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Sample records for adipokines

  1. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis.

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    Buechler, Christa; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-06-29

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively.

  2. Obesity, adipokines, and lung disease.

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    Sood, Akshay

    2010-03-01

    This review summarizes the state of the current literature relating to the associations of lung disease on obesity and adipokines (proteins produced by adipose tissue) in humans. Obesity is an independent risk factor for asthma. Recent studies suggest that obesity is also an independent risk factor for chronic airflow obstruction, as is seen with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanistic basis for these associations in humans is not established, although a possible role for adipokines has been invoked. Leptin, a proinflammatory adipokine, and adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, are causally associated with asthma in mice. Although human studies are currently inconclusive, high-serum leptin and low-serum adiponectin concentrations predict asthma, independent of obesity, in select population groups, such as premenopausal women in the United States. In contradistinction, low-serum leptin and high-serum adiponectin concentrations are associated with stable COPD, although these associations are likely confounded by fat mass. Interestingly, leptin may promote systemic and airway inflammation in stable COPD patients. On the other hand, COPD may upregulate systemic and lung adiponectin expression. The precise mechanism and significance of the associations between these adipokines and lung disease at the current stage is confusing and frankly paradoxical in places. This area of research needs additional study that may open up novel therapeutic strategies for these lung diseases.

  3. Relationship between adipokines and periodontitis

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    Reiko Furugen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased risk for developing characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Interestingly, chronic exposure to periodontal pathogens’ endotoxin and increased cytokine production have been proposed to enhance the risk for causing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. Obesity has also recently been reported to be associated with periodontitis. Obesity induces macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue, promotes chronic low-grade inflammation, and increases adipokines derived from adipocytes. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the roles of adipokines in chronic inflammatory states such as periodontitis and focus primarily on adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. Understanding the role of adipokines may help elucidate relationships among periodontitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  4. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ADIPOKINES

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    S. Ye. Myasoyedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disorders and dyslipidemia with hypothyroidism. Reference data are presented that are devoted to the study of adipokines content with hypothyroidism and their effect on echocardiographic indicators.

  5. Adipokines mediate inflammation and insulin resistance

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    Jeffrey E. Pessin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years, adipose tissue was considered as an inert energy storage organ that accumulates and stores triacylglycerols during energy excess and releases fatty acids in times of systemic energy need. However, over the last two decades adipose tissue depots have been established as highly active endocrine and metabolically important organs that modulate energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. In rodents, brown adipose tissue plays an essential role in non-shivering thermogenesis and in energy dissipation that can serve to protect against diet-induced obesity. White adipose tissue collectively referred too as either subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue is responsible for the secretion of an array of signaling molecules, termed adipokines. These adipokines function as classic circulating hormones to communicate with other organs including brain, liver, muscle, the immune system and adipose tissue itself. The dysregulation of adipokines has been implicated in obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recently, inflammatory responses in adipose tissue have been shown as a major mechanism to induce peripheral tissue insulin resistance. Although leptin and adiponectin regulate feeding behavior and energy expenditure, these adipokines are also involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Adipose tissue secrete various pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines to modulate inflammation and insulin resistance. In obese humans and rodent models, the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines is enhanced to induce insulin resistance. Collectively, these findings have suggested that obesity-induced insulin resistance may result, at least in part, from an imbalance in the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. Thus we will review the recent progress regarding the physiological and molecular functions of adipokines in the obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance with perspectives on future directions.

  6. Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract

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    Maxime Reverchon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.

  7. Adipose Tissue and Adipokines: The Association with and Application of Adipokines in Obesity

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    Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks the 20th anniversary of adipokines. Through the identification of leptin, our perceived understanding of adipose tissue was changed instantaneously. From a simple dormant site of energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as an integral hub of various hormones known as adipokines. Although great strides have been made in characterizing these hormones in health, research also shows they are significantly implicated in a series of pathologies. One such condition is obesity. Defined as an excess of adipose tissue, obesity remains one of the greatest healthcare epidemics of the 21st century. With no definitive treatment, attention has shifted to understanding the role of adipokines in obesity. This review provides an introduction to the salient obesity-related adipokines and their possible application as a treatment for obesity.

  8. Adipose tissue and adipokines: the association with and application of adipokines in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Joseph, Frank

    2014-01-01

    2014 marks the 20th anniversary of adipokines. Through the identification of leptin, our perceived understanding of adipose tissue was changed instantaneously. From a simple dormant site of energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as an integral hub of various hormones known as adipokines. Although great strides have been made in characterizing these hormones in health, research also shows they are significantly implicated in a series of pathologies. One such condition is obesity. Defined as an excess of adipose tissue, obesity remains one of the greatest healthcare epidemics of the 21st century. With no definitive treatment, attention has shifted to understanding the role of adipokines in obesity. This review provides an introduction to the salient obesity-related adipokines and their possible application as a treatment for obesity.

  9. Adipose Tissue and Adipokines: The Association with and Application of Adipokines in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad; Joseph, Frank

    2014-01-01

    2014 marks the 20th anniversary of adipokines. Through the identification of leptin, our perceived understanding of adipose tissue was changed instantaneously. From a simple dormant site of energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as an integral hub of various hormones known as adipokines. Although great strides have been made in characterizing these hormones in health, research also shows they are significantly implicated in a series of pathologies. One such condition is obesity. Def...

  10. Sputum as a source of adipokines in bronchial asthma

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    V. N. Mineev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four patients with allergic (ABA and non-allergic (NABA variants of bronchial asthma (BA were examined to evaluate levels of key adipokines (leptin, resistin, adiponectin in sputum in different variants of BA. Adipokines in sputum and blood plasma were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The indices that reflect the percentage of adipokines in sputum regarding adipokines in plasma of the same patients were worked out to evaluate the ratio of levels of corresponding adipokines in plasma and sputum in patients with BA. Two regularities are clearly seen in the study: the first - levels of proinflammatory adipokines (leptin, resistin in sputum in ABA correlate directly with indicators of respiratory function but levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines (adiponectin in sputum correlate inversely with indicators of respiratory function; the second -correlation of levels of the studied adipokines with indicators of respiratory function are almost not revealed in NABA. The first regularity reflects the important fact that the content of adipokines in bronchial secretion is to a certain extent one of regulating local mechanisms in target organ controlled system levels of corresponding adipokines in exacerbation of BA.

  11. Sepsis-Induced Adipokine Change with regard to Insulin Resistance

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    Andreas Hillenbrand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assessment of white adipose tissue has changed in recent years, with WAT now being considered as an active endocrine organ, secreting a large number of bioactive mediators, so-called adipokines. Besides other functions, these adipokines are involved in inflammatory response thereby exhibiting predominantly proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties and contribute to insulin resistance. Methods. Comprehensive review of the literature of the role of adipokines relevant to critical care medicine using PubMed search. Results. Adiponectin—the prototype of an anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing adipokine—is diminished in sepsis, while resistin—a protein with proinflammatory properties—is elevated. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, and tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha mediate insulin resistance and are elevated in sepsis, while retinol-binding protein-4 concentrations are significantly reduced in sepsis. Chemerin displays potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-resistance properties, while monocyte chemotactic protein-1—increased in sepsis—contributes to macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue and insulin resistance. Conclusions. The expression of adipokines in humans is altered as well in obese as in septic patients with elevated levels of proinflammatory adipokines. Changes in adipokine levels in acute sepsis could contribute to insulin resistance. Consequently, in critically ill patients, these alterations underline a possible contribution of adipokines in the development of hyperglycemia.

  12. Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease.

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    Northcott, Josette M; Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Wigle, Jeffrey T

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on the role of adipokines in the maintenance of a healthy cardiovascular system, and the mechanisms by which these factors mediate the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Adipocytes are the major cell type comprising the adipose tissue. These cells secrete numerous factors, termed adipokines, into the blood, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, and visfatin. Adipose tissue is a highly vascularised endocrine organ, and different adipose depots have distinct adipokine secretion profiles, which are altered with obesity. The ability of many adipokines to stimulate angiogenesis is crucial for adipose tissue expansion; however, excessive blood vessel growth is deleterious. As well, some adipokines induce inflammation, which promotes cardiovascular disease progression. We discuss how these 7 aforementioned adipokines act upon the various cardiovascular cell types (endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, cardiomyocytes, and cardiac fibroblasts), the direct effects of these actions, and their overall impact on the cardiovascular system. These were chosen, as these adipokines are secreted predominantly from adipocytes and have known effects on cardiovascular cells.

  13. Correlation between obesity, adipokines and the immune system

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    Marcos Regini Silveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide health problem and the increase in its incidence, risks and consequences are a matter of growing concern. Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the body. Many studies are currently investigating obesity and associated comorbidities in an attempt to clarify the mechanisms involved. Fat tissue is a dynamic organ that secretes several factors, including adipokines. Adipokines are bioactive peptides secreted by fat cells, which are important for energy regulation and inflammatory and immune responses. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin are the most studied adipokines. The aim of this review was to gather information about these adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin and their relationship with the immune response in obese individuals, as well as the susceptibility of these patients to infections. The results of the literature review permit some observations. The circulating levels of these adipokines are directly involved in the degree of obesity of the patient. High or low circulating concentrations of these adipokines may have beneficial or negative effects on immune competence, with obese patients being more susceptible to infection and inflammation than eutrophic individuals.Key words: Obesity; Adipokines; Leptin; Adiponectin; Resistin; Immune system.

  14. Adipokines: new emerging roles in fertility and reproduction.

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    Tersigni, Chiara; Di Nicuolo, Fiorella; D'Ippolito, Silvia; Veglia, Manuela; Castellucci, Mario; Di Simone, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a specialized endocrine and paracrine organ producing specific factors called adipokines. It is well known that adipokines balance is fundamental to prevent obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. During the last years, new roles of adipokines have been emerging in the field of fertility and reproduction. Although the literature is still quite controversial, this review serves to resume current knowledge on this topic. Alterations in adipokine levels or in their mechanism of action are associated with fertility impairment and pregnancy diseases, as well as with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Normal levels of adipokines are fundamental to maintain integrity of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, regular ovulatory processes, successful embryo implantation, and physiologic pregnancy. More efforts are needed to understand the mechanisms and to the extent to which adipokine changes are involved in the impairment of fertility and pregnancy outcome, to find possible medical treatments. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians Learning Objectives: After completion of this educational activity, the obstetrician/gynecologist should be better able to demonstrate current knowledge in the research field of adipokines in fertility and reproduction; evaluate the central role of metabolism balance in good pregnancy outcome; and apply new perspectives of studies.

  15. Exercise Induced Adipokine Changes and the Metabolic Syndrome

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    Saeid Golbidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  16. Paraoxonase-1 and adipokines: Potential links between obesity and atherosclerosis.

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    Fülöp, Péter; Harangi, Mariann; Seres, Ildikó; Paragh, György

    2016-11-25

    Oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation are major characteristics of obesity-related disorders. The dominance of pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory mechanisms triggers insulin resistance and enhances the progression of atherosclerosis. Discovered first as an esterase that hydrolyze organophosphates, human paraoxonase-1 is bound to high-density lipoprotein and inhibits the oxidation of lipoproteins and reduces the degree of inflammation, hence it is considered to act against atherosclerosis. In contrast, the majority of the adipokines secreted from the enlarged white adipose tissue promote the atherosclerotic process; and altered adipokine secretion is now regarded as one of the major contributors of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in obesity. In this review, we detail the correlations between paraoxonase-1 and some selected adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin and chemerin. Adipokine imbalance leads to decreased paraoxonase-1 activity that results in enhanced atherosclerosis; therefore, altered adipokine secretion may be predictive of cardiovascular complications in obesity. As an active organ secreting biological active substances, white adipose tissue may also act as a "fine-tuner" of immune and endocrine actions attenuating or enhancing reactions triggered by pathogens, inflammation and metabolic stimuli; and obesity, as a chronic noxious state may perturb the proper functioning of this fine-tuning process. Further investigations are of major importance to elucidate the associations between adipokines and paraoxonase-1 and to establish accurate interventions against obesity-related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alterations in adipokines in feline hepatic lipidosis.

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    Mazaki-Tovi, M; Abood, S K; Segev, G; Schenck, P A

    2013-01-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is associated with alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The adipokines, adiponectin, and leptin have lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin are altered in feline HL. Client-owned cats: 55 healthy and 45 with liver disease. Cats with liver disease were categorized as having HL (n = 20), HL and concurrent disease (n = 19), or other liver disease (n = 6), based on clinical signs, laboratory findings, abdominal ultrasound examination as well as liver cytopathology, histopathology, or both. Serum samples were collected and body condition score determined. Mean serum concentrations of adiponectin were higher in overweight cats with HL (4.5 μg/mL), HL and concurrent disease (4.4 μg/mL), or other liver disease (6.1 μg/mL), as compared with healthy cats (1.5 μg/mL; P < .001, P < .001, and P = .04, respectively). Mean serum concentration of leptin was higher in cats with HL (9.8 ng/mL) or HL and concurrent disease (10.7 ng/mL) than healthy cats (4.9 ng/mL, P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Cats with other liver disease had leptin concentration (4.9 ng/mL) similar to healthy cats. Concentrations of adiponectin were correlated with alanine aminotransferase activity (r = 0.40, P = .0069), and concentrations of leptin were correlated with alkaline phosphatase activity (r = 0.42, P = .0051) in cats with liver disease. Adipokine concentrations are altered in feline HL. Increased concentrations of adiponectin are related to liver disease, whereas increased concentrations of leptin are specifically related to HL. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. A link between sleep loss, glucose metabolism and adipokines

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    H.G. Padilha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review evaluates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering problems of glucose metabolism and the possible involvement of adipokines in this process. A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society, and a search of the current literature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations of nutritional and metabolic contexts. Studies suggest that sleep loss is associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism involved may be associated with the decreased efficacy of regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by negative feedback mechanisms in sleep-deprivation conditions. In addition, changes in the circadian pattern of growth hormone (GH secretion might also contribute to the alterations in glucose regulation observed during sleep loss. On the other hand, sleep deprivation stress affects adipokines - increasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decreasing leptin and adiponectin -, thus establishing a possible association between sleep-debt, adipokines and glucose metabolism. Thus, a modified release of adipokines resulting from sleep deprivation could lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of sleep loss in adipokine release and its relationship with glucose metabolism.

  19. Visfatin/Nampt: An Adipokine with Cardiovascular Impact

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    Tania Romacho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is acknowledged as an endocrine organ that releases bioactive factors termed adipokines. Visfatin was initially identified as a novel adipokine with insulin-mimetic properties in mice. This adipokine was identical to two previously described molecules, namely, pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF and the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt. Enhanced circulating visfatin/Nampt levels have been reported in metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, visfatin/Nampt circulating levels correlate with markers of systemic inflammation. In cardiovascular diseases, visfatin/Nampt was initially proposed as a clinical marker of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular damage, with a potential prognostic value. Nevertheless, beyond being a surrogate clinical marker, visfatin/Nampt is an active player promoting vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Visfatin/Nampt effects on cytokine and chemokine secretion, macrophage survival, leukocyte recruitment by endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle inflammation and plaque destabilization make of this adipokine an active factor in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms mediating the cellular actions of this adipokine and to better characterize the factors regulating visfatin/Nampt expression and release in all these pathologic scenarios. Only then, we will be able to conclude whether visfatin/Nampt is a therapeutical target in cardiometabolic diseases.

  20. Adipokines and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Multiple Interactions.

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    Adolph, Timon E; Grander, Christoph; Grabherr, Felix; Tilg, Herbert

    2017-07-29

    Accumulating evidence links obesity with low-grade inflammation which may originate from adipose tissue that secretes a plethora of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines termed adipokines. Adiponectin and leptin have evolved as crucial signals in many obesity-related pathologies including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whereas adiponectin deficiency might be critically involved in the pro-inflammatory state associated with obesity and related disorders, overproduction of leptin, a rather pro-inflammatory mediator, is considered of equal relevance. An imbalanced adipokine profile in obesity consecutively contributes to metabolic inflammation in NAFLD, which is associated with a substantial risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) also in the non-cirrhotic stage of disease. Both adiponectin and leptin have been related to liver tumorigenesis especially in preclinical models. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of some adipokines in NAFLD and associated HCC.

  1. Adipokines and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Multiple Interactions

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    Timon E. Adolph

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence links obesity with low-grade inflammation which may originate from adipose tissue that secretes a plethora of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines termed adipokines. Adiponectin and leptin have evolved as crucial signals in many obesity-related pathologies including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Whereas adiponectin deficiency might be critically involved in the pro-inflammatory state associated with obesity and related disorders, overproduction of leptin, a rather pro-inflammatory mediator, is considered of equal relevance. An imbalanced adipokine profile in obesity consecutively contributes to metabolic inflammation in NAFLD, which is associated with a substantial risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC also in the non-cirrhotic stage of disease. Both adiponectin and leptin have been related to liver tumorigenesis especially in preclinical models. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of some adipokines in NAFLD and associated HCC.

  2. Ethnic Differences in Maternal Adipokines during Normal Pregnancy

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    Xinhua Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two adipokines (adiponectin and resistin have opposite relations with insulin resistance and inflammation. Our major focus was to determine whether there were detectable ethnic differences in maternal adipokines during pregnancy. We also explored the correlation of the adipokines with maternal glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters. Pregnant women (n = 1634 were from a large prospective cohort study in Camden NJ (African-American 36.8%; Hispanic 47.6%; Caucasian 15.6%. Serum adiponectin and resistin were measured at entry (week 16.8 and the 3rd trimester (week 30.7 using the Luminex xMapTechnology. Significant differences were observed among ethnic groups, controlling for confounding variables. African American women were exceptional in that they had decreased adiponectin and increased resistin throughout the course of pregnancy (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001 and a greater than two fold risk of simultaneously exhibiting low adiponectin (lowest tertile and high resistin (highest tertile compared to Caucasians and/or Hispanics. The cohort as a whole and each ethnic group showed similar negative correlations between adiponectin, and glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters but there was lesser correspondence with resistin. Our data underscore the need for further research on ethnic variation in adipokines and other physiologic biomarkers during complicated and uncomplicated pregnancy.

  3. Circulating Adipokine levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating adipokine levels in the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), a-700 bed tertiary hospital centre in Lagos, Nigeria. 53 diabetic subjects and 27 non-diabetic controls with ...

  4. The role of adipokines in periodontal infection and healing.

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    Deschner, J; Eick, S; Damanaki, A; Nokhbehsaim, M

    2014-12-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the periodontium, which is caused by pathogenic bacteria in combination with other risk factors. The bacteria induce an immunoinflammatory host response, which can lead to irreversible matrix degradation and bone resorption. Periodontitis can be successfully treated. To achieve regenerative periodontal healing, bioactive molecules, such as enamel matrix derivative (EMD), are applied during periodontal surgery. Recently, it has been shown that obesity is associated with periodontitis and compromised healing after periodontal therapy. The mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood so far, but adipokines may be a pathomechanistic link. Adipokines are bioactive molecules that are secreted by the adipose tissue, and that regulate insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure, but also inflammatory and healing processes. It has also been demonstrated that visfatin and leptin increase the synthesis of proinflammatory and proteolytic molecules, whereas adiponectin downregulates the production of such mediators in periodontal cells. In addition, visfatin and leptin counteract the beneficial effects of EMD, whereas adiponectin enhances the actions of EMD on periodontal cells. Since visfatin and leptin levels are increased and adiponectin levels are reduced in obesity, these adipokines could be a pathomechanistic link whereby obesity and obesity-related diseases enhance the risk for periodontitis and compromised periodontal healing. Recent studies have also revealed that adipokines, such as visfatin, leptin and adiponectin, are produced in periodontal cells and regulated by periodontopathogenic bacteria. Therefore, adipokines may also represent a mechanism whereby periodontal infections can impact on systemic diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Altered Systemic Adipokines in Patients with Chronic Urticaria.

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    Trinh, Hoang Kim Tu; Pham, Duy Le; Ban, Ga-Young; Lee, Hyun-Young; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that adipokines affect immune responses and chronic urticaria (CU) is associated with an altered immune response related to chronic systemic inflammation. Our objectives were to investigate whether adipokines are involved in CU pathogenesis and to outline relationships between adipokines and urticaria severity and quality of life. Serum adiponectin, leptin, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 191 CU patients and 89 healthy controls. The effect of LCN2 on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophil chemotaxis was assessed using migration assays. CU severity was assessed based on the urticaria activity score (UAS). To explore relationships between adipokines and UAS and the chronic urticaria-specific quality of life (CU-QoL) questionnaire, a structural equation model was used. Mean levels of serum LCN2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly higher in CU patients than in controls. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in patients with CU than in controls. While serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in refractory CU patients, compared to responsive CU individuals, LCN2 levels were significantly lower. LCN2 inhibited fMLP-induced neutrophil migration. LCN2 showed a direct relationship with UAS (β = -0.274, p < 0.001), and UAS was found to contribute to CU-QoL (β = 0.417, p < 0.001). Our results highlighted an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines in CU patients. We suggest that LCN2 could be a differential marker for disease activity and the clinical responses to antihistamine treatment in CU patients. Modulation of systemic inflammation may be a therapeutic strategy for treating severe, refractory CU. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Omentin - a new adipokine with many roles to play

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    Halabis Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is at a point of high interest in medical research, not only as an energy depot, but also because it secretes nearly more than 600 cytokines. These are termed‚ adipokines’. Human adipokines are involved in numerous metabolic processes, including the regulation of appetite, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, inflammation and cardiovascular activity. Thus, these could be clinically important as a markers of adipose tissue function and increased metabolic risk. The search for novel adipokines linking obesity to related co-morbidities has become a major topic in obesity research. In such work, there is an increasing need to define their function, their molecular targets and their potential clinical relevance as biomarkers or in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.

  7. Dysregulated adipokine metabolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Breyer, Marie-Kathrin; Rutten, Erica P A; Locantore, Nicholas W; Watkins, Michael L; Miller, Bruce E; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2012-09-01

    Research concerning the involvement of body composition and systemic inflammatory markers in adipokine metabolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still limited. Therefore, we primarily aimed to investigate the adipokine metabolism in relation to these systemic inflammatory biomarkers and to evaluate possible gender-related differences in the adipokine metabolism in patients with COPD. One hundred and eighty-six subjects with COPD [mean (SD) FEV(1) %pred: 50 (±16)] and 113 controls, matched for age, gender and body composition were selected from the ECLIPSE cohort. The following serological data were collected: serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and systemic inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen. Compared with controls, patients with COPD had higher levels of CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen and adiponectin. After stratification for gender, men with COPD had higher CRP, IL6 and fibrinogen levels compared with male controls, while women with COPD had higher levels of CRP and fibrinogen compared with the female controls. Moreover, in both female controls and patients with COPD, leptin correlated with CRP and fibrinogen, while leptin only correlated with CRP in male controls. Adiponectin correlated negatively with CRP, only in patients with COPD. Body mass index and gender were the strongest determinants for both leptin and adiponectin. This study shows a gender-dependent dysregulation of adipokine metabolism in patients with COPD compared with BMI-matched controls. Furthermore, results from this study suggest a more prominent role of adiponectin in the systemic response to COPD. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2012 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  8. Adipokine hormones and hand osteoarthritis: radiographic severity and pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Massengale

    Full Text Available Obesity's association with hand osteoarthritis cannot be fully explained by mechanical loading. We examined the relationship between adipokines and radiographic hand osteoarthritis severity and pain.In a pilot study of 44 hand osteoarthritis patients (39 women and 5 men, serum adipokine concentrations and hand x-ray Kallman-scores were analyzed using linear regression models. Secondary analyses examined correlates of hand pain.The cohort had a mean age of 63.5 years for women and 72.6 for men; mean (standard deviation Kallman-scores were 43.3(17.4 for women and 46.2(10.8 for men. Mean body-mass-index was 30 kg/m(2 for women and men. Mean leptin concentration was 32.2 ng/ml (women and 18.5 ng/ml (men; mean adiponectin-total was 7.9 ng/ml (women and 5.3 ng/ml (men; mean resistin was 7.3 ng/ml (women and 9.4 ng/ml (men. No association was found between Kallman-scores and adipokine concentrations (R(2 = 0.00-0.04 unadjusted analysis, all p-values>0.22. Secondary analyses showed mean visual-analog-scale pain of 4.8(2.4 for women and 6.6(0.9 for men. Leptin, BMI, and history of coronary artery disease were found to be associated with visual-analog-scale scores for chronic hand pain (R(2 = 0.36 unadjusted analysis, p-values≤0.04.In this pilot study, we found that adipokine serum concentrations were not associated with hand osteoarthritis radiographic severity; the most important correlates of joint damage were age and disease duration. Leptin serum concentration, BMI, and coronary artery disease were associated with the intensity of chronic hand OA pain.

  9. Adipokines at the crossroad between obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Molica F*

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and especially excessive visceral adipose tissue accumulation is considered as a low grade inflammatory state that is responsible for adipocyte dysfunction and associated metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue displays endocrine functions by releasing pro or anti inflammatory bioactive molecules named adipokines. An altered expression of these molecules provoked by obesity or adipocyte dysregulation contributes to major metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes m...

  10. Adipokines as metabolic modulators of ovarian functions in livestock: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smruti Ranjan Mishra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is the principal fat storing tissue which secretes various molecules known as adipokines. The major adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, chemerin and apelin. Adipokines are regarded as the and ldquo;marker of body metabolic status'' which maintains the body energy homeostasis. An adequate energy level is essential for the onset of puberty and ovarian functions. Adipokines act as energy sensor and signal the body energy level to hypothalamic neurons to regulate many physiological activities including ovarian functions such as onset of puberty, estrus behavior, follicular development and ovulation followed by corpus luteum (CL formation and function in livestock. However, adipose tissue dysfunctions limit adipokines secretion leading to an imbalance in body energy level which ultimately affects the reproduction in livestock. This mini-review highlights the modulatory roles of various adipokines in ovarian functions of livestock. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 206-213

  11. Serum adipokine concentrations in dogs with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, J; Kang, J-H; Kim, H-S; Lee, I; Seo, K W; Yang, M-P

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the role of adipokines in the development and progression of acute pancreatitis (AP) in dogs. To determine whether the circulating concentrations of adipokines differed between healthy dogs and dogs with AP, and whether the circulating concentrations differed between AP survivors and AP nonsurvivors. Twenty-eight healthy dogs and 25 client-owned dogs with AP. Prospective observational cohort study of 25 client-owned dogs with newly diagnosed AP and 28 otherwise healthy dogs with similar body condition scores. The serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. The serum concentrations of leptin (P = .0021), resistin (P = .0010), visfatin (P dogs with AP than healthy dogs, whereas the adiponectin concentration (P = .0011) was significantly lower. There were significant differences in the serum concentrations of leptin (P = .028) and adiponectin (P = .046) in survivors and nonsurvivors. After the disappearance of clinical signs, the concentrations of resistin (P = .037) and IL-1β (P = .027) decreased significantly, whereas the serum concentrations of leptin (P > .999), adiponectin (P = .11), visfatin (P = .83), IL-6 (P = .82), IL-10 (P = .82), IL-18 (P = .56), and TNF-α (P = .94) did not differ significantly. This study showed that dysregulation of adipokines might be involved in the pathogenesis of AP. In addition, leptin and adiponectin are likely to be associated with mortality rate in AP. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  13. Adipokines, endothelial dysfunction and nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzewicz, Sylwia; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, Ewa; Świetlik, Dariusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Łysiak-Szydłowska, Wieslawa

    2010-12-01

    Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin are adipocyte-specific secretory proteins that play important roles in the metabolic regulation of body weight, insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. The relationship between the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome and high levels of some adipokines in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is still unclear. An association between high body mass index (BMI) and improved survival in PD patients has also been proposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of plasma adipokines and inflammation and oxidative stress markers in overweight and normal weight PD patients. Thirty PD patients (12 M, 18 F; mean age 57.3 ± 16.6 years) were examined and 23 healthy volunteers were included as a control group. The levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, leptin, the leptin receptor, adiponectin, malondialdehyde/4-hydroxynonenal, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, carbonyl groups and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were measured in both groups. The nutritional status of each patient was determined by albumin levels, BMI, percentage of body fat (%F), lean body mass (LBM) and the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) score. The adequacy of dialysis was estimated by weekly Kt/V measurements. According to the seven-point SGA scores and the albumin levels, the nutrition status of 15 patients was good (6-7 points), while 15 patients were mildly malnourished (3-5 points). The concentrations of hsCRP, leptin and adiponectin were statistically higher in the PD group than in the control group (p nutritional status of lean and overweight patients was comparable. Signs of malnutrition were detected in both groups. The severity of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress were not related to BMI in PD patients.

  14. The temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Sohrab; Bertone, Alicia L; Hussein, Hayam Hamaz; Toth, Jeffrey M; Kaido, Mari; Khan, Safdar

    2017-12-01

    Adipokines are secreted by white adipose tissue and have been associated with fracture healing. Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model. Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model. The study design included a laboratory animal model. New Zealand white rabbits were assigned to either sham surgery (n=2), unilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14), or bilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14). Rabbits were euthanized 1-6 and 10 weeks out from surgery. Fusion was evaluated by radiographs, manual palpation, and histology. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on the bone fusion mass catalogued the gene expression of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at each time point. Results were normalized to the internal control gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (2^ΔCt), and control bone sites (2^ΔΔCt). Quantitative data were analyzed by two-factor analysis of variance (pfusion over time (pfusion by palpation after 4 weeks was 68.75%. Leptin expression in decortication and bone graft sites peaked at 5 weeks after the fusion procedure (p=.0143), adiponectin expression was greatest 1 week after surgery (pfusion procedure (pfusion. Adiponectin and resistin may play a role early on during the fusion process. Our results suggest that leptin expression may be upstream of VEGF expression during spinal fusion, and both appear to play an important role in bone spinal fusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of Parental Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus With Circulating Adipokines in Nonobese Nondiabetic Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariah, Justin P; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adipokines are implicated in the development of obesity-related traits. We hypothesized that nonobese participants without diabetes mellitus (DM) whose parents were obese or had DM would have altered circulating adipokines compared with those without parental history of these conditio...

  16. Serum adipokines as biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Minh Nguyet; Kolb, Hubert; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes.......We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  17. Adipokines in metabolic processes regulating during obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Sergeevna Litvinova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery serves as a model for the assessment of the relationship between body mass index (BMI reduction and changes in adipokine production and for exploring the endocrine function of the pancreas in patients who do not have the proximal part of the small intestine.Aim of the study was to assess the biochemical parameters and plasma levels of adipokines [adiponectin, adipsin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, resistin and visfatin], insulin, C-peptide, ghrelin and incretins [glucose insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1] in patients with morbid obesity after surgery (gastric bypass and therapeutic correction.Materials and methodsA total of 75 patients (34 men and 41 women; age range: 24–67 years diagnosed as obese were divided into two groups according to the treatment they received. Biochemical analysis was performed to estimate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism rates and plasma levels of adipokines (adiponectin, adipsin, leptin, PAI-1, resistin, visfatin, insulin, C-peptide, ghrelin and incretins (GIP and GLP-1 using the flow fluorometry.ResultsSurgical treatment of obesity resulted in a significant decrease in BMI (from 45.67±9.87 to 32.45±5.35 kg/m2, p<0.05. Carbohydrate metabolism parameters and HOMA-IR index independent of BMI were comparable to the reference values after gastric bypass (18 months later. A direct correlation of plasma PAI-1 and leptin levels with BMI in groups with conservative (r=0.800, p=0.004 and r=0.780, p=0.010 and surgical treatment (r=-0.670, p=0.001 and r=0.760, p=0.01 was observed. Elevated leptin levels in patients with morbid obesity after gastric bypass with normal glucose and insulin levels indicated an indirect effect of leptin levels on the development of insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.ConclusionsGastric bypass is a more efficient approach to reduce obesity. Adipokine (leptin and PAI-1 production and adipose tissue mass are directly

  18. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Keustermans

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far. Here, we aim to establish the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells in obese children pre and post-lifestyle intervention compared to normal weight control children.13 obese children before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention were compared with an age and sex-matched normal weight control group of 15 children. Next to routine clinical and biochemical parameters, circulating adipokines were measured, and flow cytometric analysis of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and leptin receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets was performed.Obese children exhibited typical clinical and biochemical characteristics compared to controls, including a higher BMI-SD, blood pressure and circulating leptin levels, combined with a lower insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI. The 1-year lifestyle intervention resulted in stabilization of their BMI-SD. Overall, circulating leukocyte subsets showed distinct adipokine receptor expression profiles. While monocytes expressed high levels of all adipokine receptors, NK and iNKT cells predominantly expressed AdipoR2, and B-lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets expressed AdipoR2 as well as leptin receptor. Strikingly though, leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles were largely similar in obese children and controls. Obese children showed higher naïve B-cell numbers, and pre-intervention also

  19. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  20. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Omentin-A Novel Adipokine in Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines, secreted by the adipose tissue, are extensively involved in the regulation and maintenance of various physiological and pathological processes, including insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory activity, neuroendocrine activity, immunity, cancer, homeostasis, angiogenesis, cardiovascular function, breeding and bone metabolism, and all functions of the endocrine-reproductive system axis. Omentin is a recently identified adipokine, which has become a research hotspot due to its pleiotropic effects on various diseases. However, the specific receptor for omentin has not been identified so far. In this study, we report that omentin levels fluctuate in various diseases. In addition, we have focused on the pleiotropic roles of omentin in pulmonary diseases, as it may act as a biomarker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM and is related to disease severity. Omentin may play significant roles in other pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This review summarizes the advances in current knowledge and future trends, which may provide a concise and general view on omentin and its effects on pulmonary biology.

  2. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Gun Roh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  3. Circulating adipokines data associated with insulin secretagogue use in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A.P. Wintrob

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral drugs stimulating endogenous insulin production (insulin secretagogues may have detrimental effects on breast cancer outcomes. The data presented shows the relationship between pre-existing insulin secretagogues use, adipokine profiles at the time of breast cancer (BC diagnosis and subsequent cancer outcomes in women diagnosed with BC and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The Pearson correlation analysis evaluating the relationship between adipokines stratified by T2DM pharmacotherapy and controls is also provided. This information is the extension of the data presented and discussed in “Insulin use, adipokine profiles and breast cancer prognosis” (Wintrob et al., in press [1].

  4. Metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney, and cardiovascular diseases: role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Canale, Maria Paola; Rodia, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola; Lauro, Davide; Scuteri, Angelo; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-03-07

    Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Tesauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  6. Variations of Adipokines and Insulin Resistance in Primary Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Kaushik; Sinha, Satwika

    2017-08-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common concern in endocrinology practice, which plays a significant role in metabolic and development processes. Obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension may complicate hypothyroidism. Recent studies have shown that cytokines like leptin and adiponectin, secreted by adipose tissue and exert their endocrinal functions by modulating appetite, obesity and insulin sensitivity in conjunction with thyroid hormones. Interrelation between thyroid hormone, insulin resistance and adipokines are not yet clear. To estimate serum leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance in patients with hypothyroidism and to compare with control subjects and measure the relation between the mean value of one variable with others. Forty primary hypothyroidism patients and forty age and sex matched controls were selected for the study with informed consent. Fasting serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), leptin, adiponectin, glucose and insulin were estimated. Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was evaluated from fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17.0. Unpaired t-test and regression analysis were used to compare and determine the dependence, pHOMA-IR were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with hypothyroidism (10.37±4.10, 10.97±0.60, 31.09±4.07, 3.64±0.40) than controls (2.41±2.09, 10.37±0.12, 33.32±1.44, 2.36±0.35). Regression analysis showed that leptin was significantly (p=0.054) dependent on adiponectin but not on others. Increased oxidative stress by hypothyroid mediated leptin secretion and increased insulin resistance can down-regulate the adiponectin secretion and future complications. Serum estimation and correction of imbalance of adipokines in hypothyroidism can prevent severe consequences.

  7. Adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to observe adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT rats and to determine whether levothyroxine (LT4 treatment affects these changes. Sixty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group; sHT A, B and C groups and the sHT + T4 group. The sHT rats were induced by methimazole (MMI and the sHT + T4 rats were administered LT4 treatment after 8 weeks of MMI administration. Thyroid function and lipid levels were measured using radioimmunoassays and enzymatic colorimetric methods, respectively. Serum adiponectin (APN, chemerin, TNF-α, endothelin (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured using ELISA kits and a nitric-reductive assay. The expression of APN, chemerin and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured in experimental rats using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Hematoxylin–eosin (HE staining was used to observe changes in adipose tissue. The sHT rats had significantly higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, TNF-α, chemerin, ET-1, total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and lower levels of APN and NO than those in control and sHT + T4 rats. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, the levels of chemerin, TNF-α, ET-1, LDL-C, TC and triglyceride (TG were positively correlated with TSH, but APN and NO levels were negatively correlated with TSH. These findings demonstrated that high TSH levels contribute to the changes of adipokines and endothelial dysfunction in sHT, but LT4 treatment ameliorates those changes.

  8. Two Patterns of Adipokine and Other Biomarker Dynamics in a Long-Term Weight Loss Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Bl?her, Matthias; Rudich, Assaf; Kl?ting, Nora; Golan, Rachel; Henkin, Yaakov; Rubin, Eitan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Stampfer, Meir J.; Fiedler, Martin; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Shai, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Long-term dietary intervention frequently induces a rapid weight decline followed by weight stabilization/regain. Here, we sought to identify adipokine biomarkers that may reflect continued beneficial effects of dieting despite partial weight regain. Research design and methods: We analyzed the dynamics of fasting serum levels of 12 traditional metabolic biomarkers and novel adipokines among 322 participants in the 2-year Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) of...

  9. Interstitial concentrations of adipokines in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    Adipokines play important regulatory roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We measured plasma and interstitial concentrations of the adipokines adiponectin, resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8...... plasma (approximately 100-fold, approximately 200-fold and approximately 1000-fold, respectively, PResistin concentrations did not differ significantly between compartments. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) showed no regional difference (P>0.05). The intra- and inter-subject variations of all...

  10. Steroid replacement in primary adrenal failure does not appear to affect circulating adipokines

    OpenAIRE

    Fichna, Marta; Fichna, Piotr; Gryczy?ska, Maria; Czarnywojtek, Agata; ?urawek, Magdalena; Rucha?a, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous efforts for an optimal steroid replacement, recent observations suggest increased cardiometabolic risk and related mortality in primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). Adipokines are peptides from the adipose tissue, markers of cardiometabolic dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluate serum levels of adipokines: leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in PAI during conventional steroid substitution. The analysis comprised 63 patients (mean age 42.7???14.1?years) and 63 healthy c...

  11. Curcuminoids Plus Piperine Modulate Adipokines in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Khalili, Nahid; Sahebi, Ebrahim; Namazi, Soha; Atkin, Stephen L; Majeed, Muhammed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol derived from tumeric that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties with effects on adipokine and ghrelin levels. Adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin modulate energy homeostasis but each has modulatory effects on inflammatory cytokines and the immune system. Therefore, this analysis was performed to investigate the effect of curcumin on adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin. A double blind randomised control trial comparing curcumin 1000mg with 10mg of piperine daily to placebo over a 12 week period. 118 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited out of which 50 control and 50 active subjects completed the trial. Adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Between group comparison of the magnitude of changes showed serum levels of leptin (p<0.001), TNF-α (p<0.001) and leptin:adiponectin ratio (p<0.001) to be significantly reduced while serum adiponectin levels were elevated in the curcuminoids versus placebo group (p=0.032). Changes in serum ghrelin levels did not differ between the study groups (p=0.135). Curcumin supplementation increased adiponectin, whilst the the leptin:adiponectin ratio (a measure of atherosclerosis) and leptin levels were decreased independent of weight change and reflected a decrease in the inflammatory TNF-α levels. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Novel adipokines: their potential role in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic disorders

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    Emilia Korek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since identification in 1994 of leptin, a hormone produced by adipocytes, adipose tissue has become the subject of intensive research. These studies contributed to the discovery that adipocytes have the ability to synthesize and secrete biologically active substances called „adipokines”. Adipokines include a variety of cytokines, peptide hormones and enzymes that play a role in a wide variety of biological functions. For example, they are involved in the regulation of appetite, energy homeostasis, vascular hemostasis, blood pressure, inflammatory and immune processes and play a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. In obese patients, the secretion of adipokines is frequently abnormal. These changes may predispose to the development of insulin resistance, hypertension and inflammation. Therefore, adipokines are the subject of ongoing clinical trials. The family of adipokines is increasing by the newly discovered peptides. This paper presents the current state of knowledge about retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4, fasting-induced adipose factor/angiopoietin-like protein 4 (FIAF/ANGPTL4, fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, irisin and their potential role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders associated with obesity. The knowledge of the role of newly discovered adipokines may help in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  13. The Role of Adipokines in Understanding the Associations between Obesity and Depression

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    Valerie H. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Two major causes of disability, major depression and obesity, share overlapping psychosocial and pathophysiological etiologies. Studies are now focused on biological mechanisms linking the two illnesses, and there is interest in the role that adipokines may have in mediating the association between obesity and depression. We reviewed the literature to look at what is currently known about this association, focusing on the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. Methods. A MEDLINE search, citing articles from 1966 onward, supplemented by a review of bibliographies, was conducted to identify relevant studies. Results. This paper identified plausible pathways underlying a link between adipokines and depression. Only a few studies have yet been conducted specifically examining these biomarkers in patients with depression, but the results are intriguing. Conclusion. This paper is one of the first to examine the association between adipokines and depression. It provides an overview of the physiological role of adipokines and summarizes the data suggesting that they may be dysregulated in major depression. This area of research may become increasingly important as new treatment strategies are developed.

  14. Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

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    Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El husseny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM, insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.

  15. Adipokines: a treasure trove for the discovery of biomarkers for metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Stefan; Hartwig, Sonja; Sell, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ, releasing signaling and mediator proteins, termed adipokines, via which adipose tissue communicates with other organs. Expansion of adipose tissue in obesity alters adipokine secretion which may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. Consequently, this correlation has emphasized the importance to further characterize the adipocyte secretion profile, and several attempts have been made to characterize the complex nature of the adipose tissue secretome by utilizing diverse proteomic profiling approaches. Although the entirety of human adipokines is still incompletely characterized, to date more than 600 potentially secretory proteins were identified providing a rich source to identify putative novel biomarkers associated with metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Adipokines and nutritional status for patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzewicz, S; Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, E; Owczarzak, A; Debska-Slizień, A; Rutkowski, B; Łysiak-Szydłowska, W

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentration of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, and assess its relation to nutritional and inflammatory parameters in both overweight and normal weight patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 36 hemodialysis patients (27 M, 9 F; mean age 55.3 +/- 12 yr.) were examined and 23 additional healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. The concentrations of leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6, TNFa and CRP were measured by ELISA. Assessment of nutritional status was determined by the levels of albumin, BMI, percentage of body fat (%F), lean body mass (LBM), and Subjective Global Assessment Score (SGA). According to the SGA 7-points score and the albumin level, 20 patients were of good nutritional status (6-7 points), while 16 patients were mildly malnourished (4-5 points). The concentrations of CRP, resistin, adiponectin, and TNFa were statistically higher in hemodialysis patients than in the control group (p pound 0.05). The adiponectin level was inversely correlated with %F (R Spearman=-0.3; p pound 0.05). The level of leptin was positively correlated with %F as well as with BMI and SGA scores (R Spearman=0.4; p pound 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in the nutritional status between the nonoverweight (BMI 18.5-24.99) and overweight (BMI (3)25.0) groups of patients, in the nonoverweight group there were 12 patients (54.5%) with signs of mild malnutrition compared to 4 malnourished patients (28.5%) in the overweight group. Nonoverweight patients presented significantly lower leptin concentration (12.7 vs 27.8 ug/l) and higher adiponectin level (38.9 vs 32.5 ng/ml) when compared to overweight patients. The levels of IL-6 and TNFa were higher in the nonoverweight group of patients. Overweight patients also had shorter durations of stay in the hemodialysis program (30.5 vs. 87.6 months). The results of our study indicate that lean hemodialysis

  17. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Adipokine-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

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    Zeynep eGoktas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over a third of the US population is obese and at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is considered a chronic low grade inflammatory condition that is primarily attributed to expansion and inflammation of adipose tissues. Indeed, adipocytes produce and secrete numerous proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines known as adipokines. When the balance of these adipokines is shifted towards higher production of proinflammatory factors, local inflammation within adipose tissues and subsequently systemic inflammation occur. These adipokines including leptin, visfatin, resistin, apelin, vaspin, and retinol binding protein-4 can regulate inflammatory responses and contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes. These effects are mediated by key inflammatory signaling molecules including activated serine kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and serine kinases inhibitor κB kinase (IKK and insulin signaling molecules including insulin receptor substrates, protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Bariatric surgery can decrease body weight and improve insulin resistance in morbidly obese subjects. However, despite reports suggesting reduced inflammation and weight-independent effects of bariatric surgery on glucose metabolism, mechanisms behind such improvements are not yet well understood. This review article focuses on some of these novel adipokines and discusses their changes after bariatric surgery and their relationship to insulin resistance, fat mass, inflammation, and glucose homeostasis.

  18. Steroid replacement in primary adrenal failure does not appear to affect circulating adipokines.

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    Fichna, Marta; Fichna, Piotr; Gryczyńska, Maria; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Żurawek, Magdalena; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Despite continuous efforts for an optimal steroid replacement, recent observations suggest increased cardiometabolic risk and related mortality in primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). Adipokines are peptides from the adipose tissue, markers of cardiometabolic dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluate serum levels of adipokines: leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in PAI during conventional steroid substitution. The analysis comprised 63 patients (mean age 42.7 ± 14.1 years) and 63 healthy controls. Serum adipokines, lipid profile, and plasma glucose were assessed in both cohorts. ACTH, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, DHEA-S, cortisol and 24 h urinary free cortisol were determined in PAI. Body mass composition was analyzed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Mean BMI in the control group was 24.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) and 23.7 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in the PAI cohort. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were similar in both groups, whereas resistin appeared significantly lower among affected subjects (p = 0.0002). Its levels were weakly correlated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.048). Leptin was independently correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, BMI, and body fat (p regression analysis only weight (p = 0.017), total and HDL cholesterol (p replacement. Serum adipokines in treated PAI follow similar correlations to those reported in healthy subjects. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify and explain plausible excess of cardiovascular mortality in PAI.

  19. The Potential Interplay of Adipokines with Toll-Like Receptors in the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Shen-Nien Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are not only crucial to the initiation of the immune system, but also play a key role in several human inflammatory diseases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is among those human cancers, which arise from sites of chronic inflammation. Therefore, a number of studies have explored the potential contribution of TLRs to HCC occurrence, which is initiated by exposure to chronic hepatic inflammation of different etiologies (including ethanol, and chronic B and C viral infections. Recent epidemiological data have shown the association of obesity and HCC development. Given the fact that adipose tissues can produce a variety of inflammation-related adipokines, obesity has been characterized as a state of chronic inflammation. Adipokines are therefore considered as important mediators linking inflammation to several metabolic diseases, including cancers. More recently, many experts have also shown the bridging role of TLRs between inflammation and metabolism. Hopefully, to retrieve the potential interaction between TLRs and adipokines in carcinogenesis of HCC will shed a new light on the therapeutic alternative for HCC. In this paper, the authors first review the respective roles of TLRs and adipokines, discuss their mutual interaction in chronic inflammation, and finally anticipate further investigations of this interaction in HCC development.

  20. Increased Adipocyte Size, Macrophage Infiltration, and Adverse Local Adipokine Profile in Perirenal Fat in Cushing's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, S.H.P.P.; Wagenmakers, M.A.E.M.; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Ballak, D.B.; Rooijackers, H.M.M.; D'Ancona, F.C.H.; Dielen, F.M. van; Smit, J.W.A.; Plantinga, T.S.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze changes in fat cell size, macrophage infiltration, and local adipose tissue adipokine profiles in different fat depots in patients with active Cushing's syndrome. METHODS: Subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue of 10 patients with Cushing's syndrome was compared to

  1. A Longitudinal Study of the Relationships Between Mood Symptoms, Body Mass Index, and Serum Adipokines in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David J; Andreazza, Ana C; Hughes, John; Dhanoa, Taj; Torres, Ivan J; Kozicky, Jan-Marie; Young, L Trevor; Lam, Raymond W; Yatham, Lakshmi N

    2017-04-01

    There is a bidirectional relationship between obesity and mood disorders, with each increasing the risk of developing the other. This relationship suggests that they have overlapping pathophysiologic mechanisms. Adipose tissue-derived hormones, or adipokines, regulate appetite and metabolism and have activity in limbic brain regions, making them potential shared etiologic factors between elevated body mass index (BMI) and mood disorders. However, the precise relationships between BMI, mood, and adipokines are unknown. We measured the serum levels of adiponectin, lipocalin-2, resistin, adipsin, and leptin in 53 people with early-stage DSM-IV-defined bipolar disorder, diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Participants were followed at the University of British Columbia Mood Disorders Centre between June 2004 and June 2012. We were primarily interested in determining, in patients, (1) whether BMI and recent mood episodes predicted adipokine levels and (2) whether adipokine levels in turn predicted subsequent mood relapses and change in BMI. Using linear regression, we found that (1) past-6-month mood episodes predicted lower adiponectin (β = -0.385, P = .04) and adipsin (β = -0.376, P = .03) levels and higher lipocalin-2 levels (β = 0.411, P = .03), (2) BMI did not predict adipokine levels, and (3) treatment with second-generation antipsychotics was associated with higher resistin levels (β = 0.482, P mood episodes and medication treatment contribute to adipokine abnormalities in bipolar disorder and that adipokines influence psychiatric illness course and BMI change. Adipokines may represent a novel pathophysiologic mechanism linking elevated BMI and mood disorders and deserve further study as potential mood-regulating molecules. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Role of Adipokines in Atherosclerosis: Interferences with Cardiovascular Complications in Rheumatic Diseases

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    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Gómez, Rodolfo; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; González, Antonio; Lago, Francisca; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste

    2012-01-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatic patients, these alterations do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Obesity and its pathologic alteration of fat mass and dysfunction, due to an altered pattern of secretion of proinflammatory adipokines, could be one of the links between cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Indeed, the incidence of CVDs is augmented in obese individuals with rheumatic disorders. Thus, in this paper we explore in detail the relationships among adipokines, rheumatic diseases, and cardiovascular complications by giving to the reader a holistic vision and several suggestions for future perspectives and potential clinical implications. PMID:22910888

  3. The relationship between adipokines, body composition, and bone density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Vondracek, Sheryl F; Voelkel, Norbert F; McDermott, Michael T; Valdez, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data regarding the relationship between adipokines and bone mineral density (BMD) in this population is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine associations between the adipokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), leptin, adiponectin and resistin, body composition, and BMD in men with severe COPD. This was a cross-sectional study of men with severe COPD who visited the University of Colorado Hospital COPD Center. Bone density and parameters of body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-three men were included (mean age = 66 years, mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second = 32%). On bivariate analysis, there was no association between TNF-alpha and BMD. Parameters of body composition and serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were significantly associated with total hip and spine bone density. However, with partial correlation analysis, total body mass was the only independent predictor of total hip BMD, explaining approximately 50% of the variability. Overall, 18 out of 23 men enrolled (78%) had low bone density by T-score, and nine (39%) were classified as having osteoporosis. The men with osteoporosis had lower parameters of body composition, lower mean serum leptin concentrations, and a greater impairment in measures of lung function compared to the men without osteoporosis. We conclude that the effect of adipokines on BMD does not appear to be independent of body mass. However, larger studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between adipokines, body weight, and BMD in patients with COPD.

  4. Adipokine Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Depends on Degree of Obesity.

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    Kocot, Joanna; Dziemidok, Piotr; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Hordyjewska, Anna; Szcześniak, Grzegorz; Musik, Irena

    2017-10-19

    BACKGROUND The fast pace of life, promoting fast food consumption and low physical activity, has resulted in obesity and/or diabetes as being serious social problems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate concentrations of selected adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin) and to assess the leptin/adiponectin ratio in plasma of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in relation to degree of obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study comprised 92 T2D subjects divided into 4 groups according to BMI value - I (normal body weight), II (overweight), III (obesity), and IV (severe obesity) - and 20 healthy volunteers (control group). Each group was divided into male and female subgroups. Plasma concentrations of adipokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS In women, leptin concentration was significantly higher in group IV, whereas in men it was higher in groups III and IV than in the control group and groups I and II. Irrespective of sex, a significant decrease in adiponectin level was observed in group III vs. There was no significant difference in resistin levels. In women visfatin was markedly enhanced in group III, whereas in men in groups II, III and IV vs. Leptin/adiponectin ratio was increased in groups III and IV vs. control in women, whereas in men vs. both control and group I. CONCLUSIONS The obese type 2 diabetic patients presented a disturbed adipokine profile, which seems to be an important link between obesity and T2D. The future studies concerning the question if regulating of adipokines' concentrations could be a promising approach for managing metabolic disorders seem to be well-grounded.

  5. Inflammation Activation Contributes to Adipokine Imbalance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

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    Rong Li

    Full Text Available Inflammation can be activated as a defensive response by the attack of acute coronary syndrome (ACS for ischemic tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of ACS-activated inflammation on adipokine imbalance and the effects of statins on the crosstalk between inflammation and adipokine imbalance during ACS. In this study, 586 subjects were categorized into: (1 control group; (2 SA (stable angina group; and (3 ACS group. Circulating levels of hs-CRP, adiponectin and resistin were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, forty C57BL/6 mice were randomized into: sham, AMI, low-statin (atorvastatin, 2 mg/kg/day and high-statin (atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg/day group. After 3 weeks, AMI models were established by surgical coronary artery ligation. Circulating levels and adipose expressions of adiponectin and resistin were assessed in animals. Besides, we investigate the effects of atorvastatin on ox-LDL-induced adipokine imbalance in vitro. As a result, we found that ACS patients had higher hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels. Our correlation analysis demonstrated hs-CRP concentrations were positively correlated with resistin but negatively with adiponectin levels in humans. Our animal findings indicated higher circulating hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels in AMI mice. Atorvastatin pre-treatment dose-dependently decreased hs-CRP and resistin levels but increased adiponectin levels in mice. The consistent findings were observed about the adipose expressions of resistin and adiponectin in mice. In study in vitro, ox-LDL increased cellular resistin expressions and otherwise for adiponectin expressions, which dose-dependently reversed by the addition of atorvastatin. Therefore, our study indicates that the ACS attack activates inflammation leading to adipokine imbalance that can be ameliorated by anti-inflammation of atorvastatin.

  6. Serum adipokine concentrations in dogs with diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

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    Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Hye-Sun; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether serum adipokine concentrations differed between healthy dogs and dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM). To accomplish this, 19 dogs with newly diagnosed DM were compared to 20 otherwise healthy dogs. The serum concentrations of visfatin, leptin, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α were significantly higher in diabetic dogs than in healthy dogs, whereas the serum adiponectin concentrations were lower in diabetic dogs. However, there were no significant differ...

