa; Mendes, Nara; Miller, Karen K.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Lee, Hang; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional fat is increasingly recognized as a determinant of bone mineral density (BMD), an association that may be mediated by adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, and inflammatory fat products. Chronic inflammation is deleterious to bone, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) predicts inflammatory markers such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin, whereas sc adipose tissue (SAT) and VAT predict IL-6 in adolescents.

  4. Serum adiposity-induced biomarkers in obese and lean children with recently diagnosed autoimmune type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, M J; Rodriguez, L M; Haymond, M W; Hampe, C S; Smith, E O; Balasubramanyam, A; Devaraj, S

    2014-12-01

    Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes. Adipokines, which regulate obesity-induced inflammation, may contribute to this association. We compared serum adipokines and inflammatory cytokines in obese and lean children with new-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes. We prospectively studied 32 lean and 18 obese children (age range: 2-18 yr) with new-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes and followed them for up to 2 yr. Serum adipokines [leptin, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, omentin, resistin, chemerin, visfatin], cytokines [interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at a median of 7 wk after diagnosis (range: 3-16 wk). Lean children were 71.9% non-Hispanic White, 21.9% Hispanic, and 6.3% African-American, compared with 27.8, 55.6, and 16.7%, respectively, for obese children (p = 0.01). Compared with lean children, obese children had significantly higher serum leptin, visfatin, chemerin, TNF-alpha and CRP, and lower total adiponectin and omentin after adjustment for race/ethnicity and Tanner stage. African-American race was independently associated with higher leptin among youth ≥10 yr (p = 0.007). Leptin levels at onset positively correlated with hemoglobin A1c after 1-2 yr (p = 0.0001) independently of body mass index, race/ethnicity, and diabetes duration. Higher TNF-alpha was associated with obesity and female gender, after adjustment for race/ethnicity (p = 0.0003). Obese children with new-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes have a proinflammatory profile of circulating adipokines and cytokines that may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Omentin-1 effects on mesenchymal stem cells: proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Li; Huang, Dan; Liu, Xinxin; Wang, Yongshun; Liu, Jingjin; Liu, Fang; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as an extremely promising therapeutic agent for tissue repair. However, limitations exist such as the low numbers of MSCs obtained from donors, and the poor survival and function of donor cells. Omentin-1, a new fat depot-specific secretory adipokine, exerts proproliferation, prosurvival, and proangiogenic functions in certain cells via an Akt-dependent mechanism; however, little is known about the influence of omentin-1 on MSCs. Methods M...

  6. Photoperiod-Induced Increases in Bone Mineral Apposition Rate in Siberian Hamsters and the Involvement of Seasonal Leptin Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Kokolski; Francis J. Ebling; James R. Henstock; Susan I. Anderson

    2017-01-01

    The adipokine leptin regulates energy balance, appetite, and reproductive maturation. Leptin also acts on bone growth and remodeling, but both osteogenic and anti-osteogenic effects have been reported depending on experimental conditions. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) have natural variation in circulating leptin concentrations, where serum leptin is significantly decreased during the short day (SD)-induced winter state. In summer long day (LD) photoperiods, appetite and body adiposity...

  7. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone–fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues – subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT – is differently associated wi...

  8. Obesity-Associated Biomarkers and Executive Function in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Alison L.; Jong, Hannah; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing focus on links between obesity and cognitive decline in adulthood, including Alzheimer’s disease. It is also increasingly recognized that obesity in youth is associated with poorer cognitive function, specifically executive functioning skills such as inhibitory control and working memory, which are critical for academic achievement. Emerging literature provides evidence for possible biological mechanisms driven by obesity; obesity-associated biomarkers such as adipokines, o...

  9. Enhanced A-FABP expression in visceral fat: potential contributor to the progression of NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yong Yoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsAdipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes various metabolically important substances including adipokines, which represent a link between insulin resistance and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The factors responsible for the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis remain elusive, but adipokine imbalance may play a pivotal role. We evaluated the expressions of adipokines such as visfatin, adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding protein (A-FABP, and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4 in serum and tissue. The aim was to discover whether these adipokines are potential predictors of NASH.MethodsPolymerase chain reaction, quantification of mRNA, and Western blots encoding A-FABP, RBP-4, and visfatin were used to study tissue samples from the liver, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The tissue samples were from biopsy specimens obtained from patients with proven NASH who were undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to gallbladder polyps.ResultsPatients were classified into two groups: NASH, n=10 and non-NASH, n=20 according to their nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Activity Score. Although serum A-FABP levels did not differ between the two groups, the expressions of A-FABP mRNA and protein in the visceral adipose tissue were significantly higher in NASH group than in non-NASH group (104.34 vs. 97.05, P<0.05, and 190.01 vs. 95.15, P<0.01, respectively. Furthermore, the A-FABP protein expression ratio between visceral adipose tissue and liver was higher in NASH group than in non-NASH group (4.38 vs. 1.64, P<0.05.ConclusionsNASH patients had higher levels of A-FABP expression in their visceral fat compared to non-NASH patients. This differential A-FABP expression may predispose patients to the progressive form of NASH.

  10. Serum levels of fractalkine are associated with markers of insulin resistance in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, T; Hindricks, J; Kralisch, S; Lossner, U; Jessnitzer, B; Richter, J; Blüher, M; Stumvoll, M; Fasshauer, M

    2014-08-01

    Fractalkine has recently been introduced as an adipokine that improves glucose tolerance. Regulation of fractalkine in gestational diabetes, as well as its association with markers of obesity, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and renal function, has not been elucidated. Circulating fractalkine was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 74 women with gestational diabetes and 74 healthy, pregnant control subjects matched for age, BMI, and gestational age. Median (interquartile range) levels of fractalkine were not significantly different between the two groups [gestational diabetes: 2.24 (2.16) μg/l; control: 2.45 (1.38) μg/l] (P = 0.461). In multivariate linear regression analysis, fractalkine remained independently associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (β = -0.253, P = 0.002) and the proinflammatory adipokine progranulin (β = 0.218, P = 0.007). Circulating fractalkine is not different between women with gestational diabetes and control subjects, but the adipokine is independently associated with markers of insulin resistance and proinflammatory progranulin in pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  11. Implication of low level inflammation in the insulin resistance of adipose tissue at late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, J; Sevillano, J; Marciniak, J; Rodriguez, R; González-Martín, C; Viana, M; Eun-suk, O H; de Mouzon, S Hauguel; Herrera, E; Ramos, M P

    2011-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic of late pregnancy, and adipose tissue is one of the tissues that most actively contributes to the reduced maternal insulin sensitivity. There is evidence that pregnancy is a condition of moderate inflammation, although the physiological role of this low-grade inflammation remains unclear. The present study was designed to validate whether low-grade inflammation plays a role in the development of insulin resistance in adipose tissue during late pregnancy. To this end, we analyzed proinflammatory adipokines and kinases in lumbar adipose tissue of nonpregnant and late pregnant rats at d 18 and 20 of gestation. We found that circulating and tissue levels of adipokines, such as IL-1β, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and TNF-α, were increased at late pregnancy, which correlated with insulin resistance. The observed increase in adipokines coincided with an enhanced activation of p38 MAPK in adipose tissue. Treatment of pregnant rats with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 202190 increased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrate-1 in adipose tissue, which was paralleled by a reduction of IR substrate-1 serine phosphorylation and an enhancement of the metabolic actions of insulin. These results indicate that activation of p38 MAPK in adipose tissue contributes to adipose tissue insulin resistance at late pregnancy. Furthermore, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that physiological low-grade inflammation in the maternal organism is relevant to the development of pregnancy-associated insulin resistance.

  12. New peptides players in metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mierzwicka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among new peptides responsible for the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and carbohydrate metabolism, adipokines are of great importance. Adipokines are substances of hormonal character, secreted by adipose tissue. Apart from the well-known adipokines, adropin and preptin are relatively newly discovered, hence their function is not fully understood. They are peptides not secreted by adipose tissue but their role in the metabolic regulations seems to be significant. Preptin is a 34-amino acid peptide, a derivative of proinsulin growth factor II (pro-IGF-II, secreted by pancreatic β cells, considered to be a physiological enhancer of insulin secretion. Additionally, preptin has a stimulating effect on osteoblasts, inducing their proliferation, differentiation and survival. Adropin is a 76-amino acid peptide, encoded by the energy homeostasis associated gene (Enho, mainly in liver and brain, and its expression is dependent on a diet. Adropin is believed to play an important role in metabolic homeostasis, fatty acids metabolism control, insulin resistance prevention, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. The results of studies conducted so far show that the diseases resulting from metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or cardiovascular disease are accompanied by significant changes in the concentration of these peptides. It is also important to note that preptin has an anabolic effect on bone tissue, which might be preventive in osteoporosis.

  13. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markey KA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keira A Markey,1 Maria Uldall,2 Hannah Botfield,1 Liam D Cato,1 Mohammed A L Miah,1 Ghaniah Hassan-Smith,1 Rigmor H Jensen,2 Ana M Gonzalez,1 Alexandra J Sinclair1 1Neurometabolism, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 2Danish Headache Center, Clinic of Neurology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark Abstract: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. Keywords: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, steroid and adipokines, obesity, leptin

  14. Nocturnal levels of chemerin and progranulin in adolescents: influence of sex, body mass index, glucose metabolism and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxer, Johann; Herttrich, Theresa; Zhao, Ying Y; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Körner, Antje; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kiess, Wieland; Quante, Mirja

    2017-01-01

    Adipokines have been implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and sleep regulation. However, the role of chemerin and progranulin, two recently described adipokines, in the context of sleep remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess variations by sex, across different sleep stages and in relation to glucose metabolism. The study sample included 34 overweight/obese and 32 normal-weight adolescents from secondary schools and the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Child study cohort. We obtained longitudinal serum adipokine levels during in-laboratory polysomnography followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Overweight/obese adolescents had significantly higher mean nocturnal serum chemerin area under the curve (AUC) levels (348.2±133.3 vs. 241.7±67.7 vs. ng/mL×h, pprogranulin AUC was found between the groups. However, when assessing sex-specific levels, serum progranulin AUC levels were ~30% higher in overweight/obese males compared to overweight/obese females. Of note, nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin AUC did not exhibit a correlation with markers of glucose metabolism or sleep stages. Collectively, we report a sexual dimorphism in nocturnal progranulin and chemerin levels, which may help explain underlying differences in energy balance and body composition between males and females in the context of obesity.

  15. Apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Chu

    Full Text Available Apelin, a novel adipokine, is the specific endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Consistent with its putative role as an adipokine, apelin has been linked to states of insulin resistance. However, the function of apelin in hepatic insulin resistance, a vital part of insulin resistance, and its underlying mechanisms still remains unclear. Here we define the impacts of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes. Our studies indicate that apelin reversed TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in HepG2 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes and liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice by improving JNK-IRS1-AKT-GSK pathway. Moreover, Western blot revealed that APJ, but not apelin, expressed in the hepatocytes and liver tissues of mice. We found that F13A, a competitive antagonist for G protein-coupled receptor APJ, suppressed the effects of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes, suggesting APJ is involved in the function of apelin. In conclusion, we show novel evidence suggesting that apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin appears as a beneficial adipokine with anti-insulin resistance properties, and thus as a promising therapeutic target in metabolic disorders.

  16. Adiponectin and vitamin D-binding protein are independently associated at birth in both mothers and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Spyridon N; Polyzos, Stergios A; Newton, Danforth A; Wagner, Carol L; Hollis, Bruce W; Ouweland, Jody van den; Dursun, Erdinc; Gezen-Ak, Duygu; Kotsa, Kalliopi; Annweiler, Cedric; Naughton, Declan P

    2018-01-01

    Adult body fat is associated with birth anthropometry, suggesting a role for metabolic regulators including vitamin D and the adipokines-adiponectin and irisin-which have been reported to interact but, as yet, data remain controversial. To study (i) the relationship between vitamin D, its binding protein (VDBP) and the adipokines, adiponectin, and irisin in mothers and neonates at birth and (ii) their effects on neonate anthropometric outcomes. Cross-sectional study for healthy mothers with full-term and uncomplicated births. Primary care. Seventy pairs of newly delivered neonates and their mothers. Biochemical markers from maternal and cord: VDBP, adiponectin, irisin, calcium, albumin, parathyroid hormone, 25OHD, 1,25(OH) 2 D. Maternal demographic and social characteristics and neonate anthropometric parameters were recorded. Maternal VDBP levels (364.1 ± 11.9 μg/ml) demonstrated a strong positive correlation with maternal adiponectin (4.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml) and irisin (308.8 ± 50.8 ng/ml) concentrations, which remained significant (p mothers and neonates and (ii) the lack of a causative model effect of both maternal/neonatal vitamin D status and adipokine profile on neonatal anthropometry at birth, as a surrogate marker of future metabolic health of the offspring.

  17. Effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kristy R.; Powell, Theresa L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and pregnancies in obese mothers have increased risk for complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, preterm birth and caesarian section. Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease and are susceptible to develop neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. Changes in placental function not only play a critical role in the development of pregnancy complications but may also be involved in linking maternal obesity to long-term health risks in the infant. Maternal adipokines i.e., interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), leptin and adiponectin link maternal nutritional status and adipose tissue metabolism to placental function. Adipokines and metabolic hormones have direct impact on placental function by modulating placental nutrient transport. Nutrient delivery to the fetus is regulated by a complex interaction between insulin signaling, cytokine profile and insulin responsiveness, which is modulated by adiponectin and IL-1β. In addition, obese pregnant women are at risk for hypertension and preeclampsia with reduced placental vascularity and blood flow, which would restrict placental nutrient delivery to the developing fetus. These sometimes opposing signals regulating placental function may contribute to the diversity of short and long-term outcomes observed in pregnant obese women. This review focuses on the changes in adipokines and obesity-related metabolic hormones, how these factors influence placental function and fetal development to contribute to long-term metabolic and behavioral consequences of children born to obese mothers. PMID:27864335

  18. The relationship between breast milk leptin and adiponectin with child body composition from 3 to 5 years: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D M; Brei, C; Stecher, L; Much, D; Brunner, S; Hauner, H

    2017-08-01

    Research indicates that breast milk contains bioactive components that influence metabolism in infancy and may play a role in the prevention of obesity in early childhood. In our initial study, 147 breastfeeding mother/child pairs were followed from birth to 2 years of age to examine the relationship between breast milk leptin and total adiponectin (collected at 6 weeks and 4 months postpartum) and infant body composition. Higher breast milk total adiponectin was related to greater fat mass and weight gain in children at 1 and 2 years of age, whereas leptin showed no association. In this follow-up, we examined the relationship between both adipokines and children's body weight, body mass index percentiles, sum of four skin-folds, percentage of body fat, fat mass and lean body mass at 3, 4 and 5 years of age. Breast milk adipokines were largely unrelated to child anthropometric measures. Our results do not provide significant evidence that breast milk adipokines can predict adiposity in preschool children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. A dwarf mouse model with decreased GH/IGF-1 activity that does not experience life-span extension: potential impact of increased adiposity, leptin, and insulin with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; Lubbers, Ellen R; Magon, Vishakha; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2014-02-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) action is associated with extended longevity in many vertebrate species. GH receptor (GHR) null (GHR(-)(/-)) mice, which have a disruption in the GHR gene, are a well-studied example of mice that are insulin sensitive and long lived yet obese. However, unlike other mouse lines with reduced GH action, GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have reduced GH action yet exhibit a normal, not extended, life span. Understanding why GHA mice do not have extended life span though they share many physiological attributes with GHR(-)(/-) mice will help provide clues about how GH influences aging. For this study, we examined age- and sex-related changes in body composition, glucose homeostasis, circulating adipokines, and tissue weights in GHA mice and littermate controls. Compared with previous studies with GHR(-)(/-) mice, GHA mice had more significant increases in fat mass with advancing age. The increased obesity resulted in significant adipokine changes. Euglycemia was maintained in GHA mice; however, hyperinsulinemia developed in older male GHA mice. Overall, GHA mice experience a more substantial, generalized obesity accompanied by altered adipokine levels and glucose homeostasis than GHR(-)(/-) mice, which becomes more exaggerated with advancing age and which likely contributes to the lack of life-span extension in these mice.

  20. Differential Effects of Leptin and Adiponectin in Endothelial Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Adya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health burden with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Endothelial dysfunction is pivotal to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. In relation to this, adipose tissue secreted factors termed “adipokines” have been reported to modulate endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on two of the most abundant circulating adipokines, that is, leptin and adiponectin, in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Leptin has been documented to influence a multitude of organ systems, that is, central nervous system (appetite regulation, satiety factor and cardiovascular system (endothelial dysfunction leading to atherosclerosis. Adiponectin, circulating at a much higher concentration, exists in different molecular weight forms, essentially made up of the collagenous fraction and a globular domain, the latter being investigated minimally for its involvement in proinflammatory processes including activation of NF-κβ and endothelial adhesion molecules. The opposing actions of the two forms of adiponectin in endothelial cells have been recently demonstrated. Additionally, a local and systemic change to multimeric forms of adiponectin has gained importance. Thus detailed investigations on the potential interplay between these adipokines would likely result in better understanding of the missing links connecting CVD, adipokines, and obesity.

  1. The role of chemerin in human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Stojek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is not merely a storage depot of triacylglycerols but also a major endocrine organ. Its cells, including adipocytes, synthesize and secrete a range of biologically active molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines that display the properties of cytokines are often called adipocytokines. In recent years there has been increasing interest in a new adipokine called chemerin. Chemerin is a protein synthesized mostly by the adipose tissue and the liver as inactive pre-pro-chemerin. After the intracellular hydrolytic cutting off of the 20-amino-acid N-terminal polypeptide, it is secreted into the bloodstream as inactive pro-chemerin. Biologically active chemerin is then derived from pro-chemerin after cleavage of the C-terminal fragment by serum proteases involved in inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Proteolytic cleavage leads to formation of several chemerin-derived peptides, both biologically active (often with opposing functions and inactive.Within the last decade, there has been a growing number of publications regarding the role of chemerin in human disease. It seems to be implicated in the inflammatory response, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and alimentary tract disorders. The article presents the most recent information on the role of chemerin in human disease, and specifically alimentary tract disorders. The available evidence suggests that chemerin is an important link between adipose tissue mass, metabolic processes, the immune system and inflammation, and therefore plays a major role in human pathophysiology.

  2. Effect of Weight Reduction Following Bariatric Surgery on Serum Visfatin and Adiponectin Levels in Morbidly Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipokines are signaling and mediator proteins secreted from adipose tissue. A novel adipokine, visfatin, was reported as a protein which was mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. Controversial results have been shown regarding the changes of adipokines following weight reduction. So we investigated the effects of weight reduction on serum concentrations of adiponectin and visfatin in morbidly obese subjects. Methods: 35 severely obese patients (26 females and 9 males, aged 15-58 years, were studied. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical parameters as well as adiponectin and visfatin were analyzed before and 6 weeks after weight reduction. Results: Anthropometric indices decreased significantly. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were reduced significantly. The reduction of visfatin and the elevation of adiponectin were significant as well. However, other parameters like fasting glucose and insulin did not change. Moreover, we could not find any significant correlation between the change of serum visfatin and that of adiponectin. Conclusions: 6-week weight reduction after bariatric surgery resulted in decreased serum visfatin and increased adiponectin levels. However, we cannot find any significant correlation between changes of adiponectin, visfatin, BMI, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. Further studies with different design are suggested to clarify these associations.

  3. Elevated Serum Levels of Cysteine and Tyrosine: Early Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Adults at Increased Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mohorko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As there is effective intervention for delaying or preventing metabolic diseases, which are often present for years before becoming clinically apparent, novel biomarkers that would mark metabolic complications before the onset of metabolic disease should be identified. We investigated the role of fasting serum amino acids and their associations with inflammatory markers, adipokines, and metabolic syndrome (MetS components in subjects prior to the onset of insulin resistance (IR. Anthropometric measurements, food records, adipokines, biochemical markers, and serum levels of amino acids were determined in 96 asymptomatic subjects aged 25–49 years divided into three groups according to the number of MetS components present. Cysteine and tyrosine were significantly higher already in group with one component of MetS present compared to subjects without MetS components. Serum amino acid levels correlated with markers of inflammation and adipokines. Alanine and glycine explained 10% of insulin resistance variability. The role of tyrosine and cysteine, that were higher already with 1 component of MetS present, should be further investigated as they might point to future insulin disturbances.

  4. Therapies for Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mendiola-Precoma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia associated with a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, with a prevalence of 44 million people throughout the world in 2015, and this figure is estimated to double by 2050. This disease is characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, and hypometabolism; it is related to amyloid-β peptide accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as a decrease in acetylcholine levels and a reduction of cerebral blood flow. Obesity is a major risk factor for AD, because it induces adipokine dysregulation, which consists of the release of the proinflammatory adipokines and decreased anti-inflammatory adipokines, among other processes. The pharmacological treatments for AD can be divided into two categories: symptomatic treatments such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonists and etiology-based treatments such as secretase inhibitors, amyloid binders, and tau therapies. Strategies for prevention of AD through nonpharmacological treatments are associated with lifestyle interventions such as exercise, mental challenges, and socialization as well as caloric restriction and a healthy diet. AD is an important health issue on which all people should be informed so that prevention strategies that minimize the risk of its development may be implemented.

  5. Pleiotropic Associations of RARRES2 Gene Variants and Circulating Chemerin Levels: Potential Roles of Chemerin Involved in the Metabolic and Inflammation-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leay-Kiaw Er

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemerin, an adipokine and inflammatory mediator, is associated with metabolic, inflammation- and immune-mediated diseases. The genetic, clinical, and biomarker correlates of circulating chemerin levels have not been completely elucidated. We analyzed the determinants and correlates of retinoic acid receptor responder 2 (RARRES2; encoding chemerin gene variants and chemerin levels in the Taiwanese population. In total, 612 individuals were recruited. Clinical and metabolic phenotypes, 13 inflammatory markers, 5 adipokines, and 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs covering the RARRES2 region were analyzed. High chemerin levels and chemerin level tertiles were positively associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes and circulating inflammatory marker and adipokine levels and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin levels and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs. Genotype and haplotype analyses showed that RARRES2 SNPs were significantly associated with chemerin, fibrinogen, interleukin 6, and lipocalin 2 levels. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that C-reactive protein level, leptin level, triglyceride level, eGFR, rs3735167 genotypes, sex, and soluble P-selectin level were independently associated with chemerin levels. In conclusion, pleiotropic associations were noted between RARRES2 variants, circulating chemerin levels and multiple metabolic phenotypes and inflammatory marker levels. This study provides further evidence for the potential roles of chemerin in metabolic and inflammation-related diseases.

