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Sample records for adipokines

  1. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  2. Epigenetic Regulation of Adipokines

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    Tho X. Pham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue expansion in obesity leads to changes in the expression of adipokines, adipocyte-specific hormones that can regulate whole body energy metabolism. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a mechanism by which cells can alter gene expression through the modifications of DNA and histones. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are intimately tied to energy metabolism due to their dependence on metabolic intermediates such as S-adenosylmethionine and acetyl-CoA. Altered expression of adipokines in obesity may be due to epigenetic changes. The goal of this review is to highlight current knowledge of epigenetic regulation of adipokines.

  3. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

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    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Obesity, adipokines and asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jartti, T; Saarikoski, L; Jartti, L; Lisinen, I; Jula, A; Huupponen, R; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O. T

    2009-01-01

    .... Our objective was to examine whether obesity is associated with asthma in three time points of life, and whether immunomodulatory adipokines, leptin and adiponectin are linked to overweight-associated asthma. Methods...

  5. Epigenetic Regulation of Adipokines

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Tho X.; Ji-Young Lee

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue expansion in obesity leads to changes in the expression of adipokines, adipocyte-specific hormones that can regulate whole body energy metabolism. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a mechanism by which cells can alter gene expression through the modifications of DNA and histones. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are intimately tied to energy metabolism due to their dependence on metabolic intermediates such as S-adenosylmethion...

  6. Obesity, adipokines, and lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay

    2010-03-01

    This review summarizes the state of the current literature relating to the associations of lung disease on obesity and adipokines (proteins produced by adipose tissue) in humans. Obesity is an independent risk factor for asthma. Recent studies suggest that obesity is also an independent risk factor for chronic airflow obstruction, as is seen with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanistic basis for these associations in humans is not established, although a possible role for adipokines has been invoked. Leptin, a proinflammatory adipokine, and adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, are causally associated with asthma in mice. Although human studies are currently inconclusive, high-serum leptin and low-serum adiponectin concentrations predict asthma, independent of obesity, in select population groups, such as premenopausal women in the United States. In contradistinction, low-serum leptin and high-serum adiponectin concentrations are associated with stable COPD, although these associations are likely confounded by fat mass. Interestingly, leptin may promote systemic and airway inflammation in stable COPD patients. On the other hand, COPD may upregulate systemic and lung adiponectin expression. The precise mechanism and significance of the associations between these adipokines and lung disease at the current stage is confusing and frankly paradoxical in places. This area of research needs additional study that may open up novel therapeutic strategies for these lung diseases.

  7. Relationship between adipokines and periodontitis

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    Reiko Furugen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased risk for developing characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Interestingly, chronic exposure to periodontal pathogens’ endotoxin and increased cytokine production have been proposed to enhance the risk for causing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. Obesity has also recently been reported to be associated with periodontitis. Obesity induces macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue, promotes chronic low-grade inflammation, and increases adipokines derived from adipocytes. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the roles of adipokines in chronic inflammatory states such as periodontitis and focus primarily on adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. Understanding the role of adipokines may help elucidate relationships among periodontitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarification of the regulatory processes about hepatic insulin resistance by adipokines in rodents and human would seem essential in order to understand the mechanism of type 2 diabetes and for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat it. PMID:23762871

  9. Obesity, adipokines and cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Woo, Y C; Wang, Y; Yeung, C Y; Xu, A; Lam, K S L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity causes dysfunction of adipose tissue, with resultant chronic inflammation and adverse interplay of various adipokines, sex steroids and endocrine hormones. All these drive tumourigenesis and explain the epidemiological link between obesity and cancer. Over the past decade, the associations among obesity, adipokines and cancer have been increasingly recognized. Adipokines and their respective signalling pathways have drawn much research attention in the field of oncology and cancer therapeutics. This review will discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the association of several adipokines with common obesity-related cancers and the clinical therapeutic implications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Adipokines and cardiovascular disease: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekal, Ales; Vaclavik, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Adipokines are peptides that signal the functional status of adipose tissue to the brain and other target organs. In adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokine secretion is altered, and this can contribute to a spectrum of obesity-associated conditions including cardiovascular disease. Some adipokines have anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects (omentin, apelin, adiponectin). Others are pro-inflammatory with negative impact on cardiovascular function (leptin, visfatin, resistin, adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein). In the first part, this article reviews the endocrine functions of adipose tissue in general, effects of the distribution and composition of fat tissue, and the roles of cortisol and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the development of the inflammatory state of addipose tissue. In the second part, the known cardiovascular effects of different adipokines and their clinical potential are discussed in detail.

  11. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ADIPOKINES

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    S. Ye. Myasoyedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disorders and dyslipidemia with hypothyroidism. Reference data are presented that are devoted to the study of adipokines content with hypothyroidism and their effect on echocardiographic indicators.

  12. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ADIPOKINES

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    S. Ye. Myasoyedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disorders and dyslipidemia with hypothyroidism. Reference data are presented that are devoted to the study of adipokines content with hypothyroidism and their effect on echocardiographic indicators.

  13. Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract

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    Maxime Reverchon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.

  14. Adipokines as Potential Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Annalisa Del Prete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by severe joint injury. Recently, research has been focusing on the possible identification of predictor markers of disease onset and/or progression, of joint damage, and of therapeutic response. Recent findings have uncovered the role of white adipose tissue as a pleiotropic organ not only specialized in endocrine functions but also able to control multiple physiopathological processes, including inflammation. Adipokines are a family of soluble mediators secreted by white adipose tissue endowed with a wide spectrum of actions. This review will focus on the recent advances on the role of the adipokine network in the pathogenesis of RA. A particular attention will be devoted to the action of these proteins on RA effector cells, and on the possibility to use circulating levels of adipokines as potential biomarkers of disease activity and therapeutic response.

  15. Adipokine Contribution to the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis

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    Daniel Azamar-Llamas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that overweight and obesity play an important role in the development of osteoarthritis (OA. However, joint overload is not the only risk factor in this disease. For instance, the presence of OA in non-weight-bearing joints such as the hand suggests that metabolic factors may also contribute to its pathogenesis. Recently, white adipose tissue (WAT has been recognized not only as an energy reservoir but also as an important secretory organ of adipokines. In this regard, adipokines have been closely associated with obesity and also play an important role in bone and cartilage homeostasis. Furthermore, drugs such as rosuvastatin or rosiglitazone have demonstrated chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in cartilage explants from patients with OA. Thus, it seems that adipokines are important factors linking obesity, adiposity, and inflammation in OA. In this review, we are focused on establishing the physiological mechanisms of adipokines on cartilage homeostasis and evaluating their role in the pathophysiology of OA based on evidence derived from experimental research as well as from clinical-epidemiological studies.

  16. Sputum as a source of adipokines in bronchial asthma

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    V. N. Mineev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four patients with allergic (ABA and non-allergic (NABA variants of bronchial asthma (BA were examined to evaluate levels of key adipokines (leptin, resistin, adiponectin in sputum in different variants of BA. Adipokines in sputum and blood plasma were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The indices that reflect the percentage of adipokines in sputum regarding adipokines in plasma of the same patients were worked out to evaluate the ratio of levels of corresponding adipokines in plasma and sputum in patients with BA. Two regularities are clearly seen in the study: the first - levels of proinflammatory adipokines (leptin, resistin in sputum in ABA correlate directly with indicators of respiratory function but levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines (adiponectin in sputum correlate inversely with indicators of respiratory function; the second -correlation of levels of the studied adipokines with indicators of respiratory function are almost not revealed in NABA. The first regularity reflects the important fact that the content of adipokines in bronchial secretion is to a certain extent one of regulating local mechanisms in target organ controlled system levels of corresponding adipokines in exacerbation of BA.

  17. CSF and plasma adipokines after tonic–clonic seizures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmio, Johanna; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Lehtimäki, Kai; Nieminen, Riina; Peltola, Jukka; Moilanen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    ... neurological disorder [4] . Recent studies suggest a role for adipokines in the genesis of seizures and neuroprotection related to seizures [2,5] . Adiponectin has shown neuroprotective effects in hippocampal neurons after kainic-acid induced seizures [6] . To the best of our knowledge, adipokines have not been studied in humans shortly after epileptic sei...

  18. Adipokines: a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuto; Fuster, José J; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. Recent studies aimed at understanding the microenvironment of adipose tissue and its impact on systemic metabolism have shed light on the pathogenesis of obesity-linked cardiovascular diseases. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by secreting multiple immune-modulatory proteins known as adipokines. Obesity leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and diminished expression of anti-inflammatory adipokines, resulting in the development of a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state. This adipokine imbalance is thought to be a key event in promoting both systemic metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. This review will focus on the adipose tissue microenvironment and the role of adipokines in modulating systemic inflammatory responses that contribute to cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adipokines: A link between obesity and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuto; Fuster, José J.; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. Recent studies aimed at understanding the microenvironment of adipose tissue and its impact on systemic metabolism have shed light on the pathogenesis of obesity-linked cardiovascular diseases. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by secreting multiple immune-modulatory proteins known as adipokines. Obesity leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and diminished expression of anti-inflammatory adipokines, resulting in the development of a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state. This adipokine imbalance is thought to be a key event in promoting both systemic metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. This review will focus on the adipose tissue microenvironment and the role of adipokines in modulating systemic inflammatory responses that contribute to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24355497

  20. Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Josette M; Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Wigle, Jeffrey T

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on the role of adipokines in the maintenance of a healthy cardiovascular system, and the mechanisms by which these factors mediate the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Adipocytes are the major cell type comprising the adipose tissue. These cells secrete numerous factors, termed adipokines, into the blood, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, and visfatin. Adipose tissue is a highly vascularised endocrine organ, and different adipose depots have distinct adipokine secretion profiles, which are altered with obesity. The ability of many adipokines to stimulate angiogenesis is crucial for adipose tissue expansion; however, excessive blood vessel growth is deleterious. As well, some adipokines induce inflammation, which promotes cardiovascular disease progression. We discuss how these 7 aforementioned adipokines act upon the various cardiovascular cell types (endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, cardiomyocytes, and cardiac fibroblasts), the direct effects of these actions, and their overall impact on the cardiovascular system. These were chosen, as these adipokines are secreted predominantly from adipocytes and have known effects on cardiovascular cells.

  1. Adipokines as Drug Targets in Diabetes and Underlying Disturbances

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    Vinícius Andrade-Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and obesity are worldwide health problems. White fat dynamically participates in hormonal and inflammatory regulation. White adipose tissue is recognized as a multifactorial organ that secretes several adipose-derived factors that have been collectively termed “adipokines.” Adipokines are pleiotropic molecules that gather factors such as leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, apelin, vaspin, hepcidin, RBP4, and inflammatory cytokines, including TNF and IL-1β, among others. Multiple roles in metabolic and inflammatory responses have been assigned to these molecules. Several adipokines contribute to the self-styled “low-grade inflammatory state” of obese and insulin-resistant subjects, inducing the accumulation of metabolic anomalies within these individuals, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Thus, adipokines are an interesting drug target to treat autoimmune diseases, obesity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the roles of adipokines in different immune and nonimmune cells, which will contribute to diabetes as well as to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance development. We describe how adipokines regulate inflammation in these diseases and their therapeutic implications. We also survey current attempts to exploit adipokines for clinical applications, which hold potential as novel approaches to drug development in several immune-mediated diseases.

  2. Correlation between obesity, adipokines and the immune system

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    Marcos Regini Silveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide health problem and the increase in its incidence, risks and consequences are a matter of growing concern. Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the body. Many studies are currently investigating obesity and associated comorbidities in an attempt to clarify the mechanisms involved. Fat tissue is a dynamic organ that secretes several factors, including adipokines. Adipokines are bioactive peptides secreted by fat cells, which are important for energy regulation and inflammatory and immune responses. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin are the most studied adipokines. The aim of this review was to gather information about these adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin and their relationship with the immune response in obese individuals, as well as the susceptibility of these patients to infections. The results of the literature review permit some observations. The circulating levels of these adipokines are directly involved in the degree of obesity of the patient. High or low circulating concentrations of these adipokines may have beneficial or negative effects on immune competence, with obese patients being more susceptible to infection and inflammation than eutrophic individuals.Key words: Obesity; Adipokines; Leptin; Adiponectin; Resistin; Immune system.

  3. Adipokines linking obesity with colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Gloria Y F; Wang, Tao; Gunter, Marc J; Strickler, Howard D; Cushman, Mary; Kaplan, Robert C; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Xue, Xiaonan; Rajpathak, Swapnil N; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Vitolins, Mara Z; Scherer, Philipp E; Rohan, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Mechanistic associations between obesity and colorectal cancer remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether adipokines are risk factors for colorectal cancer and whether they may mediate its association with obesity...

  4. Exercise Induced Adipokine Changes and the Metabolic Syndrome

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    Saeid Golbidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  5. The Adipokine Chemerin Induces Apoptosis in Cardiomyocytes

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    Diego Rodríguez-Penas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adipokine chemerin has been associated with cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of chemerin on viability and intracellular signalling in murine cardiomyocytes, and the effects of insulin and TNF-α on cardiomyocyte chemerin production. Methods: Hoechst dye vital staining and cell cycle analysis were used to analyse the viability of murine cardiac cells in culture. Western blot was used to explore the phosphorylation of AKT and caspase-9 activity in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cells. Finally, RT-qPCR, ELISA and western blot were performed to examine chemerin and CMKLR1 expression after insulin and TNF-α treatment in cardiac cells. Results: Chemerin treatment increased apoptosis, reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308 and increased caspase-9 activity in murine cardiomyocytes. Insulin treatment lowered chemerin and CMKLR1 mRNA and protein levels, and the amount of chemerin in the cell media, while TNF-α treatment increased chemerin mRNA and protein levels but decreased expression of the CMKLR1 gene. Conclusion: Chemerin induces apoptosis, reduces AKT phosphorylation and increases the cleavage of caspase-9 in murine cardiomyocytes. The expression of chemerin is regulated by important metabolic (insulin and inflammatory (TNF-α mediators at cardiac level. Our results suggest that chemerin could play a role in the physiopathology of cardiac diseases.

  6. The Adipokine-Cardiovascular-Lifestyle Network: Translation to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Zhao, Shan; Garvey, W Timothy

    2016-10-18

    Adipokines are peptides, secreted by adipocytes and other cell types with targets in other tissues, participating in a complex network of humoral factors involved in obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular (CV) disease. This review describes recent information about adipokine effects on the CV system. Rather than simply providing a listing of adipokines and their respective effects, network analysis is used to enhance understanding. Various relationships and emergent processes in the adipokine-CV system network are discussed, with the most significant interactors being responses to hypoxia, regulation of cell migration, effects on blood coagulation, and platelet activation. Clinical translation is provided through network representations of the "obesity paradox," "metabolically healthy obese," "metabolic syndrome," and beneficial role of lifestyle medicine. As more translatable information about the larger adipokine-CV-lifestyle network is acquired from laboratory and clinical research, the strategic and precise role of lifestyle intervention can be fashioned to improve CV outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Visfatin/Nampt: An Adipokine with Cardiovascular Impact

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    Tania Romacho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is acknowledged as an endocrine organ that releases bioactive factors termed adipokines. Visfatin was initially identified as a novel adipokine with insulin-mimetic properties in mice. This adipokine was identical to two previously described molecules, namely, pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF and the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt. Enhanced circulating visfatin/Nampt levels have been reported in metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, visfatin/Nampt circulating levels correlate with markers of systemic inflammation. In cardiovascular diseases, visfatin/Nampt was initially proposed as a clinical marker of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular damage, with a potential prognostic value. Nevertheless, beyond being a surrogate clinical marker, visfatin/Nampt is an active player promoting vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Visfatin/Nampt effects on cytokine and chemokine secretion, macrophage survival, leukocyte recruitment by endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle inflammation and plaque destabilization make of this adipokine an active factor in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms mediating the cellular actions of this adipokine and to better characterize the factors regulating visfatin/Nampt expression and release in all these pathologic scenarios. Only then, we will be able to conclude whether visfatin/Nampt is a therapeutical target in cardiometabolic diseases.

  8. A link between sleep loss, glucose metabolism and adipokines

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    H.G. Padilha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review evaluates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering problems of glucose metabolism and the possible involvement of adipokines in this process. A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society, and a search of the current literature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations of nutritional and metabolic contexts. Studies suggest that sleep loss is associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism involved may be associated with the decreased efficacy of regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by negative feedback mechanisms in sleep-deprivation conditions. In addition, changes in the circadian pattern of growth hormone (GH secretion might also contribute to the alterations in glucose regulation observed during sleep loss. On the other hand, sleep deprivation stress affects adipokines - increasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decreasing leptin and adiponectin -, thus establishing a possible association between sleep-debt, adipokines and glucose metabolism. Thus, a modified release of adipokines resulting from sleep deprivation could lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of sleep loss in adipokine release and its relationship with glucose metabolism.

  9. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

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    Chiara Sartori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  10. Adipokines and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Multiple Interactions

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    Timon E. Adolph

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence links obesity with low-grade inflammation which may originate from adipose tissue that secretes a plethora of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines termed adipokines. Adiponectin and leptin have evolved as crucial signals in many obesity-related pathologies including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Whereas adiponectin deficiency might be critically involved in the pro-inflammatory state associated with obesity and related disorders, overproduction of leptin, a rather pro-inflammatory mediator, is considered of equal relevance. An imbalanced adipokine profile in obesity consecutively contributes to metabolic inflammation in NAFLD, which is associated with a substantial risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC also in the non-cirrhotic stage of disease. Both adiponectin and leptin have been related to liver tumorigenesis especially in preclinical models. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of some adipokines in NAFLD and associated HCC.

  11. Adipokines, vascular wall, and cardiovascular disease: a focused overview of the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease.