  7. Snoring, Inflammatory Markers, Adipokines and Metabolic Syndrome in Apparently Healthy Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Pan, An; Yu, Zhijie; Li, Huaixing; Shi, Aizhen; Yu, Danxia; Zhang, Geng; Zong, Geng; Liu, Yong; Lin, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Objective Chronic low-grade inflammation and adipokines dysregulation are linked to mechanisms underscoring the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Little is known about roles of these cytokines on the association between snoring and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to investigate whether a cluster of cytokines are related to snoring frequency and its association with MetS in apparently healthy Chinese. Methods Current analyses used a population-based sample including 1059 Shanghai residents aged 35–54 years. Self-reported snoring frequency was classified as never, occasionally and regularly. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-18, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and leptin were measured. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. Results Overweight/obese subjects had significantly higher prevalence of regular snorers than their normal-weight counterparts (34.8% vs. 11.5%, Psnoring was associated with unfavorable profile of inflammatory markers and adipokines. However, those associations were abolished after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. The MetS risk (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 5.41, 95% confidence interval 3.72–7.88) was substantially higher in regular snorers compared with non-snorers. Controlling for BMI remarkably attenuated the association (2.03, 1.26–3.26), while adjusting for inflammatory markers and adipokines showed little effects. Conclusion Frequent snoring was associated with an elevated MetS risk independent of lifestyle factors, adiposity, inflammatory markers and adipokines in apparently healthy Chinese. Whether snoring pattern is an economic and no-invasive indicator for screening high-risk persons needs to be addressed prospectively. PMID:22110665

  8. Snoring, inflammatory markers, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

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    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic low-grade inflammation and adipokines dysregulation are linked to mechanisms underscoring the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Little is known about roles of these cytokines on the association between snoring and metabolic syndrome (MetS. We aimed to investigate whether a cluster of cytokines are related to snoring frequency and its association with MetS in apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: Current analyses used a population-based sample including 1059 Shanghai residents aged 35-54 years. Self-reported snoring frequency was classified as never, occasionally and regularly. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-18, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and leptin were measured. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Overweight/obese subjects had significantly higher prevalence of regular snorers than their normal-weight counterparts (34.8% vs. 11.5%, P<0.001. Regular snoring was associated with unfavorable profile of inflammatory markers and adipokines. However, those associations were abolished after adjustment for body mass index (BMI or waist circumference. The MetS risk (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 5.41, 95% confidence interval 3.72-7.88 was substantially higher in regular snorers compared with non-snorers. Controlling for BMI remarkably attenuated the association (2.03, 1.26-3.26, while adjusting for inflammatory markers and adipokines showed little effects. CONCLUSION: Frequent snoring was associated with an elevated MetS risk independent of lifestyle factors, adiposity, inflammatory markers and adipokines in apparently healthy Chinese. Whether snoring pattern is an economic and no-invasive indicator for screening high-risk persons needs to be addressed prospectively.

  9. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children

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    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.

  10. Racial Differences in Serum Adipokine and Insulin Levels in a Matched Osteoarthritis Sample: A Pilot Study

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    Rajiv Gandhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In an attempt to correlate biomarkers with disease, serum-based biomarkers often are compared between individuals with osteoarthritis (OA and control subjects. However, variable results have been reported. Some studies have suggested an association between certain adipokines and insulin and OA. We know that there are racial differences in OA prevalence and incidence, and from general population-based studies, those of Asian race consistently demonstrate a unique adipokine/insulin serum concentration profile as compared to Caucasians. Whether similar racial differences exist within OA samples is unknown and may have implications for selecting appropriate controls in comparative studies. Methods. Serum levels of adipokines, leptin, and adiponectin, along with insulin, were determined by ELISA in patients scheduled for total hip or knee replacement surgery for OA. Fifteen Asian patients were matched 1 : 1 on age (±2 years, gender, body mass index (±1.5 kg/m2, and surgical joint with Caucasian patients. Differences in serum concentrations were tested using paired t-tests. Results. Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly higher in Asians compared to Caucasians (p<0.05. While serum adiponectin levels were lower among Asians, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.12. Conclusion. Findings from this work suggest that when studying serum biomarker concentrations in OA versus controls, race may be an important factor to consider. Our findings warrant confirmation in larger studies.

  11. Associations of objective physical activity with insulin sensitivity and circulating adipokine profile: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartano, N L; Stevenson, M D; Xanthakis, V; Larson, M G; Andersson, C; Murabito, J M; Vasan, R S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) to insulin sensitivity and adipokines. We assessed PA and SED using Actical accelerometers and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2109 participants (free of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus) from Framingham Generation 3 and Omni 2 cohorts (mean age 46 years, 54% women). Systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) and circulating adipokines were measured 6 years earlier. Steps per day, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED per wear time (%SED) were predictor variables in multivariable regression analyses, with HOMA-IR, CRP and circulating adipokines as outcome measures. We reported that higher MVPA and more steps per day were associated with lower HOMA-IR, adjusting for %SED (β = -0.036, P = 0.002; β = -0.041, P = 0.005). Steps were inversely associated with CRP, but were directly associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (β = -0.111, P = 0.002; β = 3.293, P = 0.007). %SED was positively associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.033, P insulin resistance and inflammation, whereas SED influences FABPs. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Glycemic control and adipokines after periodontal therapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis

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    Shunqin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The mechanism by which chronic periodontitis (CP affects type 2 diabetes (T2DM remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of periodontal therapy (PT on the glycemic control and adipokines of patients with T2DM and CP with the purpose of elucidating the possible mechanisms by which CP influences T2DM. Forty-four patients with T2DM and CP were randomly divided into two groups according to whether they underwent PT. Periodontal status, blood glucose, and the levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin (APN, and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21 were measured at baseline and after 3 months. The results revealed that the probing depth (PD and attachment loss (AL were significantly improved, the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly decreased, and APN and FGF-21 exhibited substantial increases in the intervention group after 3 months (p < 0.05, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in both groups decreased significantly after 3 months compared with baseline (p < 0.05, but the intervention group exhibited a significantly greater change (p < 0.05. In conclusion, PT may relieve periodontal inflammation, which causes a reduction of insulin-antagonizing adipokines and an increase in insulin-sensitizing adipokines, thereby eliciting an improvement in glycemic control.

  13. A murine model of obesity implicates the adipokine milieu in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyromski, Nicholas J; Mathur, Abhishek; Pitt, Henry A; Lu, Debao; Gripe, John T; Walker, Julia J; Yancey, Kyle; Wade, Terence E; Swartz-Basile, Deborah A

    2008-09-01

    Obesity is clearly an independent risk factor for increased severity of acute pancreatitis (AP), although the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. Adipokines (including leptin and adiponectin) are pleiotropic molecules produced by adipocytes that are important regulators of the inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the altered adipokine milieu observed in obesity contributes to the increased severity of pancreatitis. Lean (C57BL/6J), obese leptin-deficient (LepOb), and obese hyperleptinemic (LepDb) mice were subjected to AP by six hourly intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 microg/kg). Severity of AP was assessed by histology and by measuring pancreatic concentration of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-6, the chemokine MCP-1, and the marker of neutrophil activation MPO. Both congenitally obese strains of mice developed significantly more severe AP than wild-type lean animals. Severity of AP was not solely related to adipose tissue volume: LepOb mice were heaviest; however, LepDb mice developed the most severe AP both histologically and biochemically. Circulating adiponectin concentrations inversely mirrored the severity of pancreatitis. These data demonstrate that congenitally obese mice develop more severe AP than lean animals when challenged by cerulein hyperstimulation and suggest that alteration of the adipokine milieu exacerbates the severity of AP in obesity.

  14. Correlation of MMP-9, GA, HbA1c, and adipokines levels with DR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the correlation of matrix metalloproteinase -9(MMP-9, glycated albumin(GA, glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1cand adipokines(including visfatin, resistin and leptinwith diabetic retinopathy(DR. METHODS: From March 2015 to March 2017, 74 patients with DR were treated in our hospital, including 40 patients(80 eyeswith non proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRand 34 patients(68 eyeswith proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR, and diabetes mellitus 40 patients(80 eyeswith non DR(NDRand 40 healthy volunteers(80 eyeswere selected as controls, the levels of MMP-9, GA, HbA1c, visfatin, resistin and leptin in each group were detected. RESULTS: PDR group visfatin was 4.41±0.82ng/mL, was significantly lower than the NPDR group, NDR group and control group(PPPPrs=0.523, 0.461 and 0.414, Prs=-0.433, Prs=0.401 and 0.460, PCONCLUSION: MMP-9, GA, HbA1c, and adipokines may play a role in the development and progression of DR, in which MMP-9 is associated with adipokines, both are not significantly related to the levels of GA and HbA1c.

  15. Changes in inflammation, oxidative stress and adipokines following bariatric surgery among adolescents with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A S; Ryder, J R; Marlatt, K L; Rudser, K D; Jenkins, T; Inge, T H

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation, oxidative stress and dysregulation of adipokines are thought to be pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity to the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In adults, bariatric surgery reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, and beneficially changes the levels of several adipokines, but little is known about the postsurgical changes among adolescents. In two separate longitudinal cohorts we evaluated change from baseline of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL), adiponectin, leptin and resistin up to 12 months following elective laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. In cohort 1, which consisted of 39 adolescents (mean age 16.5±1.6 years; 29 females) undergoing either RYGB or VSG, IL-6 (baseline: 2.3±3.4 pg ml(-1) vs 12 months: 0.8±0.6 pg ml(-1), Padolescents (mean age 16.5±1.6 years; 10 females) undergoing RYGB, results were similar: IL-6 (baseline: 1.7±0.9 pg ml(-1) vs 12 months: 0.4±0.9 pg ml(-1), PBariatric surgery produced robust improvements in markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and several adipokines among adolescents with severe obesity, suggesting potential reductions in risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  16. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  17. The relationship between adipokines, body composition, and bone density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl F Vondracek

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl F Vondracek1, Norbert F Voelkel2, Michael T McDermott3, Connie Valdez11Department of Clinical Pharmacy; 3Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Victoria Johnson Center for Emphysema Research, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAAbstract: Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Data regarding the relationship between adipokines and bone mineral density (BMD in this population is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine associations between the adipokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, adiponectin and resistin, body composition, and BMD in men with severe COPD. This was a cross-sectional study of men with severe COPD who visited the University of Colorado Hospital COPD Center. Bone density and parameters of body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-three men were included (mean age = 66 years, mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second = 32%. On bivariate analysis, there was no association between TNF-α and BMD. Parameters of body composition and serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were significantly associated with total hip and spine bone density. However, with partial correlation analysis, total body mass was the only independent predictor of total hip BMD, explaining approximately 50% of the variability. Overall, 18 out of 23 men enrolled (78% had low bone density by T-score, and nine (39% were classified as having osteoporosis. The men with osteoporosis had lower parameters of body composition, lower mean serum leptin concentrations, and a greater impairment in measures of lung function compared to the men without osteoporosis. We conclude that the effect of adipokines on BMD does not appear to be independent of body mass. However, larger studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between adipokines

  18. Adipokines induce catabolism of newly synthesized matrix in cartilage and meniscus tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimuta, James F; Levenston, Marc E

    Altered synovial levels of various adipokines (factors secreted by fat as well as other tissues) have been associated with osteoarthritis (OA) onset and progression. However, the metabolic effects of adipokines on joint tissues, in particular the fibrocartilaginous menisci, are not well understood. This study investigated effects of several adipokines on release of recently synthesized extracellular matrix in bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants. After labeling newly synthesized proteins and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) with 3 H-proline and 35 S-sulfate, respectively; bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants were cultured for 6 days in basal medium (control) or media supplemented with adipokines (1 µg/ml of leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, or resistin) or 20 ng/ml interleukin-1 (IL-1). Release of radiolabel and sGAG to the media during culture and the final explant water, DNA, sGAG, and retained radiolabel were measured. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-3 activities were assessed using gelatin and casein zymography, respectively. Water and DNA contents were not significantly altered by any treatment. Visfatin, adiponectin, resistin, and IL-1 stimulated sGAG release from meniscus, whereas only IL-1 stimulated sGAG release from cartilage. Release of 3 H and 35 S was stimulated not only by resistin and IL-1 in meniscus but also by IL-1 in cartilage. Retained 3 H was unaltered by any treatment, while retained 35 S was reduced by visfatin, resistin, and IL-1 in meniscus and by only IL-1 in cartilage. Resistin and IL-1 elevated active MMP-2 and total MMP-3 in meniscus, whereas cartilage MMP-3 activity was elevated by only IL-1. Resistin stimulated rapid and extensive catabolism of meniscus tissue, similar to IL-1, whereas adipokines minimally affected cartilage. Release of newly synthesized matrix was similar to overall release in both tissues. These observations provide further indications that meniscal tissue is more sensitive to pro

  19. Systematic review of saturated fatty acids on inflammation and circulating levels of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Oliveira, Andreia; Lopes, Carla

    2013-09-01

    Diet is one factor that plays a part in coronary heart disease risk through multiple biological mechanisms including subclinical inflammation. In this review, we aimed to systematically assess and summarize evidence regarding the association of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with inflammatory markers and adipokines. An electronic search of the literature was conducted up to September 2010 using Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct (updated from September 2010 to August 2011 through Medline). Original studies that were written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French, and addressed the effects of SFA (not dietary sources or SFA-rich diets) on inflammatory markers or adipokines in adult populations were considered eligible. Data from 15 studies providing adjusted estimates were extracted. The publication year varied from 1995 to 2010 and the sample size from 54 to 4900. Most studies were cross sectional, with 3 studies using a prospective design. Twelve studies assessed total SFA, and 3 studies considered their subtypes, which were measured through dietary assessments (11 studies) or in blood samples (4 studies). Significant positive associations were observed between SFA and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6, whereas no significant associations were observed with E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, fibrinogen, and adiponectin. For high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2 studies showed significant positive associations, whereas 3 studies reported no significant associations. One study reported a significant inverse association of SFA with leptin, although the other 3 found no significant associations. Based on this systematic review, a potential positive association of SFA with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein but not with adipokines is suggested, which should be confirmed by future research. © 2013.

  20. The effects of weight loss on adipokines and markers of inflammation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Joseph J; Struble, Angela M; Levine, Corri B; Bushey, Jennifer J; Laflamme, Dorothy P; Long, Grace M

    2011-10-01

    Evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived adipokines induce mild inflammation and may play a role in insulin resistance associated with diabetes. The present study was designed to examine a series of adipokines and markers of inflammation in dogs before and after a successful weight loss. The study included fasting serum samples from twenty-five dogs before and after a weight-loss programme. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured as indicators of chronic inflammation, while serum adipokines including total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, resistin and leptin were also examined. Medians for CRP (before, 10.0 (interquartile range 5.4-15.0) μg/ml; after, 5.6 (interquartile range 3.8-7.0) μg/ml) and MCP-1 (before, 212 (interquartile range 157-288) ng/ml; after, 185 (interquartile range 143-215) ng/ml) decreased significantly after weight loss. Medians for resistin showed a mild, yet significant reduction (before, 67.1 (interquartile range 44.4-88.5) pg/ml; after, 60.5 (interquartile range 32.3-67.1) pg/ml), while leptin showed a dramatic decrease after weight loss (before, 18.9 (interquartile range 10.8-35.4) ng/ml; after, 6.6 (interquartile range 3.9-10.2) ng/ml). Serum total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin were unchanged on all analyses performed. These data suggest that weight loss can decrease chronic inflammation; however, the clinical implications of this decrease are not well elucidated in dogs. Surprisingly, there was no increase in total or HMW serum adiponectin after weight loss, as observed previously in human subjects. The lack of change in total and HMW adiponectin might explain why insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are less prevalent in obese dogs when compared with humans and cats.

  1. Improvement in coronary heart disease risk factors during an intermittent fasting/calorie restriction regimen: Relationship to adipokine modulations

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    Kroeger Cynthia M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of an intermittent fasting (IF-calorie restriction (CR regimen (with or without liquid meals to modulate adipokines in a way that is protective against coronary heart disease (CHD has yet to be tested. Objective Accordingly, we examined the effects of an IFCR diet on adipokine profile, body composition, and markers of CHD risk in obese women. Methods Subjects (n = 54 were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F diet for 10 weeks. Results Greater decreases in body weight and waist circumference were noted in the IFCR-L group (4 ± 1 kg; 6 ± 1 cm versus the IFCR-F group (3 ± 1 kg; 4 ± 1 cm. Similar reductions (P Conclusion These findings suggest that IFCR with a liquid diet favorably modulates visceral fat and adipokines in a way that may confer protection against CHD.

  2. Serum adipokines might predict liver histology findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Raika; Razavizade, Mohsen; Arj, Abbas; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-07

    To assess significance of serum adipokines to determine the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients with persistent elevation in serum aminotransferase levels and well-defined characteristics of fatty liver at ultrasound were enrolled. Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis or known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed to confirm non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). The degrees of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis were determined based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver activity score (NAS) by a single expert pathologist. Patients with a NAS of five or higher were considered to have steatohepatitis. Those with a NAS of two or lower were defined as simple fatty liver. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of adipokines with histological findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to determine cut-off values of serum adipokines to discriminate the grades of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. Fifty-four participants aged 37.02 ± 9.82 were enrolled in the study. Higher serum levels of visfatin, IL-8, TNF-α levels were associated independently with steatosis grade of more than 33% [β = 1.08 (95%CI: 1.03-1.14), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.008-1.07), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004-1.08), P < 0.05]. Elevated serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated independently with advanced lobular inflammation [β = 1.4 (95%CI: 1.09-1.8), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.003-1.15), P < 0.05]. Similarly, higher TNF-α, resistin, and hepcidin levels were associated independently with advanced fibrosis stage [β = 1.06 (95%CI: 1.002-1.12), 19.86 (95%CI: 2.79-141.19), 560.72 (95%CI: 5.98-5255.33), P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 and TNF-α values were associated independently with the NAS score, considering a NAS score of 5 as the reference value [β = 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01-1.1), 1.13 (95%CI: 1.04-1.22), P < 0.05]. Certain adipokines may

  3. Signals from Fat After Injury: Plasma Adipokines and Ghrelin Concentrations in the Severely Burned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    Signals from fat after injury: Plasma adipokines and ghrelin concentrations in the severely burnedq Charles E. Wade a,⇑, Alejandra G. Mora b, Beth A...samples were collected for measurement of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin , insulin, and cortisol by ELISA. For comparison, samples from 15 healthy...vs. 17 ± 10.2 ng/ml), and ghrelin (0.37 ± 0.14 ng/ml vs.0.56 ± 0.26 ng/ml). Conclusion: Patients with burns, who are characteristically hypermetabolic

  4. Two Patterns of Adipokine and Other Biomarker Dynamics in a Long-Term Weight Loss Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Matthias; Rudich, Assaf; Klöting, Nora; Golan, Rachel; Henkin, Yaakov; Rubin, Eitan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Stampfer, Meir J.; Fiedler, Martin; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Shai, Iris

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-term dietary intervention frequently induces a rapid weight decline followed by weight stabilization/regain. Here, we sought to identify adipokine biomarkers that may reflect continued beneficial effects of dieting despite partial weight regain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed the dynamics of fasting serum levels of 12 traditional metabolic biomarkers and novel adipokines among 322 participants in the 2-year Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) of low-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss. RESULTS We identified two distinct patterns: Pattern A includes biomarkers (insulin, triglycerides, leptin, chemerin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and retinol-binding protein 4) whose dynamics tightly correspond to changes in body weight, with the trend during the weight loss phase (months 0–6) going in the opposite direction to that in the weight maintenance/regain phase (months 7–24) (P weight adiponectin, HDL cholesterol [HDL-C], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], fetuin-A, progranulin, and vaspin) that displayed a continued, cumulative improvement (P weight change and that the dynamic of hsCRP best typified pattern B. CONCLUSIONS hsCRP, HDL-C, adiponectin, fetuin-A, progranulin, and vaspin levels display a continued long-term improvement despite partial weight regain. This may likely reflect either a delayed effect of the initial weight loss or a continuous beneficial response to switching to healthier dietary patterns. PMID:22190676

  5. Two patterns of adipokine and other biomarker dynamics in a long-term weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Matthias; Rudich, Assaf; Klöting, Nora; Golan, Rachel; Henkin, Yaakov; Rubin, Eitan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Stampfer, Meir J; Fiedler, Martin; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Shai, Iris

    2012-02-01

    Long-term dietary intervention frequently induces a rapid weight decline followed by weight stabilization/regain. Here, we sought to identify adipokine biomarkers that may reflect continued beneficial effects of dieting despite partial weight regain. We analyzed the dynamics of fasting serum levels of 12 traditional metabolic biomarkers and novel adipokines among 322 participants in the 2-year Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) of low-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss. We identified two distinct patterns: Pattern A includes biomarkers (insulin, triglycerides, leptin, chemerin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and retinol-binding protein 4) whose dynamics tightly correspond to changes in body weight, with the trend during the weight loss phase (months 0-6) going in the opposite direction to that in the weight maintenance/regain phase (months 7-24) (P weight adiponectin, HDL cholesterol [HDL-C], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], fetuin-A, progranulin, and vaspin) that displayed a continued, cumulative improvement (P weight change and that the dynamic of hsCRP best typified pattern B. hsCRP, HDL-C, adiponectin, fetuin-A, progranulin, and vaspin levels display a continued long-term improvement despite partial weight regain. This may likely reflect either a delayed effect of the initial weight loss or a continuous beneficial response to switching to healthier dietary patterns.

  6. Insulin resistance and levels of adipokines in patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Arija, Sara; Ureña, Inmaculada; Valdivielso, Pedro; Rioja, José; Jiménez-Núñez, Francisco G; Irigoyen, María V; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and its relationship with adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, and treatment. In this prospective study, we enrolled 46 ERA patients with a disease duration of insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). A multivariate regression analysis was performed to analyze IR adjusting according to lipids, body composition, physical activity, nutrition, and inflammatory cytokine and adipokine levels. The baseline HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and QUICKI values were similar in both groups. However, patients showed lower levels of physical activity, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokines and resistin concentrations were higher in patients than controls. Multivariate analysis indicated that BMI and baseline rheumatoid factor levels were positively associated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, and negatively with QUICKI. After DMARD treatment, patients showed improvements in inflammatory parameters and lipids whereas IR remained stable. Furthermore, adiponectin and resistin concentrations decreased slightly. Our data suggest that IR is not present in ERA patients either at diagnosis or at 6 months after treatment. However, symptom duration and fat mass appear to be related.

  7. Associations of objective physical activity with insulin sensitivity and circulating adipokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spartano, N L; Stevenson, M D; Xanthakis, V

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) to insulin sensitivity and adipokines. We assessed PA and SED using Actical accelerometers and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2109 participants (free of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus) from...... analyses, with HOMA-IR, CRP and circulating adipokines as outcome measures. We reported that higher MVPA and more steps per day were associated with lower HOMA-IR, adjusting for %SED (β = -0.036, P = 0.002; β = -0.041, P = 0.005). Steps were inversely associated with CRP, but were directly associated...... with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (β = -0.111, P = 0.002; β = 3.293, P = 0.007). %SED was positively associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.033, P 

  8. Role of adipokines signaling in the modulation of T cells function

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    Claudio eProcaccini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The field that links immunity and metabolism is rapidly expanding. Apparently non-immunological disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have been linked to immune dysregulation, suggesting that metabolic alterations can be induced by or be consequence of an altered self-immune tolerance. In this context, adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, termed adipokines, which can be considered as the bridge between obesity-related exogenous factors, such as nutrition and lifestyle, and the molecular events leading to metabolic syndrome, inflammatory and/or autoimmune conditions. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines impacts on multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, modulation of immune responses, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism, and so on. This report aims to discuss some of the recent topics of adipocytokine research and their related signaling pathways, that may be of particular importance as could lead to effective therapeutic strategies for obesity-associated diseases.

  9. Effects of exergaming on cardiovascular risk factors and adipokine levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Maria Guadalupe Soares; de Oliveira, Maurício Dias; Soares, Daiane Santos; da Silva Borges, Leandro; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2017-11-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exergaming on the cardiovascular risk factors and adipokine levels of women engaged in the music video game Just Dance using the Xbox 360 Kinect console. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, FFA, CRP, TNF-α, Il-1β, IL-6, leptin, and resistin were measured in sedentary women before and 1 month after the practice of exergaming. We also evaluated anthropometric parameters. Our results indicate that total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL were reduced by 64, 29, and 12%, respectively. HDL levels were not altered in the conditions of this study. A significant decrease was also found in the concentrations of TNF-α (57%), CRP (84.7%), resistin (68.4%), leptin (35%), FFA (90%), body mass index (10.5%), fat percentage (10.9%), weight (5.6%), abdominal circumference (2.3%), hip circumference (2.5%), and waist circumference (1.9%) after the training period. We concluded that exergaming was successful in reducing body fat, serum adipokine levels, and lipid profiles, thus reducing cardiovascular risks for women.

  10. Increased Adipocyte Size, Macrophage Infiltration, and Adverse Local Adipokine Profile in Perirenal Fat in Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerink, Sean H P P; Wagenmakers, Margreet A E M; Langenhuijsen, Johan F; Ballak, Dov B; Rooijackers, Hanne M M; d'Ancona, Frank C; van Dielen, François M; Smit, Jan W A; Plantinga, Theo S; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Hermus, Ad R M M

    2017-08-01

    To analyze changes in fat cell size, macrophage infiltration, and local adipose tissue adipokine profiles in different fat depots in patients with active Cushing's syndrome. Subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue of 10 patients with Cushing's syndrome was compared to adipose tissue of 10 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched controls with regard to adipocyte size determined by digital image analysis on hematoxylin and eosin stainings, macrophage infiltration determined by digital image analysis on CD68 stainings, and adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin levels using fluorescent bead immunoassays and ELISA techniques. Compared to the controls, mean adipocyte size was larger in PR adipose tissue in patients. The percentage of macrophage infiltration of the PR adipose tissue and PR adipose tissue lysate leptin levels were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in SC and PR adipose tissue lysates in patients. The adiponectin levels were also lower in the SC adipose tissue supernatants of patients. Associations were found between the severity of hypercortisolism and PR adipocyte size. Cushing's syndrome is associated with hypertrophy of PR adipocytes and a higher percentage of macrophage infiltration in PR adipose tissue. These changes are associated with an adverse local adipokine profile. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of circulating adipokines and hsCRP association with cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Arabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading cause of death worldwide including the Middle East. This is caused in part by the dysregulation of adipose tissue leading to increased production of pro-inflammatory adipokines and reduction in cardio-protective adipokines such as adiponectin. Ethnicity has been recognized as a major factor in the association between CVD risk factors and the different circulating adipokines. In this study, for the first time, the relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and circulating level of adipokines in Arab ethnicity was investigated. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey on 379 adult Arab participants living in Kuwait. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure (BP), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) were measured. Plasma levels of circulating Leptin, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1) visfatin, adiponectin, resistin and adipsin were assessed using the multiplexing immunobead-based assay. Results Circulating levels of High sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), Leptin, PAI-1 and adiponectin were significantly higher in Arab women than men (p Arabs. PMID:24716628

  12. Low Circulating TRAIL Levels Are Associated with Increase of Resistin and Lipocalin-2/ngal Adipokines in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tisato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is attracting attention for its role in the physiopathology of metabolic disease/diabetes. Evidence suggests that it might protect against metabolic abnormalities driven by obesity-induced dysregulated secretion of adipokines, but this role of TRAIL has not yet been fully established. On this basis, we aimed to investigate the potential association between TRAIL and adipokine levels in a cohort of subjects in which age/gender/hormonal interferences were excluded. Methods. Serum levels of TRAIL and a panel of adipokines were measured in postmenopausal women (n=147 stratified according to waist circumference measures as normal, overweight, or obese. The panel of adipokines included interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-8, IL-1β, adipsin, lipocalin-2/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (ngal, TNF-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, hepatocyte growth factor, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, and nerve growth factor. Results. Low serum TRAIL concentration (deciles I–IV was significantly and inversely correlated with resistin and lipocalin 2/ngal levels (r=−0.502 and p<0.001 and r=−0.360 and p<0.01, resp.. Both associations retained their statistical significance after adjustment for confounding factors, such as waist circumference and age. Conclusions. Our data indicate a link between low circulating levels of TRAIL and markers of obesity-induced diseases (resistin and lipocalin-2/ngal, highlighting a new potential axis of TRAIL functions.

  13. Resveratrol supplementation and plasma adipokines concentrations? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Sartang, Mohsen; Mazloom, Zohreh; Sohrabi, Zahra; Sherafatmanesh, Saeed; Barati-Boldaji, Reza

    2017-03-01

    The results of human clinical trials have revealed that the effects of resveratrol on adipokines are inconsistent. Our objective was to elucidate the role of resveratrol supplementation on adipokines through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). 1 The search included PubMed-MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI web of sciences database till up to 6th November 2016. Weight mean differences (WMD) 2 were calculated for net changes in adipokines using fixed-effects or random-effects models; meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted in accordance with standard methods. Nine RCTs with 11 treatment arms were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of data from 10 treatment arms showed a significant change in plasma adiponectin concentrations following resveratrol supplementation (WMD: 1.10μg/ml, 95%CI: 0.88, 1.33, presveratrol supplementation (WMD: 3.77ng/ml, 95% CI: -2.28, 9.83, p=0.222; Q=8.00, I 2 =50.01%). Resveratrol significantly improves adiponectin but does not affect leptin concentrations. Additional studies are required to further evaluate the potential benefits of resveratrol on adipokines in humans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The concentrations of adipokines in goat milk: relation to plasma levels, inflammatory status, milk quality and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374

  15. Association between Fetal Adipokines and Child Behavioral Problems at Preschool Age: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatoya, Machiko; Itoh, Sachiko; Araki, Atsuko; Tamura, Naomi; Yamazaki, Keiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Kishi, Reiko

    2018-01-11

    Studies have suggested associations between maternal obesity and mental health problems of their children. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. A possible mechanism can be via inflammatory states and the other possible mechanism is metabolic hormone-induced programming. Cross-talk between adipokines, including inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormones secreted from adipose tissue and the central nervous system needs to be further investigated to elucidate the mechanism. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between fetal adipokine levels and child behavioral problems at preschool age. Cord blood adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured and child behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at preschool age. Logistic regression models adjusted by related maternal factors were performed to examine the association between cord blood adipokines and child behavioral problems. Three hundred and sixty-one children were included in the final analysis. A significant association between decreased hyperactivity/inattention and increased leptin was found (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.89). Cord blood adiponectin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were not associated with child behavioral problems. Our findings suggested that cord blood adipokines, particularly, leptin level, may be a predictor of hyperactivity/inattention problems at preschool age.

  16. Plasma concentrations and expressions of selected adipokines in subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy subjects during 24-hour hypertriglyceridaemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jan; Krušinová, E.; Klemontová, M.; Kazdová, L.; Mlejnek, Petr; Pravenec, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. S1 (2005), A36-A36 ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /41./. 10.09.2005-15.09.2005, Athen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipokines * insulin resistance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  17. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S.; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothes...

  18. Increased serum adipokines implicate chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of overactive bladder syndrome refractory to antimuscarinic therapy.

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    Hsin-Tzu Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that chronic inflammation is involved in overactive bladder (OAB syndrome. OAB could be a subtype of neurogenic inflammation. This pilot study investigated serum adipokine levels in patients with OAB refractory to antimuscarinic therapy. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with OAB-dry (n = 16 or OAB-wet (n = 14 refractory to previous antimuscarinic treatment were prospectively enrolled in this study, a group of 26 normal subjects without lower urinary tract symptoms served as controls. Concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP, nerve growth factor (NGF, and adipokines including interleukins ([IL], IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, insulin, and leptin were quantified using a bead-based human serum adipokine panel B kit. Data were analyzed using the LX 200 platform. Patients were further classified as having dry or wet OAB and having medical diseases or not. The serum CRP, NGF, and adipokine levels were compared between OAB patients and the controls, and between OAB subgroups. RESULTS: The serum concentrations of CRP, NGF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in OAB-dry and OAB-wet patients were significantly higher than among the controls. There was no significant difference in adipokine levels between OAB-dry and OAB-wet, or between OAB patients with and without medical diseases. Serum CRP and NGF levels were significantly higher only in OAB-wet or OAB patients with medical diseases than among controls. The MCP-1 levels, on the other hand, were significantly higher in OAB-dry or OAB patients with disease, than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Both OAB-dry and OAB-wet patients showed increased serum CRP, NGF, and adipokine levels compared with the controls, suggesting chronic inflammation of the bladder involving both peripheral and central mechanisms in all OAB patients refractory to antimuscarinic therapy. The increased serum adipokine levels were

  19. Serum adipokine concentrations in dogs with diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Hye-Sun; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether serum adipokine concentrations differed between healthy dogs and dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM). To accomplish this, 19 dogs with newly diagnosed DM were compared to 20 otherwise healthy dogs. The serum concentrations of visfatin, leptin, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α were significantly higher in diabetic dogs than in healthy dogs, whereas the serum adiponectin concentrations were lower in diabetic dogs. However, there were no significant differences in the IL-10 and resistin levels between groups. The serum leptin concentrations in diabetic dogs with and without concurrent disorders differed significantly. Treatment with insulin induced a significant decrease in IL-6 in diabetic dogs without concurrent disorders. These results show that the clinical diabetic state of dogs could modulate the circulating visfatin and adiponectin concentrations directly, while upregulation of leptin was probably a result of concurrent disorders rather than an effect of persistent hyperglycemia as a result of DM.

  20. Association of plasma adipokines with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Hojoong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Seong Yong; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Sin, Don D; Lee, Sang-Do; Kim, Eun Kyung; Park, Hye Yun

    2015-07-01

    Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, regulate metabolic and inflammatory systems reciprocally. The role of adiponectin in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been studied. However, there are few data evaluating the relationship of plasma leptin with COPD severity or progression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of leptin, adiponectin, and the leptin/adiponectin ratio with COPD severity and progression according to COPD phenotypes. Plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were measured in 196 subjects with COPD selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Using a linear regression model and mixed linear regression, we determined the relationship of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels and the leptin/adiponectin ratio to COPD severity and progression over 3 years. The concentration of adiponectin in plasma positively correlated with percent emphysema on initial computed tomography (CT) (adjusted P = 0.022), whereas plasma leptin concentrations and the leptin/adiponectin ratio exhibited a significant inverse correlation with initial FEV1 (adjusted P = 0.013 for leptin and adjusted P = 0.041 for leptin/adiponectin ratio). Increased plasma leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio were significantly associated with change in percent emphysema over 3 years (adjusted P = 0.037 for leptin and adjusted P = 0.029 for leptin/adiponectin ratio), whereas none of the adipokines demonstrated an association with FEV1 decline over the 3-year period. Plasma adiponectin and leptin vary according to COPD phenotypes. Plasma leptin and the leptin/adiponectin ratio, but not adiponectin, were significantly associated with changes in CT-assessed emphysema, suggesting a potential role as a biomarker in emphysema progression in patients with COPD.

  1. Cellular Expression of Cyclooxygenase, Aromatase, Adipokines, Inflammation and Cell Proliferation Markers in Breast Cancer Specimen.

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    Samar Basu

    Full Text Available Current evidences suggest that expression of Ki67, cyclooxygenase (COX, aromatase, adipokines, prostaglandins, free radicals, β-catenin and α-SMA might be involved in breast cancer pathogenesis. The main objective of this study was to compare expression/localization of these potential compounds in breast cancer tissues with tissues collected adjacent to the tumor using immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical pathology. The breast cancer specimens were collected from 30 women aged between 49 and 89 years who underwent breast surgery following cancer diagnosis. Expression levels of molecules by different stainings were graded as a score on a scale based upon staining intensity and proportion of positive cells/area or individually. AdipoR1, adiponectin, Ob-R, leptin, COX-1, COX-2, aromatase, PGF2α, F2-isoprostanes and α-SMA were localised on higher levels in the breast tissues adjacent to the tumor compared to tumor specimens when considering either score or staining area whereas COX-2 and AdipoR2 were found to be higher considering staining intensity and Ki67 on score level in the tumor tissue. There was no significant difference observed on β-catenin either on score nor on staining area and intensity between tissues adjacent to the tumor and tumor tissues. A positive correlation was found between COX-1 and COX-2 in the tumor tissues. In conclusion, these suggest that Ki67, COXs, aromatase, prostaglandin, free radicals, adipokines, β-catenin and α-SMA are involved in breast cancer. These further focus the need of examination of tissues adjacent to tumor, tumor itself and compare them with normal or benign breast tissues for a better understanding of breast cancer pathology and future evaluation of therapeutic benefit.

  2. Effects of Mixed Carotenoids on Adipokines and Abdominal Adiposity in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, J Atilio; Lochrie, Amanda; McGowan, Amy Galena; Hossain, Jobayer; Schettino, Christopher; Balagopal, P Babu

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoids have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. To compare the effects of mixed-carotenoid supplementation (MCS) versus placebo on adipokines and the accrual of abdominal adiposity in children with obesity. Randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial to evaluate the effects of MCS over 6 months in a subspecialty clinic. Twenty (6 male and 14 female) children with simple obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 90%], a mean age (± standard deviation) of 10.5 ± 0.4 years, and Tanner stage I to V were enrolled; 17 participants completed the trial. MCS (which contains β-carotene, α-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, astaxanthin, and γ-tocopherol) or placebo was administered daily. Primary outcomes were change in β-carotene, abdominal fat accrual (according to magnetic resonance imaging), and BMI z-score; secondary outcomes were adipokines and markers of insulin resistance. Cross-sectional analysis of β-carotene showed inverse correlation with BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) at baseline. MCS increased β-carotene, total adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight adiponectin compared with placebo. MCS led to a greater reduction in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT compared with placebo. The percentage change in β-carotene directly correlated with the percentage change in SAT. The decrease in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT and the concomitant increase in the concentration of β-carotene and high-molecular-weight adiponectin by MCS suggest the putative beneficial role of MCS in children with obesity.

  3. Association between UCP polymorphisms and adipokines with obesity in Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Huesca-Gómez, Claudia; López-Marure, Rebeca; Hernández-Cabrera, Ana-Karen; Rodríguez-Ventura, Ana; Tolentino, Maricruz; Morales, Rosa María; Gamboa, Ricardo

    2018-04-10

    It has been reported that the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can contribute to energy metabolism, and are thus involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. The objective of the study was to analyze the association between UCP polymorphisms, clinical parameters and leptin and adiponectin plasma levels in an adolescent population with overweight and obesity. We analyzed the UCP1 -3826 C/T, UCP2-866 G/A, Ala55Val and UCP3 -55 C/T polymorphisms and the levels of adipokines in adolescents with normal weight and with overweight or obesity. The study included 270 students aged between 12 and 18 years categorized according to the percentiles from Mexico City. Adipokines levels were measured by immunoassay methods and the UCP polymorphisms were determined using Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). No significant differences were found in the UCP polymorphisms in seven inheritance models studied. Most of the significant differences in the clinical parameters were found under a recessive model, the UCP2 -866 polymorphism was associated with diastolic blood pressure (p=0.008), triglycerides (p=0.045), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p=0.003), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p=0.050) and plasma levels of leptin (p<0.001). Also, the obese group was found to have higher leptin levels and lower adiponectin levels in GA+AA vs. GG (recessive model). This study demonstrated a direct relationship between the clinical characteristics and UCP2-866 in a recessive model, associated with high levels of leptin and decreased levels of adiponectin in an obese or overweight Mexican adolescent population.

  4. Clinical Significance of Serum Adipokines according to Body Mass Index in Patients with Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyong Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of 7 circulating adipokines according to body mass index (BMI in Korean men with localized prostate cancer (PCa undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two of 65 prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent RP between 2015 and 2016 were evaluated. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to their BMI: non-obese (<25 kg/m2 and obese (≥25 kg/m2. The adipokines evaluated were interleukin-2, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, chemerin, C-X-C motif chemokine 10, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of advanced tumor stage. Results: We found that obese patients with PCa who underwent RP had a higher incidence of tumors with a high Gleason score (≥8, pathological T3 (pT3 stage, and positive extraprostatic extension than patients with a normal BMI. Additionally, patients with obesity showed significantly lower serum adiponectin and higher serum leptin levels, but did not show differences in other adipokines. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 (odds ratio [OR]=1.03 was identified as a predictor of advanced tumor stage (≥pT3 in the overall population. However, only leptin remained an independent predictive factor for advanced tumor stage (≥pT3 (OR=1.15 in patients with obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion, our results indicate that a higher leptin level in obese men can be considered a risk factor for aggressive PCa. This prospective study provides greater insight into the role of circulating adipokines in Korean patients with PCa undergoing RP, particularly in patients with obesity.

  5. The association of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.

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    An Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in Western populations find that depression is associated with inflammation and obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipose-derived adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.Data were from 3289 community residents aged 50-70 from Beijing and Shanghai who participated in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China project. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D score of 16 or higher. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 were measured. Of the 3289 participants, 312 (9.5% suffered from current depressive symptoms. IL-6 level was higher in participants with depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts in the crude analyses (1.17 vs. 1.05 pg/mL, p = 0.023 and this association lost statistical significance after multiple adjustments (1.13 vs. 1.10 pg/mL, p = 0.520. Depressive symptoms were not associated with increased mean levels of any other inflammatory factors or adipokines in the unadjusted or adjusted analyses.We found no evidence that depressive symptoms were associated with inflammatory factors and adipokines in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Prospective studies and studies in clinically diagnosed patients are needed to confirm our results and clarify the relation of depression with inflammatory factors and adipokines.

  6. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  7. Habitual consumption of coffee and green tea in relation to serum adipokines: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Yasuda, Kazuki; Kurotani, Kayo; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Akter, Shamima; Sato, Masao; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Coffee and green tea consumption may be associated with circulating adipokines, but data are inconsistent, scarce or lacking. We examined the association of coffee and green tea consumption with serum adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) among a Japanese working population. The authors analyzed data (n = 509) from a cross-sectional survey among Japanese workers aged 20-68 years. Serum adipokines were measured using a Luminex suspension bead-based multiplexed array. Coffee and green tea consumption was assessed using a validated diet history questionnaire, and caffeine consumption from these beverages was estimated. Multiple regression analysis was performed with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Coffee consumption was significantly, inversely associated with leptin and PAI-1 (P for trend = 0.007 and 0.02, respectively); compared with subjects consuming coffee consumption and adiponectin in men (P for trend = 0.046), but not in women (P for trend = 0.43, P for interaction = 0.11). Moreover, there was a positive association between coffee consumption and resistin in current male smokers (P for trend = 0.01), but not in male non-smokers (P for trend = 0.35, P for interaction = 0.11). Green tea consumption was not associated with any adipokine. Higher consumption of coffee and caffeine but not green tea was associated with lower serum levels of leptin and PAI-1 in Japanese adults.

  8. Alterations in mouse hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling following chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age.

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    Gregory E Bigford

    Full Text Available Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI results in an accelerated trajectory of several cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors and related aging characteristics, however the molecular mechanisms that are activated have not been explored. Adipokines and leptin signaling are known to play a critical role in neuro-endocrine regulation of energy metabolism, and are now implicated in central inflammatory processes associated with CVD. Here, we examine hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling in response to chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age. We demonstrate significant changes in fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF, resistin (Rstn, long-form leptin receptor (LepRb and suppressor of cytokine-3 (SOCS3 gene expression following chronic SCI and with advanced age. LepRb and Jak2/stat3 signaling is significantly decreased and the leptin signaling inhibitor SOCS3 is significantly elevated with chronic SCI and advanced age. In addition, we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activation of the uncoupled protein response (UPR as a biological hallmark of leptin resistance. We observe the activation of the ER stress/UPR proteins IRE1, PERK, and eIF2alpha, demonstrating leptin resistance in chronic SCI and with advanced age. These findings provide evidence for adipokine-mediated inflammatory responses and leptin resistance as contributing to neuro-endocrine dysfunction and CVD risk following SCI and with advanced age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to SCI and age related CVD may provide insight that will help direct specific therapeutic interventions.

  9. Sleep Duration and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Chinese School-aged Children: Do Adipokines Play a Mediating Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lujiao; Fu, Junling; Yu, Xin Ting; Li, Ge; Xu, Lu; Yin, Jinghua; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Shan; Li, Wenhui; Li, Changhong; Grant, Struan F A; Li, Mingyao; Xiao, Yi; Mi, Jie; Li, Ming

    2017-05-01

    To assess the associations between sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese school-aged children and to explore the possible mediating role of adipokines. Sleep duration was collected in 3166 children from the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome study. Glucose homeostasis and other cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed. Serum adipokines including leptin, total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, resistin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) were determined. Among the 6- to 12-year-old children, after adjusting for covariates including puberty, short sleep duration was associated with increased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (all p sleep duration was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, and RBP4 (all p sleep duration is strongly associated with obesity and hyperglycemia (in 6-12 years old), along with adverse adipokine secretion patterns among Chinese children. The associations with cardiometabolic risk factors appear to be more pronounced in younger children, and could be explained, at least partially, by leptin levels. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Effect of Renal Denervation on Plasma Adipokine Profile in Patients with Treatment Resistant Hypertension

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    Nina Eikelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN to lower blood pressure (BP at least partially via the reduction of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. A number of adipocyte-derived factors are implicated in BP control in obesity.Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether RDN may have salutary effects on the adipokine profile in patients with resistant hypertension (RH.Methods: Fifty seven patients with RH undergoing RDN program have been included in this study (65% males, age 60.8 ± 1.5 years, BMI 32.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, mean ± SEM. Throughout the study, the patients were on an average of 4.5 ± 2.7 antihypertensive drugs. Automated seated office BP measurements and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, adiponectin and resistin were assessed at baseline and the 3 months after RDN.Results: There was a significant reduction in mean office systolic (168.75 ± 2.57 vs. 155.23 ± 3.17 mmHg, p < 0.001 and diastolic (90.68 ± 2.31 vs. 83.74 ± 2.36 mmHg, p < 0.001 BP 3 months after RDN. Body weight, plasma leptin and resistin levels and heart rate remained unchanged. Fasting insulin concentration significantly increased 3 months after the procedure (20.05 ± 1.46 vs. 29.70 ± 2.51 uU/ml, p = 0.002. There was a significant drop in circulating NEFA at follow up (1.01 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.04 mEq/l, p < 0.001. Adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after RDN (5,654 ± 800 vs. 6,644 ± 967 ng/ml, p = 0.024.Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that RDN is associated with potentially beneficial effects on aspects of the adipokine profile. Increased adiponectin and reduced NEFA production may contribute to BP reduction via an effect on metabolic pathways.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00483808, NCT00888433.

  11. Effect of ezetimibe on plasma adipokines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezelova, Eva; Stein, Evan; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Nachtigal, Petr; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-07-01

    Statins are known to influence the status of adipokines, which play a key role in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic diseases. As the effect of ezetimibe as an add-on to statin therapy on the impact of statins on plasma adipokines levels is currently unclear, the aim of the present study was to investigate this through a meta-analysis of controlled trials. A systematic review was performed, followed by a bibliographic search in PubMed, Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a fixed- or random-effects model (based on the level of interstudy heterogeneity) and the generic inverse variance weighting method. Effect sizes were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Meta-analysis of 23 controlled trials did not suggest any significant effect of adding ezetimibe on top of statin therapy on plasma concentrations of adiponectin (SMD 0.34, 95% CI -0.28, 0.96; P = 0.288), leptin (SMD -0.75, 95% CI: -2.35, 0.85; P = 0.360), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (SMD -1.06, 95% CI: -2.81, 0.69; P = 0.236) and interleukin 6 (SMD 0.30, 95% CI: -0.08, 0.67; P = 0.124). However, significantly greater reductions in plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (SMD -0.48, 95% CI -0.87, -0.08; P = 0.018) were achieved with ezetimibe/statin combination therapy. The results suggested that ezetimibe add-on to statin therapy is associated with an enhanced TNF-α-lowering effect compared with statin monotherapy. Owing to the emerging role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, further investigations are required to unveil the translational relevance of this TNF-α-lowering effect. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. The adipokine Chemerin induces lipolysis and adipogenesis in bovine intramuscular adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Kun-Lin; Li, Hui-Xia; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The adipokine Chemerin is reported to regulate adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis in vivo and in 3T3-L1 cells. Our team is focused on the role of Chemerin in metabolism and intramuscular adipocyte differentiation because intramuscular fat is the basic material for the formation of marbling in livestock and poultry meat. In this study, bovine intramuscular mature adipocytes were cultured in medium with Chemerin, and the process of lipolysis of mature adipocytes and the adipogenesis of de-differentiated preadipocytes were investigated. The results showed that Chemerin induced significant lipolytic metabolism in intramuscular mature adipocytes, indicated by increased levels of glycerol, FFA, and up-regulated expression of the lipolysis critical factors HSL, LPL, and leptin. Meanwhile, the expressions of adipogenic key factors PPARγ, C/EBPα, and A-FABP were decreased by Chemerin during lipolysis or dedifferentiation in mature adipocytes. The de-differentiated preadipocytes could re-differentiate into mature adipocytes. Intriguingly, the formation of cells' lipid droplets was promoted by Chemerin during preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, mRNA and protein expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and A-FABP were up-regulated by Chemerin during preadipocytes differentiation. These results suggest that Chemerin promotes lipolysis in mature adipocytes and induces adipogenesis during preadipocyte re-differentiation, further indicating a dual role for Chemerin in the deposition of intramuscular fat in ruminant animals.

  13. Effect of different blood purification methods on adipokines and flammatory factor in patients with diabetic nephropathy

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    Chun Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of in different type hemopurification techniques on adipokine and flammatory factor in diabetic nephropathy with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. Methods: A total of 81 diabetic nephropathy patients were randomly divided into on hemodialysis group (HD, n=27, hemodialysis with hemoperfusion group (HD+HP, n=27, online hemodiafiltration group (OL-HDF, n=27. Levels of adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were tested and compared before and after treatment. Results: Indicators of HD group have no statistical significance before and after treatment. HD+HP and OL-HDF group adiponectin level increased significantly, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α level decreased significantly before and after treatment; OL-HDF group resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α level decreased more significantly than HD+HP group after treatment. Conclusion: HD+HP and OL-HDF treatments have reliable curative effect on diabetic nephropathy patients, which can regulate adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α level. Effect of OL-HDF treatment eliminates resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α more markedly than HD+HP treatment.

  14. Evaluation of Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers, and Sex Hormones in Simple and Complex Breast Cysts’ Fluid

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    Paweł Madej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between levels of adipokines in the breast cyst fluid and in the circulation in relation to the type of cysts. Material and Measurements. A cross-sectional study involved 86 women with breast cysts (42 with simple cysts and 44 with complex cysts. Plasma and breast cyst fluid leptin, adiponectin, visfatin/NAMPT, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, in addition to serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin, and anthropometric parameters and body composition (by bioimpedance method, were measured. Results. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were significantly lower in breast cyst fluid than in plasma regardless of the cyst type. Contrarily, the levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α were significantly increased, and IL-6 levels were similar in the breast cyst fluid and plasma in both study groups. There was no correlation between corresponding levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, TNF-α, and IL-6 in breast cyst fluid and plasma. Conclusions. Higher levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α in the fluid from simple and complex breast cysts than in plasma suggest that their local production is related to inflammation.

  15. Maternal and Fetal Lipid and Adipokine Profiles and Their Association with Obesity

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    Mario Solis-Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal metabolic changes impact fetal metabolism resulting in a higher risk for developing chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal and fetal adipokine and lipid profiles, as well as the influence of maternal weight on this association. Methods. Healthy pregnant women at term who delivered by C-section were enrolled. Maternal and fetal glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed by obesity and maternal weight gain. Statistics included descriptives, correlations, and mean differences (SPSS v20.0. Results. Adiponectin and resistin concentrations were higher in fetal blood, while leptin was lower (p<0.05. A significant inverse association between maternal resistin and fetal LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C (r=-0.327; p=0.022 was observed. A positive correlation was found between maternal and fetal resistin (r=0.358; p=0.013. Women with excessive weight gain had higher leptin levels and their fetuses showed higher LDL-C levels (p<0.05. Conclusions. Maternal resistin showed an inverse association with fetal LDL-C, suggesting that maternal adiposity status may play an active role in the regulation of fetal lipid profile and consequently, in fetal programming. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy may exert an effect over metabolic mediators in both mother and newborn.

  16. Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese Children and Its Relationship to Insulin Resistance and Adipokines

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    Christian L. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] are associated with insulin resistance in adults. Less data are available in pediatric populations. Serum 25(OHD serum concentrations were assessed in 125 obese and 31 nonobese children (age 11.9±2.7 y, range 6–16 y, 49% male living in Bonn, Germany. The relationship between 25(OHD, measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and measures of insulin sensitivity and adipokines adiponectin and resistin were analyzed. Seventy-six % of subjects were 25(OHD deficient (<20 ng/mL. Higher insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR r=−0.269, P=0.023, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c as well as lower quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI r=0.264, P=0.030 values were found in obese children with lower 25(OHD concentrations even after adjustment for gender, age, and body mass index. Furthermore, 25(OHD correlated significantly with adiponectin, but not with resistin. Our results suggest that hypovitaminosis D is a risk factor for developing insulin resistance independent of adiposity.

  17. Obesity and Its Metabolic Complications: The Role of Adipokines and the Relationship between Obesity, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un Ju Jung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity is closely associated with an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, which leads to an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is now recognized not only as a main site of storage of excess energy derived from food intake but also as an endocrine organ. The expansion of adipose tissue produces a number of bioactive substances, known as adipocytokines or adipokines, which trigger chronic low-grade inflammation and interact with a range of processes in many different organs. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, dysregulated production or secretion of these adipokines caused by excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of several adipokines associated with obesity and the potential impact on obesity-related metabolic diseases. Multiple lines evidence provides valuable insights into the roles of adipokines in the development of obesity and its metabolic complications. Further research is still required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the metabolic actions of a few newly identified adipokines.