  6. Adipocyte-myocyte crosstalk in skeletal muscle insulin resistance; is there a role for thyroid hormone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Bas; Sauerwein, Hans P

    2010-11-01

    To review original research studies and reviews that present data on adipocyte-myocyte crosstalk in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance with a specific focus on thyroid hormone. Adipose tissue communicates with skeletal muscle not only through free fatty acids but also through secretion of various products called adipokines. Adipokines came out as governors of insulin sensitivity and are deregulated in obesity. In addition to well known leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, newer adipokines like retinol-binding protein 4 have been associated with insulin resistance. There is mounting evidence that not only adipose tissue but also skeletal muscle produces and secretes biologically active proteins or 'myokines' that facilitate metabolic crosstalk between organ systems. In recent years, increased expression of myostatin, a secreted anabolic inhibitor of muscle growth and development, has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism affect insulin sensitivity in multiple ways that might overlap adipocyte-myocyte crosstalk. Recent studies have provided new insights in effects of processing of the parent hormone T4 to the active T3 at the level of the skeletal muscle. Adipocyte-myocyte crosstalk is an important modulator in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Thyroid disorders are very common and may have detrimental effects on skeletal muscle insulin resistance, potentially by interacting with adipocyte-myocyte crosstalk.

  7. Adiponectin, Resistin, and Visfatin in Childhood Obesity and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonios; Koutsias, Stilianos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2015-11-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing alarmingly, and a strong association with chronic diseases has been established. Specific adipokines are released from the adipose tissue and relate with chronic diseases even in the pediatric population. Adiponectin levels are lower in obesity and increase with decreasing body weight. A few pediatric studies examining a possible relationship between resistin and obesity do not provide a clear picture. Most studies agree that visfatin levels appear elevated in childhood obesity. Exercise seems to increase adiponectin levels whereas resistin levels are reduced. The lack of data on the effects of acute and chronic exercise on visfatin levels precludes us from making safe conclusions as to what the effects of exercise (acute or chronic) would be on visfatin levels in children. Clearly, exercise has an impact on the adipose tissue and the release of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin. However, other factors affect the secretion rate of these adipokines from the adipose tissue; these factors should also be taken into consideration when examining the effects of exercise on adipokines. Gender, age, body composition, physical activity levels, mode and intensity of exercise are some of the factors that should be looked into in future studies.

  8. Functional Characterization of Preadipocytes Derived from Human Periaortic Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery. Morphological studies with hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemical assay were performed in situ to quantify adipokine expression. To analyze adipogenic capacity, adipokine expression, and the levels of thermogenic proteins, adipocyte precursor cells were isolated from periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues and induced to differentiation. The precursors of adipocytes from the periaortic tissue accumulated less triglycerides than those from the subcutaneous tissue after differentiation and were smaller than those from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis and energy expenditure increased significantly in periaortic adipose tissue. Additionally, the expression levels of adipokines that affect carbohydrate metabolism, such as FGF21, increased significantly in mature adipocytes induced from periaortic adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that precursors of periaortic adipose tissue in humans may affect cardiovascular events and might serve as a target for preventing vascular diseases.

  9. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V Comim

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  10. Adiponectin and Its Receptors in the Ovary: Further Evidence for a Link between Obesity and Hyperandrogenism in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comim, Fabio V.; Hardy, Kate; Franks, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:24260388

  11. Associations among serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic mediators, body condition, and uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R; Olsen, Jesse R; Jeffress, Erin J; Moore, Dale A; Kastelic, John P

    2013-11-09

    Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions (metritis, clinical endometritis or subclinical endometritis) and in cows experiencing loss of body condition, and to assess the relationship of adipokines and body condition loss in the establishment of persistent uterine inflammatory conditions. Lactating multiparous Holstein cows (N = 40), with body condition scores (BCS) from 2 to 4 (eight cows for each 0.5 score increment) were enrolled. Body condition was monitored for all cows weekly for 7 weeks post calving; cows with uterine inflammatory conditions were also re-evaluated 2 weeks later. Blood samples were collected from 1 week prior to calving to 7 weeks after calving for determination of serum concentrations of adipokines, insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1. Cows with metritis or clinical endometritis had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 compared to normal cows (P cows with subclinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were lower in cows with metritis or clinical endometritis. Cows with low BCS (2 and 2.5) had significantly higher adiponectin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 than those with high BCS (3 to 4). Cows with persistent uterine inflammatory conditions had higher adiponectin, leptin TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and insulin compared to normal and spontaneously recovered cows, except for IGF-1 (P insulin, and IGF-1 had significant associations with BCS categories (low vs. high) and postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions. Perhaps loss of

  12. WJD 5th Anniversary Special Issues(1): Insulin Benefits of healthy adipose tissue in the treatment of diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhadra; C; Gunawardana

    2014-01-01

    The major malfunction in diabetes mellitus is severe perturbation of glucose homeostasis caused by deficiency of insulin.Insulin deficiency is either absolute due to destruction or failure of pancreaticβcells,or relative due to decreased sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin.The primary lesion being related to insulin,treatments for diabetes focus on insulin replacement and/or increasing sensitivity to insulin.These therapies have their own limitations and complications,some of which can be life-threatening.For example,exogenous insulin administration can lead to fatal hypoglycemic episodes;islet/pancreas transplantation requires life-long immunosuppressive therapy;and anti-diabetic drugs have dangerous side effects including edema,heart failure and lactic acidosis.Thus the need remains for better safer long term treatments for diabetes.The ultimate goal in treating diabetes is to re-establish glucose homeostasis,preferably through endogenously generated hormones.Recent studies increasingly show that extra-pancreatic hormones,particularly those arising from adipose tissue,can compensate for insulin,or entirely replace the function of insulin under appropriate circumstances.Adipose tissue is a versatile endocrine organ that secretes a variety of hormones with far-reaching effects on overall metabolism.While unhealthy adipose tissue can exacerbate diabetes through limiting circulation and secreting of pro-inflammatory cytokines,healthy uninflamed adipose tissue secretes beneficial adipokines with hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory properties,which can complement and/or compensate for the function of insulin.Administration of specific adipokines is known to alleviate both type 1 and 2 diabetes,and leptin mono-therapy is reported to reverse type 1 diabetes independent of insulin.Although specific adipokines may correct diabetes,administration of individual adipokines still carries risks similar to those of insulin monotherapy.Thus a better approach is to

  13. Lower Circulating C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP3 Levels Are Associated with Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa M Wolf

    Full Text Available C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3 is a novel adipokine that lowers blood glucose levels, reduces liver triglyceride synthesis, and is protective against hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mouse models. We hypothesized that higher circulating serum levels of CTRP3 would be associated with a lean body mass index (BMI and a more favorable metabolic profile in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate CTRP3 levels in lean individuals compared to obese individuals.This was a cross-sectional study of obese (n=44 and lean control patients (n=60. Fasting metabolic parameters were measured in all patients and serum CTRP3 levels were measured by ELISA.BMI of the lean group was 21.9 ± 0.2 kg/m2 and obese group was 45.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2. We found significantly lower circulating levels of CTRP3 in obese individuals (405 ± 8.3 vs. 436 ± 6.7 ng/mL, p=0.004 compared to the lean group. Serum CTRP3 levels were inversely correlated with BMI (p=0.001, and triglycerides (p<0.001, and significantly associated with gender (p<0.01, ethnicity (p=0.05, HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01, and adiponectin (p<0.01. We found BMI (p<0.01, gender (p<0.01, and ethnicity (p<0.05 to be significant predictors of CTRP3 levels when controlling for age in multiple regression analysis.CTRP3 is a beneficial adipokine whose circulating levels are significantly lower in obese individuals. Obesity causes dysregulation in adipokine production, including the down-regulation of CTRP3. Lower CTRP3 levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Optimizing CTRP3 levels through novel therapies may improve obesity and its comorbidities.

  14. Association of circulating omentin-1 level with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Hye

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipokines contribute directly to the atherosclerotic process, connecting metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes to cardiovascular disease. Omentin-1 is a recently discovered novel adipokine, so data about the relationship of this adipokine to vascular health in type 2 diabetes is limited. Methods We enrolled 60 people with type 2 diabetes, with or without carotid plaque, and 30 participants with normal glucose tolerance. We measured serum omentin-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. Vascular health was assessed by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Results Serum omentin-1 levels were significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes patients compared to normal glucose controls and was further reduced in type 2 diabetes patients with carotid plaque compared to those without carotid plaque. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure, history of use of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and serum omentin-1 level were independent factors determining baPWV in people with type 2 diabetes (r2 = 0.637. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, circulating omentin-1 level was an independent decisive factor for the presence of carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes patients, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of smoking and medication (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.420-0.919; P = 0.017. Conclusions Circulating omentin-1 level was independently correlated with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes, even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and detailed medication history.

  15. Evaluation of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuguz, P; Kacar, S D; Asik, G; Ozuguz, U; Karatas, S

    2016-02-09

    The research evaluating adipokines are very few in patients with acne vulgaris. The hypothesis that hyperinsulinemic and high glycemic index diet plays a role in the pathogenesis of acne is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate adipokines such as leptin (L), adiponectin (A), ghrelin and A levels, and A/L rates that indicate insulin resistance in nonobese patients with severe acne vulgaris. Thirty patients who are nonobese with moderate acne vulgaris, aged 18 to 25 years, and 15 age-sex compatible controls were included in our study. The acne lesions were assessed using the Global Acne Grading Scale (GAGS). All participants were evaluated for the parameters that may affect the metabolism of serum L, A, and ghrelin levels in blood, and their body mass index were calculated. The significance level was determined as p ≤ 0.05. Of the 30 patients, 17 were women and 13 were men. The mean age was 20.60 years and the mean duration of the disease were 2.8 years. All of patients had moderate acne vulgaris (GAGS 19-30). Of the 15 controls, 11 were women and 4 were men. The mean age was 21.20 years. There were not a statistically significant difference in L, ghrelin, A levels, and A/L ratio between the two groups. Adipokines may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. L, A, ghrelin, and insulin resistance may not participate in the responsible mechanisms in nonobese patients with moderate acne vulgaris. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Elevated total plasma-adiponectin is stable over time in young women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syk, M; Ramklint, M; Fredriksson, R; Ekselius, L; Cunningham, J L

    2017-03-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by dysregulated eating behaviour and present data suggest adipokines may regulate food intake. We investigated a possible association between BN and adipokine levels and hypothesized that plasma (P)-adiponectin would be elevated and P-leptin and P-leptin-adiponectin-ratio would be reduced in women with BN. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with a longitudinal arm for patients with BN. Plasma-adiponectin and leptin was measured in 148 female patients seeking psychiatric ambulatory care and 45 female controls. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with BN and the remaining with other affective and anxiety disorders. P-adiponectin and P-leptin levels were compared between patients with BN, patients without BN and controls. At follow-up 1-2years later, adipokines were reassessed in patients with BN and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire was used to assess symptom severity. P-adiponectin was elevated in patients with BN at baseline and at follow-up when compared to patients without BN and controls (P<0.004 and <0.008 respectively). The difference remained significant after controlling for body mass index. P-adiponectin was correlated to symptom severity at follow-up in patients with BN without morbid obesity (ρ=0.72, P<0.04). P-leptin-adiponectin-ratio was significantly lower in patients with BN compared to controls (P<0.04) and P-leptin non-significantly lower. Findings indicate a stable elevation of P-adiponectin in women with BN. P-adiponectin at follow-up correlates to eating disorder symptom severity in patients without morbid obesity, indicating that P-adiponectin should be further investigated as a possible potential prognostic biomarker for BN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary factors and cancer chemoprevention: An overview of obesity-related malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing health problem in developed nations and in countries that are in the process of westernization like India. Obesity is linked with several health disorders such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and certain cancers. Currently, obesity-related malignancies, e.g., cancers of the breast, prostate and colon are the leading cancers in the industrialized societies. An increased amount of fat or adipose tissue in an overweight or obese person probably influences the development of cancer by releasing several hormone-like factors or adipokines. The majority of adipokines are pro-inflammatory, which promote pathological conditions like insulin resistance and cancer. On the other hand, many recent studies have shown that adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, has anti-cancer and insulin-sensitizing effects. Adiponectin exerts its physiological functions chiefly by activation of AMP kinase via adiponectin receptors. Interestingly, several fruits and vegetables may contain adiponectin-like molecules or may increase the biosynthesis of adiponectin in our body. Studies on adiponectin analogues or adiponectin receptor agonists are a promising area of cancer chemoprevention research. In general, fruits and vegetables contain various dietary substances such as vitamins, minerals (like calcium and selenium, fiber and phytochemicals or phenolic compounds (like flavonoids and vanilloids, which may act as anti-cancer agents. Similarly, several dietary constituents including phytochemicals may have anti-obesity effects. Consumption of such dietary compounds along with caloric restriction and physical activity may be helpful in preventing obesity-related cancers. For this review article, we searched PubMed primarily to get the relevant literature.

  18. Role of leptin in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Maymó, Julieta; Dueñas, José L; Varone, Cecilia; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive function is dependent on energy resources. The role of weight, body composition, fat distribution and the effect of diet have been largely investigated in experimental female animals as well as in women. Any alteration in diet and/or weight may induce abnormalities in timing of sexual maturation and fertility. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in the fine coordination of energy balance and reproduction are largely unknown. The brain and hypothalamic structures receive endocrine and/or metabolic signals providing information on the nutritional status and the degree of fat stores. Adipose tissue acts both as a store of energy and as an active endocrine organ, secreting a large number of biologically important molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines have been shown to be involved in regulation of the reproductive functions. The first adipokine described was leptin. Extensive research over the last 10 years has shown that leptin is not only an adipose tissue-derived messenger of the amount of energy stores to the brain, but also a crucial hormone/cytokine for a number of diverse physiological processes, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, immune function, and most importantly, reproduction. Leptin plays an integral role in the normal physiology of the reproductive system with complex interactions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, leptin is also produced by placenta, where it plays an important autocrine function. Observational studies have demonstrated that states of leptin excess, deficiency, or resistance can be associated with abnormal reproductive function. This review focuses on the leptin action in female reproduction.

  19. Quantitative analysis of secretome from adipocytes regulated by insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhou; Yuanyuan Xiao; Rongxia Li; Shangyu Hong; Sujun Li; Lianshui Wang; Rong Zeng; Kan Liao

    2009-01-01

    Adipocyte is not only a central player involved in storage and release of energy, but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of pep-tides and proteins. During the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, adipocytes are subjected to the increased levels of insulin, which may have a major impact on the secretion of adipokines. We have undertaken cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag (clCAT) and label-free quantitation approaches to identify and quantify secretory factors that are differen-tially secreted by 3T3-LI adipocytes with or without insulin treatment. Combination of clCAT and label-free results, there are 317 proteins predicted or annotated as secretory proteins. Among these secretory proteins, 179 proteins and 53 proteins were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. A total of 77 reported adipokines were quantified in our study, such as adiponectin, cathepsin D, cystatin C, resistin, and transferrin. Western blot analysis of these adipo-kines confirmed the quantitative results from mass spectrometry, and revealed individualized secreting pat-terns of these proteins by increasing insulin dose. In addition, 240 proteins were newly identified and quanti-fied as secreted proteins from 3T3-L1 adipocytes in our study, most of which were up-regulated upon insulin treatment. Further comprehensive bioinformatics analysis revealed that the secretory proteins in extra-cellular matrix-receptor interaction pathway and glycan structure degradation pathway were significantly up-regulated by insulin stimulation.

  20. Compounds of psoriasis with obesity and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Agnieszka; Placek, Waldemar

    2017-08-24

    Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independent risk factor for its development and is associated with a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the reduction of body weight, using low-calorie diet combined with exercise, reduces the severity of psoriasis.Visceral adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17) and adipokines (adiponectin, omentin, chemerin). They participate in the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and consequently of the cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages of visceral adipose tissue have a special role and they increase significantly in obesity. They are responsible for the development of inflammation in adipose tissue and produce inflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-6, Il-8, Il-17, Il-18, MCP-1) and other adipokines: resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4. This explains the concept of «psoriatic march «and observations of the frequent coexistence of psoriasis with obesity. Inflammation associated with systemic disease, fanned by pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines produced by the visceral adipose tissue lead to the development of insulin resistance, endothelial cell damage. Endothelial dysfunction predisposes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and faster development of cardiovascular events. Complication of obesity is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which states twice as likely in patients with plaque psoriasis and is associated with the severity of the disease. Another consequence is the development of depression. Probably the proinflammatory cytokines can interact with metabolism of neurotransmitters. Obesity also has a significant impact on the treatment of psoriasis, increasing the risk of adverse effects of systemic drugs, reducing the efficacy of biological agents which dose should be adjusted to the weight of the patient. It

  1. Triiodothyronine modulates the expression of leptin and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Miriane de; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Moretto, Fernanda Cristina Fontes; Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; Nogueira, Celia Regina

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of different doses of triiodothyronine on gene expression of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin, at different times, and to evaluate the difference in expression between the two adipokines in each group. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with triiodothyronine at physiological dose (10nM) and supraphysiological doses (100nM or 1,000nM), or without triiodothyronine (control, C) for 0.5, 6, or 24 hours. Leptin and adiponectin mRNA was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One-way analyses of variance, Tukey's test or Student's t test, were used to analyze data, and significance level was set at 5%. Leptin levels decreased in the 1,000nM-dose group after 0.5 hour. Adiponectin levels dropped in the 10nM-dose group, but increased at the 100nM dose. After 6 hours, both genes were suppressed in all hormone concentrations. After 24 hours, leptin levels increased at 10, 100 and 1,000nM groups as compared to the control group; and adiponectin levels increased only in the 100nM group as compared to the control group. These results demonstrated fast actions of triiodothyronine on the leptin and adiponectin expression, starting at 0.5 hour, at a dose of 1,000nM for leptin and 100nM for adiponectin. Triiodothyronine stimulated or inhibited the expression of adipokines in adipocytes at different times and doses which may be useful to assist in the treatment of obesity, assuming that leptin is increased and adiponectin is decreased, in obesity cases.

  2. Clinical and biochemical effects of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese and diabetic patients: a pilot open study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Giannitti, Chiara; Urso, Renato; Tołodziecki, Michał; Ponikowska, Irena

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type 2 diabetes. Spa therapy has long been used for treating obesity and its comorbidities. Enlargement of adipose tissue has been linked to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion and adipose tissue inflammation. Adipokines are currently investigated as potential drug targets in these conditions. Our primary aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The secondary aim was to examine whether this combined program influences the response of serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Fifty obese males were enrolled and 21 of these featured a type 2 diabetes. During the 3-week period of the study, the patients were on a 1,000-kcal diet and were involved in mineral bath and total body's mud-pack applications (15 procedures). Patients were assessed at baseline and at the end of the therapy for clinical and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia, and adipokines). We showed that a 3-week program of spa therapy in obese patients induced significant decrease of body weight, body mass index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemia, and serum levels of leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. So, a cycle of mud-bath therapy associated with a controlled diet may be a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes decreasing body weight and many risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  3. The activity of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with BMI in metabolically healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stephen PH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoid system (ECS is a ubiquitously expressed signalling system, with involvement in lipid metabolism and obesity. There are reported changes in obesity of blood concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglcyerol (2-AG, and of adipose tissue expression levels of the two key catabolic enzymes of the ECS, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL. Surprisingly, however, the activities of these enzymes have not been assayed in conditions of increasing adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether FAAH and MGL activities in human subcutaneous adipocytes are affected by body mass index (BMI, or other markers of adiposity and metabolism. Methods Subcutaneous abdominal mature adipocytes, fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained from 28 metabolically healthy subjects representing a range of BMIs. FAAH and MGL activities were assayed in mature adipocytes using radiolabelled substrates. Serum glucose, insulin and adipokines were determined using ELISAs. Results MGL activity showed no relationship with BMI or other adiposity indices, metabolic markers (fasting serum insulin or glucose or serum adipokine levels (adiponectin, leptin or resistin. In contrast, FAAH activity in subcutaneous adipocytes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference, but not with skinfold thickness, metabolic markers or serum adipokine levels. Conclusions In this study, novel evidence is provided that FAAH activity in subcutaneous mature adipocytes increases with BMI, whereas MGL activity does not. These findings support the hypothesis that some components of the ECS are upregulated with increasing adiposity in humans, and that AEA and 2-AG may be regulated differently.

  4. The Influence of Thyroid Hormones on Leptin and Resistin Levels in Hyperthyroid Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hindawi Sahar H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis occurs due to excess release of thyroid hormone. These hormones regulate the body’s energy balance and have effects on adipokine level. There are several reports suggesting interrelation between adipokines (resistin and leptin with thyroid dysfunction. Objectives: This study was established to investigate the effect of thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism state on the level of some adipokines, leptin and resistin; in comparison with control. Patients and Methods: The present study included 50 Iraqi female patients with hyperthyroidism with age ranged between 30-58 years and 30 healthy controls with age ranged between 30-53 years. Serum samples were collected from study groups. The levels of thyroid hormones (TSH, T4 and T3 were determined by using automated Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA analysis system. Detection of leptin hormone and resistin hormone levels in the serum were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. Results: The results revealed that serum leptin levels were significantly low (P<0.004 in hyperthyroid patient groups as compared to control, and there were significant negative correlations between T4 and leptin (P<0.0001; also, T3 and leptin (P<0.05. Resistin hormone level increased non-significantly (P˃0.05 than control level; and there was significant negative correlation between TSH and resistin (P<0.035. Conclusion: The study shows that there is complex interrelation between adipocytokines (leptin and resistin with thyroid gland and pituitary gland. Leptin levels were decreased in hyperthyroid patients than control and associated negatively with T4 and T3 levels, while resistin levels were increased non-significantly than control and associated negatively with TSH level. They affect each other in their physiological function in the human body.