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    Maresca, Fabio; Di Palma, Vito; Bevilacqua, Michele; Uccello, Giuseppe; Taglialatela, Vittorio; Giaquinto, Alessandro; Esposito, Giovanni; Trimarco, Bruno; Cirillo, Plinio

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown that abdominal obesity is closely associated with the development of cardiovascular (CV) disease, suggesting that it might be considered as an independent CV risk factor. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the association between these 2 clinical entities remain largely unknown. Adipocytes are considered able to produce and secrete chemical mediators known as "adipokines" that may exert several biological actions, including those on heart and vessels. Of interest, a different adipokine profile can be observed in the plasma of patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome compared with healthy controls. We consider the main adipokines, focusing on their effects on the vascular wall and analyzing their role in CV pathophysiology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Obesity-Related Adipokines Predict Patient-Reported Shoulder Pain

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    Rajiv Gandhi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Increasingly, an inflammatory modulating effect of adipokines within synovial joints is being recognized. To date, there has been no work examining a potential association between the presence of adipokines in the shoulder and patient-reported outcomes. This study undertakes an investigation assessing these potential links. Methods: 50 osteoarthritis patients scheduled for shoulder surgery completed a pre-surgery questionnaire capturing demographic information including validated, patient-reported function (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire and pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire measures. Synovial fluid (SF samples were analyzed for leptin, adiponectin, and resistin levels using Milliplex MAP assays. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the association between adipokine levels and patient-reported outcomes, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and disease severity. Results: 54% of the cohort was female (n = 27. The mean age (SD of the sample was 62.9 (9.9 years and the mean BMI (SD was 28.1 (5.4 kg/m2. From regression analyses, greater SF leptin and adiponectin levels, but not regarding resistin, were found to be associated with greater pain (p Conclusions: The identified association between shoulder-derived SF leptin and adiponectin and shoulder pain is likely explained by the pro-inflammatory characteristics of the adipokines and represents potentially important therapeutic targets.

  13. Ethnic Differences in Maternal Adipokines during Normal Pregnancy

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    Xinhua Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two adipokines (adiponectin and resistin have opposite relations with insulin resistance and inflammation. Our major focus was to determine whether there were detectable ethnic differences in maternal adipokines during pregnancy. We also explored the correlation of the adipokines with maternal glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters. Pregnant women (n = 1634 were from a large prospective cohort study in Camden NJ (African-American 36.8%; Hispanic 47.6%; Caucasian 15.6%. Serum adiponectin and resistin were measured at entry (week 16.8 and the 3rd trimester (week 30.7 using the Luminex xMapTechnology. Significant differences were observed among ethnic groups, controlling for confounding variables. African American women were exceptional in that they had decreased adiponectin and increased resistin throughout the course of pregnancy (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001 and a greater than two fold risk of simultaneously exhibiting low adiponectin (lowest tertile and high resistin (highest tertile compared to Caucasians and/or Hispanics. The cohort as a whole and each ethnic group showed similar negative correlations between adiponectin, and glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters but there was lesser correspondence with resistin. Our data underscore the need for further research on ethnic variation in adipokines and other physiologic biomarkers during complicated and uncomplicated pregnancy.

  14. Adipokine leptin in obesity-related pathology of breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 37; Issue 2. Adipokine leptin in obesity-related pathology of breast cancer. Amitabha Ray. Mini-review Volume 37 Issue 2 June 2012 pp 289-294. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/037/02/0289-0294. Keywords.

  15. Circulating Adipokine levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating adipokine levels in the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), a-700 bed tertiary hospital centre in Lagos, Nigeria. 53 diabetic subjects and 27 non-diabetic controls with ...

  16. Altered Systemic Adipokines in Patients with Chronic Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Hoang Kim Tu; Pham, Duy Le; Ban, Ga-Young; Lee, Hyun-Young; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that adipokines affect immune responses and chronic urticaria (CU) is associated with an altered immune response related to chronic systemic inflammation. Our objectives were to investigate whether adipokines are involved in CU pathogenesis and to outline relationships between adipokines and urticaria severity and quality of life. Serum adiponectin, leptin, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 191 CU patients and 89 healthy controls. The effect of LCN2 on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophil chemotaxis was assessed using migration assays. CU severity was assessed based on the urticaria activity score (UAS). To explore relationships between adipokines and UAS and the chronic urticaria-specific quality of life (CU-QoL) questionnaire, a structural equation model was used. Mean levels of serum LCN2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly higher in CU patients than in controls. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in patients with CU than in controls. While serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in refractory CU patients, compared to responsive CU individuals, LCN2 levels were significantly lower. LCN2 inhibited fMLP-induced neutrophil migration. LCN2 showed a direct relationship with UAS (β = -0.274, p < 0.001), and UAS was found to contribute to CU-QoL (β = 0.417, p < 0.001). Our results highlighted an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines in CU patients. We suggest that LCN2 could be a differential marker for disease activity and the clinical responses to antihistamine treatment in CU patients. Modulation of systemic inflammation may be a therapeutic strategy for treating severe, refractory CU. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. SERUM ADIPOKINES AND ADIPOKINE RECEPTORS IN COLON CANCER PATIENTS WITH METABOLOC SYNDROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Yunusova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study serum adipokine levels and AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and sOb-R expressions with respect to clinical-morphological parameters and the evidence of metaboloc syndrome (MS in patients with stage I–III colon cancer.Materials and methods. The study included 31 colon cancer patients having metabolic syndrome and patients having no metabolic syndrome. Serum levels of leptin, adiponektin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and soluble form of the leptin receptor was assessed by ELISA.Results and conclusion. The incidence of MS in colon cancer patients was 71 %. The relationship between the serum leptin level and gender and disease stage was revealed. The tendency toward increase in the leptin level in patients with MS was shown. The Ob-R level was higher in patients having no MS. The levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were significantly higher in female colon cancer patients. Adiponectin receptors tended to increase in colon cancer patients with MS.

  18. Omentin - a new adipokine with many roles to play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halabis Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is at a point of high interest in medical research, not only as an energy depot, but also because it secretes nearly more than 600 cytokines. These are termed‚ adipokines’. Human adipokines are involved in numerous metabolic processes, including the regulation of appetite, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, inflammation and cardiovascular activity. Thus, these could be clinically important as a markers of adipose tissue function and increased metabolic risk. The search for novel adipokines linking obesity to related co-morbidities has become a major topic in obesity research. In such work, there is an increasing need to define their function, their molecular targets and their potential clinical relevance as biomarkers or in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.

  19. The emerging role of adipokines in osteoarthritis: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng-fei; Bao, Jia-peng; Wu, Li-dong

    2011-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a most common multifactorial degenerative joint disease in elderly individuals. OA is affecting severely the quality of life of patients, while the causes of OA are not completely understood. Age, obesity, the female sex, and previous injury are considered as significant risk factors. Recently, increased levels of adipokines which are mainly produced by adipocytes have been detected in patients with osteoarthritis. Moreover, studies on different adipokines all reveal that they have played proinflammatory and catabolic/anabolic roles during the pathophysiology of OA. In the present review, we summarize current data on the effect of the adipose tissue-derived hormones leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin on initiation and progression of OA.

  20. Adipokine hormones and hand osteoarthritis: radiographic severity and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massengale, Mei; Lu, Bing; Pan, John J; Katz, Jeffrey N; Solomon, Daniel H

    2012-01-01

    Obesity's association with hand osteoarthritis cannot be fully explained by mechanical loading. We examined the relationship between adipokines and radiographic hand osteoarthritis severity and pain. In a pilot study of 44 hand osteoarthritis patients (39 women and 5 men), serum adipokine concentrations and hand x-ray Kallman-scores were analyzed using linear regression models. Secondary analyses examined correlates of hand pain. The cohort had a mean age of 63.5 years for women and 72.6 for men; mean (standard deviation) Kallman-scores were 43.3(17.4) for women and 46.2(10.8) for men. Mean body-mass-index was 30 kg/m(2) for women and men. Mean leptin concentration was 32.2 ng/ml (women) and 18.5 ng/ml (men); mean adiponectin-total was 7.9 ng/ml (women) and 5.3 ng/ml (men); mean resistin was 7.3 ng/ml (women) and 9.4 ng/ml (men). No association was found between Kallman-scores and adipokine concentrations (R(2) = 0.00-0.04 unadjusted analysis, all p-values>0.22). Secondary analyses showed mean visual-analog-scale pain of 4.8(2.4) for women and 6.6(0.9) for men. Leptin, BMI, and history of coronary artery disease were found to be associated with visual-analog-scale scores for chronic hand pain (R(2) = 0.36 unadjusted analysis, p-values≤0.04). In this pilot study, we found that adipokine serum concentrations were not associated with hand osteoarthritis radiographic severity; the most important correlates of joint damage were age and disease duration. Leptin serum concentration, BMI, and coronary artery disease were associated with the intensity of chronic hand OA pain.

  1. Adipokine hormones and hand osteoarthritis: radiographic severity and pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Massengale

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity's association with hand osteoarthritis cannot be fully explained by mechanical loading. We examined the relationship between adipokines and radiographic hand osteoarthritis severity and pain. METHODS: In a pilot study of 44 hand osteoarthritis patients (39 women and 5 men, serum adipokine concentrations and hand x-ray Kallman-scores were analyzed using linear regression models. Secondary analyses examined correlates of hand pain. RESULTS: The cohort had a mean age of 63.5 years for women and 72.6 for men; mean (standard deviation Kallman-scores were 43.3(17.4 for women and 46.2(10.8 for men. Mean body-mass-index was 30 kg/m(2 for women and men. Mean leptin concentration was 32.2 ng/ml (women and 18.5 ng/ml (men; mean adiponectin-total was 7.9 ng/ml (women and 5.3 ng/ml (men; mean resistin was 7.3 ng/ml (women and 9.4 ng/ml (men. No association was found between Kallman-scores and adipokine concentrations (R(2 = 0.00-0.04 unadjusted analysis, all p-values>0.22. Secondary analyses showed mean visual-analog-scale pain of 4.8(2.4 for women and 6.6(0.9 for men. Leptin, BMI, and history of coronary artery disease were found to be associated with visual-analog-scale scores for chronic hand pain (R(2 = 0.36 unadjusted analysis, p-values≤0.04. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, we found that adipokine serum concentrations were not associated with hand osteoarthritis radiographic severity; the most important correlates of joint damage were age and disease duration. Leptin serum concentration, BMI, and coronary artery disease were associated with the intensity of chronic hand OA pain.

  2. Dysregulated adipokine metabolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Marie-Kathrin; Rutten, Erica P A; Locantore, Nicholas W; Watkins, Michael L; Miller, Bruce E; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2012-09-01

    Research concerning the involvement of body composition and systemic inflammatory markers in adipokine metabolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still limited. Therefore, we primarily aimed to investigate the adipokine metabolism in relation to these systemic inflammatory biomarkers and to evaluate possible gender-related differences in the adipokine metabolism in patients with COPD. One hundred and eighty-six subjects with COPD [mean (SD) FEV(1) %pred: 50 (±16)] and 113 controls, matched for age, gender and body composition were selected from the ECLIPSE cohort. The following serological data were collected: serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and systemic inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen. Compared with controls, patients with COPD had higher levels of CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen and adiponectin. After stratification for gender, men with COPD had higher CRP, IL6 and fibrinogen levels compared with male controls, while women with COPD had higher levels of CRP and fibrinogen compared with the female controls. Moreover, in both female controls and patients with COPD, leptin correlated with CRP and fibrinogen, while leptin only correlated with CRP in male controls. Adiponectin correlated negatively with CRP, only in patients with COPD. Body mass index and gender were the strongest determinants for both leptin and adiponectin. This study shows a gender-dependent dysregulation of adipokine metabolism in patients with COPD compared with BMI-matched controls. Furthermore, results from this study suggest a more prominent role of adiponectin in the systemic response to COPD. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2012 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  3. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Gun Roh; Yutaka Suzuki; Takafumi Gotoh; Ryuichi Tatsumi; Kazuo Katoh

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recen...

  4. CSF and plasma adipokines after tonic-clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmio, Johanna; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Lehtimäki, Kai; Nieminen, Riina; Peltola, Jukka; Moilanen, Eeva

    2016-07-01

    Adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, have gained increasing importance in pathophysiology of various neurological diseases including epilepsy. There are experimental data suggesting a role for leptin in the genesis of seizures and neuroprotection related to seizures. However there are no clinical studies on the effects of epileptic seizures on adipokines. We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin and adipsin after provoked or unprovoked primary or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 13 female patients and seven controls. The samples were taken within 24h after the seizure onset. Leptin plasma levels correlated negatively with the time to sample withdrawal, i.e. the longer the time interval between the seizure and the sample the lower the leptin levels in the patients. Interestingly, plasma adiponectin levels were significantly increased after the seizure episode. This study provides further evidence that there are seizure-induced acute changes in adipokine metabolism. Leptin concentrations seem to decrease during the first 24h after the seizure whereas adiponectin levels increase. The meaning of this response is far from clear, but it might be an endogenous attempt to prevent harmful effects of epileptic seizures in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Adipokines, body composition and bone mineral density in underweight children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Rowicka, Grazna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Gajewska, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    One of the important factors affecting bone health is body weight. Underweight children are predisposed to disturbances in bone metabolism, which may result in osteopenia and osteoporosis in later life. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between adipokines, bone metabolism, and anthropometric parameters in underweight prepubertal children. The study included 60 children aged 5-10 years. Among them, there were: 30 underweight children (BMI z-score ≤-1) and 30 normal-weight children (BMI z-score ). Body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, bone mass) and bone mineral density examination were performed by densitometry. Serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers and adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic methods. In underweight children we observed significantly lower fat mass (pbone mineral content (pbone mineral density both the total body (pbone resorption marker (CTX) was significantly higher than in normal-weight children (2.006±0.649 vs. 1.624±0.492 ng/ml, pbone turnover markers (OC, CTX) and between adiponectin and CTX. However, there was no correlation between fat mass and leptin concentration in this group of children. Low body weight in prepubertal period is related with an alteration in the adipokines profile and bone metabolism markers, resulting in a decrease in bone mineral density. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  6. Adipokines at the crossroad between obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molica, Filippo; Morel, Sandrine; Kwak, Brenda R; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Steffens, Sabine

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, and especially excessive visceral adipose tissue accumulation, is considered as a low-grade inflammatory state that is responsible for adipocyte dysfunction and associated metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue displays endocrine functions by releasing pro- or anti-inflammatory bioactive molecules named adipokines. An altered expression of these molecules, provoked by obesity or adipocyte dysregulation, contributes to major metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus that are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, obesity is also characterised by the expansion of perivascular adipose tissue that acts locally via diffusion of adipokines into the vascular wall. Local inflammation within blood vessels induced by adipokines contributes to the onset of endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, but also to vascular remodelling and hypertension. A fast expansion of obesity is expected in the near future, which will rapidly increase the incidence of these cardiovascular diseases. The focus of this review is to summarise the link between metabolic and cardiovascular disease and discuss current treatment approaches, limitations and future perspectives for more targeted therapies.

  7. [Occupational semicircular lipoatrophy associated with serum adipokine abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; González-Gómez, María-Fernanda; Olarrea, José; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Bandrés, Fernando

    2015-10-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between semicircular lipoatrophy (SL), inflammation marker (high sensibility C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]), adipokines (leptine, chemerine and vaspine) and autoimmune markers (rheumatoid factor [RF], C3 and C4 complement fractions, antinuclear antibodies [ANA], HLA DR3, and DR4). Chemerine is an adipokine, but also is an immunity marker. A case-control study was performed in May 2013; 21 cases were included. The closest healthy coworker to each case was used as a control. We calculated Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. We found statistical significance (P<.05) between SL and raised hs-CRP, raised leptine and low chemerine. i) There seems to be an underlying inflammatory component (raised hs-CRP) in SL; ii) adipokine alteration (raised leptine and low chemerine) supports the idea that adipocytic differentiation is affected in SL, and iii) we have not found any immune marker associated with SL, except chemerine itself, which could explain a possible association between SL and immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Adipokines as metabolic modulators of ovarian functions in livestock: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smruti Ranjan Mishra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is the principal fat storing tissue which secretes various molecules known as adipokines. The major adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, chemerin and apelin. Adipokines are regarded as the and ldquo;marker of body metabolic status'' which maintains the body energy homeostasis. An adequate energy level is essential for the onset of puberty and ovarian functions. Adipokines act as energy sensor and signal the body energy level to hypothalamic neurons to regulate many physiological activities including ovarian functions such as onset of puberty, estrus behavior, follicular development and ovulation followed by corpus luteum (CL formation and function in livestock. However, adipose tissue dysfunctions limit adipokines secretion leading to an imbalance in body energy level which ultimately affects the reproduction in livestock. This mini-review highlights the modulatory roles of various adipokines in ovarian functions of livestock. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 206-213

  9. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  10. Adipokines (adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhhibitor-1 in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (MS, which strongly predicts the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Adipokines may contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance and may be a causal link between MS, diabetes and CVD. Hence, we studied the adipokines - adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 - in subjects with MS. Materials and Methods: We studied 50 subjects with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometry, body fat analysis by bioimpedance, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, insulin, adiponectin, and PAI-1 measurement. Results: Subjects with MS had lower adiponectin (4.01 ± 2.24 vs. 8.7 ± 1.77 μg/ml; P < 0.0001 and higher PAI-1 (53.85 ± 16.45 vs. 17.35 ± 4.45 ng/ml; P < 0.0001 levels than controls. Both were related with the number of metabolic abnormalities. Adiponectin was negatively and PAI-1 was positively associated with body mass index, waist hip ratio (WHR, body fat mass, percent body fat, and all the parameters of MS, except HDL where the pattern reversed. WHR and triglycerides were independent predictors of adipokines in multiple regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that adiponectin (6.7 μg/ml and PAI-1 (25.0 ng/ml levels predicted the MS with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in Indian population. Conclusions: Subjects with MS have lower adiponectin and higher PAI-1 levels compared to healthy controls. Lifestyle measures have been shown to improve the various components of MS, and hence there is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent the ongoing epidemic of diabetes and CVD.