  18. Association of recently described adipokines with liver histology in biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, M; Verhelst, X; Geerts, A; Lapauw, B; Calders, P

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, as is the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is increasingly recognized that an impaired pattern in adipokine secretion could play a pivotal role in the development of NAFLD. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the potential link between newly described adipokines and liver histology in biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. A computerized literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science electronic databases. Thirty-one cross-sectional studies were included, resulting in a total of seven different investigated adipokines. Studies included in this review mainly had a good methodological quality. Most adipokines were suggested to be involved in the inflammatory response that develops within the context of NAFLD, either at hepatic or systemic level, and/or hepatic insulin resistance. Based on literature, clinical studies suggest that chemerin, resistin and adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding protein potentially are involved in NAFLD pathogenesis and/or progression. However, major inconsistency still exists, and there is a high need for larger studies, together with the need of standardized assays to determine adipokine levels. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. Effects of short-term dry immersion on bone remodeling markers, insulin and adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirova, Liubov E.; Thomas, Mireille; Normand, Myriam; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Beck, Arnaud; Costes-Salon, Marie-Claude; Bonneau, Christine; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Vico, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry immersion (DI), a ground-based model of microgravity previously used in Russia, has been recently implemented in France. The aim of this study was to analyze early events in a short-term DI model in which all conditions are met to investigate who is first challenged from osteo- or adipo-kines and to what extent they are associated to insulin-regulating hormones. Methods Twelve healthy men were submitted to a 3-day DI. Fasting blood was collected during pre-immersion phase for the determination of the baseline data collection (BDC), daily during DI (DI24h, DI48H and DI72h), then after recovery (R+3h and R+24h). Markers of bone turnover, phosphocalcic metabolism, adipokines and associated factors were measured. Results Bone resorption as assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b and N-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen levels increased as early as DI24h. At the same time, total procollagen type I N- and C-terminal propeptides and osteoprotegerin, representing bone formation markers, decreased. Total osteocalcin [OC] was unaffected, but its undercarboxylated form [Glu-OC] increased from DI24h to R+3h. The early and progressive increase in bone alkaline phosphatase activities suggested an increased mineralization. Dickkopf-1 and sclerostin, as negative regulators of the Wnt-β catenin pathway, were unaltered. No change was observed either in phosphocalcic homeostasis (calcium and phosphate serum levels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF23]) or in inflammatory response. Adiponectemia was unchanged, whereas circulating leptin concentrations increased. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [lipocalin-2], a potential regulator of bone homeostasis, was found elevated by 16% at R+3h compared to DI24h. The secretory form of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase [visfatin] concentrations almost doubled after one day of DI and remained elevated. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels progressively

  20. Adipokines and biochemical changes in Egyptian obese subjects: possible variation with sex and degree of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haggar, Sahar Mohamed; Mostafa, Tarek Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was firstly to evaluate the adipokines and biochemical changes in obese subjects in relation to different grades of obesity and in relation to gender difference (males versus females) and secondly to evaluate the role of TNF-α in obesity. From January 2013 to February 2014, a total number of 120 non-diabetic subjects of both sexes were recruited and randomly selected from Dr. Abd-Elhamid Elsheikh center for physiotherapy and weight control, El-menofia-Egypt. Those subjects were classified according to their sex into two main groups; the female group and the male group. The female group (60 women) was distributed according to BMI into group 1 (15 lean women), group 2 (15 class I obese women), group 3 (15 class II obese women), and group 4 (15 class III obese women). The male group (60 men) was also distributed according to the BMI into group 1 (15 lean men), group 2 (15 class I obese men), group 3 (15 class II obese men), and group 4 (15 class III obese men). All individuals enrolled in the study were submitted to weight and height measurements with subsequent calculation of body mass index. Fasting blood samples were collected from all participants for quantitative determination of blood glucose, serum lipid, TNF-α, leptin, and adiponectin levels. One-way analysis of variance followed by LSD post hoc test was used for comparison of variables. In obese subjects of both sexes, it was found that circulating leptin and TNF-α levels were significantly high (Pgender difference, although serum leptin and adiponectin levels were higher in women than men, men showed higher atherogenic parameters. We conclude that leptin, TNF-α, and adiponectin were related to both BMI and grades of obesity. Furthermore, TNF-α may play a role in obesity.

  1. Obesity induced rapid melanoma progression is reversed by orlistat treatment and dietary intervention: role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pandey, Vimal; Vijayakumar, Maleppillil Vavachan; Boreddy, Purushotham Reddy; Mohammad, Naoshad; Singh, Shivendra Vikram; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, owing to adiposity, is associated with increased risk and development of various cancers, and linked to their rapid growth as well as progression. Although a few studies have attempted to understand the relationship between obesity and melanoma, the consequences of controlling body weight by reducing adiposity on cancer progression is not well understood. By employing animal models of obesity, we report that controlling obesity either by orlistat treatment or by restricting caloric intake significantly slows down melanoma progression. The diminished tumor progression was correlated with decreased fat mass (adiposity) in obese mice. Obesity associated factors contributing to tumor progression were decreased in the experimental groups compared to respective controls. In tumors, protein levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN), caveolin (Cav)-1 and pAkt, which are tumor promoting molecules implicated in melanoma growth under obese state, were decreased. In addition, increased necrosis and reduction in angiogenesis as well as proliferative markers PCNA and cyclin D1 were observed in tumors of the orlistat treated and/or calorically restricted obese mice. We observed that growth of melanoma cells cultured in conditioned medium (CM) from orlistat-treated adipocytes was reduced. Adipokines (leptin and resistin), via activating Akt and modulation of FASN as well as Cav-1 respectively, enhanced melanoma cell growth and proliferation. Together, we demonstrate that controlling body weight reduces adipose mass thereby diminishing melanoma progression. Therefore, strategic means of controlling obesity by reduced caloric diet or with antiobesity drugs treatment may render obesity-promoted tumor progression in check and prolong survival of patients. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase attenuates hepatocellular carcinoma cell adhesion stimulated by adipokine resistin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chen-Chieh; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chao, Jian-Kang; Lai, Yi-Liang; Chang, Wei-En; Hsu, Wen-Hsiu; Kuo, Wu-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Resistin, adipocyte-secreting adipokine, may play critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistin on HCC adhesion to the endothelium, and the mechanism underlying these resistin effects. Human SK-Hep1 cells were used to study the effect of resistin on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions as well as NF-κB activation, and hence cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, was used to determine the regulatory role of AMPK on HCC adhesion to the endothelium in regard to the resistin effects. Treatment with resistin increased the adhesion of SK-Hep1 cells to HUVECs and concomitantly induced NF-κB activation, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in SK-Hep1 cells. Using specific blocking antibodies and siRNAs, we found that resistin-induced SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs was through NF-κB-regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions. Moreover, treatment with AICAR demonstrated that AMPK activation in SK-Hep1 cells significantly attenuates the resistin effect on SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs. These results clarify the role of resistin in inducing HCC adhesion to the endothelium and demonstrate the inhibitory effect of AMPK activation under the resistin stimulation. Our findings provide a notion that resistin play an important role to promote HCC metastasis and implicate AMPK may be a therapeutic target to against HCC metastasis

  3. Resistin, an adipokine, may affect the improvement of insulin sensitivity in the metabolic syndrome patient treated with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hong; Weng, Chunyan; Yang, Youbo; Huang, Lihua; Xing, Xiaowei

    2013-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders arising from insulin resistance, characterized by the presence of central obesity, impaired fasting glucose level, dyslipidemia and hypertension. As the first-line medication, metformin is commonly used for MS to reduce insulin resistance. Comparing with rosiglitazone, metformin does not increase cardiovascular mortality risk in patients with MS. However, metformin is not good enough in improving insulin sensitivity. Its molecular mechanism is still not clear. Recent studies have demonstrated that resistin, an adipokine, could induce IR by both AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent pathways. Though there were conflicting findings of resistin in metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus in different studies, resistin was significant decreased in the rosiglitazone treated patients than in the metformin-treated patients in most of studies. Here, we hypothesized that resistin, an adipokine, may affect the improvement of insulin sensitivity in the metabolic syndrome patient treated with metformin. This hypothesis could explain why rosiglitazone is superior to metformin in enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Potential beneficial effect of some adipokines positively correlated with the adipose tissue content on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Magdalena; Janowska, Joanna; Chudek, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. However, in the case of heart failure, obese and overweight patients have a more favourable prognosis compared to patients who have a normal body weight. This phenomenon is referred to as the "obesity paradox," and it is explained by, among others, a positive effect of adipokines produced by adipose tissue, particularly by the tissue located in the direct vicinity of the heart and blood vessels. The favourable effect on the cardiovascular system is mostly associated with adiponectin and omentin, but the levels of these substances are reduced in obese patients. Among the adipokines which levels are positively correlated with the adipose tissue content, favourable activity is demonstrated by apelin, progranulin, chemerin, TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-)α, CTRP-3 (C1q/tumour necrosis factor (TNF) related protein), leptin, visfatin and vaspin. This activity is associated with the promotion of regeneration processes in the damaged myocardium, formation of new blood vessels, reduction of the afterload, improvement of metabolic processes in cardiomyocytes and myocardial contractile function, inhibition of apoptosis and fibrosis of the myocardium, as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atheromatous effects. The potential use of these properties in the treatment of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease, as well as in pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension and the limitation of the loss of cardiomyocytes during cardioplegia-requiring cardiosurgical procedures, is studied. The most advanced studies focus on analogues of apelin and progranulin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Different modulation by dietary restriction of adipokine expression in white adipose tissue sites in the rat

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    Esteve Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Overweight male rats had their food intake reduced a 40% compared with free-feeding controls. On day ten, the rats were killed; circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triacylglycerols and other parameters were measured. The main WAT sites were dissected: mesenteric, retroperitoneal, epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal, which were weighed and frozen. Later all subcutaneous WAT was also dissected and weighed. Samples were used for DNA (cellularity analysis and mRNA extraction and semiquantitarive RT-PCR analysis of specific cytokine gene expressions. Results There was a good correlation between serum leptin and cumulative WAT leptin gene mRNA, but not for adiponectin. Food restriction reduced WAT size, but not its DNA content (except for epididymal WAT. Most cytokines were correlated to WAT site weight, but not to DNA. There was WAT site specialization in the differential expression (and probably secretion of adipokines: subcutaneous WAT showed the highest concentration for leptin, CD68 and MCP-1, mesenteric WAT for TNFα (and both tissues for the interleukins 1β and 6; resistin was highly expressed in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT. Conclusion Food restriction induced different patterns for mesenteric and the other WAT sites, which may be directly related to both the response to intestine-derived energy availability, and an inflammatory-related response. However, retroperitoneal WAT, and to a lower extent, subcutaneous and epididymal, reacted decreasing the expression of

  6. Prediction of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Via a Novel Panel of Serum Adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Raika; Arj, Abbas; Razavizade, Mohsen; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Considering limitations of liver biopsy for diagnosis of nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD), biomarkers’ panels were proposed. The aims of this study were to establish models based on serum adipokines for discriminating NAFLD from healthy individuals and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from simple steatosis. This case-control study was conducted in patients with persistent elevated serum aminotransferase levels and fatty liver on ultrasound. Individuals with evidence of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis, and known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed in the remaining patients to distinguish NAFLD/NASH. Histologic findings were interpreted using “nonalcoholic fatty liver activity score.” Control group consisted of healthy volunteers with normal physical examination, liver function tests, and liver ultrasound. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to ascertain the effects of independent variables on the likelihood that participants have NAFLD/NASH. Decreased serum adiponectin and elevated serum visfatin, IL-6, TNF-a were associated with an increased likelihood of exhibiting NAFLD. NAFLD discriminant score was developed as the following: [(−0.298 × adiponectin) + (0.022 × TNF-a) + (1.021 × Log visfatin) + (0.709 × Log IL-6) + 1.154]. In NAFLD discriminant score, 86.4% of original grouped cases were correctly classified. Discriminant score threshold value of (−0.29) yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 83% respectively, for discriminating NAFLD from healthy controls. Decreased serum adiponectin and elevated serum visfatin, IL-8, TNF-a were correlated with an increased probability of NASH. NASH discriminant score was proposed as the following: [(−0.091 × adiponectin) + (0.044 × TNF-a) + (1.017 × Log visfatin) + (0.028 × Log IL-8) − 1.787] In NASH model, 84% of original cases were correctly classified. Discriminant score threshold value of (−0.22) yielded a

  7. Lifestyle intervention and adipokine levels in subjects at high risk for type 2 diabetes: the study on lifestyle intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE¿We investigated whether circulating adipokine concentrations can be altered by lifestyle intervention according to general recommendations in subjects at risk for diabetes as well as the potential of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin as biomarkers for lifestyle-induced improvements in

  8. Effect of weight loss with or without exercise on inflammatory markers and adipokines in postmenopausal women : The SHAPE-2 Trial, a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gemert, Willemijn A.; May, Anne M.; Schuit, Albertine J.; Oosterhof, Blanche Y M; Peeters, Petra H.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We investigated the effect of equivalent weight loss, by a hypocaloric diet or mainly exercise, on inflammatory markers and adipokines in overweight postmenopausal women. Methods: Women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), mainly exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Goal of both

  9. Effect of Weight Loss with or without Exercise on Inflammatory Markers and Adipokines in Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Trial, A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A; May, Anne M; Schuit, Albertine J; Oosterhof, Blanche Y M; Peeters, Petra H M; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of equivalent weight loss, by a hypocaloric diet or mainly exercise, on inflammatory markers and adipokines in overweight postmenopausal women. METHODS: Women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), mainly exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Goal of both

  10. Ceruloplasmin Is a Novel Adipokine Which Is Overexpressed in Adipose Tissue of Obese Subjects and in Obesity-Associated Cancer Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Ehrlund, Anna; Mejhert, Niklas; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Peter; Rehli, Michael; Baillie, J. Kenneth; de Hoon, Michiel J. L.; Haberle, Vanja; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Lizio, Marina; Andersson, Robin; Mungall, Christopher J.; Meehan, Terrence F.; Schmeier, Sebastian; Bertin, Nicolas; Jørgensen, Mette; Dimont, Emmanuel; Schmidl, Christian; Schaefer, Ulf; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Plessy, Charles; Vitezic, Morana; Severin, Jessica; Semple, Colin A.; Ishizu, Yuri; Francescatto, Margherita; Alam, Intikhab; Albanese, Davide; Altschuler, Gabriel M.; Archer, John A. C.; Babina, Magda; Baker, Sarah; Balwierz, Piotr J.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Blake, Judith A.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Califano, Andrea; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; Carbajo, Daniel; Chen, Yun; Chierici, Marco; Ciani, Yari; Clevers, Hans C.; Dalla, Emiliano; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Diehl, Alexander D.; Dohi, Taeko; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Fang, Hai; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Favorov, Alexander V.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Frith, Martin C.; Fujita, Rie; Fukuda, Shiro; Furlanello, Cesare; Furuno, Masaaki; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gibson, Andrew; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Gough, Julian; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Harbers, Matthias; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hasegawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Yuki; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Herlyn, Meenhard; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Sui, Shannan J. Ho; Hofmann, Oliver M.; Hoof, Ilka; Hori, Fumi; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Iida, Kei; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Jankovic, Boris R.; Jia, Hui; Joshi, Anagha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Kai, Chieko; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kasianov, Artem S.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Katayama, Shintaro; Kato, Sachi; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Miki; Kojima, Soichi; Kondo, Naoto; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Krampitz, Sarah; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Kwon, Andrew T.; Laros, Jeroen F. J.; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Li, Kang; Lilje, Berit; Lipovich, Leonard; Mackay-sim, Alan; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Mar, Jessica C.; Marchand, Benoit; Mathelier, Anthony; Meynert, Alison; Mizuno, Yosuke; de Lima Morais, David A.; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Motakis, Efthymios; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakazato, Kenichi; van Nimwegen, Erik; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Pain, Arnab; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Persson, Helena; Piazza, Silvano; Prendergast, James G. D.; Rackham, Owen J. L.; Ramilowski, Jordan A.; Rashid, Mamoon; Ravasi, Timothy; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roncador, Marco; Roy, Sugata; Rye, Morten B.; Saijyo, Eri; Sajantila, Antti; Saka, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sakai, Mizuho; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schneider, Claudio; Schultes, Erik A.; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sengstag, Thierry; Sheng, Guojun; Shimoji, Hisashi; Shimoni, Yishai; Shin, Jay W.; Simon, Christophe; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Masanori; Swoboda, Rolf K.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Tagami, Michihira; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tatum, Zuotian; Thompson, Mark; Toyoda, Hiroo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Valen, Eivind; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Watanabe, Shoko; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Wood, Emily J.; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Zabierowski, Suzan E.; Zhang, Peter G.; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zucchelli, Silvia; Summers, Kim M.; Suzuki, Harukazu; Daub, Carsten O.; Kawai, Jun; Heutink, Peter; Hide, Winston; Freeman, Tom C.; Lenhard, Boris; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Taylor, Martin S.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Sandelin, Albin; Hume, David A.; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2014-01-01

    Obesity confers an increased risk of developing specific cancer forms. Although the mechanisms are unclear, increased fat cell secretion of specific proteins (adipokines) may promote/facilitate development of malignant tumors in obesity via cross-talk between adipose tissue(s) and the tissues prone

  11. Effect of telmisartan on selected adipokines, insulin sensitivity, and substrate utilization during insulin-stimulated conditions in patients with metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wohl, P.; Krušinová, E.; Hill, M.; Kratochvílová, S.; Zídková, K.; Kopecký, J.; Neškudla, T.; Pravenec, Michal; Klementová, M.; Vrbíková, J.; Wohl, P.; Mlejnek, Petr; Pelikánová, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 4 (2010), s. 573-583 ISSN 0804-4643 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9359; GA MZd(CZ) NS10528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : telmisartan * insulin resistance * adipokines Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.482, year: 2010

  12. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat, calorie-restricted diet on adipokine levels in obese, diabetic participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion L Vetter1,2,3, Alisha Wade1, Leslie G Womble3, Cornelia Dalton-Bakes1, Thomas A Wadden3, Nayyar Iqbal1,21Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Center for Weight and Eating Disorders, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: The effect of dietary macronutrient composition on adipokine concentrations remains unclear. Greater reductions in leptin have been reported in participants who followed low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets, although these studies did not adjust for the important effects of weight loss on adipokines. We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition on adipokine levels in 144 obese, diabetic participants who were randomly assigned to a low-carbohydrate (<30 g/day or low-fat diet (≤30% of calories from fat with a deficit of 500 kcal/day. Weight, adipokines, and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Complete data were available for 79 participants. At month 6, weight, leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-a concentrations did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05 for all variables. However, significant changes in leptin and adiponectin occurred over time (P < 0.001 and P < 0.012, respectively. Modest weight loss, rather than macronutrient composition, likely accounted for the favorable changes observed in leptin and adiponectin over time.Keywords: diet, adipokine, obesity, diabetes, carbohydrate, hormone

  13. Sleep pattern is associated with adipokine levels and nutritional markers in resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maria Carliana; Waterhouse, Jim; De-Souza, Daurea Abadia; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Silva, Catarina Mendes; Araújo, Maria Bernadete Jeha; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2014-12-01

    Shift work and long hours of work are common in medical training and have been associated with a higher propensity for developing nutritional problems and obesity. Changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations - two hormones that contribute importantly to the central regulation of food intake - are poorly described in this population. The aim of this study was to identify possible negative associations between sleep patterns, nutritional status and serum levels of adipokines. The study included 72 resident physicians (52 women and 20 men) who underwent the following assessments: nutritional assessment (3-day dietary recall evaluated by the Adapted Healthy Eating Index), anthropometric variables, fasting metabolism, physical activity level, sleep quality and sleepiness. Resident physicians with poor sleep quality reported greater weight gain after the beginning of residency (5.1 and 3.0 kg, respectively; p = 0.01) and higher frequency of abnormal waist circumference (44.2 and 17.6%, respectively; p = 0.04) than those with better sleep quality. Mean ghrelin concentration was greater in volunteers with poor sleep quality (64.6 ± 67.8 and 26.2 ± 25.0 pg/mL, respectively; p = 0.04). Women identified as having excessive daytime sleepiness had lower levels of leptin (9.57 ± 10.4 ng/mL versus 16.49 ± 11.4 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.03) than those without excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, correlations were found between hours of additional work per week and: intake of cereals, bread and pasta (r = 0.22, p = 0.01); intake of servings of fruits (r = -0.20; p = 0.02) and beans (r = -0.21; p = 0.01); and global score for Adapted Healthy Eating Index (r = -0.23; p = 0.008; Table 3). The sleep quality total score correlated with servings of beans (r = -0.22; p = 0.01) and servings of oils (r = 0.23; p = 0.008). Significant correlations were found between mean of time of sleep and servings

  14. BEHAVIOR OF ADIPOKINES AFTER A YEAR FOLLOW-UP IN THE OBESITY OUTPATIENT CLINIC FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Fernanda; de Moraes Silveira, Carla Rosane; Gomes Beghetto, Mariur; dos Santos Oliveira, Fernanda; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2015-10-01

    demonstrate adipokines progression, along 12 months, in obese children and adolescents who attend the Obesity Outpatient Clinic for Children and Adolescents of the HCPA. children and adolescents in medical treatment for obesity were followed for 12 months, assessing anthropometry, blood pressure, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and insulin, inter leukine- 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and adiponectin in two points in time: at inclusion and after 12 months follow-up in the Obesity Outpatient Clinic for Children and Adolescents. 27 children and adolescents were assessed with median age of 10.3 years. The mean BMI z-scores lowered during this period (p obesity along the 12-months follow-up. Adiponectin increased in 45% of the sample, the increase being more pronounced in females. children and adolescents in medical treatment for obesity, after one-year follow-up, did not improve their adiponectin profile. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. A phase 1 pharmacokinetic study of ATX-101: serum lipids and adipokines following synthetic deoxycholic acid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Patricia; Lee, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection, Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.) is a proprietary formulation of pure synthetic deoxycholic acid (DCA). It is undergoing clinical investigation as an injectable drug for contouring the submental area by reducing submental fat (SMF). When injected into subcutaneous fat, ATX-101 causes focal adipocytolysis, the targeted destruction of fat cells. This phase 1 study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamic effects of ATX-101 (100-mg total dose). Following PK evaluation of baseline endogenous DCA, lipids, and adipokines in the initial stage of the study (samples collected at hours 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 12, 15.5, and 24.5), 10 subjects received subcutaneous injections of ATX-101 into abdominal fat. PK evaluation of DCA, lipids, and adipokines was repeated in the second phase of the study. After ATX-101 injections, plasma concentration of DCA increased transiently, reached a maximum plasma concentration rapidly, and returned to endogenous concentrations within 12 h postdose. ATX-101 injection was not associated with any clinically meaningful changes in systemic concentrations of total cholesterol, total triglycerides, free fatty acids, C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6. Adverse events were mild in severity, transient, and showed a temporal relationship to dosing. This study demonstrated favorable safety and PK profiles, and no clinically meaningful changes in DCA, lipids, and proinflammatory cytokines following subcutaneous injection of ATX-101. Our results support continued clinical investigation of ATX-101 as an injectable drug to reduce SMF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guoyue; Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang; Zhou, Libin; Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang; Li, Lianxi; Yang, Ying; Mao, Chaoming; Chen, Mingdao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CRP increases TNF-α and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-γ mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. ► Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-α and leptin mRNA levels. ► CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-α and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-α, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-γ genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  17. The relationship between adipokines and the onset of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged men: The PRIME study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Charlotte E; Patterson, Christopher C; Linden, Gerard J; Love, Karl; McKinley, Michelle C; Kee, Frank; Blankenberg, Stefan; Evans, Alun; Yarnell, John; Woodside, Jayne V

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that adipokines may be associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence to date is limited and inconclusive. This study examined the association between adiponectin and leptin and the subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in a UK population based cohort of non-diabetic middle-aged men. Baseline serum levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1839 non-diabetic men aged 50-60years who were participating in the prospective population-based PRIME study. Over a mean follow-up of 14.7years, new cases of type 2 diabetes were determined from self-reported clinical information with subsequent validation by general practitioners. 151 Participants developed type 2 diabetes during follow-up. In Cox regression models adjusted for age, men in the top third of the leptin distribution were at increased risk (hazard ratio (HR) 4.27, 95% CI 2.67-6.83) and men in the top third of the adiponectin distribution at reduced risk (HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.14-0.42) relative to men in the bottom third. However, significance was lost for leptin after additional adjustment for BMI, waist to hip ratio, lifestyle factors and biological risk factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP). Further adjustment for HOMA-IR also resulted in loss of significance for adiponectin. This study provides evidence that adipokines are associated with men's future type 2 diabetes risk but not independently of other risk factors. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Guoyue, E-mail: yuanguoyue@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Zhou, Libin [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Li, Lianxi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Yang, Ying [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Mao, Chaoming [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Chen, Mingdao, E-mail: mingdaochensh@yahoo.com [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP increases TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-{gamma} mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin mRNA levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-{alpha}, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-{gamma} genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  19. Overexpressing the novel autocrine/endocrine adipokine WISP2 induces hyperplasia of the heart, white and brown adipose tissues and prevents insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünberg, John R; Hoffmann, Jenny M; Hedjazifar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    WISP2 is a novel adipokine, most highly expressed in the adipose tissue and primarily in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. As a secreted protein, it is an autocrine/paracrine activator of canonical WNT signaling and, as an intracellular protein, it helps to maintain precursor cells undifferenti......WISP2 is a novel adipokine, most highly expressed in the adipose tissue and primarily in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. As a secreted protein, it is an autocrine/paracrine activator of canonical WNT signaling and, as an intracellular protein, it helps to maintain precursor cells...... WNT ligands, WISP2 expression was inhibited by BMP4 thereby allowing normal induction of adipogenesis. WISP2 is a novel secreted regulator of mesenchymal tissue cellularity....

  20. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  1. The role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines on exercise-induced bronchospasm in obese adolescents undergoing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patrícia Leão; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Sanches, Priscila Lima; Piano, Aline; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Carnier, June; Inoue, Daniela; do Nascimento, Claudia Mo; Oyama, Lila M; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sérgio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a greater prevalence in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in obese adolescents. However, the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines and the repercussions of obesity treatment on EIB need to be explored further. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines on EIB in obese adolescents evaluated after long-term interdisciplinary therapy. Thirty-five post-pubertal obese adolescents, including 20 non-EIB (body mass index [BMI] 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)) and 15 EIB (BMI 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)), were enrolled in this study. Body composition was measured by plethysmography, using the BOD POD body composition system, and visceral fat was analyzed by ultrasound. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were analyzed. EIB and lung function were evaluated according to the American Thoracic Society criteria. Patients were recruited to a 1-year interdisciplinary intervention of weight loss, consisting of medical, nutritional, exercise, and psychological components. Anthropometrics and lung function variables improved significantly after the therapy in both groups. Furthermore we observed a reduction in EIB occurrence in obese adolescents after treatment. There was an increase in adiponectin levels and a reduction in leptin levels after the therapy. In addition, a low FEV(1) value was a risk factor associated with EIB occurrence at baseline, and was correlated after treatment with changes in anthropometric and maximal O(2) consumption values as well as the adipokines profile. In the present study it was demonstrated that 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy decreased EIB frequency in obese adolescents, paralleled by an increase in lung function and improvement in pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines.

  2. Peripheral CB1 Receptor Neutral Antagonist, AM6545, Ameliorates Hypometabolic Obesity and Improves Adipokine Secretion in Monosodium Glutamate Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of peripheral cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R blockade by AM6545 in the monosodium glutamate (MSG-induced hypometabolic and hypothalamic obesity was observed, and the impact on intraperitoneal adipose tissue and adipokines was investigated. The MSG mice is characterized by excessive abdominal obesity, and combined with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. 3-Week AM6545 treatment dose-dependently decreased the body weight, intraperitoneal fat mass, and rectified the accompanied dyslipidemia include elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, and lowered LDLc level. Glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia were also alleviated. But AM6545 didn’t affect the food-intake consistently through the experiment. In line with the reduction on fat mass, the size of adipocyte was reduced markedly. Most interestingly, AM6545 showed significant improvement on levels of circulating adipokines including lowering leptin, asprosin and TNFα, and increasing HMW adiponectin. Correspondingly, dysregulated gene expression of lipogenesis, lipolysis, and adipokines in the adipose tissue were nearly recovered to normal level after AM6545 treatment. Additionally, western blot analysis revealed that AM6545 corrected the elevated CB1R and PPARγ protein expression, while increased the key energy uncoupling protein UCP1 expression in adipose tissue. Taken together, the current study indicates that AM6545 induced a comprehensive metabolic improvement in the MSG mice including counteracting the hypometabolic and hypothalamic obesity, and improving the accompanied dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. One key underlying mechanism is related to ameliorate on the metabolic deregulation of adipose tissue, the synthesis and secretion of adipokines were thus rectified, and finally the catabolism was increased and the anabolism was reduced in intraperitoneal adipose tissue. Findings from this study will provide the valuable information about peripheral CB1R

  3. The effects of an eight-week aerobic training program on plasma adipokine concentrations in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidlamir A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Obesity is currently a worldwide health epidemic which has incited major interest among researchers to look for the underlying mechanisms that regulate body weight. In fact, adiponectin and leptin concentrations that are called adipokines are altered in obesity with a decreased production of adiponectin and an increased production of leptin. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-insulin resistance properties, but increased levels of leptin are observed in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week aerobic training program on the plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in healthy middle-aged men. "n"nMethods : Thirty healthy middle-aged men were selected based on their body fat percentage and were assigned to two equal groups. The experimental group took the 8-week training, four days a week on alternate days with an intensity of 60-80% of their heart rate reserve but the control group lived their sedentary life. Blood samples were collected before and after the training program from all subjects and plasma adipokine levels were measured."n"nResults : Plasma adiponectin concentration increased while

  4. Adipokine serum concentrations, anthropometric measurements and socio-economic status in two ethnic groups with different prevalence levels for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, R; Paiker, J E; Crowther, N J

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is more common in African than Asian-Indian populations and yet type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are more common in the latter populations. The main purpose of the current study was therefore to determine whether ethnic differences in body fat distribution, adipokine levels, and socio-economic status may explain population differences in the prevalence of these metabolic disorders. Leptin, IL-6, CRP, visceral fat, education level, and socio-economic status were measured in 50 African and the same number of Indian women residing in Johannesburg, South Africa. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in Indian than African subjects (41.3±2.0 and 34.2±2.9 ng/ml, respectively; pAfrican group, (5.22±0.86 vs. 2.54±0.52 pg/ml; peconomic status (pAfrican subjects, however, adjusting for these variables in ANCOVA did not attenuate differences in adipokine or visceral fat levels. We hypothesise that one of the reasons for the higher prevalence of obesity in the African than Indian population may be related to lower leptin levels, whilst ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders cannot be explained by differences in adipokine levels, but maybe related to higher visceral adiposity in the Indian group. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · NewYork.

  5. The Combined Effects of Exercise, Diet, and a Multi-Ingredient Dietary Supplement on Body Composition and Adipokine Changes in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arent, Shawn M; Walker, Alan J; Pellegrino, Joseph K; Sanders, David J; McFadden, Bridget A; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L

    2018-02-01

    Very few weight and fat loss supplements undergo finished-product research to examine efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week diet and exercise program on body composition, hip and waist girth, and adipokines and evaluate whether a dietary supplement containing raspberry ketone, capsaicin, caffeine, garlic, and Citrus aurantium enhanced outcomes. Overweight men and women completed this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants consumed 4 capsules/d of supplement (EXP; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; n = 18). Participants underwent 8 weeks of daily supplementation, calorie restriction (500 kcal Body composition, girth, and adipokines were assessed at baseline and postintervention (T1 and T2). Significant decreases in weight (-2.6 ± 0.57 kg, p body fat (-3.7% ± 0.29%, p body mass (LBM; 1.5 ± 0.26 kg; p reduction. There was a time by group interaction, with significant decreases in leptin (p < 0.001) and significant increases in adiponectin (p < 0.05) in the EXP group. Significant improvements in adipokines and leptin support the utility of exercise, diet, and fat loss for impacting inflammatory biomarkers. The improvement in adiponectin with EXP may suggest a unique health mechanism.

  6. Relationship of adipokine to insulin sensitivity and glycemic regulation in obese women: The effect of body weight reduction by caloric restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velojić-Golubović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Visceral fat is highly active metabolic and endocrine tissue which secretes many adipokines that act both on local and systemic level. It is believed that adipokines and "low-grade inflammatory state" represent a potential link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Leptin and adiponectin are considered to be the most important adipokines with the potential metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Body weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and decreases risk for most complications associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate loss of body weight on the level of leptin and adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and abnormalities of glycoregulation in obese women, to determine whether and to what extent the secretory products of adipose tissue, leptin and adiponectin contribute to insulin sensitivity, as well as to assess their relationship and influence on glycemia and insulinemia during the period of losing body weight using a calorie restricted diet. Methods. The study involved 90 obese female subjects (BMI

  7. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  8. Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: compartmentalization and physiological correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O Mendivil

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of hormone regulation in lung parenchyma is quite limited. We aimed to quantify a diverse array of biologically relevant protein mediators in alveolar lining fluid (ALF, compared to serum concentrations, and explore factors associated with protein compartmentalization on either side of the air-blood barrier.Participants were 24 healthy adult non-smoker volunteers without respiratory symptoms or significant medical conditions, with normal lung exams and office spirometry. Cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were analyzed for 24 proteins (including enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines using a highly sensitive multiplex ELISA. Measurements were normalized to ALF concentrations. The ALF:serum concentration ratios were examined in relation to measures of protein size, hydrophobicity, charge, and to participant clinical and spirometric values.ALF measurements from 24 individuals detected 19 proteins, including adiponectin, adipsin, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, C-reactive protein, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and visfatin. C-peptide and serpin E1 were not detected in ALF for any individual, and IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were not detected in either ALF or serum for any individual. In general, ALF levels were similar or lower in concentration for most proteins compared to serum. However, ghrelin, resistin, insulin, visfatin and GLP-1 had ALF concentrations significantly higher compared to serum. Importantly, elevated ALF:serum ratios of ghrelin, visfatin and resistin correlated with protein net charge and isoelectric point, but not with molecular weight or hydrophobicity.Biologically relevant enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines can be detected in the ALF of

  9. Effects of clozapine on adipokine secretions/productions and lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubai, Tomomi; Yoshimi, Akira; Hamada, Yoji; Nakao, Makoto; Arima, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2017-02-01

    Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT 2C and histamine H 1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin. Long-term exposure decreased leptin as well as adiponectin secretion, and further increased lipid droplets accumulation. However, short- and long-term exposures to blonanserin did not affect these parameters. A selective serotonin 5-HT 2C , but not a histamine H 1 , receptor antagonist enhanced the decreased secretion of leptin induced by short-term exposure to clozapine, but did not affect the increased accumulation of lipid droplets. Our findings indicate that clozapine, but not blonanserin, strongly and directly affected the secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, in adipocytes and caused adipocyte enlargement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of clozapine on adipokine secretions/productions and lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

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    Tomomi Tsubai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA, is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT2C and histamine H1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin. Long-term exposure decreased leptin as well as adiponectin secretion, and further increased lipid droplets accumulation. However, short- and long-term exposures to blonanserin did not affect these parameters. A selective serotonin 5-HT2C, but not a histamine H1, receptor antagonist enhanced the decreased secretion of leptin induced by short-term exposure to clozapine, but did not affect the increased accumulation of lipid droplets. Our findings indicate that clozapine, but not blonanserin, strongly and directly affected the secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, in adipocytes and caused adipocyte enlargement.

  11. RELATIONSHIP OF ADIPOKINES AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AMONG ASIAN INDIANS WITH OBESITY AND YOUTH ONSET TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Amutha, Anandakumar; Ranjani, Harish; Bibin, Subramanian Y; Balakumar, Mahalingam; Pandey, Gautam Kumar; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that inflammation is associated with diabetes, but it is unclear whether obesity mediates this association in individuals with youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-Y). We recruited individuals with T2DM-Y (age at onset obesity and categorized as: nonobese NGT (n = 100), Obese NGT (n = 50), nonobese T2DM-Y (n = 50), and obese T2DM-Y (n = 50). We compared adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1]) across groups. Compared to nonobese NGT, the other 3 groups (obese NGT, nonobese T2DM-Y, and obese T2DM-Y) were found to have lower adiponectin (7.7 vs. 5.7, 4.2, 3.8 μg/mL, Pobese T2DM-Y (141 pg/mL, Pobese T2DM, respectively. However, adjusted for same factors, leptin, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were associated with markedly higher odds (5- to 14-fold) of nonobese and obese T2DM. In young Asian Indians, leptin and proinflammatory cytokines are positively, and adiponectin negatively, associated with both nonobese and obese T2DM-Y compared to nonobese NGT individuals.

  12. Mechanism of Butyrate Stimulation of Triglyceride Storage and Adipokine Expression during Adipogenic Differentiation of Porcine Stromovascular Cells.

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    Hui Yan

    Full Text Available Short chain fatty acids (SCFA, products of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, exert multiple metabolic effects in cells. Previously, we had demonstrated that soluble fiber influenced fat mass accumulation, gut microbial community structure and SCFA production in pigs. The current study was designed to identify effects of SCFA treatment during adipogenic differentiation of porcine stromovascular cells on lipid metabolism and adipokine expression. Differentiating cells were treated with varying concentrations of butyrate. Results show that butyrate treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, perhaps through upregulation of glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis and other mechanisms that include induction of SREBP-1c, C/EBPα/β, GLUT4, LPL, PPARγ, GPAT4, DGAT1 and DGAT2 expression. In addition, butyrate induced adiponectin expression, resulting in activation of downstream target genes, such as AMPK and AKT. Activation of AMPK by butyrate led to phosphorylation of ACC. Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Our studies also provide evidence that butyrate may inhibit lipolysis, perhaps in an FFAR3-dependent manner. Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity.

  13. Adipokines, inflammatory mediators, and insulin-resistance parameters may not be good markers of metabolic syndrome after liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, Lucilene Rezende; de Oliveira, Marina Chaves; Diniz, Kiara Gonçalves; Ferreira, Adaliene Matos Versiane; Lima, Agnaldo Soares; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia

    2016-09-01

    The role of adipokines in liver transplantation (LTx) recipients who have metabolic syndrome (MetS) has seldom been assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of adipokines, inflammatory mediators, and insulin-resistance markers in liver recipients with MetS and its components. Serum samples from 34 patients (55.9% male; 54.9 ± 13.9 y; 7.7 ± 2.9 y after LTx; 50% presented with MetS) were assessed for adiponectin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The dosages were uni- and multivariate analyzed to cover MetS (using the Harmonizing MetS criteria), its components, and dietary intake. A higher concentration of adiponectin (P < 0.05) was observed among patients with MetS (5.2 ± 3.2 μg/mL) compared with those without MetS (3.2 ± 1.2 μg/mL), as well as those with MetS components versus those without them: abdominal obesity (4.6 ± 2.6 μg/mL versus 2.6 ± 0.6 μg/mL), high triacylglycerols (TGs; 5.6 ± 3.1 μg/mL versus 3 ± 0.9 μg/mL) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 6.1 ± 2.7 μg/mL versus 3.3 ± 1.9 μg/mL). Increased TNF-α and HOMA-IR values were seen in patients with abdominal obesity. Patients with high TGs also had greater FFA values. Independent predictors for adiponectin were waist-to-hip ratio, low HDL and high TGs. High TGs and fasting blood glucose were independent predictors for HOMA-IR. Independent predictors could not be identified for CRP, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, or FFA. MetS and its components are related to an increased HOMA-IR concentration and FFA. Adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and CRP, were not associated with MetS in this sample of post-LTx patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Periodontitis contributes to aberrant metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by stimulating the expression of adipokines.

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    Luo, S; Yang, X; Wang, D; Ni, J; Wu, J; Xu, Z; Xuan, D; Zhang, J

    2016-08-01

    Periodontitis has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of local aberrant secretion of adipokines in diabetic rats on systemic metabolism. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used as a diabetic model and associated control, respectively. Periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature for 36 wk. Rats were grouped into OLETF with (OP+) or without (OP-) periodontitis and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka with (LP+) or without (LP-) periodontitis. Alveolar bone resorption and destruction were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining. After 20 wk of periodontitis induction, lipids, insulin, interleukin-1, leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were analyzed, and mRNA expressions of NF-κB, Mark8, TLR2 and -4, IKBKB and Nampt were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in adipose tissue. After ligation, OLETF rats exhibited typical periodontitis lesions with the clinical features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. When compared with the OP(-) group, the area under curve of the oral glucose tolerance test and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were significantly higher in the OP(+) group. Micro-computed tomography showed that the OP(+) group had more bone resorption than the OP(-) group. When compared with the OP(-) group, the OP(+) group also exhibited higher total cholesterol (p 0.05) and higher expression of Nampt (p periodontitis can alter lipid profiles in affected rats, elevate adipose tissue expression of Nampt and affect the metabolism of adipose tissue through the NF-κB pathway to inflame diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The levels of adipokines in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, normal-weight women

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    Katarzyna Wyskida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aim of this study was to assess the plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 levels in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, healthy, normal-weight women. Methods: The study involved 52 young, healthy, normal-weight women. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and levels of plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 in addition to serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androgens, SHBG and insulin concentrations were measured during a morning in fasting state three times: between days 2–4, days 12–14 and days 24–26 of the menstrual cycle. Results: Plasma adiponectin, omentin-1, resistin and visfatin/NAMPT, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 concentrations were stable during the menstrual cycle, while leptin and vaspin levels were significantly higher in both the midcycle and the luteal phases than those in the follicular phase. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that changes in leptin and vaspin levels between the follicular and the luteal phase are strongly related to changes in total testosterone levels. Conclusions: Our results revealed stable levels of adipokines during the phases of the physiological menstrual cycle, except for leptin and vaspin, which showed increased levels in both the midcycle and the luteal phases. This effect was significantly associated with changes in the secretion of testosterone, 17-OH progesterone and insulin in the luteal phase.

  16. Sex hormone imbalances and adipose tissue dysfunction impacting on metabolic syndrome; a paradigm for the discovery of novel adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Sairam, M Ram

    2014-02-01

    Sex hormone imbalance is causally related with visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction and visceral obesity - an etiological component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), associated with high risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. In general, premenopausal women appear to be protected from CVD and the dramatic decline in sex steroid hormone occurring during menopausal transitions or other sex-related disorders influence the regional distribution, function, and metabolism of AT and increase the risk of CVD. Visceral AT dysfunction, manifesting as abnormality of fatty acid metabolism, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and excessive production of adipokines have been proposed in the pathogenesis of MetS. However, direct evidence of molecular mechanisms of depot-specific AT alterations, and dysfunction causally related to MetS is limited in studies on postmenopausal women due to difficulty in collecting discrete AT specimens at different ages and repeated sampling from different fat depots. This can be overcome using animal models that can mimic the cluster of pathology leading to MetS and help establish the molecular basis of links between loss of gonadal function on various AT depots and their contribution to MetS. Our group used sex hormone imbalance FSH receptor knock out (FORKO) female mice to recapitulate different aspects of the MetS and addressed the mechanism of visceral obesity related to MetS and discover two novel sex steroid hormone-regulated deep mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipose (MEDAs) genes. Taken together, such recent studies raise hopes for pharmacologic intervention strategies targeting sex steroid hormone signaling in AT to provide protection against AT dysfunction.

  17. Adipokines : rôle dans l’obésité et l’insulino‐résistance

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    Aubert Roberte

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Le tissu adipeux longtemps considéré comme un organe de stockage est maintenant reconnu comme un organe endocrine. Cette revue étudie l’action de 3 adipokines sécrétées par le tissu adipeux et impliquées dans le contrôle de l’homéostasie énergétique et l’insulino‐résistance, la leptine, l’adiponectine et la résistine. La découverte de la leptine a permis la compréhension des mécanismes centraux de la prise alimentaire et de la dépense énergétique. L’espoir que la leptine puisse intervenir dans le traitement de l’obésité a été déçu, mais elle joue un rôle important dans l’insulino‐sensibilité. L’adiponectine circulante est diminuée dans l’obésité et la perte pondérale augmente son taux. Elle améliore la sensibilité à l’insuline en agissant sur le métabolisme glucidique et lipidique. Bien que pour le moment le rôle de la résistine soit encore mal défini, les études chez l’animal suggèrent qu’elle soit impliqués dans l’insulino‐résistance. Chez l’homme il n’y a pas de relation entre l’expression de la résistine et l’obésité. On peut donc se demander si la résistine, dans l’espèce humaine, est bien le lien entre obésité et diabète de type 2.

  18. Metabolic parameters and adipokine profile in growth hormone deficient (GHD) children before and after 12-month GH treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazza, C; Elsedfy, H H; Pagani, S; Bozzola, E; El Kholy, M; Bozzola, M

    2014-03-01

    It is a common knowledge that GH exhibits a large number of metabolic effects, involving lipid and glucose homeostasis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one year GH therapy on metabolic parameters and adipokines in GH deficient (GHD) children. Sixteen prepubertal children (11 M and 5 F) with complete GHD (age range: 3.4-14.7 years) and 20 (13 M and 7 F) age and sex-matched healthy children (age range: 4.6-12.3 years) were studied. Blood was collected from patients before starting GH therapy (0.025 mg/kg/day) and one year later, and from healthy children to measure adiponectin, leptin, osteoprotegerin, resistin, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, and other glucose and lipid metabolism parameters. Adiponectin and resistin levels were significantly higher (49980 ng/ml vs. 14790 ng/ml and 11.0 pg/ml vs. 6.3, respectively) in GHD children before GH therapy than in controls. Serum IGF-I levels (p=0.0001) and height SDS (pGH therapy. There was a loss of body fat reflected by a significant decline in tricep (p=0.0003) and subscapular skinfold thickness SDS (p=0.0023). After 12 months, there was a significant rise in insulin (p=0.0052) and leptin levels (p=0.0048) and a significant decrease in resistin (p=0.0312) and TNF-α (p=0.0137). We observed that lipid and glucose metabolisms are only slightly affected in GHD children. Growth hormone replacement therapy affects some factors, such as leptin, resistin and fat mass, suggesting that also in children, GH treatment has a role in the regulation of factors secreted by adipose tissue. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The effect of exercise induced weight-loss on myokines and adipokines in overweight sedentary females: steps-aerobics vs. jogging-walking exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzova, Halil; Gullu, Esin; Cicek, Guner; Koksal, Burcu K; Kayhan, Basak; Gullu, Abdullah; Sahin, Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to verify effects of step-aerobic exercise (SAE) and jogging-walking exercise (JWE) program on myokines and adipokines levels in overweight sedentary females. Volunteer subjects (N.=25) were assigned to two exercise groups: steps aerobics and jogging-walking. The exercise program given to them was for five days a week and for twelve weeks period. Serum samples were collected from venous blood before and immediately after Cardio-Respiratory Fitness Test (CRF) by Bruce protocol and stored at -80 °C until they were assayed before 12 weeks exercise program. After 12-weeks training program this procedure was repeated. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, IL-15, IL-17, IL-18, leptin, resistin and adiponectin levels were assayed by ELISA. Leptin and IL-15 levels were increased whereas resistin levels were decreased after CRF Test in JWE training group following 12-weeks exercise program. TNF-α, IL-15 and IL-18 levels were higher and leptin levels were lower in SAE group than JWE group after 12-weeks exercise period. However, both SAE and JWE did not lead to significant change in serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and adiponectin levels. This study has added to existing knowledge that both SAE and JWE may cause weight loss especially in fat mass. But, the effect of SAE and JWE on myokines and adipokines levels may be the different. Further studies are needed to find out clinical importance of these findings.

  20. Key Clinical Factors Predicting Adipokine and Oxidative Stress Marker Concentrations among Normal, Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women Using Artificial Neural Networks

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    Mario Solis-Paredes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity has been related to adverse neonatal outcomes and fetal programming. Oxidative stress and adipokines are potential biomarkers in such pregnancies; thus, the measurement of these molecules has been considered critical. Therefore, we developed artificial neural network (ANN models based on maternal weight status and clinical data to predict reliable maternal blood concentrations of these biomarkers at the end of pregnancy. Adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, and resistin, and DNA, lipid and protein oxidative markers (8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde and carbonylated proteins, respectively were assessed in blood of normal weight, overweight and obese women in the third trimester of pregnancy. A Back-propagation algorithm was used to train ANN models with four input variables (age, pre-gestational body mass index (p-BMI, weight status and gestational age. ANN models were able to accurately predict all biomarkers with regression coefficients greater than R2 = 0.945. P-BMI was the most significant variable for estimating adiponectin and carbonylated proteins concentrations (37%, while gestational age was the most relevant variable to predict resistin and malondialdehyde (34%. Age, gestational age and p-BMI had the same significance for leptin values. Finally, for 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine prediction, the most significant variable was age (37%. These models become relevant to improve clinical and nutrition interventions in prenatal care.

  1. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  2. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  3. Exercise and dietary advice intervention for survivors of triple-negative breast cancer: effects on body fat, physical function, quality of life, and adipokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Anne K; Abraham, Jame; Bonner, Daniel; Gilleland, Diana; Hobbs, Gerald; Kurian, Sobha; Yanosik, Mary Anne; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Regular exercise and healthy eating are routinely recommended for breast cancer survivors, and past studies show benefits in quality of life and decreased inflammation. However, this has not been tested specifically in triple-negative breast cancer survivors. Increasing physical activity and losing body fat are thought to positively affect inflammatory biomarkers that have been associated with breast cancer. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an exercise and dietary counseling program can improve body fat, physical function, and quality of life in survivors of this aggressive breast cancer. Secondarily, we sought to determine if participation in the program had beneficial effects on obesity-related markers of the adipokine profile. Sixty-six survivors of triple-negative breast cancer with BMI >25 were invited to participate. Twenty-eight enrolled and 23 completed the randomized, controlled trial (13 intervention, 10 control). Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (150 min per week, for 12 weeks) and diet counseling were compared to usual care, education only. The primary outcome of interest was weight loss (body mass, BMI, % fat), and secondary outcomes included physical function (exercise capacity), quality of life (Function After Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B)), cytokines (C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-6), and adipokine profile (leptin, adiponectin, insulin). Participants in the program lost more body fat (2.4 % loss vs. 0.4 % gain, p quality of life (FACT-B total score +14 pts) and decreased sedentary time but did not improve peak exercise capacity. The intervention had no effect on serum cytokines and adipokines after 12 weeks in the program. However, serum leptin and adiponectin and their ratio were significantly correlated with BMI in the intervention group (p quality of life in survivors of triple-negative breast cancer. BMI was associated with favorable changes in leptin and adiponectin which may reflect a

  4. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction.

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    Yea Eun Kang

    Full Text Available The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25. The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037 but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035 but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and

  5. Relationship of adipokine to insulin sensitivity and glycemic regulation in obese women--the effect of body weight reduction by caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubović, Milena Velojić; Dimić, Dragan; Antić, Slobodan; Radenković, Sasa; Djindjić, Boris; Jovanović, Miodrag

    2013-03-01

    Visceral fat is highly active metabolic and endocrine tissue which secretes many adipokines that act both on local and systemic level. It is believed that adipokines and "low-grade inflammatory state" represent a potential link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Leptin and adiponectin are considered to be the most important adipokines with the potential metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Body weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and decreases risk for most complications associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate loss of body weight on the level of leptin and adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and abnormalities of glycoregulation in obese women, to determine whether and to what extent the secretory products of adipose tissue, leptin and adiponectin contribute to insulin sensitivity, as well as to assess their relationship and influence on glycemia and insulinemia during the period of losing body weight using a calorie restricted diet. The study involved 90 obese female subjects (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) of different age with weight loss no less than 5% during a six-month period by application of restricted dietary regime. The calorie range was between 1,100-1,350 kcal. Serum levels of leptin and adiponectin, fasting glucose, fasting insulinemia, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-R) index were determined in all the subjects initially and after weight reduction. The presence of glycemic disorders was assessed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test--OGTT. Applying a 6-month restrictive dietary regime the subjects achieved an average weight loss of 8.73 +/- 1.98 kg and 8.64 +/- 1.96%, which led to the reduction of fasting glycemia, fasting insulinemia and HOMA-R index at the maximum level of statistical significance (p weight increase and central fat accumulation lead to changes in serum levels of leptin and adiponectin, reduction of insulin

  6. Time-course microarrays reveal early activation of the immune transcriptome and adipokine dysregulation leads to fibrosis in visceral adipose depots during diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Eun-Young

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral white adipose tissue (WAT hypertrophy, adipokine production, inflammation and fibrosis are strongly associated with obesity, but the time-course of these changes in-vivo are not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the time-course of changes in adipocyte morphology, adipokines and the global transcriptional landscape in visceral WAT during the development of diet-induced obesity. Results C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD or normal diet (ND and sacrificed at 8 time-points over 24 weeks. Excessive fat accumulation was evident in visceral WAT depots (Epidydimal, Perirenal, Retroperitoneum, Mesentery after 2–4 weeks. Fibrillar collagen accumulation was evident in epidydimal adipocytes at 24 weeks. Plasma adipokines, leptin, resistin and adipsin, increased early and time-dependently, while adiponectin decreased late after 20 weeks. Only plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were associated with their respective mRNA levels in visceral WAT. Time-course microarrays revealed early and sustained activation of the immune transcriptome in epididymal and mesenteric depots. Up-regulated inflammatory genes included pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines (Tnf, Il1rn, Saa3, Emr1, Adam8, Itgam, Ccl2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9 and their upstream signalling pathway genes (multiple Toll-like receptors, Irf5 and Cd14. Early changes also occurred in fibrosis, extracellular matrix, collagen and cathepsin related-genes, but histological fibrosis was only visible in the later stages. Conclusions In diet-induced obesity, early activation of TLR-mediated inflammatory signalling cascades by CD antigen genes, leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation. Early changes in collagen genes may trigger the accumulation of ECM components, promoting fibrosis in the later stages of diet-induced obesity. New therapeutic approaches

  7. Hydrogenated fat intake during pregnancy and lactation modifies serum lipid profile and adipokine mRNA in 21-day-old rats.

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    Pisani, Luciana P; Oyama, Lila M; Bueno, Allain A; Biz, Carolina; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia M

    2008-03-01

    We examined whether feeding pregnant and lactating rats hydrogenated fats rich in trans-fatty acids modifies the plasma lipid profiles and the expression of adipokines involved with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in their 21-d-old offspring. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were fed with a control diet (C group) or one enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T group). After delivery, male offspring were weighed weekly and killed at day 21 of life by decapitation. Blood and retroperitoneal, epididymal, and subcutaneous white adipose tissues were collected. Offspring of T-group rats had increased serum triacylglycerols and cholesterol, white adipose tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression, and carcass lipid content and decreased blood leptin and adiponectin and adiponectin gene expression. Ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat by the mother during gestation and lactation alters the blood lipid profiles and the expression of proinflammatory adipokynes by the adipose tissue of offspring aged 21 d.

  8. Effect of aerobic interval training on serum IL-10, TNFα, and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis: possible relations with fatigue and quality of life.

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    Mokhtarzade, Motahare; Ranjbar, Rouholah; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Patel, Darpan; Molanouri Shamsi, Mehdieh

    2017-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the relationship between these factors with fatigue and quality of life were assessed. Forty women with multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤3) were randomized into either a non-exercising control or training group. The training group performed 8-weeks of upper and lower limb aerobic interval training. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factorα, interleukin-10, leptin, and adiponectin were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Moreover, antropometric measures and measures for fatigue and quality of life were determined at the onset of and after exercise training. The results revealed that leptin and tumor necrosis factorα levels significantly decreased subsequent to the aerobic interval training. Although blood adiponectin levels considerably increased in the training group, interleukin-10 and interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factorα ratio underwent no substantial change after the exercise training. In addition, the aerobic interval training was associated with improvement in fatigue, quality of life, and maximal oxygen consumption. Our findings suggested that aerobic interval training can be an effective strategy for managing the immune system at least by its significant impact on inflammatory cytokines and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis. Additionally, this positive impact improved fatigue and adipose tissue indicators.