  5. Impaired histone deacetylases 5 and 6 expression mimics the effects of obesity and hypoxia on adipocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bricambert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of the study was to investigate the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs in adipocyte function associated with obesity and hypoxia. Methods: Total proteins and RNA were prepared from human visceral adipose tissues (VAT of human obese and normal weight subjects and from white adipose tissue (WAT of C57Bl6-Rj mice fed a normal or high fat diet (HFD for 16 weeks. HDAC activity was measured by colorimetric assay whereas the gene and protein expression were monitored by real-time PCR and by western blotting, respectively. RNA interference (RNAi was used to silence the expression of genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results: Total HDAC activity was decreased in VAT and WAT from obese individuals and from mice fed a HFD, respectively. The HDAC activity reduction was associated with decreased HDAC5/Hdac5 and HDAC6/Hdac6 expression in human and mice adipocyte fraction. Similarly, hypoxia hampered total Hdac activity and reduced the expression of Hdac5 and Hdac6 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The decrease of both Hdac5 and Hdac6 by hypoxia was associated with altered expression of adipokines and of the inducible cAMP early repressor (Icer, a key repressor that is defective in human and mice obesity. Silencing of Icer in adipocytes reproduced the changes in adipokine levels under hypoxia and obesity, suggesting a causative effect. Finally, modeling the defect of the two Hdacs in adipocytes by RNAi or selective inhibitors mimicked the effects of hypoxia on the expression of Icer, leading to impairment of insulin-induced glucose uptake. Conclusion: Hdac5 and Hdac6 expression are required for the adequate expression of Icer and adipocyte function. Altered adipose expression of the two Hdacs in obesity by hypoxia may contribute to the development of metabolic abnormalities. Keywords: Histone deacetylases, Adipocytes, Adipokines, Obesity, Insulin resistance

  6. Compounds of psoriasis with obesity and overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independent risk factor for its development and is associated with a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the reduction of body weight, using low-calorie diet combined with exercise, reduces the severity of psoriasis.Visceral adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17 and adipokines (adiponectin, omentin, chemerin. They participate in the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and consequently of the cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages of visceral adipose tissue have a special role and they increase significantly in obesity. They are responsible for the development of inflammation in adipose tissue and produce inflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-6, Il-8, Il-17, Il-18, MCP-1 and other adipokines: resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4. This explains the concept of «psoriatic march «and observations of the frequent coexistence of psoriasis with obesity. Inflammation associated with systemic disease, fanned by pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines produced by the visceral adipose tissue lead to the development of insulin resistance, endothelial cell damage. Endothelial dysfunction predisposes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and faster development of cardiovascular events. Complication of obesity is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which states twice as likely in patients with plaque psoriasis and is associated with the severity of the disease. Another consequence is the development of depression. Probably the proinflammatory cytokines can interact with metabolism of neurotransmitters. Obesity also has a significant impact on the treatment of psoriasis, increasing the risk of adverse effects of systemic drugs, reducing the efficacy of biological agents which dose should be adjusted to the weight of

  7. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2...... diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned...

  8. Metabolic Effects of Obesity and Its Interaction with Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...

  10. Progranulin as a biomarker and potential therapeutic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Vanessa; Pino, Jesús; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Lago, Francisca; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel Angel; Mera, Antonio; Gómez, Rodolfo; Mobasheri, Ali; Gualillo, Oreste

    2017-10-01

    Progranulin is a cysteine-rich secreted protein with diverse pleiotropic actions and participates in several processes, such as inflammation or tumorigenesis. Progranulin was first identified as a growth factor and, recently, it was characterised as an adipokine implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and rheumatic disease. At a central level, progranulin acts as a neurotropic and neuroprotective factor and protects from neural degeneration. In this review, we summarise the most recent research advances concerning the potential role of progranulin as a therapeutic target and biomarker in cancer, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    OpenAIRE

    Anna A. De Boer; Jennifer M. Monk; Jennifer M. Monk; Danyelle M. Liddle; Krista A. Power; David W.L. Ma; Lindsay E. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an es...

  12. Pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia represents a major problem for older persons leading to weight loss, sarcopenia, functional decline, and mortality. There is increasing information on the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to anorexia. Increasing evidence has shown the importance of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, cholecystokinin, and glucagon-like peptide) and adipokines in producing the anorexia of aging. Numerous neurotransmitters have been shown to be involved in this aging anorexia, but evidence in humans is lacking. The early recognition of anorexia of aging is important to allow intervention and prevent functional deterioration in older persons. Screening tests for anorexia have been developed. New approaches to managing anorexia are being tested.

  13. Obesity, Exercise and Orthopedic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Christopher W; Shmalberg, Justin W; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-09-01

    Osteoarthritis is common among aging canine and feline patients. The incidence and severity of clinical lameness are closely correlated to body condition in overweight and obese patients. Excessive adiposity may result in incongruous and excessive mechanical loading that worsens clinical signs in affected patients. Data suggest a potential link between adipokines, obesity-related inflammation, and a worsening of the underlying pathology. Similarly, abnormal physical stress and generalized systemic inflammation propagated by obesity contribute to neurologic signs associated with intervertebral disc disease. Weight loss and exercise are critical to ameliorating the pain and impaired mobility of affected animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Friedrichsen, Martin; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate...... expression was not associated with circulatory RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that RBP4 levels in plasma, skeletal muscle, and fat may be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a secondary and noncausal manner....

  15. Apelin Role in the Development of Glucose Metabolism Disorders (Review of the Literature and Our Own Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Demidenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological and pathogenetic role of adipokine apelin, endogenous ligand of apelin (APJ or APLNR receptors in the development of glucose metabolism disorders has been analyzed. Established correlations of apelin with components of carbohydrate metabolism confirm the effect on glucose metabolism manifestations. Ambiguous data about apelin level at insulin resistance syndrome, prediabetes, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension require further detailed study. The close association of apelin with development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prediction of cardiovascular events in patients with metabolic syndrome has been found.

  16. Inflammatory and Other Biomarkers: Role in Pathophysiology and Prediction of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Sally K.; De Courten, Barbora; Boyle, Jacqueline A.; Teede, Helena J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding pathophysiology and identifying mothers at risk of major pregnancy complications is vital to effective prevention and optimal management. However, in current antenatal care, understanding of pathophysiology of complications is limited. In gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), risk prediction is mostly based on maternal history and clinical risk factors and may not optimally identify high risk pregnancies. Hence, universal screening is widely recommended. Here, we will explore the literature on GDM and biomarkers including inflammatory markers, adipokines, endothelial function and lipids to advance understanding of pathophysiology and explore risk prediction, with a goal to guide prevention and treatment of GDM. PMID:26110385

  17. Imbalance in leptin-adiponectin levels and leptin receptor expression as chief contributors to triple negative breast cancer progression in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rizwana; Kataki, Amal Ch; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Basumatary, Tarun K; Bose, Sujoy

    2017-07-20

    Triple-Negative breast cancer (TNBC), accounts for a large percentage of breast cancer cases in India including Northeast India. TNBC has an unclear molecular aetiology and hence limited targeted therapies. Human breast is comprised of glandular, ductal, connective, and adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes. The adipocytes apart from being energy storage depots, are also active sources of adipocytokines and/or adipokines. The role of adipokines in breast cancer including TNBC has been sporadically documented. Two adipokines in particular, leptin and adiponectin, have come to be recognized for their influence on breast cancer risk and tumour biology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the association of differential expression of critical adipokines and associated cellular mechanism in the susceptibility and severity of TNBC in northeast Indian population. We collected 68 TNBC and 63 controls cases and examined for serum leptin and adiponectin levels using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Leptin Receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Differential Ob-R mRNA expression and correlation with cancer stem cell (CSC) markers was evaluated, and correlated with severity. The serum leptin levels were significantly associated with TNBC severity, while the adiponectin levels were comparative. The serum leptin levels correlated inversely with the adiponetin levels. Serum leptin levels were unaffected with difference in parity. The difference in leptin levels in pre and post menopausal cases were found to be statistically non-significant. Higher leptin levels were also found to be associated obesity, mortality and recurrence. Obesity was found to be a factor for TNBC pathogenesis and severity. Increased Ob-R mRNA expression was associated with TNBC, significantly with TNBC severity, and was significantly higher in obese patients with higher grade TNBC cases. The Ob-R gene

  18. An update on the pathogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism in hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    with abdominal obesity and increased secretion of interleukins, chemokines, and adipokines. PCOS is therefore associated with an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Patients with hirsutism present with increased bone mineral density despite decreased D-vitamin levels. The etiology...... to hirsutism and PCOS is most likely multifactorial including both genetic and environmental factors such as increased fetal stress and intrauterine growth retardation. In the present review, we give a comprehensive overview of the pathophysiology and multiple endocrine disturbances of hirsutism and PCOS....

  19. Adipose, bone and muscle tissues as new endocrine organs: role of reciprocal regulation for osteoporosis and obesity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Silvia; Greco, Emanuela A; Wannenes, Francesca; Donini, Lorenzo M; Lenzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has recently been revised. In fact, the latest epidemiologic and clinical studies show that a high level of fat mass, but also reduced muscle mass, might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Furthermore, increasing evidence seems to indicate that different components such as myokines, adipokines and growth factors, released by both fat and muscle tissues, could play a key role in the regulation of skeletal health and in low bone mineral density and, thus, in osteoporosis development. This review considers old and recent data in the literature to further evaluate the relationship between fat, bone and muscle tissue.

  20. [Omentin: Role in insulin resistance, inflammation and cardiovascular protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Adrián; Arana-Martínez, Julio C; Carbó, Roxana; Espinosa-Cervantes, Román; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    The omentin is an adipokine, which role is due to the capacity of regulate metabolic (insulin sensitivity) and anti-inflammatory activities, thus conferring vascular protection during obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. By this, it is important to know the mechanisms by which omentin confers cardiovascular protection, with the purpose of establish omentin a possible therapeutic target or molecule on this scenario. Copyright © 2015 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. [Biological role of fetuin A and its potential importance for prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horshuns'ka, M Iu; Karachentsev, Iu I; Kravchun, N O; Ĭensen, É; Leshchenko, Zh A; Hladkykh, O I; Krasova, N S; Tyzhnenko, T V; Opaleĭko, Iu A; Poltorak, V V

    2013-01-01

    The authors' data and those from literature concerning biological role of fetuin A glycoprotein have been generalized in the article. A direct correlation has been established between fetuin A and some adipokines involved in the formation of insulin resistance and atherogenesis (progranulin, omentin-1), and osteoprotegerin (the novel cardiovascular risk factor) as well as an increase of circulating levels of fetuin A in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with high cardiovascular risk metabolic pattern but without manifestations of macrovascular complications. This substantiates the involvement of fetuin A in the complex of biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis.

  2. Low adiponectin levels at baseline and decreasing adiponectin levels over 10 years of follow-up predict risk of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, S; Jensen, J S; Bjerre, Mette

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and may play a key role in the interplay between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus, this large population-based cohort investigated whether adiponectin at baseline and/or a decrease in adiponectin during......-up were inversely associated with an increase in the number of components of MetS (Pvs 7.0mg/L (95% CI: 6.3-7.9) for those with four to five components. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Low plasma...

  3. The effect of eight week interval acute training on plasma visfatin, TNF-α and IL-6 in rats: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Daryanoosh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipokines are peptides secreted by adipose tissue that affect whole-body energy metabolism. Exercise training exerts beneficial effects on adipose tissue. However, less is known regarding visfatin’s, IL-6 & TNF-α response to an interval acute training. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acute interval exercise on plasma visfatin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, in healthy female rats. Furthermore, correlate between changes probably these factors were also assessed.Methods: This study was conducted experimentally. Forty five female sprague dawley rat were randomly divided into three groups: pre test (n= 15, treadmill exercise (n= 15 and sedentary controls (n= 15. The acute alternative exercise consisted of treadmill running: 3 session/ week for 8 week. The changes of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and Visfatin levels were measured by ELISA analysis. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with measures (ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test.Results: Acute interval treadmill exercise led to significant decreases in visfatin (P= 0/036, IL-6 (P= 0/009 and TNF-α (P= 0/022 plasma levels between the groups. Also, this study no significant correlations between the changes in adipokines were observed.Conclusion: Decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 correlated with intensity and duration exercise. Furthermore, probably there were some factors except weight decreasing that affects on visfatin decrease. Therefore, the reduction of this factor may cause in preventing metabolic disease.

  4. Lack of evidence for intermolecular epistatic interactions between adiponectin and resistin gene polymorphisms in Malaysian male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cia-Hin Lau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epistasis (gene-gene interaction is a ubiquitous component of the genetic architecture of complex traits such as susceptibility to common human diseases. Given the strong negative correlation between circulating adiponectin and resistin levels, the potential intermolecular epistatic interactions between ADIPOQ (SNP+45T > G, SNP+276G > T, SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G and RETN (SNP-420C > G and SNP+299G > A gene polymorphisms in the genetic risk underlying type 2 diabetes (T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MS were assessed. The potential mutual influence of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels was also examined. The rare homozygous genotype (risk alleles of SNP-420C > G at the RETN locus tended to be co-inherited together with the common homozygous genotypes (protective alleles of SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G at the ADIPOQ locus. Despite the close structural relationship between the ADIPOQ and RETN genes, there was no evidence of an intermolecular epistatic interaction between these genes. There was also no reciprocal effect of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels, i.e., ADIPOQ did not affect resistin levels nor did RETN affect adiponectin levels. The possible influence of the ADIPOQ gene on RETN expression warrants further investigation.

  5. Life in the fat lane: seasonal regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake, and adipose biology in brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, K S; Gehring, J L; Evans Hutzenbiler, B D; Chen, A V; Nelson, O L; Vella, C A; Robbins, C T; Jansen, H T

    2017-05-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at different times of the year. We also used bear gluteal adipocyte cultures to test insulin and beta-adrenergic sensitivity in vitro. Bears were insulin resistant during hibernation but were sensitive during the spring and fall active periods. Hibernating bears remained euglycemic, possibly due to hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia. Adipokine concentrations were relatively low throughout the active season but peaked in mid-October prior to hibernation when fat content was greatest. Serum glycerol was highest during hibernation, indicating ongoing lipolysis. Centrally administered leptin reduced food intake in October, but not in August, revealing seasonal variation in the brain's sensitivity to its anorectic effects. This was supported by strong phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 labeling within the hypothalamus of hibernating bears; labeling virtually disappeared in active bears. Adipocytes collected during hibernation were insulin resistant when cultured with hibernation serum but became sensitive when cultured with active season serum. Heat treatment of active serum blocked much of this action. Clarifying the cellular mechanisms responsible for the physiology of hibernating bears may inform new treatments for metabolic disorders.

  6. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Sik eChoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue (WAT functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue (BAT accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secret various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic over-nutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  7. Adipo-Myokines: Two Sides of the Same Coin—Mediators of Inflammation and Mediators of Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja Raschke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current literature regarding the most discussed contraction-regulated moykines like IL-6, IL-15, irisin, BDNF, ANGPTL4, FGF21, myonectin and MCP-1. It is suggested that the term myokine is restricted to proteins secreted from skeletal muscle cells, excluding proteins that are secreted by other cell types in skeletal muscle tissue and excluding proteins which are only described on the mRNA level. Interestingly, many of the contraction-regulated myokines described in the literature are additionally known to be secreted by adipocytes. We termed these proteins adipo-myokines. Within this review, we try to elaborate on the question why pro-inflammatory adipokines on the one hand are upregulated in the obese state, and have beneficial effects after exercise on the other hand. Both, adipokines and myokines do have autocrine effects within their corresponding tissues. In addition, they are involved in an endocrine crosstalk with other tissues. Depending on the extent and the kinetics of adipo-myokines in serum, these molecules seem to have a beneficial or an adverse effect on the target tissue.

  8. rs10767664 Gene Variant in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Caucasian Females with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Romero, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants on diabetes prevalence, basal adipokine levels, body weight, and cardiovascular risk factors remains unclear in obese patients. This study is aimed at analyzing the effects of rs10767664 BDNF gene polymorphism on diabetes mellitus prevalence, body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, and serum adipokine levels in obese female patients. A total of 507 obese women were enrolled in a prospective way. Biochemical evaluation and anthropometric measures were recorded. The frequency of diabetes mellitus in the group of patients with non-T allele was 20.1 and 28.3% in T-allele carriers. Logistic regression showed a risk of diabetes mellitus of 1.33 (95% CI 1.17-2.08) in subjects with T allele adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI). T-allele carriers with diabetes mellitus have a higher weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels than non-T-allele carriers. rs10767664 polymorphism of BDNF gene is associated with prevalence of diabetes mellitus in obese female patients. T-allele carriers with diabetes mellitus have a higher weight, fat mass, blood pressure, level of insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and CRP than non-T-allele carriers. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Quercetin Impacts Expression of Metabolism- and Obesity-Associated Genes in SGBS Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Leiherer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the rapid expansion of visceral adipose tissue, resulting in a hypoxic environment in adipose tissue which leads to a profound change of gene expression in adipocytes. As a consequence, there is a dysregulation of metabolism and adipokine secretion in adipose tissue leading to the development of systemic inflammation and finally resulting in the onset of metabolic diseases. The flavonoid quercetin as well as other secondary plant metabolites also referred to as phytochemicals have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects known to be protective in view of obesity-related-diseases. Nevertheless, its underlying molecular mechanism is still obscure and thus the focus of this study was to explore the influence of quercetin on human SGBS (Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome adipocytes’ gene expression. We revealed for the first time that quercetin significantly changed expression of adipokine (Angptl4, adipsin, irisin and PAI-1 and glycolysis-involved (ENO2, PFKP and PFKFB4 genes, and that this effect not only antagonized but in part even overcompensated the effect mediated by hypoxia in adipocytes. Thus, these results are explained by the recently proposed hypothesis that the protective effect of quercetin is not solely due to its free radical-scavenging activity but also to a direct effect on mitochondrial processes, and they demonstrate that quercetin might have the potential to counteract the development of obesity-associated complications.

  10. Impact of the cardiovascular system-associated adipose tissue on atherosclerotic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Grechko, Andrey V; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances. Adipokine appears to play an important protective role in cardiovascular system. Under chronic inflammation conditions, the repertoire of signaling molecules secreted by cardiac fat can be altered, leading to a higher amount of pro-inflammatory messengers, vasoconstrictors, profibrotic modulators. This further aggravates cardiovascular inflammation and leads to hypertension, induction of the pathological tissue remodeling and cardiac fibrosis. Contemporary imaging techniques showed that epicardial fat thickness correlates with the visceral fat mass, which is an established risk factor and predictor of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects. However, this correlation is no longer present after adjustment for other covariates. Nevertheless, recent studies showed that pericardial fat volume and epicardial fat thickness can probably serve as a better indicator for atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Progranulin is increased in human and murine lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehle, Konstanze; Ebert, Thomas; Kralisch, Susan; Hoffmann, Annett; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Schlögl, Haiko; Stumvoll, Michael; Fasshauer, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    Lipodystrophies (LD) are genetic or acquired disorders sharing the symptom of partial or complete adipose tissue deficiency and a dysregulation of adipokines including leptin and adiponectin. Progranulin, an adipokine with proinflammatory and insulin resistance-inducing characteristics, has not been investigated in LD so far. Circulating progranulin was determined in LD patients (N=37) and in age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched healthy control subjects (N=37). Additionally, we investigated progranulin expression in an LD mouse model as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, we elucidated circulating progranulin before and during metreleptin supplementation in 10 patients with LD. Median [interquartile range] circulating progranulin was increased in patients with LD (82.9 [25.9] μg/l) as compared to controls (73.6 [22.8] μg/l) (p=0.005). C-reactive protein (CRP) remained an independent and positive predictor of progranulin in multivariate analysis. Progranulin mRNA was significantly upregulated in all adipose tissue depots, i.e. visceral, subcutaneous, and brown adipose tissue, and in muscle of LD animals versus wild-type mice. Progranulin levels did not significantly change during metreleptin supplementation. Progranulin serum concentration is increased in patients with LD, and shows an independent and positive correlation with CRP. Different adipose tissue depots and muscle might be potential origins of elevated progranulin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Progranulin inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, A M; Al-Masri, A A; El Eter, E A; Hersi, A; Lateef, R; Mawlana, O

    2018-05-01

    Several adipokines secreted by adipose tissue have an anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic function. Recently identified adipokine progranulin was found to play a protective role in atherosclerosis. Bearing in mind the central role of platelets in inflammation and atherosclerosis, we aimed, in this study, to examine the effect of progranulin on platelet function and coagulation profile in rats. Healthy male albino Wistar rats weighing (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups. Three groups were given increasing doses of progranulin (0.001 µg, 0.01 µg, and 0.1 µg) intraperitoneally, while the control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and platelet aggregation responses to adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid were assessed. Administration of progranulin resulted in a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to both adenosine diphosphate, and arachidonic acid. Bleeding time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged in all groups that received progranulin, in particular, the 0.1 µg dose, in comparison to the control group. This preliminary data is first suggesting that the antiplatelet and anticoagulant action of progranulin could have a physiological protective function against thrombotic disorders associated with obesity and atherosclerosis. However, these results merit further exploration.

  13. Adipocytes properties and crosstalk with immune system in obesity-related inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizi, Giulia; Della Guardia, Lucio; Maurizi, Angela; Poloni, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a condition likely associated with several dysmetabolic conditions or worsening of cardiovascular and other chronic disturbances. A key role in this mechanism seem to be played by the onset of low-grade systemic inflammation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between adipocytes and immune system cells. Adipocytes express a complex and highly adaptive biological profile being capable to selectively activate different metabolic pathways in order to respond to environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated how adipocytes, under appropriate stimulation, can easily differentiate and de-differentiate thereby converting themselves into different phenotypes according to metabolic necessities. Although underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, growing in adipocyte size and the inability of storing triglycerides under overfeeding conditions seem to be crucial for the switching to a dysfunctional metabolic profile, which is characterized by inflammatory and apoptotic pathways activation, and by the shifting to pro-inflammatory adipokines secretion. In obesity, changes in adipokines secretion along with adipocyte deregulation and fatty acids release into circulation contribute to maintain immune cells activation as well as their infiltration into regulatory organs. Over the well-established role of macrophages, recent findings suggest the involvement of new classes of immune cells such as T regulatory lymphocytes and neutrophils in the development inflammation and multi systemic worsening. Deeply understanding the pathways of adipocyte regulation and the de-differentiation process could be extremely useful for developing novel strategies aimed at curbing obesity-related inflammation and related metabolic disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Maternal Serum and Breast Milk Adiponectin: The Association with Infant Adiposity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhazlina Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in Malaysia. Metabolic changes during pregnancy are critical to the development of infant adiposity, due to imbalanced adipokines production. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast milk adipokines with infant adiposity development. The study was conducted from April 2010 until December 2012. A total of 155 healthy pregnant mothers aged 19 to 40 years were recruited during the first and second trimester in Kelantan, Malaysia. Data consisted of maternal sociodemographic details, anthropometry and clinical biochemistry analysis; and the infant’s anthropometry and feeding patterns. Maternal fasting serum and breast milk samples were analysed for adiponectin and leptin levels. Data collection was performed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and continued with follow-up visits at birth, two, six, and 12 months postpartum. Multiple linear regression (MLR analyses were performed to examine the associations between maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin and leptin and infant adiposity development. MLR models showed that, in the first year, as maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin increased, infant weight, BMI-for-age Z scores and abdominal circumference significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Maternal serum and/or breast milk adiponectin was associated with first-year infant adiposity development.