  11. The temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Sohrab; Bertone, Alicia L; Hussein, Hayam Hamaz; Toth, Jeffrey M; Kaido, Mari; Khan, Safdar

    2017-12-01

    Adipokines are secreted by white adipose tissue and have been associated with fracture healing. Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model. Our goal was to report the temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion in an established rabbit model. The study design included a laboratory animal model. New Zealand white rabbits were assigned to either sham surgery (n=2), unilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14), or bilateral posterior spinal fusion (n=14). Rabbits were euthanized 1-6 and 10 weeks out from surgery. Fusion was evaluated by radiographs, manual palpation, and histology. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on the bone fusion mass catalogued the gene expression of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at each time point. Results were normalized to the internal control gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (2^ΔCt), and control bone sites (2^ΔΔCt). Quantitative data were analyzed by two-factor analysis of variance (pfusion over time (pfusion by palpation after 4 weeks was 68.75%. Leptin expression in decortication and bone graft sites peaked at 5 weeks after the fusion procedure (p=.0143), adiponectin expression was greatest 1 week after surgery (pfusion procedure (pfusion. Adiponectin and resistin may play a role early on during the fusion process. Our results suggest that leptin expression may be upstream of VEGF expression during spinal fusion, and both appear to play an important role in bone spinal fusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sports training and circulating adipokine levels 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The beneficial effect of regular moderate physical activity on metabolic profile is well documented. Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor of excessive visceral fat accumulation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. However, intensive training in athletes may be related to unfavorable changes in secretion of adipose tissue hormones and constitute a link in the pathogenesis of hormonal disturbances observed in athletes.In this paper we review the recently published data concerning the impact of sports training on circulating adipokine levels in athletes.

  13. Serum adipokines as biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Minh Nguyet; Kolb, Hubert; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes.......We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  14. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating the role of adipokines in chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Elisa; Vacca, Alessandro; Govone, Flora; Gai, Annalisa; Boschi, Silvia; Zucca, Milena; De Martino, Paola; Gentile, Salvatore; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Rainero, Innocenzo

    2017-10-01

    Background and aims Adiponectin, leptin, and resistin are adipocyte-derived secretory factors involved in endothelial function, weight, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Recent studies suggested a role for adipokines in episodic migraine as mediators of inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin in patients with chronic migraine. Materials and methods Twenty-seven chronic migraineurs (20 females, 7 males; mean age 49.0 ± 9.0 yrs) and 37 healthy controls (23 females, 14 males; mean age 49.8 ± 15.0 yrs) were selected for the study. Fasting plasmatic levels of total adiponectin, leptin, and resistin were measured using ELISA kits during a pain-free period. Fasting glucose, insulin, total and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and ESR were also determined. Results Serum levels of adiponectin and resistin were significantly increased in chronic migraineurs in comparison with controls ( p = 0.001 and p = 0.032, respectively). After correction for BMI, sex and age, leptin levels were significantly increased in chronic migraineurs ( p = 0.007). A positive correlation between leptin concentrations and both indices of insulin resistance and markers of inflammation was found. Discussion Our data suggest that adiponectin and resistin are altered in non-obese chronic migraineurs. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying adipokine dysfunction in migraine.

  16. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Gun Roh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  17. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  18. Beyond Fat Mass: Exploring the Role of Adipokines in Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Scotece

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloning of leptin in 1994 by Zhang et al. introduced a novel concept about white adipose tissue (WAT as a very dynamic organ that releases a plethora of immune and inflammatory mediators, such as adipokines and cytokines, which are involved in multiple diseases. Actually, adipokines exert potent modulatory actions on target tissues involved in rheumatic diseases including cartilage, synovial, bone and immune cells. The goal of this paper is to elucidate the recent findings concerning the involvement of adipokines in rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, osteoarthritis (OA, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Tesauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  20. ZAG, a lipid mobilizing adipokine, is downregulated in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrades, M P; Martínez, J A; Moreno-Aliaga, M J

    2008-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the expression of Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a recently described adipokine, in obese and lean subjects. ZAG expression was determined by Real-time PCR analysis in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of eighteen young men, 9 lean (BMI = 23.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and 9 obese (34.7 +/- 1.2 kg/m2) with a similar habitual dietary intake of fat and physical activity, which were assessed by validated methods. Our data revealed that ZAG gene was downregulated (-70%; p ZAG gene expression and serum adiponectin (r = 0.89; p ZAG could be a promising therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome treatment.

  1. Adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to observe adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT rats and to determine whether levothyroxine (LT4 treatment affects these changes. Sixty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group; sHT A, B and C groups and the sHT + T4 group. The sHT rats were induced by methimazole (MMI and the sHT + T4 rats were administered LT4 treatment after 8 weeks of MMI administration. Thyroid function and lipid levels were measured using radioimmunoassays and enzymatic colorimetric methods, respectively. Serum adiponectin (APN, chemerin, TNF-α, endothelin (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured using ELISA kits and a nitric-reductive assay. The expression of APN, chemerin and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured in experimental rats using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Hematoxylin–eosin (HE staining was used to observe changes in adipose tissue. The sHT rats had significantly higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, TNF-α, chemerin, ET-1, total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and lower levels of APN and NO than those in control and sHT + T4 rats. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, the levels of chemerin, TNF-α, ET-1, LDL-C, TC and triglyceride (TG were positively correlated with TSH, but APN and NO levels were negatively correlated with TSH. These findings demonstrated that high TSH levels contribute to the changes of adipokines and endothelial dysfunction in sHT, but LT4 treatment ameliorates those changes.

  2. Association of chemerin with oxidative stress, inflammation and classical adipokines in non‐diabetic obese patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fülöp, Péter; Seres, Ildikó; Lőrincz, Hajnalka; Harangi, Mariann; Somodi, Sándor; Paragh, György

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide. Chemerin is a recently discovered adipokine secreted by the enlarged adipose tissue with diverse biological effects that are not well detailed yet...

  3. Interstitial concentrations of adipokines in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    Adipokines play important regulatory roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We measured plasma and interstitial concentrations of the adipokines adiponectin, resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8...... found for the remaining adipokines (P>0.05). Adiponectin and leptin concentrations were higher in plasma than subcutaneous adipose tissue (approximately 25-fold and approximately 2-fold, respectively, P... investigated adipokines as well as of ATBF were substantial (coefficient of variation: 4-177%). In conclusion, interstitial leptin concentrations are approximately 2.5-fold higher in subcutaneous, femoral than abdominal adipose tissue, which might be a potential mechanism behind the health-benefits of "pear...

  4. Revisiting the roles of hepatic inflammation and adipokines in metabolic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruben, Nanda

    2015-01-01

    Vetzucht is een groot gezondheidsprobleem, omdat er metabole ziekten zoals type 2 diabetes en leververvetting door ontstaan. Er wordt gedacht dat leverontsteking en een veranderde regulatie van adipokines, bioactieve stoffen uitgescheiden door vetweefsel, betrokken zijn bij het ontstaan van deze

  5. Adipokines and Osteoarthritis: Novel Molecules Involved in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Conde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been considered a risk factor for osteoarthritis and it is usually accepted that obesity contributes to the development and progression of osteoarthritis by increasing mechanical load of the joints. Nevertheless, recent advances in the physiology of white adipose tissue evidenced that fat cells produce a plethora of factors, called adipokines, which have a critical role in the development of ostearthritis, besides to mechanical effects. In this paper, we review the role of adipokines and highlight the cellular and molecular mechanisms at play in osteoarthritis elicited by adipokines. We also emphasize how defining the role of adipokines has broadned our understanding of the diversity of factors involved in the genesis and progression of osteoarthritis in the hope of modifying it to prevent and treat diseases.

  6. Exercise Training Attenuates the Dysregulated Expression of Adipokines and Oxidative Stress in White Adipose Tissue

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    Takuya Sakurai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in white adipose tissue (WAT, which caused dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Moreover, current literature reports state that WAT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the enhanced production of ROS in obese WAT has been closely associated with the dysregulated expression of adipokines in WAT. Therefore, the reduction in excess WAT and oxidative stress that results from obesity is thought to be one of the important strategies in preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR not only brings about a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the adipokines in WAT. Furthermore, some reports indicate that TR affects the generation of oxidative stress in WAT. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression of inflammation-related adipokines and oxidative stress in WAT.

  7. The Action of D-Dopachrome Tautomerase as an Adipokine in Adipocyte Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo Iwata; Hisaaki Taniguchi; Masamichi Kuwajima; Takako Taniguchi; Yuko Okuda; Akiko Sukeno; Kyoko Ishimoto; Noriko Mizusawa; Katsuhiko Yoshimoto

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical exchange center for complex energy transactions involving triacylglycerol storage and release. It also has an active endocrine role, releasing various adipose-derived cytokines (adipokines) that participate in complex pathways to maintain metabolic and vascular health. Here, we found D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) as an adipokine secreted from human adipocytes by a proteomic approach. DDT mRNA levels in human adipocytes were negatively correlated with obesity-rela...

  8. Translating the biology of adipokines in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases: Gaps and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscica, M; Baragetti, A; Catapano, A L; Norata, G D

    2017-05-01

    Critically discuss the available data, to identify the current gaps and to provide key concepts that will help clinicians in translating the biology of adipokines in the context of atherosclerosis and cardio-metabolic diseases. Adipose tissue is nowadays recognized as an active endocrine organ, a function related to the ability to secrete adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and resistin). Studies in vitro and in animal models have observed that obesity status presents a chronic low-grade inflammation as the consequence of the immune cells infiltrating the adipose tissue as well as adipocytes. This inflammatory signature is often related to the presence of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. These links are less clear in humans, where the role of adipokines as prognostic marker and/or player in cardiovascular diseases is not as clear as that observed in experimental models. Moreover, plasma adipokine levels might reflect a condition of adipokine-resistance in which adipokine redundancy occurs. The investigation of the cardio-metabolic phenotype of carriers of single nucleotide polymorphisms affecting the levels or function of a specific adipokine might help determine their relevance in humans. Thus, the aim of the present review is to critically discuss the available data, identify the current gaps and provide key concepts that will help clinicians translate the biology of adipokines in the context of atherosclerosis and cardio-metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Adipokine Levels and their Relationship with Fatty Acids in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sete,Manuela Rubim Camara; Lira Júnior,Ronaldo; Fischer,Ricardo Guimarães; Figueredo,Carlos Marcelo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Adipokines are present in inflammatory processes and may be directly related to periodontal disease. Moreover, their activities may be regulated by fatty acids. The goal of this study was to quantify the concentrations of the main adipokines, leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and the docosahexaenoic (DHA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and arachidonic (AA) fatty acids, in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. As a secondary objective, the ratios of these substances...

  10. ADIPOKINES CONTENT AND ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY INDICATORS OF WOMEN WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM

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    I. Yu. Kapralova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: to study the adipokines content and echocardiography indicators of women with hypothyroidism.Materials and methods. 30 women with hypothyroidism were included into the study with the average age of 55.2 ± 2.2 years old and the duration of disease of 8.53 ± 0.84 years. Anthropometric parameters of all patients were measured. Levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin were investigated with enzyme multiplied immunoassay. Morphometric parameters of the left ventricle (LV were assessed with echocardiography.Results. The examined patients with hypothyroidism displayed increased concentration of leptin and resistin, as well as decreased concentration of adiponectin. Concentric and eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle is revealed in more than half of cases with patients with the hypofunction of the thyroid gland.Conclusion. Evident decreasing of the level of adiponektin and increasing of the level of leptin and resistin was revealed with examined patients on the background of the excessive body weight. Hypertrophy of the left ventricle and diastolic dysfunction of the myocard with its relatively preserved contractile ability was revealed with women that suffer from hypothyroidism. Age, excessive body weight, increasing of arterial blood pressure, and hypoadiponectinemia play a significant role in the left ventricle myocardial remodeling.

  11. ADIPOKINES CONTENT AND ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY INDICATORS OF WOMEN WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kapralova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: to study the adipokines content and echocardiography indicators of women with hypothyroidism.Materials and methods. 30 women with hypothyroidism were included into the study with the average age of 55.2 ± 2.2 years old and the duration of disease of 8.53 ± 0.84 years. Anthropometric parameters of all patients were measured. Levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin were investigated with enzyme multiplied immunoassay. Morphometric parameters of the left ventricle (LV were assessed with echocardiography.Results. The examined patients with hypothyroidism displayed increased concentration of leptin and resistin, as well as decreased concentration of adiponectin. Concentric and eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle is revealed in more than half of cases with patients with the hypofunction of the thyroid gland.Conclusion. Evident decreasing of the level of adiponektin and increasing of the level of leptin and resistin was revealed with examined patients on the background of the excessive body weight. Hypertrophy of the left ventricle and diastolic dysfunction of the myocard with its relatively preserved contractile ability was revealed with women that suffer from hypothyroidism. Age, excessive body weight, increasing of arterial blood pressure, and hypoadiponectinemia play a significant role in the left ventricle myocardial remodeling.

  12. Novel adipokines: their potential role in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Korek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since identification in 1994 of leptin, a hormone produced by adipocytes, adipose tissue has become the subject of intensive research. These studies contributed to the discovery that adipocytes have the ability to synthesize and secrete biologically active substances called „adipokines”. Adipokines include a variety of cytokines, peptide hormones and enzymes that play a role in a wide variety of biological functions. For example, they are involved in the regulation of appetite, energy homeostasis, vascular hemostasis, blood pressure, inflammatory and immune processes and play a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. In obese patients, the secretion of adipokines is frequently abnormal. These changes may predispose to the development of insulin resistance, hypertension and inflammation. Therefore, adipokines are the subject of ongoing clinical trials. The family of adipokines is increasing by the newly discovered peptides. This paper presents the current state of knowledge about retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4, fasting-induced adipose factor/angiopoietin-like protein 4 (FIAF/ANGPTL4, fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, irisin and their potential role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders associated with obesity. The knowledge of the role of newly discovered adipokines may help in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Identification of novel adipokines in the joint. Differential expression in healthy and osteoarthritis tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Conde

    Full Text Available Emerging data suggest that several metabolic factors, released mainly by white adipose tissue (WAT and joint tissues, and collectively named adipokines, might have a role in the pathophysiology of OA. Recently, novel adipokines such as SERPINE2, WISP2, GPNMB and ITIH5 have been identified in WAT. The main goal of this study was to analyse the expression of these novel adipokines in synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes and to compare the expression of these molecules in healthy and OA tissues.Synovial tissues, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes were obtained from 36 OA patients (age 52-85; mean BMI 28.9 who underwent total knee replacement surgery. Healthy synovial tissues and infrapatellar fat pad were obtained from 15 traumatic knee patients (age 23-53; mean BMI 23.5. mRNA and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis respectively.All the novel adipokines, matter of our study, are expressed in OA synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes. Moreover, we detected a differential expression of SERPINE2 and ITIH5 in OA synovial tissues as compared to healthy samples. Finally, we also observed an increased expression of WISP2 in OA infrapatellar fat pad in comparison to healthy controls.In this study we demonstrated for the first time the expression of four novel adipokines in different joint tissues and how these molecules are differentially expressed in healthy and OA joint tissues.

  14. Relationships Between Adipokine Profiles, Physique Index, and Severity of Bronchiolitis in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Ryou; Gunji, Yuji; Ozaki, Ayafumi; Wakabayashi, Kei; Miyajimaa, Yuka; Monden, Yukifumi; Numazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Kazuo

    2017-10-01

    Relationships between adipokines, adiposity and severity of acute viral bronchiolitis in infancy have not been elucidated. We investigated the relationships between three serum adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and TNF-α), physique index (Kaup index) and clinical severity in 13 bronchiolitis infants. Seven healthy infants were enrolled as the control group. We used Modified Pulmonary Index Score (MPIS) to evaluate bronchiolitis severity. No significant differences in adipokine levels were found between groups. In bronchiolitis infants, Kaup index negatively correlated with MPIS (r = -0.614, p = 0.03). A positive correlation was observed between the serum leptin/adiponectin ratio and MPIS (r = 0.618, p = 0.03), although correlations were not observed between respective serum adipokines levels and MPIS. Serum leptin and adiponectin had significantly negative correlations with age (r = 0.815, p = 0.001 and r = 0.566, p = 0.04, respectively), but not Kaup index. The severity of viral bronchiolitis in infancy may be related to the adipokine profile, but not adiposity.

  15. What's new in our understanding of the role of adipokines in rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Rodolfo; Conde, Javier; Scotece, Morena; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesus; Lago, Francisca; Gualillo, Oreste

    2011-08-02

    Important advances in our understanding of the relationships between adipokines, inflammation and the immune response have been achieved in the past 10 years. White adipose tissue has emerged as a highly dynamic organ that releases a plethora of immune and inflammatory mediators that are involved in numerous diseases, including not only rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, but also cardiovascular and metabolic complications that are frequently observed in rheumatic diseases. Our rapidly growing knowledge of adipokine biology is revealing the complexity of these amazing proteins, thereby redefining white adipose tissue as a key element of the inflammatory and immune response in rheumatic diseases. Adipokines exert potent modulatory actions on target tissues and cells involved in rheumatic disease, including cartilage, synovium, bone and various immune cells. In this Review, we describe the most recent advances in adipokine research in the context of rheumatic diseases, focusing primarily on leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and resistin, and also the potential role of newly identified adipokines such as chemerin, lipocalin 2 and serum amyloid A3.

  16. Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El husseny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM, insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.