  9. Substitution in Amino Acid 70 of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Changes the Adipokine Profile via Toll-Like Receptor 2/4 Signaling.

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    Satoko Uraki

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that amino acid (aa substitution at position 70 from arginine (70R to glutamine (70Q in the genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCV core protein is associated with insulin resistance and worse prognosis. However, the precise mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the substitution at position 70 in HCV core protein on adipokine production by murine and human adipocytes.The influence of treatment with HCV core protein (70R or 70Q on adipokine production by both 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes were examined with real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and triglyceride content was also analyzed. The effects of toll-like receptor (TLR2/4 inhibition on IL-6 production by 3T3-L1 induced by HCV core protein were examined.IL-6 production was significantly increased and adiponectin production was reduced without a change in triglyceride content by treatment with 70Q compared to 70R core protein in both murine and human adipocytes. IL-6 induction of 3T3-L1 cells treated by 70Q HCV core protein was significantly inhibited with anti-TLR2 antibody by 42%, and by TLR4 inhibitor by 40%.Our study suggests that extracellular HCV core protein with substitution at position 70 enhanced IL-6 production and reduced adiponectin production from visceral adipose tissue, which can cause insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and ultimately development of HCC.

  10. Biomonitoring of bisphenol A concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood in regard to birth outcomes and adipokine expression: a birth cohort study in Taiwan

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    Chou Wei-Chun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bisphenol A (BPA is a sealant and flux of plastic materials and has been determined to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. Prenatal exposure to BPA can lead to substantial adverse effects on fetal growth and development. This study was conducted to assess BPA concentration in pregnant women and umbilical cord blood, and to investigate whether maternal BPA exposure affected fetal outcomes including lower birth weight (LBW, smaller size for gestational age (SGA, and high leptin (HLP and low adiponectin (LAD secretion. Methods We measured the BPA levels of maternal blood (n = 97 and umbilical cord blood (n = 97 with a high-performance liquid chromatography/UV detector. The protein secretion of leptin and adiponectin were separately determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A logistic regression was performed to estimate the effects of maternal exposure to BPA on LBW, SGA, and adverse action of adipokines in newborns. Results The geometric means of BPA concentration in maternal blood and fetal cord blood were 2.5 ng/ml and 0.5 ng/ml, respectively. Elevated risks of LBW (OR 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.72-3.36, SGA (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.39-3.01, and adverse action of leptin (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12-2.25 and adiponectin (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.52-3.97 were observed in male neonates in the highest quartile of maternal BPA exposure. Conclusions Elevated prenatal BPA exposure increased the risk of LBW, SGA, and adverse actions of adipokines in neonates, especially in male infants. These results provide further evidence that maternal exposure is correlated with adverse birth outcomes.

  11. Detection of vitamin D in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and its effects on insulin resistance, adipokines and TNF-α

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    Ke-Jia Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect vitamin D levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and the influence and clinical effect of Vitamin D supplement on insulin resistance, fatty factors and TNF-α. Methods: A total of 100 patients with GDM from September 2014 to May 2015 in our hospital were selected as object of observation (GDM Group. 52 cases patients with Vitamin D deficiency were randomly divided into two groups. At the same time, 50 cases of healthy pregnant women were selected as normal group. Biochemical indexes of observation group and normal group were detected. Biosynthetic Human Insulin Injection were given to the patients in the control group. The patients in the observation group were supplemented with vitamin D drops on the basis of the treatment of control group. The level of insulin resistance, adipokines and TNF-α were detected in the 2 groups. Results: FBG, PBG, FINS, TG, Visfatin, TNF-α and HOMA-IR in GDM group were higher compared with that in normal group. 25(OHD3 and APN in GDM group decreased significantly compared with that in normal group. The comparison of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C in the two groups were not statistically significant. PBG, FINS, HOMA-IR, Visfatin and TNF-毩 in both groups after treatment significantly decreased compared with that before treatment. PBG, Visfatin and TNF-毩 in treatment group after treatment decreased more significantly than that in control group. FINS, HOMA-IR in treatment group after treatment increased more significantly than that in control group. The decrease of FBG was not obvious and there was no significant difference between the two groups after treatment. APN and 25(OHD3 in both groups after treatment significantly increased compared with that before treatment. And they in treatment group after treatment increased more significantly than that in control group. In the correlation analysis, 25(OH D3 in serum was positively correlated to the the level of APN. Also, it was negatively

  12. Effects of varying degrees of intermittent hypoxia on proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines in rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

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    Qing He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Intermittent hypoxia (IH, resulted from recurring episodes of upper airway obstruction, is the hallmark feature and the most important pathophysiologic pathway of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. IH is believed to be the most important factor causing systemic inflammation. Studies suggest that insulin resistance (IR is positively associated with OSA. In this study, we hypothesized that the recurrence of IH might result in cellular and systemic inflammation, which was manifested through the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines after IH exposure, and because IR is linked with inflammation tightly, this inflammatory situation may implicate an IR status. METHODS: We developed an IH 3T3-L1 adipocyte and rat model respectively, recapitulating the nocturnal oxygen profile in OSA. In IH cells, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB DNA binding reactions, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1, necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL -6, leptin, adiponectin mRNA transcriptional activities and protein expressions were measured. In IH rats, blood glucose, insulin, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin and adiponectin levels were analyzed. RESULTS: The insulin and blood glucose levels in rats and NF-κB DNA binding activities in cells had significantly statistical results described as severe IH>moderate IH>mild IH>sustained hypoxia>control. The mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1α and Glut-1 in severe IH group were the highest. In cellular and animal models, both the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin were the highest in severe IH group, when the lowest in severe IH group for adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/adipokines, which are the systemic inflammatory markers, are associated with IH closely and are proportional to the severity of IH. Because IR and glucose intolerance are linked with inflammation tightly, our results may implicate the clinical

  13. GLP-1 receptor agonist increases the expression of CTRP3, a novel adipokine, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through PKA signal pathway.

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    Li, X; Jiang, L; Yang, M; Wu, Y; Sun, S; Sun, J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on the expression of C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3), a novel adipokine, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The role of protein kinase A (PKA) signal pathway in the effects was also investigated. The mRNA and protein expressions of CTRP3 in 3T3-L1 adiocytes were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Exendin-fragment 9-39 (Ex-9), a specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist, and H89, a selective antagonist of PKA, were used to confirm the signal pathway of Ex-4 on CTRP3. 2.5 or 5.0 nmol/l Ex-4 treatment for 8 h increased the expressions of CTRP3 mRNA and protein as well as PKA protein in 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly, while Ex-9 or H89 blocked the up-regulation of CTRP3 expression induced by Ex-4 completely. GLP-1 receptor agonist increases the expression of CTRP3 mRNA and protein in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via PKA signal pathway.

  14. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

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    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows.

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    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pstressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future.

  16. Hormone therapy is associated with better body composition and adipokine/glucose profiles: a study with monozygotic co-twin control design.

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    Ahtiainen, Maarit; Alen, Markku; Pöllänen, Eija; Pulkkinen, Suvi; Ronkainen, Paula H A; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of preventing the metabolic health consequences of postmenopausal hypogonadism with the use of long-term hormone therapy (HT). We used a monozygotic co-twin control design including 10 twin pairs (aged 56-62 y) discordant for HT (duration of HT, 2-10 y). In addition, 14 premenopausal women (aged 29-35 y) who did not use HT were studied to evaluate the differences in metabolic health between the premenopausal and postmenopausal states. Body composition was determined, and waist-to-hip ratio was used as an estimate for fat distribution. Serum sex steroids, sex hormone-binding globulin, and serum lipid and glucose profiles were analyzed. The serum levels of adiponectin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and leptin, as well as their local transcript levels in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and leukocytes, were measured. Long-term HT was associated with a healthier amount and distribution of body fat. No difference was seen in serum lipid concentrations between HT users and their nonusing identical twin sisters, but fasting serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were 5% and 3% lower in HT users than in nonusers, respectively. Among the adipokines analyzed, the most notable finding was a 15% lower level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in HT users, particularly with respect to its suggested mediator role between obesity and insulin resistance. Long-term HT is associated with healthier amount and distribution of body fat and better adipocytokine profile, with concomitant signs of improved insulin sensitivity.

  17. Severely Obese Adolescents and Adults Exhibit a Different Association of Circulating Levels of Adipokines and Leukocyte Expression of the Related Receptors with Insulin Resistance

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    Antonello E. Rigamonti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obese adults frequently exhibit a low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance, which have been hypothesized to be established early in childhood. Aim of this study was to evaluate the age-dependent relationships between inflammatory state and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and adults. Clinical and metabolic parameters, circulating adipokines (TNF-α, adiponectin, and leptin, ghrelin, their leukocyte receptors (TNFR1, ADIPOR2, OBRL and GHSR1a, and acute phase reactants (CRP and white blood cells were assessed in lean and obese adolescents compared with the adult counterparts. Only obese adults had higher HOMA-IR, insulin, and triglycerides compared to the lean group. An inflammatory state was present in obese adolescents and adults, as demonstrated by the higher values of CRP and neutrophils. There were no group differences in circulating levels of TNF-α and leukocyte expression of TNFR1. Adiponectin concentrations and leukocyte expression of ADIPOR2 were higher in the lean groups than in the corresponding obese counterparts. For leptin and leukocyte expression of OBRL, the results were opposed. Circulating levels of ghrelin were higher in lean adolescents and adults than the related lean groups, while there was a higher leukocyte expression of GHSR1a in (only lean adults than obese adults. When the analysis was performed in (lean or obese adults, TNF-α, neutrophils, leptin, and GHSR1a were predictors of HOMA-IR. None of the considered independent variables accounted for the degree of insulin resistance in the adolescent group. In conclusion, a dissociation between the low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance is supposed to exist in the early phases of obesity.

  18. Impact of the adipokine adiponectin and the hepatokine fetuin-A on the development of type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort- and cross-sectional phenotyping studies.

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    Norbert Stefan

    Full Text Available Among adipokines and hepatokines, adiponectin and fetuin-A were consistently found to predict the incidence of type 2 diabetes, both by regulating insulin sensitivity.To determine to what extent circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A are independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes in humans, and the major mechanisms involved.Relationships with incident diabetes were tested in two cohort studies: within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam study (628 cases and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 470 cases. Relationships with body fat compartments, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were studied in the Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program (TULIP; N = 358.Circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A, independently of several confounders and of each other, associated with risk of diabetes in EPIC-Potsdam (RR for 1 SD: adiponectin: 0.45 [95% CI 0.37-0.54], fetuin-A: 1.18 [1.05-1.32] and the NHS (0.51 [0.42-0.62], 1.35 [1.16-1.58]. Obesity measures considerably attenuated the association of adiponectin, but not of fetuin-A. Subjects with low adiponectin and concomitantly high fetuin-A had the highest risk. Whereas both proteins were independently (both p<1.8×10(-7 associated with insulin sensitivity, circulating fetuin-A (r = -0.37, p = 0.0004, but not adiponectin, associated with insulin secretion in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.We provide novel information that adiponectin and fetuin-A independently of each other associate with the diabetes risk. Furthermore, we suggest that they are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes via different mechanisms, possibly by mediating effects of their source tissues, expanded adipose tissue and nonalcoholic fatty liver.

  19. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

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    Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Marchand, Maxime; Staub, Christophe; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Venturi, Éric; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Chartrin, Pascal; Lecompte, François; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented. We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens. We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt) unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet) unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition. Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue). In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P hen age. Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  20. Changes in Adipokines following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Chinese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and BMI of 22–30 kg·m−2

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    Chandrama Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Although altered endocrine changes following bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients with diabetes have been demonstrated by previous studies, little is known about their effects on low BMI patients of T2DM. We investigated the changes in adipokines and sICAM-1 in Chinese subjects with low BMI and T2DM after LRYGB and explored their relationship with postsurgical insulin sensitivity. Methods. Plasma levels of adiponectin, sICAM-1, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting insulin and serum levels of visfatin were measured before and at three months after LRYGB in 33 T2DM patients with BMI of 22–30 kg·m−2. Results. Significant reductions in anthropometric measurements and indicators of glucose and lipid metabolism and moderate reductions in insulin resistance and fasting insulin were observed at three months after LRYGB. Postoperative adiponectin level ( was increased compared to the preoperative level, whereas visfatin ( and sICAM-1 ( were lower than that before surgery. Serum adiponectin negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and FIns both preoperatively and at three months after surgery, and visfatin positively correlated with HOMA-IR and FIns both preoperatively and postoperatively. Conclusion. Changes in adipokines were related to an improvement in postsurgical insulin sensitivity, which was predicted by weight loss after LRYGB even in low BMI patients with T2DM.

  1. Role of rs6923761 gene variant in glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor in basal GLP-1 levels, cardiovascular risk factor and serum adipokine levels in naïve type 2 diabetic patients.

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    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Bachiller, R

    2015-02-01

    Role of GLP-1 variants on basal GLP-1 levels, body weight and cardiovascular risk factors remains unclear in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Our aim was to analyze the effects of rs6923761 GLP-1 receptor polymorphism on body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, basal GLP-1 levels and serum adipokine levels in naïve patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A sample of 104 naïve patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 was enrolled in a prospective way. Basal fasting glucose, c-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides concentration, basal GLP-1, HbA1c and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) levels were determined. Weights, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass by bioimpedance and blood pressure measures were measured. Forty-nine patients (47.1%) had the genotype GG and 55 (52.9%) diabetic subjects had the next genotypes; GA (44 patients, 42.3%) or AA (11 study subjects, 10.6%) (second group). In A allele carriers, basal GLP-1 levels were higher than non-carriers (2.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Febuxostat Therapy on Adipokines and Markers of Kidney Fibrosis in Asymptomatic Hyperuricemic Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Srinivasan Beddhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In observational studies, higher uric acid levels are associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and kidney disease. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine whether reduction of plasma uric acid with febuxostat, a xanthine oxido reductase inhibitor, impacts adipose tissue oxidative stress, adipokines, and markers of systemic inflammation or kidney fibrosis. Design: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting: Academic university setting was used. Patients: Overweight or obese adults with hyperuricemia and type 2 diabetic nephropathy were included. Measurements: Adipose tissue thiobarbituric acid reducing substances (TBARS and adiponectin concentrations and urinary transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β were primary endpoints. Plasma C-reactive protein, high molecular weight–adiponectin, interleukin–6, tumor necrosis factor–α, and TBARS and albuminuria were among predefined secondary endpoints. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to febuxostat (n = 40 or matching placebo (n = 40 and followed for 24 weeks. Results: Baseline plasma uric acid levels were 426 ± 83 µmol/L; 95% completed the study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR declined from 54 ± 17 mL/min/1.73 m 2 at baseline to 51 ± 17 mL/min/1.73 m 2 at 24 weeks ( P = .05. In separate mixed-effects models, compared with placebo, febuxostat reduced uric acid by 50% ( P < .001 but had no significant effects on subcutaneous adipose tissue TBARS (−7.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 57.4%-101.4% or adiponectin (6.7%, 95% CI, 26.0%-53.8% levels or urinary TGF-β/creatinine ratio (18.0%, 95% CI, 10.0%-54.8% or secondary endpoints. Limitations: Relatively modest sample size and short duration of follow-up. Conclusions: In this population with progressive diabetic nephropathy, febuxostat effectively reduced plasma uric acid. However, no detectable effects were observed for the prespecified primary or secondary endpoints

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of Chinese schoolchildren: comparison of two definitions and assessment of adipokines as components by factor analysis

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    2013-01-01

    Background Although attention to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children has increased, there is still no universally accepted definition and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Our aim was to compare the current definitions of childhood MetS in a Chinese cohort and to examine the clustering pattern of MetS risk factors, particularly inclusion of leptin and adiponectin as additional components. Methods 3373 schoolchildren aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and adipokines were measured. MetS was identified using both the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definitions. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to establish grouping of metabolic characteristics. Results For children ≥10 years, the prevalence of MetS was 14.3% in the obese group and 3.7% in the overweight group according to the new IDF definition, and 32.3% in the obese group and 8.4% in the overweight group according to the modified ATPIII definition. Frequency of hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and central obesity according to the new IDF definition was 16.7%, 20.7%, 15.8%, 25.5% and 75.5% in obese boys and 14.7%, 24.0%, 12.0%, 11.0% and 89.0% in obese girls, respectively. Metabolic abnormalities in children under 10 years of age were also noted. Using factor analysis on eight conventional variables led to the extraction of 3 factors. Waist circumference (WC) provided a connection between two factors in boys and all three factors in girls, suggesting its central role in the clustering of metabolic risk factors. Addition of leptin and adiponectin also led to the extraction of 3 factors, with leptin providing a connection between two factors in girls. When using WC, mean arterial pressure, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio, HOMA-IR and leptin/adiponectin ratio as variables, a single-factor model was extracted. WC had the

  4. Obesidade e adipocinas inflamatórias: implicações práticas para a prescrição de exercício Obesity and inflammatory adipokines: practical implications for exercise prescription

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    Wagner Luiz do Prado

    2009-10-01

    tissue release a large amount of bioactive peptides called adipokines (which are proteins synthesized and released by adipose tissue. Thus, the aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between obesity and inflammatory adipokines, trying to discuss the role of physical exercise in the treatment of this pathology. The results have shown that one of the most important recent discoveries is the concept that obesity is characterized by a chronic inflammation state. Among all adipokines, IL-6, TNF- α, leptin (pro-inflammatory and adiponectin (anti-inflammatory, have received special attention from the specialized literature. High concentration of these adipokines promotes impact in several body functions, which is strongly linked with cardiovascular diseases. Since obesity is considered an inflammatory disease, and exercise directly modulates this process, it is essential that one of the main aims of exercise therapies is the improvement of the inflammatory response of obese individuals.

  5. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namya Mellouk

    Full Text Available Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented.We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens.We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition.Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P < 0.0001 lower growth than Ad hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue. In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P < 0.05 decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose and ADIPOQ, and fish oil supplementation decreased plasma levels of RARRES2. We also showed a positive correlation between insulin values and ADIPOQ or NAMPT or RARRES2 values, and a negative correlation of fat percentage to RARRES2 values. Moreover, the effects of the Rt diet and fish oil supplementation on the mRNA expression depended on the factors tested and the hen age.Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  6. 25. Novel adipokine tazarotene induced gene 2 correlations with increased cardiovascular risk determined by body composition, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabesity in Saudi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Habib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tazarotene induced gene 2 (TIG2 is a novel adipokine that is believed to be a mediator for the adipose tissue inflammation that occurs in obesity. The present study compared TIG2 levels between healthy and type 2 diabetic women matched for age and body composition. We also aimed to assess the relationship of serum TIG2 levels with body composition, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabesity in Saudi adult women. This observation case-control study was conducted at the Departments of Physiology and Medicine, Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September 2013 to April 2014. A total of 100 subjects were recruited, including 51 adult diabetic females, and a control group consisting of 49 healthy females. Finally 80 subjects were selected as per inclusion criteria. In the finally selected group, 45 of were diabetics and 35 were healthy subjects matched for age, BMI and body composition with age ranging between 30 and 65 years. Body composition analysis was estimated using Bioelectrical impendence analyzer. Fasting 10 ml venous blood samples were analyzed for glycemic markers, lipids and TIG2. Insulin resistance indexes were calculated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI using standard formulas. The two groups were matched for age, BMI, body fat percentage (BF%, basal metabolic rate (BMR, truncal fat and WHR. Serum TIG2 levels were higher in diabetics than controls (256.09 pm 57.01 vs 305.63 pm 73.66, p = 0.001. Systolic blood pressure (p = 0.001, weight (p = 0.040, fat mass (p = 0.045 and visceral fat (p = 0.025 were found to be significantly higher in diabetics when compared to controls. FBS, HBA1C, LDL, TG, insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICKIE and TIG2 were significantly higher and HDL was significantly lower in diabetics compared to controls. In Spearman’s correlation analysis. TIG2 correlated positively with age (r = 0.300, p = 0.007, WHR (r

  7. Possível papel das adipocinas no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e na artrite reumatoide Possible role of adipokines in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina de Souza Barbosa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos têm sido descritos mediadores sintetizados no tecido adiposo, chamados adipocinas. Eles apresentam ação hormonal, regulando o apetite e o metabolismo da glicose, mas também atuam como citocinas, com efeitos sobre o sistema imune, incluindo efeitos na autoimunidade. As adipocinas mais importantes são: leptina, adiponectina, visfatina e resistina. Algumas delas vêm sendo estudadas nas doenças autoimunes reumáticas, particularmente no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES e na artrite reumatoide (AR. Estudos mostram níveis elevados de leptina e de adiponectina no LES, porém a correlação com a atividade da doença ainda é discutida. Na AR, os estudos também mostram aumento dos níveis de leptina e de adiponectina, observando-se correlação com a atividade da doença e a erosão articular; os resultados, porém, são conflitantes. Esta revisão descreve os papéis da leptina e da adiponectina no sistema imune e suas atuações no LES e na AR.In recent years, mediators synthesized in the adipose tissue, the so-called adipokines, have been described. They have a hormonal action, regulating appetite and glucose metabolism, but also act as cytokines with effects on the immune system, including effects on autoimmunity. The most important adipokines are leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin, and some of them have been assessed in autoimmune rheumatic diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Studies have shown high levels of leptin and adiponectin in SLE, but correlation with disease activity is questionable. In RA, studies have also reported increased levels of leptin and adiponectin, and correlation with disease activity and joint erosion, but the results are confl icting. This review describes the role of leptin and adiponectin on the immune system, as well as on SLE and RA.

  8. Effects of combined low-dose spironolactone plus vitamin E vs vitamin E monotherapy on insulin resistance, non-invasive indices of steatosis and fibrosis, and adipokine levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzos, Stergios A; Kountouras, Jannis; Mantzoros, Christos S; Polymerou, Vaia; Katsinelos, Panagiotis

    2017-12-01

    The beneficial effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blockade by spironolactone have been shown in animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present 52-week randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of low-dose spironolactone and vitamin E combination with those of vitamin E monotherapy on insulin resistance, non-invasive indices of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, liver function tests, circulating adipokines and hormones in patients with histologically confirmed NAFLD. Homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and non-invasive indices of steatosis and fibrosis were calculated. Analysis was intention-to-treat. NAFLD liver fat score, an index of steatosis, decreased significantly in the combination treatment group (P = .028), but not in the vitamin E group, and the difference for group*time interaction was significant (P = .047). Alanine aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, an index of fibrosis, did not change. Insulin levels and HOMA-IR decreased significantly only within the combination group (P = .011 and P = .011, respectively). In conclusion, the combined low-dose spironolactone plus vitamin E regimen significantly decreased NAFLD liver fat score. Larger-scale trials are needed to clarify the effect of low-dose spironolactone on hepatic histology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Adipocinas y síndrome metabólico: múltiples facetas de un proceso fisiopatológico complejo Adipokines and metabolic syndrome: multiple aspects of a complex pathophysiological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C Sánchez N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la alta morbimortalidad de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su relación con trastornos de base como la obesidad y el síndrome metabólico, es crucial entender cuáles son los mecanismos y procesos que desencadenan la alteración del metabolismo y a su vez la generación de dichas enfermedades. En tal sentido, el tejido adiposo y el adipocito tienen un papel fundamental en este proceso, mediante la producción de múltiples adipocinas, algunas clásicas y otras de reciente descripción, pero que hasta ahora empieza a dilucidarse en medio del complejo panorama de interacciones fisiopatológicas conducentes al desarrollo de resistencia a la insulina y del complejo desequilibrio metabólico que conlleva un sinnúmero de complicaciones clínicas. Un grupo de estas adipocinas tiene claros efectos proinflamatorios, mientras que otras pueden clasificarse como anti-inflamatorias, las cuales contrarrestan en cierta medida y hasta cierto punto las acciones de las otras. Cuando esta homeostasis se rompe, la cascada de inflamación crónica allí originada desencadena resistencia a la insulina y se inicia el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico a partir de la obesidad, que a su vez genera alteraciones de la respuesta del adipocito a diferentes estímulos. Esto, sumado a los efectos de otros elementos, configura un complejo cuadro de factores que es necesario tener en cuenta para el abordaje correcto de la obesidad y sus patologías asociadas.Due to the high morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and their relationship with basic disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, the understanding of the mechanisms and processes that trigger metabolic alterations and generate such diseases, is a crucial matter. In this regard, adipose tissue and adipocytes have a crucial role in this process through the production of multiple adipokines, some of them classical and others recently described; however, until now their role is beginning

  10. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all. Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4% in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7% in the placebo group (P = 0.10. Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05. Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats.

  11. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens J; Cronin, Anna M; Nielsen, Dorte H; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Bjornvad, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks) treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight) was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all). Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4%) in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.10). Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats.

  12. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M.; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Holst, Jens J.; Cronin, Anna M.; Nielsen, Dorte H.; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Bjornvad, Charlotte R.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks) treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight) was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all). Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4%) in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.10). Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats. PMID:27136422

  13. Fish-oil-derived n-3 PUFAs reduce inflammatory and chemotactic adipokine-mediated cross-talk between co-cultured murine splenic CD8+ T cells and adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; De Boer, Anna A; Brown, Morgan J; Power, Krista A; Ma, David Wl; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-04-01

    Obese adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is characterized by dysregulated adipokine production and immune cell accumulation. Cluster of differentiation (CD) 8+ T cell AT infiltration represents a critical step that precedes macrophage infiltration. n-3 (ω-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in obese AT, thereby disrupting AT inflammatory paracrine signaling. We assessed the effect of n-3 PUFAs on paracrine interactions between adipocytes and primary CD8+ T cells co-cultured at the cellular ratio observed in obese AT. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a 3% menhaden fish-oil + 7% safflower oil (FO) diet (wt:wt) or an isocaloric 10% safflower oil (wt:wt) control (CON) for 3 wk, and splenic CD8+ T cells were isolated by positive selection (via magnetic microbeads) and co-cultured with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Co-cultures were unstimulated (cells alone), T cell receptor stimulated, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated for 24 h. In LPS-stimulated co-cultures, FO reduced secreted protein concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 (-42.6%), tumor necrosis factor α (-67%), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α (-52%), MIP-1β (-62%), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 (-23%), and MCP-3 (-19%) vs. CON, which coincided with a 74% reduction in macrophage chemotaxis toward secreted chemotaxins in LPS-stimulated FO-enriched co-culture-conditioned media. FO increased mRNA expression of the inflammatory signaling negative regulators monocyte chemoattractant 1-induced protein (Mcpip; +9.3-fold) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3; +1.7-fold), whereas FO reduced activation of inflammatory transcription factors nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by 27% and 33%, respectively. Finally, mRNA expression of the inflammasome components Caspase1 (-36.4%), Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3; -99%), and Il1b (-68.8%) were decreased by FO compared with CON (P

  14. Relationship between adipokines, inflammation, and vascular reactivity in lean controls and obese subjects with metabolic syndrome Relação entre as adipocinas, inflamação e reatividade vascular em controles magros e pacientes obesos com síndrome metabólica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bahia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Adipokines interfere with insulin action and endothelial cell function. We investigated the relationship among adipokines, metabolic factors, inflammatory markers, and vascular reactivity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome and lean controls. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 19 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome and 8 lean volunteers evaluated as controls. Vascular reactivity was assessed by venous occlusion pletysmography measuring braquial forearm blood flow (FBF and vascular resistance (VR responses to intra-arterial infusions of endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine-Ach and independent (sodium nitroprusside-SNP vasodilators. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate C reactive protein (CRP, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, fibrinogen, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile. Patients were classified with regard to insulin resistance through the HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: PAI-1, CRP and fibrinogen were higher and adiponectin was lower in metabolic syndrome subjects compared to controls. Metabolic syndrome subjects had impaired vascular reactivity. Adiponectin and PAI-1 were associated with insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and HDLc; and resistin with CRP. Adiponectin was associated with VR after Ach in the pooled group and resistin with D FBF after Ach in the metabolic syndrome group. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome subjects exhibited low levels of adiponectin and high levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and PAI-1. Adiponectin and PAI-1 correlated with insulin resistance markers. Adiponectin and resistin correlated with vascular reactivity parameters. An adipocyte-endothelium interaction might be an important mechanism of inflammation and vascular dysfunction.A Síndrome Metabólica é um importante fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. As adipocinas interferem com a ação da insulina e com a função endotelial. OBJETIVO: Investigar a rela

  15. Genetic variation in adipokine genes and risk of colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechlivanis, S.; Bermejo, J. L.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodičková, Ludmila; Novotný, J.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel; Försti, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2009), s. 933-940 ISSN 0804-4643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA MZd NR8563 Grant - others:EU(SE) LSHC-CT-2004-503465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : colorectal cancer * diabetes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.539, year: 2009

  16. Adipokines and inflammation markers and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dossus, Laure; Franceschi, Silvia; Biessy, Carine

    2018-01-01

    Other than the influence of ionizing radiation and benign thyroid disease, little is known about the risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) which is an increasing common cancer worldwide. Consistent evidence shows that body mass is positively associated with TC risk. As excess weight...

  17. Changes in insulin resistance and adipokines in obese women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined exercise training was composed of walking on an air-board and resistance exercise at 30 to 50% of the one repetition maximum. Subjects in the CG did not participate in any exercise programme. A main effect of participation was observed for body weight, percentage body fat and glucose (p<0.05).

  18. Promoting effects of the adipokine, apelin, on diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-hai Zhang

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, increased glomerular permeability, and albuminuria are thought to contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Apelin receptor (APLNR and the endogenous ligand of APLNR, apelin, induce the sprouting of endothelial cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner, which may be one of the mechanisms of DN. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apelin in the pathogenesis of DN. Therefore, we observed apelin/APLNR expression in kidneys from patients with type 2 diabetes as well as the correlation between albuminuria and serum apelin in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also measured the proliferating, migrating, and chemotactic effects of apelin on glomerular endothelial cells. To measure the permeability of apelin in glomerular endothelial cells, we used transwells to detect FITC-BSA penetration through monolayered glomerular endothelial cells. The results showed that serum apelin was significantly higher in the patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy people (p<0.05, Fig. 1B and that urinary albumin was positively correlated with serum apelin (R = 0.78, p<0.05. Apelin enhanced the migration, proliferation, and chemotaxis of glomerular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Apelin also promoted the permeability of glomerular endothelial cells (p<0.05 and upregulated the expression of VEGFR2 and Tie2 in glomerular endothelial cells (p<0.05. These results indicated that upregulated apelin in type 2 diabetes, which may be attributed to increased fat mass, promotes angiogenesis in glomeruli to form abnormal vessels and that enhanced apelin increases permeability via upregulating the expression of VEGFR2 and Tie2 in glomerular endothelial cells.

  19. Blood Pressure in Adolescence, Adipokines and Inflammation in Young Adults. The Rio de Janeiro Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Fonseca, Flávia Lopes; Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; Freitas, Elizabete Viana de; Brandão, Ayrton Pires

    2014-01-01

    The impact of blood pressure (BP) during adolescence on other cardiovascular risk factors in young adults is important for the primary prevention. To evaluate BP, anthropometric indexes, metabolic and inflammatory profiles in young individuals stratified by their BP behavior recorded for 18 years. A total of 116 individuals, of whom 63 were males, from the Rio de Janeiro study (follow-up of 17.76 ± 1.63 years), were assessed at two moments: A1 (12.40 ± 1.49 years) and A2 (30.09 ± 2.01 years). The 116 individuals were divided into two groups: GN (n = 71), of participants with normal BP at A1; and GH (n = 45), of those with abnormal BP at A1. BP, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured at A1 and A2. At A2, abdominal circumference (AC) and laboratory, metabolic and inflammatory variables were included. 1) No difference was observed between the groups as regards age and gender; 2) At A2, GH showed higher mean weight, BMI, BP, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 and A1 (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p < 0.010); and higher prevalences of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001), of increased AC (p < 0.001) and of hypertension (p < 0.02); 3) No difference was observed between the groups as regards the inflammatory variables; 4) There was a positive correlation of BP at A1 with BP, BMI, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR at A2 (p < 0.05). BP in adolescence was associated with higher values of BP, and anthropometric and metabolic variables in young adulthood, but not with inflammatory variables

  20. Severe Burn and Disuse in the Rat Independently Adversely Impact Body Composition and Adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Scopus and Google Scholar • Research which is freely available for redistribution Submit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submit Wade et al. Critical Care 2013, 17:R225 Page 12 of 12 http://ccforum.com/content/17/5/R225

  1. B cell activation factor (BAFF) is a novel adipokine that links obesity and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu-Hee; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Cheon, Hyae-Gyeong; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2009-01-01

    B cell activation factor (BAFF) is a novel member of the TNF ligand superfamily, mainly produced by myeloid cells. BAFF has been shown to participate in B-cell survival and B- and T-cell maturation. BAFF expression in adipocytes has been recently demonstrated. In the current study, we verified that BAFF expression is increased during adipocyte differentiation. BAFF expression was augmented by TNF-α treatment and was decreased by rosiglitazone treatment. BAFF secretion in lean and in ob/ob mic...

  2. Novel adipokines WISP1 and betatrophin in PCOS: relationship to AMH levels, atherogenic and metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Ersoy, Gulcin; Altun Ensari, Tugba; Vatansever, Dogan; Emirdar, Volkan; Cevik, Ozge

    2017-02-01

    To determine the levels of WISP1 and betatrophin in normal weight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to assess their relationship with anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, atherogenic profile and metabolic parameters Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the study group was composed of 49 normal weighed and 34 obese women with PCOS diagnosed based on the Rotterdam criteria; 36 normal weight and 26 obese age matched non-hyperandrogenemic women with regular menstrual cycle. Serum WISP1, betatrophin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and AMH levels were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed between betatrophin, WISP1 levels and AMH levels, metabolic and atherogenic parameters. Serum WISP1 and betatrophin values were elevated in the PCOS group than in the control group. Moreover, serum WISP1 and betatrophin levels were higher in the obese PCOS subgroup than in normal weight and obese control subgroups. Multivariate analyses revealed that Body mass index, HOMA-IR, AMH independently and positively predicted WISP1 levels. Serum betatrophin level variability was explained by homocysteine, HOMA-IR and androstenedione levels. WISP1 and betatrophin may play a key role on the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  3. WISP1 is a novel adipokine linked to metabolic parameters in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Ersoy, Gulcin; Altun Ensari, Tugba; Subas, Seda; Giray, Burak; Simsek, Engin Ersin; Cevik, Ozge

    2017-04-01

    To investigate Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP1) levels and their correlation with metabolic parameters in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and non-GDM healthy pregnant women. In this prospective cross-sectional study, the study group was composed of 62 women with GDM and 73 healthy pregnant women matched for age, body mass index (BMI) and gestational age. Blood samples were collected at 25-29th gestational week. Serum WISP1, betatrophin, glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, C reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels were measured. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values was calculated. The level of significance was accepted as p HOMA-IR values and fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglyceride, betatrophin levels. BMI, HOMA-IR and betatrophin independently and positively predicted WISP1 levels. These results demonstrate a relationship between WISP1 and the metabolic parameters of GDM. And, WISP1 might be involved in the pathophysiology of GDM. As a part of this pathophysiological mechanism, the activation of WISP1 and betatrophin might take place through several ways; WISP1 and betatrophin might either use same signaling pathways and potentiate each other or they might also constitute the sequential steps of a common pathway.

  4. Regulation of adipokine production in human adipose tissue by propionic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, Sa'ad H.; Roelofsen, Han; Priebe, Marion; Weening, Desiree; Dijkstra, Martijn; Hoek, Annemieke; Rezaee, Farhad; Venema, Koen; Vonk, Roel J.

    P>Background Dietary fibre (DF) has been shown to be protective for the development of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acids, produced by colonic fermentation of DF might mediate this beneficial effect. Adipose tissue plays a key role in the regulation of energy

  5. Regulation of adipokine production in human adipose tissue by propionic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.H.; Roelofsen, H.; Priebe, M.; Weening, D.; Dijkstra, M.; Hoek, A.; Rezaee, F.; Venema, K.; Vonk, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre (DF) has been shown to be protective for the development of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acids, produced by colonic fermentation of DF might mediate this beneficial effect. Adipose tissue plays a key role in the regulation of energy

  6. Adipokines and inflammation markers and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: The EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Franceschi, Silvia; Biessy, Carine; Navionis, Anne-Sophie; Travis, Ruth C; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bonnet, Fabrice; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renee T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Peppa, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Skeie, Guri; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sandström, Maria; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2018-04-01

    Other than the influence of ionizing radiation and benign thyroid disease, little is known about the risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) which is an increasing common cancer worldwide. Consistent evidence shows that body mass is positively associated with TC risk. As excess weight is a state of chronic inflammation, we investigated the relationship between concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the risk of TC. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and included 475 first primary incident TC cases (399 women and 76 men) and 1,016 matched cancer-free cohort participants. Biomarkers were measured in serum samples using validated and highly sensitive commercially available immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) of TC by levels of each biomarker were estimated using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for BMI and alcohol consumption. Adiponectin was inversely associated with TC risk among women (OR T3vs.T1  = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.98, P trend  = 0.04) but not among men (OR T3vs.T1  = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.67-2.76, P trend  = 0.37). Increasing levels of IL-10 were positively associated with TC risk in both genders and significantly so in women (OR T3vs.T1  = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.13-2.25, P trend  = 0.01) but not in men (OR T3vs.T1  = 1.78, 95% CI: 0.80-3.98, P trend  = 0.17). Leptin, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were not associated with TC risk in either gender. These results indicate a positive association of TC risk with IL-10 and a negative association with adiponectin that is probably restricted to women. Inflammation may play a role in TC in combination with or independently of excess weight. © 2017 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO); licensed by UICC.

  7. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on serum concentrations of adipokines in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Abood, Sarah K; Schenck, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and insulin in healthy cats. 56 healthy adult client-owned cats. Body condition score (BCS) was determined, and blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for fatty acid analysis and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol. 1 cat was removed because of hyperglycemia. Significant interaction effects between BCS and serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were detected for the analyses of associations between EPA and serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, and triglyceride. Cats were categorized into nonobese (BCS, 4 to 6 [n = 34 cats]) and obese (BCS, 7 to 8 [21]) groups; serum concentrations of EPA were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin and inversely associated with concentrations of insulin and triglyceride in obese cats and were directly associated with concentrations of leptin and inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin in nonobese cats. Additionally, serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin in obese cats. No significant associations between serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid were detected in the analyses for all cats. Female cats had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin and lower concentrations of glucose than did male cats. Increased age was associated with a small increase in serum concentrations of leptin. EPA may ameliorate the decrease in adiponectin and the increase in insulin and triglyceride concentrations in obese cats.

  8. Association of Adipokine Resistin With Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhanguei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Resistin is a recently discovered signal molecule that has been linked to obesity, type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome. Objectives This study aimed to assess whether serum resistin is associated with insulin resistance and glucose concentration in males with T2DM. Patients and Methods Thirty two adult non-trained males with type II diabetes, 34-48 years old and 88-110 kg of body weight, participated in this study by accessible sampling. Fasting blood samples were collected from all participants in order to measure serum resistin, insulin and glucose concentration. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated using fasting insulin and glucose. Relations between variables were determined by Pearson correlations. Results We found that serum resistin had a positive significant correlation with insulin resistance (P = 0.000, r = 0.64. No significant correlation was found between serum resistin and fasting glucose concentration in the studied patients (P = 0.21, r = 0.23. Conclusions Based on these data, we can argue that circulating glucose concentration is not directly affected by serum resistin in T2DM. It seems that resistin affects glucose indirectly, through insulin resistance.

  9. Adipokines in umbilical cord blood from children born large for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of childhood obesity and the associated morbidity is multifactorial. Recently, data suggesting a prenatal programming towards later childhood obesity and metabolic deregulation through the intrauterine environment has emerged. This study explored the concentrations...

  10. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Immunomodulatory Role of Diet and Adipokines in Multiple Sclerosis and Its Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    infiltration into the CNS by regional neural inputs explained by the gate theory ." Mediators Inflamm 2013: 898165. Fantuzzi, G. (2005). "Adipose...A. Libonati, A. J. Willmer- Hulme, C. M. Dalton , K. A. Miszkiel and P. W. O’Connor (2003). "A controlled trial of natalizumab for relapsing multiple

  12. Possible role of adipokines in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Vitalina de Souza; Rêgo, Jozelia; Silva, Nílzio Antônio da

    2012-01-01

    Nos últimos anos têm sido descritos mediadores sintetizados no tecido adiposo, chamados adipocinas. Eles apresentam ação hormonal, regulando o apetite e o metabolismo da glicose, mas também atuam como citocinas, com efeitos sobre o sistema imune, incluindo efeitos na autoimunidade. As adipocinas mais importantes são: leptina, adiponectina, visfatina e resistina. Algumas delas vêm sendo estudadas nas doenças autoimunes reumáticas, particularmente no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) e na artri...

  13. Adipokine-myokine-hepatokine compartment-system in mothers and children: An explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Deibert; Nina Ferrari; Anne Flöck; Waltraut M. Merz; Ulrich Gembruch; Walter Lehmacher; Christina Ehrhardt; Christine Graf

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maternal lifestyle during pregnancy has an effect of gestational development and neonatal outcome. Overweight gravidas and gravidas with excessive weight gain have an increased risk of gestational complications and neonatal metabolic disorder. The underlying mechanisms are still under discussion, but the hormonally active fat mass and its biomarkers, adipocytokines, may play a key role by potentially having a direct impact on the metabolic homeostasis of the system in concert with ...

  14. The role of adipokines as prognostic factors of one-year mortality in hip fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, T; Kruljac, I; Kirigin Biloš, L S; Gulin, M; Grgurević, M; Borojević, M

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of anthropometric parameters, adiponectin, leptin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta-isomerised C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (β-CTX), and routine biochemical tests on one-year mortality in hip fracture patients. We found that male patients with high adiponectin, leptin, and β-CTX levels had a 5-fold increase in all-cause one-year mortality. Several predictors of one-year hip fracture mortality have been identified including advanced age, male sex, low bone mineral density, and preexisting comorbidities. However, the impact of metabolic parameters on hip fracture mortality remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of serum leptin and adiponectin levels, as well as other metabolic parameters on all-cause one-year hip fracture mortality. This prospective study included 236 patients of all ages with non-traumatic hip fractures. Anthropometric parameters, adiponectin, leptin, HOMA-IR, β-CTX, and routine biochemical tests were recorded at admission and correlated with one-year mortality by using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. The median patient age was 82 (75-87) years, and one-year mortality rate was 28.4%. In univariate analysis, adiponectin, age, β-CTX, and renal function were associated with mortality. However, in a multivariate model, male gender, high β-CTX, adiponectin, and leptin were independently associated with increased mortality. Thus, we constructed a nomogram that included all the latter variables in addition to age. The nomogram predicted mortality with a sensitivity of 74.8% (66.0-82.3) and specificity of 74.4% (57.9-87.0), and had an area under the curve of 0.784. Patients that scored 9.2 had a mortality of 49.2% (relative risk 5.4, 95% CI 2.8-10.2, P < 0.001). Male patients with high adiponectin, leptin, and β-CTX levels have a 5-fold increase in all-cause one-year mortality after hip fracture.

  15. The influence of intensive physical training on salivary adipokine levels in Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, N D; Mamali, I; Armeni, A K; Markantes, G K; Theodoropoulou, A; Alexandrides, T K; Leglise, M; Markou, K B; Georgopoulos, N A

    2012-12-01

    Exercise challenges homeostasis and establishes a new dynamic equilibrium. Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RG's) begin exercise at an early age, undergo physical and psychological stress, and adopt negative energy balance to retain a lean physique. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of negative energy balance, acute and chronic exercise on salivary adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels and their interaction with salivary cortisol, and insulin levels in elite RG's. This study is unique in character, as all variables were assessed on the field of competition. The study included 51 elite RG's participating in "Kalamata 2010 World Cup" in Kalamata, Greece on April 2010. Twenty-seven healthy age-matched girls were used as controls. Anthropometric values were assessed; baseline and post exercise salivary cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin levels were measured. Comparisons regarding hormonal features between RG's and controls were adjusted for BMI and body fat percentage. Salivary adiponectin levels were higher (p<0.05) and visfatin lower (p=0.094) in RG's compared with controls, while no significant changes were observed regarding salivary cortisol, insulin, and resistin levels. In elite RG's acute intensive anaerobic exercise led to increased salivary insulin levels (p<0.001), reduced salivary adiponectin (p<0.001) and visfatin levels (p<0.05), and no changes in salivary resistin levels. Moreover, diurnal variation of salivary cortisol was lost. In elite RG's salivary adiponectin is upregulated and salivary visfatin is downregulated after chronic intensive exercise and negative energy balance, while both salivary adiponectin and visfatin levels are suppressed after short term intensive anaerobic exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Programming of Adiposity in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations With Birth Weight and Cord Blood Adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joy; Smith, Andrew D A C; Fraser, Abigail; Sattar, Naveed; Lindsay, Robert S; Ring, Susan M; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Nelson, Scott M

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to maternal adiposity during pregnancy is associated with higher offspring birth weight and greater adiposity through childhood and adult life. As birth weight reflects the summation of lean and fat mass, the extent to which fat mass at birth tracks into later life is unknown. To determine whether fat mass at birth is associated with child and adolescent adiposity. UK birth cohort with markers of neonatal fat mass; cord blood leptin, adiponectin, and birth weight and adiposity outcomes at age 9 (n = 2775) and 17 years (n = 2138). Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-determined fat mass, and obesity at age 9 and 17 years. Higher cord blood leptin was associated with higher z scores of fat mass [difference in mean per 10 pg/mL: 0.03 standard deviation (SD); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.00 to 0.06], waist circumference (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.07), and BMI (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.08) at age 9. However, by age 17 the adjusted results were attenuated to the null. Cord blood adiponectin was not associated with measures of adiposity at age 9. At age 17, cord blood adiponectin was positively associated with fat mass (0.02 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.03) and waist circumference (0.04 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.05). Birth weight was positively associated with waist circumference (0.03 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.04) and BMI (0.02 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.03), but not fat mass or odds of obesity. Cord blood leptin and adiponectin were not associated with obesity at either age. Increased cord blood leptin and adiponectin, known surrogates of fetal fat mass, were weakly associated with increased fat mass in late childhood and adolescence, respectively.

  17. Proinflammatory tissue response and recovery of adipokines during 4 days of subcutaneous large-pore microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Trine Schnedler; Kaastrup, Peter; Stallknecht, Bente

    2009-01-01

    , IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-alpha and adiponectin using Luminex Multiplex technology. RESULTS: Interstitial IL-1beta increased from a sub-detectable level to 69+/-22 pg/ml on day 1 (pfold on day 0 (pfold...... on day 0 (pfold to an apparent plateau on day 0 (palpha increased 7-fold to an apparent plateau on day 0 (p... (121+/-28 pg/ml, p=beta, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha were all returning towards baseline level. Adiponectin was unchanged on day 0 (1,040,422+/-295,510 pg/ml, p=0.36), decreased to 346,300+/-48,002 pg/ml on day 1 (p=0.002) and remained unchanged hereafter. DISCUSSION...

  18. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suvarthi [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kumar, Ashutosh [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Seth, Ratanesh Kumar [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tokar, Erik J. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kadiiska, Maria B. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Mason, Ronald P. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh, E-mail: schatt@mailbox.sc.edu [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates protein radical and 3-nitrotyrosine formation. ► BDCM exposure in obesity activates Kupffer cells and NADPH oxidase. ► BDCM/leptin synergy promotes necrotic cell-death and augments steatohepatitis.

  19. Blood Pressure in Adolescence, Adipokines and Inflammation in Young Adults. The Rio de Janeiro Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves, E-mail: erikamaria@cardiol.br; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Fonseca, Flávia Lopes; Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; Freitas, Elizabete Viana de; Brandão, Ayrton Pires [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    The impact of blood pressure (BP) during adolescence on other cardiovascular risk factors in young adults is important for the primary prevention. To evaluate BP, anthropometric indexes, metabolic and inflammatory profiles in young individuals stratified by their BP behavior recorded for 18 years. A total of 116 individuals, of whom 63 were males, from the Rio de Janeiro study (follow-up of 17.76 ± 1.63 years), were assessed at two moments: A1 (12.40 ± 1.49 years) and A2 (30.09 ± 2.01 years). The 116 individuals were divided into two groups: GN (n = 71), of participants with normal BP at A1; and GH (n = 45), of those with abnormal BP at A1. BP, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured at A1 and A2. At A2, abdominal circumference (AC) and laboratory, metabolic and inflammatory variables were included. 1) No difference was observed between the groups as regards age and gender; 2) At A2, GH showed higher mean weight, BMI, BP, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 and A1 (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p < 0.010); and higher prevalences of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001), of increased AC (p < 0.001) and of hypertension (p < 0.02); 3) No difference was observed between the groups as regards the inflammatory variables; 4) There was a positive correlation of BP at A1 with BP, BMI, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR at A2 (p < 0.05). BP in adolescence was associated with higher values of BP, and anthropometric and metabolic variables in young adulthood, but not with inflammatory variables.

  20. Adipokines, C-reactive protein and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - results from a population- based ALS registry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Gabriele; Peter, Raphael S; Rosenbohm, Angela; Koenig, Wolfgang; Dupuis, Luc; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ludolph, Albert C

    2017-06-29

    To investigate the associations of leptin, adiponectin and high-sensitive (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) with risk and prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Data from a population-based case-control study in Southern Germany (10/2010-6/2014) of 289 ALS patients (mean age of 65.7 (SD 10.5) years, 59.5% men) and 506 controls were included. During median follow-up of 14.5 months of 279 ALS patients 104 (53.9% men, 68.9 (10.3) years) died. Serum samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin and hs-CRP. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ALS risk. Survival models were used to appraise the prognostic value. ALS patients were characterized by lower levels of school education, BMI and smoking prevalence. Adjusted for covariates, leptin was inversely associated with ALS risk (top vs. bottom quartile: OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.80), while for adiponectin a positive association was found (OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.78-4.68). Among ALS patients increasing leptin concentrations were associated with longer survival (p for trend 0.002), while for adiponectin no association was found (p for trend 0.55). For hs-CRP no association was found. Leptin and adiponectin, two key hormones regulating energy metabolism, were strongly and independently related with ALS risk. Leptin levels were further negatively related with overall survival of ALS patients.

  1. Visceral adiposity index (VAI is predictive of an altered adipokine profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco C Amato

    Full Text Available AIMS: Although there is still no clear definition of "adipose tissue dysfunction" or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Hip Circumference (HC, Waist/Hip ratio (WHR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI] and several adipocytokines [Visfatin, Resistin, Leptin, Soluble leptin receptors (sOB-R, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Adipsin, PAI-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-18] in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one DM2 patients (age: 65.25 ± 6.38 years; 42 men and 49 women in stable treatment for the last six months with metformin in monotherapy (1.5-2 g/day were cross-sectionally studied. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Serum adipocytokine levels were assayed with Luminex based kits. RESULTS: At the Pearson's correlation, among all the indices investigated, VAI showed a significant correlation with almost all adipocytokines analyzed [Visfatin, Resistin and hsCRP (all p<0.001; Adiponectin, sOb-R, IL-6, IL-18, HGF (all p<0.010; Ghrelin and VEGF (both p<0.05]. Through a two-step cluster analysis, 55 patients were identified with the most altered adipocytokine profile (patients with ATD. At a ROC analysis, VAI showed the highest C-statistic [0.767 (95% CI 0.66-0.84] of all the indices. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the VAI, among the most common indexes of adiposity assessment, shows the best correlation with the best known adipocytokines and cardiometabolic risk serum markers. Although to date we are still far from clearly identifying an ATD, the VAI would be an easy tool for clearly mirroring a condition of cardiometabolic risk, in the absence of an overt metabolic syndrome.

  2. Effects of a multi-component camp-based intervention on inflammatory markers and adipokines in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, T.; Larsen, K. T.; Moller, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    by the changes in body fat mass. No intervention effects on CRP and leptin were seen at 52 weeks. No between-group differences in changes in MCP1 and adiponectin were observed at 6 weeks or 52 weeks. Conclusions. The 6-week camp intervention resulted in reductions in CRP and leptin. The intervention effects did...... not persist to 52 weeks. The intervention effect on leptin was explained by changes in body fat mass. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  3. Blood lipids and adipokines concentrations during a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention for metabolic syndrome treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courteix Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report changes in body weight, total and central fat mass, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in overweight people who participated in a six months weight loss intervention associating diet management and exercise. Subjects and Methods Fourteen subjects (10 M, 4 F, mean age 62.9 ± 6.9 years, BMI 30.4+/- 3.8 kg/m2 presenting the characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS were included in the survey. They followed a three weeks (D0 to D20 cure in a medical establishment and a six months (D20 to M3 and M6 follow up at home. During the cure, they receive a balanced diet corresponding to 500 Kcal deficit vs their dayly energy expenditure (DEE and they exercised 2 to 3 hours per day. At D0, D20, M3 and M6, body composition (lean mass, total and central fat mass was analyzed with DEXA, blood pressure was taken and blood was collected to evaluate glycaemia, triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels, CRP and pro-inflammatory interleukines IL1, IL.6 and TNFalpha. Results All parameters listed above except the cytokine were improved at D20, so that 4 subjects among 14 still presented the MS. After returning to home, these parameters remained stable. Conclusion The efficacy of therapeutic lifestyle modifications with education and exercise and diet was demonstrated, but the compliance to the new healthy lifestyle initiated during the cure was not optimal.

  4. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone protects mice from diet-induced obesity and modulates adipokines expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Mathé, Véronique; Lafont, René; Even, Patrick; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2012-02-01

    Besides their well-known effect in the molting control in insects, ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that display potential pharmacologic and metabolic properties in mammals. The most common ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is found in many plants such as quinoa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of quinoa extract (Q) enriched in 20E supplementation to prevent the onset of diet-induced obesity and to regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in mice. Mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by 20E-enriched Q or pure 20E for 3 weeks. Supplementation with Q reduced adipose tissue development in HF mice without modification of their body weight gain. This adipose tissue-specific effect was mainly associated with a reduced adipocyte size and a decrease in the expression of several genes involved in lipid storage, including lipoprotein lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, Q-treated mice exhibited marked attenuation of mRNA levels of several inflammation markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, CD68) and insulin resistance (osteopontin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) as compared to HF mice. Q supplementation also reversed the effects of HF-induced downregulation of the uncoupling protein(s) (UCP(s)) mRNA levels in muscle. Similar results were obtained in mice fed a HF diet supplemented with similar amounts of pure 20E, suggesting that the latter accounted for most of the Q effects. Our study indicates that Q has an antiobesity activity in vivo and could be used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.