  15. Extracellular visfatin activates gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells through the classical PKA/CREB-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y J; Choi, S-E; Ha, E S; Kang, Y; Han, S J; Kim, D J; Lee, K W; Kim, H J

    2014-04-01

    Adipokines reportedly affect hepatic gluconeogenesis, and the adipokine visfatin is known to be related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, whether visfatin contributes to hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Visfatin, also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), modulates sirtuin1 (SIRT1) through the regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of extracellular visfatin on glucose production in HepG2 cells, and evaluated whether extracellular visfatin affects hepatic gluconeogenesis via an NAD+-SIRT1-dependent pathway. Treatment with visfatin significantly increased glucose production and the mRNA expression and protein levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in HepG2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Knockdown of SIRT1 had no remarkable effect on the induction of gluconeogenesis by visfatin. Subsequently, we evaluated if extracellular visfatin stimulates the production of gluconeogenic enzymes through the classical protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB)-dependent process. The phosphorylation of CREB and PKA increased significantly in HepG2 cells treated with visfatin. Additionally, knockdown of CREB and PKA inhibited visfatin-induced gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. In summary, extracellular visfatin modulates glucose production in HepG2 cells through the PKA/CREB pathway, rather than via SIRT1 signaling. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Moderate effects of apple juice consumption on obesity-related markers in obese men: impact of diet-gene interaction on body fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Stephan W; Koch, Tatiana C L; Watzl, Bernhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Bub, Achim

    2012-10-01

    The effect of polyphenol-rich cloudy apple juice (CloA) consumption on plasma parameters related to the obesity phenotype and potential effects of interactions between CloA and allelic variants in obesity candidate genes were assessed in obese men. In this controlled, randomized, and parallel study, n = 68, non-smoking, non-diabetic men with a BMI ≥27 kg/m(2) received 750 mL/day CloA (802.5 mg polyphenols) or 750 mL/day control beverage (CB, isocaloric equivalent to CloA) for 4 weeks. Further, study participants were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PPARγ (rs1801282), UCP3 (rs1800849), IL-6 (rs1800795), FABP2 (rs1799883), INSIG2 (rs7566605), and PGC1 (rs8192678) genes. At the beginning and at the end of intervention plasma lipids, distinct adipokines and cytokines as well as anthropometric parameters were determined. CloA compared to CB had no significant effect on plasma lipids, plasma adipokine and cytokine levels, BMI, and waist circumference. However, CloA consumption significantly reduced percent body fat compared to CB (∆ % body fat: CloA: -1.0 ± 1.3 vs. CB: -0.2 ± 0.9, p diet-gene interaction might be a first indication for the impact of individual genetic background on CloA-mediated bioactivity on obesity-associated comorbidities.

  17. New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Nigro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”, on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  18. Impact of Growth Hormone on Regulation of Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troike, Katie M; Henry, Brooke E; Jensen, Elizabeth A; Young, Jonathan A; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2017-06-18

    Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output. We will provide an overview of GH structure and function and define several human conditions and cognate mouse lines with extremes in GH action that have helped shape our understanding of GH and AT. A detailed discussion of the GH/AT relationship will be included that addresses adipokine production, immune cell populations, lipid metabolism, senescence, differentiation, and fibrosis, as well as brown AT and beiging of white AT. A brief overview of how GH levels are altered in an obese state, and the efficacy of GH as a therapeutic option to manage obesity will be given. As we will reveal, the effects of GH on AT are numerous, dynamic and depot-dependent. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:819-840, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lena Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High adiponectin/leptin ratio may be protective from metabolic risks imparted by high triglyceride, low HDL, and insulin resistance. Methods. This cross-sectional study examines plasma adipokine levels in 428 adult men who were subgrouped according to low (<6.5 μg/mLand high (≥6.5 μg/mLadiponectin levels or a low or high ratio of adiponectin/leptin. Results. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower plasma triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol than those with low ratio. Similarly, those with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and HOMA2-IR than those with low ratio. In contrast, levels of adiponectin or the ratio of adiponectin/leptin did not associate with systolic blood pressure. But the ratio of adiponectin/leptin decreased progressively with the increase in the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Adipokine levels may reflect adipose tissue triglyceride storage capacity and insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an index of fat mass, and adiponectin is a biomarker of triglyceride metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratios have better triglyceride profile and insulin sensitivity than men with a low ratio regardless of waist girth.

  20. Good, Bad, or Ugly: the Biological Roles of Bone Marrow Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshman; Tyagi, Sonia; Myers, Damian; Duque, Gustavo

    2018-04-01

    Bone marrow fat expresses mixed characteristics, which could correspond to white, brown, and beige types of fat. Marrow fat could act as either energy storing and adipokine secreting white fat or as a source of energy for hematopoiesis and bone metabolism, thus acting as brown fat. However, there is also a negative interaction between marrow fat and other elements of the bone marrow milieu, which is known as lipotoxicity. In this review, we will describe the good and bad roles of marrow fat in the bone, while focusing on the specific components of the negative effect of marrow fat on bone metabolism. Lipotoxicity in the bone is exerted by bone marrow fat through the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFA) (predominantly palmitate). High levels of FFA found in the bone marrow of aged and osteoporotic bone are associated with decreased osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, decreased hematopoiesis, and increased osteoclastogenesis. In addition, FFA such as palmitate and stearate induce apoptosis and dysfunctional autophagy in the osteoblasts, thus affecting their differentiation and function. Regulation of marrow fat could become a therapeutic target for osteoporosis. Inhibition of the synthesis of FFA by marrow fat could facilitate osteoblastogenesis and bone formation while affecting osteoclastogenesis. However, further studies testing this hypothesis are still required.

  1. No association of defined variability in leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, proopiomelanocortin and ghrelin gene with food preferences in the Czech population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienertova-Vasku, Julie; Bienert, Petr; Tomandl, Josef; Forejt, Martin; Vavrina, Martin; Kudelkova, Jana; Vasku, Anna

    2008-02-01

    Previously, it has been reported that mutations in the genes encoding for adipokines may be associated with impaired food intake and may serve as potential obesity biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible associations of defined variability in leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, proopiomelanocortin and ghrelin genes with food preferences in the obese and non-obese Czech population and evaluate their potential as the obesity susceptibility genes. Using PCR followed by restriction analysis, we studied 185 volunteers. Basic anthropometrical characteristics associated to obesity were measured and the food intake was monitored using a 7-day record method. In the group of obese individuals, a subset of 34 morbidly obese patients was studied for plasma leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels. None of the examined polymorphisms was associated to anthropometrical or demographic characteristics of the study subjects. The Gln223Arg polymorphism within the leptin receptor gene was significantly associated with lower plasma leptin levels (the RR genotype being more frequent in patients with lower plasma leptin levels; P = 0.001). No associations of the examined polymorphisms with food preferences was observed. Based on our results, the examined polymorphisms in the adipokine genes do not seem to be the major risk factor for obesity development in the Czech population nor significantly affect food preferences.

  2. Discovery of potential visfatin activators using in silico docking and ADME predictions as therapy for type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin (Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase is an adipokine implicated in mediating insulin resistance and exhibiting insulin mimetic effect and therefore represents a druggable target for diabetes therapy. About 3,844 peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonists documented in Chembl database were docked with PPARγ and those with binding energy of >−9 kcal/mol having experimental EC50 of 0.1 to 1 nM were selected. The candidate compounds (27 were thereafter docked with visfatin (PDB ID: 4WQ6 using AutodockVina out of which eight compounds that ranked highest in binding energy (when compared with the co-crystallized ligand of visfatin: 3TQ were selected. Compound 25 exhibited favorable ligand-protein molecular interaction and respected Lipinski’s rule of five and interestingly from the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME-Toxicity analysis the compound have enhanced pharmacological properties than the current ligand of visfatin. Keywords: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, Visfatin molecular docking, Type 2 diabetes, Adipokines

  3. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut-brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  4. The emerging role of incretins in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Mirošević

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of insulin resistance (IR comprises a complex adipokine-mediated crosstalk between white adipose tissue and other organs. Although it is a prominent feature of Type 2 diabetes, a certain degree of IR also exists in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Incretins are gut derived hormones secreted into the circulation in response to nutrient ingestion that enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. One of the main incretin hormones is glucagon-like peptide-1. It is degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 minutes after secretion. The diminished “incretin effect” is recognized as a part of prediabetes, usually associated with IR. DPP-4, as a part of the incretin system, has recently been proposed as a novel adipokine linked to IR and DPP-4 activity is higher in T1DM patients compared to healthy controls; furthermore, it correlates with the degree of IR. The role of the incretin system, with special emphasis on DPP-4, merits further evaluation because it might offer an insulin add-on therapeutic approach in the metabolic control of T1DM.

  5. Fisetin up-regulates the expression of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the activation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1)-deacetylase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Taewon; Kim, Oh Yoen; Shin, Min-Jeong; Choi, Eun Young; Lee, Sung Sook; Han, Ye Sun; Chung, Ji Hyung

    2014-10-29

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, has been described as showing physiological benefits against obesity-related malfunctions and vascular dysfunction. Several natural compounds that promote the expression and secretion of adipokines in adipocytes could be useful for treating metabolic disorders. This study investigated the effect of fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, on the regulation of adiponectin in adipocytes using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The expression and secretion of adiponectin increased in 3T3-L1 cells upon treatment with fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. Fisetin-induced adiponectin secretion was inhibited by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) antagonists. It was also revealed that fisetin increased the activities of PPARs and silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the up-regulation of adiponectin and the activation of PPARs induced by fisetin were prevented by a SIRT1 inhibitor. Fisetin also promoted deacetylation of PPAR γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1) and its interaction with PPARs. SIRT knockdown by siRNA significantly decreased both adiponectin production and PPARs-PGC-1 interaction. These results provide evidence that fisetin promotes the gene expression of adiponectin through the activation of SIRT1 and PPARs in adipocytes.

  6. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Reynolds

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut–brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  7. Leptin and adiponectin in the female life course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Lecke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue secretes a variety of adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, which are involved in endocrine processes regulating glucose and fatty metabolism, energy expenditure, inflammatory response, immunity, cardiovascular function, and reproduction. The present article describes the fluctuations in circulating leptin and adiponectin as well as their patterns of secretion in women from birth to menopause. During pregnancy, leptin and adiponectin seem to act in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the placenta and adipose tissue, playing a role in the maternal-fetal interface and contributing to glucose metabolism and fetal development. In newborns, adiponectin levels are two to three times higher than in adults. Full-term newborns have significantly higher leptin and adiponectin levels than preterms, whereas small-for-gestational-age infants have lower levels of these adipokines than adequate-for-gestational-age newborns. However, with weight gain, leptin concentrations increase significantly. Children between 5 and 8 years of age experience an increase in leptin and a decrease in adiponectin regardless of body mass index, with a reversal of the newborn pattern for adiponectin: plasma adiponectin levels at age five are inversely correlated with percentage of body fat. In puberty, leptin plays a role in the regulation of menstrual cycles. In adults, it has been suggested that obese individuals exhibit both leptin resistance and decreased serum adiponectin levels. In conclusion, a progressive increase in adiposity throughout life seems to influence the relationship between leptin and adiponectin in women.

  8. Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-induced mouse model of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaqin; Wu, Zhihong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xiang, Rong

    2016-06-08

    Obesity, which is characteristic by chronic inflammation, is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese state and is known to be strongly associated with chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ER stress on adipokine secretion in obese mice and explore the potential mechanisms. In this study, we found high-fat diet induced-obesity contributed to strengthened ER stress and triggered chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Chemical chaperones, 4-PBA and TUDCA, modified metabolic disorders and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The alleviation of ER stress is in accordance with the decrease of free cholesterol in adipose tissue. Furthermore chemical chaperones suppress NF-κB activity in adipose tissue of obese mice in vivo. In vitro studies showed IKK/NF-κB may be involved in the signal transduction of adipokine secretion dysfunction induced by ER stress. The present study revealed the possibility that inhibition of ER stress may be a novel drug target for metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. Further studies are now needed to characterize the initial incentive of sustained ER stress in obese.

  9. OXIDATIVE STRESS: ITS ROLE IN INSULIN SECRETION, HORMONE RECEPTION BY ADIPOCYTES AND LIPOLYSIS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathogenetic components of many diseases during which generation of reactive oxigen species increases and the capacity of the antioxidant protection system diminishes. In the research of the last decades special attention has been given to adipose tissue, production of adipokines by it and their role in development of immunoresistance associated with formation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.Search for methods of therapeutic correction of adipokine secretion disorders, their influence on metabolism of separate cells and the organism on the whole as well as development of new approaches to correction of disorders in cell sensitivity to insulin are extremely topical nowadays. Systematization and consolidation of accumulated data allow to determine the strategies of further research more accurately; as a result, we have attempted to summarize and analyze the accumulated data on the role of adipose tissue in oxidative stress development.On the basis of literature data and the results of the personal investigations, the role of adipose tissue in forming oxidative stress in diabetes has been analyzed in the article. Brief description of adipose tissue was given as a secretory organ regulating metabolic processes in adipocytes and influencing functions of various organs and systems of the body. Mechanisms of disorder in insulin secretion as well as development of insulin sesistance in type I diabetes were described along with the contribution of lipolysis in adipose tissue to these processes.

  10. Omentin-1 Stimulates Human Osteoblast Proliferation through PI3K/Akt Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been presumed that adipokines deriving from adipose tissue may play important roles in bone metabolism. Omentin-1, a novel adipokine, which is selectively expressed in visceral adipose tissue, has been reported to stimulate proliferation and inhibit differentiation of mouse osteoblast. However, little information refers to the effect of omentin-1 on human osteoblast (hOB proliferation. The current study examined the potential effects of omentin-1 on proliferation in hOB and the signal pathway involved. Omentin-1 promoted hOB proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Western blot analysis revealed that omentin-1 induced activation of Akt (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase downstream effector and such effect was impeded by transfection of hOB with Akt-siRNA. Furthermore, LY294002 (a selective PI3K inhibitor and HIMO (a selective Akt inhibitor abolished the omentin-1-induced hOB proliferation. These findings indicate that omentin-1 induces hOB proliferation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and suggest that osteoblast is a direct target of omentin-1.

  11. The Role of Vaspin in the Development of Metabolic and Glucose Tolerance Disorders and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyana Dimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most research efforts have been focused on studying insulin-sensitizing adipokines. One of the most recently discovered adipokines is vaspin, a visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor. Vaspin levels have been found significantly increased in mice with obesity and insulin resistance. It has been assumed that vaspin serves as an insulin sensitizer with anti-inflammatory effects and might act as a compensatory mechanism in response to decreased insulin sensitivity. Most studies in humans have shown a positive correlation between vaspin gene expression and serum levels, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Vaspin gene expression is influenced by age and gender, and the administration of insulin sensitizers enhances it in mice, whereas the use of metformin decreases serum vaspin levels in humans, probably due to different regulatory mechanisms. Presumably vaspin plays local and endocrine role in the development of initial and advanced atherosclerosis in obese subjects and might be used as a predictor of coronary and cerebrovascular disease. It is believed that vaspin could be regarded as a new link between obesity and related metabolic disorders, including glucose intolerance. The entire understanding of vaspin intimate mechanism of action might enable the development of novel etiology-based treatment strategies, targeting metabolic and glucose tolerance disorders.

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Capobianco, Giampiero; Delitala, Giuseppe; Cherchi, Pier Luigi; Dessole, Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A detailed literature search on Pubmed was done for articles about PCOS, adipokines, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Original articles, reviews, and meta-analysis were included. PCOS women are prone to visceral fat hypertrophy in the presence of androgen excess and the presence of these conditions is related to insulin resistance and worsens the PCO phenotype. Disturbed secretion of many adipocyte-derived substances (adipokines) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and contributes to insulin resistance. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulate ovarian and adrenal androgen production, and may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, thus creating a vicious cycle. The high prevalence of metabolic disorders mainly related to insulin resistance and CVD risk factors in women with PCOS highlight the need for early lifestyle changes for reducing metabolic risks in these patients.

  13. The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha and Resistin in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkady, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common liver diseases. It is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is thought to be a part of the metabolic syndrome. It can progress from simple fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Adipocytokines, synthesized in adipose tissue, are involved in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and their correlation to the severity of the disease. Serum concentration of TNF-alpha and resistin were measured in 20 patients with NAFLD and 20 healthy controls with ELISA method. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of both adipokines were significantly elevated in NAFLD patients than controls (P<0.01). Moreover, they were significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis than in patients with simple fatty liver. There was a significant positive correlation between TNF-alpha, resistin and each of AST, ALT and HOMA. Similarly, the results showed a significant positive correlation between the two studied adipokines, TNF-alpha and resistin (P<0.001). We conclude that TNF-alpha and resistin have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and they may be promising markers for the progressin to steatohepatitis and inhibition of their activities by drugs may be a new approach for the treatment of NAFLD

  14. Dichotomous roles of leptin and adiponectin as enforcers against lipotoxicity during feast and famine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Roger H; Scherer, Philipp E; Holland, William L

    2013-10-01

    Science is marked by the death of dogmas; the discovery that adipocytes are more than just lipid-storing cells but rather produce potent hormones is one such example that caught physiologists by surprise and reshaped our views of metabolism. While we once considered the adipocyte as a passive storage organ for efficient storage of long-term energy reserves in the form of triglyceride, we now appreciate the general idea (once a radical one) that adipocytes are sophisticated enough to have potent endocrine functions. Over the past two decades, the discoveries of these adipose-derived factors ("adipokines") and their mechanistic actions have left us marveling at and struggling to understand the role these factors serve in physiology and the pathophysiology of obesity and diabetes. These hormones may serve an integral role in protecting nonadipose tissues from lipid-induced damage during nutrient-deprived or replete states. As such, adipocytes deliver not only potentially cytotoxic free fatty acids but, along with these lipids, antilipotoxic adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 that potently eliminate excessive local accumulation of these lipids or their conversion to unfavorable sphingolipid intermediates.

  15. Cereal based diets modulate some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mano Mark

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control. After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1. Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06. Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  16. Integrated Haematological Profiles of Redox Status, Lipid, and Inflammatory Protein Biomarkers in Benign Obesity and Unhealthy Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lubrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of obesity (OB and metabolic syndrome (MetS implies free radical-, oxidized lipid- (LOOH-, and inflammatory cytokine-mediated altered pathways in target organs. Key elements of the transition from benign OB to unhealthy OB+MetS remain unclear. Here, we measured a panel of redox, antioxidant, and inflammation markers in the groups of OB patients (67 with, 45 without MetS and 90 controls. Both OB groups displayed elevated levels of adipokines and heavy oxidative stress (OS evidenced by reduced levels of glutathione, downregulated glutathione-S-transferase, increased 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, reactive oxygen species, and membrane-bound monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. Exclusively in OB+MetS, higher-than-normal glutathione peroxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were observed; a combination of high adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and MUFA was consistent with increased cardiovascular risk. The uncomplicated OB group showed features of adaptation to OS such as decreased levels of vitamin E, activated superoxide dismutase, and inhibited catalase, suggesting H2O2 hyperproduction. Proinflammatory cytokine pattern was normal, except few markers like RANTES, a suitable candidate for therapeutic approaches to prevent a setting of MetS by inhibition of LOOH-primed leukocyte chemotaxis/recruitment to target tissues.

  17. Tejido adiposo como glándula endocrina. Implicaciones fisiopatológicas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illovis Ramírez Arteaga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El tejido adiposo se considera en la actualidad como un órgano con importante función endocrina; distinguiéndose dos tipos: el pardo y el blanco. El tejido adiposo es capaz de secretar diversas sustancias conocidas como adipocinas que se encuentran implicadas en la regulación del peso corporal, en el sistema inmune, en la función vascular y en la sensibilidad insulínica. En la obesidad, principalmente visceral, se encuentran aumentadas las adipocinas proinflamatorias. Estas se asocian a la inflamación clínica y subclínica, a la insulinorresistencia, al estrés oxidativo y a la lesión endotelial; desarrollan un papel clave en el síndrome metabólico e incrementan el riesgo cardiometabólico. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica ha sido exponer las características morfofuncionales del tejido adiposo y los mecanismos que lo vinculan con la génesis de diversas enfermedades.

    ADIPOSE TISSUE AS AN ENDOCRINE GLAND. PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS.

    Adipose tissue is currently recognized as an organ with an important endocrine function. Two main types of adipose tissue are distinguished: the brown and the white. Adipose tissue can secrete a variety of substances known as adipokines that are implicated in the regulation of body weight, the immune system and the vascular functioning and the insulin sensitivity. In cases of obesity (mainly visceral obesity, proinflammatory adipokines are increased. They are commonly associated with clinical and subclinical inflammation, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and endothelial injury. Proinflammatory adipokines also play a key role in the metabolic syndrome and increase cardiometabolic risk. The present review is aimed at exposing the morphofunctional characteristics of adipose tissue and the mechanisms that link this tissue to the origin of a variety

  18. The impact of obesity towards prostate diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyandra Parikesit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has supported obesity as a risk factor for both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa. Obesity causes several mechanisms including increased intra-abdominal pressure, altered endocrine status, increased sympathetic nervous activity, increased inflammation process, and oxidative stress, all of which are favorable in the development of BPH. In PCa, there are several different mechanisms, such as decreased serum testosterone, peripheral aromatization of androgens, insulin resistance, and altered adipokine secretion caused by inflammation, which may precipitate the development of and even cause high-grade PCa. The role of obesity in prostatitis still remains unclear. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate disease and adiposity could allow the development of new therapeutic markers, prognostic indicators, and drug targets. This review was made to help better understanding of the association between central obesity and prostate diseases, such as prostatitis, BPH, and PCa.

  19. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  20. Obesity and Cancer Metabolism: A Perspective on Interacting Tumor-Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerstling, Steven S; O'Flanagan, Ciara H; Hursting, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk and poor prognosis of many types of cancers. Several obesity-related host factors involved in systemic metabolism can influence tumor initiation, progression, and/or response to therapy, and these have been implicated as key contributors to the complex effects of obesity on cancer incidence and outcomes. Such host factors include systemic metabolic regulators including insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, adipokines, inflammation-related molecules, and steroid hormones, as well as the cellular and structural components of the tumor microenvironment, particularly adipose tissue. These secreted and structural host factors are extrinsic to, and interact with, the intrinsic metabolic characteristics of cancer cells to influence their growth and spread. This review will focus on the interplay of these tumor cell-intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the context of energy balance, with the objective of identifying new intervention targets for preventing obesity-associated cancer.

  1. Clinical implications of adipocytokines and newly emerging metabolic factors with relation to insulin resistance and cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hee eChoi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is known to secrete hormones actively and produces many biologically active proteins called adipocytokines. Typically, obesity is followed by low-grade inflammation, which is characterized by increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Macrophages play a role in the inflammatory process by secreting many cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, resistin and retinol binding protein-4. These cytokines and chemokines participate in low grade pro-inflammatory processes leading to insulin resistance, metabolic impairment and cardiovascular diseases. More metabolic regulators, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF21, FGF19, FGF1, vaspin and visfatin have now been discovered but their exact roles in human diseases are still unclear. This review focuses on recent research regarding the role of adipokines and new metabolic factors in metabolic derangement or cardiovascular disease.