  17. Adipokines and nutritional status in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzewicz, S; Dębska-Slizień, A; Czajka, B; Rutkowski, B

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and disturbances of adipokine concentrations are often recognized in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Leptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake and expenditure, including appetite and hunger, metabolism, and behavior. Adiponectin modulates certain metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation, and exerts some weight-reduction effects. Visfatin has various functions, including the promotion of vascular smooth muscle cell maturation and inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. It also activates insulin receptors and has insulin-mimetic effects, lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin and nutritional status abnormalities in stable KTRs. Eighty KTRs aged 52.4 ± 14.0 years participated in the study. Nutritional status was determined with the use of the 7-point Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements (bioimpedance analysis), and serum concentration. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin were measured with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mean time after transplantation and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula) were 82.5 ± 56.5 months and 42.0 ± 15.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively; 29 (36.2%) of the KTRs, despite high body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)), presented mild malnutrition (SGA ≤5). BMI, content of body fat, and leptin concentration correlated positively with time from transplantation and negatively with eGFR. Additionally, patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) presented significantly higher leptin-to-adiponectin ratios compared with lean patients (3.5 vs 1.1, respectively; P < .05). KTRs with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) presented significantly lower leptin concentration and BMI. Despite high BMI, mild malnutrition was present in one-third of KTRs. Increased BMI, abdominal obesity, and high leptin concentration

  18. The Potential Interplay of Adipokines with Toll-Like Receptors in the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Shen-Nien Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are not only crucial to the initiation of the immune system, but also play a key role in several human inflammatory diseases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is among those human cancers, which arise from sites of chronic inflammation. Therefore, a number of studies have explored the potential contribution of TLRs to HCC occurrence, which is initiated by exposure to chronic hepatic inflammation of different etiologies (including ethanol, and chronic B and C viral infections. Recent epidemiological data have shown the association of obesity and HCC development. Given the fact that adipose tissues can produce a variety of inflammation-related adipokines, obesity has been characterized as a state of chronic inflammation. Adipokines are therefore considered as important mediators linking inflammation to several metabolic diseases, including cancers. More recently, many experts have also shown the bridging role of TLRs between inflammation and metabolism. Hopefully, to retrieve the potential interaction between TLRs and adipokines in carcinogenesis of HCC will shed a new light on the therapeutic alternative for HCC. In this paper, the authors first review the respective roles of TLRs and adipokines, discuss their mutual interaction in chronic inflammation, and finally anticipate further investigations of this interaction in HCC development.

  19. Associations of objective physical activity with insulin sensitivity and circulating adipokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spartano, N L; Stevenson, M D; Xanthakis, V

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) to insulin sensitivity and adipokines. We assessed PA and SED using Actical accelerometers and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2109 participants (free of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus) from...

  20. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Adipokine-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep eGoktas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over a third of the US population is obese and at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is considered a chronic low grade inflammatory condition that is primarily attributed to expansion and inflammation of adipose tissues. Indeed, adipocytes produce and secrete numerous proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines known as adipokines. When the balance of these adipokines is shifted towards higher production of proinflammatory factors, local inflammation within adipose tissues and subsequently systemic inflammation occur. These adipokines including leptin, visfatin, resistin, apelin, vaspin, and retinol binding protein-4 can regulate inflammatory responses and contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes. These effects are mediated by key inflammatory signaling molecules including activated serine kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and serine kinases inhibitor κB kinase (IKK and insulin signaling molecules including insulin receptor substrates, protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Bariatric surgery can decrease body weight and improve insulin resistance in morbidly obese subjects. However, despite reports suggesting reduced inflammation and weight-independent effects of bariatric surgery on glucose metabolism, mechanisms behind such improvements are not yet well understood. This review article focuses on some of these novel adipokines and discusses their changes after bariatric surgery and their relationship to insulin resistance, fat mass, inflammation, and glucose homeostasis.

  1. Non-traditional cytokines: How catecholamines and adipokines influence macrophages in immunity, metabolism and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mark A; Carson, Monica J; Nair, Meera G

    2015-04-01

    Catecholamines and adipokines function as hormones; catecholamines as neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system, and adipokines as mediators of metabolic processes. It has become increasingly clear, however, that both also function as immunomodulators of innate and adaptive immune cells, including macrophages. Macrophages can respond to, as well as produce their own catecholamines. Dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are the most abundant catecholamines in the body, and can induce both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses in macrophages, as well as non-immune processes such as thermogenesis. Though they are responsive to adipokines, particularly lipoproteins, leptin, and adiponectin, macrophages generally do not synthesize their own adipokines, with the exception being resistin-like molecules. Adipokines contribute to adverse metabolic and immune responses by stimulating lipid accumulation, foam cell formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Adipokines can also promote balance or resolution during metabolic and immune processes by promoting reverse lipid transport and expression of Th2 cytokines. This review will explore the mechanisms by which catecholamines and adipokines influence macrophage function in neural pathways, immunity and metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synovial fluid levels of adipokines in osteoarthritis: Association with local factors of inflammation and cartilage maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jean-Baptiste; Guillaume, Cécile; Gégout-Pottie, Pascale; Mainard, Didier; Presle, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    The role of body weight in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) - previously considered the sole factor in the association between obesity and OA - is being re-evaluated as the contribution of adiposity to the cartilage degenerative process becomes clearer. The current study has been undertaken to better understand the role of adipose-derived proteins, namely adipokines, in OA. For this purpose, we investigated in patients with OA the relationships between the joint levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin and those of factors involved in inflammation and cartilage maintenance. The sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine in the synovial fluid (SF) from 35 OA patients, the concentrations of adipokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). The soluble form of leptin receptor (sOb-R) was also examined to evaluate the biological active free form of leptin. Correlation analysis indicate that IL-6 levels are positively related to the levels of resistin and adiponectin. Surprisingly, the free form of leptin, but not the total leptin, is negatively associated with IL-6. Beside, adiponectin is the single adipokine that is correlated with TGF-β. Interestingly, a sexual dimorphism is observed in the study as correlations between adipokines and IL-6 or TGF-β are found only with female OA patients. Taken together, these findings suggest that only adiponectin may contribute to the metabolic changes associated with OA. The three adipokines may also be involved in inflammation, but with opposite effects. Both resistin and adiponectin may exhibit pro-inflammatory activity while the free form of leptin may down-regulate the inflammation.

  3. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S.; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We...... hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational...

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Relationships Between Mood Symptoms, Body Mass Index, and Serum Adipokines in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David J; Andreazza, Ana C; Hughes, John; Dhanoa, Taj; Torres, Ivan J; Kozicky, Jan-Marie; Young, L Trevor; Lam, Raymond W; Yatham, Lakshmi N

    2017-04-01

    There is a bidirectional relationship between obesity and mood disorders, with each increasing the risk of developing the other. This relationship suggests that they have overlapping pathophysiologic mechanisms. Adipose tissue-derived hormones, or adipokines, regulate appetite and metabolism and have activity in limbic brain regions, making them potential shared etiologic factors between elevated body mass index (BMI) and mood disorders. However, the precise relationships between BMI, mood, and adipokines are unknown. We measured the serum levels of adiponectin, lipocalin-2, resistin, adipsin, and leptin in 53 people with early-stage DSM-IV-defined bipolar disorder, diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Participants were followed at the University of British Columbia Mood Disorders Centre between June 2004 and June 2012. We were primarily interested in determining, in patients, (1) whether BMI and recent mood episodes predicted adipokine levels and (2) whether adipokine levels in turn predicted subsequent mood relapses and change in BMI. Using linear regression, we found that (1) past-6-month mood episodes predicted lower adiponectin (β = -0.385, P = .04) and adipsin (β = -0.376, P = .03) levels and higher lipocalin-2 levels (β = 0.411, P = .03), (2) BMI did not predict adipokine levels, and (3) treatment with second-generation antipsychotics was associated with higher resistin levels (β = 0.482, P mood episodes and medication treatment contribute to adipokine abnormalities in bipolar disorder and that adipokines influence psychiatric illness course and BMI change. Adipokines may represent a novel pathophysiologic mechanism linking elevated BMI and mood disorders and deserve further study as potential mood-regulating molecules.

  5. The control of insulin secretion by adipokines: current evidence for adipocyte-beta cell endocrine signalling in metabolic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, James

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is maintained by the coordinated action of multiple organ systems. Insulin secretion is often enhanced during obesity or insulin resistance to maintain glucose and lipid homeostasis, whereas a loss of insulin secretion is associated with type 2 diabetes. Adipocytes secrete hormones known as adipokines which act on multiple cell types to regulate metabolism. Many adipokines have been shown to influence beta cell function by enhancing or inhibiting insulin release or by influencing beta cell survival. Insulin, in turn, regulates lipolysis and promotes glucose uptake and lipid storage in adipocytes. As adipokine secretion and action is strongly influenced by obesity, this provides a potential route by which beta cell function is coordinated with adiposity, independently of alterations in blood glucose or lipid levels. In this review, I assess the evidence for the direct regulation of beta cell function by the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, apelin, resistin, retinol binding protein 4, fibroblast growth factor 21, nesfatin-1 and fatty acid binding protein 4. I summarise in vitro and in vivo data and discuss the influence of obesity and diabetes on circulating adipokine concentrations, along with the potential for influencing beta cell function in human physiology. Finally, I highlight future research questions that are likely to yield new insights into the exciting field of insulinotropic adipokines.

  6. Adipokine Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Depends on Degree of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, Joanna; Dziemidok, Piotr; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Hordyjewska, Anna; Szcześniak, Grzegorz; Musik, Irena

    2017-10-19

    BACKGROUND The fast pace of life, promoting fast food consumption and low physical activity, has resulted in obesity and/or diabetes as being serious social problems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate concentrations of selected adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin) and to assess the leptin/adiponectin ratio in plasma of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in relation to degree of obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study comprised 92 T2D subjects divided into 4 groups according to BMI value - I (normal body weight), II (overweight), III (obesity), and IV (severe obesity) - and 20 healthy volunteers (control group). Each group was divided into male and female subgroups. Plasma concentrations of adipokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS In women, leptin concentration was significantly higher in group IV, whereas in men it was higher in groups III and IV than in the control group and groups I and II. Irrespective of sex, a significant decrease in adiponectin level was observed in group III vs. There was no significant difference in resistin levels. In women visfatin was markedly enhanced in group III, whereas in men in groups II, III and IV vs. Leptin/adiponectin ratio was increased in groups III and IV vs. control in women, whereas in men vs. both control and group I. CONCLUSIONS The obese type 2 diabetic patients presented a disturbed adipokine profile, which seems to be an important link between obesity and T2D. The future studies concerning the question if regulating of adipokines' concentrations could be a promising approach for managing metabolic disorders seem to be well-grounded.

  7. Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism

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    Nobuyuki eItoh; Hiroya eOhta

    2014-01-01

    White and brown adipose tissues, which store and burn lipids, respectively, play critical roles in energy homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are signaling proteins with diverse functions in development, metabolism, and neural function. Among twenty-two FGFs, FGF1, FGF10, and FGF21 play roles as adipokines, adipocyte-secreted proteins, in the development and function of white and brown adipose tissues. FGF1 is a critical transducer in white adipose tissue remodeling. The PPARγ–F...

  8. Adipokines correlate with pain in lower limb osteoarthritis: different associations in hip and knee.

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    Bas, Sylvette; Finckh, Axel; Puskas, Gabor J; Suva, Domizio; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Gabay, Cem; Lübbeke, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether serum and synovial-fluid (SF) concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, adiponectin, resistin or visfatin are associated with joint pain in hip and knee in end-stage osteoarthritis (OA). A cross-sectional study assessing patients with hip and knee OA undergoing total joint arthroplasty between January and December 2010 was conducted at a large university hospital. Serum and SF cytokine and adipokine concentrations were determined in samples obtained on the day of surgery. The main outcome was pain severity measured pre-operatively using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores. A total of 206 patients were involved (112 with hip and 94 with knee OA). Median age was 72 years [interquartile range (IQR) 66-79], 59% were women. All adipokine levels were significantly higher in the SF of hip joints than in that of knee joints, except for leptin, which tended to be higher in the knee. In both hip and knee OA, median serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin exceeded those in SF, whereas for IL-6, median concentrations were much higher in SF than in serum. In hip OA, worse pain was significantly associated with high SF concentrations of IL-6, visfatin and leptin; in knee OA, it was associated with high SF leptin and low SF adiponectin concentrations and a low adiponectin-leptin ratio. Our findings support a connection between intra-articular concentrations of several adipokines and severity of preoperative OA pain. However, the specific adipokines differed by joints: in hip OA, pain was associated with IL-6 and visfatin and in knee OA with adiponectin; leptin played a role in both hip and knee OA.

  9. The relationship between adipokines, body composition, and bone density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Vondracek, Sheryl F; Voelkel, Norbert F; McDermott, Michael T; Valdez, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data regarding the relationship between adipokines and bone mineral density (BMD) in this population is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine associations between the adipokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), leptin, adiponectin and resistin, body composition, and BMD in men with severe COPD. This was a cross-sectional study of men with severe COPD who visited the University of Colorado Hospital COPD Center. Bone density and parameters of body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-three men were included (mean age = 66 years, mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second = 32%). On bivariate analysis, there was no association between TNF-alpha and BMD. Parameters of body composition and serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were significantly associated with total hip and spine bone density. However, with partial correlation analysis, total body mass was the only independent predictor of total hip BMD, explaining approximately 50% of the variability. Overall, 18 out of 23 men enrolled (78%) had low bone density by T-score, and nine (39%) were classified as having osteoporosis. The men with osteoporosis had lower parameters of body composition, lower mean serum leptin concentrations, and a greater impairment in measures of lung function compared to the men without osteoporosis. We conclude that the effect of adipokines on BMD does not appear to be independent of body mass. However, larger studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between adipokines, body weight, and BMD in patients with COPD.

  10. Snoring, inflammatory markers, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

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    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic low-grade inflammation and adipokines dysregulation are linked to mechanisms underscoring the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Little is known about roles of these cytokines on the association between snoring and metabolic syndrome (MetS. We aimed to investigate whether a cluster of cytokines are related to snoring frequency and its association with MetS in apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: Current analyses used a population-based sample including 1059 Shanghai residents aged 35-54 years. Self-reported snoring frequency was classified as never, occasionally and regularly. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-18, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and leptin were measured. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Overweight/obese subjects had significantly higher prevalence of regular snorers than their normal-weight counterparts (34.8% vs. 11.5%, P<0.001. Regular snoring was associated with unfavorable profile of inflammatory markers and adipokines. However, those associations were abolished after adjustment for body mass index (BMI or waist circumference. The MetS risk (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 5.41, 95% confidence interval 3.72-7.88 was substantially higher in regular snorers compared with non-snorers. Controlling for BMI remarkably attenuated the association (2.03, 1.26-3.26, while adjusting for inflammatory markers and adipokines showed little effects. CONCLUSION: Frequent snoring was associated with an elevated MetS risk independent of lifestyle factors, adiposity, inflammatory markers and adipokines in apparently healthy Chinese. Whether snoring pattern is an economic and no-invasive indicator for screening high-risk persons needs to be addressed prospectively.

  11. The role of adipokines in the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine.

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    Machado-Vieira, R; Gold, P W; Luckenbaugh, D A; Ballard, E D; Richards, E M; Henter, I D; De Sousa, R T; Niciu, M J; Yuan, P; Zarate, C A

    2017-01-01

    We previously found that body mass index (BMI) strongly predicted response to ketamine. Adipokines have a key role in metabolism (including BMI). They directly regulate inflammation and neuroplasticity pathways and also influence insulin sensitivity, bone metabolism and sympathetic outflow; all of these have been implicated in mood disorders. Here, we sought to examine the role of three key adipokines-adiponectin, resistin and leptin-as potential predictors of response to ketamine or as possible transducers of its therapeutic effects. Eighty treatment-resistant subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for either major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder I/II and who were currently experiencing a major depressive episode received a single ketamine infusion (0.5 mg kg(-1) for 40 min). Plasma adipokine levels were measured at three time points (pre-infusion baseline, 230 min post infusion and day 1 post infusion). Overall improvement and response were assessed using percent change from baseline on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Lower baseline levels of adiponectin significantly predicted ketamine's antidepressant efficacy, suggesting an adverse metabolic state. Because adiponectin significantly improves insulin sensitivity and has potent anti-inflammatory effects, this finding suggests that specific systemic abnormalities might predict positive response to ketamine. A ketamine-induced decrease in resistin was also observed; because resistin is a potent pro-inflammatory compound, this decrease suggests that ketamine's anti-inflammatory effects may be transduced, in part, by its impact on resistin. Overall, the findings suggest that adipokines may either predict response to ketamine or have a role in its possible therapeutic effects.

  12. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

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    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  13. Adipokines may mediate the relationship between resting metabolic rates and bone mineral densities in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, S; Mirzaei, K; Abdurahman, A A; Keshavarz, S A

    2017-05-01

    The researchers sought to test the possible link between resting metabolic rate and bone mineral density through four adipokines. Participants with lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) per kilogram demonstrated higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total T-score, and total Z-score. Omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR/kg of body weight and bone parameters. The previous results of studies regarding the links between obesity and bone health are controversial. For this reason, the researchers sought to test the possible link between RMR and BMD through the following four adipokines: vaspin, retinol binding protein 4, angiopoietin-like 6 (ANGPL6), and omentin-1. We enrolled 312 obese Iranian women (30 ≤ body mass index BMD, the participants were grouped based on RMR per body weight. Body composition, dietary intake, bone mineral density, and resting metabolic rate were assessed in all participants. Serum adipokine levels were quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Low levels of RMR/kg were strongly associated with higher weight, body mass index, fat mass, and visceral fat levels. In fact, participants with an RMR/kg of body weight obese (p BMD, total T-score, and total Z-score. Our results showed that omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR per kilogram of body weight and bone parameters (p BMD (p > 0.05). The inhibitory effect of omentin-1 on TNF-alpha seems to be able to reduce the amount of circulating leptin as adipokine, affecting energy expenditure and improving bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and controlled effect of RMR on BMD.