  5. Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Chen

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Nrg4 exerts pleiotropic beneficial effects on energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Biologic therapeutics based on Nrg4 may improve both type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in patients.

  6. The association of bone turnover markers with pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines in patients with gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Telejko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to assess differences in circulating osteocalcin (OC and osteoprotegerin (OPG, as well as in their expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and placental tissue obtained from patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Materials and method. Serum levels of OC, OPG and soluble nuclear factor-kB ligand (sRANKL were measured in 49 women with GDM and 30 subjects with NGT between weeks 24–32 of gestation, and three months after childbirth. OC and OPG mRNA expression was measured in 23 patients with GDM and 23 women with NGT at term, using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results. The patients with GDM had decreased OC mRNA expression in SAT (p=0.015, lower adiponectin mRNA expression in VAT (p=0.039, and a lower circulating adiponectin level (p=0.04. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum adiponectin was significantly associated with OC mRNA expression in SAT (b=0.49, p=0.03. Three months postpartum, the OPG/sRANKL ratio was markedly higher in the subjects with prior GDM (p=0.03 and correlated positively with HbA1c (R=0.33; p=0.04, fasting insulin (R=0.35; p=0.03 and HOMA-IR (R=0.34; p=0.04. Conclusions. In the patients with GDM decreased OC mRNA expression in SAT might be associated with a reduced stimulatory effect on adiponectin expression in adipose tissue. On the other hand, higher OPG/sRANKL ratio suggests a better protection against bone loss in the subjects with prior GDM.

  7. Adipocitocinas: uma nova visão do tecido adiposo Adipokines: a new view of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Esteves Duque Guimarães

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A identificação da leptina, hormônio secretado pelos adipócitos, cujo efeito sobre o sistema nervoso simpático e a função endócrina confere participação ativa no controle do dispêndio energético, bem como do apetite, acrescentou às funções do tecido adiposo no organismo humano o papel de órgão multifuncional, produtor e secretor de inúmeros peptídeos e proteínas bioativas, denominadas adipocitocinas. Alterações na quantidade de tecido adiposo, como ocorrem na obesidade, afetam a produção da maioria desses fatores secretados pelos adipócitos. Ainda que essas alterações estejam freqüentemente associadas às inúmeras disfunções metabólicas e ao aumento do risco de doenças cardiovasculares, permanece sob investigação o envolvimento do tecido adiposo no desenvolvimento dessas complicações, considerada a sua função endócrina. As concentrações de várias adipocitocinas elevam-se na obesidade e têm sido relacionadas à hipertensão (angiotensinogênio, ao prejuízo da fibrinólise (inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e à resistência à insulina (proteína estimuladora de acilação, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, interleucina-6 e resistina. De outro modo, leptina e adiponectina têm efeitos sobre a sensibilidade à insulina. Na obesidade, a resistência insulínica também está relacionada à resistência à leptina e aos teores plasmáticos reduzidos de adiponectina. Leptina e adiponectina ainda exercem efeitos orgânicos adicionais distintos: frente à participação da leptina no controle da ingestão alimentar, a adiponectina apresenta potente ação anti-aterogênica. Algumas drogas utilizadas no controle do diabetes elevam a produção endógena de adiponectina, em roedores e humanos, indicando que o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos com alvo nas adipocitocinas pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica de prevenção da resistência insulínica e da aterosclerose em indivíduos obesos.Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes whose effect on the sympathetic nervous system and endocrine function confers active participation in the control of energy expenditure and appetite. Its identification added to the fat tissues in the human body the role of a multifunctional organ that produces and secretes a number of bioactive peptides and proteins, called adipocytokines. Changes in the amount of fat tissue, such as the ones that occur in obesity, affect the production of most of these factors secreted by adipocytes. Even if these changes are frequently associated with many metabolic disorders and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, the role of fat tissue in the development of these complications, considered its endocrine function, continue to be investigated. The concentration of various adipocytokines increase in obesity and have been associated with hypertension (angiotensinogen, fibrinolysis impairment (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and insulin resistance (protein that stimulates acylation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukine-6 and resistin. On the other hand, leptin and adiponectin affect insulin sensitivity. In obesity, insulin resistance is also associated with leptin resistance and reduced plasma levels of adiponectin. Leptin and adiponectin still have complementary and distinct organic functions: adiponectin has potent antiatherogenic activity while leptin participates in the control of food intake. Some medications used to control diabetes increase adiponectin production in rodents and humans, suggesting that the development of new medications that target the adipocytokines can represent a new therapeutic alternative to prevent insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in obese individuals.

  8. Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) Is Predictive of an Altered Adipokine Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, M.; Pizzolanti, G.; Torregrossa, V.; Misiano, G.; Milano, S.; Giordano, C.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Although there is still no clear definition of "adipose tissue dysfunction" or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC), Hip Circumference (HC), Waist/Hip ratio (WHR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI)] and several ...

  9. Constellation of arterial hypertension and stable angina pectoris, influence of adipokines and inflammation, the place of amlodipine

    OpenAIRE

    Tashchuk, V.K.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of C-reactive protein and leptin indices in patients with arterial hypertension and stable angina pectoris were studied in thus article in comparison with the effects of calcium antagonists.

  10. The effect of prolonged aerobic exercise on serum adipokine levels during an ultra-marathon endurance race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Mamali, Irene; Maragkos, Spyros; Leonidou, Lydia; Armeni, Anastasia K; Markantes, George K; Tsekouras, Athanasios; Sakellaropoulos, George C; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of prolonged intensive aerobic exercise and acute energy deficit (180 km ultra-marathon race) on serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels and their association and interaction with serum cortisol and insulin levels in highly trained ultra-endurance runners. The study included 17 highly trained ultra-endurance male athletes (mean age 51.29±6.84 years and body mass index (ΒΜΙ) 23.51±1.90) participating in the 5th Olympian Race held in Greece on May 2010. Anthropometric values were assessed; Serum cortisol, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels were measured at baseline, post-exercise and ~20 hours after the end of the race. All hormonal values of the post-exercise and recovery status were corrected for plasma volume changes. The estimated energy deficit during the ultra-endurance event was about 5000 Kcal. At the end of the race serum resistin levels were elevated (p<0.001) and serum leptin levels were reduced (p<0.001) and failed to reach pre-exercise levels, although showing a tendency towards restoration. No significant changes were noted in serum adiponectin and visfatin levels. Ultra-endurance aerobic exercise and acute negative energy balance lead to an up-regulation of serum resistin levels and a down-regulation of serum leptin levels.

  11. Macronutrient composition and increased physical activity modulate plasma adipokines and appetite hormones during a weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Shymaa M; Vaishnav, Ushma; Puglisi, Michael; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Wood, Richard J; Volek, Jeff S; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2010-01-01

    We have shown previously that in overweight premenopausal women, changes in macronutrient composition and increasing the number of steps walked per day favorably affect body composition and plasma lipid profiles. As a follow-up, we evaluated the effect of moderate carbohydrate intake and increased physical activity on inflammation and regulation of appetite. Seventy premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 37 kg/m(2) participated in a 10-week weight loss intervention program consisting of the following macronutrient energy distribution: 40% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 30% protein, in addition to a progressive increase in the number of steps taken per day. Plasma adiponectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), leptin, and ghrelin levels were assessed at baseline and after 10 weeks. Subjects reduced body weight by 4.5%, waist circumference (WC) by 6.4%, and trunk fat by 4.6%. Plasma insulin and insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) were reduced after 10 weeks (p r = -0.397, p < 0.01), indicating a role of adiponectin in increasing insulin sensitivity. In addition, plasma ghrelin levels were increased by 17% (p < 0.001), indicating a signal for increased appetite associated with weight loss. These studies indicate that weight loss interventions involving moderate changes in dietary carbohydrate and increases in physical activity favorably affect insulin sensitivity and decrease inflammation.

  12. Adipokines resistin and lipokalin-2 and its role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronenko N.Yu.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissues hormones resistin and lipocalin -2 play an important role in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammation and immune disorders, fertility and reproductive mechanisms. Obesity and overweight are significantly involved in the process of fertility decline. Women with obesity and metabolic syndrome have abnormal adypokine plasma levels. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between the women’s of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and energy metabolism. Methods: basal levels of resistin, lipocalin-2, follicular stimulating, luteinizing hormones, estradiol, total and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, dihydroepiandrosteron sulfate, androstenedione, cortisol, anti-mullerian hormone, prolactin, insulin, folistatin, homocysteine, interleukin-6 and sex-binding globulin were determined in the serum of 35 women of reproductive age with metabolic syndrome (MS, 33 patients of reproductive age with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and in 54 healthy contols. It is found that despite the normal values of hormones lipocalin-2 and resistin even in patients with obesity, their concentrations significantly correlated with anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. We established statistically significant stimulatory effects of lipocalin-2 and resistin on the synthesis of ovarian steroids and the significant inhibitory effect of lipocalin-2 and resistin on ovarian and adrenal androgens synthesis in normal physical condition and reproductive health. In MS and PCOS these relationships are not established. The results obtained allow us to propose the assumption of the existence of metabolic changes of the sensitivity of the reproductive system and the adrenal gland to the effects of lipocalin -2 and resistin in women with PCOS and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Selected adipokines – plasma concentrations and adipose tissue expressions during 24-hour lipid infusion in healthy men

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, J.; Krušinová, E.; Klementová, M.; Kazdová, L.; Mlejnek, Petr; Pravenec, Michal; Hill, M.; Pelikánová, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2010), s. 89-96 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9359 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : TNFalpha * resistin * insulin resistance Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  14. Abnormal levels of adipokines in adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes - Results from the EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate long-term consequences of diabetes during pregnancy, we determined adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescents born by women with type 1 diabetic (T1D) or non-diabetic mothers, and determined associations between adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescence and th...

  15. Effect of obesity intervention programs on adipokines, insulin resistance, lipid profile, and low-grade inflammation in 3- to 5-y-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Sauer, Pieter J.

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity can cause the development of cardiovascular risk factors. We assessed the effect of a multidisciplinary intervention program on cardiovascular risk factors and compared this effect with a usual-care program in 3- to 5-y-old overweight or obese children. METHODS:

  16. Adipokines, Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein, and C-Reactive Protein Levels in Lean, Overweight, and Obese Portuguese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuparth, Maria João; Proença, Jorge Brandão; Santos-Silva, Alice; Coimbra, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Our aim was to study how different BMI scores may influence the levels of inflammation, oxidative stress, adipogenesis, glucose, and lipid metabolism, in lean, overweight, and obese Portuguese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We studied 28 lean, 38 overweight, and 17 obese patients with T2DM and 20 controls (gender and age matched). The circulating levels of oxLDL, CRP, and some adipokines—adiponectin, leptin, and chemerin—and the lipid profile were evaluated. Results. Obese patients presented significantly lower levels of adiponectin and higher leptin, oxLDL, and chemerin levels, as compared to the overweight, lean, and control groups. Overweight, compared to lean and control, subjects showed significantly lower adiponectin and higher leptin and chemerin levels; oxLDL values were significantly higher in overweight than in lean patients. Lean patients presented significantly higher chemerin values than the control. Obese patients presented significantly higher CRP values, as compared to lean patients and the control group. Obese and overweight patients presented significantly higher triglycerides values than lean patients. Except for CRP, all the observed significant changes between control and patients remained significant after statistical adjustment for the body mass index (BMI). Conclusion. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, oxLDL, CRP, and triglycerides in patients with T2DM seem to be more associated with obesity and less with diabetes. Chemerin levels were raised in lean, overweight, and obese patients, suggesting that, independently of BMI, an adipocyte dysfunction occurs. Moreover, chemerin may provide an important early biomarker of adipocyte dysfunction and a link between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24634792

  17. Early changes in adipokine levels and baseline limb fat may predict HIV lipoatrophy over 2 years following initiation of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calmy, A; Carey, D; Mallon, P W G

    2008-01-01

    plasma collected at baseline and weeks 12, 24 and 48 from adults initiating combination ART. Adipocytokine, inflammatory cytokine, lipid and glycaemic parameters were measured and related to subsequent lipoatrophy (loss of limb fat mass of at least 2 kg from weeks 24 to 96 by dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry) and an increase in visceral adipose tissue (VAT; an increase of at least 18 cm(2) from baseline to week 48 by abdominal computed tomography). Risk factors associated with limb fat loss and VAT gain were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Fifty-four HIV-infected, treatment-naïve adults were...... levels during the first 6 months of ART, independently predicted a peripheral fat loss of > or = 2 kg [odds ratio (OR) 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-6.41; OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.34-7.35, respectively). VAT changes showed a borderline association with high baseline tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels...

  18. Expression of CTRP3, a Novel Adipokine, in Rats at Different Pathogenic Stages of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Impacts of GLP-1 Receptor Agonist on It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the expression of C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3 in rats at different pathogenic stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and the impacts of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist on it. Male wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet for 10 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR and then were given low-dose streptozotocin (STZ intraperitoneal injection to induce T2DM. Exendin-4 (Ex-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, was subcutaneous injected to the IR rats and T2DM rats for 4 weeks. The expression of CTRP3 mRNA and protein in epididymis adipose tissue of rats at the stage of IR was lower significantly than that of normal control (NC rats and decreased more when they were at the stage of overt T2DM (all P<0.05 or P<0.01. After the treatment with Ex-4, the mRNA and protein expressions of CTRP3 were increased by 15.5% (P<0.01 and 14.8% (P<0.05, respectively, in IR rats and increased by 20.6% (P<0.01 and 16.5% (P<0.05, respectively, in T2DM rats. Overall, this study found that the expression of CTRP3 in visceral adipose tissue was progressively decreased in a T2DM rat model from the pathogenic stage of IR to overt diabetes, while Ex-4 treatment increased its expression in such animals.

  19. Caloric restriction and the adipokine leptin alter the SDF-1 signaling axis in bone marrow and in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy-Thandavan, Sudharsan; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Upadhyay, Sunil; Dukes, Amy; Davis, Colleen; Johnson, Maribeth; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Hamrick, Mark W; Isales, Carlos M; Hill, William D

    2015-07-15

    Growing evidence suggests that the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is essential in regulating bone marrow (BM) derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (BMSC) survival, and differentiation to either a pro-osteogenic or pro-adipogenic fate. This study investigates the effects of caloric restriction (CR) and leptin on the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone and BM tissues in the context of age-associated bone loss. For in vivo studies, we collected bone, BM cells and BM interstitial fluid from 12 and 20 month-old C57Bl6 mice fed ad-libitum (AL), and 20-month-old mice on long-term CR with, or without, intraperitoneal injection of leptin for 10 days (10 mg/kg). To mimic conditions of CR in vitro, 18 month murine BMSCs were treated with (1) control (Ctrl): normal proliferation medium, (2) nutrient restriction (NR): low glucose, low serum medium, or (3) NR + leptin: NR medium + 100 ng/ml leptin for 6-48 h. In BMSCs both protein and mRNA expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 were increased by CR and CR + leptin. In contrast, the alternate SDF-1 receptor CXCR7 was decreased, suggesting a nutrient signaling mediated change in SDF-1 axis signaling in BMSCs. However, in bone SDF-1, CXCR4 and 7 gene expression increase with age and this is reversed with CR, while addition of leptin returns this to the "aged" level. Histologically bone formation was lower in the calorically restricted mice and BM adipogenesis increased, both effects were reversed with the 10 day leptin treatment. This suggests that in bone CR and leptin alter the nutrient signaling pathways in different ways to affect the local action of the osteogenic cytokine SDF-1. Studies focusing on the molecular interaction between nutrient signaling by CR, leptin and SDF-1 axis may help to address age-related musculoskeletal changes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Changes in IGF-I, urinary free cortisol and adipokines during dronabinol therapy in anorexia nervosa: Results from a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Frystyk, Jan; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    : This was a prospective, double-blind randomised crossover study, conducted at a specialised care centre for eating disorders. The results are based on twenty-four adult women with chronic AN, who completed the study. The participants received dronabinol (oral capsules, 5mg daily) and matching placebo over four weeks......OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterised by complex neuroendocrine disturbances due to severe underweight, physical hyperactivity and purging behaviour. Cannabinoid agonists are used to palliate cachexia of various causes, but their interactions with the hormonal systems that are involved......, dronabinol treatment caused a small, yet significant increase in BMI as compared to placebo (+0.23kg/m(2); P=0.04). This modest weight gain predicted a corresponding increase in bioactive IGF-I, while the amount of daily energy expenditure due to physical activity had a comparable but opposite effect...

  1. Serum Level of the Adipokine “Vaspin” in Relation to Metabolic Parameters: Short – Term Effect of Specific Dietary Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha I. A. Moaty

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The effect of the dietary supplements may play a role in alleviating the impact of the components of the MetS and may also sustain the level of the vaspin in the sensitization of the C-peptide in order to attain glucose homeostasis.

  2. Serum Level of the Adipokine “Vaspin” in Relation to Metabolic Parameters: Short – Term Effect of Specific Dietary Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maha I. A. Moaty; Salwa M. El Shebini; Nihad H. Ahmed; Ahmed M.S. Hussein; Magda S. Mohamed; Salwa T. Tapozada; Laila M. Hanna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between the circulating vaspin concentration and both of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients, and also to evaluate the metabolic impact of two different dietary therapies on such conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Fifty eight obese female volunteers suffering from MetS, followed a specially designed dietary therapy consists of a low caloric balanced diet, accompanied by either 30% doum biscuits (group A), or...

  3. Elevated levels of adipokines predict outcome after acute myocardial infarction: A long-term follow-up of the Glucose Tolerance in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsinger, Viveca; Brismar, Kerstin; Malmberg, Klas; Mellbin, Linda; Näsman, Per; Rydén, Lars; Söderberg, Stefan; Tenerz, Åke; Norhammar, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Adiponectin and leptin are associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Information on the prognostic value after an acute myocardial infarction is still conflicting. Patients (n = 180) without known diabetes and with admission glucose of acute myocardial infarction in 1998-2000 were followed for mortality and cardiovascular events (first of cardiovascular mortality/acute myocardial infarction/stroke/heart failure) until the end of 2011 (median: 11.6 years). Plasma adiponectin and leptin were related to outcome in Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses. Median age was 64 years and 69% were male. Total mortality was 34% (n = 61) and 44% (n = 80) experienced a cardiovascular event. Adiponectin at discharge predicted cardiovascular events (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval; 1.45; 1.02-2.07, p = 0.038), total mortality (2.53; 1.64-3.91, p myocardial infarction and heart failure, adiponectin predicted total mortality (1.79; 1.07-3.00, p = 0.027) but not cardiovascular events. High levels of leptin were associated with cardiovascular events during the first 7 years, after which the association was attenuated. Leptin did not predict total mortality. In patients with acute myocardial infarction but without previously known diabetes, high levels of adiponectin at discharge predicted total mortality. The present results support the hypothesis that high rather than low levels of adiponectin predict mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Inflammatory Adipokines Decrease Expression of Two High Molecular Weight Isoforms of Tropomyosin Similar to the Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Savill

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and cancer are increased in Type 2 diabetes. TPM1 and TPM4 genes encode proteins associated with cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. High (HMW and low (LMW molecular weight isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 are altered in several cancer cells and the 3'UTR of TPM1 mRNA is tumour suppressive. Leukocytes influence cardiovascular and neoplastic disease by immunosurveillance for cancer and by chronic inflammation in Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim was to determine changes in expression of isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 genes in leukocytes from Type 2 diabetic patients and to use the leukocyte cell line THP1 to identify possible mediators of changes in the patients. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. In diabetes, expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 were markedly decreased (0.55 v 1.00; p = 0.019 but HMW isoforms from TPM4 were not significantly different (0.76 v 1.00; p = 0.205. Within individual variance in expression of HMW isoforms was very high. The change in expression in HMW isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 was replicated in THP1 cells treated with 1 ng/ml TNFα (0.10 and 0.12 v 1.00 respectively or 10 ng/ml IL-1α (0.17 and 0.14 v 1.00 respectively. Increased insulin or glucose concentrations had no substantial effects on TPM1 or TPM4 expression. Decreased TPM1 mRNA resulted in decreases in HMW protein levels. Expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 is decreased in Type 2 diabetes. This is probably due to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1α in Type 2 diabetes. Lower levels of TPM1 mRNA reduce tumour suppression and could contribute to increased cancer risk in Type 2 diabetes. Decreased HMW tropomyosin isoforms are associated with cancer. Decreased HMW isoforms give rise to cells that are more plastic, motile, invasive and prone to dedifferentiation resulting in leukocytes that are more invasive but less functionally effective.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is elevated in metabolically unhealthy obesity and affects lipid deposition, adipogenesis, and adipokine secretion of human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Berti

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The hepatokine FGF21 exerts weak lipogenic and anti-adipogenic actions and marked adiponectin-suppressive and leptin and interleukin-6 release-promoting effects in human differentiating preadipocytes. Together with the higher serum concentrations in MUHO subjects, our findings reveal FGF21 as a circulating factor promoting the development of metabolically unhealthy adipocytes.

  6. Adiponectin levels correlate with the severity of hypertriglyceridaemia in glycogen storage disease Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, R. H. J.; Smit, G. P. A.; Reijngoud, D. -J.; Kuipers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is characterized by severe hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. Little is known about the aetiology of the hyperlipidaemia in GSD Ia. Adipokines play an important regulatory role in lipid metabolism. We investigated whether adipokine

  7. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M.; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks) treatment...... with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose...... by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean...

  8. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  9. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  10. Curcuma longa polyphenols improve insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and attenuate proinflammatory response of 3T3-L1 adipose cells during oxidative stress through regulation of key adipokines and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Le Sage, Fanny; Hatia, Sarah; Catan, Aurélie; Janci, Laurent; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-07-08

    Plant polyphenols may exert beneficial action against obesity-related oxidative stress and inflammation which promote insulin resistance. This study evaluated the effect of polyphenols extracted from French Curcuma longa on 3T3-L1 adipose cells exposed to H2 O2 -mediated oxidative stress. We found that Curcuma longa extract exhibited high amounts of curcuminoids identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which exerted free radical-scavenging activities. Curcuma longa polyphenols improved insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene expression and adiponectin secretion which decreased in H2 O2 -treated cells. Curcuminoids attenuated H2 O2 -enhanced production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor κappa B. Moreover, they reduced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species elevated by H2 O2 and modulated the expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes. Collectively, these findings highlight that Curcuma longa polyphenols protect adipose cells against oxidative stress and may improve obesity-related metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):418-430, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical pr...

  12. 3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid promotes adiopkine expression during murine 3T3-L1 fibroblast differentiation into adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifen Dong

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that ISA promoted adipogenesis by up-regulating expressions of C/EBP β, PPAR γ, C/EBP α, aP2 and FAS, and also stimulated adipokines during adipocyte differentiation. Further study should clarify the relationship between stimulation of adipokines and cognitive enhancing effect of ISA.

  13. Evaluation of Serum Resistin Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease and Effects of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Its Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Devanoorkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistin and adiponectin are the adipokines secreted by adipocytes and various inflammatory cells. These adipokines are known to play an important role in insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the serum resistin levels in periodontal health and disease and also, to determine the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on its levels.

  14. Butyrate Reduces HFD-Induced Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Metabolic Risk Factors in Obese LDLr-/-.Leiden Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrim, C.E.; Franx, B.A.A.; Snabel, J.; Kleemann, R.; Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance,

  15. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Synopsis of Current Developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inflammatory damage mediated by increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress and gut derived endotoxemia. An interplay of multiple metabolic genetic expression and environmental factors however determine which patient ...

  16. Adipose tissue dysfunction and hypertriglyceridemia : mechanisms and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Woestijne, A. P.; Monajemi, H.; Kalkhoven, E.; Visseren, F. L. J.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma triglyceride levels, as often seen in obese subjects, are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. By secreting adipokines (such as adiponectin and leptin) and other proteins (such as lipoprotein lipase and cholesteryl ester transferase protein),

  17. Cord blood chemerin: differential effects of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, M.N.M.; Zeck, W.; Ulrich, D.; Schest, E.C.; Hirschmugl, B.; Lang, U.; Wadsack, C.; Desoye, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chemerin is a novel adipokine implicated in inflammation and obesity. We hypothesized that foetal chemerin would be elevated in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and correlate with foetal and maternal adiposity. Design Observational, longitudinal study. Subjects and measurements Foetal

  18. Leukocyte Composition and Immunophenotype of the Blood Lymphocytes in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ya.A. Saienko; K.P. Zak; V.V. Popova; T.A. Semionova

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is an opinion that changes in some indicators of natural and adaptive immunity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and overweight are caused by concomitant obesity, as the adipose tissue is the potent secretory organ that produces many cytokines, particularly adipokines playing a key role in various immune responses. It is known that the level of the main adipokines, which regulate the adipose tissue, in the human peripheral blood (PB) is determined on the basis o...

  19. [Sleep disorder and lifestyle-related disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.

  20. Serum Concentrations of Leptin and Adiponectin in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, H.?S.; Kang, J.?H.; Jeung, E.?B.; Yang, M.?P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The concentrations of circulating adipokines in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) have not been investigated in detail. Objectives To determine whether serum concentrations of adipokines differ between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD and whether circulating concentrations depend on the severity of heart failure resulting from MMVD. Animals In the preliminary study, 30 healthy dogs and 17 client?owned dogs with MMVD, and in the subsequent study, 30 healthy dogs and 46...

  1. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to influence adipose tissue function

    OpenAIRE

    Westerink, Jan; Visseren, Frank LJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is associated with metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, inflammation and hypercoagulobility which can all be understood as consequences of adipose tissue dysfunction. The potential role for adipose tissue derived cytokines and adipokines in the development of vascular disease and diabetes may produce a clinical need to influence adipose tissue function. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions affect plasma cytokine and adipokine levels. The...

  2. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  3. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R. B.; Jones, M.; Forsberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females......, adjusting for confounders (area, age, smoking history, and number of elder siblings) and also mutually adjusting associations with adipokines and fatness measures. ResultsOne thousand nine hundred and fifty-five subjects aged 16-77years had information on leptin or adiponectin levels. Leptin and leptin...

  4. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  5. Potential Mechanisms of Exercise in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. This condition shares same array of underlying abnormalities as occurs in diabetes outside of pregnancy, for example, genetic and environmental causes. However, the role of a sedentary lifestyle and/or excess energy intake is more prominent in GDM. Physically active women are less likely to develop GDM and other pregnancy-related diseases. Weight gain in pregnancy causes increased release of adipokines from adipose tissue; many adipokines increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Increased intramyocellular lipids also increase cellular oxidative stress with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. A well-planned program of exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, in spite of old myths, is also recommended during pregnancy. This paper briefly reviews the role of adipokines in gestational diabetes and attempts to shed some light on the mechanisms by which exercise can be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in GDM. In this regard, we discuss the mechanisms by which exercise increases insulin sensitivity, changes adipokine profile levels, and boosts antioxidant mechanisms.

  6. Prostacyclin synthase activity regulates the adipose depot specific IL-6 secretion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogston, N. C.; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M.; Duchen, M.; Horáková, Olga; Kopecký, Jan; Johnston, S.; Speakman, J.; Fry, C.; Mohamed-Ali, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2007), S69-S69 ISSN 0307-0565. [European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * adipokines * IL-6 * cyclooxygenase-2 Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  7. Cinnamon extract regulates plasma levels of adipose-derived factors and expression of multiple genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of fructose-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    We reported previously that a dietary cinnamon extract (CE) improves systemic insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia by enhancing insulin signaling. In the present study, we examined the effects of CE on several biomarkers including plasma levels of adipose-derived adipokines, and the potential molec...

  8. Disease: H01703 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01703 Eating Disorders, including: Anorexia nervosa; Bulimia nervosa; Binge eatin...is dysfunction and alterations in adipokine and appetite regulating hormone levels. Bulimia...cteristic eating disturbances of Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa. ... JOURNAL ... Ap

  9. Resistin Regulates Pituitary Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Pacheco, F.; Novelle, M. G.; Vazquez, M. J.; Garcia-Escobar, E.; Soriguer, F.; Rojo-Martinez, G.; García-Fuentes, E.; Malagon, M. M.; Dieguez, C.

    2013-01-01

    The adipokine resistin is an insulin-antagonizing factor that also plays a regulatory role in inflammation, immunity, food intake, and gonadal function and also regulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in rat adenopituitary cells cultures with the adipokine. Although adipose tissue is the primary source of resistin, it is also expressed in other tissues, including the pituitary. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible action of resistin on the lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland in vivo (rats in two different nutritional status, fed and fast, treated with resistin on acute and a chronic way) and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine). Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we demonstrated that central acute and chronic administration of resistin enhance mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes which participated on lipolysis and moreover inhibiting mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes involved in lipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that resistin has a regulatory role on lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland providing a novel insight in relation to the mechanism by which this adipokine can participate in the integrated control of lipid metabolism. PMID:23710116

  10. Regulation of Nutrient Metabolism and Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic and immune-related pathways intersect at numerous levels. Their common regulation is effectuated by several hormonal signaling routes that involve specific nuclear hormone receptors and adipokines. Glucocorticoids and leptin are hormones that play a key role in coordinating energy

  11. Short Communication Single nucleotide polymorphisms in five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity in candidate genes for fitness and production traits was explored in three populations of dairy cattle. The study focused on adipokines, including leptin (LEP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin-8 (IL8) and interleukin-10 (IL10) as candidate genes. The three populations of interest included young ...

  12. The role of Tip60 in adipogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Besides providing insulation and protection against mechanical stress, white adipose tissue (WAT) has long been recognized as a storage depot for excess energy. WAT also releases a wide range of adipokines, which for example regulate immune responses, blood pressure and reproduction. Expansion of

  13. Effect of acute hyperinsulinaemia with and without angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on resistin and adiponectin concentrations and expressions in healthy subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krušinová, E.; Klementová, M.; Kopecký, J.; Wohl, P.; Kazdová, L.; Mlejnek, Petr; Pravenec, Michal; Hill, M.; Pelikánová, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 4 (2007), s. 437-442 ISSN 0804-4643 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NR8821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : hyperinsulinemia * losartan * adipokines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.239, year: 2007

  14. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  15. Elevated resistin levels in cirrhosis are associated with the proinflammatory state and altered hepatic glucose metabolism but not with insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahr, Matthias J.; Ockenga, Johann; Boeker, Klaus H. W.; Manns, Michael P.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    The adipokine resistin has been implicated in obesity and insulin resistance. Liver cirrhosis is associated with decreased body fat mass and insulin resistance. We determined plasma resistin levels in 57 patients with cirrhosis, 13 after liver transplantation, and 30 controls and correlated these

  16. Resistin Is More Abundant in Liver Than Adipose Tissue and Is Not Up-Regulated by Lipopolysaccharide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szalowska, Ewa; Elferink, Marieke G. L.; Hoek, Annemiek; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Vonk, Roel J.

    Context: Resistin is an adipokine correlated with inflammatory markers and is predictive for cardiovascular diseases. There is evidence that serum resistin levels are elevated in obese patients; however, the role of resistin in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes remains controversial. Objective:

  17. Plasma resistin, adiponectin, and risk of incident atrial fibrillation : The Framingham Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michel; Sun, Jenny X.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Frankel, David S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Levy, Daniel; Magnani, Jared W.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Meigs, James B.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate whether higher concentrations of resistin and lower concentrations of adiponectin relate to incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and whether this association is mediated by AF risk factors and inflammation. Resistin and adiponectin are adipokines that have been

  18. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass and phospholipid transfer protein activity are associated with leptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; de Vries, R.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Tol, A.; Sluiter, W. J.

    Adipose tissue contributes to plasma levels of lipid transfer proteins and is also the major source of plasma adipokines. We hypothesized that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET, a measure of CETP

  19. Serum Vaspin Levels Are Associated with the Development of Clinically Manifest Arthritis in Autoantibody-Positive Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijer, Karen I.; Neumann, Elena; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Drop, Daniël A. C. A. D.; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H.; Choi, Ivy Y. K.; Gerlag, Daniëlle M.; de Hair, Maria J. H.; Tak, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that overweight may increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in autoantibody positive individuals. Adipose tissue could contribute to the development of RA by production of various bioactive peptides. Therefore, we examined levels of adipokines in serum and

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Oral Administration of Energy Drinks on Blood Chemistry, Tissue Histology and Brain Acetylcholine in Rabbits Abstract · Vol 22, No 1 (2012) - Articles Circulating Adipokine levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria Abstract · Vol 22, No 3 (2012) - Articles Aluminium-induced Liver and Testicular Damage: ...

  1. Serum obestatin and omentin levels in patients with diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-08

    Apr 8, 2016 ... neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and immune systems by secreting proteins and other products (called adipokines), as well as responding to neural, ... regulation and the insulin‑sensitivity surrogate homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of IR indicating an important role for obestatin in body weight ...

  2. The infrapatellar fat pad of patients with osteoarthritis has an inflammatory phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Wieringa, I. R.; Kloppenburg, M.; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y. M.; Yusuf, E.; Kwekkeboom, J. C.; El-Bannoudi, H.; Nelissen, R. G. H. H.; Zuurmond, A.; Stojanovic-Susulic, V.; Van Osch, G. J. V. M.; Toes, R. E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, A.

    Objectives Obesity is a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) in hands and knees. Adipose tissue can secrete different adipokines with powerful immunomodulatory effects. The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) is an intra-articular organ in the vicinity of the synovium and cartilage. It is

  3. High-fat diet enhances and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 deficiency reduces bone loss in mice with pulmonary metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone is adversely affected by metastasis and metastasis-associated complications. Obesity is a risk factor for both bone and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), that contribute to obesity and obesit...

  4. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not related to metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eman T. Mehanna

    2014-11-27

    Nov 27, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Apelin is an adipokine that was identified to play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Apelin rs2235306 gene polymorphism was linked to insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. Aim of the study: To assess the relation of apelin rs2235306 polymorphism with metabolic ...

  5. Aripiprazole-induced adverse metabolic alterations in polyl:C neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horská, K.; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Dražanová, Eva; Karpíšek, M.; Demlová, R.; Kašpárek, T.; Kotolová, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, SEP (2017), s. 148-158 ISSN 0028-3908 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : adipokine * aripiprazole * leptin * polyl:C * schizophrenia * wistar rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: 1.7 Other natural sciences Impact factor: 5.012, year: 2016

  6. Endotrophin triggers adipose tissue fibrosis and metabolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Gupta, Olga T

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model to demonst...

  7. Plasma apolipoprotein M is reduced in metabolic syndrome but does not predict intima media thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dullaart, Robin P F; Plomgaard, Peter; de Vries, Rindert

    2009-01-01

    S) subjects, and determined whether intima media thickness (IMT) is associated with apoM. METHODS: In 19 non-diabetic subjects with and 60 non-diabetic subjects without MetS (NCEP, ATP III criteria), the relationships of plasma apoM with obesity, glucose, insulin, lipids and adipokines, as well as with IMT...

  8. Resistin Regulates Pituitary Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodriguez-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipokine resistin is an insulin-antagonizing factor that also plays a regulatory role in inflammation, immunity, food intake, and gonadal function and also regulates growth hormone (GH secretion in rat adenopituitary cells cultures with the adipokine. Although adipose tissue is the primary source of resistin, it is also expressed in other tissues, including the pituitary. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible action of resistin on the lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland in vivo (rats in two different nutritional status, fed and fast, treated with resistin on acute and a chronic way and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine. Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we demonstrated that central acute and chronic administration of resistin enhance mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes which participated on lipolysis and moreover inhibiting mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes involved in lipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that resistin has a regulatory role on lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland providing a novel insight in relation to the mechanism by which this adipokine can participate in the integrated control of lipid metabolism.

  9. Branched Chain Amino Acids Are Associated with Insulin Resistance Independent of Leptin and Adiponectin in Subjects with Varying Degrees of Glucose Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connelly, Margery A.; Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin influence insulin resistance and reflect adipocyte dysfunction. We examined the

  10. CST, an Herbal Formula, Exerts Anti-Obesity Effects through Brain-Gut-Adipose Tissue Axis Modulation in High-Fat Diet Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbuZar Ansari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain, gut, and adipose tissue interact to control metabolic pathways, and impairment in the brain-gut-adipose axis can lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity. Chowiseungcheng-tang (CST, a herbal formulation, is frequently used to treat metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of CST and its link with brain-gut-adipose axis using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The animals were provided with a normal research diet (NRD or high-fat diet (HFD in absence or presence of CST or orlistat (ORL for 12 weeks. CST had a significant anti-obesity effect on a number of vital metabolic and obesity-related parameters in HFD-fed mice. CST significantly decreased the expression levels of genes encoding obesity-promoting neuropeptides (agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and increased the mRNA levels of obesity-suppressing neuropeptides (proopiomelanocortin, cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the hypothalamus. CST also effectively decreased the expression level of gene encoding obesity-promoting adipokine (retinol-binding protein-4 and increased the mRNA level of obesity-suppressing adipokine (adiponectin in visceral adipose tissue (VAT. Additionally, CST altered the gut microbial composition in HFD groups, a phenomenon strongly associated with key metabolic parameters, neuropeptides, and adipokines. Our findings reveal that the anti-obesity impact of CST is mediated through modulation of metabolism-related neuropeptides, adipokines, and gut microbial composition.

  11. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among...

  12. Analysis of the effect of Qizhuyigan on liver function in a mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in methamphetamine-treated rat brain and their correlation. Chin J of Drug Dependence 2007; 16(2):. 102-104. 18. Yin HZ, Zhao CY, Liu YH, Song YG. Role of two kinds of adipokines on hepatocellular apoptosis in mice with acute liver injury. Basic Clin Med 2009; 29(10): 1070-. 1074. 19. Sun J, Walsh M, Villarino AV, Cervi ...

  13. LC-MS/MS analysis of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue proteomes in young goats with focus on innate immunity and inflammation related proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restelli, Laura; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Savoini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    and visceral adipose tissues of goat, focusing on proteins involved in immune and inflammatory response. A 2-D LC-MS/MS approach followed by cluster analysis shows a clear distinction between subcutaneous and visceral fat tissue proteomes, and qualitative RT-PCR based analysis of 30 potential adipokines...

  14. Adipose tissue was traditionally been viewed as an inert storage depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Science

    Genetic diversity in candidate genes for fitness and production traits was explored in three populations of dairy cattle. The study focused on adipokines, including leptin (LEP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), .... advantage observed in cows homozygous for the T allele, could represent a major economic advantage to.

  15. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine - Vol 22, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Periodontal Treatments Performed at the Periodontology Clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital: 22 Months Review. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... Circulating Adipokine levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria. T Oshodi, OAT Ebuehi, O Ojewunmi, I Udenze, ...

  16. Human Adipose Tissue Conditioned Media from Lean Subjects Is Protective against H2O2 Induced Neurotoxicity in Human SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxiao Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue secretes numerous hormone-like factors, which are known as adipokines. Adipokine receptors have been identified in the central nervous system but the potential role of adipokine signaling in neuroprotection is unclear. The aim of this study is to determine (1 Whether adipokines secreted from cultured adipose tissue of lean humans is protective against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells; and (2 To explore potential signaling pathways involved in these processes. Adipose tissue conditioned media (ATCM from healthy lean subjects completely prevented H2O2 induced neurotoxicity, while this effect is lost after heating ATCM. ATCM activated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and Akt at serine 308 in SH-SY5Y cells. PD98059 (25 µM, SP600125 (5 µM and LY29400 (20 µM partially blocked the protective effects of ATCM against H2O2 induced neurotoxicity. Findings demonstrate that heat-sensitive factors secreted from human adipose tissue of lean subjects are protective against H2O2 induced neurotoxicity and ERK1/2, JNK, and PI3K signaling pathways are involved in these processes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates preliminary but encouraging data to further support that adipose tissue secreted factors from lean human subjects might possess neuroprotective properties and unravel the specific roles of ERK1/2, JNK and PI3K in these processes.

  17. CST, an Herbal Formula, Exerts Anti-Obesity Effects through Brain-Gut-Adipose Tissue Axis Modulation in High-Fat Diet Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, AbuZar; Bose, Shambhunath; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Jing-Hua; Song, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Hojun

    2016-11-11

    The brain, gut, and adipose tissue interact to control metabolic pathways, and impairment in the brain-gut-adipose axis can lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity. Chowiseungcheng-tang (CST), a herbal formulation, is frequently used to treat metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of CST and its link with brain-gut-adipose axis using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The animals were provided with a normal research diet (NRD) or high-fat diet (HFD) in absence or presence of CST or orlistat (ORL) for 12 weeks. CST had a significant anti-obesity effect on a number of vital metabolic and obesity-related parameters in HFD-fed mice. CST significantly decreased the expression levels of genes encoding obesity-promoting neuropeptides (agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y), and increased the mRNA levels of obesity-suppressing neuropeptides (proopiomelanocortin, cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript) in the hypothalamus. CST also effectively decreased the expression level of gene encoding obesity-promoting adipokine (retinol-binding protein-4) and increased the mRNA level of obesity-suppressing adipokine (adiponectin) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Additionally, CST altered the gut microbial composition in HFD groups, a phenomenon strongly associated with key metabolic parameters, neuropeptides, and adipokines. Our findings reveal that the anti-obesity impact of CST is mediated through modulation of metabolism-related neuropeptides, adipokines, and gut microbial composition.

  18. Direct comparison of health effects by dietary polyphenols at equimolar doses in wildtype moderate high-fat fed C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Schothorst, E. M.; Bunschoten, A.; Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; van der Stelt, I.; Janovská, Petra; Venema, D.; Kopecký, Jan; Hollman, P. C. H.; Keijer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, part A (2014), s. 95-102 ISSN 0963-9969 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10059 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : polyphenols * intervention * adipokines * adipose tissue * transcriptomics Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.818, year: 2014

  19. Identification of SNPs in chemerin gene and association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemerin is a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism via its own receptor. In this study, two novel SNPs (868A>G in exon 2 and 2692C>T in exon 5) of chemerin gene were identified by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing technology. The allele frequencies of the novel SNPs were determined ...

  20. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using.......001) and VAT% in boys (R2=16.4%, PAnthropometry and circulating leptin are valid markers of SAT%, but not of VAT%....

  1. Adipose tissue as an immunological organ : implications for childhood obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is increasingly considered as an inflammatory disorder. In adults, obesity induces inflammation of adipose tissue (AT). Through the release of inflammatory lipids and immune mediating proteins called adipokines, AT inflammation spreads to other tissues ranging from liver and muscle to the

  2. Adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in preeclampsia in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adiponectin and Leptin are closely related adipokines that are associated with the oxidative stresses and endothelial dysfunction and proposed to participate in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. This study is to determine changes in serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in PE women in order to speculate a ...

  3. The relationship between obesity, leptin, adiponectin and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide. In South Africa, older and urbanised African women have significantly higher rates of obesity. Limited information is available on the relationship between anthropometric parameters, adipokines and metabolic health status of African women. This study investigated the ...

  4. BATTLE (Biomarker-based Approach of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    offspring were fertile and had normal growth rates, suggesting that the genetic changes did not alter normal development. We first determined whether...cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(2):222–234. 23. Bozaoglu K, Bolton K, McMillan J, et al. Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and

  5. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not related to metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apelin is an adipokine that was identified to play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Apelin rs2235306 gene polymorphism was linked to insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. Aim of the study: To assess the relation of apelin rs2235306 polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and its ...

  6. Serum Visfatin in Relation to Some Parameters of Iron Metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Visfatin is an adipokine mainly synthesized and secreted in visceral fat. Visfatin was found to have important proinflammatory and immunomodulating properties. The aim of the present work was to clarify the relation between plasma visfatin, some parameters of iron metabolism and insulin resistance in altered glucose ...

  7. Do patients with aggressive periodontitis have evidence of diabetes? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R C; Jaedicke, K M; Barksby, H E; Jitprasertwong, P; Al-Shahwani, R M; Taylor, J J; Preshaw, P M

    2011-12-01

    Complex relationships exist between diabetes and periodontal disease. Diabetes is accepted as a risk factor for periodontal disease, and recent evidence supports the existence of a bidirectional relationship between these two diseases. It has been hypothesized that inflammation, lipids and adipokines may mediate these relationships. However, research regarding the above relationships with respect to aggressive periodontitis is very limited. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether patients with aggressive periodontitis (not previously diagnosed with diabetes) have evidence of diabetes and have altered serum levels of inflammatory mediators, lipids and adipokines. Glycaemic control markers (random plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin), inflammatory mediators (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interferon-γ and interleukin-18), lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were measured in serum samples from 30 patients with aggressive periodontitis and 30 age- and sex-matched periodontally healthy control subjects, none of whom had a previous diagnosis of diabetes. Levels of glycaemic control markers, inflammatory mediators, lipids and adipokines were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the aggressive periodontitis patients and healthy subjects for unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusting for body mass index, smoking, ethnicity, age and sex). The p-value for the adjusted analysis of adiponectin in female aggressive periodontitis patients compared with the female control subjects reached 0.064, the mean adiponectin level being lower in the female aggressive periodontitis patients (4.94 vs. 5.97 μg/mL). This pilot study provided no evidence to suggest that patients with aggressive periodontitis (not previously diagnosed with diabetes) have evidence of diabetes or altered serum levels of inflammatory

  8. Adiponectin induced AMP-activated protein kinase impairment mediates insulin resistance in Bama mini-pig fed high-fat and high-sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks. Plasma glucose and blood biochemistry levels were measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Adipokines, including adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and glucose-induced insulin secretion were also examined by radioimmunoassay. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed by Pearce’s correlation analysis. Results Obese pigs showed hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and IL-6 amounts dramatically increased (p<0.05 in obese pigs both in serum and adipose tissue, corroborating data from obese mice and humans. However, circulating resistin and TNF-α showed no difference, while the values of TNF-α in adipose tissue were significantly higher in obese pigs, also in agreement with data from obese humans but not rodent models. Moreover, strong associations of skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adiponectin and HOMA-IR index were obtained. Conclusion AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. In addition, Bama mini-pig has the possibility of a conformable

  9. Targeting the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ to Counter the Inflammatory Milieu in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Corzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue, which was once viewed as a simple organ for storage of triglycerides, is now considered an important endocrine organ. Abnormal adipose tissue mass is associated with defects in endocrine and metabolic functions which are the underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome. Many adipokines, hormones secreted by adipose tissue, regulate cells from the immune system. Interestingly, most of these adipokines are proinflammatory mediators, which increase dramatically in the obese state and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Drugs that target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of diabetes. These findings, and the link between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, will be reviewed here.

  10. The role of adiponectin in reproduction: from polycystic ovary syndrome to assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos G; Segars, James H

    2010-11-01

    To summarize the effects of the adipokine adiponectin on the reproductive endocrine system, from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to the gonads and target tissues of the reproductive system. A Medline computer search was performed to identify relevant articles. Research institution. None. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that acts to reduce insulin resistance and atherogenic damage, but it also exerts actions in other tissues. Adiponectin mediates its actions in the periphery mainly via two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Adiponectin receptors are present in many reproductive tissues, including the central nervous system, ovaries, oviduct, endometrium, and testes. Adiponectin influences gonadotropin release, normal pregnancy, and assisted reproduction outcomes. Adiponectin, a beneficial adipokine, represents a major link between obesity and reproduction. Higher levels of adiponectin are associated with improved menstrual function and better outcomes in assisted reproductive cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. High serum resistin is associated with an increase in adiposity but not a worsening of insulin resistance in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; Degawa-Yamauchi, Mikako; Considine, Robert V

    2004-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine with putative prodiabetogenic properties. Like other hormones secreted by adipose tissue, resistin is being investigated as a possible etiologic link between excessive adiposity and insulin resistance. Although there is growing evidence that circulating levels...... of this adipokine are proportional to the degree of adiposity, an effect on insulin resistance in humans remains unproven. To evaluate the relations among resistin, obesity, and insulin resistance, we measured fasting serum resistin levels in 113 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (ages 29...... +/- 7 years, body fat 31 +/- 8%, resistin 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml [means +/- SD]), who were characterized for body composition (assessed by hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), whole-body insulin sensitivity (M; assessed by hyperinsulinemic clamp), basal hepatic glucose output (BHGO...

  12. Effects of bariatric surgery on the level of hormones that regulate body weight. What is the basis of success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Yur'evna Babenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of obesity and type 2 diabetes incidence has made bariatric surgery a widespread method of treatment. The effectiveness of bariatricoperations in the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases is thoroughly highlighted in medical literature. However, the resultsof surgery do not always correlate with type of operation. As before, the mechanisms have not been fully studied of how the bariatric surgeryinfluence on insulinresistance, entero-insulin axes, adipokines. Understanding such mechanisms will allow us to determine more precisely theindications relating to surgical treatment, and enhance the effectiveness of surgery in specific patient. The review is focusing on the influence ofvarious types of bariatric surgery on the level of adipokines and incretines that participate in regulation of appetite and of fat and carbohydratemetabolism. The article elaborates modern concepts related to the impact of bariatric operations on metabolic disorders in obesity.

  13. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Cato, Liam D; Miah, Mohammed A L; Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gonzalez, Ana M; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. PMID:27186074

  14. Serum Leptin and Skeletal Differences between Obese and Non-Obese Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Koršić, Marta; Kušec, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects body composition, adipokine secretion, and skeletal integrity. The aim was to determine the association between leptin, body mass (BM) and body composition parameters - fat mass (FM) and fat mass index (FMI), lean tissue mass (LTM), lean tissue mass index (LTMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) in 67 male COPD patients. Methods: BM, body composition and biochemical indicators were measured or calculated using standard methods. Data...

  15. Leptin, adiponectin and pulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Assad, Nour; Sood, Akshay

    2012-10-01

    Adipose tissue produces leptin and adiponectin - energy-regulating adipokines that may also play a role in inflammatory pulmonary conditions, as suggested by some murine studies. Leptin and adiponectin and their respective receptors are expressed in the human lung. The association between systemic or airway leptin and asthma in humans is currently controversial, particularly among adults. The majority of the evidence among children however suggests that systemic leptin may be associated with greater asthma prevalence and severity, particularly among prepubertal boys and peripubertal/postpubertal girls. Systemic and airway leptin concentrations may also be disproportionately higher in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, particularly among women, and reflect greater airway inflammation and disease severity. Quite like leptin, the association between systemic and airway adiponectin and asthma in humans is also controversial. Some but not all studies, demonstrate that serum adiponectin concentrations are protective against asthma among premenopausal women and peripubertal girls. On the other hand, serum adiponectin concentrations are inversely associated with asthma severity among boys but positively associated among men. Further, systemic and airway adiponectin concentrations are higher in COPD patients than controls, as demonstrated by case-control studies of men. Systemic adiponectin is also positively associated with lung function in healthy adults but inversely associated with lung function in subjects with COPD. It is therefore possible that pro-inflammatory effects of adiponectin dominate under certain physiologic conditions and anti-inflammatory effects under others. The adipokine-lung disease literature has critical gaps that include a lack of adequately powered longitudinal or weight-intervention studies; inadequate adjustment for confounding effect of obesity; and unclear understanding of potential sex interactions. It is also uncertain

  16. A influência da gordura visceral e subcutânea na densidade mineral óssea de adolescentes obesos

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Raquel M. S.; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise; Mello, Marco Túlio de; Tock, Lian; Silva, Patricia L.; Corgosinho, Flávia C.; Carnier, June; Piano, Aline de; Sanches, Priscila L.; Masquio, Deborah C. L.; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the influence of visceral and subcutaneous fat, as well adipokines in bone mineral density (BMD) in obese adolescents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 125 postpubertal obese adolescents (45 boys and 80 girls). Anthropometric measurements, body composition, visceral and subcutaneous fat, and BMD were determined. Leptin, adiponectin, and insulin levels also analyzed. RESULTS: Data demonstrated a negative relationship between BMD with insulin resistance, visceral fa...

  17. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Fernando Milanez; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Daumann, Francine; de Oliveira Marques, Schérolin; Luciano, Thais F; Possato, Jonathan Correa; de Santana, Aline Alves; Neves, Rodrigo Xavier; Rosa, José Cesar; Oyama, Lila Missae; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; de Lira, Fabio Santos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue. To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet...

  18. Serum Vaspin Levels Are Associated with the Development of Clinically Manifest Arthritis in Autoantibody-Positive Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen I Maijer

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that overweight may increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA in autoantibody positive individuals. Adipose tissue could contribute to the development of RA by production of various bioactive peptides. Therefore, we examined levels of adipokines in serum and synovial tissue of subjects at risk of RA.Fifty-one individuals positive for immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA, without arthritis, were included in this prospective study. Levels of adiponectin, vaspin, resistin, leptin, chemerin and omentin were determined in baseline fasting serum samples (n = 27. Synovial tissue was obtained by arthroscopy at baseline and we examined the expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin by immunohistochemistry.The development of clinically manifest arthritis after follow-up was associated with baseline serum vaspin levels (HR1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.020, also after adjustment for overweight (HR1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.5; p = 0.016. This association was not seen for other adipokines. Various serum adipokine levels correlated with BMI (adiponectin r = -0.538, leptin r = 0.664; chemerin r = 0.529 and systemic markers of inflammation such as CRP levels at baseline (adiponectin r = -0.449, omentin r = -0.557, leptin r = 0.635, chemerin r = 0.619, resistin r = 0.520 and ESR (leptin r = 0.512, chemerin r = 0.708, p-value<0.05. Synovial expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin was not associated with development of clinically manifest arthritis.In this exploratory study, serum adipokines were associated with an increased inflammatory state in autoantibody-positive individuals at risk of developing RA. Furthermore, serum vaspin levels may assist in predicting the development of arthritis in these individuals.

  19. Weight loss after gastric bypass surgery in women is followed by a metabolically favorable decrease in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonyte, Kotryna; Olsson, Tommy; Näslund, Ingmar

    2010-01-01

    The role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1) in the pathogenesis of obesity has been elucidated in humans and in various rodent models. Obesity is accompanied by disturbances in glucocorticoid metabolism, circulating adipokine levels, and fatty acid (FA) reesterification....... This study was undertaken to evaluate glucocorticoid metabolism in sc fat before and after weight loss and to explore putative associations between 11beta-HSD1 and leptin, adiponectin, and FA recycling....

  20. Metabolic consequences of a Paleolithic diet in obese postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, is associated with elevated fatty acids and pro-inflammatory adipokines, which are linked to ectopic fat storage and insulin resistance. During menopause, there is a redistribution of fat from the peripheral to abdominal depots. This transition is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that a Paleolithic diet, with high proportions of lean meat, fish, vegetables, fruits, and oils,...

  1. Défenses antioxydantes, inflammation et immunomodulation, au cours du diabète gestationnel, dans les compartiments maternel, foetal et placentaire

    OpenAIRE

    Grissa, Oussama

    2010-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as ‘carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy’, irrespective to necessary treatment and its evolution in the post partum. GDM is associated with a number of complications/ pathologies both in mother and in their newborns, with short and long-term. In this study, we investigated the role of cytokines, adipokines and antioxidant status during GDM and macrosomia. Our study has demonstrated that th...