  2. Epigenetic programming of obesity and diabetes by in utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchat, Stephanie-May; Hivert, Marie-France; Bouchard, Luigi

    2013-10-01

    It is now well accepted that offspring exposed to maternal undernutrition, obesity, or gestational diabetes mellitus have an increased risk for chronic diseases later in life, supporting the theory of the early origins of chronic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms through which the exposure to an altered in utero environment translates into the development of chronic diseases are not yet well understood. Recently reported promising results help to resolve this issue. They suggest that epigenetic modifications are a potential mechanism for fetal metabolic programming. This review provides an overview of the relationship between the exposure to an altered intrauterine environment and fetal metabolic programming, focusing on gestational diabetes mellitus and epigenetic variations at adipokine candidate genes. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. An Updated Mini Review of Vitamin D and Obesity: Adipogenesis and Inflammation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zujaja-Tul-Noor Hamid Mehmood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D related research continues to expand and theorise regarding its involvement in obesity, as both hypovitaminosis D and obesity strike in pandemic proportions. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune system through Vitamin D Receptors (VDR, which are transcription factors located abundantly in the body. Due to this characteristic, it is potentially linked to obesity, which is a state of inflammation involving the release of cytokines from adipose tissue, and exerting stress on other organs in a state of positive energy balance. Research trials in the past couple of years and systematic reviews from SCOPUS and MEDLINE will be discussed. The role of Vitamin D throughout the lifespan (from fetal imprinting until older age, and in various other obesity mediated chronic conditions shall be highlighted. Various mechanisms attributed to the inverse relationship of Vitamin D and obesity are discussed with research gaps identified, particularly the role of adipokines, epigenetics, calcium and type of adipose tissue.

  4. Intermittent Fasting Confers Protection in CNS Autoimmunity by Altering the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignarella, Francesca; Cantoni, Claudia; Ghezzi, Laura; Salter, Amber; Dorsett, Yair; Chen, Lei; Phillips, Daniel; Weinstock, George M; Fontana, Luigi; Cross, Anne H; Zhou, Yanjiao; Piccio, Laura

    2018-06-05

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common in western countries with diet being a potential contributing factor. Here we show that intermittent fasting (IF) ameliorated clinical course and pathology of the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). IF led to increased gut bacteria richness, enrichment of the Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae families and enhanced antioxidative microbial metabolic pathways. IF altered T cells in the gut with a reduction of IL-17 producing T cells and an increase in regulatory T cells. Fecal microbiome transplantation from mice on IF ameliorated EAE in immunized recipient mice on a normal diet, suggesting that IF effects are at least partially mediated by the gut flora. In a pilot clinical trial in MS patients, intermittent energy restriction altered blood adipokines and the gut flora resembling protective changes observed in mice. In conclusion, IF has potent immunomodulatory effects that are at least partially mediated by the gut microbiome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  6. Cutting edge: Leptin-induced RORγt expression in CD4+ T cells promotes Th17 responses in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiyun; Liu, Yaoyang; Shi, Fu-Dong; Zou, Hejian; Matarese, Giuseppe; La Cava, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Th17 CD4(+) cells promote inflammation and autoimmunity. In this study, we report that Th17 cell frequency is reduced in ob/ob mice (that are genetically deficient in the adipokine leptin) and that the administration of leptin to ob/ob mice restored Th17 cell numbers to values comparable to those found in wild-type animals. Leptin promoted Th17 responses in normal human CD4(+) T cells and in mice, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing RORγt transcription. Leptin also increased Th17 responses in (NZB × NZW)F1 lupus-prone mice, whereas its neutralization in those autoimmune-prone mice inhibited Th17 responses. Because Th17 cells play an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation and autoimmunity, these findings envision the possibility to modulate abnormal Th17 responses via leptin manipulation, and they reiterate the link between metabolism/nutrition and susceptibility to autoimmunity.

  7. Progranulin: at the interface of neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew D; Nguyen, Thi A; Martens, Lauren Herl; Mitic, Laura L; Farese, Robert V

    2013-12-01

    Progranulin is a widely expressed, cysteine-rich, secreted glycoprotein originally discovered for its growth factor-like properties. Its subsequent identification as a causative gene for frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a devastating early-onset neurodegenerative disease, has catalyzed a surge of new discoveries about progranulin function in the brain. More recently, progranulin was recognized as an adipokine involved in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, revealing its metabolic function. We review here progranulin biology in both neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases. In particular, we highlight the growth factor-like, trophic, and anti-inflammatory properties of progranulin as potential unifying themes in these seemingly divergent conditions. We also discuss potential therapeutic options for raising progranulin levels to treat progranulin-deficient FTD, as well as the possible consequences of such treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ: An Update on Pro-inflammatory and Anti-inflammatory Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvido Smitka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is recognized as an active endocrine organ that produces a number of endocrine substances referred to as “adipokines” including leptin, adiponectin, adipolin, visfatin, omentin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, and progranulin (PGRN which play an important role in the food intake regulation and significantly influence insulin sensitivity and in some cases directly affect insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. The review summarizes current knowledge about adipose tissue-derived hormones and their influence on energy homeostasis regulation. The possible therapeutic potential of these adipokines in the treatment of insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory response, obesity, eating disorders, progression of atherosclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes is discussed.

  9. Odanacatib Inhibits Resistin-induced Hypertrophic H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cells Through LKB1/AMPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Odanacatib (ODN is a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K. The cysteine protease cathepsin K has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Resistine is an adipokine which is identified to promote cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we hypothesize that ODN mitigates resistin-induced myocyte hypertrophy. Cell surface area and protein synthesis were measured after treatment with resistin and ODN in H9c2 cells. The expression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy marker BNP and β-MHC was detected by RT-qPCR. The expression and phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1 were analyzed with Western blot. Resistin could significantly increase cardiomyocyte cell surface area, protein synthesis, and embryonic gene BNP and β-MHC expression, inhibit phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1. ODN could significantly reverse the effects of resistin. Collectively, our data suggest that ODN can inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by resistin and the underlying mechanism may be involved in LKB1/AMPK pathway.

  10. Resistin polymorphisms show associations with obesity, but not with bone parameters in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckers, Sigri; Zegers, Doreen; Van Camp, Jasmijn K

    2013-01-01

    Resistin is an obesity-related adipokine which has also been implicated in bone metabolism. Therefore, we designed a study to investigate the possible role of resistin gene variation in both obesity and bone mineral density. We included 1,155 individuals from the Odense Androgen Study (663 young...... subjects and 492 older subjects), a population-based, prospective, observational study on the inter-relationship between endocrine status, body composition, muscle function, and bone metabolism in men, in an association study with resistin (RETN) polymorphisms. Three RETN variants (rs1862513, rs3745367....... Research into its possible functional effect might also be required. A role for RETN variants in determining bone mineral density seems unlikely from our results....

  11. Adaptation of human adipose tissue to hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeislová, L; Mališová, L; Kračmerová, J; Štich, V

    2013-05-01

    Hypocaloric diet is a key component of the weight-reducing treatment of obesity and obesity-related disorders. Hypocaloric diets and the associated weight reduction promote improvement of metabolic profile of obese individuals. Among the mechanisms that underlie this beneficial metabolic outcome, the diet-induced modifications of morphological and functional characteristics of human adipose tissue (AT) are believed to have an important role. Prospective studies of hypocaloric weight-reducing dietary intervention demonstrate effects on adipocyte metabolism, namely lipolysis and lipogenesis, and associated changes of the adipocyte size. The endocrine function of AT, which involves cytokine and adipokine production by adipocytes, as well as by cells of stromavascular fraction, is also regulated by dietary intervention. Related inflammatory status of AT is modulated also as a consequence of the changes in recruitment of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in AT. Here, we give an overview of metabolic and endocrine modifications in human AT induced by a variety of hypocaloric diets.

  12. The impact of obesity on psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krasowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many psoriatic patients, especially those suffering from severe forms of the disease, are obese and present other features of metabolic syndrome. It is likely due to proinflammatory activity of hormones and cytokines, called adipokines, which are produced by excess of fat tissue. Obese psoriatic patients usually have more severe skin lesions. They also respond poorly to systemic antipsoriatic therapies. Furthermore, this group of patients has a higher frequency of cardiovascular events and metabolic complications as well as psychological disturbances, such as depression, low self-esteem and anxiety disorders. Dietary counseling and lifestyle modification aimed at weight loss should be an integral part of therapeutic management in obese patients with psoriasis.

  13. On the Significance of New Biochemical Markers for the Diagnosis of Premature Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Rzepka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labour is defined as a birth taking place between 22nd and 37th weeks of gestation. Despite numerous studies on the aetiology and pathogenesis of preterm labour, its very cause still remains unclear. The importance of the cytokines and acute inflammation in preterm labour aetiology is nowadays well-proven. However, chronic inflammation as an element of the pathogenesis of premature labour is still unclear. This paper presents a literature review on the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, negative soluble isoforms of RAGE, chemokine-stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and one of the adipokines, resistin, in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. We conclude that the chronic inflammatory response can play a much more important role in the pathogenesis of preterm delivery than the acute one.

  14. Food Components Modulate Obesity and Energy Metabolism via the Transcriptional Regulation of Lipid-Sensing Nuclear Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. Many modern people have a tendency to overeat owing to stress and loosening of self-control. Moreover, energy expenditure varies greatly among individuals. Scientific reduction of obesity is important under these circumstances. Furthermore, recent research on molecular levels has clarified the differentiation of adipocytes, the level of subsequent fat accumulation, and the secretion of the biologically active adipokines by adipocytes. Adipose tissues and obesity have become the most important target for the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. We have identified various food-derived compounds modulating nuclear receptors, especially peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor(PPAR), in the regulation of energy metabolism and obesity. In this review, we discuss the PPARs that are most important in obesity and energy metabolism.

  15. The effect of nutrition and metabolic status on the development of follicles, oocytes and embryos in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, J; Scaramuzzi, R J; Reverchon, M

    2014-07-01

    The impact of nutrition and energy reserves on the fertility of ruminants has been extensively described. However, the metabolic factors and the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between nutrition and ovarian function are still poorly understood. These factors could be hormonal (either reproductive and/or metabolic) and/or dietary and metabolic (glucose, amino acids and fatty acids). In this review, we briefly summarize the impact of those nutrients (fatty acids, glucose and amino acids) and metabolic hormones (insulin/IGF-I, growth hormone, T3/4, ghrelin, apelin and the adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin)) implicated in the development of ovarian follicles, oocytes and embryos in ruminants. We then discuss the current hypotheses on the mechanisms of action of these factors on ovarian function. We particularly describe the role of some energy sensors including adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the ovarian cells.

  16. World endocrinology news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available • Actuality of the problem of metabolic syndrome: expert opinion. • Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. • Brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are characterised by impaired glucose tolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity and related metabolic defects. • Microvascular dysfunction: a potential pathophysiological role in the metabolic syndrome. • Cardiotrophin-1 is expressed in adipose tissue and it is UP-regulated in the metabolic syndrome. • Magnesium Intake, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Inflammation. • Red meat in the diet. • Relationships of maternal and paternal birth weights to features of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring: an inter-generation study in South India. • The truth about milk! • Therapeutic uses of aromatase inhibitors in men. • Reduction of body weight and co-morbidities by orlistat: The XXL - Primary Health Care Trial

  17. Developments in our understanding of the effects of growth hormone on white adipose tissue from mice: implications to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; Henry, Brooke; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a well-established target of growth hormone (GH) and is altered in clinical conditions associated with excess, deficiency and absence of GH action. Due to the difficulty in collecting AT from clinical populations, genetically modified mice have been useful in better understanding how GH affects this tissue. Recent findings in mice would suggest that the impact of GH on AT is beyond alterations of lipolysis, lipogenesis or proliferation/ differentiation. AT depot-specific alterations in immune cells, extracellular matrix, adipokines, and senescence indicate an expanded role for GH in AT physiology. This mouse data will guide additional studies necessary to evaluate the therapeutic potential and safety of GH for conditions associated with altering AT, such as obesity. In this review, we introduce several relatively new intricacies of GH's effect on AT, focusing on recent studies in mice. Finally, we summarize the clinical implications of these findings.

  18. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using...... to total abdominal volume. Results Girls had a higher SAT% than did boys in early and late puberty (16 vs. 13%, Pfat% (standard deviation score (SDS)), suprailiac skinfold...... magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that included 197 healthy adolescents (114 boys) aged 10–15 years nested within a longitudinal population-based cohort. Clinical examination, blood sampling, DXA, and abdominal MRI were performed. SAT% and VAT% were adjusted...

  19. Is Chronic Inflammation a Possible Cause of Obesity-Related Depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult obesity has been associated with depression, especially in women. Whether depression leads to obesity or obesity causes depression is unclear. Chronic inflammation is observed in obesity and depression. In 63 obese women without additional diseases depression level was assessed with the Beck's questionnaire. After evaluation of depression level study group was divided into groups according to the mood status (A—without depression, B—mild depression, and C—severe depression, and serum concentration of TNF-α, sTNFs, leptin, and IL-6 were measured by ELISA. No differences in age, body mass, BMI, and body composition were observed in study groups. We did not observe differences of serum concentrations of TNF-α, sTNFRs, leptin, and IL-6 between subgroup A and subgroups B and C. It seems that circulating adipokines did not exert influence on depression levels in obese women.

  20. Lower leptin/adiponectin ratio and risk of rapid lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Makita, Hironi; Östling, Jörgen

    2014-01-01

    , and single ELISAs were used to confirm the results. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Higher plasma adiponectin levels and a lower leptin/adiponectin ratio at enrollment were significantly associated with an annual decline in FEV1 even after controlling for age, sex, height, and body mass index in the Hokkaido...... COPD cohort study (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, respectively). A lower plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio was also significantly associated with an annual decline in FEV1 in subjects with airflow limitation in the CBQ study (P = 0.014), the patients of which had largely different clinical characteristics...... compared with the Hokkaido COPD cohort study. There were no significant associations between lung function decline and adipokine levels in subjects without airflow limitation. CONCLUSIONS: A lower leptin/adiponectin ratio was associated with lung function decline in patients with COPD in two independent...

  1. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  2. Roles of the Chemokine System in Development of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Longbiao; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Chen, Yitong; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The escalating epidemic of obesity has increased the incidence of obesity-induced complications to historically high levels. Adipose tissue is a dynamic energy depot, which stores energy and mobilizes it during nutrient deficiency. Excess nutrient intake resulting in adipose tissue expansion triggers lipid release and aberrant adipokine, cytokine and chemokine production, and signaling that ultimately lead to adipose tissue inflammation, a hallmark of obesity. This low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to link obesity to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increase risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on and discuss members of the chemokine system for which there is clear evidence of participation in the development of obesity and obesity-induced pathologies. PMID:24741577

  3. Roles of the Chemokine System in Development of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbiao Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating epidemic of obesity has increased the incidence of obesity-induced complications to historically high levels. Adipose tissue is a dynamic energy depot, which stores energy and mobilizes it during nutrient deficiency. Excess nutrient intake resulting in adipose tissue expansion triggers lipid release and aberrant adipokine, cytokine and chemokine production, and signaling that ultimately lead to adipose tissue inflammation, a hallmark of obesity. This low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to link obesity to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increase risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on and discuss members of the chemokine system for which there is clear evidence of participation in the development of obesity and obesity-induced pathologies.

  4. Adipose tissue and adrenal glands: novel pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Atil Y; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or "adipokines" have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of "cross talk" between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  5. Circadian Clocks and the Interaction between Stress Axis and Adipose Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Kolbe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological processes and most endocrine functions show fluctuations over the course of the day. These so-called circadian rhythms are governed by an endogenous network of cellular clocks and serve as an adaptation to daily and, thus, predictable changes in the organism’s environment. Circadian clocks have been described in several tissues of the stress axis and in adipose cells where they regulate the rhythmic and stimulated release of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, and various adipokine factors. Recent work suggests that both adipose and stress axis clock systems reciprocally influence each other and adrenal-adipose rhythms may be key players in the development and therapy of metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of adrenal and adipose tissue rhythms and clocks and how they might interact to regulate energy homoeostasis and stress responses under physiological conditions. Potential chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic and stress disorders are discussed.

  6. LC-MS/MS analysis of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue proteomes in young goats with focus on innate immunity and inflammation related proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restelli, Laura; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Savoini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    and visceral adipose tissues of goat, focusing on proteins involved in immune and inflammatory response. A 2-D LC-MS/MS approach followed by cluster analysis shows a clear distinction between subcutaneous and visceral fat tissue proteomes, and qualitative RT-PCR based analysis of 30 potential adipokines...... further confirmed the individual expression patterns of 26 of these, including 7 whose mRNA expression was observed for the first time in adipose tissues. This study provides a first description of adipose tissue proteomes in goat, and presents observations on novel proteins related to metabolic...... inflammation, detoxification and coagulation pathways, as well as regulation of body fat mobilization in dairy animals. These findings are of particular interest in farm animals where health and production traits are important for animal welfare and for economic gains. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights...

  7. Both experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase cardiac irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, E; Menevse, E; Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R

    2018-01-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered myokine and adipokine that increases total body energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the levels of irisin in heart tissue in rats. The study was performed on the 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental groups were designed as; Control, Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroidism+L-Thyroxine, Hyperthyroidism and Hyperthyroidism + PTU. Following 3 weeks experimental period, irisin levels were determined in heart tissues. Hypothyroidism group values of irisin were higher than in the control group, but lower than in the hyperthyroidism group. The hyperthyroidism group had the highest levels of cardiac irisin. The results of the study showed that the experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increased the heart irisin levels, but the increase in the hyperthyroidism group was much higher than in the hypothyroidism group. However, treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism corrected cardiac irisin levels (Fig. 1, Ref. 28).

  8. Common variants in LEPR, IL6, AMD1, and NAMPT do not associate with risk of juvenile and childhood obesity in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensted, Mette; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Have, Christian Theil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a highly heritable disorder, for which the underlying genetic architecture is largely unknown. Four common variants involved in inflammatory-adipokine triggering (IL6 rs2069845, LEPR rs1137100, NAMPT rs3801266, and AMD1 rs2796749) have recently been associated...... with obesity and related traits in Indian children. The current study aimed to examine the effect of these variants on risk of childhood/juvenile onset obesity and on obesity-related quantitative traits in two Danish cohorts. METHODS: Genotype information was obtained for 1461 young Caucasian men from...... the Genetics of Overweight Young Adults (GOYA) study (overweight/obese: 739 and normal weight: 722) and the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank (TDCOB; overweight/obese: 1022 and normal weight: 650). Overweight/obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2); among children and youths, this cut...

  9. Mechanism of Regulation of Adipocyte Numbers in Adult Organisms Through Differentiation and Apoptosis Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozec, Aline; Hannemann, Nicole

    2016-06-03

    Considering that adipose tissue (AT) is an endocrine organ, it can influence whole body metabolism. Excessive energy storage leads to the dysregulation of adipocytes, which in turn induces abnormal secretion of adipokines, triggering metabolic syndromes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, investigating the molecular mechanisms behind adipocyte dysregulation could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Our protocol describes methods for evaluating the molecular mechanism affected by hypoxic conditions of the AT, which correlates with adipocyte apoptosis in adult mice. This protocol describes how to analyze AT in vivo through gene expression profiling as well as histological analysis of adipocyte differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis during hypoxia exposure, ascertained through staining of hypoxic cells or HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, in vitro analysis of adipocyte differentiation and its responses to various stimuli completes the characterization of the molecular pathways behind possible adipocyte dysfunction leading to metabolic syndromes.

  10. The nitroxide radical TEMPOL prevents obesity, hyperlipidaemia, elevation of inflammatory cytokines, and modulates atherosclerotic plaque composition in apoE(-/-) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Christine H. J.; Mitchell, James B.; Bursill, Christina A.

    2015-01-01

    and a decrease in adiponectin. TEMPOL supplementation reversed these effects. When compared to HFD-fed mice, TEMPOL supplementation increased plaque collagen content, decreased lipid content and increased macrophage numbers. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that in a well-established model of obesity-associated......OBJECTIVE: The nitroxide compound TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl radical) has been shown to prevent obesity-induced changes in adipokines in cell and animal systems. In this study we investigated whether supplementation with TEMPOL inhibits inflammation and atherosclerosis...... in apoE(-/-) mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). METHODS: ApoE(-/-) mice were fed for 12 weeks on standard chow diet or a high-fat diet. Half the mice were supplemented with 10 mg/g TEMPOL in their food. Plasma samples were analysed for triglycerides, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein...

  11. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Castillo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adipose tissue works as an endocrine organ producing hormones (adipokines or adipocytokines that affect the horse´s metabolism. The objective of this report is to describe the first case report of a Colombian creole mare with a metabolic syndrome, diagnosed by means of the combined test of glucose-insulin and clinical signs. Early diagnosis of this entity and an adequate treatment are useful for improving the life and the zootechnical conditions of the patient.

  12. Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis: what is the overlap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultink, Irene E M; Lems, Willem F

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) are highly prevalent health problems, associated with considerable morbidity. In the past, attention was focused on a supposed inverse relationship between OA and OP, since both disorders usually affect the elderly, but were regarded to rarely coexist in a single person. However, recent studies have revealed several factors which contribute to the pathogenesis of both disorders. These insights might contribute to the development of shared new treatment options in the near future. Increased subchondral bone loss is a characteristic feature of OP and the early stage of OA, and this finding is the rationale for studies on the effect of anti-osteoporotic drugs in OA. In addition, inflammation and unfavourable body composition have been recognized as contributing factors for both disorders. Underweight is a risk factor for OP, while obesity stimulates the development of OA, by mechanical overloading of weight-bearing joints but also by supposed unfavourable effects of adipokines.

  13. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  14. Bone metabolism in anorexia nervosa and hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sharon H; Mantzoros, Christos

    2018-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) are states of chronic energy deprivation associated with severely compromised bone health. Poor bone accrual during adolescence followed by increased bone loss results in lifelong low bone density, degraded bone architecture, and higher risk of fractures, despite recovery from AN/HA. Amenorrhea is only one of several compensatory responses to the negative energy balance. Other hypothalamic-pituitary hormones are affected and contribute to bone deficits, including activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and growth hormone resistance. Adipokines, particularly leptin, provide information on fat/energy stores, and gut hormones play a role in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Alterations in all these hormones influence bone metabolism. Restricted in scope, current pharmacologic approaches to improve bone health have had overall limited success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Discordant gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes: effect of interleukin-6 infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, A.; Wolsk, Emil; Bruce, C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  We compared metabolic gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and from well-matched healthy control subjects. We hypothesised that gene expression would be discordantly regulated when comparing the two groups. Our secondary aim...... was to determine the effect of Interleukin-6 (IL6) infusion on circulating adipokines and on gene expression in human adipose tissue. To do this we used real-time RT-PCR. Methods  Both diabetic and control subjects underwent basal skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies. A subset...... necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin and resistin were all unaffected by IL6 infusion, but plasma resistin was lower in the diabetic subjects than in control subjects. Conclusions/interpretation  The observation that PPARGC1A and the PPARs were upregulated in the adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic patients...