  14. Adipokines and severity and progression of coronary artery calcium: Findings from the Rancho Bernardo Study.

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    Larsen, Britta A; Laughlin, Gail A; Cummins, Kevin; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Wassel, Christina L

    2017-10-01

    Adipokines are known to predict cardiovascular events, yet their association with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a surrogate marker of coronary atherosclerosis and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is unclear. We aimed at assessing the association between adipokines and the severity and progression of CAC in healthy older adults, and at exploring potential modification by gender. 409 men and women from the Rancho Bernardo Study with no known CVD underwent a chest computed tomography scan to determine baseline CAC severity; 329 returned 4.5 years later for a repeat scan to evaluate CAC progression. Adipokines (IL-6, adiponectin, leptin, and TNF-α) were measured from baseline blood samples. Ordinal linear and logistic regression models were used to determine the association of each adipokine with baseline severity and future progression of CAC. Adjusting for age and sex, IL-6 and leptin were associated with greater odds of increasing CAC severity (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.22-2.19; OR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.43, respectively, per SD). The association with IL-6 remained significant in models further adjusted for lifestyle, body size, CVD risk factors, and body fat distribution. Adiponectin was associated with CAC progression (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.92 in fully adjusted models). This was modified by sex, with protective effects seen for men (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.38-0.85), but not for women (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.67-1.32; p-for-interaction = 0.04). IL-6 and leptin predicted greater CAC severity while adiponectin predicted lower odds of CAC progression. More research is needed to explore biological mechanisms, including differences by sex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children

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    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.

  16. Early changes in adipokines from overweight to obesity in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mantovani, Rafael Machado; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Magalhães, Daniel Massote; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões e

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Childhood obesity has been associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to compare plasma levels of traditional metabolic markers, adipokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNFR1) in overweight, obese and lean children. We also assessed the relationships of these molecules with classical metabolic risk factors. Methods: This study included 104 children and adolescents, which were grouped as: lean (n = 24), overweig...

  17. Inflammation Activation Contributes to Adipokine Imbalance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Chen, Lu-zhu; Zhao, Shui-ping; Huang, Xian-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation can be activated as a defensive response by the attack of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for ischemic tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of ACS-activated inflammation on adipokine imbalance and the effects of statins on the crosstalk between inflammation and adipokine imbalance during ACS. In this study, 586 subjects were categorized into: (1) control group; (2) SA (stable angina) group; and (3) ACS group. Circulating levels of hs-CRP, adiponectin and resistin were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, forty C57BL/6 mice were randomized into: sham, AMI, low-statin (atorvastatin, 2 mg/kg/day) and high-statin (atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg/day) group. After 3 weeks, AMI models were established by surgical coronary artery ligation. Circulating levels and adipose expressions of adiponectin and resistin were assessed in animals. Besides, we investigate the effects of atorvastatin on ox-LDL-induced adipokine imbalance in vitro. As a result, we found that ACS patients had higher hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels. Our correlation analysis demonstrated hs-CRP concentrations were positively correlated with resistin but negatively with adiponectin levels in humans. Our animal findings indicated higher circulating hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels in AMI mice. Atorvastatin pre-treatment dose-dependently decreased hs-CRP and resistin levels but increased adiponectin levels in mice. The consistent findings were observed about the adipose expressions of resistin and adiponectin in mice. In study in vitro, ox-LDL increased cellular resistin expressions and otherwise for adiponectin expressions, which dose-dependently reversed by the addition of atorvastatin. Therefore, our study indicates that the ACS attack activates inflammation leading to adipokine imbalance that can be ameliorated by anti-inflammation of atorvastatin.

  18. Changes in inflammation, oxidative stress and adipokines following bariatric surgery among adolescents with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A S; Ryder, J R; Marlatt, K L; Rudser, K D; Jenkins, T; Inge, T H

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation, oxidative stress and dysregulation of adipokines are thought to be pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity to the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In adults, bariatric surgery reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, and beneficially changes the levels of several adipokines, but little is known about the postsurgical changes among adolescents. In two separate longitudinal cohorts we evaluated change from baseline of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL), adiponectin, leptin and resistin up to 12 months following elective laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. In cohort 1, which consisted of 39 adolescents (mean age 16.5±1.6 years; 29 females) undergoing either RYGB or VSG, IL-6 (baseline: 2.3±3.4 pg ml(-1) vs 12 months: 0.8±0.6 pg ml(-1), Padolescents (mean age 16.5±1.6 years; 10 females) undergoing RYGB, results were similar: IL-6 (baseline: 1.7±0.9 pg ml(-1) vs 12 months: 0.4±0.9 pg ml(-1), Pstress and several adipokines among adolescents with severe obesity, suggesting potential reductions in risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  19. Evaluation of Adipokines: Apelin, Visfatin, and Resistin in Children with Atopic Dermatitis

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    Edyta Machura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the role of adipokines in atopic dermatitis (AD in children. This study aimed at analyzing the serum levels of resistin, apelin, and visfatin in children with AD in relation to body weight, AD severity, and gender. Serum concentration of adipokines was measured in 27 children with AD and in 46 healthy subjects. Selected biochemical parameters were evaluated and skin prick test was performed. Serum levels of resistin and apelin were significantly higher, whereas serum visfatin concentration was significantly lower in children with AD versus healthy controls, although an increase in resistin levels was exclusively demonstrated in boys. In AD group, a significant increase in apelin levels in girls was documented. There was no relationship between adipokines levels and the degree of allergic sensitization. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the serum apelin cutoff value differentiating children with AD from those without was >137.8 pg/mL. Resistin and visfatin cutoff values were >3.8 ng/mL and ≤ 2.13 ng/mL, respectively. Apelin and visfatin can serve as excellent indicators to distinguish children with AD from those without disease.

  20. Correlation of MMP-9, GA, HbA1c, and adipokines levels with DR

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    Cheng Qian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the correlation of matrix metalloproteinase -9(MMP-9, glycated albumin(GA, glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1cand adipokines(including visfatin, resistin and leptinwith diabetic retinopathy(DR. METHODS: From March 2015 to March 2017, 74 patients with DR were treated in our hospital, including 40 patients(80 eyeswith non proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRand 34 patients(68 eyeswith proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR, and diabetes mellitus 40 patients(80 eyeswith non DR(NDRand 40 healthy volunteers(80 eyeswere selected as controls, the levels of MMP-9, GA, HbA1c, visfatin, resistin and leptin in each group were detected. RESULTS: PDR group visfatin was 4.41±0.82ng/mL, was significantly lower than the NPDR group, NDR group and control group(PPPPrs=0.523, 0.461 and 0.414, Prs=-0.433, Prs=0.401 and 0.460, PCONCLUSION: MMP-9, GA, HbA1c, and adipokines may play a role in the development and progression of DR, in which MMP-9 is associated with adipokines, both are not significantly related to the levels of GA and HbA1c.

  1. A comparison of obesity related adipokine concentrations in knee and shoulder osteoarthritis patients.

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    Gandhi, Rajiv; Kapoor, Mohit; Mahomed, Nizar N; Perruccio, Anthony V

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the serum and knee synovial fluid (SF) adipokine level has been correlated to osteoarthritis (OA) severity. No study has examined the relative concentration of adipokines in shoulder OA. However, in this study, we document serum and SF concentrations, and serum/SF ratios, of leptin and adiponectin among individuals with end stage shoulder OA, and compare ratios with a sample of individuals with end stage knee OA. Thirty-five patients with end stage knee and shoulder OA were surveyed prior to surgery for demographic data and body mass index (BMI). Synovial fluid (SF) and serum samples were analyzed for leptin and adiponectin. Serum/SF ratios were calculated and compared across cohorts. Knee and shoulder cohorts were matched, without clinical differences for age, gender, and BMI. Serum and SF leptin levels are consistently higher in knee OA patients as compared to shoulder OA patients. Further, serum/SF adiponectin ratios are greater than that for leptin across both joints. Our findings may help, in part, explain the findings that obesity has a stronger association to knee OA than shoulder OA. Whether this reflects a difference in local production of adipokines, capsular permeability, or both must be further studied. Copyright © 2015 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

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    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  3. Racial Differences in Serum Adipokine and Insulin Levels in a Matched Osteoarthritis Sample: A Pilot Study

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    Rajiv Gandhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In an attempt to correlate biomarkers with disease, serum-based biomarkers often are compared between individuals with osteoarthritis (OA and control subjects. However, variable results have been reported. Some studies have suggested an association between certain adipokines and insulin and OA. We know that there are racial differences in OA prevalence and incidence, and from general population-based studies, those of Asian race consistently demonstrate a unique adipokine/insulin serum concentration profile as compared to Caucasians. Whether similar racial differences exist within OA samples is unknown and may have implications for selecting appropriate controls in comparative studies. Methods. Serum levels of adipokines, leptin, and adiponectin, along with insulin, were determined by ELISA in patients scheduled for total hip or knee replacement surgery for OA. Fifteen Asian patients were matched 1 : 1 on age (±2 years, gender, body mass index (±1.5 kg/m2, and surgical joint with Caucasian patients. Differences in serum concentrations were tested using paired t-tests. Results. Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly higher in Asians compared to Caucasians (p<0.05. While serum adiponectin levels were lower among Asians, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.12. Conclusion. Findings from this work suggest that when studying serum biomarker concentrations in OA versus controls, race may be an important factor to consider. Our findings warrant confirmation in larger studies.

  4. Adipokines and Insulin Resistance in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

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    Eryk Latoch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, radiotherapy, measurement of body fat, and insulin resistance among young adult survivors of childhood cancer (CCS. Materials and Methods. Seventy-six survivors were included (mean age 24.1±3.5 years. Insulin resistance (IR was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. The serum levels of adipokines were assayed by immunoassays. Fat mass was evaluated by DXA. Results. Mean adiponectin level and mean body FAT were higher in the examined females than in males (10009±6367 ng/mL versus 6433±4136 ng/mL, p<0.01; 35.98±9.61% versus 22.7±7.46%, p<0.001. Among CCS, one of 75 patients met the criteria of insulin resistance, and in 14 patients there was impaired fasting glucose. The multiple regression model for females showed that leptin/adiponectin ratio (LA ratio significantly affected HOMA-IR (increase of 0.024 per each unit of LA ratio; p<0.05. Radiotherapy had no effect on serum adipokines and IR. Conclusion. The observed results support the hypothesis that adiponectin might be associated with insulin resistance and it can not be ruled out that changes in the mean level of adiponectin per FAT mass or leptin/adiponectin ratio may precede the occurrence of insulin resistance in the future.

  5. Adipokines Do Not Mediate the Association of Obesity and Colorectal Adenoma

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    Heather M. Ochs-Balcom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between obesity and colon neoplasia is well established but the underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. Rates of both obesity and colon cancer differ by race. Adipokines have been postulated as contributors to the observed association; however, few studies have examined the mediating effect of adipokines on the obesity-colon adenoma association with consideration of racial differences. Methods. We determined prediagnostic levels of adiponectin and leptin in Caucasians (217 cases and 650 controls and African Americans (175 cases and 378 controls participating in the Case Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer Colon Adenoma Study. We evaluated mediating effects of adiponectin and leptin on the association of abdominal adiposity and colon adenoma separately according to race using mediational pathway analysis. Results. We observed differences in circulating adipokine concentrations by race; African Americans had higher levels of leptin and lower levels of adiponectin than Caucasians for both adenoma cases and controls (P values 0.27. Conclusions. We found no evidence that leptin or adiponectin mediates the abdominal obesity-colorectal adenoma pathway. Larger studies on how these associations vary by race, sex, and obesity are needed.

  6. Glycemic control and adipokines after periodontal therapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis

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    Shunqin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The mechanism by which chronic periodontitis (CP affects type 2 diabetes (T2DM remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of periodontal therapy (PT on the glycemic control and adipokines of patients with T2DM and CP with the purpose of elucidating the possible mechanisms by which CP influences T2DM. Forty-four patients with T2DM and CP were randomly divided into two groups according to whether they underwent PT. Periodontal status, blood glucose, and the levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin (APN, and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21 were measured at baseline and after 3 months. The results revealed that the probing depth (PD and attachment loss (AL were significantly improved, the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly decreased, and APN and FGF-21 exhibited substantial increases in the intervention group after 3 months (p < 0.05, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in both groups decreased significantly after 3 months compared with baseline (p < 0.05, but the intervention group exhibited a significantly greater change (p < 0.05. In conclusion, PT may relieve periodontal inflammation, which causes a reduction of insulin-antagonizing adipokines and an increase in insulin-sensitizing adipokines, thereby eliciting an improvement in glycemic control.

  7. Differential Effect of Electroacupuncture on Inflammatory Adipokines in Two Rat Models of Obesity

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    Jacqueline J.T. Liaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which are characterized by altered levels of production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. The dysregulation of the production of inflammatory adipokines and their functions in obese individuals leads to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and may promote obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Electroacupuncture (EA was tested to see if there was a difference in its effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokine levels in the blood serum and the white adipose tissue of obese Zucker fatty rats and high-fat diet-induced obese Long Evans rats. In the two rat models of obesity, on Day 12 of treatment, repeated applications of EA were seen to have had a significant differential effect for serum tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, the adiponectin:leptin ratio, and blood glucose. For the adipose tissue, there was a differential effect for adiponectin that was on the borderline of significance. To explore these changes further and how they might affect insulin resistance would require a modification to the research design to use larger group sizes for the two models or to give a greater number of EA treatments.

  8. Early changes in adipokines from overweight to obesity in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Machado Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Childhood obesity has been associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to compare plasma levels of traditional metabolic markers, adipokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNFR1 in overweight, obese and lean children. We also assessed the relationships of these molecules with classical metabolic risk factors. Methods: This study included 104 children and adolescents, which were grouped as: lean (n = 24, overweight (n = 30, and obese subjects (n = 50. They were subjected to anthropometrical, clinical and laboratorial measurements. All measurements were compared between groups. Correlation analyses were also performed to evaluate the association between clinical data, traditional metabolic markers, adipokines and sTNFR1. Results: Fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were comparable in lean, overweight and obese subjects. Plasma levels of sTNFR1 were similar in lean and overweight subjects, but significantly increased in obese group. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels did not differ when overweight were compared to obese subjects. However, all adipokines differed significantly when lean subjects were compared to overweight and obese individuals. Plasma levels of adiponectin were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI, whereas leptin, resistin and sTNFR1 concentrations positively correlated with BMI. Conclusion: Our results showed significant differences in circulating levels of the evaluated markers when lean, overweight and obese individuals were compared, suggesting that these biomarkers may change from lean to overweight and from overweight to obesity.

  9. Interactions between Serum Adipokines and Osteocalcin in Older Patients with Hip Fracture

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    Alexander Fisher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Experiments on genetically modified animals have discovered a complex cross-regulation between adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and osteocalcin. The relationships between these molecules in human osteoporosis are still unclear. We evaluated the hypothesis of a bidirectional link between adipokines and osteocalcin. Materials and Methods. In a cross-sectional study of 294 older patients with osteoporotic hip fracture, we estimated serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, osteocalcin, parameters of mineral metabolism, and renal function. Results. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, serum osteocalcin concentration was inversely associated with resistin and positively with leptin, leptin/resistin ratio, and adiponectin/resistin ratio. In multivariate regression models, osteocalcin was an independent predictor of serum leptin, resistin, leptin/resistin, and adiponectin/resistin ratios. Conclusions. Our data support the bidirectional regulation between osteocalcin and adipokines, but contrary to the genetically modified animal models, in older subjects with osteoporotic hip fracture, serum osteocalcin is positively associated with leptin and inversely with resistin.

  10. The relationship between adipokines, body composition, and bone density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl F Vondracek

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl F Vondracek1, Norbert F Voelkel2, Michael T McDermott3, Connie Valdez11Department of Clinical Pharmacy; 3Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Victoria Johnson Center for Emphysema Research, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAAbstract: Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Data regarding the relationship between adipokines and bone mineral density (BMD in this population is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine associations between the adipokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, adiponectin and resistin, body composition, and BMD in men with severe COPD. This was a cross-sectional study of men with severe COPD who visited the University of Colorado Hospital COPD Center. Bone density and parameters of body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-three men were included (mean age = 66 years, mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second = 32%. On bivariate analysis, there was no association between TNF-α and BMD. Parameters of body composition and serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were significantly associated with total hip and spine bone density. However, with partial correlation analysis, total body mass was the only independent predictor of total hip BMD, explaining approximately 50% of the variability. Overall, 18 out of 23 men enrolled (78% had low bone density by T-score, and nine (39% were classified as having osteoporosis. The men with osteoporosis had lower parameters of body composition, lower mean serum leptin concentrations, and a greater impairment in measures of lung function compared to the men without osteoporosis. We conclude that the effect of adipokines on BMD does not appear to be independent of body mass. However, larger studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between adipokines

  11. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothes......BACKGROUND: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We...... hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational...... diabetes (O-GDM, N = 82) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, N = 67) in pregnancy, compared to offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, N = 57). RESULTS: Compared to O-BP, we found elevated plasma leptin and resistin levels in O-T1DM, decreased gene expression of all adipokines in O-GDM, decreased...

  12. Correlation of adipokines and markers of oxidative stress in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and their newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Min; Dong, Xu; Hou, Lin

    2018-02-05

    We have shown that some markers of oxidative stress were higher in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study examines the relationship between adipokines and oxidative stress and their potential effects in pregnant women. Three markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostane and xanthine oxidase) and three adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were measured in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta of 208 pregnant women. Among all these women, 105 were diagnosed with GDM while the other 103 were controls. Leptin, resistin, malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase and 8-isoprostane in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta were significantly higher while maternal adiponectin significantly lower in women with GDM (P oxidative stress. Both markers of oxidative stress and adipokines were correlated inversely with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance whereas positively with quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P oxidative stress and adipokines in maternal and cord plasma are negatively correlated with newborn birthweight (P oxidative stress, both of which lead to insulin resistance, GDM and macrosomia. It has long been known that placenta involves in the development of GDM. Adipokines might participate in this process and need to be confirmed by further studies. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Associations of objective physical activity with insulin sensitivity and circulating adipokine profile: the Framingham Heart Study.