  2. Effect of intermittent PTH treatment on plasma glucose in osteoporosis: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Patrizia; Sassi, Francesca; Buondonno, Ilaria; Spertino, Elena; Tamone, Cristina; Piano, Simonetta; Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effect of bone turnover on glucose homeostasis, fat distribution and adipokine production during anabolic treatment with PTH. This is a parallel, randomized controlled, open label, trial. The randomization was done by computer generated tables to allocate treatments. Forty-six postmenopausal osteoporotic non-diabetic women were assigned to treatment with calcium and colecalcipherol with (24) or without (22) PTH 1-84. Patients were recalled after 3, 6, 12 and 18 months of treatment and markers of bone turnover, glucose metabolism, adipokine secretion and fat distribution were analyzed. Markers of bone turnover and adipokines were measured by ELISA. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by an oral glucose load test and insulin resistance and secretion were calculated. Fat and lean mass were evaluated by anthropometric measures. The effect of treatment on measured variables was analyzed by repeated measure test, and its effect on glucose was also evaluated by mediation analysis after correction for possible confounders. Twenty patients in the calcium and vitamin D groups and 19 in the group treated with PTH 1-84 completed the study. There were no significance adverse events. Treatment with PTH increases osteocalcin, both total (OC) and undercarboxylated (uOC), and decreases blood glucose, without influence on insulin secretion, resistance and pancreatic β cell function. Treatment with PTH does not influence fat distribution and adipokine production. The results of the mediation analyses suggest a total effect of PTH on blood glucose, moderately mediated by OC and to a less extent by uOC. Here we suggest that treatment with PTH influences glucose metabolism partially through its effect on bone turnover, without influence on insulin secretion, resistance, pancreatic β cell function and fat mass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of bariatric surgery on the level of hormones that regulate body weight. What is the basis of success?

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Yur'evna Babenko; Aleksandr Evgen'evich Neymark; Kristina Aleksandrovna Anisimova; Elena Nikolaevna Nikolaevna Grineva Elena Nikolaevna

    2014-01-01

    The growth of obesity and type 2 diabetes incidence has made bariatric surgery a widespread method of treatment. The effectiveness of bariatricoperations in the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases is thoroughly highlighted in medical literature. However, the resultsof surgery do not always correlate with type of operation. As before, the mechanisms have not been fully studied of how the bariatric surgeryinfluence on insulinresistance, entero-insulin axes, adipokines. Understan...

  4. Common variants in LEPR, IL6, AMD1, and NAMPT do not associate with risk of juvenile and childhood obesity in Danes: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Hollensted, Mette; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Have, Christian Theil; Grarup, Niels; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Trier, C?cilie; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Oluf; Holm, Jens-Christian; S?rensen, Thorkild I A; Hansen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a highly heritable disorder, for which the underlying genetic architecture is largely unknown. Four common variants involved in inflammatory-adipokine triggering (IL6 rs2069845, LEPR rs1137100, NAMPT rs3801266, and AMD1 rs2796749) have recently been associated with obesity and related traits in Indian children. The current study aimed to examine the effect of these variants on risk of childhood/juvenile onset obesity and on obesity-related quantitative traits ...

  5. Adiposity distribution influences circulating adiponectin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Mitchell; James, Roland; Marks, Jacqueline; Zhao, Shi; Szabo, Aniko; Kidambi, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Thirty percent of obese individuals are metabolically healthy and were noted have increased peripheral obesity. Adipose tissue is the primary source of adiponectin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Lower adiponectin levels are observed in individuals with obesity and those at risk for cardiovascular disease. Conversely, higher levels are noted in some obese individuals who are metabolically healthy. Our objective was to determine whether abdominal adipos...

  6. Visfatin expression analysis in association with recruitment and activation of human and rodent brown and brite adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Didier F.; Dumortier, Olivier; Beranger, Guillaume E.; Casamento, Virginie; Ghandour, Rayane A.; Giroud, Maude; Gautier, Nadine; Balaguer, Thierry; Chambard, Jean-Claude; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nuutila, Pirjo; Niemi, Tarja; Taittonen, Markku; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Hinault, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Human brown adipocytes are able to burn fat and glucose and are now considered as a potential strategy to treat obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders. Besides their thermogenic function, brown adipocytes are able to secrete adipokines. One of these is visfatin, a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase involved in nicotinamide dinucleotide synthesis, which is known to participate in the synthesis of insulin by pancreatic β cells. In a therapeutic context, it is of interest to establ...

  7. Obesity-Associated Biomarkers and Executive Function in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Alison L.; Jong, Hannah; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing focus on links between obesity and cognitive decline in adulthood, including Alzheimer’s disease. It is also increasingly recognized that obesity in youth is associated with poorer cognitive function, specifically executive functioning skills such as inhibitory control and working memory, which are critical for academic achievement. Emerging literature provides evidence for possible biological mechanisms driven by obesity; obesity-associated biomarkers such as adipokines, o...

  8. Dose-dependent effects of atorvastatin on myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarash O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olga Barbarash, Olga Gruzdeva, Evgenya Uchasova, Ekaterina Belik, Yulia Dyleva, Victoria KaretnikovaFederal State Budgetary Institution, Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, the Russian Federation Background: Dyslipidemia is a key factor determining the development of both myocardial infarction (MI and its subsequent complications. Dyslipidemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction, activation of inflammation, thrombogenesis, and formation of insulin resistance. Statin therapy is thought to be effective for primary and secondary prevention of complications associated with atherosclerosis.Methods: This study examined 210 patients with Segment elevated MI (ST elevated MI who were treated with atorvastatin from the first 24 hours after MI. Group 1 (n=110 were given atorvastatin 20 mg/day. Group 2 (n=100 were given atorvastatin 40 mg/day. At days 1 and 12 after MI onset, insulin resistance levels determined by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, lipid profiles, and serum glucose, insulin, adipokine, and ghrelin levels were measured.Results: Free fatty acid levels showed a sharp increase during the acute phase of MI. Treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg/day, and especially with 40 mg/day, resulted in a decrease in free fatty acid levels. The positive effect of low-dose atorvastatin (20 mg/day is normalization of the adipokine status. Administration of atorvastatin 20 mg/day was accompanied with a statistically significant reduction in glucose levels (by 14% and C-peptide levels (by 38%, and a decrease in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index on day 12.Conclusion: Determination of atorvastatin dose and its use during the in-hospital period and subsequent periods should take into account changes in biochemical markers of insulin resistance and adipokine status in patients with MI.Keywords: myocardial infarction, statin, insulin resistance, adipokines

  9. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya, E-mail: suzukis@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup −/−}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup −/−} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup −/−} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.

  10. Resistin in Rodents and Humans

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    Park, Hyeong Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by excess accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue and other organs, and chronic inflammation associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases are major health concerns. Resistin was first discovered as an adipose-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. Adipocyte-derived resistin is increased in obese rodents and strongly related to insulin resis...

  11. The Liposuction-Induced Effects on Adiponectin and Selected Cytokines Are Not Affected by Exercise Training in Women

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    Marina Yazigi Solis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the abrupt liposuction-induced decrease in adipose tissue could affect adipokine secretion pattern. We hypothesized that exercise training could positively impact adipokine metabolism following liposuction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liposuction on inflammation-related adipokines in women who were either exercise-trained or remained sedentary after surgery. Thirty-six healthy normal-weight women underwent an abdominal liposuction and two months after surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TR, n=18, four-month exercise program and nontrained (NT, n=18. Inflammation-related adipokine serum levels (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and adiponectin and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT mRNA levels were assessed before (PRE and six months after surgery (POST6. TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels were unchanged in both groups. In contrast, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA levels in scAT were increased, whereas adiponectin scAT mRNA and serum levels were decreased at POST6 (P<0.05, main effect for time. No changes were observed in mRNA levels of MCP-1, CD14, and CD68 in any of the groups. In conclusion, liposuction downregulates adiponectin scAT gene expression and serum levels and upregulates scAT gene expression of inflammation-related genes six months after surgery in normal-weight women, irrespective of exercise training.

  12. High leptin levels are associated with migraine with aura.

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    Pisanu, Claudia; Preisig, Martin; Castelao, Enrique; Glaus, Jennifer; Cunningham, Janet L; Del Zompo, Maria; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Schiöth, Helgi B; Mwinyi, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Background Migraine is a prevalent disorder characterised by recurrent headache attacks preceded or accompanied by aura in a subgroup of patients. Migraine often occurs together with major depressive disorder (MDD). Alterations of adipokine levels have been reported both in migraine and in MDD. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the associations between serum leptin and adiponectin levels and migraine or migraine subtypes. Analyses were adjusted for a lifetime history of MDD in order to investigate the association between adipokines and migraine under consideration of depression status. Methods We included 3025 participants from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study. The impact of leptin and adiponectin levels on a diagnosis of migraine was analysed by binary regression analyses, adjusting for variables known to influence adipokine levels. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the presence of aura. Results Crude leptin levels were significantly higher in subjects with migraine than controls (Mann-Whitney U = 515,102, p = 6 × 10 -7 ). When performing adjusted analyses, leptin levels were found to be significantly higher in subjects with migraine (odds ratio = 1.22, p = 0.024) and migraine with aura (odds ratio = 1.34, p = 0.004). Conclusion High leptin levels might play a role in the pathogenesis of migraine and migraine with aura.

  13. Olive oil attenuates the cholesterol-induced development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis despite increased insulin resistance in a rodent model.

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    Buettner, R; Ascher, M; Gäbele, E; Hellerbrand, C; Kob, R; Bertsch, T; Bollheimer, L C

    2013-10-01

    It is indefinite whether nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) results as by-product from general metabolic perturbations and adipokine dysregulations or whether defined dietary factors also play a pathogenetic role. Here, we examine the effects of a modification of dietary lipids in a NASH inducing diet on metabolic changes as well as hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with variations of the atherogenic diet (AD), which induces pathophysiological changes resembling human NASH. Dietary variants (AD without cholesterol, cholate, or choline; change of neutral fat to olive oil or coconut oil) were fed for 8 weeks. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile, liver histology, and lipid content as well as expression of proinflammatory and profibrogenic genes were examined. AD led to clear signs of hepatic steatosis and inflammation together with an increase in TNF and collagen type 1 expression. AD without cholesterol showed markedly less liver damage without changes of insulin action and adipokine profile. AD with olive oil and AD without cholate clearly attenuated hepatic inflammation, whereas fat deposition and features of the metabolic syndrome were increased in these animals. Insulin resistance and hepatic fat deposition per se do not cause significant hepatic inflammation in this rodent model. However, dietary cholesterol is an important causal agent for the development of NASH. Olive oil plays a protective role in this respect, which might be due to the high content of monounsaturated fatty acids. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Cardioprotective properties of omentin-1 in type 2 diabetes: evidence from clinical and in vitro studies.

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    Sabrina Greulich

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Adipokines are linked to the development of cardiovascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (DM2. In DM2-patients, circulating levels of omentin-1, an adipokine preferentially expressed in epicardial adipose tissue, are decreased. This study investigated whether omentin-1 has a cardioprotective function. METHODS: Omentin-1 levels in plasma and cardiac fat depots were determined in DM2-patients versus controls. Moreover, the relation between omentin-1 levels and cardiac function was examined in men with uncomplicated DM2. Finally, we determined whether omentin-1 could reverse the induction of cardiomyocyte dysfunction by conditioned media derived from epicardial adipose tissue from patients with DM2. RESULTS: Omentin-1 was highly expressed and secreted by epicardial adipose tissue, and reduced in DM2. Circulating omentin-1 levels were lower in DM2 versus controls, and positively correlated with the diastolic parameters early peak filling rate, early deceleration peak and early deceleration mean (all P<0.05. The improved diastolic function following pioglitazone treatment associated with increases in omentin-1 levels (P<0.05. In vitro, exposure of cardiomyocytes to conditioned media derived from epicardial adipose tissue from patients with DM2 induced contractile dysfunction and insulin resistance, which was prevented by the addition of recombinant omentin. CONCLUSION: These data identify omentin-1 as a cardioprotective adipokine, and indicate that decreases in omentin-1 levels could contribute to the induction of cardiovascular dysfunction in DM2.

  15. Therapies for Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    J. Mendiola-Precoma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia associated with a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, with a prevalence of 44 million people throughout the world in 2015, and this figure is estimated to double by 2050. This disease is characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, and hypometabolism; it is related to amyloid-β peptide accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as a decrease in acetylcholine levels and a reduction of cerebral blood flow. Obesity is a major risk factor for AD, because it induces adipokine dysregulation, which consists of the release of the proinflammatory adipokines and decreased anti-inflammatory adipokines, among other processes. The pharmacological treatments for AD can be divided into two categories: symptomatic treatments such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonists and etiology-based treatments such as secretase inhibitors, amyloid binders, and tau therapies. Strategies for prevention of AD through nonpharmacological treatments are associated with lifestyle interventions such as exercise, mental challenges, and socialization as well as caloric restriction and a healthy diet. AD is an important health issue on which all people should be informed so that prevention strategies that minimize the risk of its development may be implemented.

  16. Effect of Weight Reduction Following Bariatric Surgery on Serum Visfatin and Adiponectin Levels in Morbidly Obese Subjects

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    Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipokines are signaling and mediator proteins secreted from adipose tissue. A novel adipokine, visfatin, was reported as a protein which was mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. Controversial results have been shown regarding the changes of adipokines following weight reduction. So we investigated the effects of weight reduction on serum concentrations of adiponectin and visfatin in morbidly obese subjects. Methods: 35 severely obese patients (26 females and 9 males, aged 15-58 years, were studied. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical parameters as well as adiponectin and visfatin were analyzed before and 6 weeks after weight reduction. Results: Anthropometric indices decreased significantly. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were reduced significantly. The reduction of visfatin and the elevation of adiponectin were significant as well. However, other parameters like fasting glucose and insulin did not change. Moreover, we could not find any significant correlation between the change of serum visfatin and that of adiponectin. Conclusions: 6-week weight reduction after bariatric surgery resulted in decreased serum visfatin and increased adiponectin levels. However, we cannot find any significant correlation between changes of adiponectin, visfatin, BMI, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. Further studies with different design are suggested to clarify these associations.

  17. A dwarf mouse model with decreased GH/IGF-1 activity that does not experience life-span extension: potential impact of increased adiposity, leptin, and insulin with advancing age.

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    Berryman, Darlene E; Lubbers, Ellen R; Magon, Vishakha; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2014-02-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) action is associated with extended longevity in many vertebrate species. GH receptor (GHR) null (GHR(-)(/-)) mice, which have a disruption in the GHR gene, are a well-studied example of mice that are insulin sensitive and long lived yet obese. However, unlike other mouse lines with reduced GH action, GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have reduced GH action yet exhibit a normal, not extended, life span. Understanding why GHA mice do not have extended life span though they share many physiological attributes with GHR(-)(/-) mice will help provide clues about how GH influences aging. For this study, we examined age- and sex-related changes in body composition, glucose homeostasis, circulating adipokines, and tissue weights in GHA mice and littermate controls. Compared with previous studies with GHR(-)(/-) mice, GHA mice had more significant increases in fat mass with advancing age. The increased obesity resulted in significant adipokine changes. Euglycemia was maintained in GHA mice; however, hyperinsulinemia developed in older male GHA mice. Overall, GHA mice experience a more substantial, generalized obesity accompanied by altered adipokine levels and glucose homeostasis than GHR(-)(/-) mice, which becomes more exaggerated with advancing age and which likely contributes to the lack of life-span extension in these mice.

  18. The role of chemerin in human disease

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    Magdalena Stojek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is not merely a storage depot of triacylglycerols but also a major endocrine organ. Its cells, including adipocytes, synthesize and secrete a range of biologically active molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines that display the properties of cytokines are often called adipocytokines. In recent years there has been increasing interest in a new adipokine called chemerin. Chemerin is a protein synthesized mostly by the adipose tissue and the liver as inactive pre-pro-chemerin. After the intracellular hydrolytic cutting off of the 20-amino-acid N-terminal polypeptide, it is secreted into the bloodstream as inactive pro-chemerin. Biologically active chemerin is then derived from pro-chemerin after cleavage of the C-terminal fragment by serum proteases involved in inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Proteolytic cleavage leads to formation of several chemerin-derived peptides, both biologically active (often with opposing functions and inactive.Within the last decade, there has been a growing number of publications regarding the role of chemerin in human disease. It seems to be implicated in the inflammatory response, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and alimentary tract disorders. The article presents the most recent information on the role of chemerin in human disease, and specifically alimentary tract disorders. The available evidence suggests that chemerin is an important link between adipose tissue mass, metabolic processes, the immune system and inflammation, and therefore plays a major role in human pathophysiology.

  19. Functional Characterization of Preadipocytes Derived from Human Periaortic Adipose Tissue

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    Diana Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery. Morphological studies with hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemical assay were performed in situ to quantify adipokine expression. To analyze adipogenic capacity, adipokine expression, and the levels of thermogenic proteins, adipocyte precursor cells were isolated from periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues and induced to differentiation. The precursors of adipocytes from the periaortic tissue accumulated less triglycerides than those from the subcutaneous tissue after differentiation and were smaller than those from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis and energy expenditure increased significantly in periaortic adipose tissue. Additionally, the expression levels of adipokines that affect carbohydrate metabolism, such as FGF21, increased significantly in mature adipocytes induced from periaortic adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that precursors of periaortic adipose tissue in humans may affect cardiovascular events and might serve as a target for preventing vascular diseases.

  20. Reproducibility of Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Omentin-1 Measurements over a Four Months Period: A Reliability Study in a Cohort of 207 Apparently Healthy Participants.

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    Clemens Wittenbecher

    Full Text Available The reliability of single time point measurements of the novel adipokines retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in the blood has not been evaluated in large samples yet. The present study aimed to assess the amount of biological variation of these two adipokines within individuals. The study sample comprised 207 participants (124 women and 83 men from Potsdam (Germany and surrounding areas, with an average age of 56.5 years (SD 4.2. Blood samples were collected from each participant twice, approximately four months apart. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, the concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 were determined in EDTA plasma. As indicators of reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated from the repeated biomarker measurements. The ICCs for repeated retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 measurements were 0.77 (95% CI 0.71, 0.82 and 0.83 (95% CI 0.78, 0.87, respectively, indicating for both adipokines excellent reliability. ICCs were stable across strata according to sex, age, BMI, and blood pressure. Thus, for epidemiological studies it seems reasonable to rely on concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in samples from a single time point if repeated measurements are not available.

  1. Elevated Serum Levels of Cysteine and Tyrosine: Early Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Adults at Increased Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome

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    Nina Mohorko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As there is effective intervention for delaying or preventing metabolic diseases, which are often present for years before becoming clinically apparent, novel biomarkers that would mark metabolic complications before the onset of metabolic disease should be identified. We investigated the role of fasting serum amino acids and their associations with inflammatory markers, adipokines, and metabolic syndrome (MetS components in subjects prior to the onset of insulin resistance (IR. Anthropometric measurements, food records, adipokines, biochemical markers, and serum levels of amino acids were determined in 96 asymptomatic subjects aged 25–49 years divided into three groups according to the number of MetS components present. Cysteine and tyrosine were significantly higher already in group with one component of MetS present compared to subjects without MetS components. Serum amino acid levels correlated with markers of inflammation and adipokines. Alanine and glycine explained 10% of insulin resistance variability. The role of tyrosine and cysteine, that were higher already with 1 component of MetS present, should be further investigated as they might point to future insulin disturbances.

  2. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

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    Markey KA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keira A Markey,1 Maria Uldall,2 Hannah Botfield,1 Liam D Cato,1 Mohammed A L Miah,1 Ghaniah Hassan-Smith,1 Rigmor H Jensen,2 Ana M Gonzalez,1 Alexandra J Sinclair1 1Neurometabolism, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 2Danish Headache Center, Clinic of Neurology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark Abstract: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. Keywords: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, steroid and adipokines, obesity, leptin

  3. Apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ.

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    Jiaojiao Chu

    Full Text Available Apelin, a novel adipokine, is the specific endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Consistent with its putative role as an adipokine, apelin has been linked to states of insulin resistance. However, the function of apelin in hepatic insulin resistance, a vital part of insulin resistance, and its underlying mechanisms still remains unclear. Here we define the impacts of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes. Our studies indicate that apelin reversed TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in HepG2 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes and liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice by improving JNK-IRS1-AKT-GSK pathway. Moreover, Western blot revealed that APJ, but not apelin, expressed in the hepatocytes and liver tissues of mice. We found that F13A, a competitive antagonist for G protein-coupled receptor APJ, suppressed the effects of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes, suggesting APJ is involved in the function of apelin. In conclusion, we show novel evidence suggesting that apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin appears as a beneficial adipokine with anti-insulin resistance properties, and thus as a promising therapeutic target in metabolic disorders.

  4. Sarcopenia, obesity, and natural killer cell immune senescence in aging: altered cytokine levels as a common mechanism.

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    Lutz, Charles T; Quinn, LeBris S

    2012-08-01

    Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty. A key feature of frailty, sarcopenia is the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and endurance that characterize even the healthy elderly. Increases in adiposity, particularly in visceral adipose tissue, are almost universal in aging individuals and can contribute to sarcopenia and insulin resistance by increasing levels of inflammatory cytokines known collectively as adipokines. Aging also is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity, known as immune senescence, which are risk factors for cancer and all-cause mortality. The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle tissue and declines in aging rodent models. IL-15 inhibits fat deposition and insulin resistance, is anabolic for skeletal muscle in certain situations, and is required for the development and survival of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. We review the effect that adipokines and myokines have on NK cells, with special emphasis on IL-15. We posit that increased adipokine and decreased IL-15 levels during aging constitute a common mechanism for sarcopenia, obesity, and immune senescence.

  5. Long-term high-soybean oil feeding alters regulation of body temperature in rats.

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    Tsushima, Hiromi; Yamada, Kazuyo; Miyazawa, Daisuke; Mori, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Yoko; Ohkubo, Takeshi; Hibino, Hidehiko; Okuyama, Harumi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether body temperature (BT) regulatory mechanisms are influenced by dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet containing fish oil (HFD), soybean oil (HSD) or lard (HLD). At the 20-week intervention, the BT of the HSD and HLD groups were lower than that of the normal diet (ND) group in the light and dark periods. The intracerebroventricular injections of interleukin-1β and bombesin in the HSD group induced greater hyperthermia and weaker hypothermia, respectively, than in the ND group. The HSD differentially affected BT under both physiological and pharmacological conditions. In the hypothalamus, the ratio of n-6/n-3 FAs was higher in the HSD group compared with the ND group. DNA microarrays revealed increased expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone β-subunit, and decreased expression of several genes in the hypothalamus of the HSD group compared with the ND group. The HSD feeding increased several adipokine concentrations in the plasma. However, there were no adipokines or gene expressions that changed in only the HSD and HLD groups showing significant hypothermia under the physiological condition. These findings suggested that long-term HSD intake produces abnormal BT regulation. It is less likely that adipokines or proteins/peptides are involved in abnormal BT regulation under the physiological conditions after HSD feeding.

  6. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

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    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  7. Differential Effects of Leptin and Adiponectin in Endothelial Angiogenesis

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    Raghu Adya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health burden with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Endothelial dysfunction is pivotal to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. In relation to this, adipose tissue secreted factors termed “adipokines” have been reported to modulate endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on two of the most abundant circulating adipokines, that is, leptin and adiponectin, in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Leptin has been documented to influence a multitude of organ systems, that is, central nervous system (appetite regulation, satiety factor and cardiovascular system (endothelial dysfunction leading to atherosclerosis. Adiponectin, circulating at a much higher concentration, exists in different molecular weight forms, essentially made up of the collagenous fraction and a globular domain, the latter being investigated minimally for its involvement in proinflammatory processes including activation of NF-κβ and endothelial adhesion molecules. The opposing actions of the two forms of adiponectin in endothelial cells have been recently demonstrated. Additionally, a local and systemic change to multimeric forms of adiponectin has gained importance. Thus detailed investigations on the potential interplay between these adipokines would likely result in better understanding of the missing links connecting CVD, adipokines, and obesity.

  8. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to influence adipose tissue function

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    Visseren Frank LJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is associated with metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, inflammation and hypercoagulobility which can all be understood as consequences of adipose tissue dysfunction. The potential role for adipose tissue derived cytokines and adipokines in the development of vascular disease and diabetes may produce a clinical need to influence adipose tissue function. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions affect plasma cytokine and adipokine levels. The effects of these interventions depend on weight loss per se, changes in fat distribution without weight loss and/or direct effects on adipose tissue inflammation. Weight loss, as a result of diet, pharmacology and surgery, positively influences plasma adipokines and systemic inflammation. Several classes of drugs influence systemic inflammation directly through their anti-inflammatory actions. PPAR-γ agonism positively influences adipose tissue inflammation in several classes of intervention such as the thiazolidinediones and perhaps salicylates, CB1-antagonists and angiotensin II receptor blockers. Furthermore, within drug classes there are differential effects of individual pharmacologic agents on adipose tissue function. It can be concluded that several commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have unintended influences on adipose tissue function. Improving adipose tissue function may contribute to reducing the risk of vascular diseases and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Gender differences in the adipose secretome system in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pivotal role of leptin.

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    Breyer, Marie-Kathrin; Rutten, Erica P A; Vernooy, Juanita H J; Spruit, Martijn A; Dentener, Mieke A; van der Kallen, Carla; vanGreevenbroek, Marleen M J; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2011-07-01

    COPD is characterized by a multi-component character involving a state of low-grade systemic inflammation and an increased prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidity. The role of circulating leptin and other adipokines in the involvement of the systemic inflammation in COPD is only studied scarcely. To investigate gender related differences in the adipokine metabolism in relation to systemic inflammatory biomarkers in clinically stable subjects with COPD. In total, 91 clinically stable COPD patients and 35 healthy control subjects, matched for body mass index (BMI) with the COPD subjects, were included. Lung function measurement and body composition were performed in patients with COPD. In the total group, plasma concentration of the adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) and systemic inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and its soluble receptors 55 and 75 (sTNFα-R55, R75) were analyzed. The COPD group was characterized by increased levels of CRP, IL-6 and leptin. Plasma adiponectin and resistin concentrations were not different between the COPD and the control group. Within the COPD group, there was a significant interaction between gender and BMI on the leptin/fat mass ratio. In COPD women, a significant correlation between leptin and CRP was present. In men with clinically stable COPD, leptin, adiponectin and resistin appear to be physiologically regulated, while in women, leptin metabolism is altered. Leptin secretion is increased in COPD women when compared to healthy women and compared to COPD men, and to a greater extent in overweight women with COPD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of leptin and resistin levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Kumor-Kisielewska, Anna; Kierszniewska-Stępień, Dorota; Pietras, Tadeusz; Kroczyńska-Bednarek, Jadwiga; Kurmanowska, Zofia; Antczak, Adam; Górski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in the world. The increasing severity of inflammatory processes in the respiratory tract leads to exacerbation of COPD. This process may be associated with changes in the synthesis of adipokines, the peptides that participate in immune processes. The aim of this study was to identify more sensitive and specific laboratory markers useful in diagnosing inflammatory processes in patients with COPD. The study involved 33 patients with COPD without exacerbation. During the previous year, 1 episode of exacerbation was reported in 15 patients and no exacerbations were reported in the remaining 18 patients. Serum concentrations of adipokines were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In patients with COPD, we observed a 2-fold increase in leptin levels compared with healthy controls (18.8 ±10.2 ng/ml vs. 9.06 ±4.33 ng/ml; P = 0.042). Mean resistin levels in these patients were also 2-fold higher than those in controls (8.24 ±4.18 ng/ml vs. 3.58 ±1.51 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.027). Significant positive correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin as well as CRP and resistin levels were observed in patients with COPD (r = 0.75 and r = 0.83, respectively; P leptin levels either in patients with COPD or in healthy controls. A significant increase in leptin and resistin levels in patients with COPD may suggest that these adipokines are involved in the inflammatory process underlying the disease.

  11. Adiponectin is associated with dynamic hyperinflation and a favourable response to inhaled glucocorticoids in patients with COPD.

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    Leivo-Korpela, Sirpa; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Nieminen, Riina; Kööbi, Lea; Järvenpää, Ritva; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Saarelainen, Seppo; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Adipokines are protein mediators first described as products of adipose tissue regulating energy metabolism and appetite. Recently, adipokines have also been found to modulate inflammation and smooth muscle cell responses. Therefore we investigated the association of two adipokines, adiponectin and leptin, with the degree of emphysema, pulmonary function, symptoms and glucocorticoid responsiveness in patients with COPD. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels, spirometry, body plethysmography and symptoms were measured in 43 male COPD patients with smoking history ≥ 20 pack-years, post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC COPD, plasma adiponectin levels correlated positively with airway resistance (Raw) (r = 0.362, p = 0.019) and functional residual capacity (FRC) (r = 0.355, p = 0.046). Furthermore, the baseline adiponectin concentration correlated negatively with the fluticasone induced changes in St George's Respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) symptom score (r = -0.413, p = 0.040) and in FRC % pred (r = -0.428, p = 0.003), i.e. a higher baseline plasma adiponectin level was associated with more pronounced alleviation of symptoms and dynamic hyperinflation. Plasma leptin levels were not related to the measures of lung function, symptoms or glucocorticoid responsiveness. Plasma adiponectin levels were associated with peripheral airway obstruction and dynamic hyperinflation in patients with COPD. A higher adiponectin level predicted more favourable relief of symptoms and hyperinflation during glucocorticoid treatment. Adiponectin may have a role in the COPD pathogenesis; it may also be a biomarker of disease severity and treatment responses in this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

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    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  13. Dietary factors and cancer chemoprevention: An overview of obesity-related malignancies

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    Murthy N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing health problem in developed nations and in countries that are in the process of westernization like India. Obesity is linked with several health disorders such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and certain cancers. Currently, obesity-related malignancies, e.g., cancers of the breast, prostate and colon are the leading cancers in the industrialized societies. An increased amount of fat or adipose tissue in an overweight or obese person probably influences the development of cancer by releasing several hormone-like factors or adipokines. The majority of adipokines are pro-inflammatory, which promote pathological conditions like insulin resistance and cancer. On the other hand, many recent studies have shown that adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, has anti-cancer and insulin-sensitizing effects. Adiponectin exerts its physiological functions chiefly by activation of AMP kinase via adiponectin receptors. Interestingly, several fruits and vegetables may contain adiponectin-like molecules or may increase the biosynthesis of adiponectin in our body. Studies on adiponectin analogues or adiponectin receptor agonists are a promising area of cancer chemoprevention research. In general, fruits and vegetables contain various dietary substances such as vitamins, minerals (like calcium and selenium, fiber and phytochemicals or phenolic compounds (like flavonoids and vanilloids, which may act as anti-cancer agents. Similarly, several dietary constituents including phytochemicals may have anti-obesity effects. Consumption of such dietary compounds along with caloric restriction and physical activity may be helpful in preventing obesity-related cancers. For this review article, we searched PubMed primarily to get the relevant literature.

  14. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.

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    Gondim, Olivia Santos; de Camargo, Vinicius Tadeu Nunes; Gutierrez, Fernanda Almeida; Martins, Patricia Fátima de Oliveira; Passos, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Momesso, Cesar Miguel; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,), Overweight Group (OVG) and Obese Group (OBG). We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength), cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine) and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals.

  15. Lower Circulating C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP3 Levels Are Associated with Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Risa M Wolf

    Full Text Available C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3 is a novel adipokine that lowers blood glucose levels, reduces liver triglyceride synthesis, and is protective against hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mouse models. We hypothesized that higher circulating serum levels of CTRP3 would be associated with a lean body mass index (BMI and a more favorable metabolic profile in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate CTRP3 levels in lean individuals compared to obese individuals.This was a cross-sectional study of obese (n=44 and lean control patients (n=60. Fasting metabolic parameters were measured in all patients and serum CTRP3 levels were measured by ELISA.BMI of the lean group was 21.9 ± 0.2 kg/m2 and obese group was 45.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2. We found significantly lower circulating levels of CTRP3 in obese individuals (405 ± 8.3 vs. 436 ± 6.7 ng/mL, p=0.004 compared to the lean group. Serum CTRP3 levels were inversely correlated with BMI (p=0.001, and triglycerides (p<0.001, and significantly associated with gender (p<0.01, ethnicity (p=0.05, HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01, and adiponectin (p<0.01. We found BMI (p<0.01, gender (p<0.01, and ethnicity (p<0.05 to be significant predictors of CTRP3 levels when controlling for age in multiple regression analysis.CTRP3 is a beneficial adipokine whose circulating levels are significantly lower in obese individuals. Obesity causes dysregulation in adipokine production, including the down-regulation of CTRP3. Lower CTRP3 levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Optimizing CTRP3 levels through novel therapies may improve obesity and its comorbidities.

  16. The Influence of Thyroid Hormones on Leptin and Resistin Levels in Hyperthyroid Female Patients

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    Al-Hindawi Sahar H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis occurs due to excess release of thyroid hormone. These hormones regulate the body’s energy balance and have effects on adipokine level. There are several reports suggesting interrelation between adipokines (resistin and leptin with thyroid dysfunction. Objectives: This study was established to investigate the effect of thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism state on the level of some adipokines, leptin and resistin; in comparison with control. Patients and Methods: The present study included 50 Iraqi female patients with hyperthyroidism with age ranged between 30-58 years and 30 healthy controls with age ranged between 30-53 years. Serum samples were collected from study groups. The levels of thyroid hormones (TSH, T4 and T3 were determined by using automated Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA analysis system. Detection of leptin hormone and resistin hormone levels in the serum were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. Results: The results revealed that serum leptin levels were significantly low (P<0.004 in hyperthyroid patient groups as compared to control, and there were significant negative correlations between T4 and leptin (P<0.0001; also, T3 and leptin (P<0.05. Resistin hormone level increased non-significantly (P˃0.05 than control level; and there was significant negative correlation between TSH and resistin (P<0.035. Conclusion: The study shows that there is complex interrelation between adipocytokines (leptin and resistin with thyroid gland and pituitary gland. Leptin levels were decreased in hyperthyroid patients than control and associated negatively with T4 and T3 levels, while resistin levels were increased non-significantly than control and associated negatively with TSH level. They affect each other in their physiological function in the human body.

  17. Role of leptin in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Maymó, Julieta; Dueñas, José L; Varone, Cecilia; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive function is dependent on energy resources. The role of weight, body composition, fat distribution and the effect of diet have been largely investigated in experimental female animals as well as in women. Any alteration in diet and/or weight may induce abnormalities in timing of sexual maturation and fertility. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in the fine coordination of energy balance and reproduction are largely unknown. The brain and hypothalamic structures receive endocrine and/or metabolic signals providing information on the nutritional status and the degree of fat stores. Adipose tissue acts both as a store of energy and as an active endocrine organ, secreting a large number of biologically important molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines have been shown to be involved in regulation of the reproductive functions. The first adipokine described was leptin. Extensive research over the last 10 years has shown that leptin is not only an adipose tissue-derived messenger of the amount of energy stores to the brain, but also a crucial hormone/cytokine for a number of diverse physiological processes, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, immune function, and most importantly, reproduction. Leptin plays an integral role in the normal physiology of the reproductive system with complex interactions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, leptin is also produced by placenta, where it plays an important autocrine function. Observational studies have demonstrated that states of leptin excess, deficiency, or resistance can be associated with abnormal reproductive function. This review focuses on the leptin action in female reproduction.

  18. Complementary Effects of Genetic Variations in LEPR on Body Composition and Soluble Leptin Receptor Concentration after 3-Month Lifestyle Intervention in Prepubertal Obese Children

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    Joanna Gajewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In obese individuals, weight loss might be affected by variants of the adipokine-encoding genes. We verified whether selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ are associated with changes in serum levels of the respective adipokines and weight loss in 100 prepubertal obese (SDS-BMI > 2 Caucasian children undergoing lifestyle intervention. Frequencies of the -2548G > A LEP, Q223R LEPR, K656N LEPR, -11377C > G and -11426A > G ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum adipokine and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R concentrations were measured using the ELISA method. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, only LEPR polymorphisms were associated with changes of SDS-BMI or sOB-R concentrations in children after therapy. Carriers of the wild-type K665N and at least one minor Q223R allele had the greatest likelihood of losing weight (OR = 5.09, p = 0.006, an increase in sOB-R (ptrend = 0.022 and decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with the decrease of fat mass (p < 0.001. In contrast, carrying of the wild-type Q223R and at least one minor K665N allele were associated with a decrease in sOB-R concentrations and a decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with a decrease in fat-free mass (p = 0.002. We suggest that the combination of different LEPR variants, not a single variant, might determine predisposition to weight loss in the prepubertal period.

  19. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin.

  20. Relationship between plasma adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 and uric Acid in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Seok; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Park, Hun-Jun; Shin, Woo-Seung; Kim, Pum-Jun; Chang, Kiyuk; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Youn, Ho-Joong; Chung, Wook-Sung; Seung, Ki Bae; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2011-04-01

    Adipokines have been suggested for their potential use in tracking the clinical progress in the subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of adipokines {adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)} and the serum level of uric acid in hypertensive (HTN) patients with MS. In this study, 38 totally untreated HTN patients were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP) were taken in the 12 HTN patients without MS and the 26 HTN patients with MS. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of adiponectin, RBP4, nitric oxide (NO), glucose, creatinine, uric acid, lipid profile and insulin. The HTN with MS group had significant higher values of body mass index, waist length, serum uric acid and triglyceride levels than the HTN without MS group. Compared to the HTN without MS group, the HTN with MS group showed significantly lower adiponectin (p=0.030), NO (p=0.003) and high density lipoprotein levels (puric acid level (R=-0.413, p=0.036), and serum RBP4 levels positively correlated with uric acid level (R=0.527, p=0.006) in the HTN with MS group. Multiple linear regression analysis using RBP4 and adiponectin levels as the dependent variables showed that uric acid level correlated with serum RBP4 level (p=0.046) and adiponectin level (p=0.044). The HTN with MS group showed a correlation with two types of adipokines (adiponectin, RBP4) and uric acid. Adiponectin, RBP4 and uric acid may be important components associated with MS, especially when associated with hypertension.

  1. Clinical and biochemical effects of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese and diabetic patients: a pilot open study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Giannitti, Chiara; Urso, Renato; Tołodziecki, Michał; Ponikowska, Irena

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type 2 diabetes. Spa therapy has long been used for treating obesity and its comorbidities. Enlargement of adipose tissue has been linked to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion and adipose tissue inflammation. Adipokines are currently investigated as potential drug targets in these conditions. Our primary aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The secondary aim was to examine whether this combined program influences the response of serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Fifty obese males were enrolled and 21 of these featured a type 2 diabetes. During the 3-week period of the study, the patients were on a 1,000-kcal diet and were involved in mineral bath and total body's mud-pack applications (15 procedures). Patients were assessed at baseline and at the end of the therapy for clinical and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia, and adipokines). We showed that a 3-week program of spa therapy in obese patients induced significant decrease of body weight, body mass index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemia, and serum levels of leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. So, a cycle of mud-bath therapy associated with a controlled diet may be a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes decreasing body weight and many risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  2. The activity of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with BMI in metabolically healthy humans

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    Alexander Stephen PH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoid system (ECS is a ubiquitously expressed signalling system, with involvement in lipid metabolism and obesity. There are reported changes in obesity of blood concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglcyerol (2-AG, and of adipose tissue expression levels of the two key catabolic enzymes of the ECS, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL. Surprisingly, however, the activities of these enzymes have not been assayed in conditions of increasing adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether FAAH and MGL activities in human subcutaneous adipocytes are affected by body mass index (BMI, or other markers of adiposity and metabolism. Methods Subcutaneous abdominal mature adipocytes, fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained from 28 metabolically healthy subjects representing a range of BMIs. FAAH and MGL activities were assayed in mature adipocytes using radiolabelled substrates. Serum glucose, insulin and adipokines were determined using ELISAs. Results MGL activity showed no relationship with BMI or other adiposity indices, metabolic markers (fasting serum insulin or glucose or serum adipokine levels (adiponectin, leptin or resistin. In contrast, FAAH activity in subcutaneous adipocytes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference, but not with skinfold thickness, metabolic markers or serum adipokine levels. Conclusions In this study, novel evidence is provided that FAAH activity in subcutaneous mature adipocytes increases with BMI, whereas MGL activity does not. These findings support the hypothesis that some components of the ECS are upregulated with increasing adiposity in humans, and that AEA and 2-AG may be regulated differently.

  3. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.

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    Olivia Santos Gondim

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,, Overweight Group (OVG and Obese Group (OBG. We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength, cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals.

  4. Compounds of psoriasis with obesity and overweight

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    Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independent risk factor for its development and is associated with a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the reduction of body weight, using low-calorie diet combined with exercise, reduces the severity of psoriasis.Visceral adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17 and adipokines (adiponectin, omentin, chemerin. They participate in the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and consequently of the cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages of visceral adipose tissue have a special role and they increase significantly in obesity. They are responsible for the development of inflammation in adipose tissue and produce inflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-6, Il-8, Il-17, Il-18, MCP-1 and other adipokines: resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4. This explains the concept of «psoriatic march «and observations of the frequent coexistence of psoriasis with obesity. Inflammation associated with systemic disease, fanned by pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines produced by the visceral adipose tissue lead to the development of insulin resistance, endothelial cell damage. Endothelial dysfunction predisposes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and faster development of cardiovascular events. Complication of obesity is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which states twice as likely in patients with plaque psoriasis and is associated with the severity of the disease. Another consequence is the development of depression. Probably the proinflammatory cytokines can interact with metabolism of neurotransmitters. Obesity also has a significant impact on the treatment of psoriasis, increasing the risk of adverse effects of systemic drugs, reducing the efficacy of biological agents which dose should be adjusted to the weight of

  5. Compounds of psoriasis with obesity and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Agnieszka; Placek, Waldemar

    2017-08-24

    Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independent risk factor for its development and is associated with a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the reduction of body weight, using low-calorie diet combined with exercise, reduces the severity of psoriasis.Visceral adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17) and adipokines (adiponectin, omentin, chemerin). They participate in the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and consequently of the cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages of visceral adipose tissue have a special role and they increase significantly in obesity. They are responsible for the development of inflammation in adipose tissue and produce inflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-6, Il-8, Il-17, Il-18, MCP-1) and other adipokines: resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4. This explains the concept of «psoriatic march «and observations of the frequent coexistence of psoriasis with obesity. Inflammation associated with systemic disease, fanned by pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines produced by the visceral adipose tissue lead to the development of insulin resistance, endothelial cell damage. Endothelial dysfunction predisposes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and faster development of cardiovascular events. Complication of obesity is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which states twice as likely in patients with plaque psoriasis and is associated with the severity of the disease. Another consequence is the development of depression. Probably the proinflammatory cytokines can interact with metabolism of neurotransmitters. Obesity also has a significant impact on the treatment of psoriasis, increasing the risk of adverse effects of systemic drugs, reducing the efficacy of biological agents which dose should be adjusted to the weight of the patient. It

  6. Fasting levels of insulin and amylin after acute pancreatitis are associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Nicola A; Pendharkar, Sayali A; Singh, Ruma G; Windsor, John A; Bhatia, Madhav; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic diseases continues to rise worldwide, with a growing recognition of metabolic dysregulation after acute inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis (AP). Adipokines and cytokines play an important role in metabolism and the course of AP, but there is a paucity of research investigating their relationship with pancreatic hormones after AP. This study aimed to explore associations between pancreatic hormones and adipokines as well as cytokines to provide insights into the pathophysiology of altered pancreatic hormone secretion following AP. A total of 83 patients previously diagnosed with AP and no prior diabetes or pre-diabetes were recruited into this cross-sectional follow up study. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to analyse a panel of pancreatic hormones and derivatives (amylin, C-peptide, glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin), adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, retinol binding protein-4, and resistin), and cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)). Linear regression analyses were used, and potential confounders were adjusted for in multivariate analyses. Insulin was significantly associated with IL-6 in both unadjusted and adjusted models (p = .029 and p = .040, respectively). Amylin was significantly associated with MCP-1 in the unadjusted model (p = .046), and TNF-α in unadjusted and adjusted models (p = .025 and p = .027, respectively). Insulin and amylin have a strong positive association with pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients following an episode of AP. These associations have possible relevance in the development of diabetes associated with diseases of the exocrine pancreas, providing the opportunity to develop novel treatment paradigms.

  7. Evaluation of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuguz, P; Kacar, S D; Asik, G; Ozuguz, U; Karatas, S

    2016-02-09

    The research evaluating adipokines are very few in patients with acne vulgaris. The hypothesis that hyperinsulinemic and high glycemic index diet plays a role in the pathogenesis of acne is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate adipokines such as leptin (L), adiponectin (A), ghrelin and A levels, and A/L rates that indicate insulin resistance in nonobese patients with severe acne vulgaris. Thirty patients who are nonobese with moderate acne vulgaris, aged 18 to 25 years, and 15 age-sex compatible controls were included in our study. The acne lesions were assessed using the Global Acne Grading Scale (GAGS). All participants were evaluated for the parameters that may affect the metabolism of serum L, A, and ghrelin levels in blood, and their body mass index were calculated. The significance level was determined as p ≤ 0.05. Of the 30 patients, 17 were women and 13 were men. The mean age was 20.60 years and the mean duration of the disease were 2.8 years. All of patients had moderate acne vulgaris (GAGS 19-30). Of the 15 controls, 11 were women and 4 were men. The mean age was 21.20 years. There were not a statistically significant difference in L, ghrelin, A levels, and A/L ratio between the two groups. Adipokines may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. L, A, ghrelin, and insulin resistance may not participate in the responsible mechanisms in nonobese patients with moderate acne vulgaris. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. The association of circulating levels of complement-C1q TNF-related protein 5 (CTRP5) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Emamgholipour, Solaleh; Moradi, Nariman; Beigy, Maani; Shabani, Parisa; Fadaei, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Doosti, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well-established that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Complement-C1q TNF-related protein 5 (CTRP5) is a novel adipokine involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. We aimed to assess plasma levels of CTRP5 in patients with NAFLD (n?=?22), T2DM (n?=?22) and NAFLD with T2DM (NAFLD?+?T2DM) (n?=?22) in comparison with healthy subjects (n?=?21) and also to study the association between CTRP5 levels and NA...

  9. High-molecular weight adiponectin/HOMA-IR ratio as a biomarker of metabolic syndrome in urban multiethnic Brazilian subjects

    OpenAIRE

    de Abreu, Virg?nia Genelhu; Martins, Cyro Jos? de Moraes; de Oliveira, Patricia Aguiar Cardoso; Francischetti, Emilio Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has an important epidemiological relevance due to its increasing prevalence and association with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance is a core feature of the MetS. HOMA-IR is a robust clinical and epidemiological marker of MetS. Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory functions; its levels decrease as number of components of MetS increases. High-molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) is the multimer responsib...

  10. The epidemiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Adam P; Goldin, Robert D

    2012-08-01

    Fatty liver disease includes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), each of which is increasing in prevalence. Each represents a histological spectrum that extends from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance, and is considered to be the liver manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and ALD involves cytokines, adipokines, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Histopathology is the gold standard for assessing the severity of liver damage in NAFLD and ALD. We have reviewed the literature, and described and compared the epidemiology, natural disease history, pathogenesis and histopathology of NAFLD and ALD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Leptin-induced RORγt expression in CD4+ T cells promotes Th17 responses in systemic lupus erythematosus1

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yiyun; Liu, Yaoyang; Shi, Fu-Dong; Zou, Hejian; Matarese, Giuseppe; Cava, Antonio La

    2013-01-01

    Th17 CD4+ cells promote inflammation and autoimmunity. Here we report that Th17 cell frequency is reduced in ob/ob mice that are genetically deficient in the adipokine leptin, and that the administration of leptin to ob/ob mice restored Th17 cell numbers to values comparable to those found in wild type animals. Leptin promoted Th17 responses in normal human CD4+ T cells and in mice, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing RORγt transcription. Leptin also increased Th17 responses in (NZB × NZW)...

  12. Decreased lipogenesis-promoting factors in adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with overweight on a Paleolithic-type diet

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Caroline; Chorell, Elin; Ryberg, Mats; Mellberg, Caroline; Worrsjö, Evelina; Makoveichuk, Elena; Larsson, Christel; Lindahl, Bernt; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Olsson, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We studied effects of diet-induced postmenopausal weight loss on gene expression and activity of proteins involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Methods: Fifty-eight postmenopausal women with overweight (BMI 32.5 ± 5.5) were randomized to eat an ad libitum Paleolithic-type diet (PD) aiming for a high intake of protein and unsaturated fatty acids or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Anthropometry, plasma adipokines, gene expression of proteins involved in fa...

  13. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...

  14. Human serum levels of fetal antigen 1 (FA1/Dlk1) increase with obesity, are negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and modulate inflammation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacón, M R; Miranda, M; Jensen, C H

    2008-01-01

    in the context of obesity and insulin sensitivity (S(i)); and n=61 severely obese women before and after bariatric surgery. The response in vitro to FA1 protein on human cell lines of monocytes, preadipocytes and mature adipocytes was studied. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometrical parameters: body mass index, waist...... levels. In severe obesity, serum levels of FA1 decreased 1.4-fold 6 months after bariatric surgery. In vitro assays with FA1 protein on human monocytes and adipocytes cell lines modified the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), monocyte...

  15. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  16. Acylation stimulating protein reduction precedes insulin sensitization after BPD-DS bariatric surgery in severely obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkonda, M N; Martin, J; Poirier, P; Carrington, A; Biron, S; Lebel, S; Cianflone, K

    2012-08-20

    The mechanisms involved in early resolution of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus after biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) surgery are still unknown. We evaluated early effects of BPD-DS on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), an adipokine involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. 32 non-diabetic and 22 diabetic severely obese women (BMI40 kg m(-2)) were evaluated for body composition and plasma parameters before, 24 h, 5 days, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Within the early postoperative period (24 h), ASP decreased 25 and 30% in non-diabetic and diabetic women, respectively (PBPD-DS surgery.

  17. Pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia represents a major problem for older persons leading to weight loss, sarcopenia, functional decline, and mortality. There is increasing information on the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to anorexia. Increasing evidence has shown the importance of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, cholecystokinin, and glucagon-like peptide) and adipokines in producing the anorexia of aging. Numerous neurotransmitters have been shown to be involved in this aging anorexia, but evidence in humans is lacking. The early recognition of anorexia of aging is important to allow intervention and prevent functional deterioration in older persons. Screening tests for anorexia have been developed. New approaches to managing anorexia are being tested.

  18. Apelin Role in the Development of Glucose Metabolism Disorders (Review of the Literature and Our Own Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Demidenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological and pathogenetic role of adipokine apelin, endogenous ligand of apelin (APJ or APLNR receptors in the development of glucose metabolism disorders has been analyzed. Established correlations of apelin with components of carbohydrate metabolism confirm the effect on glucose metabolism manifestations. Ambiguous data about apelin level at insulin resistance syndrome, prediabetes, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension require further detailed study. The close association of apelin with development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prediction of cardiovascular events in patients with metabolic syndrome has been found.

  19. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    OpenAIRE

    Anna A. De Boer; Jennifer M. Monk; Jennifer M. Monk; Danyelle M. Liddle; Krista A. Power; David W.L. Ma; Lindsay E. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an es...

  20. Allelic frequency of G380A polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene and relation with cardiovascular risk factors and adipocytokines in obese patients Frecuencia alélica del polimorfismo G380A del factor de necrosis tumoral alpha y relación con factores de riesgo cardiovascular y adipocitoquinas en pacientes obesos

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. De Luis; R. Aller; O. Izaola; M. González Sagrado; R. Conde; B. de la Fuente; H. F. Ovalle

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was to investigate the allelic frequency of the G308A polymorphism in the TNF alpha gene and the influence of G308A this polymorphism on cardiovascular risk factors and adipokine levels in obese patients. Design: A population of 834 obesity patients was analyzed. A nutritional evaluation and a blood analysis were performed. The statistical analysis was performed for the combined G308A and A308A as mutant group and type G308G as wild group. Results: A total of ...

  1. Soluble CD36 (sCD36) clusters with markers of insulin resistance, and high sCD36 is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Norberg, M; Stenlund, H

    2010-01-01

    Soluble CD36 (sCD36) may be an early marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate sCD36 as a predictor of type 2 diabetes and to study its relationship with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetSy). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS......, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: We conducted a case-referent study nested within a population-based health survey. Baseline variables included sCD36, body mass index, blood pressure, blood lipids, adipokines, inflammatory markers, and beta-cell function. A total of 173 initially nondiabetic cohort members who developed...

  2. Molecular cloning of feline resistin and the expression of resistin, leptin and adiponectin in the adipose tissue of normal and obese cats

    OpenAIRE

    TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; NISHII, Naohito; KATO, Akiko; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; SHIBATA, Sanae; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Resistin, one of the adipokines that has a cycteine-rich C-terminus, is considered to relate to the development of insulin resistance in rats. However, in cats, there is little knowledge regarding resistin. In this study, we cloned the feline resistin cDNA from adipose tissue by RT-PCR. The feline resistin clone contained an entire open reading frame encoding 107 amino acids that had 72.8%, 75.4%, 50.9% and 51.8% homology with bovine, human, mouse and rat homologues, respectively. In both sub...

  3. Circulating Level of CTRP1 in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): Is It through Insulin Resistance?

    OpenAIRE

    Shabani, Parisa; Naeimi Khaledi, H; Beigy, Maani; Emamgholipour, Solaleh; Parvaz, Eskandar; Poustchi, Hossein; Doosti, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as one of the most common liver diseases. It is robustly linked to obesity and insulin resistance and is regarded as hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adipokines are involved in the pathophysiology of liver diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentrations of CTRP1 (complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1) in 22 patients with NAFLD, 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 22 patients with N...

  4. Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention......, adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, total and free testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced active weight loss, and after a subsequent 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance...

  5. Mechanisms and Metabolic Implications of Regional Differences among Fat Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Jensen, Michael D.; Kirkland, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Fat distribution is closely linked to metabolic disease risk. Distribution varies with sex, genetic background, disease state, certain drugs and hormones, development, and aging. Preadipocyte replication and differentiation, developmental gene expression, susceptibility to apoptosis and cellular senescence, vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltration, and adipokine secretion vary among depots, as do fatty-acid handling and mechanisms of enlargement with positive-energy and loss with negative-energy balance. How interdepot differences in these molecular, cellular, and pathophysiological properties are related is incompletely understood. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. PMID:23583168

  6. Leptin effects on the regenerative capacity of human periodontal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Jäger, Andreas; Jepsen, Søren; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Bourauel, Christoph; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing throughout the globe and characterized by excess adipose tissue, which represents a complex endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secrets bioactive molecules called adipokines, which act at endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine levels. Obesity has recently been shown to be associated with periodontitis, a disease characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium, and also with compromised periodontal healing. Although the underlying mechanisms for these associations are not clear yet, increased levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, as found in obese individuals, might be a critical pathomechanistic link. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of leptin on the regenerative capacity of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and also to study the local leptin production by these cells. Leptin caused a significant downregulation of growth (TGFβ1, and VEGFA) and transcription (RUNX2) factors as well as matrix molecules (collagen, and periostin) and inhibited SMAD signaling under regenerative conditions. Moreover, the local expression of leptin and its full-length receptor was significantly downregulated by inflammatory, microbial, and biomechanical signals. This study demonstrates that the hormone leptin negatively interferes with the regenerative capacity of PDL cells, suggesting leptin as a pathomechanistic link between obesity and compromised periodontal healing.