  16. Mediators of low-grade chronic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Ojeda, Miriam; Murri, Mora; Insenser, María; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2013-01-01

    Chronic low-grade subclinical inflammation has been increasingly recognized as an interposer in the endocrine, metabolic and reproductive disturbances that characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abdominal adiposity and obesity are often present in PCOS. Mounting evidence indicates that adipose tissue is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Continuous release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, acute phase proteins, and adipokines perpetuates the inflammatory condition associated with obesity in women with PCOS, possibly contributing to insulin resistance and other long-term cardiometabolic risk factors. Genetic variants in the genes encoding inflammation-related mediators underlie the development of PCOS and their interaction with environmental factors may contribute to the heterogeneous clinical phenotype of this syndrome. In the future, strategies ameliorating inflammation may prove useful for the management of PCOS and associated conditions.

  17. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4......Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression.......5, and 6 h in response to exercise (n = 8) compared with preexercise samples and compared with the resting control group (n = 7, P = 0.001). Visfatin mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not influenced by exercise. The exercise-induced increase in adipose tissue visfatin was, however, not accompanied...

  18. Central insulin and leptin-mediated autonomic control of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Joseph S; Xu, Yong; Hill, Jennifer W

    2011-07-01

    Largely as a result of rising obesity rates, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is escalating rapidly. Type 2 diabetes results from multi-organ dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Recent publications have highlighted hypothalamic insulin- and adipokine-sensing as a major determinant of peripheral glucose and insulin responsiveness. The preponderance of evidence indicates that the brain is the master regulator of glucose homeostasis, and that hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling in particular play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. This review discusses the neuronal crosstalk between the hypothalamus, autonomic nervous system, and tissues associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, and how hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling are integral to maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pilot study on the effects of a 2-week hiking vacation at moderate versus low altitude on plasma parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutwenger, Ivana; Hofer, Georg; Gutwenger, Anna K; Sandri, Marco; Wiedermann, Christian J

    2015-03-28

    Hypoxic and hypobaric conditions may augment the beneficial influence of training on cardiovascular risk factors. This pilot study aimed to explore for effects of a two-week hiking vacation at moderate versus low altitude on adipokines and parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome. Fourteen subjects (mean age: 55.8 years, range: 39 - 69) with metabolic syndrome participated in a 2-week structured training program (3 hours of guided daily hiking 4 times a week, training intensity at 55-65% of individual maximal heart rate; total training time, 24 hours). Participants were divided for residence and training into two groups, one at moderate altitude (1,900 m; n = 8), and the other at low altitude (300 m; n = 6). Anthropometric, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before and after the training period. In study participants, training overall reduced circulating levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.024), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.025) and adiponectin (p triglycerides (p = 0.025) and leptin (p = 0.015), whereas in the low altitude group (n = 6), none of the lipid parameters was significantly changed (each p > 0.05). Hiking-induced relative changes of triglyceride levels were positively associated with reductions in leptin levels (p = 0.006). As compared to 300 m altitude, training at 1,900 m showed borderline significant differences in the pre-post mean reduction rates of triglyceride (p = 0.050) and leptin levels (p = 0.093). Preliminary data on patients with metabolic syndrome suggest that a 2-week hiking vacation at moderate altitude may be more beneficial for adipokines and parameters of lipid metabolism than training at low altitude. In order to draw firm conclusions regarding better corrections of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome by physical exercise under mild hypobaric and hypoxic conditions, a sufficiently powered randomized clinical trial appears warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT

  20. Adiponectin-resistin index and its strong association with acute coronary syndrome in South Indian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prerna; Sridhar, M G; Rajappa, Medha; Balachander, J; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu

    2014-11-01

    India has the highest burden of acute coronary syndromes worldwide. Apart from certain lipid alterations that have been established to be definite risk factors, low level of adiponectin, high levels of resistin, and IL-6 have been shown to be risk factors for cardiovascular events. Insulin resistance is also a significant predictor of poor outcome in patients admitted with ACS. 69 male patients with ACS and 70 age-matched healthy males were recruited in the study. Insulin, total adiponectin, resistin, and IL-6 levels were assayed in all study subjects. Indices of insulin resistance and novel adipokine indices were calculated using standard formulae. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to find out the best predictor of ACS. Resistin, IL-6, insulin resistance indices, AR index, and IRAR index were found to be significantly higher, while insulin sensitivity indices and total adiponectin were found to be lower in cases, as compared with controls (p < 0.001). Insulin resistance was found to be higher in the admission sample, when compared to the fasting sample in patients with ACS (p = 0.01). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR and AR index were found to be significantly associated with ACS. AR index was the best independent predictor of ACS, with the highest odds ratio (AR index: adjusted OR 17.528, p < 0.0001 versus HOMA-IR: adjusted OR 1.146, p = 0.001). The present results implicate that adipokines are significantly associated with pathogenesis of ACS, warranting adequate and early appropriate treatment to reverse this metabolic dysregulation. In our study, AR index was the best predictor of ACS. Hence, the novel AR index might be useful in routine clinical practice for screening persons with increased risk of future development of ACS.

  1. Composition of Dietary Fat Source Shapes Gut Microbiota Architecture and Alters Host Inflammatory Mediators in Mouse Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Edmond; Leone, Vanessa; Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Brady, Matthew; Chang, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows that dietary factors can dramatically alter the gut microbiome in ways that contribute to metabolic disturbance and progression of obesity. In this regard, mesenteric adipose tissue has been implicated in mediating these processes through the elaboration of pro-inflammatory adipokines. In this study, we examined the relationship of these events by determining the effects of dietary fat content and source on gut microbiota, as well as the effects on adipokine profiles of mesenteric and peripheral adipocytes. Methods Adult male C57Bl/6 mice were fed milk fat-, lard-(SFA sources), or safflower oil (PUFA)- based high fat diets for four weeks. Body mass and food consumption were measured. Stool 16S rRNA was isolated and analyzed via T-RFLP as well as variable V3-4 sequence tags via next gen sequencing. Mesenteric and gonadal adipose samples were analyzed for both lipogenic and inflammatory mediators via qRT-PCR. Results High-fat feedings caused more weight gain with concomitant increases in caloric consumption relative to low-fat diets. Additionally, each of the high fat diets induced dramatic and specific 16S rRNA phylogenic profiles that were associated with different inflammatory and lipogenic mediator profile of mesenteric and gonadal fat depots. Conclusions Our findings support the notion that dietary fat composition can both reshape the gut microbiota as well as alter host adipose tissue inflammatory/lipogenic profiles. They also demonstrate the interdependency of dietary fat source, commensal gut microbiota, and inflammatory profile of mesenteric fat that can collectively impact the host metabolic state. PMID:23639897

  2. Influence of Fasting Status and Sample Preparation on Metabolic Biomarker Measurements in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Neil; Falk, Roni T; Messinger, Diana B; Pollak, Michael; Xue, Xiaonan; Lin, Juan; Sgueglia, Robin; Strickler, Howard D; Gaudet, Mia M; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic data linking metabolic markers-such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)-and adipose tissue-derived factors with cancer are inconsistent. Between-study differences in blood collection protocols, in particular participant's fasting status, may influence measurements. We investigated the impact of fasting status and blood sample processing time on components of the insulin/IGF axis and in adipokines in a controlled feeding study of 45 healthy postmenopausal-women aged 50-75 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn (T0), after which subjects ate a standardized breakfast; subsequent blood draws were made at 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3), and 6 hours (T6) after breakfast. Serum samples were assayed for insulin, C-peptide, total- and free-IGF-I, IGF-binding protein [BP]-1 and -3, total and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin, retinol binding protein-4, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and resistin. Insulin and C-peptide levels followed similar postprandial trajectories; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC] for insulin = 0.75, (95%CI:0.64-0.97) and C-peptide (ICC = 0.66, 95%CI:0.54-0.77) were similarly correlated in fasting (Spearman correlation, r = 0.78, 95%CI:0.64-0.88) and postprandial states (T1, r = 0.77 (95%CI: 0.62-0.87); T3,r = 0.78 (95%CI: 0.63-0.87); T6,r = 0.77 (95%CI: 0.61-0.87)). Free-IGF-I and IGFBP-1 levels were also affected by fasting status, whereas total-IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels remained unchanged. Levels of adipokines were largely insensitive to fasting status and blood sample processing delays. Several components of the insulin/IGF axis were significantly impacted by fasting state and in particular, C-peptide levels were substantially altered postprandially and in a similar manner to insulin.

  3. Regular exercise coupled to diet regimen accelerates reduction of hepatic steatosis and associated pathological conditions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Shida, Takashi; Shoda, Junichi

    2014-06-01

    A diet regimen focusing on weight loss is still the most efficient treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, specific benefits of exercise against NAFLD independent of weight loss have been reported. Hence, combining exercise with diet-induced weight loss can be expected to have an additive benefit for NAFLD management. We evaluated the effectiveness of diet in conjunction with exercise (DE) compared with that of diet alone (D) on hepatic steatosis and its underlying pathophysiology. Data obtained from 72 obese, middle-aged men with NAFLD who completed a 3-month program of DE or D in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed. Subjects went through a comprehensive parameters analysis for the pathophysiology of NAFLD. Subjects in the DE group, compared with those in the D group, elicited additive effects on the degree of hepatic steatosis (-82.6% vs. -60.0%) and body weight (-13.3% vs. -8.9%) accompanied by an improvement in serum marker levels: inflammation, ferritin (-16.1% vs. -2.1%); oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation (-31.8% vs. +4.8%); adipokine imbalance, adiponectin, and leptin (+27.4% vs. +2.6% and -74.4% vs. -30.2%). Consequently, subjects in the DE group achieved further attenuation of insulin resistance [homeostatsis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-63.6% vs. -40.0%)]. These observed additive benefits in the DE group were closely associated with the increased volume of physical activity. The addition of exercise to a diet regimen potentiates the benefits in NAFLD management through further improvement of hepatic steatosis, inflammatory and oxidative stress levels, and adipokine imbalance, thereby attenuating insulin resistance independent of detectable weight loss.

  4. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Klegeris, Andis; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes

  5. Relation of Absolute or Relative Adiposity to Insulin Resistance, Retinol Binding Protein-4, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Lim Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCentral fat mass (CFM correlates with insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications; however, peripheral fat mass (PFM is associated with insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of absolute and relative regional adiposity to insulin resistance index and adipokines in type 2 diabetes.MethodsTotal of 83 overweighted-Korean women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and rate constants for plasma glucose disappearance (KITT and serum adipokines, such as retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4, leptin, and adiponectin, were measured. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry, trunk fat mass (in kilograms was defined as CFM, sum of fat mass on the lower extremities (in kilograms as PFM, and sum of CFM and PFM as total fat mass (TFM. PFM/TFM ratio, CFM/TFM ratio, and PFM/CFM ratio were defined as relative adiposity.ResultsMedian age was 55.9 years, mean body mass index 27.2 kg/m2, and mean HbA1c level 7.12±0.84%. KITT was positively associated with PMF/TFM ratio, PMF/CFM ratio, and negatively with CFM/TFM ratio, but was not associated with TFM, PFM, or CFM. RBP4 levels also had a significant relationship with PMF/TFM ratio and PMF/CFM ratio. Adiponectin, leptin, and apolipoprotein A levels were related to absolute adiposity, while only adiponectin to relative adiposity. In correlation analysis, KITT in type 2 diabetes was positively related with HbA1c, fasting glucose, RBP4, and free fatty acid.ConclusionThese results suggest that increased relative amount of peripheral fat mass may aggravate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  6. Eradicating hepatitis C virus ameliorates insulin resistance without change in adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, K-L; Jenkins, A B; Trenell, M; Tid-Ang, J; Samocha-Bonet, D; Weltman, M; Xu, A; George, J; Chisholm, D J

    2014-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with lipid-related changes and insulin resistance; the latter predicts response to antiviral therapy, liver disease progression and the risk of diabetes. We sought to determine whether insulin sensitivity improves following CHC viral eradication after antiviral therapy and whether this is accompanied by changes in fat depots or adipokine levels. We compared 8 normoglycaemic men with CHC (genotype 1 or 3) before and at least 6 months post viral eradication and 15 hepatitis C antibody negative controls using an intravenous glucose tolerance test and two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with [6,6-(2) H2 ] glucose to assess peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal fat compartments, liver and intramyocellular lipid. Peripheral insulin sensitivity improved (glucose infusion rate during high-dose insulin increased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 12 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min/, P = 0.025), with no change in hepatic insulin response following successful viral eradication, without any accompanying change in muscle, liver or abdominal fat depots. There was corresponding improvement in incremental glycaemic response to intravenous glucose (pretreatment: 62.1 ± 8.3 vs post-treatment: 56.1 ± 8.5 mm, P = 0.008). Insulin sensitivity after viral clearance was comparable to matched controls without CHC. Post therapy, liver enzyme levels decreased but, interestingly, levels of glucagon, fatty acid-binding protein and lipocalin-2 remained elevated. Eradication of the hepatitis C virus improves insulin sensitivity without alteration in fat depots, adipokine or glucagon levels, consistent with a direct link of the virus with insulin resistance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Global loss of bmal1 expression alters adipose tissue hormones, gene expression and glucose metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Kennaway

    Full Text Available The close relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and poor metabolic status is becoming increasingly evident, but role of adipokines is poorly understood. Here we investigated adipocyte function and the metabolic status of mice with a global loss of the core clock gene Bmal1 fed either a normal or a high fat diet (22% by weight. Bmal1 null mice aged 2 months were killed across 24 hours and plasma adiponectin and leptin, and adipose tissue expression of Adipoq, Lep, Retn and Nampt mRNA measured. Glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance tests were conducted and the expression of liver glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzyme mRNA determined. Bmal1 null mice displayed a pattern of increased plasma adiponectin and plasma leptin concentrations on both control and high fat diets. Bmal1 null male and female mice displayed increased adiposity (1.8 fold and 2.3 fold respectively on the normal diet, but the high fat diet did not exaggerate these differences. Despite normal glucose and insulin tolerance, Bmal1 null mice had increased production of glucose from pyruvate, implying increased liver gluconeogenesis. The Bmal1 null mice had arrhythmic clock gene expression in epigonadal fat and liver, and loss of rhythmic transcription of a range of metabolic genes. Furthermore, the expression of epigonadal fat Adipoq, Retn, Nampt, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and liver Pfkfb3 mRNA were down-regulated. These results show for the first time that global loss of Bmal1, and the consequent arrhythmicity, results in compensatory changes in adipokines involved in the cellular control of glucose metabolism.

  8. Experimental evidence of obesity as a risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Jean-Louis; Lescuyer, Pierre; Pastor, Catherine M

    2009-11-14

    The incidence of acute pancreatitis, an inflammation of the pancreas, is increasing worldwide. Pancreatic injury is mild in 80%-90% of patients who recover without complications. The remaining patients may develop a severe disease with local complications such as acinar cell necrosis, abscess and remote organ injury including lung injury. The early prediction of the severity of the disease is an important goal for physicians in management of patients with acute pancreatitis in order to optimize the therapy and to prevent organ dysfunction and local complications. For that purpose, multiple clinical scale scores have been applied to patients with acute pancreatitis. Recently, a new problem has emerged: the increased severity of the disease in obese patients. However, the mechanisms by which obesity increases the severity of acute pancreatitis are unclear. Several hypotheses have been suggested: (1) obese patients have an increased inflammation within the pancreas; (2) obese patients have an increased accumulation of fat within and around the pancreas where necrosis is often located; (3) increase in both peri- and intra-pancreatic fat and inflammatory cells explain the high incidence of pancreatic inflammation and necrosis in obese patients; (4) hepatic dysfunction associated with obesity might enhance the systemic inflammatory response by altering the detoxification of inflammatory mediators; and (5) ventilation/perfusion mismatch leading to hypoxia associated with a low pancreatic flow might reduce the pancreatic oxygenation and further enhance pancreatic injury. Recent experimental investigations also show an increased mortality and morbidity in obese rodents with acute pancreatitis and the implication of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. Such models are important to investigate whether the inflammatory response of the disease is enhanced by obesity. It is exciting to speculate that manipulation of the adipokine milieu has the potential to influence the

  9. An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Sensory factors may play an important role in the determination of appetite and food choices. Also, some adipokines may alter or predict the perception and pleasantness of specific odors. We aimed to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females with different weights and relate them with fat and fat-free mass, visceral fat, and several adipokines.179 females with different weights (from low weight to morbid obesity were studied. We analyzed the relation between fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat (indirectly estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with visceral fat rating (VFR, leptin, adiponectin and visfatin. The smell and taste assessments were performed through the "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips" respectively.We found a lower score in the measurement of smell (TDI-score (Threshold, Discrimination and Identification in obese subjects. All the olfactory functions measured, such as threshold, discrimination, identification and the TDI-score, correlated negatively with age, body mass index (BMI, leptin, fat mass, fat-free mass and VFR. In a multiple linear regression model, VFR mainly predicted the TDI-score. With regard to the taste function measurements, the normal weight subjects showed a higher score of taste functions. However a tendency to decrease was observed in the groups with greater or lesser BMI. In a multiple linear regression model VFR and age mainly predicted the total taste scores.We show for the first time that a reverse relationship exists between visceral fat and sensory signals, such as smell and taste, across a population with different body weight conditions.

  10. Hypoxia dysregulates the production of adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 independent of reactive oxygen species in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baoying; Lam, Karen S.L.; Wang Yu; Wu Donghai; Lam, Michael C.; Shen Jiangang; Wong Laiching; Hoo, Ruby L.C.; Zhang Jialiang; Xu Aimin

    2006-01-01

    Low plasma levels of adiponectin (hypoadiponectinemia) and elevated circulating concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 are causally associated with obesity-related insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism that mediates the aberrant production of these two adipokines in obesity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on production of adiponectin and PAI-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative PCR and immunoassays showed that ambient hypoxia markedly suppressed adiponectin mRNA expression and its protein secretion, and increased PAI-1 production in mature adipocytes. Dimethyloxallyl glycine, a stabilizer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), mimicked the hypoxia-mediated modulations of these two adipokines. Hypoxia caused a modest elevation of ROS in adipocytes. However, ablation of intracellular ROS by antioxidants failed to alleviate hypoxia-induced aberrant production of adiponectin and PAI-1. On the other hand, the antioxidants could reverse hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced dysregulation of adiponectin and PAI-1 production. H 2 O 2 treatment decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), but had no effect on HIF-1α, whereas hypoxia stabilized HIF-1α and decreased expression of C/EBPα, but not PPARγ. Taken together, these data suggest that hypoxia and ROS decrease adiponectin production and augment PAI-1 expression in adipocytes via distinct signaling pathways. These effects may contribute to hypoadiponectinemia and elevated PAI-1 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases

  11. Serum Cytokines as Biomarkers in Islet Cell Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis R van der Torren

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation holds a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, but many islet recipients do not reach long-lasting insulin independence. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether serum cytokines, chemokines and adipokines are associated with the clinical outcome of islet transplantation.Thirteen islet transplant patients were selected on basis of good graft function (reaching insulin independence or insufficient engraftment (insulin requiring from our cohort receiving standardized grafts and immune suppressive therapy. Patients reaching insulin independence were divided in those with continued (>12 months versus transient (<6 months insulin independence. A panel of 94 proteins including cytokines and adipokines was measured in sera taken before and at one year after transplantation using a validated multiplex immunoassay platform.Ninety serum proteins were detectable in concentrations varying markedly among patients at either time point. Thirteen markers changed after transplantation, while another seven markers changed in a clinical subpopulation. All other markers remained unaffected after transplantation under generalized immunosuppression. Patterns of cytokines could distinguish good graft function from insufficient function including IFN-α, LIF, SCF and IL-1RII before and after transplantation, by IL-16, CCL3, BDNF and M-CSF only before and by IL-22, IL-33, KIM-1, S100A12 and sCD14 after transplantation. Three other proteins (Leptin, Cathepsin L and S100A12 associated with loss of temporary graft function before or after transplantation.Distinct cytokine signatures could be identified in serum that predict or associate with clinical outcome. These serum markers may help guiding patient selection and choice of immunotherapy, or act as novel drug targets in islet transplantation.

  12. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  13. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  14. DPP4 in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eRöhrborn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 is a glycoprotein of 110 kDa, which is ubiquitously expressed on the surface of a variety of cells. This exopeptidase selectively cleaves N-terminal dipeptides from a variety of substrates, including cytokines, growth factors neuropeptides, and the incretin hormones. Expression of DPP4 is substantially dysregulated in a variety of disease states including inflammation, cancer, obesity and diabetes. Since the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP are major regulators of post-prandial insulin secretion, inhibition of DPP4 by the gliptin family of drugs has gained considerable interest for the therapy of type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on the DPP4 - incretin axis, and evaluate most recent findings on DPP4 inhibitors.Furthermore, DPP4 as a type II transmembrane protein is also known to be cleaved from the cell membrane involving different metalloproteases in a cell-type specific manner. Circulating, soluble DPP4 has been identified as a new adipokine which exerts both para- and endocrine effects. Recently, a novel receptor for soluble DPP4 has been identified and data are accumulating that the adipokine-related effects of DPP4 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Importantly, circulating DPP4 is augmented in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects and it may represent a molecular link between obesity and vascular dysfunction. A critical evaluation of the impact of circulating DPP4 is presented and the potential role of DPP4 inhibition at this level is also discussed.

  15. Impaired response of mature adipocytes of diabetic mice to hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seok Jong, E-mail: seok-hong@northwestern.edu; Jin, Da P.; Buck, Donald W.; Galiano, Robert D.; Mustoe, Thomas A., E-mail: tmustoe@nmh.org

    2011-10-01

    Adipose tissue contains various cells such as infiltrated monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes. Adipocytes have an endocrine function by secreting adipokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, leptin, and adiponectin. Dysregulation of adipokines in adipose tissues leads to a chronic low-grade inflammation which could result in atherosclerosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. A sustained inflammatory state, which is characterized by prolonged persistence of macrophages and neutrophils, is found in diabetic wounds. In addition, subcutaneous adipocytes are enormously increased in amount clinically in type 2 diabetes. However, the function of subcutaneous adipocytes, which play an important role in injured tissue subjected to hypoxia, has not been well characterized in vitro due to the difficulty of maintaining mature adipocytes in culture using conventional methods because of their buoyancy. In this study, we established a novel in vitro culture method of mature adipocytes by enclosing them in a hyaluronan (HA) based hydrogel to study their role in response to stress such as hypoxia. BrdU labeling and Ki67 immunostaining experiments showed that hydrogel enclosed mature adipocytes proliferate in vitro. Both mRNA and protein expression analyses for hypoxia regulated genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), showed that mature adipocytes of wild type mice respond to hypoxia. In contrast, mature adipocytes of diabetic db/db and TallyHo mice did not efficiently respond to hypoxia. Our studies suggest that mature adipocytes are functionally active cells, and their abnormal function to hypoxia can be one of underlining mechanisms in type 2 diabetes.