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    Spartano, N L; Stevenson, M D; Xanthakis, V; Larson, M G; Andersson, C; Murabito, J M; Vasan, R S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) to insulin sensitivity and adipokines. We assessed PA and SED using Actical accelerometers and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2109 participants (free of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus) from Framingham Generation 3 and Omni 2 cohorts (mean age 46 years, 54% women). Systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) and circulating adipokines were measured 6 years earlier. Steps per day, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED per wear time (%SED) were predictor variables in multivariable regression analyses, with HOMA-IR, CRP and circulating adipokines as outcome measures. We reported that higher MVPA and more steps per day were associated with lower HOMA-IR, adjusting for %SED (β = -0.036, P = 0.002; β = -0.041, P = 0.005). Steps were inversely associated with CRP, but were directly associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (β = -0.111, P = 0.002; β = 3.293, P = 0.007). %SED was positively associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.033, P < 0.0001), but non-significant after adjusting for MVPA (P = 0.13). %SED was associated with higher ratio of leptin/leptin receptor (sOB-R) and higher adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)4 (β = 0.096, P < 0.0001; β = 0.593, P = 0.002). Our findings suggest differential influences of PA vs. SED on metabolic pathways, with PA modulating insulin resistance and inflammation, whereas SED influences FABPs. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a novel adipokine potentially linking obesity to the metabolic syndrome.

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    Lamers, Daniela; Famulla, Susanne; Wronkowitz, Nina; Hartwig, Sonja; Lehr, Stefan; Ouwens, D Margriet; Eckardt, Kristin; Kaufman, Jean M; Ryden, Mikael; Müller, Stefan; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Ruige, Johannes; Arner, Peter; Sell, Henrike; Eckel, Juergen

    2011-07-01

    Comprehensive proteomic profiling of the human adipocyte secretome identified dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as a novel adipokine. This study assessed the functional implications of the adipokine DPP4 and its association to the metabolic syndrome. Human adipocytes and skeletal and smooth muscle cells were used to monitor DPP4 release and assess the effects of soluble DPP4 on insulin signaling. In lean and obese subjects, depot-specific expression of DPP4 and its release from adipose tissue explants were determined and correlated to parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Fully differentiated adipocytes exhibit a substantially higher release of DPP4 compared with preadipocytes or macrophages. Direct addition of DPP4 to fat and skeletal and smooth muscle cells impairs insulin signaling. A fivefold higher level of DPP4 protein expression was seen in visceral compared with subcutaneous fat of obese patients, with no regional difference in lean subjects. DPP4 serum concentrations significantly correlated with adipocyte size. By using adipose tissue explants from lean and obese subjects, we observed a twofold increase in DPP4 release that strongly correlated with adipocyte volume and parameters of the metabolic syndrome and was decreased to the lean level after weight reduction. DPP4 released from adipose tissue correlated positively with an increasing risk score for the metabolic syndrome. DPP4 is a novel adipokine that may impair insulin sensitivity in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Furthermore, DPP4 release strongly correlates with adipocyte size, potentially representing an important source of DPP4 in obesity. Therefore, we suggest that DPP4 may be involved in linking adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome. © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Association between adipokine and myeloperoxidase levels in patients with coronary artery disease.

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    Gholam Basati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD. The inflammatory enzyme, myeloperoxidase (MPO also has an important role in the pathogenesis of CAD. Association of the adipokines with MPO remains to be resolved in patients with CAD. In this case-control study, 100 patients with CAD and 100 control subjects were appropriately recruited. Angiographic evaluation assigned the presence of CAD. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and MPO concentrations were measured using immunoassay methods. Other conventional cardiovascular risk factors were also recorded. Leptin and MPO concentrations were significantly increased in CAD patients compared to control subjects (25.38 ± 5.91 ng/ml vs. 3.68 ± 1.95 ng/mL and 52.85 ± 12.90 ng/mL vs.  23.00 ± 3.60 ng/mL, P=0.001, respectively. In contrast, adiponectin was significantly decreased in CAD patients compared to control subjects (5.62 ± 1.15 µg/mL vs. 9.25 ± 1.8, P = 0.001. There was a strong positive association between leptin and MPO concentrations only in CAD patients (P = 0.01. In contrast, a significant inverse association was found between adiponectin and MPO concentrations in CAD patients (P = 0.01. The associations also were significant after adjustment for other conventional risk factors (P = 0.001. Considering the presence of significant association between leptin and MPO, as well as adiponectin and MPO in patients with CAD, it may be inferred that the contribution of the adipokines in the pathogenesis of CAD may be, in part, through affecting the MPO concentration.

  16. Plasma Adipokines, Bone Mass, and Hip Geometry in Rural Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiumei; Arguelles, Lester M.; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Zhang, Shanchun; Wang, Guoying; Wang, Binyan; Liu, Xue; Li, Zhiping; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin

    2010-01-01

    Context: Adipokines have been linked to bone phenotypes recently, but with conflicting results. Few such studies have been conducted in adolescents. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the associations of adiponectin and leptin with multiple bone phenotypes in Chinese adolescents and estimate the genetic contribution to these associations. Design and Setting: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in rural China. Participants: A total of 675 males and 575 females aged 13–21 yr were included. Outcome Measures: Fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), bone area (BA), bone mineral content (BMC), cross-sectional area (CSA), and section modulus (SM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Plasma adipokine concentration was determined using sandwich immunoassays. Results: Adiponectin was inversely associated with all BMCs in males (P < 0.01), but not in females, after adjusting for LM, body weight, or BMI singly, or for LM and FM simultaneously. No such relationships were observed for CSA or SM in both genders. Leptin was inversely associated with all BAs, total-hip BMC, CSA, and SM in both genders, when adjusting for body weight or BMI. These associations, except for whole-body BA and lumbar spine BA in females, disappeared when simultaneously adjusting for LM and FM. By Cholesky decomposition models using twin design, significant genetic correlations were detected between adiponectin and total-hip BMC in males and between leptin and total-hip BMC in both genders. Conclusions: We demonstrated that adiponectin and leptin were inversely associated with adolescent bone phenotypes but showed differential associations by gender, type of bone phenotypes, and adjustment of FM. This study also suggested that adipokines and bone phenotypes may share a common set of genes. PMID:20147582

  17. Body mass index, adipokines and insulin resistance in asthmatic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Rosinha; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Suano-Souza, Fabíola Isabel; Solé, Dirceu; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the body mass index, insulin resistance, levels of adipokines and inflammatory markers in Brazilian asthmatic children and adolescents and to investigate their possible association with the severity and control of asthma. Cross-sectional study (n = 92; age: 3-18 years). Assessed data: Body weight and height, used to calculate the body mass index (BMIZ) and height-for-age (HAZ). Laboratory measurements: Lipid profile; glycemia and insulin for homeostasis model assessment (HOMA); adipokines; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1); total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE against aeroallergens. The median age was 9.6 years (3.0-16.6); most participants were male (n = 52, 56.5%), pre-pubertal (n = 54, 58.6%) and had atopic asthma (n = 85, 92.4%). Overweight/obesity (38%) showed an inverse correlation with age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.781; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.92) and a direct correlation with the leptin concentration (adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22). Insulin concentration was independently associated with moderated persistent asthma (adjusted OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.09-1.52). HOMA showed a direct correlation with the leptin (β = 0.475; 95% CI 0.117-0.268) and total IgE (β = 0.197; 95% CI 0.002-0.096) levels and an inverse correlation with the TNF-α levels (β = -0.255; 95% CI;-0.366-0.055). Asthma was associated with insulin resistance and a systemic inflammatory response possibly mediated by adipokines, with leptin levels standing out among the participants with excess weight.

  18. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome as a Proinflammatory State: The Role of Adipokines.

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    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Kyrou, Ioannis; Randeva, Harpal S

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder and the most common endocrinopathy amongst women of reproductive age. It is characterized by androgen excess, chronic anovulation and an altered cardiometabolic profile. PCOS is linked to impaired adipose tissue (AT) physiology and women with this disorder present with greater risk for insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia, central adiposity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than matched for age and body mass index (BMI) women without PCOS. Hyperandrogenaemia appears to be driving adipocyte hypertrophy observed in PCOS under the influence of a hyperinsulinaemic state. Changes in the function of adipocytes have an impact on the secretion of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors promoting susceptibility to low grade inflammation. In this article, we review the existing knowledge on the interplay between hyperandrogenaemia, insulin resistance, impaired adipocyte biology, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation in PCOS. In PCOS, more than one mechanisms have been suggested in the development of a chronic low-grade inflammation state with the most prevalent being that of a direct effect of the immune system on adipose tissue functions as previously reported in obese women without PCOS. Despite the lack of conclusive evidence regarding a direct mechanism linking hyperandrogenaemia to pro-inflammation in PCOS, there have been recent findings indicating that hyperandrogenaemia might be involved in chronic inflammation by exerting an effect on adipocytes morphology and attributes. Increasing evidence suggests that there is an important connection and interaction between proinflammatory pathways, hyperinsulinemia, androgen excess and adipose tissue hypertrophy and, dysfunction in PCOS. While lifestyle changes and individualized prescription of insulin-sensitizing drugs are common in managing PCOS, further studies are warranted to

  19. Serum 25(OH)D and adipokines levels in people with abdominal obesity.

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    Karonova, T; Belyaeva, O; Jude, E B; Tsiberkin, A; Andreeva, A; Grineva, E; Pludowski, P

    2016-09-11

    Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus and has been associated with vitamin D deficiency. Some studies have suggested an association between obesity and adipokine levels as well as low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level but the underlying mechanisms of the interlink between vitamin D status and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations are still disputed. We included 435 residents (132 males) from St. Petersburg, Russia into this study. All subjects had physical examination and demographics noted. Blood was collected after an overnight fast and plasma glucose, insulin, serum lipids, 25(OH)D and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) concentrations were determined at baseline in all participants. Abdominal obesity was diagnosed in 310 (71.3%) subjects (251 females and 59 males). Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were found in 314 (72.2%) subjects. Mean (95% CI) age, body mass index (BMI) and serum 25(OH)D for the cohort were 47.6±11.3years; 28.7±0.2kg/m(2) and 62.5±24.3nmol/l respectively. Serum 25(OH)D level inversely correlated with body weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI in females but not in males, was lower in diabetic than non-diabetic subjects, and was not significantly different in subjects with and without MetS. WC was positively correlated with leptin and negatively correlated with adiponectin. We found correlation between leptin and serum 25(OH)D level (r=-0.15, p=0.01) but this finding was a characteristic seen only in women. Our study showed a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in residents from North-West region of Russia, close association between adipokine (leptin, adiponectin) concentrations as well as vitamin D status and body composition (WC, BMI). However in our study the interlink between leptin level and 25(OH)D was found only in females. Further investigations are required to study the relationship between serum 25(OH)D level, obesity and

  20. Serum adipokines might predict liver histology findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Raika; Razavizade, Mohsen; Arj, Abbas; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-07

    To assess significance of serum adipokines to determine the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients with persistent elevation in serum aminotransferase levels and well-defined characteristics of fatty liver at ultrasound were enrolled. Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis or known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed to confirm non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). The degrees of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis were determined based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver activity score (NAS) by a single expert pathologist. Patients with a NAS of five or higher were considered to have steatohepatitis. Those with a NAS of two or lower were defined as simple fatty liver. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of adipokines with histological findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to determine cut-off values of serum adipokines to discriminate the grades of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. Fifty-four participants aged 37.02 ± 9.82 were enrolled in the study. Higher serum levels of visfatin, IL-8, TNF-α levels were associated independently with steatosis grade of more than 33% [β = 1.08 (95%CI: 1.03-1.14), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.008-1.07), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004-1.08), P < 0.05]. Elevated serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated independently with advanced lobular inflammation [β = 1.4 (95%CI: 1.09-1.8), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.003-1.15), P < 0.05]. Similarly, higher TNF-α, resistin, and hepcidin levels were associated independently with advanced fibrosis stage [β = 1.06 (95%CI: 1.002-1.12), 19.86 (95%CI: 2.79-141.19), 560.72 (95%CI: 5.98-5255.33), P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 and TNF-α values were associated independently with the NAS score, considering a NAS score of 5 as the reference value [β = 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01-1.1), 1.13 (95%CI: 1.04-1.22), P < 0.05]. Certain adipokines may

  1. Adipokines in umbilical cord blood from children born large for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of childhood obesity and the associated morbidity is multifactorial. Recently, data suggesting a prenatal programming towards later childhood obesity and metabolic deregulation through the intrauterine environment has emerged. This study explored the concentrations...... of adipokines and their mutual relationship at birth in children born to non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: Adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured using ELISA-based commercial kits in umbilical cord blood from 60 neonates (30 born large for gestational age [LGA] and 30 born appropriate for gestational age [AGA......]). Children exposed to maternal diabetes, chronic disease and preeclampsia were excluded. RESULTS: The LGA group exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of leptin (p

  2. Signals from Fat After Injury: Plasma Adipokines and Ghrelin Concentrations in the Severely Burned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    Signals from fat after injury: Plasma adipokines and ghrelin concentrations in the severely burnedq Charles E. Wade a,⇑, Alejandra G. Mora b, Beth A...samples were collected for measurement of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin , insulin, and cortisol by ELISA. For comparison, samples from 15 healthy...vs. 17 ± 10.2 ng/ml), and ghrelin (0.37 ± 0.14 ng/ml vs.0.56 ± 0.26 ng/ml). Conclusion: Patients with burns, who are characteristically hypermetabolic

  3. Improvement in coronary heart disease risk factors during an intermittent fasting/calorie restriction regimen: Relationship to adipokine modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroeger Cynthia M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of an intermittent fasting (IF-calorie restriction (CR regimen (with or without liquid meals to modulate adipokines in a way that is protective against coronary heart disease (CHD has yet to be tested. Objective Accordingly, we examined the effects of an IFCR diet on adipokine profile, body composition, and markers of CHD risk in obese women. Methods Subjects (n = 54 were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F diet for 10 weeks. Results Greater decreases in body weight and waist circumference were noted in the IFCR-L group (4 ± 1 kg; 6 ± 1 cm versus the IFCR-F group (3 ± 1 kg; 4 ± 1 cm. Similar reductions (P Conclusion These findings suggest that IFCR with a liquid diet favorably modulates visceral fat and adipokines in a way that may confer protection against CHD.

  4. Effects of exergaming on cardiovascular risk factors and adipokine levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Maria Guadalupe Soares; de Oliveira, Maurício Dias; Soares, Daiane Santos; da Silva Borges, Leandro; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2017-11-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exergaming on the cardiovascular risk factors and adipokine levels of women engaged in the music video game Just Dance using the Xbox 360 Kinect console. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, FFA, CRP, TNF-α, Il-1β, IL-6, leptin, and resistin were measured in sedentary women before and 1 month after the practice of exergaming. We also evaluated anthropometric parameters. Our results indicate that total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL were reduced by 64, 29, and 12%, respectively. HDL levels were not altered in the conditions of this study. A significant decrease was also found in the concentrations of TNF-α (57%), CRP (84.7%), resistin (68.4%), leptin (35%), FFA (90%), body mass index (10.5%), fat percentage (10.9%), weight (5.6%), abdominal circumference (2.3%), hip circumference (2.5%), and waist circumference (1.9%) after the training period. We concluded that exergaming was successful in reducing body fat, serum adipokine levels, and lipid profiles, thus reducing cardiovascular risks for women.

  5. Interaction of metabolic syndrome with asthma in postmenopausal women: role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Koca, Cemile; Ozol, Duygu; Uysal, Sema; Yildirim, Zeki; Kavakli, Havva Sahin; Yigitoglu, M Ramazan

    2013-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of both asthma and obesity are major health problems. Recent studies established a possible link between obesity and asthma; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal subjects with asthma and search the interactions between adipokines, metabolic syndrome, and asthma. A total of 45 female patients (57.5 ± 13.9 years) with asthma and 30 healthy subjects (59.6 ± 12.8 years) in postmenopausal status were enrolled in this study. For the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, modified World Health Organization diagnostic criteria were used. Blood levels of glucose, lipid profile, HbA1c, insulin, CRP, leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. The mean body mass index was 29.6 ± 5.4 for asthma patients and 28.2 ± 5.3 for the control group. The incidence of metabolic syndrome was found as 26 % for both groups. Insulin resistance as calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in asthma patients (p syndrome was not higher in postmenopausal asthma patients than controls, there was an impairment of glucose metabolism and altered adipokine levels in asthma patients.

  6. Adipokines, Biomarkers of Endothelial Activation, and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Genre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular (CV disease. AS patients also display a high prevalence of features clustered under the name of metabolic syndrome (MeS. Anti-TNF-α therapy was found to be effective to treat AS patients by suppressing inflammation and also improving endothelial function. Previously, it was demonstrated that a short infusion of anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibodyinfliximab induced a rapid and dramatic reduction in serum insulin levels and insulin resistance along with a rapid improvement of insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic AS patients. The role of adipokines, MeS-related biomarkers and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation and inflammation seem to be relevant in different chronic inflammatory diseases. However, its implication in AS has not been fully established. Therefore, in this review we summarize the recent advances in the study of the involvement of these molecules in CV disease or MeS in AS. The assessment of adipokines and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation and MeS may be of potential relevance in the stratification of the CV risk of patients with AS.

  7. Role of adipokines signaling in the modulation of T cells function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eProcaccini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The field that links immunity and metabolism is rapidly expanding. Apparently non-immunological disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have been linked to immune dysregulation, suggesting that metabolic alterations can be induced by or be consequence of an altered self-immune tolerance. In this context, adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, termed adipokines, which can be considered as the bridge between obesity-related exogenous factors, such as nutrition and lifestyle, and the molecular events leading to metabolic syndrome, inflammatory and/or autoimmune conditions. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines impacts on multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, modulation of immune responses, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism, and so on. This report aims to discuss some of the recent topics of adipocytokine research and their related signaling pathways, that may be of particular importance as could lead to effective therapeutic strategies for obesity-associated diseases.