  7. The serum levels of adiponectin and leptin in mustard lung patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni Yazdi, H; Lari, S M; Attaran, D; Ayatollahi, H; Mohsenizadeh, A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to sulfur mustard (SM), known as mustard lung, is an important late pulmonary complication of SM poisoning. Due to the possible role of systemic inflammation in mustard lung, we evaluated the serum levels of adiponectin and leptin in these patients. Thirty nonsmoker mustard lung patients in stable phase were enrolled into this study. Also, 30 COPD and 21 healthy participants were entered as control groups. Complete lung function tests were performed in the participants. The serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were measured in all groups. There were no statistically significant differences in mean adiponectin and leptin levels among the groups (p = 0.38 and p = 0.35, respectively). There was a downward trend in leptin to adiponectin ratio from lower to higher stages of global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease guidelines in mustard lung patients, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.8). Our results showed that there is no difference in mean adipokine levels in stable mustard lung patients compared with control groups. There was a foot-point in the alterations of serum adipokines regarding the severity of COPD, which needs to be documented by larger sample group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Circulatory and adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin in relationship to resting energy expenditure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brúsik, M; Ukropec, J; Joppa, P; Ukropcová, B; Skyba, P; Baláž, M; Pobeha, P; Kurdiová, T; Klimeš, I; Tkáč, I; Gašperíková, D; Tkáčová, R

    2012-01-01

    Increases in resting energy expenditure (REE) likely contribute to weight loss in various chronic diseases. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), relationships between the ventilatory impairment and increased REE, and between disturbances in adipokines and weight loss were previously described. Therefore, we investigated serum levels and adipose tissue expression of leptin and adiponectin, and their relationships to REE in patients with COPD. In 44 patients with stable COPD (38 male; age 62.3+/-7.2 years), REE was assessed using indirect calorimetry. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were analyzed using real-time PCR. From underweight [n=9; body mass index (BMI) /=30 kg.m(-2)), REE adjusted for body weight decreased (32.9+/-6.1 vs. 26.2+/-5.8 vs. 23.9+/-6.6 kcal.kg(-1).24 h(-1), p=0.006), serum levels and adipose tissue expression of leptin increased (pleptin (R=-0.547, pleptin, and increased serum adiponectin, suggesting a role of adipokines in energy imbalance in COPD-related cachexia.

  9. Omentin-1 Stimulates Human Osteoblast Proliferation through PI3K/Akt Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been presumed that adipokines deriving from adipose tissue may play important roles in bone metabolism. Omentin-1, a novel adipokine, which is selectively expressed in visceral adipose tissue, has been reported to stimulate proliferation and inhibit differentiation of mouse osteoblast. However, little information refers to the effect of omentin-1 on human osteoblast (hOB proliferation. The current study examined the potential effects of omentin-1 on proliferation in hOB and the signal pathway involved. Omentin-1 promoted hOB proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Western blot analysis revealed that omentin-1 induced activation of Akt (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase downstream effector and such effect was impeded by transfection of hOB with Akt-siRNA. Furthermore, LY294002 (a selective PI3K inhibitor and HIMO (a selective Akt inhibitor abolished the omentin-1-induced hOB proliferation. These findings indicate that omentin-1 induces hOB proliferation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and suggest that osteoblast is a direct target of omentin-1.

  10. IGF-1 and ADMA Levels Are Inversely Correlated in Nondiabetic Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Undergoing Anti-TNF-Alpha Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Genre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis (AS is also an inflammatory disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MeS features. AS patients often display osteoporosis as well as new bone formation. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 is a protein involved in both inflammation and bone metabolism. In the present study we assessed whether disease activity, systemic inflammation, MeS features, adipokines, and biomarkers of endothelial activation were associated with IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels in a series of 30 nondiabetic AS patients without CV disease undergoing TNF-α antagonist-infliximab therapy. All determinations were made in the fasting state, immediately before an infliximab infusion. Although no association of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels with angiopoietin-2 or osteopontin was found, an inverse correlation between IGF-1 levels and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor that impairs nitric oxide production and secretion promoting endothelial dysfunction, was found (r=-0.397; P=0.04. However, no significant association was found between IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels and disease activity, systemic inflammation, metabolic syndrome features, or adipokines. In conclusion, in nondiabetic patients with AS undergoing periodic anti-TNF-α therapy, IGF-1 and ADMA are inversely correlated.

  11. Impact of the cardiovascular system-associated adipose tissue on atherosclerotic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Grechko, Andrey V; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances. Adipokine appears to play an important protective role in cardiovascular system. Under chronic inflammation conditions, the repertoire of signaling molecules secreted by cardiac fat can be altered, leading to a higher amount of pro-inflammatory messengers, vasoconstrictors, profibrotic modulators. This further aggravates cardiovascular inflammation and leads to hypertension, induction of the pathological tissue remodeling and cardiac fibrosis. Contemporary imaging techniques showed that epicardial fat thickness correlates with the visceral fat mass, which is an established risk factor and predictor of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects. However, this correlation is no longer present after adjustment for other covariates. Nevertheless, recent studies showed that pericardial fat volume and epicardial fat thickness can probably serve as a better indicator for atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of resistin in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gierej

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are cytokines that presumably connect the pathologies of metabolic syndrome. One of the adipokines is resistin, the role of which in insulin resistance, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD needs to be determined. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained intraoperatively from 214 obese patients. Histological assessment was based on NAFLD activity score according to Kleiner. Statistical analysis involved semi-quantitive immunohistochemistry assessment of resistin staining and: NAFLD status in obese patients compared with a non-obese control group, selected clinical data (age, sex, body mass index – BMI, selected biochemical data, comorbidities (hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and metformin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Resistin expression was observed in the histiocytes of inflammatory infiltrate, Kupffer cells, and histiocytes surrounding the hepatocytes with steatosis. There was a positive correlation between the total expression of resistin and: (1 NAFLD advancement (NAFLD Activity Score- NAS, (2 AST, ALT, BMI, glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA, LDH, GGT, triglycerides (TG, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c. Resistin expression was more intense in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and less intense in the control group. Resistin probably plays a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance and aggravates pathologic changes in the liver of patients with NAFLD.

  13. Lack of evidence for intermolecular epistatic interactions between adiponectin and resistin gene polymorphisms in Malaysian male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cia-Hin Lau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epistasis (gene-gene interaction is a ubiquitous component of the genetic architecture of complex traits such as susceptibility to common human diseases. Given the strong negative correlation between circulating adiponectin and resistin levels, the potential intermolecular epistatic interactions between ADIPOQ (SNP+45T > G, SNP+276G > T, SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G and RETN (SNP-420C > G and SNP+299G > A gene polymorphisms in the genetic risk underlying type 2 diabetes (T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MS were assessed. The potential mutual influence of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels was also examined. The rare homozygous genotype (risk alleles of SNP-420C > G at the RETN locus tended to be co-inherited together with the common homozygous genotypes (protective alleles of SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G at the ADIPOQ locus. Despite the close structural relationship between the ADIPOQ and RETN genes, there was no evidence of an intermolecular epistatic interaction between these genes. There was also no reciprocal effect of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels, i.e., ADIPOQ did not affect resistin levels nor did RETN affect adiponectin levels. The possible influence of the ADIPOQ gene on RETN expression warrants further investigation.

  14. Smoking is Associated with Reduced Leptin and Neuropeptide Y Levels and Higher Pain Experience in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Bokarewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking deregulates neuroendocrine responses to pain supporting production of neuropeptide Y (NpY by direct stimulation of nicotinic receptors or by inhibiting adipokine leptin. Present study addressed the effect of cigarette smoking on adipokines and pain parameters, in 62 women with fibromyalgia (FM pain syndrome with unknown etiology. Pain was characterized by a visual analogue scale, tender point (TP counts, pressure pain threshold, and neuroendocrine markers NpY and substance P (sP. Levels of IGF-1, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and adiponectin were measured in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Current smokers (n=18 had lower levels of leptin compared to ex-smokers (n=25, P=0.002, while the expected NpY increase was absent in FM patients. In smokers, this was transcribed in higher VAS-pain (P=0.04 and TP count (P=0.03, lower pain threshold (P=0.01, since NpY levels were directly related to the pain threshold (rho=0.414 and inversely related to TP counts (rho=-0.375. This study shows that patients with FM have no increase of NpY levels in response to smoking despite the low levels of leptin. Deregulation of the balance between leptin and neuropeptide Y may be one of the essential mechanisms of chronic pain in FM.

  15. Multidisciplinary Approach to the Treatment of Obese Adolescents: Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Inflammatory Profile, and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raimunda Dâmaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to body fat is a major challenge worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a medically supervised, multidisciplinary approach, on reduction in the prevalence of obesity related comorbidities, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance in a sample of obese adolescents. A total of 97 postpuberty obese adolescents were enrolled in this study. Body composition, neuropeptides, and adipokines were analysed. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. The abdominal ultrasonography was performed to measure visceral, subcutaneous fat and hepatic steatosis. All measures were performed at baseline and after one year of therapy. The multidisciplinary management promoted the control of obesity reducing body fat mass. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, asthma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, binge eating, and hyperleptinemia was reduced. An improvement in the inflammatory profile was demonstrated by an increase in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and reduction in proinflammatory adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 concentrations, and in the Lep/Adipo ratio. Moreover, a reduction in the AgRP and an increase in the alfa-MSH were noted. The multidisciplinary approach not only reduced obesity but also is efficacious in cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance.

  16. Revisiting the adipocyte: a model for integration of cytokine signaling in the regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Amaia; Ezquerro, Silvia; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Becerril, Sara; Frühbeck, Gema

    2015-10-15

    Adipose tissue constitutes an extremely active endocrine organ with a network of signaling pathways enabling the organism to adapt to a wide range of different metabolic challenges, such as starvation, stress, infection, and short periods of gross energy excess. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a huge variety of hormones, cytokines, complement and growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue dysfunction leading to the onset of several pathologies including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver, or hypertension, among others. The mechanisms underlying the development of obesity and its associated comorbidities include the hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of adipocytes, adipose tissue inflammation, impaired extracellular matrix remodeling, and fibrosis together with an altered secretion of adipokines. Recently, the potential role of brown and beige adipose tissue in the protection against obesity has been also recognized. In contrast to white adipocytes, which store energy in the form of fat, brown and beige fat cells display energy-dissipating capacity through the promotion of triacylglycerol clearance, glucose disposal, and generation of heat for thermogenesis. Identification of the morphological and molecular changes in white, beige, and brown adipose tissue during weight gain is of utmost relevance for the identification of pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Impact of Growth Hormone on Regulation of Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troike, Katie M; Henry, Brooke E; Jensen, Elizabeth A; Young, Jonathan A; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2017-06-18

    Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output. We will provide an overview of GH structure and function and define several human conditions and cognate mouse lines with extremes in GH action that have helped shape our understanding of GH and AT. A detailed discussion of the GH/AT relationship will be included that addresses adipokine production, immune cell populations, lipid metabolism, senescence, differentiation, and fibrosis, as well as brown AT and beiging of white AT. A brief overview of how GH levels are altered in an obese state, and the efficacy of GH as a therapeutic option to manage obesity will be given. As we will reveal, the effects of GH on AT are numerous, dynamic and depot-dependent. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:819-840, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha and Resistin in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkady, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common liver diseases. It is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is thought to be a part of the metabolic syndrome. It can progress from simple fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Adipocytokines, synthesized in adipose tissue, are involved in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and their correlation to the severity of the disease. Serum concentration of TNF-alpha and resistin were measured in 20 patients with NAFLD and 20 healthy controls with ELISA method. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of both adipokines were significantly elevated in NAFLD patients than controls (P<0.01). Moreover, they were significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis than in patients with simple fatty liver. There was a significant positive correlation between TNF-alpha, resistin and each of AST, ALT and HOMA. Similarly, the results showed a significant positive correlation between the two studied adipokines, TNF-alpha and resistin (P<0.001). We conclude that TNF-alpha and resistin have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and they may be promising markers for the progressin to steatohepatitis and inhibition of their activities by drugs may be a new approach for the treatment of NAFLD

  19. New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Nigro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”, on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  20. Effects of ghrelin, leptin and melatonin on the levels of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activity and viability of the HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Pilc-Gumuła, Katarzyna; Bułdak, Łukasz; Witkowska, Daria; Kukla, Michał; Polaniak, Renata; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including colon cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active substances, such as leptin and ghrelin. Recent research has suggested that adipose-derived hormones may be associated with mechanisms linked to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated that pineal gland-derived melatonin possesses important oncostatic and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the adipokines ghrelin and leptin, and the melatonin on intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase. The effects of these compounds were also determined on the viability of HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro. The pro-oxidant and growth inhibitory effects of melatonin resulted in an accumulation of ROS and decreased antioxidant capacity in melatonin-treated cells. Ghrelin administration alone caused a significant decrease in the levels of ROS, due to an increased activity of CAT in the HCT 116 cells. In addition, the present study observed increased lipid peroxidation following melatonin treatment, and decreased levels of malondialdehyde following ghrelin or leptin treatment. In conclusion, ghrelin, leptin and melatonin have various influences on the antioxidant capacity of HCT 116 cells. Compared with the adipokines, treatment with melatonin increased ROS levels and decreased cellular viability.

  1. Translational research of novel hormones: lessons from animal models and rare human diseases for common human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Kazuwa; Yasoda, Akihiro; Ebihara, Ken; Hosoda, Kiminori; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1980s, a number of bioactive molecules, now known as cardiovascular hormones, have been isolated from the heart and blood vessels, particularly from the subset of vascular endothelial cells. The natriuretic peptide family is the prototype of the cardiovascular hormones. Over the following decade, a variety of hormones and cytokines, now known as adipokines or adipocytokines, have also been isolated from adipose tissue. Leptin is the only adipokine demonstrated to cause an obese phenotype in both animals and humans upon deletion. Thus, the past two decades have seen the identification of two important classes of bioactive molecules secreted by newly recognized endocrine cells, both of which differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells. To assess the physiological and clinical implications of these novel hormones, we have investigated their functions using animal models. We have also developed and analyzed mice overexpressing transgenic forms of these proteins and knockout mice deficient in these and related genes. Here, we demonstrate the current state of the translational research of these novel hormones, the natriuretic peptide family and leptin, and discuss how lessons learned from excellent animal models and rare human diseases can provide a better understanding of common human diseases.

  2. Life in the fat lane: seasonal regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake, and adipose biology in brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, K S; Gehring, J L; Evans Hutzenbiler, B D; Chen, A V; Nelson, O L; Vella, C A; Robbins, C T; Jansen, H T

    2017-05-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at different times of the year. We also used bear gluteal adipocyte cultures to test insulin and beta-adrenergic sensitivity in vitro. Bears were insulin resistant during hibernation but were sensitive during the spring and fall active periods. Hibernating bears remained euglycemic, possibly due to hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia. Adipokine concentrations were relatively low throughout the active season but peaked in mid-October prior to hibernation when fat content was greatest. Serum glycerol was highest during hibernation, indicating ongoing lipolysis. Centrally administered leptin reduced food intake in October, but not in August, revealing seasonal variation in the brain's sensitivity to its anorectic effects. This was supported by strong phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 labeling within the hypothalamus of hibernating bears; labeling virtually disappeared in active bears. Adipocytes collected during hibernation were insulin resistant when cultured with hibernation serum but became sensitive when cultured with active season serum. Heat treatment of active serum blocked much of this action. Clarifying the cellular mechanisms responsible for the physiology of hibernating bears may inform new treatments for metabolic disorders.

  3. OXIDATIVE STRESS: ITS ROLE IN INSULIN SECRETION, HORMONE RECEPTION BY ADIPOCYTES AND LIPOLYSIS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathogenetic components of many diseases during which generation of reactive oxigen species increases and the capacity of the antioxidant protection system diminishes. In the research of the last decades special attention has been given to adipose tissue, production of adipokines by it and their role in development of immunoresistance associated with formation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.Search for methods of therapeutic correction of adipokine secretion disorders, their influence on metabolism of separate cells and the organism on the whole as well as development of new approaches to correction of disorders in cell sensitivity to insulin are extremely topical nowadays. Systematization and consolidation of accumulated data allow to determine the strategies of further research more accurately; as a result, we have attempted to summarize and analyze the accumulated data on the role of adipose tissue in oxidative stress development.On the basis of literature data and the results of the personal investigations, the role of adipose tissue in forming oxidative stress in diabetes has been analyzed in the article. Brief description of adipose tissue was given as a secretory organ regulating metabolic processes in adipocytes and influencing functions of various organs and systems of the body. Mechanisms of disorder in insulin secretion as well as development of insulin sesistance in type I diabetes were described along with the contribution of lipolysis in adipose tissue to these processes.

  4. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders

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    Sung Sik eChoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue (WAT functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue (BAT accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secret various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic over-nutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  5. Quercetin Impacts Expression of Metabolism- and Obesity-Associated Genes in SGBS Adipocytes

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    Andreas Leiherer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the rapid expansion of visceral adipose tissue, resulting in a hypoxic environment in adipose tissue which leads to a profound change of gene expression in adipocytes. As a consequence, there is a dysregulation of metabolism and adipokine secretion in adipose tissue leading to the development of systemic inflammation and finally resulting in the onset of metabolic diseases. The flavonoid quercetin as well as other secondary plant metabolites also referred to as phytochemicals have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects known to be protective in view of obesity-related-diseases. Nevertheless, its underlying molecular mechanism is still obscure and thus the focus of this study was to explore the influence of quercetin on human SGBS (Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome adipocytes’ gene expression. We revealed for the first time that quercetin significantly changed expression of adipokine (Angptl4, adipsin, irisin and PAI-1 and glycolysis-involved (ENO2, PFKP and PFKFB4 genes, and that this effect not only antagonized but in part even overcompensated the effect mediated by hypoxia in adipocytes. Thus, these results are explained by the recently proposed hypothesis that the protective effect of quercetin is not solely due to its free radical-scavenging activity but also to a direct effect on mitochondrial processes, and they demonstrate that quercetin might have the potential to counteract the development of obesity-associated complications.

  6. Oxidative Stress in Obesity: A Critical Component in Human Diseases

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    Lucia Marseglia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a social problem worldwide, is characterized by an increase in body weight that results in excessive fat accumulation. Obesity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to several diseases, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, fatty liver diseases, and cancer. Growing evidence allows us to understand the critical role of adipose tissue in controlling the physic-pathological mechanisms of obesity and related comorbidities. Recently, adipose tissue, especially in the visceral compartment, has been considered not only as a simple energy depository tissue, but also as an active endocrine organ releasing a variety of biologically active molecules known as adipocytokines or adipokines. Based on the complex interplay between adipokines, obesity is also characterized by chronic low grade inflammation with permanently increased oxidative stress (OS. Over-expression of oxidative stress damages cellular structures together with under-production of anti-oxidant mechanisms, leading to the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this review is to summarize what is known in the relationship between OS in obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  7. Leptin, Adiponectin, and Obesity among Caucasian and Asian Women

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    Shannon M. Conroy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution may contribute to different chronic disease risks across ethnic groups, and adipokines may mediate the risk. In a cross-sectional study, we examined ethnic differences in adipokines and inflammatory markers as related to body mass index (BMI among 183 premenopausal women with Caucasian and Asian ancestry. General linear models were used to estimate adjusted mean levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Asian women had significantly lower serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and CRP than Caucasian participants (P≤.01 across all levels of BMI. Among overweight and obese women, Asians showed a stronger association of CRP with leptin (β=1.34 versus β=0.64 and with adiponectin (β=−0.95 versus β=−0.75 than Caucasians. Compared to Caucasians of similar BMI, Asians may experience a higher chronic disease risk due to lower levels of adiponectin despite their lower levels of leptin.

  8. The burden of type 2 diabetes: strategies to prevent or delay onset

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    Nayyar Iqbal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nayyar IqbalDepartment of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, PA, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes is widespread and its prevalence is increasing rapidly. In the US alone, approximately 41 million individuals have prediabetes, placing them at high risk for the development of diabetes. The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes involves inadequate insulin secretion and resistance to the action of insulin. Suggestive data link insulin resistance and accompanying hyperglycemia to an excess of abdominal adipose tissue, a link that appears to be mediated partially by adipocyte secretion of multiple adipokines that mediate inflammation, thrombosis, atherogenesis, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The adipokine adiponectin has reduced expression in obesity and appears to be protective against the development of type 2 diabetes. Current recommendations to prevent type 2 diabetes center on lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise. Clinical trials have established the efficacy of lifestyle intervention, as well as pharmacologic interventions that target glycemic control or fat metabolism. However, diabetes did develop in a substantial percentage of individuals who received intensive intervention in these trials. Thus there is an unmet need for additional strategies in high-risk individuals. Recent data suggest thiazolidinediones and blockade of the endocannabinoid system represent novel therapeutic approaches that may be used for the prevention of diabetes.Keywords: cardiometabolic risk, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, endocannabinoid system

  9. The Role of Vaspin in the Development of Metabolic and Glucose Tolerance Disorders and Atherosclerosis

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    Rumyana Dimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most research efforts have been focused on studying insulin-sensitizing adipokines. One of the most recently discovered adipokines is vaspin, a visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor. Vaspin levels have been found significantly increased in mice with obesity and insulin resistance. It has been assumed that vaspin serves as an insulin sensitizer with anti-inflammatory effects and might act as a compensatory mechanism in response to decreased insulin sensitivity. Most studies in humans have shown a positive correlation between vaspin gene expression and serum levels, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Vaspin gene expression is influenced by age and gender, and the administration of insulin sensitizers enhances it in mice, whereas the use of metformin decreases serum vaspin levels in humans, probably due to different regulatory mechanisms. Presumably vaspin plays local and endocrine role in the development of initial and advanced atherosclerosis in obese subjects and might be used as a predictor of coronary and cerebrovascular disease. It is believed that vaspin could be regarded as a new link between obesity and related metabolic disorders, including glucose intolerance. The entire understanding of vaspin intimate mechanism of action might enable the development of novel etiology-based treatment strategies, targeting metabolic and glucose tolerance disorders.

  10. Integrated Haematological Profiles of Redox Status, Lipid, and Inflammatory Protein Biomarkers in Benign Obesity and Unhealthy Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Carla Lubrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of obesity (OB and metabolic syndrome (MetS implies free radical-, oxidized lipid- (LOOH-, and inflammatory cytokine-mediated altered pathways in target organs. Key elements of the transition from benign OB to unhealthy OB+MetS remain unclear. Here, we measured a panel of redox, antioxidant, and inflammation markers in the groups of OB patients (67 with, 45 without MetS and 90 controls. Both OB groups displayed elevated levels of adipokines and heavy oxidative stress (OS evidenced by reduced levels of glutathione, downregulated glutathione-S-transferase, increased 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, reactive oxygen species, and membrane-bound monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. Exclusively in OB+MetS, higher-than-normal glutathione peroxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were observed; a combination of high adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and MUFA was consistent with increased cardiovascular risk. The uncomplicated OB group showed features of adaptation to OS such as decreased levels of vitamin E, activated superoxide dismutase, and inhibited catalase, suggesting H2O2 hyperproduction. Proinflammatory cytokine pattern was normal, except few markers like RANTES, a suitable candidate for therapeutic approaches to prevent a setting of MetS by inhibition of LOOH-primed leukocyte chemotaxis/recruitment to target tissues.

  11. Butyrate Reduces HFD-Induced Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Metabolic Risk Factors in Obese LDLr-/-.Leiden Mice

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    Charlotte E. Pelgrim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance, liver function, and to increase the risk of T2DM. In this study, we examined the impact of intervention with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate following a high-fat diet (HFD on AT function and other metabolic risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM in mice during mid- and late life. In both mid- and late adulthood, butyrate reduced HFD-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and elevations in leptin levels, which were associated with body weight, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels. HFD feeding stimulated macrophage accumulation primarily in epididymal AT in both mid- and late life adult mice, which correlated with liver inflammation in late adulthood. In late-adult mice, butyrate diminished increased insulin levels, which were related to adipocyte size and macrophage content in epididymal AT. These results suggest that dietary butyrate supplementation is able to counteract HFD-induced detrimental changes in AT function and metabolic outcomes in late life. These changes underlie the obesity-induced elevated risk of T2DM, and therefore it is suggested that butyrate has potential to attenuate risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM.

  12. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring

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    Clare M. Reynolds

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut–brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  13. Adipocytes properties and crosstalk with immune system in obesity-related inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizi, Giulia; Della Guardia, Lucio; Maurizi, Angela; Poloni, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a condition likely associated with several dysmetabolic conditions or worsening of cardiovascular and other chronic disturbances. A key role in this mechanism seem to be played by the onset of low-grade systemic inflammation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between adipocytes and immune system cells. Adipocytes express a complex and highly adaptive biological profile being capable to selectively activate different metabolic pathways in order to respond to environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated how adipocytes, under appropriate stimulation, can easily differentiate and de-differentiate thereby converting themselves into different phenotypes according to metabolic necessities. Although underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, growing in adipocyte size and the inability of storing triglycerides under overfeeding conditions seem to be crucial for the switching to a dysfunctional metabolic profile, which is characterized by inflammatory and apoptotic pathways activation, and by the shifting to pro-inflammatory adipokines secretion. In obesity, changes in adipokines secretion along with adipocyte deregulation and fatty acids release into circulation contribute to maintain immune cells activation as well as their infiltration into regulatory organs. Over the well-established role of macrophages, recent findings suggest the involvement of new classes of immune cells such as T regulatory lymphocytes and neutrophils in the development inflammation and multi systemic worsening. Deeply understanding the pathways of adipocyte regulation and the de-differentiation process could be extremely useful for developing novel strategies aimed at curbing obesity-related inflammation and related metabolic disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Adiponectin concentration data improve the estimation of atherosclerotic risk in normal and in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolami, Adriana; de Lima-Júnior, José C; Cintra, Riobaldo M; Carvalho, Luiz S; Gonzaga, Carolina de C; Sulzbach, Martha L; Petisco, Ana C G P; Barbosa, José E M; Faludi, André A; Plutzky, Jorge; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Sposito, Andrei C

    2018-03-01

    The combinations of adipokines and body mass parameters to estimate carotid atherosclerotic disease have not been completely delineated. To test the combinations of well-established, easily accessible body mass indices and circulating biomarkers to identify increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in a primary prevention setting. In a cross-sectional analysis of 339 asymptomatic individuals with no history of cardiovascular events, inflammatory and insulin sensitivity biomarkers as well as adipokine levels were measured and combined with body mass parameters to evaluate the best marker for increased cIMT. As isolated parameters, body mass index (BMI) and adiponectin best identified abnormal cIMT (P = .04). Adiponectin levels were also linked to the relationship between BMI and cIMT (β = 0.0371; P = .01). Twenty-nine individuals with increased cIMT were missed by BMI alone but detected by combining BMI and adiponectin measurements. When compared with BMI alone, the combination of adiponectin plus BMI improved the c-statistic (0.549-0.567) and the integrated discrimination improvement index (0.01725; P = .021). Segregation of individuals by the combined use of BMI + adiponectin is associated with significant differences in insulin sensitivity, glomerular filtration rate, systemic inflammatory activity, dyslipidaemia and cIMT. Combining plasma adiponectin measurements and BMI improves estimation of cIMT as compared to anthropometric parameters. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cereal based diets modulate some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats

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    Mano Mark

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control. After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1. Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06. Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  16. Adipocyte/breast cancer cell crosstalk in obesity interferes with the anti-proliferative efficacy of tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delort, Laetitia; Billard, Hermine; Le Huede, Camille; Boby, Céline; De la Foye, Anne; Rossary, Adrien; Mojallal, Ali; Damour, Odile; Auxenfans, Céline; Vasson, Marie Paule; Caldefie-Chezet, Florence

    2018-01-01

    Background Obesity is a well-known risk factor of breast cancer in post-menopausal women that also correlates with a diminished therapeutic response. The influence of adipocytes and their secretome, i.e. adipokines, on the efficacy of hormone therapy has yet to be elucidated. Methods We investigated, ex vivo, whether mature adipocytes, differentiated from adipose stem cells of normal-weight (MA20) or obese (MA30) women, and their secretions, were able to counteract the effects of tamoxifen (Tx) which is known to decrease neoplastic cell proliferation. Results In a tridimensional model and in a model of co-culture, the anti-proliferative effect of Tx on MCF-7 cancer cells was counteracted by MA30. These two models highlighted two different specific gene expression profiles for genes encoding cytokines or involved in angiogenesis based on the adipocyte microenvironment and the treatment. Thus it notably showed altered expression of genes such as TNFα that correlated with IL-6. In addition, leptin, IL-6 and TNFα, at concentrations reflecting plasma concentrations in obese patients, decreased the anti-proliferative efficacy of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (a major active metabolite of Tx). Conclusions These findings bring insights on adipocytes and mammary cancer cell interactions in Tx therapy, particularly in overweight/obese people. Indeed, patient’ adipokine status would give valuable information for developing individual strategies and avoid resistance to treatment. PMID:29389973

  17. Role of arsenic exposure in adipose tissue dysfunction and its possible implication in diabetes pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renu, Kaviyarasi; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Madhyastha, Radha; Maruyama, Masugi; Arunachlam, Sankarganesh; V G, Abilash

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water can stimulate a diverse number of diseases that originate from impaired lipid metabolism in adipose and glucose metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. Arsenic inhibits differentiation of adipocyte and mediates insulin resistance with diminutive information on arsenicosis on lipid storage and lipolysis. This review focused on different mechanisms and pathways involved in adipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue during arsenic-induced diabetes. Though arsenic is known to cause type2 diabetes through different mechanisms, the role of adipose tissue in causing type2 diabetes is still unclear. With the existing literature, this review exhibits the effect of arsenic on adipose tissue and its signalling events such as SIRT3- FOXO3a signalling pathway, Ras -MAP -AP-1 cascade, PI(3)-K-Akt pathway, endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP10) and GPCR pathway with role of adipokines. There is a need to elucidate the different types of adipokines which are involved in arsenic-induced diabetes. The exhibited information brings to light that arsenic has negative effects on a white adipose tissue (WAT) by decreasing adipogenesis and enhancing lipolysis. Some of the epidemiological studies show that arsenic would causes obesity. Few studies indicate that arsenic might induces lipodystrophy condition. Further research is needed to evaluate the mechanistic link between arsenic and adipose tissue dysfunction which leads to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut-brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  19. rs10767664 Gene Variant in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Caucasian Females with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Romero, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants on diabetes prevalence, basal adipokine levels, body weight, and cardiovascular risk factors remains unclear in obese patients. This study is aimed at analyzing the effects of rs10767664 BDNF gene polymorphism on diabetes mellitus prevalence, body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, and serum adipokine levels in obese female patients. A total of 507 obese women were enrolled in a prospective way. Biochemical evaluation and anthropometric measures were recorded. The frequency of diabetes mellitus in the group of patients with non-T allele was 20.1 and 28.3% in T-allele carriers. Logistic regression showed a risk of diabetes mellitus of 1.33 (95% CI 1.17-2.08) in subjects with T allele adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI). T-allele carriers with diabetes mellitus have a higher weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels than non-T-allele carriers. rs10767664 polymorphism of BDNF gene is associated with prevalence of diabetes mellitus in obese female patients. T-allele carriers with diabetes mellitus have a higher weight, fat mass, blood pressure, level of insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and CRP than non-T-allele carriers. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Measurement of salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Irene; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal determination in saliva offers several advantages. Peptides enter the salivary glands either by active transport mechanisms or are expressed and secreted by the salivary glands themselves. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, easily repeatable and less stressful technique than blood withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to introduce a method for measuring salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels and to evaluate their associations with serum levels. Resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels were measured in serum and saliva of 50 healthy adult volunteers (17 male and 33 female) using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for serum with minor modifications. The present study documented the determination of resistin and adiponectin levels in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary levels with serum levels (r=0.441, p<0.01 and r=0.347, p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, the identification of visfatin in saliva was achieved, but no significant correlation with serum visfatin levels was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of resistin and visfatin in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary resistin with serum levels, while it confirmed the significant association between salivary and serum adiponectin. The introduction of salivary determinations of adipokines could contribute to the elucidation of the physiology and the role of the specific adipokines in various clinical conditions (obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, reproduction, energy imbalance and stress response). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepato-pancreato-biliary fat: the good, the bad and the ugly1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Obesity has become epidemic in the United States, in Europe, and in many urban areas in the developing world. The globalization of certain ‘fast foods’ and ‘soft drinks’ may, in part, be contributing to this epidemic. Diets high in saturated fatty acids and trans fats as well as drinks that have high fructose corn syrup levels may be particularly harmful. Recent research suggests that fat is a dynamic endocrine organ and that visceral fat is associated with the metabolic syndrome. Central obesity leads to organ steatosis and altered serum adipokines including reduced adiponectin and markedly elevated leptin. This abnormal adipokine milieu results in increased tissue infiltration of monocytes and macrophages which produce proinflammatory cytokines that alter organ function. Over many years, the combination of steatosis and local inflammation leads to fibrosis and eventually to cancer. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a precursor for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD and NASH (1) lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, (2) increase the risk of liver resection, and (3) compromise the outcome of liver transplantation. Similarly, in the pancreas nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) may lead to nonalcoholic steatopancreatitis (NASP). NAFPD and NASP may (1) promote the development of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, (2) exacerbate the severity of acute pancreatitis, and (3) increase the risk of pancreatic surgery. In the gallbladder nonalcoholic fatty gallbladder disease (NAFGBD, cholecystosteatosis) may lead to steatocholecystitis. Cholecystosteatosis may be an explanation for (1) the increased incidence of chronic acalculous cholecystitis and (2) the increased number of cholecystectomies. PMID:18333122

  2. Pollutants make rheumatic diseases worse: Facts on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure and rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Vanessa; Pérez, Tamara; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Pirozzi, Claudio; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel; Mera, Antonio; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gualillo, Oreste

    2016-07-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in adipose tissue, disturbing its metabolism and the balance of adipokines, related to obesity. The altering secretion pattern of adipokines from the adipose tissue and the increasing mechanical load in weight-bearing joints presented in obesity condition, are risk factors for osteoarthritis development. The most prevalent rheumatic diseases, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, are chronic conditions that target the whole joints, leading to increasing disability and health care cost. The goal of this focused review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of PCBs in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. A PubMed search was managed using keywords as "rheumatic diseases", "polychlorinated biphenyls", "obesity" and "endocrine disruption". The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis has been reported to be increased especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of environment in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. Analysis of two cohorts exposed to PCBs food contamination showed high incidence of arthritis. In addition, PCBs in serum correlated positively with the prevalence of self-reported arthritis. Few studies support the hypothesis that osteoarthritis development could be related to PCBs induction of chondrocytes apoptosis. Evidences have emerged for a relationship between PCBs and development of several types of arthritis. Further research is encouraged to determine the correlation between PCBs exposure and the development of rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extracellular visfatin activates gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells through the classical PKA/CREB-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y J; Choi, S-E; Ha, E S; Kang, Y; Han, S J; Kim, D J; Lee, K W; Kim, H J

    2014-04-01

    Adipokines reportedly affect hepatic gluconeogenesis, and the adipokine visfatin is known to be related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, whether visfatin contributes to hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Visfatin, also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), modulates sirtuin1 (SIRT1) through the regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of extracellular visfatin on glucose production in HepG2 cells, and evaluated whether extracellular visfatin affects hepatic gluconeogenesis via an NAD+-SIRT1-dependent pathway. Treatment with visfatin significantly increased glucose production and the mRNA expression and protein levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in HepG2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Knockdown of SIRT1 had no remarkable effect on the induction of gluconeogenesis by visfatin. Subsequently, we evaluated if extracellular visfatin stimulates the production of gluconeogenic enzymes through the classical protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB)-dependent process. The phosphorylation of CREB and PKA increased significantly in HepG2 cells treated with visfatin. Additionally, knockdown of CREB and PKA inhibited visfatin-induced gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. In summary, extracellular visfatin modulates glucose production in HepG2 cells through the PKA/CREB pathway, rather than via SIRT1 signaling. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Red raspberry decreases heart biomarkers of cardiac remodeling associated with oxidative and inflammatory stress in obese diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana; Chew, Boon P; Ivanov, Ivan

    2016-12-07

    Early diagnosis of risks of heart disease can be critical to fight cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with obesity and diabetes and for the implementation of nutritional interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of red raspberry consumption in the obese diabetic (db/db) mice using proteomic analysis as a tool. Hearts harvested from db/db mice fed an isocaloric diet (AIN-93G, control group) or AIN-93G supplemented with freeze-dried raspberry (raspberry group) for eight weeks were analyzed for changes in protein expression. Bioinformatics and pathway analysis of proteomic data detected in >50% samples were scrutinized with Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Histologic analysis, adipokines and lipid quantification in heart tissues were assessed as end points for disease biomarkers. Results from proteomic data identified five proteins unique to the control group involved in cardiac remodeling and one involved in stress response. Twenty-five proteins expressed in both groups were differentially downregulated in the raspberry group (p raspberry and control groups were detected in heart lipid composition, adipokines, and morphology within the study timeframe. In conclusion, raspberry consumption may be effective in decreasing the levels of oxidative and inflammatory stress that promote morphological changes in the heart at an older age, thus preventing or delaying heart diseases.

  5. Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lena Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High adiponectin/leptin ratio may be protective from metabolic risks imparted by high triglyceride, low HDL, and insulin resistance. Methods. This cross-sectional study examines plasma adipokine levels in 428 adult men who were subgrouped according to low (<6.5 μg/mLand high (≥6.5 μg/mLadiponectin levels or a low or high ratio of adiponectin/leptin. Results. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower plasma triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol than those with low ratio. Similarly, those with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and HOMA2-IR than those with low ratio. In contrast, levels of adiponectin or the ratio of adiponectin/leptin did not associate with systolic blood pressure. But the ratio of adiponectin/leptin decreased progressively with the increase in the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Adipokine levels may reflect adipose tissue triglyceride storage capacity and insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an index of fat mass, and adiponectin is a biomarker of triglyceride metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratios have better triglyceride profile and insulin sensitivity than men with a low ratio regardless of waist girth.

  6. Metabolic cross-talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training by regulation of PGC-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Hossein; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2018-02-26

    An imbalance in the production of adipokines and myokines impairs the energy expenditure, increases adipocyte and develops metabolic pathologies. Physical exercise is able to regulate the secretion of myokines and adipokines. The present study considers the metabolic cross talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training by regulation of PGC-1α. A sample of 32 male Wistar rats (8 weeks old with mean weight 250 ± 55 g) were divided into four groups randomly: control of base (CO), control of 8 weeks (CO8w), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). The rats were fed with standard chow diet. The CO group was killed at the start of the study and the CO8w group was kept alive for the same time as the experimental groups, but did not participate in any exercise. MICT and HIIT groups for 8 weeks were placed under the moderate-intensity continuous training (15-60 min, with speed of 15-30 m/min) and high-intensity interval training (8-4 intense period for 1 min, with speed of 28-55 m/min, with 3-7 slow-intensity period for 1 min, with a speed of 12-30 m/min) for 8 weeks, respectively. To measure the levels of serum irisin, nesfatin, and resistin the ELISA method was used and real-time PCR method was used to evaluate the relative expression of soleus PGC-1α gene mRNA. The levels of irisin and nesfatin significantly increased in the HIIT compared with control groups (p = 0.001). Resistin values in both training groups showed a significant decrease compared to the control groups (p = 0.005). The level of PGC-1α gene expression in both HIIT and MICT groups was significantly increased in comparison with the control groups (p = 0.001). The results showed that HIIT and MICT increase the transcription of the PGC-1α gene and possibly the increased expression of this gene after HIIT and MICT plays a central role in the

  7. Ethnic variation in adiponectin and leptin levels and their association with adiposity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; Razak, Fahad; Blankenberg, Stefan; Vuksan, Vlad; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Teo, Koon; Gerstein, Hertzel; Sharma, Arya M; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S

    2010-07-01

    To investigate ethnic differences in adiponectin and leptin concentration and to determine whether these adipokines and a high-glycemic index diet account for ethnic variation in insulin resistance. In 1,176 South Asian, Chinese, Aboriginal, and European Canadians, fasting blood samples were drawn, and clinical history and dietary habits including glycemic index/glycemic load were recorded using standardized questionnaires. Insulin resistance was defined using homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in Europeans (adjusted mean 12.94 [95% CI 2.27-13.64]) and Aboriginal people (11.87 [11.19-12.59]) than in South Asians (9.35 [8.82-9.92]) and Chinese (8.52 [8.03-9.03]) (overall P < 0.001). Serum leptin was significantly higher in South Asians (11.82 [10.72-13.04]) and Aboriginal people (11.13 [10.13-12.23]) than in Europeans (9.21 [8.38-10.12]) and Chinese (8.25 [7.48-9.10]). BMI and waist circumference were inversely associated with adiponectin in every group except the South Asians (P < 0.001 for interaction). Adiponectin was inversely and leptin was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.001). The increase in HOMA-IR for each given decrease in adiponectin was larger among South Asians (P = 0.01) and Aboriginal people (P < 0.001) than among Europeans. A high glycemic index was associated with a larger decrease in adiponectin among South Asians (P = 0.03) and Aboriginal people (P < 0.001) and a larger increase in HOMA-IR among South Asians (P < 0.05) relative to that in other groups. South Asians have the least favorable adipokine profile and, like the Aboriginal people, display a greater increase in insulin resistance with decreasing levels of adiponectin. Differences in adipokines and responses to glycemic foods parallel the ethnic differences in insulin resistance.

  8. Functional thermogenic beige adipogenesis is inducible in human neck fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P; Werner, C D; Kebebew, E; Celi, F S

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies suggest human neck brown adipose tissue (BAT) to consist of 'brown adipocyte (BA)-like' or beige adipocytes. However, little is known about their thermogenic function. Within the beige adipocyte transcriptome, fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a gene whose protein product acts as an adipokine, regulating cold-induced thermogenesis in animals. Here, we explored (i) the adipogenic potential, thermogenic function and FGF21 secretory capacity of beige adipocytes derived from human neck fat and (ii) the role of FGF21 in modulating adipose bioenergetics. Progenitors isolated from human cervical fat were differentiated into adipocytes with either a BA-like or white adipocyte (WA) phenotype. FGF21 secretion was measured by enzyme-linked immuosorbent assay. Real-time PCR/western blotting was used to determine cellular mRNA/protein levels. Extracellular flux bioanalyzer was used to quantify adipocyte oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation. Adipocyte heat production was measured by infrared thermography. Under hormonal manipulation, primary human neck pre-adipocytes differentiated into adipocytes with either BA-like or WA phenotypes, on gene/protein and functional levels. BA-like cells expressed beige but not classic BA markers. During BA differentiation, FGF21 gene expression and secretion were increased, and were augmented following norepinephrine exposure (a cold mimic in vitro). Differentiated WA expressed β-klotho, a critical co-factor mediating FGF21 action. Treatment of WA with FGF21-induced UCP1 expression and increased oxygen consumption, respiratory uncoupling, norepinephrine-mediated thermogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and heat production, thus recapitulating the association between cold-induced FGF21 secretion and cold-induced thermogenesis in vivo. Beige adipocytes are thermogenic in humans. FGF21 is a beige adipokine capable of promoting a brown fat-like thermogenic program in WAs. This study provides first evidence of inducible

  9. Lower leptin/adiponectin ratio and risk of rapid lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Makita, Hironi; Östling, Jörgen

    2014-01-01

    COPD cohort study (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, respectively). A lower plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio was also significantly associated with an annual decline in FEV1 in subjects with airflow limitation in the CBQ study (P = 0.014), the patients of which had largely different clinical characteristics...... compared with the Hokkaido COPD cohort study. There were no significant associations between lung function decline and adipokine levels in subjects without airflow limitation. CONCLUSIONS: A lower leptin/adiponectin ratio was associated with lung function decline in patients with COPD in two independent......RATIONALE: The rate of annual change in FEV1 is highly variable among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Reliable blood biomarkers are needed to predict prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To explore plasma biomarkers associated with an annual change in FEV1 in patients with COPD...

  10. The impact of obesity towards prostate diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyandra Parikesit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has supported obesity as a risk factor for both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa. Obesity causes several mechanisms including increased intra-abdominal pressure, altered endocrine status, increased sympathetic nervous activity, increased inflammation process, and oxidative stress, all of which are favorable in the development of BPH. In PCa, there are several different mechanisms, such as decreased serum testosterone, peripheral aromatization of androgens, insulin resistance, and altered adipokine secretion caused by inflammation, which may precipitate the development of and even cause high-grade PCa. The role of obesity in prostatitis still remains unclear. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate disease and adiposity could allow the development of new therapeutic markers, prognostic indicators, and drug targets. This review was made to help better understanding of the association between central obesity and prostate diseases, such as prostatitis, BPH, and PCa.

  11. 36 h fasting of young men influences adipose tissue DNA methylation of LEP and ADIPOQ in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Line; Jørgensen, Sine W.; Gillberg, Linn

    2017-01-01

    epigenetic marks, also in postnatal life. Here, we aimed to study the effects of short-term fasting on leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from subjects with LBW and NBW. Methods: Twenty-one young LBW men and 18 matched NBW controls...... were studied during 36 h fasting. Eight subjects from each group completed a control study (overnight fast). We analyzed SAT LEP and ADIPOQ methylation (Epityper MassARRAY), gene expression (q-PCR), and adipokine plasma levels. Results: After overnight fast (control study), LEP and ADIPOQ DNA...... methylation levels were higher in LBW compared to those in NBW subjects (p ≤ 0.03) and increased with 36 h fasting in NBW subjects only (p ≤ 0.06). Both LEP and ADIPOQ methylation levels were positively associated with total body fat percentage (p ≤ 0.05). Plasma leptin levels were higher in LBW versus NBW...

  12. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Castillo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adipose tissue works as an endocrine organ producing hormones (adipokines or adipocytokines that affect the horse´s metabolism. The objective of this report is to describe the first case report of a Colombian creole mare with a metabolic syndrome, diagnosed by means of the combined test of glucose-insulin and clinical signs. Early diagnosis of this entity and an adequate treatment are useful for improving the life and the zootechnical conditions of the patient.

  13. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and thigh subcutaneous fat area (TFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Adiponectin levels were measured using an in-house immunofluorometric assay. Coefficients (b) represent the placebo-controlled mean effect of intervention. RESULTS: LEFM was decreased (b=–0...

  14. Is Chronic Inflammation a Possible Cause of Obesity-Related Depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult obesity has been associated with depression, especially in women. Whether depression leads to obesity or obesity causes depression is unclear. Chronic inflammation is observed in obesity and depression. In 63 obese women without additional diseases depression level was assessed with the Beck's questionnaire. After evaluation of depression level study group was divided into groups according to the mood status (A—without depression, B—mild depression, and C—severe depression, and serum concentration of TNF-α, sTNFs, leptin, and IL-6 were measured by ELISA. No differences in age, body mass, BMI, and body composition were observed in study groups. We did not observe differences of serum concentrations of TNF-α, sTNFRs, leptin, and IL-6 between subgroup A and subgroups B and C. It seems that circulating adipokines did not exert influence on depression levels in obese women.

  15. Nutrimetabolomics and Adipocitokines in the "Great Obstetrical Syndromes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Magistris, Anna; Marincola, Flaminia Cesare; Fanos, Vassilios; Dessi, Angelica

    2015-12-01

    In neonatal medicine, nutritional research is focusing more and more on thrifty phenotype effects, in order to understand and prevent the development of long-term diseases. lschemic placental disease which brings together Gestational diabete, Preeclamptic Toxemia, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction, the "Great Obstetrical Syndromes" (GOS), originates from sugar.and lipid metabolism. Adipokines and metabolomics can be valuable tools for the diagnosis of obstetrical syndromes and addressing nutrition. Inappropriate nutrition, even in the first periods of life, can accelerate the development of chronic metabolic diseases, especially in the pediatric age. The purpose of this review is firstly to critically examine the information provided by the studies of metabolomics on GOS's and better understand their origin. Secondly, it reflects on the IUGR metabolism and on applications of metabolomics in nutrition and its "nutrimetabolomic" effects and then to discuss the principles that guide nutrition of IUGR children in the light of these.

  16. Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ: An Update on Pro-inflammatory and Anti-inflammatory Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvido Smitka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is recognized as an active endocrine organ that produces a number of endocrine substances referred to as “adipokines” including leptin, adiponectin, adipolin, visfatin, omentin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, and progranulin (PGRN which play an important role in the food intake regulation and significantly influence insulin sensitivity and in some cases directly affect insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. The review summarizes current knowledge about adipose tissue-derived hormones and their influence on energy homeostasis regulation. The possible therapeutic potential of these adipokines in the treatment of insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory response, obesity, eating disorders, progression of atherosclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes is discussed.

  17. Developments in our understanding of the effects of growth hormone on white adipose tissue from mice: implications to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; Henry, Brooke; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a well-established target of growth hormone (GH) and is altered in clinical conditions associated with excess, deficiency and absence of GH action. Due to the difficulty in collecting AT from clinical populations, genetically modified mice have been useful in better understanding how GH affects this tissue. Recent findings in mice would suggest that the impact of GH on AT is beyond alterations of lipolysis, lipogenesis or proliferation/ differentiation. AT depot-specific alterations in immune cells, extracellular matrix, adipokines, and senescence indicate an expanded role for GH in AT physiology. This mouse data will guide additional studies necessary to evaluate the therapeutic potential and safety of GH for conditions associated with altering AT, such as obesity. In this review, we introduce several relatively new intricacies of GH's effect on AT, focusing on recent studies in mice. Finally, we summarize the clinical implications of these findings.

  18. The effect of nutrition and metabolic status on the development of follicles, oocytes and embryos in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, J; Scaramuzzi, R J; Reverchon, M

    2014-07-01

    The impact of nutrition and energy reserves on the fertility of ruminants has been extensively described. However, the metabolic factors and the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between nutrition and ovarian function are still poorly understood. These factors could be hormonal (either reproductive and/or metabolic) and/or dietary and metabolic (glucose, amino acids and fatty acids). In this review, we briefly summarize the impact of those nutrients (fatty acids, glucose and amino acids) and metabolic hormones (insulin/IGF-I, growth hormone, T3/4, ghrelin, apelin and the adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin)) implicated in the development of ovarian follicles, oocytes and embryos in ruminants. We then discuss the current hypotheses on the mechanisms of action of these factors on ovarian function. We particularly describe the role of some energy sensors including adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the ovarian cells.

  19. Hepatic scavenger receptor BI is associated with type 2 diabetes but unrelated to human and murine non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Pohl, Rebekka; Meier, Elisabeth M; Weiss, Thomas S; Buechler, Christa

    2015-11-13

    Scavenger receptor, class B type I (SR-BI) is a physiologically relevant regulator of high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Low HDL is a common feature of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, hepatic SR-BI expression was analyzed in human and murine NAFLD. In primary human hepatocytes NAFLD relevant factors like inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide and TGF-β did not affect SR-BI protein. Similarly, oleate and palmitate had no effect. The adipokines chemerin, adiponectin, leptin and omentin did not regulate SR-BI expression. Accordingly, hepatic SR-BI was not changed in human and murine fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatits. SR-BI was higher in type 2 diabetes patients but not in those with hypercholesterolemia. The current study indicates a minor if any role of SR-BI in human and murine NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistin polymorphisms show associations with obesity, but not with bone parameters in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckers, Sigri; Zegers, Doreen; Van Camp, Jasmijn K

    2013-01-01

    Resistin is an obesity-related adipokine which has also been implicated in bone metabolism. Therefore, we designed a study to investigate the possible role of resistin gene variation in both obesity and bone mineral density. We included 1,155 individuals from the Odense Androgen Study (663 young...... subjects and 492 older subjects), a population-based, prospective, observational study on the inter-relationship between endocrine status, body composition, muscle function, and bone metabolism in men, in an association study with resistin (RETN) polymorphisms. Three RETN variants (rs1862513, rs3745367....... We were unable to identify any association between RETN polymorphisms and bone-related measurements. Together, these results illustrate resistin's role in the development of obesity. Rs3745367 gives the most consistent results in the current study and these should be confirmed in other populations...

  1. Clinical implications of adipocytokines and newly emerging metabolic factors with relation to insulin resistance and cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hee eChoi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is known to secrete hormones actively and produces many biologically active proteins called adipocytokines. Typically, obesity is followed by low-grade inflammation, which is characterized by increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Macrophages play a role in the inflammatory process by secreting many cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, resistin and retinol binding protein-4. These cytokines and chemokines participate in low grade pro-inflammatory processes leading to insulin resistance, metabolic impairment and cardiovascular diseases. More metabolic regulators, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF21, FGF19, FGF1, vaspin and visfatin have now been discovered but their exact roles in human diseases are still unclear. This review focuses on recent research regarding the role of adipokines and new metabolic factors in metabolic derangement or cardiovascular disease.

  2. On the Significance of New Biochemical Markers for the Diagnosis of Premature Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Rzepka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labour is defined as a birth taking place between 22nd and 37th weeks of gestation. Despite numerous studies on the aetiology and pathogenesis of preterm labour, its very cause still remains unclear. The importance of the cytokines and acute inflammation in preterm labour aetiology is nowadays well-proven. However, chronic inflammation as an element of the pathogenesis of premature labour is still unclear. This paper presents a literature review on the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, negative soluble isoforms of RAGE, chemokine-stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and one of the adipokines, resistin, in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. We conclude that the chronic inflammatory response can play a much more important role in the pathogenesis of preterm delivery than the acute one.

  3. Odanacatib Inhibits Resistin-induced Hypertrophic H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cells Through LKB1/AMPK Pathway

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    Xian Zheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Odanacatib (ODN is a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K. The cysteine protease cathepsin K has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Resistine is an adipokine which is identified to promote cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we hypothesize that ODN mitigates resistin-induced myocyte hypertrophy. Cell surface area and protein synthesis were measured after treatment with resistin and ODN in H9c2 cells. The expression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy marker BNP and β-MHC was detected by RT-qPCR. The expression and phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1 were analyzed with Western blot. Resistin could significantly increase cardiomyocyte cell surface area, protein synthesis, and embryonic gene BNP and β-MHC expression, inhibit phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1. ODN could significantly reverse the effects of resistin. Collectively, our data suggest that ODN can inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by resistin and the underlying mechanism may be involved in LKB1/AMPK pathway.