  16. Serum apelin levels and body composition changes in breast cancer patients treated with an aromatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Tarik; Demir, Leyla; Varol, Umut; Akyol, Murat; Oflazoglu, Utku; Yildiz, Yasar; Taskaynatan, Halil; Cengiz, Hakan; Guvendi, Guven; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Tarhan, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue plays a role in carcinogenesis with the adipokines it generates. Apelin is an anti-obesigenic adipokine, and assumes roles in both vascularization and tumor cell proliferation. The present study aimed to investigate changes in apelin levels, in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients receiving aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Forty early-stage postmenopausal BC patients treated with AIs with no history of chemotherapy administration were included in the study. At the beginning, we measured serum apelin levels in postmenopausal BC patients who were receiving AIs and healthy women of similar age and normal body mass index (BMI) (control group). We evaluated changes in the body composition, serum lipid profile and serum apelin levels at the beginning and the 12th month through anthropometric measurements and bioelectric impedance analysis. Forty subjects with postmenopausal BC had a median age of 57 years (range 44-82)). BC patients exhibited significantly higher apelin levels and body mass index (BMI) scores compared to the control group (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, respectively). The 12th month's measurements indicated reduced apelin levels in 24 patients (60%) and increased apelin levels in 16 patients (40%) compared to the initial figures. With respect to the parameters, the patients with reduced apelin levels had significantly different waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and fat mass scores compared to those with higher apelin levels (p=0.008, p=0.047, respectively). This study showed that postmenopausal BC patients had high levels of apelin and high BMI scores. This finding suggests that apelin promoted carcinogenesis particularly in obese individuals. The massive and metabolic changes observed in the fat tissues of the postmenopausal BC patients receiving AIs will especially affect the BC-associated outcome.

  17. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Klegeris, Andis [Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Little, Jonathan P., E-mail: jonathan.little@ubc.ca [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  18. Exogenous fatty acid binding protein 4 promotes human prostate cancer cell progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Hisanori; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Oha, Mina; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Izumi, Keisuke

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found that obesity is associated with malignant grade and mortality in prostate cancer. Several adipokines have been implicated as putative mediating factors between obesity and prostate cancer. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), a member of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein multigene family, was recently identified as a novel adipokine. Although FABP4 is released from adipocytes and mean circulating concentrations of FABP4 are linked with obesity, effects of exogenous FABP4 on prostate cancer progression are unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of exogenous FABP4 on human prostate cancer cell progression. FABP4 treatment promoted serum-induced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro. Furthermore, oleic acid promoted prostate cancer cell invasion only if FABP4 was present in the medium. These promoting effects were reduced by FABP4 inhibitor, which inhibits FABP4 binding to fatty acids. Immunostaining for FABP4 showed that exogenous FABP4 was taken up into DU145 cells in three-dimensional culture. In mice, treatment with FABP4 inhibitor reduced the subcutaneous growth and lung metastasis of prostate cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the number of apoptotic cells, positive for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, was increased in subcutaneous tumors of FABP4 inhibitor-treated mice, as compared with control mice. These results suggest that exogenous FABP4 might promote human prostate cancer cell progression by binding with fatty acids. Additionally, exogenous FABP4 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, independently of binding to fatty acids. Thus, FABP4 might be a key molecule to understand the mechanisms underlying the obesity-prostate cancer progression link. © 2014 UICC.

  19. Does hypoxia play a role in the development of sarcopenia in humans? Mechanistic insights from the Caudwell Xtreme Everest Expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrag, Liesl; Siervo, Mario; Riley, Heather L; Khosravi, Maryam; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Leckstrom, Carl A; Martin, Daniel S; Mitchell, Kay; Levett, Denny Z H; Montgomery, Hugh E; Mythen, Monty G; Stroud, Michael A; Grocott, Michael P W; Feelisch, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Sarcopenia refers to the involuntary loss of skeletal muscle and is a predictor of physical disability/mortality. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, although roles for altered hypoxic signaling, oxidative stress, adipokines and inflammatory mediators have been suggested. Sarcopenia also occurs upon exposure to the hypoxia of high altitude. Using data from the Caudwell Xtreme Everest expedition we therefore sought to analyze the extent of hypoxia-induced body composition changes and identify putative pathways associated with fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) loss. After baseline testing in London (75m), 24 investigators ascended from Kathmandu (1300m) to Everest base camp (EBC 5300m) over 13 days. Fourteen investigators climbed above EBC, eight of whom reached the summit (8848m). Assessments were conducted at baseline, during ascent and after one, six and eight week(s) of arrival at EBC. Changes in body composition (FM, FFM, total body water, intra- and extra-cellular water) were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Biomarkers of nitric oxide and oxidative stress were measured together with adipokines, inflammatory, metabolic and vascular markers. Participants lost a substantial, but variable, amount of body weight (7.3±4.9kg by expedition end; pFFM was observed, and after eight weeks, the proportion of FFM loss was 48% greater than FM loss (pFFM loss. GLP-1 (r=-0.45, pFFM loss. In a multivariate model, GLP-1, insulin and nitrite were significant predictors of FFM loss while protein carbonyls were predicted FM loss. The putative role of GLP-1 and nitrite as mediators of the effects of hypoxia on FFM is an intriguing finding. If confirmed, nutritional and pharmacological interventions targeting these pathways may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 regulate the response of metabolism-associated transcripts to sleep disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Husse

    Full Text Available Human and animal studies demonstrate that short sleep or poor sleep quality, e.g. in night shift workers, promote the development of obesity and diabetes. Effects of sleep disruption on glucose homeostasis and liver physiology are well documented. However, changes in adipokine levels after sleep disruption suggest that adipocytes might be another important peripheral target of sleep. Circadian clocks regulate metabolic homeostasis and clock disruption can result in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The finding that sleep and clock disruption have very similar metabolic effects prompted us to ask whether the circadian clock machinery may mediate the metabolic consequences of sleep disruption. To test this we analyzed energy homeostasis and adipocyte transcriptome regulation in a mouse model of shift work, in which we prevented mice from sleeping during the first six hours of their normal inactive phase for five consecutive days (timed sleep restriction--TSR. We compared the effects of TSR between wild-type and Per1/2 double mutant mice with the prediction that the absence of a circadian clock in Per1/2 mutants would result in a blunted metabolic response to TSR. In wild-types, TSR induces significant transcriptional reprogramming of white adipose tissue, suggestive of increased lipogenesis, together with increased secretion of the adipokine leptin and increased food intake, hallmarks of obesity and associated leptin resistance. Some of these changes persist for at least one week after the end of TSR, indicating that even short episodes of sleep disruption can induce prolonged physiological impairments. In contrast, Per1/2 deficient mice show blunted effects of TSR on food intake, leptin levels and adipose transcription. We conclude that the absence of a functional clock in Per1/2 double mutants protects these mice from TSR-induced metabolic reprogramming, suggesting a role of the circadian timing system in regulating the physiological effects

  1. Knocking out or pharmaceutical inhibition of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) alleviates osteoarthritis induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Chiu, K Y; Chan, B P M; Li, T; Wen, C; Xu, A; Yan, C H

    2018-06-01

    Adipokines play roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a novel adipokine that is closely associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to discover the potential role of FABP4 in OA. Seventy-two FABP4 knockout mice (KO) in C57BL/6N background and wild-type littermates (WT) (male, 6-week-old) were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% calorie) or standard diet (STD, 11.6% calorie) for 3 months, 6 months and 9 months (n = 6 each). In the parallel study, forty-eight 6-week-old male WT mice were fed with HFD or STD, and simultaneously treated with daily oral gavage of selective FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 (15 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 4 months and 6 months (n = 6 each). Serum FABP4 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration was quantified. Histological assessment of knee OA and micro-CT analysis of subchondral bone were performed. HFD induced obesity in mice. After 3 months and 6 months of HFD, KO mice showed alleviated cartilage degradation and synovitis, with significantly lower COMP, modified Mankin OA score, and MMP-13/ADAMTS4 expression. After 6 months and 9 months of HFD, KO mice showed less osteophyte formation and subchondral bone sclerosis. Chronic treatment of BMS309403 for 4 months and 6 months significantly alleviated cartilage degradation, but had no effects on the subchondral bone. Knocking out or pharmaceutical inhibition of FABP4 did not have significant effects on lean mice fed with STD. Knocking out or pharmaceutical inhibition of FABP4 alleviates OA induced by HFD in mice. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-Prandial Plasma Glucose Less Than or Equal to 70 mg/dL Is Not Uncommon in Young Japanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Minato, Satomi; Kurata, Miki; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2017-08-01

    Post-breakfast/post-challenge plasma glucose (PG) concentrations were studied less in young normal weight Japanese women. We addressed these issues. Two separate groups of female collegiate athletes and female untrained students underwent either a standardized meal test or a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, but not both. Frequency of women whose post-breakfast/post-load PG fell to 70 mg/dL or lower (termed as low glycemia) was compared between athletes and non-athletes, who also underwent measurements of serum adipokines, markers of insulin resistance and inflammation and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity/resistance and serum adipokines were compared between women with and without post-breakfast low glycemia. The same comparison was done between women whose post-breakfast PG returned to levels below the fasting PG and women whose post-breakfast PG never fell below the fasting PG. There was no difference between athletes and non-athletes in frequency of post-breakfast low glycemia (47% (8/17) and 44% (8/18)) and post-challenge low glycemia (24% (12/50) and 23% (27/118)). As compared to seven women whose post-breakfast PG never fell below the fasting PG, 28 women whose post-breakfast PG returned to levels below the fasting PG had higher meal-induced insulin responses (283 ± 366 vs. 89 ± 36 µU/mg, P = 0.014). However, two groups did not differ in body composition, markers of insulin resistance and serum adiponectin. No significant difference was also observed in any of these variables between women with and without post-breakfast low glycemia. Post-prandial PG ≤ 70 mg/dL is not uncommon in young normal weight Japanese women and may not be a pathological condition. The underlying mechanisms for this finding need further exploration.

  3. Effects of rs7903146 variation in the Tcf7l2 gene in the lipid metabolism of three different populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Perez-Martinez

    Full Text Available TCF7L2 rs7903146 is an important genetic factor predicting type 2 diabetes (T2DM which has also been linked to higher cardiovascular risk. To date, there is little information about the additional impact of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP beyond glucose metabolism.We studied whether rs7903146 influenced postprandial lipid metabolism in three different populations (healthy young men, metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and elderly persons. Eighty-eight healthy males were submitted to a single saturated fatty acid-rich test meal. Additionally, 110 middle-aged MetS patients and 20 healthy elderly persons (≥ 65 years were submitted to three different dietary models followed by test meals. Minor allele homozygotes for rs7903146 showed a worse postprandial lipemia profile in young males, as seen by a lower HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 concentration during the postprandial lipemia and a trend towards higher triglycerides (TG, than the other genotypes. In healthy elderly persons, carriers of the minor allele showed higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Apo B and TG in the fasting state, and a higher postprandial area under the curve for total cholesterol, Apo B, small-triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL cholesterol and small-(TRL triglycerides. These results were accompanied by differential changes in adipokines. We did not observe any influence of rs7903146 on the postprandium of MetS patients.Healthy young males and elderly persons who are carriers of the mutant allele for rs7903146 have an impaired postprandial lipid metabolism that may be mediated by an alteration in adipokine regulation, and may be related to the higher cardiovascular risk observed in these persons.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00429195.

  4. Inducing maternal inflammation promotes leptin production in offspring but does not improve allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Imai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The intrauterine environment is considered to affect immunological development in fetus, leading to an increased risk of developing allergy. In particular, maternal lipopolysaccharides (LPS administration might regulate the development of allergic disease in offspring. Several studies have shown that being obese relates to a higher prevalence of allergic diseases compared to normal weight. The present study explored the effects of inducing maternal inflammation with LPS before pregnancy on body weight, physical composition including body fat, adipokine production, and pathology of allergic rhinitis in offspring. Main methods: Female mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (2 μg/g BW. After 5 days of LPS administration, female mice were mated with males, and experimental allergic rhinitis was induced in female offspring. Immunization and nasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA were performed at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Allergic rhinitis-like symptoms, OVA-specific IgE and adipokines in sera, body weight, fat pad weight, and cytokine production by splenocytes in these 9-week-old offspring. Key findings: Maternal LPS administration results in a significant increase in body weight, visceral fat accumulation, and serum leptin concentration, and the dominance of Th1 in Th balance. Nevertheless, there was no statistical difference in OVA-specific IgE titer and allergic-like symptoms between the groups. Significance: In conclusion, maternal LPS promoted leptin production and altered Th balance in mice offspring, but not improved allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. It might suggest that inflammation during pregnancy plays a role in the adipose tissue function which could diversely influence allergic inflammation in offspring. Keywords: Immunology, Metabolism, Nutrition, Health Sciences

  5. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Theodora Szasz,1 Gisele Facholi Bomfim,2 R Clinton Webb1 1Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT. Keywords: adipokines

  6. Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Linjie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship of chemerin expression in EAT and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in Han Chinese patients. Methods Serums and adipose tissue biopsies (epicardial and thoracic subcutaneous were obtained from CAD (n = 37 and NCAD (n = 16 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum levels of chemerin, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Chemerin protein expression in adipose tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of chemerin, chemR23, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in adipose tissue were detected by RT-PCR. Results We found that EAT of CAD group showed significantly higher levels of chemerin and TNF-alpha mRNA, and significantly lower level of adiponectin mRNA than that of NCAD patients. In CAD group, significantly higher levels of chemerin mRNA and protein were observed in EAT than in paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, whereas such significant difference was not found in NCAD group. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was positively correlated with Gensini score (r = 0.365, P P P P P P P > 0.05. Conclusions The expressions of chemerin mRNA and protein are significantly higher in EAT from patients with CAD in Han Chinese patients. Furthermore, the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is positive correlated with the level of chemerin mRNA in EAT rather than its circulating level.

  7. Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a possible involvement of reduced levels of circulating visfatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, C; Filesi, C; Varì, R; Scazzocchio, B; Filardi, T; Fogliano, V; D'Archivio, M; Giovannini, C; Lenzi, A; Morano, S; Masella, R

    2016-11-01

    Phenolic compounds naturally contained in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (high-polyphenol EVOO, HP-EVOO) on the metabolic control and the production of specific pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Eleven overweight T2D patients not in treatment with insulin were invited to follow their habitual diet for a total of 8 weeks. During the first 4 weeks (wash-out period), they were asked to consume refined olive oil (ROO, polyphenols not detectable) and then to replace ROO with HP-EVOO (25 mL/day, 577 mg of phenolic compounds/kg) for the remaining 4 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, plasma lipid profile, liver function and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin, visfatin and apelin were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. HP-EVOO consumption significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.023) and HbA1c (P = 0.039) levels as well as BMI (P = 0.012) and body weight (P = 0.012). HP-EVOO ingestion determined a reduction in serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P = 0.0056) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P = 0.024). Serum visfatin levels strongly decreased after HP-EVOO ingestion (P = 0.0021). Daily consumption of polyphenol-rich EVOO might improve metabolic control and circulating inflammatory adipokines profile in overweight T2D patients.

  8. Relationship between adiponectin, leptin, IGF-1 and total lipid peroxides plasma concentrations in patients with systemic sclerosis: possible role in disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Kuźnik-Trocha, Kornelia; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Kucharz, Eugeniusz; Kotulska, Anna; Olczyk, Krystyna

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between adiponectin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and total lipid peroxide (TLP) concentrations, and its possible role in the development of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc), were evaluated in this study. Plasma adipokines and IGF-1 levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, whereas TLP levels were determined using a photometric test, in 36 dcSSc patients and 40 healthy controls matched by age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Plasma levels of adipokines were significantly lowered, while TLP and IGF-1 were increased in dcSSc patients compared to controls. Adiponectin correlated significantly with leptin (r = 0.44), TLP (r = -0.54), CRP (r = -0.47), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = -0.40) and duration of disease (r = -0.44). A significant relationship was found between leptinemia and IGF-1 (r = -0.40), TLP (r = 0.44), duration of disease (r = -0.38) and BMI (r = 0.65). TLP correlated with IGF-1 (r = -0.43), C-reactive protein (r = 0.47), ESR (r = 0.49) and duration of disease (r = 0.46), while IGF-1 correlated with ESR (r = -0.40). Adipose tissue may play a complex role in the development of dcSSc, affecting both the metabolic state of the organism, as well as free radical-induced connective tissue degradation. Although, leptin seems to exert a pro-oxidative effect and both adiponectin and IGF-1 appear to prevent free radical damage, confirmation of the above effects requires further research. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Body composition and circulating estradiol are the main bone density predictors in healthy young and middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilha, S C; Branisteanu, D; Buzduga, C; Constantinescu, D; Cianga, P; Anisie, E; Covic, A; Ungureanu, M C

    2018-01-16

    Current fracture risk assessment options in men call for improved evaluation strategies. Recent research directed towards non-classic bone mass determinants have often yielded scarce and conflicting results. We aimed at investigating the impact of novel potential bone mass regulators together with classic determinants of bone status in healthy young and middle-aged men. Anthropometric measurements, all-site bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition parameters assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and also serum concentrations of (1) the adipokines leptin and resistin, (2) vitamin D and parathormone (PTH), (3) sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone and estradiol (free testosterone was also calculated) and (4) C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) were obtained from 30 apparently healthy male volunteers aged 20-65 years enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Only lean mass (LM) and total estradiol independently predicted BMD in men in multiple regression analysis, together explaining 49% (p ≤ 0.001) of whole-body BMD variance. Hierarchical regression analysis with whole-body BMD as outcome variable demonstrated that the body mass index (BMI) beta coefficient became nonsignificant when LM was added to the model. Adipokines, fat parameters, testosterone (total and free), SHBG, PTH and vitamin D were not independently associated with BMD or CTx. The present study shows that LM and sex hormones-namely estradiol-are the main determinants of bone mass in young and middle-aged men. The effects of BMI upon BMD seem to be largely mediated by LM. Lifestyle interventions should focus on preserving LM in men for improved bone outcomes.

  10. Focus on metabolic and nutritional correlates of polycystic ovary syndrome and update on nutritional management of these critical phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Repaci, Erica; Allieri, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with numerous metabolic morbidities (insulin resistance (IR), central obesity) and various nutritional abnormalities (vitamin D deficit, mineral milieu alterations, omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio unbalance). We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding: (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of PCOS; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 127 eligible studies. In addition to the well-recognized link between PCOS and IR, the recent literature underlines that in PCOS there is an unbalance in adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, visfatin) production and in omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of overweight on these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of PCOS patients. The optimum diet therapy for the PCOS treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, such as IR improvement, adipokines secretion and reproductive function. These goals must be reached through: accession of the patient to hypocaloric dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight; limiting the consumption of sugar and refined carbohydrates, preferring those with lower glycemic index; dividing the food intake in small and frequent meals, with high caloric intake at breakfast; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega3 PUFA supplements; taking Vitamin D and chromium supplementation, if there are low serum levels. Lifestyle intervention remains the optimal treatment strategy for PCOS women. A relatively small weight loss (5 %) can improve IR, hyperandrogenism, menstrual function, fertility.

  11. Increased vaspin levels are associated with beneficial metabolic outcome pre- and post-bariatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HuiLing Lu

    Full Text Available Vaspin (visceral-adipose-tissue-derived-serine-protease-inhibitor is a recently identified adipokine with putative insulin-sensitizing properties. Plasma vaspin responses to surgery-induced weight loss are sparse and contradictory.We evaluated changes in vaspin levels and relationship to post-operative outcomes in men (n = 22 and women (n = 55 undergoing biliopancreatic-diversion/duodenal-switch bariatric surgery. Body composition and plasma parameters were measured at baseline, acutely (1 and 5 days and medium-term (6 and 12 months post-surgery.Fasting preoperative vaspin concentrations were comparable in men vs women. The distribution was biphasic (both men and women with a nadir of 2.5 ng/ml. Subjects were divided into high (≥2.5 ng/mL, HI-group and low (<2.5 ng/mL, LO-group vaspin level. Both groups had comparable sex distribution, age and BMI, but the HI-vaspin group had lower insulin, HOMA, and triglyceride and higher HDL-cholesterol, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and IL-6 levels (all p<0.05. Post-operatively, both groups decreased BMI comparably over 12 months; the HI-vaspin group maintained high vaspin levels, while the LO-vaspin group gradually increased their levels with weight loss over 12 months. The HI-vaspin group maintained a better glucose, insulin, HOMA, fructosamine, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride profile throughout. The HI-vaspin group also had higher gamma-glutamyltransferase and ASP profiles. Finally, baseline vaspin level inversely correlated significantly with baseline and 12-month insulin, HOMA, triglyceride and positively correlated with HDL and ASP. Twelve-month vaspin also correlated similarly, including an inverse correlation with BMI.Globally, this study supports the concept of vaspin as a beneficial adipokine in obesity, which may potentially lead to possible therapeutic targets.