  8. Association of adipokines and adhesion molecules with indicators of obesity in women undergoing mammography screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoppo de Souza Caroline

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The soluble cell adhesion molecules and adipokines are elevated in patients with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, breast cancer and atherosclerosis. Objective To investigate the relationship between anthropometric profile, dietary intake, lipid profile and fasting glycemia with serum levels of adipokines (adiponectin and PAI-1 and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in women without breast cancer undergoing routine mammographic screening. Design Transversal study. Subjects One hundred and forty-five women over 40-years old participated in this study. Results In 39.3% of cases the BMI was above 30 kg/m2; 46.9% had hypertension, 14.5% had type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 31.7% had dyslipidemia and 88.3% presented a waist-to-hip ratio ≥ 0.8. A linear correlation was found between serum levels of PAI-1 and triglycerides, between serum levels of PAI-1 and WHR and between serum levels of VCAM-1 and BMI. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 and VCAM-1 levels were correlated with clinical indicators of obesity and overweight.

  9. Association of circulating adipokines with metabolic dyslipidemia in obese versus non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimlou, Mehran; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that circulating adipokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of some obesity related chronic disease such as dyslipidemia and type2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between vaspin, omentin-1 and retinol binding protein-4 levels with metabolic dyslipidemia (MD) criteria in obese and non-obese individuals. The study was conducted on 170 obese and 81 non-obese individuals. After collecting the blood samples, serum levels metabolic parameters as well as three circulating adipokines and body composition were measured. No significant difference was noted regarding the mean serum levels of omentin-1 and vaspin between the obese and non-obese groups, while, serum level of RBP4 was significantly higher in the non-obese group. We found the 0.22 increased risk of MD in obese individuals with higher RBP4 concentration. After the adjustment for confounding factors, this association was still significant. No significant association was noted between MD and its components relative risks with omentin-1 and vaspin levels. Our study demonstrated that circulating RBP4 was significantly higher in the obese individuals which may increase the risk of MD in them. Further researches are needed to address this association. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum levels of the adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein are increased in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, H; Philipp, A; Roth, I; Kralisch, S; Jank, A; Schaarschmidt, W; Lössner, U; Kratzsch, J; Blüher, M; Stumvoll, M; Fasshauer, M

    2012-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with facets of the metabolic syndrome and an increased future metabolic and cardiovascular risk for mother and newborn. Recently, zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) has been proposed as a new adipokine involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the current study, we investigated ZAG serum levels in PE patients as compared to healthy gestational age-matched controls. We quantified serum concentrations of ZAG in patients with PE (no.=37) as compared to healthy gestational age-matched controls (no.=37) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, association of this adipokine with renal function, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as inflammation was studied. Median serum ZAG levels were 1.4-fold higher in PE patients (58.8 mg/l) as compared to controls (41.9 mg/l) (pZAG was positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, creatinine, triglycerides, and leptin in univariate analyses. In multiple regression analysis, creatinine remained independently associated with ZAG. We demonstrate that maternal ZAG serum concentrations are significantly increased in PE. Furthermore, renal function is an independent predictor of circulating ZAG.

  11. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein: an adipokine modulator of body fat mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, C; Mracek, T; Gao, D; Trayhurn, P

    2010-11-01

    The importance of white adipose tissue in the control of energy balance is now firmly recognized. In addition to fuel storage, adipocytes secrete an array of proteins factors (adipokines), which regulate multiple physiological and metabolic processes as well as influence body fat accumulation. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a lipid mobilizing factor initially characterized as a tumor product associated with cachexia, has recently been identified as a novel adipokine. Although the exact role of ZAG in adipose tissue remains to be clarified, there is evidence that ZAG expression appears to be inversely related to adiposity, being upregulated in cachexia whereas reduced in obesity. Investigations on the regulation of ZAG give insights into its potential function in adipose tissue with a link to lipid mobilization and an anti-inflammatory action. Recent work shows that ZAG stimulates adiponectin secretion by human adipocytes. Data from genetic studies suggest that ZAG may be a candidate gene for body weight regulation; this is supported by the demonstration that ZAG-knockout mice are susceptible to weight gain, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing ZAG exhibit weight loss. The present review summarizes these new perspectives of ZAG and the potential mechanisms by which it might modulate adipose tissue mass and function.

  12. Adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokines, and low-grade chronic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Poli Mara; Lecke, Sheila B; Satler, Fabíola; Morsch, Debora M

    2015-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex condition that affects women of reproductive age, is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and androgen excess. Women with PCOS present higher prevalence of obesity, central adiposity, and dyslipidemia, and face increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PCOS is closely linked to functional derangements in adipose tissue. Adipocytes seem to be prone to hypertrophy when exposed to androgen excess, as experienced by women with PCOS, and both adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperandrogenism are related to insulin resistance. Hypertrophic adipocytes are more susceptible to inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and release of free fatty acids. Disturbed secretion of adipokines may also impact the pathophysiology of PCOS through their influence on metabolism and on sex steroid secretion. Chronic low-grade inflammation in PCOS is also related to hyperandrogenism and to the hypertrophy of adipocytes, causing compression phenomena in the stromal vessels, leading to adipose tissue hypoperfusion and altered secretion of cytokines. Lifestyle changes are the first-line intervention for reducing metabolic risks in PCOS and the addition of an insulin-sensitizing drug might be required. Nevertheless, there is not sufficient evidence in favor of any specific pharmacologic therapies to directly oppose inflammation. Further studies are warranted to identify an adipokine that could serve as an indirect marker of adipocyte production in PCOS, representing a reliable sign of metabolic alteration in this syndrome. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. Association between Fetal Adipokines and Child Behavioral Problems at Preschool Age: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatoya, Machiko; Itoh, Sachiko; Araki, Atsuko; Tamura, Naomi; Yamazaki, Keiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Kishi, Reiko

    2018-01-11

    Studies have suggested associations between maternal obesity and mental health problems of their children. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. A possible mechanism can be via inflammatory states and the other possible mechanism is metabolic hormone-induced programming. Cross-talk between adipokines, including inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormones secreted from adipose tissue and the central nervous system needs to be further investigated to elucidate the mechanism. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between fetal adipokine levels and child behavioral problems at preschool age. Cord blood adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured and child behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at preschool age. Logistic regression models adjusted by related maternal factors were performed to examine the association between cord blood adipokines and child behavioral problems. Three hundred and sixty-one children were included in the final analysis. A significant association between decreased hyperactivity/inattention and increased leptin was found (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.89). Cord blood adiponectin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were not associated with child behavioral problems. Our findings suggested that cord blood adipokines, particularly, leptin level, may be a predictor of hyperactivity/inattention problems at preschool age.

  14. Profiling of the secreted proteins during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation leads to the identification of novel adipokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Mariman, E.; Keijer, J.; Noben, J.P.; Robben, J.; Renes, J.

    2004-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ capable of secreting a number of adipokines with a role in the regulation of adipose tissue and whole-body metabolism. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to profile the secreted proteins from (pre)adipocytes. The culture

  15. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Caucasian and African-American Adolescents : Relationships with Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines, and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a

  16. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity in lean and overweight men: a diet intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Zoete, de E.C.; Kok, F.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type II diabetes. This study investigates the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity. Subjects: Twenty healthy, lean (body mass index (BMI) 18.5¿25 kg/m2; n=11) or overweight

  17. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity in lean and overweight men: A diet intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Zoete, E.C.de; Kok, F.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type II diabetes. This study investigates the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity. Subjects: Twenty healthy, lean (body mass index (BMI) 18.5-25 kg/m2; n=11) or overweight (BMI>27

  18. Circulating levels of adipokines and IGF-1 are associated with skeletal muscle strength of young and old healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucci, L.; Yani, S.L.; Fabbri, C.; Bijlsma, A.Y.; Maier, A.B.; Meskers, C.G.; Narici, M.V.; Jones, D.A.; McPhee, J.S.; Seppet, E.; Gapeyeva, H.; Paasuke, M.; Sipila, S.; Kovanen, V.; Stenroth, L.; Musaro, A.; Hogrel, J.Y.; Barnouin, Y.; Butler-Browne, G.; Capri, M.; Franceschi, C.; Salvioli, S.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that adipose tissue mass increases with age, and that a number of hormones, collectively called adipokines, are produced by adipose tissue. For most of them it is not known whether their plasmatic levels change with age. Moreover, it is known that adipose tissue infiltration in skeletal

  19. Resveratrol supplementation and plasma adipokines concentrations? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Sartang, Mohsen; Mazloom, Zohreh; Sohrabi, Zahra; Sherafatmanesh, Saeed; Barati-Boldaji, Reza

    2017-03-01

    The results of human clinical trials have revealed that the effects of resveratrol on adipokines are inconsistent. Our objective was to elucidate the role of resveratrol supplementation on adipokines through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs).1 The search included PubMed-MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI web of sciences database till up to 6th November 2016. Weight mean differences (WMD)2 were calculated for net changes in adipokines using fixed-effects or random-effects models; meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted in accordance with standard methods. Nine RCTs with 11 treatment arms were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of data from 10 treatment arms showed a significant change in plasma adiponectin concentrations following resveratrol supplementation (WMD: 1.10μg/ml, 95%CI: 0.88, 1.33, presveratrol supplementation (WMD: 3.77ng/ml, 95% CI: -2.28, 9.83, p=0.222; Q=8.00, I2=50.01%). Resveratrol significantly improves adiponectin but does not affect leptin concentrations. Additional studies are required to further evaluate the potential benefits of resveratrol on adipokines in humans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Low Circulating TRAIL Levels Are Associated with Increase of Resistin and Lipocalin-2/ngal Adipokines in Postmenopausal Women

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    Veronica Tisato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is attracting attention for its role in the physiopathology of metabolic disease/diabetes. Evidence suggests that it might protect against metabolic abnormalities driven by obesity-induced dysregulated secretion of adipokines, but this role of TRAIL has not yet been fully established. On this basis, we aimed to investigate the potential association between TRAIL and adipokine levels in a cohort of subjects in which age/gender/hormonal interferences were excluded. Methods. Serum levels of TRAIL and a panel of adipokines were measured in postmenopausal women (n=147 stratified according to waist circumference measures as normal, overweight, or obese. The panel of adipokines included interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-8, IL-1β, adipsin, lipocalin-2/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (ngal, TNF-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, hepatocyte growth factor, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, and nerve growth factor. Results. Low serum TRAIL concentration (deciles I–IV was significantly and inversely correlated with resistin and lipocalin 2/ngal levels (r=−0.502 and p<0.001 and r=−0.360 and p<0.01, resp.. Both associations retained their statistical significance after adjustment for confounding factors, such as waist circumference and age. Conclusions. Our data indicate a link between low circulating levels of TRAIL and markers of obesity-induced diseases (resistin and lipocalin-2/ngal, highlighting a new potential axis of TRAIL functions.

  1. The Effects of Exercise Training on Obesity-Induced Dysregulated Expression of Adipokines in White Adipose Tissue

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    Takuya Sakurai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. White adipose tissue (WAT is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. Additionally, because there is much evidence that obesity-induced inflammatory changes in WAT, which is caused by dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance, WAT has attracted special attention as an organ that causes diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR not only leads to a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the inflammation-related adipokines in WAT. Therefore, TR is widely used as a tool for preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression and secretory response of adipokines in WAT.

  2. Adipokines and their relation to maternal energy substrate production, insulin resistance and fetal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Ewald, Uwe; Jonsson, Björn; Forslund, Anders; Stridsberg, Mats; Gustafsson, Jan

    2013-05-01

    The role of adipokines in the regulation of energy substrate production in non-diabetic pregnant women has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that serum concentrations of adiponectin are related to fetal growth via maternal fat mass, insulin resistance and glucose production, and further, that serum levels of leptin are associated with lipolysis and that this also influences fetal growth. Hence, we investigated the relationship between adipokines, energy substrate production, insulin resistance, body composition and fetal weight in non-diabetic pregnant women in late gestation. Twenty pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance were investigated at 36 weeks of gestation at Uppsala University Hospital. Levels of adipokines were related to rates of glucose production and lipolysis, maternal body composition, insulin resistance, resting energy expenditure and estimated fetal weights. Rates of glucose production and lipolysis were estimated by stable isotope dilution technique. Median (range) rate of glucose production was 805 (653-1337) μmol/min and that of glycerol production, reflecting lipolysis, was 214 (110-576) μmol/min. HOMA insulin resistance averaged 1.5 ± 0.75 and estimated fetal weights ranged between 2670 and 4175 g (-0.2 to 2.7 SDS). Mean concentration of adiponectin was 7.2 ± 2.5mg/L and median level of leptin was 47.1 (9.9-58.0) μg/L. Adiponectin concentrations (7.2 ± 2.5mg/L) correlated inversely with maternal fat mass, insulin resistance, glucose production and fetal weight, r=-0.50, pproduction or fetal weight. Neither were any correlations found between levels of leptin or adiponectin and maternal lipolysis or resting energy expenditure. The inverse correlations between levels of maternal adiponectin and insulin resistance as well as endogenous glucose production rates indicate that low levels of adiponectin in obese pregnant women may represent one mechanism behind increased fetal size. Maternal levels of leptin are linked to maternal fat

  3. Relationship between adiposity, adipokines, inflammatory markers and lipid profile in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, A; Gkouskou, K; Stylianou, K; Dermitzaki, E; Perakis, K; Margioris, A; Daphnis, E

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to study the correlations of leptin and adiponectin with inflammation markers, body composition and lipid profile in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Phase angle values and fat mass as calculated using BIA, Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS), leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, IL-8 triglycerides, cholesterol and other common serum markers' concentrations were analyzed using simple and multiple linear regression models in 47 hemodialysis patients. In contrast to leptin, adiponectin is inversely correlated to BMI and fat mass in hemodialysis patients. Triglycerides were the only parameter that retained its statistical correlation significance with adiponectin in the multiple regression model. Fat mass is of important consideration when calculating adipokines levels and their possible correlations with other variables. The inverse correlation of adiponectin with triglycerides levels should be further delineated due to the important role of vascular diseases in total mortality and morbidity of ESRD patients.

  4. Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiroya; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    White and brown adipose tissues (BATs), which store and burn lipids, respectively, play critical roles in energy homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are signaling proteins with diverse functions in development, metabolism, and neural function. Among 22 FGFs, FGF1, FGF10, and FGF21 play roles as adipokines, adipocyte-secreted proteins, in the development and function of white and BATs. FGF1 is a critical transducer in white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-FGF1 axis is critical for energy homeostasis. FGF10 is essential for embryonic white adipocyte development. FGF21 activates BAT in response to cold exposure. FGF21 also stimulates the accumulation of brown-like cells in WAT during cold exposure and is an upstream effector of adiponectin, which controls systemic energy metabolism. These findings provide new insights into the roles of FGF signaling in white and BATs and potential therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.

  5. New obesity indices and adipokines in normotensive patients and patients with hypertension: comparative pilot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Mariusz; Stepien, Anna; Banach, Maciej; Wlazel, Rafal N; Paradowski, Marek; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P; Rysz, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    We compared the obesity parameters and selected adipokines-leptin, adiponectin, and resistin-in obese patients with hypertension and normotensive patients. A total of 67 nondiabetic obese outpatients were divided into 2 groups: A-hypertensive and B-normotensive. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and insulin were measured. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured to calculate waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), weight-to-height ratio, visceral adiposity index, and body adiposity index (BAI). Among patients with hypertension, significant positive correlations were observed between leptin and body mass index and BAI (r = .31 and r = .63, respectively). In normotensive patients, leptin positively correlated with BAI (r = .73, P obesity and leptin are associated with hypertension in obese patients.

  6. Body weight, insulin resistance, and serum adipokine levels 2 years after 2 types of bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbroit, Michael A; Leichman, Joshua G; Algahim, Mohamed F; Miller, Charles C; Moody, Frank G; Lux, Thomas R; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2009-05-01

    Bariatric surgery reverses obesity-related comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies have already described differences in anthropometrics and body composition in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass compared with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, but the role of adipokines in the outcomes after the different types of surgery is not known. Differences in weight loss and reversal of insulin resistance exist between the 2 groups and correlate with changes in adipokines. Fifteen severely obese women (mean body mass index [BMI]: 46.7 kg/m(2)) underwent 2 types of laparoscopic weight loss surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass=10, adjustable gastric banding=5). Weight, waist and hip circumference, body composition, plasma metabolic markers, and lipids were measured at set intervals during a 24-month period after surgery. At 24 months, patients who underwent Roux-en-Y were overweight (BMI 29.7 kg/m(2)), whereas patients who underwent gastric banding remained obese (BMI 36.3 kg/m(2)). Patients who underwent Roux-en-Y lost significantly more fat mass than patients who underwent gastric banding (mean difference 16.8 kg, Pweight loss, loss of fat mass, insulin levels, and Homeostasis Model of Assessment 2. Adiponectin correlated with insulin levels and Homeostasis Model of Assessment 2 (r=-0.653, P=.04 and r=-0.674, P=.032, respectively) in the patients who underwent Roux-en-Y at 24 months. After 2 years, weight loss and normalization of metabolic parameters were less pronounced in patients who underwent gastric banding compared with patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Our findings require confirmation in a prospective randomized trial.