  4. Lifestyle-induced decrease in fat mass improves adiponectin secretion in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Solomon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies have identified relationships between weight loss and adipokine levels; however, none have looked at the combined effect of aerobic exercise training with the consumption of a low- or a high-glycemic diet. We examined the effects of 12 wk of aerobic exercise combined...... = 0.003) after the 12-wk intervention. Total body fat was reduced after both interventions. Visceral fat mass was inversely correlated with HMW adiponectin, whereas subcutaneous fat correlated with leptin. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that exercise training, independent of dietary glycemic index......, favorably alters HMW adiponectin and leptin secretion and that a reduction in visceral fat mass is a key factor regulating HMW adiponectin in older obese persons....

  5. Metformin Impacts the Prognosis of Cancer Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Mihaela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A long term complication of diabetes is the increased susceptibility to develop various malignancies and also to negatively impact the progression of cancer. However, metformin, widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, seems to impact the outcome of several types of cancer, in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival or rates of recurrences. Metformin might impact cancer through various mechanisms, including reduced insulin and insulin-like growth factor-mediated signaling as well as modulation of inflammation and adipokine activity. This review presents the clinical studies that deal with the prognostic impact of metformin on cancer and discuss the possible reasons for why certain types of cancer are affected by anti-diabetic therapy. In addition, it tries to integrate the preclinical and clinical evidence into guidelines for future prospective clinical studies

  6. What is the role of adiponectin in obesity related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2013-02-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common type of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the latter being considered as the hepatic component of insulin resistance or obesity. Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-specific adipokine. There is evidence that adiponectin decreases hepatic and systematic insulin resistance, and attenuates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Adiponectin generally predicts steatosis grade and the severity of NAFLD; however, to what extent this is a direct effect or related to the presence of more severe insulin resistance or obesity remains to be addressed. Although there is no proven pharmacotherapy for the treatment of NAFLD, recent therapeutic strategies have focused on the indirect upregulation of adiponectin through the administration of various therapeutic agents and/or lifestyle modifications. In this adiponectin-focused review, the pathogenetic role and the potential therapeutic benefits of adiponectin in NAFLD are analyzed systematically.

  7. The adiponectin receptor homologs in C. elegans promote energy utilization and homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Emma; Olsen, Louise Cathrine Braun; Mörck, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising actions in vertebrates. Its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are PAQR-type proteins with 7-transmembrane domains and topologies reversed that of GPCR's, i.e. their C-termini are extracellular. We identified three adiponectin receptor homologs...... when combined with the paqr-1 mutation. paqr-2 mutants are also synthetic lethal with mutations in nhr-49, sbp-1 and fat-6, which are C. elegans homologs of nuclear hormone receptors, SREBP and FAT-6 (a Δ9 desaturase), respectively. Like paqr-2, paqr-1 is also synthetic lethal with sbp-1. Mutations...... in aak-2, the C. elegans homolog of AMPK, or nhr-80, another nuclear hormone receptor gene, suppress the growth phenotype of paqr-2 mutants, probably because they restore the balance between energy expenditure and storage. We conclude that paqr-1 and paqr-2 are receptors that regulate fatty acid...

  8. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Angel; Quesada, Ivan; Tudurí, Eva; Nogueiras, Rubén; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma

    2017-09-01

    Energy balance involves the adjustment of food intake, energy expenditure and body fat reserves through homeostatic pathways. These pathways include a multitude of biochemical reactions, as well as hormonal cues. Dysfunction of this homeostatic control system results in common metabolism-related pathologies, which include obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) are a particular class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect energy homeostasis. MDCs affect multiple endocrine mechanisms and thus different cell types that are implicated in metabolic control. MDCs affect gene expression and the biosynthesis of key enzymes, hormones and adipokines that are essential for controlling energy homeostasis. This multifaceted spectrum of actions precludes compensatory responses and favours metabolic disorders. Herein, we review the main mechanisms used by MDCs to alter energy balance. This work should help to identify new MDCs, as well as novel targets of their action.

  9. World endocrinology news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Berkovskaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available • Actuality of the problem of metabolic syndrome: expert opinion. • Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. • Brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are characterised by impaired glucose tolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity and related metabolic defects. • Microvascular dysfunction: a potential pathophysiological role in the metabolic syndrome. • Cardiotrophin-1 is expressed in adipose tissue and it is UP-regulated in the metabolic syndrome. • Magnesium Intake, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Inflammation. • Red meat in the diet. • Relationships of maternal and paternal birth weights to features of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring: an inter-generation study in South India. • The truth about milk! • Therapeutic uses of aromatase inhibitors in men. • Reduction of body weight and co-morbidities by orlistat: The XXL - Primary Health Care Trial

  10. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  11. Food Components Modulate Obesity and Energy Metabolism via the Transcriptional Regulation of Lipid-Sensing Nuclear Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. Many modern people have a tendency to overeat owing to stress and loosening of self-control. Moreover, energy expenditure varies greatly among individuals. Scientific reduction of obesity is important under these circumstances. Furthermore, recent research on molecular levels has clarified the differentiation of adipocytes, the level of subsequent fat accumulation, and the secretion of the biologically active adipokines by adipocytes. Adipose tissues and obesity have become the most important target for the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. We have identified various food-derived compounds modulating nuclear receptors, especially peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor(PPAR), in the regulation of energy metabolism and obesity. In this review, we discuss the PPARs that are most important in obesity and energy metabolism.

  12. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  13. Role of leptin during perinatal metabolic programming and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiane, J; Attig, L

    2008-08-01

    The incidence of obesity is rapidly increasing all over the world in epidemic proportions.The epidemia now affects young children and accumulative evidences suggest that the origin of the disease may occur during foetal development and early life. This has introduced the concept of "developmental programming" supported by experimental studies in animal models and numerous epidemiological data. This concept supports the idea that nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy and early life could interfere irreversibly on the development of the organs involved in the control of food intake and metabolism and particularly the hypothalamic structures responsible of the establishment of the ingestive behaviour and regulation of energy expenditure. The mechanisms responsible of this developmental programming remain poorly documented. However, recent research indicate that the adipokine leptin plays a critical role in this programming.

  14. Ghrelin in Female and Male Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Dupont

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin and one of its functional receptors, GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a, were firstly studied about 15 years. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects several biological functions including food intake, glucose release, cell proliferation… Ghrelin and GHS-R1a are expressed in key cells of both male and female reproductive organs in several species including fishes, birds, and mammals suggesting a well-conserved signal through the evolution and a role in the control of fertility. Ghrelin could be a component of the complex series of nutrient sensors such as adipokines, and nuclear receptors, which regulate reproduction in function of the energy stores. The objective of this paper was to report the available information about the ghrelin system and its role at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in both sexes.

  15. Cutting edge: Leptin-induced RORγt expression in CD4+ T cells promotes Th17 responses in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiyun; Liu, Yaoyang; Shi, Fu-Dong; Zou, Hejian; Matarese, Giuseppe; La Cava, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Th17 CD4(+) cells promote inflammation and autoimmunity. In this study, we report that Th17 cell frequency is reduced in ob/ob mice (that are genetically deficient in the adipokine leptin) and that the administration of leptin to ob/ob mice restored Th17 cell numbers to values comparable to those found in wild-type animals. Leptin promoted Th17 responses in normal human CD4(+) T cells and in mice, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing RORγt transcription. Leptin also increased Th17 responses in (NZB × NZW)F1 lupus-prone mice, whereas its neutralization in those autoimmune-prone mice inhibited Th17 responses. Because Th17 cells play an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation and autoimmunity, these findings envision the possibility to modulate abnormal Th17 responses via leptin manipulation, and they reiterate the link between metabolism/nutrition and susceptibility to autoimmunity.

  16. Leptin Involvement in Primary Brain and Pituitary Tumors: Therapeutic Potential, Prognostic Value, and Proposed Diagnostic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikis, Christos; Tzanavari, Theodora; Alexandraki, Krystallenia I; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2018-02-20

    Brain tumors are associated with increased mortality and morbidity and are the most common cancer type in children and young adults. The present review focuses on the interplay between leptin, the most extensively studied adipokine, and the onset, development, and treatment of primary brain and intracranial tumors. The two main mechanisms for increased leptin levels in intracranial tumor survivors, leptin resistance caused by hypothalamic damage, or secondary to obesity, are discussed. The contradicting mechanistic observations on leptin being able to both promote tumorinogenesis (e.g., in gliomas) as well as inhibit it (e.g., in adenomas) are also reported. Additionally, the relevant current and future clinical applications, including most notably the proposed use of serum leptin measurements for non-invasive brain tumor diagnostics, are also reported.

  17. The impact of obesity on psoriasis

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    Dorota Krasowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many psoriatic patients, especially those suffering from severe forms of the disease, are obese and present other features of metabolic syndrome. It is likely due to proinflammatory activity of hormones and cytokines, called adipokines, which are produced by excess of fat tissue. Obese psoriatic patients usually have more severe skin lesions. They also respond poorly to systemic antipsoriatic therapies. Furthermore, this group of patients has a higher frequency of cardiovascular events and metabolic complications as well as psychological disturbances, such as depression, low self-esteem and anxiety disorders. Dietary counseling and lifestyle modification aimed at weight loss should be an integral part of therapeutic management in obese patients with psoriasis.

  18. Adipocyte CREB promotes insulin resistance in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ling; Saberi, Maziyar; Zmuda, Erik; Wang, Yiguo; Altarejos, Judith; Zhang, Xinmin; Dentin, Renaud; Hedrick, Susie; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Hai, Tsonwin; Olefsky, Jerry; Montminy, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Increases in adiposity trigger metabolic and inflammatory changes that interfere with insulin action in peripheral tissues, culminating in beta cell failure and overt diabetes. We found that the cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated in adipose cells under obese conditions, where it promotes insulin resistance by triggering expression of the transcriptional repressor ATF3 and thereby downregulating expression of the adipokine hormone adiponectin as well as the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative CREB transgene in adipocytes displayed increased whole-body insulin sensitivity in the contexts of diet-induced and genetic obesity, and they were protected from the development of hepatic steatosis and adipose tissue inflammation. These results indicate that adipocyte CREB provides an early signal in the progression to type 2 diabetes.

  19. Association of serum omentin-1 concentrations with the presence and severity of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Haiyu; Sheng, Lianbing; Tang, Ning; Li, Yunfei; Hao, Tianyu

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Omentin is a newly discovered adipokine that possesses an anti-inflammatory function. The aim of this study was to determine the association of serum omentin-1 concentration with the presence and severity of preeclampsia. Serum concentrations of omentin-1 were measured in 128 women with preeclampsia and 96 women with uncomplicated pregnancies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Patients with preeclampsia had significantly lower serum concentrations of omentin-1 compared to healthy controls. In addition, those patients with severe preeclampsia had significantly lower concentrations of serum omentin-1 compared to those with mild preeclampsia. Simple linear regression analysis showed that in patients with preeclampsia the serum concentrations of omentin-1 showed significant correlation with body mass index (P preeclampsia. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Friedrichsen, Martin; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    expression was not associated with circulatory RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that RBP4 levels in plasma, skeletal muscle, and fat may be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a secondary and noncausal manner.......OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate....... Plasma RBP4 was elevated in type 2 diabetes and increased with duration of disease. Plasma RBP4 correlated inversely with peripheral, but not hepatic, insulin sensitivity. However, the association disappeared after correction for covariates, including plasma adiponectin. Plasma retinol, and not RBP4...

  1. Common variants in LEPR, IL6, AMD1, and NAMPT do not associate with risk of juvenile and childhood obesity in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensted, Mette; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Have, Christian Theil

    2015-01-01

    the Genetics of Overweight Young Adults (GOYA) study (overweight/obese: 739 and normal weight: 722) and the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank (TDCOB; overweight/obese: 1022 and normal weight: 650). Overweight/obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2); among children and youths, this cut......BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a highly heritable disorder, for which the underlying genetic architecture is largely unknown. Four common variants involved in inflammatory-adipokine triggering (IL6 rs2069845, LEPR rs1137100, NAMPT rs3801266, and AMD1 rs2796749) have recently been associated...... with obesity and related traits in Indian children. The current study aimed to examine the effect of these variants on risk of childhood/juvenile onset obesity and on obesity-related quantitative traits in two Danish cohorts. METHODS: Genotype information was obtained for 1461 young Caucasian men from...

  2. Influences of the common FTO rs9939609 variant on inflammatory markers throughout a broad range of body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    A recent study reported that the fatness associated A-allele of FTO rs9939609 increased plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels independent of fatness. We aimed to investigate if this gene variant had fatness-independent effects on plasma hs-CRP and 10 additional circulating ob...... obesity-related adipokines throughout a broad range of body mass index (BMI) among Danish men.......A recent study reported that the fatness associated A-allele of FTO rs9939609 increased plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels independent of fatness. We aimed to investigate if this gene variant had fatness-independent effects on plasma hs-CRP and 10 additional circulating...

  3. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2...... diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned...... to eat a Palaeolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, or a diabetes diet designed in accordance with current diabetes dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. The patients were recruited from primary health-care units and included three...

  4. Adipose tissue and adrenal glands: novel pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Atil Y; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or "adipokines" have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of "cross talk" between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  5. Circadian Clocks and the Interaction between Stress Axis and Adipose Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Kolbe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological processes and most endocrine functions show fluctuations over the course of the day. These so-called circadian rhythms are governed by an endogenous network of cellular clocks and serve as an adaptation to daily and, thus, predictable changes in the organism’s environment. Circadian clocks have been described in several tissues of the stress axis and in adipose cells where they regulate the rhythmic and stimulated release of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, and various adipokine factors. Recent work suggests that both adipose and stress axis clock systems reciprocally influence each other and adrenal-adipose rhythms may be key players in the development and therapy of metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of adrenal and adipose tissue rhythms and clocks and how they might interact to regulate energy homoeostasis and stress responses under physiological conditions. Potential chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic and stress disorders are discussed.

  6. A key role for neuropeptide Y in lifespan extension and cancer suppression via dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takuya; Tamashiro, Yukari; Park, Daeui; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Fujie, Ryoko; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Kim, Sang Eun; Park, Seongjoon; Hayashi, Hiroko; Mori, Ryoichi; Yamashita, Hitoshi; Chung, Hae Young; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-03-31

    Knowledge of genes essential for the life-extending effect of dietary restriction (DR) in mammals is incomplete. In this study, we found that neuropeptide Y (Npy), which mediates physiological adaptations to energy deficits, is an essential link between DR and longevity in mice. The lifespan-prolonging effect of lifelong 30% DR was attenuated in Npy-null mice, as was the effect on the occurrence of spontaneous tumors and oxidative stress responses in comparison to wild-type mice. In contrast, the physiological processes activated during adaptation to DR, including inhibition of anabolic signaling molecules (insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1), modulation of adipokine and corticosterone levels, and preferential fatty acid oxidation, were unaffected by the absence of Npy. These results suggest a key role for Npy in mediating the effects of DR. We also provide evidence that most of the physiological adaptations to DR could be achieved in mice without Npy.

  7. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4......Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression.......5, and 6 h in response to exercise (n = 8) compared with preexercise samples and compared with the resting control group (n = 7, P = 0.001). Visfatin mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not influenced by exercise. The exercise-induced increase in adipose tissue visfatin was, however, not accompanied...

  8. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10: normal control diet (NC and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH or germinated Superhongmi (GSH rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  9. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo Im; Ryu, Su Noh; Kang, Mi Young

    2016-10-21

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups ( n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  10. Visfatin and cardio-cerebro-vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from nicotinamide. This protein was originally cloned as a putative pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor and also found to be a visceral fat-derived adipokine (visfatin). As a multifunctional protein, visfatin plays an important role in immunity, metabolism, aging, inflammation, and responses to stress. Visfatin also participates in several pathophysiological processes contributing to cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke. However, whether visfatin is a friend or a foe in these diseases remains uncertain. This brief review focuses on the current understanding of the complex role of visfatin in the cardio-cerebro-vascular system under normal and pathophysiological conditions.

  11. Obesity as disruptor of the female fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestris, Erica; de Pergola, Giovanni; Rosania, Raffaele; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2018-03-09

    Both obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and have detrimental influences on several human body functions including the reproductive health. In particular, obese women undergo perturbations of the 'hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis', and frequently suffer of menstrual dysfunction leading to anovulation and infertility. Besides the hormone disorders and subfertility that are common in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in obesity the adipocytes act as endocrine organ. The adipose tissue indeed, releases a number of bioactive molecules, namely adipokines, that variably interact with multiple molecular pathways of insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, coagulation, and oocyte differentiation and maturation. Moreover, endometrial implantation and other reproductive functions are affected in obese women with complications including delayed conceptions, increased miscarriage rate, reduced outcomes in assisted conception treatments.On the contrary, weight loss programs through lifestyle modification in obese women, have been proven to restore menstrual cyclicity and ovulation and improve the likelihood of conception.

  12. Lower leptin/adiponectin ratio and risk of rapid lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Makita, Hironi; Östling, Jörgen; Thomsen, Laura H; Konno, Satoshi; Nagai, Katsura; Shimizu, Kaoruko; Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Bruijnzeel, Piet L B; Maciewicz, Rose A; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2014-12-01

    The rate of annual change in FEV1 is highly variable among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Reliable blood biomarkers are needed to predict prognosis. To explore plasma biomarkers associated with an annual change in FEV1 in patients with COPD. Plasma samples of 261 subjects, all Japanese, with COPD from the 5-year Hokkaido COPD cohort study were analyzed as a hypothesis-generating cohort, and the results were validated using data of 226 subjects with and 268 subjects without airflow limitation, mainly white, from the 4-year COPD Quantification by Computed Tomography, Biomarkers, and Quality of Life (CBQ) study conducted in Denmark. The plasma samples were measured using Human CardiovascularMAP (Myriad RBM, Austin, TX), which could analyze 50 biomarkers potentially linked with inflammatory, metabolic, and tissue remodeling pathways, and single ELISAs were used to confirm the results. Higher plasma adiponectin levels and a lower leptin/adiponectin ratio at enrollment were significantly associated with an annual decline in FEV1 even after controlling for age, sex, height, and body mass index in the Hokkaido COPD cohort study (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, respectively). A lower plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio was also significantly associated with an annual decline in FEV1 in subjects with airflow limitation in the CBQ study (P = 0.014), the patients of which had largely different clinical characteristics compared with the Hokkaido COPD cohort study. There were no significant associations between lung function decline and adipokine levels in subjects without airflow limitation. A lower leptin/adiponectin ratio was associated with lung function decline in patients with COPD in two independent Japanese and Western cohort studies of populations of different ethnicity. Measure of systemic adipokines may provide utility in predicting patients with COPD at higher risk of lung function decline.

  13. Early Effects of Treatment Low-dose Atorvastatin on Markers of Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gruzdeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is one of the primary causes of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, attention has been focused on the development of drugs that normalize lipid levels and exert an effect on markers of atherothrombosis, insulin resistance (IR, and inflammation. Atorvastatin is a drug with not only lipid-lowering potential, but it has multiple non-lipid effects. This study aimed to evaluate atorvastatin effects on lipid, adipokine, IR and inflammatory statuses in patients with myocardial infarction (MI in an in-hospital setting. This study included 90 patients with confirmed ST-segment elevation MI, who were treated with atorvastatin 20 mg/day starting on day 1 of MI, without any dose changes. The comparison group consisted of 89 patients receiving standard anti-anginal and anti-thrombotic therapy. During the hospital stay, both groups showed a reduction in total cholesterol level and free fatty acids and increased concentrations of apolipoprotein A, especially those patients receiving atorvastatin. On day 1 of MI, patients in both groups had elevated levels of leptin by 2.9- to 3.3-fold, but the leptin levels decreased by 40.3% and were significantly lower than in patients not taking statins. The treatment with atorvastatin was associated with a decrease in C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 by 23.1% and 49.2%, respectively, compared with baseline values. In the group of patients on standard therapy, there was a decrease of interleukin-6 by 31.7%. Atorvastatin administered early on during hospitalization to patients with MI contributed to the improvement of lipid, adipokine and pro-inflammatory statuses and decreased IR.

  14. Baseline adiponectin and leptin levels in predicting an increased risk of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heng; Lin, Jin; Chen, Weiqian; Xu, Guanhua; Sun, Chuanyin

    2016-12-01

    To determine the pathogenic role of adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by investigating whether serum levels of these adipokines correlated with disease activity in RA patients. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched for studies published until 5 November 2015 reporting serum levels of leptin and adiponectin and measures of disease activity including DAS scores and radiographic progression scores (such as total change in SHS scores and number of erosions). Secondary outcomes included pain scores, functional status and health questionnaires. Only randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, or two-armed prospective or retrospective studies were included. A χ 2 -based test of homogeneity was performed using Cochran's Q statistic and I 2 . A total of 917 predominantly female participants (average age range, 39-56 years) from six prospective cohort studies were included for assessment. A fixed-effects analysis was applied for leptin levels due to lack of heterogeneity among the studies (Q = 4.4364; I 2  =   32.38). A random-effects analysis was applied to serum levels of adiponectin because of significant heterogeneity between studies (Q = 4.444, I 2  =   77.50%). Serum leptin levels were higher in RA patients with high disease activity (pooled SMD: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.24-0.82); however, serum adiponectin levels did not correlate with RA disease activity (pooled OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 0.77-2.47). The meta-analysis provides an additional factor to determine high disease activity index in RA, that is, serum leptin levels, which can be of benefit when choosing treatment strategies.

  15. Post-Prandial Plasma Glucose Less Than or Equal to 70 mg/dL Is Not Uncommon in Young Japanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Minato, Satomi; Kurata, Miki; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2017-08-01

    Post-breakfast/post-challenge plasma glucose (PG) concentrations were studied less in young normal weight Japanese women. We addressed these issues. Two separate groups of female collegiate athletes and female untrained students underwent either a standardized meal test or a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, but not both. Frequency of women whose post-breakfast/post-load PG fell to 70 mg/dL or lower (termed as low glycemia) was compared between athletes and non-athletes, who also underwent measurements of serum adipokines, markers of insulin resistance and inflammation and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity/resistance and serum adipokines were compared between women with and without post-breakfast low glycemia. The same comparison was done between women whose post-breakfast PG returned to levels below the fasting PG and women whose post-breakfast PG never fell below the fasting PG. There was no difference between athletes and non-athletes in frequency of post-breakfast low glycemia (47% (8/17) and 44% (8/18)) and post-challenge low glycemia (24% (12/50) and 23% (27/118)). As compared to seven women whose post-breakfast PG never fell below the fasting PG, 28 women whose post-breakfast PG returned to levels below the fasting PG had higher meal-induced insulin responses (283 ± 366 vs. 89 ± 36 µU/mg, P = 0.014). However, two groups did not differ in body composition, markers of insulin resistance and serum adiponectin. No significant difference was also observed in any of these variables between women with and without post-breakfast low glycemia. Post-prandial PG ≤ 70 mg/dL is not uncommon in young normal weight Japanese women and may not be a pathological condition. The underlying mechanisms for this finding need further exploration.

  16. Effects of enriched environment on COX-2, leptin and eicosanoids in a mouse model of breast cancer.

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    Rachida Nachat-Kappes

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and adipokines have been implicated in breast cancer. This study investigated a possible link between COX-2 and adipokines in the development of mammary tumors. A model of environmental enrichment (EE, known to reduce tumor growth was used for a syngeneic murine model of mammary carcinoma. 3-week-old, female C57BL/6 mice were housed in standard environment (SE or EE cages for 9 weeks and transplanted orthotopically with syngeneic EO771 adenocarcinoma cells into the right inguinal mammary fat pad. EE housing influenced mammary gland development with a decrease in COX-2 expressing cells and enhanced side-branching and advanced development of alveolar structures of the mammary gland. Tumor volume and weight were decreased in EE housed mice and were associated with a reduction in COX-2 and Ki67 levels, and an increase in caspase-3 levels. In tumors of SE mice, high COX-2 expression correlated with enhanced leptin detection. Non-tumor-bearing EE mice showed a significant increase in adiponectin levels but no change in those of leptin, F(2-isoprostanes, PGF(2α, IL-6, TNF-α, PAI-1, and MCP-1 levels. Both tumor-bearing groups (SE and EE housing had increased resistin, IL-6, TNF-α, PAI-1 and MCP-1 levels irrespective of the different housing environment demonstrating higher inflammatory response due to the presence of the tumor. This study demonstrates that EE housing influenced normal mammary gland development and inhibited mammary tumor growth resulting in a marked decrease in intratumoral COX-2 activity and an increase in the plasma ratio of adiponectin/leptin levels.

  17. Effect of short-term weight loss on mental stress-induced cardiovascular and pro-inflammatory responses in women.

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    Endrighi, Romano; Hamer, Mark; Hackett, Ruth A; Carvalho, Livia A; Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence links psychosocial stress with obesity but experimental studies examining the mechanisms that mediates the effect of stress on adiposity are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in adiposity following minimal weight loss affect heightened stress responses in women, and examine the role of the adipokine leptin in driving inflammatory responses. Twenty-three overweight or obese, but otherwise healthy, women (M age = 30.41 ± 8.0 years; BMI = 31.9 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)) completed standardized acute mental stress before and after a 9-week calorie restriction program designed to modify adiposity levels. Cardiovascular (blood pressure and heart rate) and inflammatory cytokines (leptin and interleukin-6; IL-6) responses to mental stress were assessed several times between baseline and a 45-min post-stress recovery period. There were modest changes in adiposity measures while the adipokine leptin was markedly reduced (-27%) after the intervention. Blood pressure reactivity was attenuated (-3.38 ± 1.39 mmHg) and heart rate recovery was improved (2.07 ± 0.96 Bpm) after weight loss. Blood pressure responses were inversely associated with changes in waist to hip ratio post intervention. Decreased levels of circulating leptin following weight loss were inversely associated with the IL-6 inflammatory response to stress (r = -0.47). We offered preliminary evidence suggesting that modest changes in adiposity following a brief caloric restriction program may yield beneficial effect on cardiovascular stress responses. In addition, reductions in basal leptin activity might be important in blunting pro-inflammatory responses. Large randomized trials of the effect of adiposity on autonomic responses are thus warranted.

  18. 36 h fasting of young men influences adipose tissue DNA methylation ofLEPandADIPOQin a birth weight-dependent manner.

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    Hjort, Line; Jørgensen, Sine W; Gillberg, Linn; Hall, Elin; Brøns, Charlotte; Frystyk, Jan; Vaag, Allan A; Ling, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Subjects born with low birth weight (LBW) display a more energy-conserving response to fasting compared with normal birth weight (NBW) subjects. However, the molecular mechanisms explaining these metabolic differences remain unknown. Environmental influences may dynamically affect epigenetic marks, also in postnatal life. Here, we aimed to study the effects of short-term fasting on leptin ( LEP ) and adiponectin ( ADIPOQ ) DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from subjects with LBW and NBW. Twenty-one young LBW men and 18 matched NBW controls were studied during 36 h fasting. Eight subjects from each group completed a control study (overnight fast). We analyzed SAT LEP and ADIPOQ methylation (Epityper MassARRAY), gene expression (q-PCR), and adipokine plasma levels. After overnight fast (control study), LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation levels were higher in LBW compared to those in NBW subjects ( p  ≤ 0.03) and increased with 36 h fasting in NBW subjects only ( p  ≤ 0.06). Both LEP and ADIPOQ methylation levels were positively associated with total body fat percentage ( p  ≤ 0.05). Plasma leptin levels were higher in LBW versus NBW subjects after overnight fasting ( p  = 0.04) and decreased more than threefold in both groups after 36 h fasting ( p  ≤ 0.0001). This is the first study to demonstrate that fasting induces changes in DNA methylation. This was shown in LEP and ADIPOQ promoters in SAT among NBW but not LBW subjects. The altered epigenetic flexibility in LBW subjects might contribute to their differential response to fasting, adipokine levels, and increased risk of metabolic disease.

  19. Influence of Fasting Status and Sample Preparation on Metabolic Biomarker Measurements in Postmenopausal Women.

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    Murphy, Neil; Falk, Roni T; Messinger, Diana B; Pollak, Michael; Xue, Xiaonan; Lin, Juan; Sgueglia, Robin; Strickler, Howard D; Gaudet, Mia M; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic data linking metabolic markers-such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)-and adipose tissue-derived factors with cancer are inconsistent. Between-study differences in blood collection protocols, in particular participant's fasting status, may influence measurements. We investigated the impact of fasting status and blood sample processing time on components of the insulin/IGF axis and in adipokines in a controlled feeding study of 45 healthy postmenopausal-women aged 50-75 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn (T0), after which subjects ate a standardized breakfast; subsequent blood draws were made at 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3), and 6 hours (T6) after breakfast. Serum samples were assayed for insulin, C-peptide, total- and free-IGF-I, IGF-binding protein [BP]-1 and -3, total and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin, retinol binding protein-4, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and resistin. Insulin and C-peptide levels followed similar postprandial trajectories; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC] for insulin = 0.75, (95%CI:0.64-0.97) and C-peptide (ICC = 0.66, 95%CI:0.54-0.77) were similarly correlated in fasting (Spearman correlation, r = 0.78, 95%CI:0.64-0.88) and postprandial states (T1, r = 0.77 (95%CI: 0.62-0.87); T3,r = 0.78 (95%CI: 0.63-0.87); T6,r = 0.77 (95%CI: 0.61-0.87)). Free-IGF-I and IGFBP-1 levels were also affected by fasting status, whereas total-IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels remained unchanged. Levels of adipokines were largely insensitive to fasting status and blood sample processing delays. Several components of the insulin/IGF axis were significantly impacted by fasting state and in particular, C-peptide levels were substantially altered postprandially and in a similar manner to insulin.

  20. An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity.

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    Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Sensory factors may play an important role in the determination of appetite and food choices. Also, some adipokines may alter or predict the perception and pleasantness of specific odors. We aimed to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females with different weights and relate them with fat and fat-free mass, visceral fat, and several adipokines.179 females with different weights (from low weight to morbid obesity were studied. We analyzed the relation between fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat (indirectly estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with visceral fat rating (VFR, leptin, adiponectin and visfatin. The smell and taste assessments were performed through the "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips" respectively.We found a lower score in the measurement of smell (TDI-score (Threshold, Discrimination and Identification in obese subjects. All the olfactory functions measured, such as threshold, discrimination, identification and the TDI-score, correlated negatively with age, body mass index (BMI, leptin, fat mass, fat-free mass and VFR. In a multiple linear regression model, VFR mainly predicted the TDI-score. With regard to the taste function measurements, the normal weight subjects showed a higher score of taste functions. However a tendency to decrease was observed in the groups with greater or lesser BMI. In a multiple linear regression model VFR and age mainly predicted the total taste scores.We show for the first time that a reverse relationship exists between visceral fat and sensory signals, such as smell and taste, across a population with different body weight conditions.

  1. Global loss of bmal1 expression alters adipose tissue hormones, gene expression and glucose metabolism.

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    David John Kennaway

    Full Text Available The close relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and poor metabolic status is becoming increasingly evident, but role of adipokines is poorly understood. Here we investigated adipocyte function and the metabolic status of mice with a global loss of the core clock gene Bmal1 fed either a normal or a high fat diet (22% by weight. Bmal1 null mice aged 2 months were killed across 24 hours and plasma adiponectin and leptin, and adipose tissue expression of Adipoq, Lep, Retn and Nampt mRNA measured. Glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance tests were conducted and the expression of liver glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzyme mRNA determined. Bmal1 null mice displayed a pattern of increased plasma adiponectin and plasma leptin concentrations on both control and high fat diets. Bmal1 null male and female mice displayed increased adiposity (1.8 fold and 2.3 fold respectively on the normal diet, but the high fat diet did not exaggerate these differences. Despite normal glucose and insulin tolerance, Bmal1 null mice had increased production of glucose from pyruvate, implying increased liver gluconeogenesis. The Bmal1 null mice had arrhythmic clock gene expression in epigonadal fat and liver, and loss of rhythmic transcription of a range of metabolic genes. Furthermore, the expression of epigonadal fat Adipoq, Retn, Nampt, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and liver Pfkfb3 mRNA were down-regulated. These results show for the first time that global loss of Bmal1, and the consequent arrhythmicity, results in compensatory changes in adipokines involved in the cellular control of glucose metabolism.

  2. BAFF knockout improves systemic inflammation via regulating adipose tissue distribution in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

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    Kim, Do-Hwan; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2015-01-16

    Obesity is recognized as a chronic low-grade inflammatory state due to adipose tissue expansion being accompanied by an increase in the production of proinflammatory adipokines. Our group is the first to report that B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is produced from adipocytes and functions as a proinflammatory adipokine. Here, we investigated how loss of BAFF influenced diet-induced obesity in mice by challenging BAFF(-/-) mice with a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. The results demonstrated that weight gain in BAFF(-/-) mice was >30% than in control mice, with a specific increase in the fat mass of the subcutaneous region rather than the abdominal region. Expression of lipogenic genes was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, and increased lipogenesis was observed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), whereas lipogenesis in the epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) was reduced. A significant decrease in EAT mass resulted in the downregulation of inflammatory gene expression in EAT, and more importantly, overall levels of inflammatory cytokines in the circulation were reduced in obese BAFF(-/-) mice. We also observed that the macrophages recruited in the enlarged SAT were predominantly M2 macrophages. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with adipose tissue conditioned media (ATCM), demonstrating that EAT ATCM from BAFF(-/-) mice contains antilipogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Taken together, BAFF(-/-) improved systemic inflammation by redistributing adipose tissue into subcutaneous regions. Understanding the mechanisms by which BAFF regulates obesity in a tissue-specific manner would provide therapeutic opportunities to target obesity-related chronic diseases.

  3. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

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    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Klegeris, Andis [Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Little, Jonathan P., E-mail: jonathan.little@ubc.ca [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  4. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  5. Health impact of fasting in Saudi Arabia during Ramadan: association with disturbed circadian rhythm and metabolic and sleeping patterns.

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    Ajabnoor, Ghada M; Bahijri, Suhad; Borai, Anwar; Abdulkhaliq, Altaf A; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Chrousos, George P

    2014-01-01

    Muslims go through strict Ramadan fasting from dawn till sunset for one month yearly. These practices are associated with disturbed feeding and sleep patterns. We recently demonstrated that, during Ramadan, circadian cortisol rhythm of Saudis is abolished, exposing these subjects to continuously increased cortisol levels. Secretory patterns of other hormones and metabolic parameters associated with cortisol, and insulin resistance, might be affected during Ramadan. Ramadan practitioners (18 males, 5 females; mean age ±SEM = 23.16±1.2 years) were evaluated before and two weeks into Ramadan. Blood was collected for measurements of endocrine and metabolic parameters at 9 am (±1 hour) and again twelve hours later. In Ramadan, glucose concentration was kept within normal range, with a significant increase in the morning. Mean morning concentration of leptin was significantly higher than pre-Ramadan values (p = 0.001), in contrast to that of adiponectin, which was significantly lower (pRamadan than those during regular living conditions, however, normal circadian fluctuation was abolished (p = 0.49). Even though means of liver enzymes, total bilirubin, total protein and albumin were all decreased during Ramadan, statistically lower means were only noted for GGT, total protein, and albumin (p = 0.018, 0.002 and 0.001 respectively). Saudi Ramadan practitioners have altered adipokine patterns, typical of insulin resistance. The noted decreases of hsCRP, liver enzymes, total protein, and albumin, are most likely a result of fasting, while loss of circadian rhythmicity of hsCRP is probably due to loss of circadian cortisol rhythm. Modern Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia, which are associated with evening hypercortisolism, are also characterized by altered adipokines patterns, and an abolished hsCRP circadian rhythm, all likely to increase cardiometabolic risk.

  6. Eradicating hepatitis C virus ameliorates insulin resistance without change in adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, K-L; Jenkins, A B; Trenell, M; Tid-Ang, J; Samocha-Bonet, D; Weltman, M; Xu, A; George, J; Chisholm, D J

    2014-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with lipid-related changes and insulin resistance; the latter predicts response to antiviral therapy, liver disease progression and the risk of diabetes. We sought to determine whether insulin sensitivity improves following CHC viral eradication after antiviral therapy and whether this is accompanied by changes in fat depots or adipokine levels. We compared 8 normoglycaemic men with CHC (genotype 1 or 3) before and at least 6 months post viral eradication and 15 hepatitis C antibody negative controls using an intravenous glucose tolerance test and two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with [6,6-(2) H2 ] glucose to assess peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal fat compartments, liver and intramyocellular lipid. Peripheral insulin sensitivity improved (glucose infusion rate during high-dose insulin increased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 12 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min/, P = 0.025), with no change in hepatic insulin response following successful viral eradication, without any accompanying change in muscle, liver or abdominal fat depots. There was corresponding improvement in incremental glycaemic response to intravenous glucose (pretreatment: 62.1 ± 8.3 vs post-treatment: 56.1 ± 8.5 mm, P = 0.008). Insulin sensitivity after viral clearance was comparable to matched controls without CHC. Post therapy, liver enzyme levels decreased but, interestingly, levels of glucagon, fatty acid-binding protein and lipocalin-2 remained elevated. Eradication of the hepatitis C virus improves insulin sensitivity without alteration in fat depots, adipokine or glucagon levels, consistent with a direct link of the virus with insulin resistance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Parametrial fat tissue from high fat diet-treated SKH-1 mice stimulates transformation of mouse epidermal JB6 cells.

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    Bernard, Jamie J; Lou, You-Rong; Peng, Qing-Yun; Li, Tao; Vakil, Priyal R; Ding, Ning; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Dong, Zigang; Conney, Allan H; Lu, Yao-Ping

    2014-07-31

    Our previous studies indicated that decreasing visceral adipose tissue by surgical removal of the parametrial fat pads inhibited UVB-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), but not a low fat diet (LFD) indicating that the parametrial fat tissue from mice fed a HFD played a role in skin carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to investigate how a HFD may influence the intrinsic properties of the parametrial fat tissue to influence UVB-induced skin tumor formation. Immunohistochemical staining, adipokine array, and flow cytometry showed that parametrial fat tissue from mice fed a HFD had a higher density of macrophage-fused dead adipocytes (crown-like structures), more adipokines, and stimulated the production of more reactive oxygen species compared with parametrial fat tissue from mice fed a LFD. These differences between parametrial fat tissue from mice fed a HFD and LFD were associated with their effect on the in vitro transformation of mouse epidermal JB6 cells. Our results indicated that fat tissue filtrate (an aqueous filtrate made from the parametrial fat pad) from mice fed a HFD enhanced the conversion of JB6 cells from an epithelial-like morphology to cells with a fibroblast-like morphology to a greater extent than fat tissue filtrate from mice fed a LFD. Studies indicated that the fibroblast-like cells had decreased levels of E-cadherin, increased levels of Twist as assayed by western blot. Fat tissue filtrate made from the parametrial fat tissue of mice fed a HFD had 160% more transforming activity than that from mice fed a LFD and formed malignant mesenchymal tumors in vivo . These studies provide the first in vitro demonstration of a parametrial fat tissue-induced transformation of an epidermal cell.

  8. The relationship between adiposity-associated inflammation and coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcium differs by strata of central adiposity: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Austin, Jan M; Wassel, Christina L; Jiménez, Jessica; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Budoff, Matthew J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A

    2014-08-01

    Adipokines regulate metabolic processes linked to coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aorta calcification (AAC). Because adipokine and other adiposity-associated inflammatory marker (AAIM) secretions differ between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, we hypothesized that central adiposity modifies associations between AAIMs and CAC and AAC. We evaluated 1878 MESA participants with complete measures of AAIMs, anthropometry, CAC, and AAC. Associations of AAIMs with CAC and AAC prevalence and severity were analyzed per standard deviation of predictors (SD) using log binomial and linear regression models. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was dichotomized at median WHR values based on sex/ethnicity. CAC and AAC prevalence were defined as any calcium (Agatston score >0). Severity was defined as ln (Agatston score). Analyses examined interactions with WHR and were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Each SD higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibrinogen and CRP was associated with 5% higher CAC prevalence; and each SD higher IL-6 and fibrinogen was associated with 4% higher AAC prevalence. Associations of IL-6 and fibrinogen with CAC severity, but not CAC prevalence, were significantly different among WHR strata. Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher IL-6 was associated with 24.8% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction =0.012). Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher fibrinogen was associated with 19.6% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction =0.034). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not associated with CAC or AAC prevalence or severity. These results support findings that adiposity-associated inflammation is associated with arterial calcification, and further add that central adiposity may modify this association. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Chronic leucine supplementation improves lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet

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    Jun Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leucine supplementation has been reported to improve lipid metabolism. However, lipid metabolism in adipose tissues and liver has not been extensively studied for leucine supplementation in mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Design: C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow diet, HFCD, HFCD supplemented with 1.5% leucine (HFCD+1.5% Leu group or 3% leucine (HFCD+3% Leu group for 24 weeks. The body weight, peritoneal adipose weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride in serum and liver, and serum adipokines were analyzed. In addition, expression levels of proteins associated with hepatic lipogenesis, adipocyte lipolysis, and white adipose tissue (WAT browning were determined. Results: Mice in the HFCD group developed obesity and deteriorated lipid metabolism. Compared with HFCD, leucine supplementation lowered weight gain and TC levels in circulation and the liver without changing energy intake. The decrease in body fat was supported by histological examination in the WAT and liver. Furthermore, serum levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were significantly decreased by supplemented leucine. At the protein level, leucine potently decreased the hepatic lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and corresponding upstream proteins. In epididymal WAT, the reduced expression levels of two major lipases by HFCD, namely phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, were reversed when leucine was supplemented. Uncoupling protein 1, β3 adrenergic receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator-1α, and fibroblast growth factor 21 were involved in the thermogenic program and WAT browning. Leucine additionally upregulated their protein expression in both WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that chronic leucine supplementation reduced the body weight and improved the

  10. Hyperuricemia as a Mediator of the Proinflammatory Endocrine Imbalance in the Adipose Tissue in a Murine Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, William; McRae, Steven; Marek, George; Wymer, David; Pannu, Varinderpal; Baylis, Chris; Johnson, Richard J.; Sautin, Yuri Y.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hyperuricemia is strongly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome and can predict visceral obesity and insulin resistance. Previously, we showed that soluble uric acid directly stimulated the redox-dependent proinflammatory signaling in adipocytes. In this study we demonstrate the role of hyperuricemia in the production of key adipokines. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes, human primary adipocytes, and a mouse model of metabolic syndrome and hyperuricemia. RESULTS Uric acid induced in vitro an increase in the production (mRNA and secreted protein) of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), an adipokine playing an essential role in inducing the proinflammatory state in adipocytes in obesity. In addition, uric acid caused a decrease in the production of adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific insulin sensitizer and anti-inflammatory agent. Uric acid–induced increase in MCP-1 production was blocked by scavenging superoxide or by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and by stimulating peroxisome-proliferator–activated receptor-γ with rosiglitazone. Downregulation of the adiponectin production was prevented by rosiglitazone but not by antioxidants. In obese mice with metabolic syndrome, we observed hyperuricemia. Lowering uric acid in these mice by inhibiting xanthine oxidoreductase with allopurinol could improve the proinflammatory endocrine imbalance in the adipose tissue by reducing production of MCP-1 and increasing production of adiponectin. In addition, lowering uric acid in obese mice decreased macrophage infiltration in the adipose tissue and reduced insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS Hyperuricemia might be partially responsible for the proinflammatory endocrine imbalance in the adipose tissue, which is an underlying mechanism of the low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21346177

  11. TM6SF2 rs58542926 variant affects postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Giovanni; Cipolla, Ugo; Cassader, Maurizio; Pinach, Silvia; Saba, Francesca; De Michieli, Franco; Paschetta, Elena; Bongiovanni, Daria; Framarin, Luciana; Leone, Nicola; Berrutti, Mara; Rosina, Floriano; Corvisieri, Stefania; Molinaro, Federica; Sircana, Antonio; Gambino, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) rs58542926 C>T polymorphism on liver injury and cardiometabolic risk in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unclear. We assessed the impact of this polymorphism on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and nutrient oxidation in NAFLD. Sixty nonobese nondiabetic normolipidemic biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 60 matched controls genotyped for TM6SF2 C>T polymorphism underwent: indirect calorimetry; an oral fat tolerance test with measurement of plasma lipoprotein subfractions, adipokines, and incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and an oral glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis of glucose homeostasis. The TM6SF2 T-allele was associated with higher hepatic and adipose insulin resistance, impaired pancreatic β-cell function and incretin effect, and higher muscle insulin sensitivity and whole-body fat oxidation rate. Compared with the TM6SF2 C-allele, the T-allele entailed lower postprandial lipemia and nefaemia, a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile, and a postprandial cholesterol (Chol) redistribution from smaller atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions to larger intestinal and hepatic VLDL1 subfractions. Postprandial plasma VLDL1-Chol response independently predicted the severity of liver histology. In conclusion, the TM6SF2 C>T polymorphism affects nutrient oxidation, glucose homeostasis, and postprandial lipoprotein, adipokine, and GIP responses to fat ingestion independently of fasting values. These differences may contribute to the dual and opposite effect of this polymorphism on liver injury and cardiometabolic risk in NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Gene expression profile of high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice: in search of potential role of azelaic acid.

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    Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Chakrabarti, Alok K; Mukherjee, Sanjay

    2015-03-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) elevates circulatory fatty acids and influences glucose and fat metabolism. Azelaic acid (AzA), a naturally occurring α,ω-dicarboxylic acid in wheat, rye, barley, oat seeds and sorghum, has been reported to exert antidiabetic effects in HFD-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) C57BL/6J mice. The present study was undertaken to identify the genes that are differentially modulated by treatment with AzA in HFD-fed mice. Mice were fed HFD for 10 weeks and subjected to intragastric administration of 80 mg/kg body weight (BW) of AzA daily along with HFD from 11 to 15 weeks. Lipid profile, adipokines and cytokines were examined in the plasma/liver of mice. Whole genome profiling was performed in the liver of mice using microarray and validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. HFD intake resulted in significantly elevated lipids (except high-density lipoproteins), resistin, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 with marked reduction in adiponectin. Administration of AzA to HFD-fed mice significantly restored the lipids, adipokines and cytokines to near normal. Transcript profiling revealed that HFD intake activated the genes involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Treatment with AzA caused increased expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, receptor-mediated signalling, transcription, protein modification and insulin signal transduction. AzA activates insulin signal molecules leading to insulin sensitivity. The ability of AzA to modulate the expression of these genes supports the notion that AzA is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of insulin resistance associated with T2DM.

  13. Circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 regulate the response of metabolism-associated transcripts to sleep disruption.

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    Jana Husse

    Full Text Available Human and animal studies demonstrate that short sleep or poor sleep quality, e.g. in night shift workers, promote the development of obesity and diabetes. Effects of sleep disruption on glucose homeostasis and liver physiology are well documented. However, changes in adipokine levels after sleep disruption suggest that adipocytes might be another important peripheral target of sleep. Circadian clocks regulate metabolic homeostasis and clock disruption can result in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The finding that sleep and clock disruption have very similar metabolic effects prompted us to ask whether the circadian clock machinery may mediate the metabolic consequences of sleep disruption. To test this we analyzed energy homeostasis and adipocyte transcriptome regulation in a mouse model of shift work, in which we prevented mice from sleeping during the first six hours of their normal inactive phase for five consecutive days (timed sleep restriction--TSR. We compared the effects of TSR between wild-type and Per1/2 double mutant mice with the prediction that the absence of a circadian clock in Per1/2 mutants would result in a blunted metabolic response to TSR. In wild-types, TSR induces significant transcriptional reprogramming of white adipose tissue, suggestive of increased lipogenesis, together with increased secretion of the adipokine leptin and increased food intake, hallmarks of obesity and associated leptin resistance. Some of these changes persist for at least one week after the end of TSR, indicating that even short episodes of sleep disruption can induce prolonged physiological impairments. In contrast, Per1/2 deficient mice show blunted effects of TSR on food intake, leptin levels and adipose transcription. We conclude that the absence of a functional clock in Per1/2 double mutants protects these mice from TSR-induced metabolic reprogramming, suggesting a role of the circadian timing system in regulating the physiological effects

  14. Focus on metabolic and nutritional correlates of polycystic ovary syndrome and update on nutritional management of these critical phenomena.

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    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Repaci, Erica; Allieri, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with numerous metabolic morbidities (insulin resistance (IR), central obesity) and various nutritional abnormalities (vitamin D deficit, mineral milieu alterations, omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio unbalance). We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding: (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of PCOS; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 127 eligible studies. In addition to the well-recognized link between PCOS and IR, the recent literature underlines that in PCOS there is an unbalance in adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, visfatin) production and in omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of overweight on these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of PCOS patients. The optimum diet therapy for the PCOS treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, such as IR improvement, adipokines secretion and reproductive function. These goals must be reached through: accession of the patient to hypocaloric dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight; limiting the consumption of sugar and refined carbohydrates, preferring those with lower glycemic index; dividing the food intake in small and frequent meals, with high caloric intake at breakfast; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega3 PUFA supplements; taking Vitamin D and chromium supplementation, if there are low serum levels. Lifestyle intervention remains the optimal treatment strategy for PCOS women. A relatively small weight loss (5 %) can improve IR, hyperandrogenism, menstrual function, fertility.

  15. Adipocytokines and anthropometric measures in type 2 diabetics.

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    Harke, Shubhangi M; Khadke, Suresh P; Ghadge, Abhijit A; Manglekar, Ashwini S; Shah, Shashank S; Diwan, Arundhati G; Kuvalekar, Aniket A

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has assumed pandemic proportions worldwide. Aggressive management of hyperglycemia in diabetics is a primary goal of treatment. We have previously reported favorable effects of oral hypoglycemic agents on adipocytokines. Aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of adipocytokines with anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetics. Clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetics and age, gender matched healthy volunteers were recruited for study. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight, waist-circumference, hip-circumference were recorded and BMI, waist-hip ratio were calculated. Fasting blood samples were collected from participants and sera were analyzed for glucose, glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT, insulin, adiponectin and leptin. Correlation of adipocytokines with anthropometric and biochemical parameters was assessed in healthy and diabetic individuals. BMI and WHR in diabetics were significantly higher than healthy population. BMI did not show significant association with adipocytokines. Diabetic males with WHR≥0.9 showed negative association with adiponectin and positive association with leptin. WC did not show significant association with adipocytokines in males. Irrespective of WC, healthy females exhibited positive association with leptin. Diabetic females with WC≥88cm showed leptin to be positively associated with WC. Such association of adipocytokines with WHR was not detected in females. Body fat distribution can be considered as a parameter in assessing adipokine imbalance. Central adiposity is a better measure of adipokine imbalance than BMI. Abdominal obesity in diabetics correlates with altered levels of adipocytokines indicating its importance in diabetic individuals. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of VASER Abdominal Liposuction on Metabolic Profile in Overweight Males.

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    Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Szulińska, Monika; Turkowski, Piotr; Kupsz, Justyna; Sowińska, Anna; Mikrut, Kinga; Bernatek, Małgorzata; Piatek, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the liposuction-induced metabolic changes with regard to release of major adipokines and insulin sensitivity in overweight male patients. Seventeen overweight male patients aged 37.15 ± 9.60 years (6 with diabetes type 2, 11 without comorbidities) and 10 age-matched healthy lean controls were enrolled in the study. Using Vibration Amplification of Sound Energy at Resonance System, ultrasound assisted liposuction was applied onto the deep layers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean volume supranatant fat was 2208 ± 562 ml. To eliminate the confounding effects of postsurgical inflammation and to evaluate delayed metabolic effects, fasting blood was collected on the day of liposuction, within 1 to 2 months and more than 6 months after surgery. Serum leptin, soluble receptor for leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and glucose concentrations were tested and insulin sensitivity was calculated using updated model Homeostasis Model Assessment 2. Both treatment groups (diabetic and nondiabetic patients) experienced similar postsurgical weight reduction with concomitant lowering of body mass index value at 1 to 2 months follow-up, which was sustained after 6 months from surgery. Improvement in insulin sensitivity at 1 to 2 months follow-up was observed ( p = .017 and p = .002, for diabetics and nondiabetics, respectively) and this change persisted over the next 4 months. At the same time, no significant changes in adipokines and soluble leptin receptor were found. These data demonstrate that in terms of metabolic consequences, Vibration Amplification of Sound Energy at Resonance abdominal liposuction might have beneficial effects in overweight diabetic and nondiabetic males by improving their insulin sensitivity.

  17. Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis

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    Wang Linjie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship of chemerin expression in EAT and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in Han Chinese patients. Methods Serums and adipose tissue biopsies (epicardial and thoracic subcutaneous were obtained from CAD (n = 37 and NCAD (n = 16 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum levels of chemerin, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Chemerin protein expression in adipose tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of chemerin, chemR23, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in adipose tissue were detected by RT-PCR. Results We found that EAT of CAD group showed significantly higher levels of chemerin and TNF-alpha mRNA, and significantly lower level of adiponectin mRNA than that of NCAD patients. In CAD group, significantly higher levels of chemerin mRNA and protein were observed in EAT than in paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, whereas such significant difference was not found in NCAD group. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was positively correlated with Gensini score (r = 0.365, P P P P P P P > 0.05. Conclusions The expressions of chemerin mRNA and protein are significantly higher in EAT from patients with CAD in Han Chinese patients. Furthermore, the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is positive correlated with the level of chemerin mRNA in EAT rather than its circulating level.

  18. Effects of delta-tocotrienol on obesity-related adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-fed mice.

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    Allen, London; Ramalingam, Latha; Menikdiwela, Kalhara; Scoggin, Shane; Shen, Chwan-Li; Tomison, Michael D; Kaur, Gurvinder; Dufour, Jannette M; Chung, Eunhee; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2017-10-01

    Inflammation is a major underlying cause for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Hence, anti-inflammatory dietary components may improve obesity-related disorders. We hypothesized that delta-tocotrienol (δT3), a member of the vitamin E family, reduces adiposity, insulin resistance and hepatic triglycerides through its anti-inflammatory properties. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HF) with or without supplementation of δT3 (HF+δT3) at 400 mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg for 14 weeks, and they were compared to mice fed a low-fat diet (LF) or HF supplemented with metformin as an antidiabetic control. Glucose tolerance tests were administered 2 weeks prior to the end of treatments. Histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and protein analyses were performed to assess inflammation and fatty acid metabolism in adipose and liver tissues. Significant improvements in glucose tolerance, and reduced hepatic steatosis and serum triglycerides were observed in δT3-supplemented groups compared to the HF group. Body and fat pad weights were not significantly reduced in HF+δT3 groups; however, we observed smaller fat cell size and reduced macrophage infiltration in their adipose tissues compared to other groups. These changes were at least in part mechanistically explained by a reduction of mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory adipokines and increased expression of anti-inflammatory adipokines in HF+δT3 mice. Moreover, δT3 dose-dependently increased markers of fatty acid oxidation and reduced markers of fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue and liver. In conclusion, our studies suggest that δT3 may promote metabolically healthy obesity by reducing fat cell hypertrophy and decreasing inflammation in both liver and adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

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    Sinclair Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3 in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0 and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and lep