  12. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: role of adiponectin (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nikolaevna Gorbunova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical value of the disorders and diseases integrated within the metabolic syndrome (MS is in the combination of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD, which significantly accelerates the development of cardiovascular events (CVEs. The detection rate for MS in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA is shown to be higher than in the controls regardless of the diagnostic criteria for MS. At present, there are confusing data on the role of adipokins in RA. Objective: to determine the rate of MS and its components in RA patients and the association of the level of adipokin (adiponectin with the components of MS in relation to the duration of RA. Subjects and methods: The investigation enrolled 69 RA patients divided into two groups: 1 34 patients with early-stage (<2-year RA and 2 35 patients with end-stage (>2-year RA. Results. MS occurred in 12 (17.4% of the 69 patients with RA. There was central (abdominal obesity in 37 (53.6% patients with RA, hypertension in 29 (42%, low high-density cholesterol levels in 20 (29%, hyperglycemia in 11 (15.9%, and hypertriglyceridemia in 10 (14.5%. According to the presence or absence of MS, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 12 patients with MS; 2 57 without MS. In the patients with RA and MS, the duration of the disease was shorter; DAS28 and CDAI were higher than in those without MS: 15.4 [7; 24] months versus 51.8 [6; 72] months; DAS28 was 5.8 [4.9; 6.7] scores versus 5.1 [4.5; 5.8] scores; CDAI: 34.8 [21.8; 41.4] scores versus 24.2 [18; 31] scores, respectively (p < 0.05 in all cases. The serum level of adiponectin was lower: 13.1 [5.7; 10.7] ng/ml versus 20.6 [6.9; 30.9] ng/ml in the patients with RA and MS as compared to those without MS; but there were no significant differences. In the patients with early-end RA, the rate of MS was twice higher than that in those with end-stage RA; however, the differences were statistically insignificant (p = 0.1. The components of MS

  13. Proteinuria and its relation to diverse biomarkers and body mass index in chronic hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimarchi H

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hernán Trimarchi,1 Alexis Muryan,2 María-Soledad Raña,1 Pedro Paggi,2 Fernando Lombi,1 Mariano Forrester,1 Vanesa Pomeranz,1 Alejandra Karl,1 Mirta Alonso,2 Pablo Young,3 Mariana Dicugno2 1Department of Nephrology, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Internal Medicine Services, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background: Certain adipokines exert direct effects on proteinuria, a cardiovascular risk factor ignored in hemodialysis. We measured different adipokines according to body mass index (BMI in relation to proteinuria. Methods: Patients numbered 57: group A (GA, BMI 30, n = 20. There were no statistical differences in age, sex, time on dialysis, cause of renal failure, diabetes, hypertension, C-reactive protein, or nutritional status. Measures were taken of 24-hour diuresis and proteinuria, ultrafiltration, albumin, pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Pro-BNP, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin. Results: Proteinuria was significantly higher in GC versus (vs GA (1.5 g/day, range 0.30–14 vs 0.72 g/day, range 0.1–2.7; P 0.05. In GA, elevated levels of Pro-BNP, adiponectin, and ghrelin were associated with lower degrees of proteinuria. Significant correlations were found between adiponectin and leptin (ρ = -0.54, P = 0.03, and adiponectin and Pro-BNP (ρ= 0.59, P = 0.02. Though not significant, there were more diabetics in GC (GA four, GB three, GC ten. As BMI increased in GB and GC, Pro-BNP, adiponectin, and ghrelin levels decreased significantly, while proteinuria, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance increased. Leptin levels were significantly elevated in GC vs GA and GB. In GC, ghrelin correlated significantly with Pro-BNP (ρ= 0.51, P = 0.03, while leptin correlation with Pro-BNP was inverse and significant in GA (ρ = -0.74, P > 0.001 and inverse and nonsignificant in GB and GC. Conclusion: In patients with BMI < 25, higher adiponectin, ghrelin, and Pro-BNP levels

  14. The effect of n-3 PUFAs on circulating adiponectin and leptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farimani, Azam Rezaei; Hariri, Mitra; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Borji, Abasalt; Zarei, Sadegh; Hooshmand, Elham

    2018-02-16

    N-3 PUFAs can potentially influence levels of inflammatory and non-inflammatory adipokines. Given the contradictory effects of n-3 PUFAs on serum levels of adipokines in type 2 diabetes, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis study of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that examined the effects of n-3 PUFAs on serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with type 2 diabetes. The electronic databases, without regard to language restrictions including PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, SCOPUS and ISI Web of Science until August 2017, were used to identify randomized controlled trials that assessed the effect of n-3 PUFAs on serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations in type 2 diabetes. Outcomes were extracted based on the mean ± SD as effect size at baseline and end of the intervention. Between-study heterogeneity was evaluated by the I 2 estimates and their 95% CIs. Funnel plot asymmetry was used to investigate the existence of publication bias. Stata software and Review Manager were used for statistical data analysis. Data from 10 eligible articles involved 494 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (intervention groups = 254 and control groups = 240), with age between 44 and 70 years, treated with doses of 0.52-7.4 g/day n-3 PUFAs. Adiponectin concentration nonsignificantly increased by a MD = 0.17 µg/mL (95% CI - 0.11, 0.44). Also, leptin concentration nonsignificantly reduced by a MD = - 0.31 ng/mL (95% CI - 0.69, 0.07). Plant and marine sources of n-3 PUFAs can modify serum leptin and adiponectin levels by increasing adiponectin and decreasing leptin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Due to some limitations in this study, further studies are needed to reach a definitive conclusion about the effect of n-3 PUFAs on the levels of leptin and adiponectin in T2DM.

  15. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Cejudo, M. Gorety; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Guadarrama-López, Ana L.; Pardo-Morales, Rosa-Virgen; Martínez-Carrillo, Beatriz E.; Harbige, Laurence S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on adipokines, metabolic control, and lipid profile in T2DM Mexican adults. Methods: In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 54 patients with T2DM received 520 mg of DHA + EPA-enriched fish-oil (FOG) or a placebo (PG) daily. Baseline and 24-week anthropometric and biochemical measurements included glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac), leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile; n-3 PUFA intake was calculated in g/day. Results: Waist circumference and blood glucose showed significant reductions in the FOG group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Hb1Ac (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004), leptin (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000) decreased significantly in both groups after 24 weeks (FOG and PG respectively). Serum resistin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p = 0.001), insulin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p < 0.000), and HOMA-IR (FOG p = 0.000 and PG p < 0.000) increased significantly in both groups. FOG had an overall improvement in the lipid profile with a significant decrease in triacylgycerols (p = 0.002) and atherogenic index (p = 0.031); in contrast, the PG group had increased total cholesterol (p < 0.000), non-HDL cholesterol (p < 0.000), and atherogenic index (p = 0.017). Conclusions: We found a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on waist circumference, glucose, Hb1Ac, leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and lipid profile, without significant changes in adiponectin, and increases in resistin, insulin, and HOMA-IR in both groups. PMID:28587203

  16. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gorety Jacobo-Cejudo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on adipokines, metabolic control, and lipid profile in T2DM Mexican adults. Methods: In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 54 patients with T2DM received 520 mg of DHA + EPA-enriched fish-oil (FOG or a placebo (PG daily. Baseline and 24-week anthropometric and biochemical measurements included glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile; n-3 PUFA intake was calculated in g/day. Results: Waist circumference and blood glucose showed significant reductions in the FOG group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively. Hb1Ac (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004, leptin (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000, and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000 decreased significantly in both groups after 24 weeks (FOG and PG respectively. Serum resistin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p = 0.001, insulin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p < 0.000, and HOMA-IR (FOG p = 0.000 and PG p < 0.000 increased significantly in both groups. FOG had an overall improvement in the lipid profile with a significant decrease in triacylgycerols (p = 0.002 and atherogenic index (p = 0.031; in contrast, the PG group had increased total cholesterol (p < 0.000, non-HDL cholesterol (p < 0.000, and atherogenic index (p = 0.017. Conclusions: We found a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on waist circumference, glucose, Hb1Ac, leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and lipid profile, without significant changes in adiponectin, and increases in resistin, insulin, and HOMA-IR in both groups.

  17. Frequency and significance of the novel single nucleotide missense polymorphism Val109Asp in the human gene encoding omentin in Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or chronic inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buechler Christa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The omental adipose tissue is pathogenetically involved in both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD such as Ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's Disease (CD. Thus, adipokines secreted from omental adipose tissue might play an important role in these diseases. Omentin represents a new adipokine expressed in and secreted by omental adipose tissue. Therefore, it was the aim to investigate the putative role of a newly described sequence missense variation in the human omentin gene. Methods The Val109Asp single nucleotide miss-sense polymorphism and the His86His polymorphism in exon-4 of the omentin gene were newly identified by random sequencing. Only the miss-sense polymorphism was investigated further. Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of amplified DNA fragments. Three different cohorts of well-characterized individuals were included in the study. 114 patients suffering from T2D, 190 patients suffering from IBD (128 with CD and 62 with UC and 276 non-diabetic healthy controls without any history for IBD were analyzed. Results The following allelic frequencies were determined: controls: Val-allele: 0.26, Asp-allele: 0.74; T2D: Val-allele: 0.3, Asp-allele: 0.7; IBD: Val-allel: 0.31, Asp-allele: 0.69. UC and CD patients did not differ in regard to the allelic frequency. Similarly, controls, T2D patients and IBD patients did not show significant differences in genotype distribution among each other. Disease manifestation and pattern of infestation were not related to genotype subgroups, neither in CD nor in UC. Furthermore, there was no significant association between genotype subgroups and anthropometric or laboratory parameters in T2D patients. Conclusion Based on sequence comparisons and homology searches, the amino acid position 109 is conserved in the omentin gene of humans, mice and chimpanzee but is not completely conserved between other omentin

  18. Association between IL28B polymorphism, TNFα and biomarkers of insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C-related insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, M; Chevaliez, S; Bastard, J P; Fartoux, L; Chazouillères, O; Capeau, J; Pawlotsky, J M; Serfaty, L

    2015-11-01

    TNFα has been shown to play a role in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced insulin resistance (IR). Polymorphism of the IL28B gene that encodes IFN-lambda 3 may be associated with IR through modulation of TNFα. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IL28B rs12979860 genotype, the level of TNFα activation and the degree of IR in patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-three nondiabetic genotype 1 HCV-infected patients with biopsy proven noncirrhotic hepatitis C were investigated for IR (using HOMA index), IL28B rs12979860 genotype and fasting circulating levels of soluble receptor 1 of TNFα (sTNFR1) and adipokines: leptin, adiponectin and IL-6. The HOMA-IR was positively correlated with serum levels of leptin (r = 0.35, P < 0.0001) and sTNFR1 (r = 0.35, P < 0.0001) but not with IL-6 or adiponectin. IL28B rs12979860 CC genotype was observed in 35% patients. Genotype CC and nongenotype CC patients were similar in terms of HOMA-IR (means 1.6 ± 0.9 vs 1.7 ± 1.4) and had similar circulating levels of sTNFR1 and adipokines. Independent factors associated with IR were ferritin (OR = 1.002, P = 0.02), leptin (OR = 1.06, P = 0.02) and sTNFR1 (OR = 7.9, P = 0.04). This study suggests that in nondiabetic, noncirrhotic, HCV genotype 1-infected patients, there is no relationship between IL28B rs12979860 genotype and HOMA-IR or sTNFR1 level. HCV-related IR may be mediated through TNFα independent of IL28B genotype. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adipsin Concentrations Are Associated with Back Pain Independently of Adiposity in Overweight or Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmayne R. E. Brady

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare cardiometabolic risk factors including cytokine and adipokine concentrations between individuals with and without back pain.Methods: In 62 overweight/obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; 23F/39M, we collected data on: self-reported back pain; anthropometry [BMI, waist circumference, body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry—DEXA]; metabolic parameters [fasting glucose; insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps]; cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, lipids; serum inflammation markers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; immunoturbidimetric-assay, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-10 (multiplex-assay]; and adipokines [leptin, adipsin, resistin, and adiponectin (multiplex-assay].Results: Participants who reported having back pain in the past month (n = 24; 39% had higher BMI (mean ± SD = 33.8 ± 6.3 vs. 30.2 ± 4.1 kg/m2, p = 0.008, fat-mass (39.9 ± 12.3 vs. 33.9 ± 9.8%, p = 0.04, and waist circumference (109.6 ± 16.8 vs. 101.0 ± 9.3 cm, p = 0.01 compared to those without back pain (n = 38; 61%. No differences were observed in cardiometabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, or adiponectin or resistin concentrations. Those reporting back pain had higher adipsin concentrations compared to those without back pain [median (IQR = 744 (472–2,804 vs. 721 (515–867 ng/ml, p = 0.03], with a trend for higher leptin [5.5 (1.5–24.3 vs. 2.3 (1.5–6.7 ng/ml, p = 0.05], both of which persisted after adjustment for age and sex. Adipsin remained associated with back pain independently of adiposity (BMI, waist, fat-mass, or total %body fat; all p ≤ 0.03.Conclusions: Greater obesity, and higher adipsin and leptin concentrations were observed in those who reported back pain in the past month compared to those without back pain, and adipsin was associated with back pain independently of adiposity. Larger studies are needed to determine if adipsin could be a novel

  20. In middle-aged and old obese patients, training intervention reduces leptin level: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Rostás

    Full Text Available Leptin is one of the major adipokines in obesity that indicates the severity of fat accumulation. It is also an important etiological factor of consequent cardiometabolic and autoimmune disorders. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce leptin resistance and hyperleptinemia. Hyperleptinemia, on the other hand, may promote the development of age-related abnormalities. While major weight loss has been demonstrated to ameliorate hyperleptinemia, obese people show a poor tendency to achieve lasting success in this field. The question arises whether training intervention per se is able to reduce the level of this adipokine.We aimed to review the literature on the effects of training intervention on peripheral leptin level in obesity during aging, in order to evaluate the independent efficacy of this method. In the studies that were included in our analysis, changes of adiponectin levels (when present were also evaluated.3481 records were identified through searching of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library Database. Altogether 19 articles were suitable for analyses.Empirical research papers were eligible provided that they reported data of middle-aged or older (above 45 years of age overweight or obese (body mass index above 25 individuals and included physical training intervention or at least fitness status of groups together with corresponding blood leptin values.We used random effect models in each of the meta-analyses calculating with the DerSimonian and Laird weighting methods. I-squared indicator and Q test were performed to assess heterogeneity. To assess publication bias Egger's test was applied. In case of significant publication bias, the Duval and Tweedie's trim and fill algorithm was used.Training intervention leads to a decrease in leptin level of middle-aged or older, overweight or obese male and female groups, even without major weight loss, indicated by unchanged serum adiponectin levels. Resistance training

  1. The associations between serum adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, insulin, and serum long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in Labrador Retrievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streeter RM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renee M Streeter,1 Angela M Struble,1 Sabine Mann,2 Daryl V Nydam,2 John E Bauer,3 Marta G Castelhano,1 Rory J Todhunter,1 Bethany P Cummings,4 Joseph J Wakshlag11Department of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USAAbstract: Obesity has been associated with an increased inflammatory response and insulin resistance due to adipose tissue–derived adipokines and increases in C-reactive protein (CRP. Dogs appear to be similar to other species with the exception of adiponectin, which might not be affected by obesity status. Serum long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations have been positively and negatively associated with serum adipokines. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin to body condition score (BCS and to the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in serum lipoproteins, including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentanenoic acid (DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA as a reflection of dietary omega-3 status in the Labrador Retriever. Seventy-seven Labrador Retrievers were evaluated for BCS, percent fasting serum lipoprotein fatty acid concentrations, as well as serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and CRP. A multivariable general linear regression model was constructed to examine the association between the dependent variables leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin and the predictor variables of BCS, age, and sex, as well as concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA, and DPA. Adiponectin concentration was positively associated with age (P<0.0008, EPA (P=0.027 and negatively associated with DHA (P=0.008. Leptin concentration was positively associated with an increased DHA (P=0.009, BCS (P

  2. Systemic blockade of TNF-α does not improve insulin resistance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-Amaro, I; Arce-Franco, M; Muñiz, J; López-Fernández, J; Hernández-Hernández, V; Franco, A; Quevedo, J; Martínez-Martín, J; Díaz-González, F

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term modulation of inflammatory activity by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors has some influence on insulin resistance (IR). 16 active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients without CV risk factors treated with anti-TNF-α agents were included in this study. RA activity by disease activity score 28, IR by HOMA2-IR, body composition by impedance analysis, physical activity by accelerometry, abdominal fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging, and serum level of key adipokines by ELISA were measured at baseline and during a 1-year follow-up period. Patient body mass index increased significantly (26.94 ± 3.88 vs. 28.06 ± 4.57 kg/m2, p=0.02) after 1 year of treatment. Body composition, in terms of fat and fat-free mass, remained unchanged except for a significant elevation in body cell mass (25.50 ± 4.60 vs. 26.60 ± 3.17 kg, p=0.02). Basal levels of IR in the RA patients included in this study were significantly higher than healthy controls (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.11 ± 0.56, p=0.011) but did not change during the follow-up. Nor did basal concentrations of adiponectin, visfatin, leptin, ghrelin, resistin, and apelin in response to anti-TNF-α treatment; only retinol-binding protein 4, showed a significant increase (51.7 ± 32.7 vs. 64.9 ± 28.4 μg/ml, p=0.03) at the end of the study. IR, adiposity distribution, and serum levels of most adipokines are not significantly affected by long-term inhibition of TNF-α in RA patients. Our data suggest that although systemic blockade of TNF-α exerts an anticachectic effect in RA patients, it does not seem to play a major role in IR. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. The effect of myostatin on proliferation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui Juan; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Xu Zhe; Li, Nai Shi; Wang, Lin Jie; Yang, Hong Bo; Gong, Feng Ying

    2015-06-01

    Myostatin is a critical negative regulator of skeletal muscle development, and has been reported to be involved in the progression of obesity and diabetes. In the present study, we explored the effects of myostatin on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide spectrophotometry, intracellular triglyceride (TG) assays, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR methods. The results indicated that recombinant myostatin significantly promoted the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the expression of proliferation-related genes, including Cyclin B2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, Pcna, and c-Myc, and IGF1 levels in the medium of 3T3-L1 were notably upregulated by 35.2, 30.5, 20.5, 33.4, 51.2, and 179% respectively (all Pmyostatin-treated 3T3-L1 cells. Meanwhile, the intracellular lipid content of myostatin-treated cells was notably reduced as compared with the non-treated cells. Additionally, the mRNA levels of Pparγ, Cebpα, Gpdh, Dgat, Acs1, Atgl, and Hsl were significantly downregulated by 22-76% in fully differentiated myostatin-treated adipocytes. Finally, myostatin regulated the mRNA levels and secretion of adipokines, including Adiponectin, Resistin, Visfatin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (all Pmyostatin promoted 3T3-L1 proliferation by increasing the expression of cell-proliferation-related genes and by stimulating IGF1 secretion. Myostatin inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by suppressing Pparγ and Cebpα expression, which consequently deceased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells by inhibiting the expression of critical lipogenic enzymes and by promoting the expression of lipolytic enzymes. Finally, myostatin modulated the expression and secretion of adipokines in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Fetuin-A induces cytokine expression and suppresses adiponectin production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Hennige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05. Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both. Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02 and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01, and negatively with total- (r = -0.28, p = 0.02 and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = -0.36, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and

  5. Evaluation of biologically active substances promoting the development of or protecting against endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cymbaluk-Płoska A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska,1 Anita Chudecka-Głaz,1 Anna Jagodzińska,1 Ewa Pius-Sadowska,2 Agnieszka Sompolska-Rzechuła,3 Bogusław Machaliński,2 Janusz Menkiszak1 1Department of Gynecological Surgery and Gynecological Oncology of Adults and Adolescents, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; 2General Pathology Department, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; 3Department of Statistics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland Introduction: Adipose tissue is considered an endocrine organ and produces a number of biologically active substances. Aims: To consider the role that four adipokines – leptin, omentin-1, vaspin, and galectin-3 – play in the diagnosis of endometrium cancer and to investigate the association between serum concentrations of adipose tissue metabolism products and the diagnostics and prognosis in endometrial cancer. Patients and methods: The study included 168 patients with body mass index (BMI >20 kg/m2 admitted due to post-menopausal bleeding. Results: A receiver operating characteristic curves test was performed to determine the diagnostic values of the proteins tested. For leptin and galectin-3 the area under the curve (AUC values were 0.79/0.68, while for vaspin and omentin-1 the AUC values were 0.82/0.86 for all study patients. The final model identified the following independent risk factors: glucose concentration, BMI, waist circumference, leptin, and vaspin concentrations. Diagnostic values of leptin and galectin-3 with regard to differentiation between high (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie Obstétrique [FIGO] III and IV and low (FIGO I and II stages of clinical tumor advancement and prediction of tumor grading (G1 vs G3 based on the AUC curve were 0.82/0.70 and 0.80/0.74. The AUC values for vaspin and omentin-1 with respect to differentiation between histopathological advancement and grading were 0.86/0.81 and 0.83/0.77, respectively. Significantly lower values of

  6. SERUM LEPTIN LEVENS AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: REVIEW ARTICLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Luiza Vitelo; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant tumors in the world. There is growing evidence of the relationship between it development and obesity. The mechanism that links obesity to cancer is still not fully understood; however, it is essential to the understanding the adipose tissue in metabolic changes related to obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma. To review the influence of serum leptin levels in patients with hepatocelular carcinoma. Systematic review of the literature based on the methodology of the Cochrane Institute. The search for articles was in the database: Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed. The key words used were hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. After evaluation of individual studies, were selected seven studies. The results previously studied are still inconsistent and contradictory, and leptin can be effectively involved in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop prospective, well-designed and conducted focusing on the role and specific mechanisms of this hormone in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, so that new correlations can be properly supported. O carcinoma hepatocelular é um dos tipos mais frequentes de tumores malignos no mundo. Há crescentes evidências da relação entre o seu desenvolvimento e a obesidade. O mecanismo que os relaciona ainda não é completamente entendido. Entretanto é essencial a compreensão do tecido adiposo nas alterações metabólicas relacionadas à obesidade e ao câncer. Revisar a influência dos níveis séricos de leptina em pacientes com carcinoma hepatocelular. Trata-se de revisão bibliográfica baseada na metodologia do Instituto Cochrane; a busca de dados foi realizada na base de dados Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed, empregando as seguintes descritores: hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. Após avaliação individual dos artigos selecionaram-se sete estudos

  7. Curcuminoids Lower Plasma Leptin Concentrations: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Stephen L; Katsiki, Niki; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-12-01

    Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol that has been suggested to improve several metabolic diseases. Leptin is an adipokine involved in metabolic status and appetite, with marked crosstalk with other systems. Available data suggest that curcumin may affect leptin levels; therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken on all randomized controlled trials of curcumin studies that included the measurement of leptin. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar databases. Quantitative data synthesis was performed by using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. A funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation, and Egger's weighted regression tests assessed the presence of publication bias. Four eligible articles comprising five treatment arms were selected for the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in plasma leptin concentrations following curcumin treatment (standardized mean difference: -0.69, 95% confidence interval: -1.16, -0.23, p = 0.003; I 2  = 76.53%). There was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis showed that curcumin supplementation is associated with a decrease in leptin levels that may be regarded as a potential mechanism for the metabolic effects of curcumin. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Endocrinology of anorexia nervosa in young people: recent insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vibha; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is among the most prevalent chronic medical conditions in young adults. It has acute as well as long-term consequences, some of which, such as low bone mineral density (BMD), are not completely reversible even after weight restoration. This review discusses our current understanding of endocrine consequences of anorexia nervosa. Recent findings Anorexia nervosa is characterized by changes in multiple neuroendocrine axes including acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (likely mediated by fibroblast growth factor-1), relative hypercortisolemia, alterations in adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and gut peptides including ghrelin, PYY and amylin. These changes in turn contribute to low BMD. Studies in anorexia nervosa have demonstrated abnormalities in bone microarchitecture and strength, and an association between increased marrow fat and decreased BMD. One study in adolescents reported an improvement in BMD following physiologic estrogen replacement, and another in adults demonstrated improved BMD following risedronate administration. Brown adipose tissue is reduced in anorexia nervosa, consistent with an adaptive response to the energy deficit state. Su