  7. The action of D-dopachrome tautomerase as an adipokine in adipocyte lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takeo; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Kuwajima, Masamichi; Taniguchi, Takako; Okuda, Yuko; Sukeno, Akiko; Ishimoto, Kyoko; Mizusawa, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical exchange center for complex energy transactions involving triacylglycerol storage and release. It also has an active endocrine role, releasing various adipose-derived cytokines (adipokines) that participate in complex pathways to maintain metabolic and vascular health. Here, we found D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) as an adipokine secreted from human adipocytes by a proteomic approach. DDT mRNA levels in human adipocytes were negatively correlated with obesity-related clinical parameters such as BMI, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. Experiments using SGBS cells, a human preadipocyte cell line, revealed that DDT mRNA levels were increased in an adipocyte differentiation-dependent manner and DDT was secreted from adipocytes. In DDT knockdown adipocytes differentiated from SGBS cells that were infected with the adenovirus expressing shRNA against the DDT gene, mRNA levels of genes involved in both lipolysis and lipogenesis were slightly but significantly increased. Furthermore, we investigated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, which phosphorylates and inactivates enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in DDT knockdown adipocytes. The AMPK phosphorylation of HSL Ser-565 and ACC Ser-79 was inhibited in DDT knockdown cells and recovered in the cells treated with recombinant DDT (rDDT), suggesting that down-regulated DDT in adipocytes brings about a state of active lipid metabolism. Furthermore, administration of rDDT in db/db mice improved glucose intolerance and decreased serum free fatty acids levels. In the adipose tissue from rDDT-treated db/db mice, not only increased levels of HSL phosphorylated by AMPK, but also decreased levels of HSL phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates HSL to promote its activity, were observed. These results suggested that DDT acts on adipocytes to regulate lipid metabolism through AMPK and/or PKA

  8. The action of D-dopachrome tautomerase as an adipokine in adipocyte lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Iwata

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a critical exchange center for complex energy transactions involving triacylglycerol storage and release. It also has an active endocrine role, releasing various adipose-derived cytokines (adipokines that participate in complex pathways to maintain metabolic and vascular health. Here, we found D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT as an adipokine secreted from human adipocytes by a proteomic approach. DDT mRNA levels in human adipocytes were negatively correlated with obesity-related clinical parameters such as BMI, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. Experiments using SGBS cells, a human preadipocyte cell line, revealed that DDT mRNA levels were increased in an adipocyte differentiation-dependent manner and DDT was secreted from adipocytes. In DDT knockdown adipocytes differentiated from SGBS cells that were infected with the adenovirus expressing shRNA against the DDT gene, mRNA levels of genes involved in both lipolysis and lipogenesis were slightly but significantly increased. Furthermore, we investigated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling, which phosphorylates and inactivates enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, in DDT knockdown adipocytes. The AMPK phosphorylation of HSL Ser-565 and ACC Ser-79 was inhibited in DDT knockdown cells and recovered in the cells treated with recombinant DDT (rDDT, suggesting that down-regulated DDT in adipocytes brings about a state of active lipid metabolism. Furthermore, administration of rDDT in db/db mice improved glucose intolerance and decreased serum free fatty acids levels. In the adipose tissue from rDDT-treated db/db mice, not only increased levels of HSL phosphorylated by AMPK, but also decreased levels of HSL phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA, which phosphorylates HSL to promote its activity, were observed. These results suggested that DDT acts on adipocytes to regulate lipid metabolism through

  9. Cellular Expression of Cyclooxygenase, Aromatase, Adipokines, Inflammation and Cell Proliferation Markers in Breast Cancer Specimen.

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    Samar Basu

    Full Text Available Current evidences suggest that expression of Ki67, cyclooxygenase (COX, aromatase, adipokines, prostaglandins, free radicals, β-catenin and α-SMA might be involved in breast cancer pathogenesis. The main objective of this study was to compare expression/localization of these potential compounds in breast cancer tissues with tissues collected adjacent to the tumor using immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical pathology. The breast cancer specimens were collected from 30 women aged between 49 and 89 years who underwent breast surgery following cancer diagnosis. Expression levels of molecules by different stainings were graded as a score on a scale based upon staining intensity and proportion of positive cells/area or individually. AdipoR1, adiponectin, Ob-R, leptin, COX-1, COX-2, aromatase, PGF2α, F2-isoprostanes and α-SMA were localised on higher levels in the breast tissues adjacent to the tumor compared to tumor specimens when considering either score or staining area whereas COX-2 and AdipoR2 were found to be higher considering staining intensity and Ki67 on score level in the tumor tissue. There was no significant difference observed on β-catenin either on score nor on staining area and intensity between tissues adjacent to the tumor and tumor tissues. A positive correlation was found between COX-1 and COX-2 in the tumor tissues. In conclusion, these suggest that Ki67, COXs, aromatase, prostaglandin, free radicals, adipokines, β-catenin and α-SMA are involved in breast cancer. These further focus the need of examination of tissues adjacent to tumor, tumor itself and compare them with normal or benign breast tissues for a better understanding of breast cancer pathology and future evaluation of therapeutic benefit.

  10. Association between circulating adipokines, radiographic changes, and knee cartilage volume in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S; Xu, J; Xu, S; Zhang, M; Huang, S; He, F; Yang, X; Xiao, H; Zhang, H; Ding, C

    2016-01-01

    To explore the associations between serum adipokine levels, radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) severity, and articular cartilage volume in patients with knee OA. A cross-sectional sample of 205 patients (aged 45-74 years) with knee OA were consecutively recruited to the Anhui Osteoarthritis (AHOA) study. ROA was assessed using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system (grades 0-4). Knee cartilage volume was determined using fat-saturated T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Serum levels of the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum adiponectin, but not serum leptin or resitin, was significantly associated with reduced ROA severity in univariable analyses and this association remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and disease duration [β = -0.012, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.021 to -0.002]. In ROA patients, leptin was significantly and positively associated with knee cartilage volume at patellar and medial tibial sites in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (β = 0.006, 95% CI 0.02-0.010 for medial tibia and β = 0.009, 95% CI 0.001-0.018 for patella sites) but adiponectin and resistin had no significant associations with cartilage volume. In non-ROA patients, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were not significantly associated with cartilage volume at any site. Serum levels of leptin are independently associated with increased knee cartilage volume. In addition, serum adiponectin is significantly and negatively associated with ROA severity, suggesting a potentially protective effect.

  11. Association of plasma adipokines with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Hojoong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Seong Yong; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Sin, Don D; Lee, Sang-Do; Kim, Eun Kyung; Park, Hye Yun

    2015-07-01

    Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, regulate metabolic and inflammatory systems reciprocally. The role of adiponectin in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been studied. However, there are few data evaluating the relationship of plasma leptin with COPD severity or progression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of leptin, adiponectin, and the leptin/adiponectin ratio with COPD severity and progression according to COPD phenotypes. Plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were measured in 196 subjects with COPD selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Using a linear regression model and mixed linear regression, we determined the relationship of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels and the leptin/adiponectin ratio to COPD severity and progression over 3 years. The concentration of adiponectin in plasma positively correlated with percent emphysema on initial computed tomography (CT) (adjusted P = 0.022), whereas plasma leptin concentrations and the leptin/adiponectin ratio exhibited a significant inverse correlation with initial FEV1 (adjusted P = 0.013 for leptin and adjusted P = 0.041 for leptin/adiponectin ratio). Increased plasma leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio were significantly associated with change in percent emphysema over 3 years (adjusted P = 0.037 for leptin and adjusted P = 0.029 for leptin/adiponectin ratio), whereas none of the adipokines demonstrated an association with FEV1 decline over the 3-year period. Plasma adiponectin and leptin vary according to COPD phenotypes. Plasma leptin and the leptin/adiponectin ratio, but not adiponectin, were significantly associated with changes in CT-assessed emphysema, suggesting a potential role as a biomarker in emphysema progression in patients with COPD.

  12. Limited utility of adipokine levels in the diagnosis of malnutrition in the elderly.

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    Akın, Sibel; Tufan, Fatih; Bulut, Leyla; Genç, Sema; Bahat, Gülistan; Saka, Bulent; Erten, Nilgün; Karan, M Akif

    2014-04-01

    Adipokine levels may have a role in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of malnutrition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between malnutrition score and leptin, other biological markers, and body mass index (BMI) in the diagnosis of malnutrition in the elderly. In this cross-sectional observational study, we enrolled subjects over 70 years. Exclusion criteria were diabetes mellitus, obvious thyroid disorders, significant edema, renal dysfunction, chronic liver disease, symptomatic cardiovascular diseases, and malignity. Patients' demographic and medical data were recorded and anthropometric measurements were performed. Laboratory parameters including leptin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, IL-6, TNF-α were measured. We defined malnutrition according to mini nutritional assessment (MNA) scale. Patients were divided into four groups according to BMI quartiles. Average age of the patients was 81.9 ± 4.8 years, 68.2 % female and 31.8 % male. According to their MNA scores, 103 (66.9 %) were well nourished, 33 (21.4 %) were under malnutrition risk and 18 (11.7 %) were malnourished. MNA total and screening scores were positively correlated with albumin, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Serum leptin levels (ng/ml) were 18.9 ± 22.6, 22.3 ± 21.9, 51.9 ± 85.5, and 61.7 ± 56.1 in BMI groups 1-4, respectively. BMI was positively correlated with leptin and triglyceride levels. Leptin levels were similar among nutritional state groups. Neither BMI nor MNA scores had any significant correlation with adiponectin, ghrelin, IGF-1, or IGFBP-3. Adipokine levels do not seem to give relevant information in nutritional state assessment.

  13. Adipokine responses to acute resistance exercise in trained and untrained men.

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    Varady, Krista A; Bhutani, Surabhi; Church, Emily C; Phillips, Shane A

    2010-03-01

    Adipose tissue-derived hormones act as key mediators that may link active lifestyles to improved cardiovascular function. This study tested the hypothesis that a single weight training session would beneficially modulate adipokine profile in a way that would exert protection against endothelial dysfunction, in trained but not sedentary subjects. Male subjects (n = 43) were categorized into four separate groups based on exercise history: 1) sedentary, 2) weight trainers, 3) runners, or 4) weight trainer + runners. All subjects underwent a single progressive leg press weight training session (low weight for two sets of 8-12 repetitions each and then near-maximal exertion for three sets of 8-12 repetitions each). There were no differences between groups for age, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, or percent body fat. Adiponectin increased (P runners, respectively, after training. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was impaired (P < 0.05) in sedentary subjects (-1.1 +/- 0.3%) but not in the athletic groups (1.7 +/- 0.4%). Improvements in FMD were associated with increased adiponectin (r = 0.61, P = 0.01), and decreased resistin (r = -0.56, P = 0.01) in weight trainers only. Leptin was not altered by acute resistance training in any group. There were no differences after training for total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein levels, and systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Increased adiponectin was related to higher levels of HDL cholesterol after intervention (r = 0.71, P = 0.001). These findings suggest that habitual resistance training may modulate adipokine profiles in a way that is protective against endothelial dysfunction.

  14. Effects of Mixed Carotenoids on Adipokines and Abdominal Adiposity in Children: A Pilot Study.

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    Canas, J Atilio; Lochrie, Amanda; McGowan, Amy Galena; Hossain, Jobayer; Schettino, Christopher; Balagopal, P Babu

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoids have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. To compare the effects of mixed-carotenoid supplementation (MCS) versus placebo on adipokines and the accrual of abdominal adiposity in children with obesity. Randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial to evaluate the effects of MCS over 6 months in a subspecialty clinic. Twenty (6 male and 14 female) children with simple obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 90%], a mean age (± standard deviation) of 10.5 ± 0.4 years, and Tanner stage I to V were enrolled; 17 participants completed the trial. MCS (which contains β-carotene, α-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, astaxanthin, and γ-tocopherol) or placebo was administered daily. Primary outcomes were change in β-carotene, abdominal fat accrual (according to magnetic resonance imaging), and BMI z-score; secondary outcomes were adipokines and markers of insulin resistance. Cross-sectional analysis of β-carotene showed inverse correlation with BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) at baseline. MCS increased β-carotene, total adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight adiponectin compared with placebo. MCS led to a greater reduction in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT compared with placebo. The percentage change in β-carotene directly correlated with the percentage change in SAT. The decrease in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT and the concomitant increase in the concentration of β-carotene and high-molecular-weight adiponectin by MCS suggest the putative beneficial role of MCS in children with obesity.

  15. Effects of Estrogens on Adipokines and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Aromatase Knockout Mice.

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    Michelle L Van Sinderen

    Full Text Available The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17β-estradiol (E2 treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses. Female ArKO mice display increased body weight, gonadal (omental adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and liver triglycerides, which were ameliorated upon estrogen treatment. Tolerance tests revealed that estrogen-deficient ArKO mice were pyruvate intolerant hence reflecting dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Analyses of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues supported a hepatic-based glucose dysregulation, with a down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation (a key insulin signaling pathway molecule in the ArKO liver, which was improved with E2 treatment. Concurrently, estrogen treatment lowered ArKO serum leptin and adiponectin levels and increased inflammatory adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin 6 (IL6. Furthermore, estrogen deficiency resulted in the infiltration of CD45 macrophages into gonadal adipose tissues, which cannot be reversed by E2 treatment. This study describes the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis in female ArKO mice and highlights a primary phenotype of hepatic glucose dysregulation and a parallel estrogen modified adipokine profile.

  16. Clinical Significance of Serum Adipokines according to Body Mass Index in Patients with Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

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    Minyong Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of 7 circulating adipokines according to body mass index (BMI in Korean men with localized prostate cancer (PCa undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two of 65 prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent RP between 2015 and 2016 were evaluated. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to their BMI: non-obese (<25 kg/m2 and obese (≥25 kg/m2. The adipokines evaluated were interleukin-2, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, chemerin, C-X-C motif chemokine 10, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of advanced tumor stage. Results: We found that obese patients with PCa who underwent RP had a higher incidence of tumors with a high Gleason score (≥8, pathological T3 (pT3 stage, and positive extraprostatic extension than patients with a normal BMI. Additionally, patients with obesity showed significantly lower serum adiponectin and higher serum leptin levels, but did not show differences in other adipokines. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 (odds ratio [OR]=1.03 was identified as a predictor of advanced tumor stage (≥pT3 in the overall population. However, only leptin remained an independent predictive factor for advanced tumor stage (≥pT3 (OR=1.15 in patients with obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion, our results indicate that a higher leptin level in obese men can be considered a risk factor for aggressive PCa. This prospective study provides greater insight into the role of circulating adipokines in Korean patients with PCa undergoing RP, particularly in patients with obesity.

  17. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy.

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    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line; Kelstrup, Louise; Broholm, Christa; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Clausen, Tine D; Damm, Peter; Vaag, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes (O-GDM, N = 82) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, N = 67) in pregnancy, compared to offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, N = 57). Compared to O-BP, we found elevated plasma leptin and resistin levels in O-T1DM, decreased gene expression of all adipokines in O-GDM, decreased RETN expression in O-T1DM, and increased LEP and ADIPOQ methylation in O-GDM. In multivariate regression analysis, O-GDM remained associated with increased ADIPOQ methylation and decreased ADIPOQ and RETN gene expression and O-T1DM remained associated with decreased RETN expression after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. In conclusion, offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy exhibit increased ADIPOQ DNA methylation and decreased ADIPOQ and RETN gene expression in SAT. However, altered methylation and expression levels were not reflected in plasma protein levels, and the functional implications of these findings remain uncertain.

  18. The association of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.

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    An Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in Western populations find that depression is associated with inflammation and obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipose-derived adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.Data were from 3289 community residents aged 50-70 from Beijing and Shanghai who participated in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China project. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D score of 16 or higher. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 were measured. Of the 3289 participants, 312 (9.5% suffered from current depressive symptoms. IL-6 level was higher in participants with depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts in the crude analyses (1.17 vs. 1.05 pg/mL, p = 0.023 and this association lost statistical significance after multiple adjustments (1.13 vs. 1.10 pg/mL, p = 0.520. Depressive symptoms were not associated with increased mean levels of any other inflammatory factors or adipokines in the unadjusted or adjusted analyses.We found no evidence that depressive symptoms were associated with inflammatory factors and adipokines in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Prospective studies and studies in clinically diagnosed patients are needed to confirm our results and clarify the relation of depression with inflammatory factors and adipokines.

  19. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

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    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  20. Serum adipokines in osteoarthritis; comparison with controls and relationship with local parameters of synovial inflammation and cartilage damage.

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    de Boer, T N; van Spil, W E; Huisman, A M; Polak, A A; Bijlsma, J W J; Lafeber, F P J G; Mastbergen, S C

    2012-08-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine tissue releasing adipokines suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, their relative contribution and exact mechanisms are still ambiguous. The aim of this study is to compare serum adipokine levels between end-stage knee OA patients and controls and to relate these serum levels to local parameters of cartilage damage and synovial inflammation. Serum was collected from 172 severe knee OA patients, shortly before total knee replacement (TKR) surgery and from 132 controls without radiographic knee OA [Kellgren & Lawrence (K&L) = 0]. Serum adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cartilage and synovial tissue were collected at TKR surgery and assessed for cartilage degeneration and synovial inflammation by histochemistry and biochemical analyses. The adipokine levels were all distinctly higher in OA patients as compared to controls. Especially adiponectin and leptin were associated with female gender (stand beta = 0.239 and 0.467, respectively, P Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep Duration and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Chinese School-aged Children: Do Adipokines Play a Mediating Role?

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    Li, Lujiao; Fu, Junling; Yu, Xin Ting; Li, Ge; Xu, Lu; Yin, Jinghua; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Shan; Li, Wenhui; Li, Changhong; Grant, Struan F A; Li, Mingyao; Xiao, Yi; Mi, Jie; Li, Ming

    2017-05-01

    To assess the associations between sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese school-aged children and to explore the possible mediating role of adipokines. Sleep duration was collected in 3166 children from the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome study. Glucose homeostasis and other cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed. Serum adipokines including leptin, total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, resistin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) were determined. Among the 6- to 12-year-old children, after adjusting for covariates including puberty, short sleep duration was associated with increased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (all p sleep duration was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, and RBP4 (all p sleep duration is strongly associated with obesity and hyperglycemia (in 6-12 years old), along with adverse adipokine secretion patterns among Chinese children. The associations with cardiometabolic risk factors appear to be more pronounced in younger children, and could be explained, at least partially, by leptin levels.

  2. Habitual consumption of coffee and green tea in relation to serum adipokines: a cross-sectional study.

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    Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Yasuda, Kazuki; Kurotani, Kayo; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Akter, Shamima; Sato, Masao; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Coffee and green tea consumption may be associated with circulating adipokines, but data are inconsistent, scarce or lacking. We examined the association of coffee and green tea consumption with serum adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) among a Japanese working population. The authors analyzed data (n = 509) from a cross-sectional survey among Japanese workers aged 20-68 years. Serum adipokines were measured using a Luminex suspension bead-based multiplexed array. Coffee and green tea consumption was assessed using a validated diet history questionnaire, and caffeine consumption from these beverages was estimated. Multiple regression analysis was performed with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Coffee consumption was significantly, inversely associated with leptin and PAI-1 (P for trend = 0.007 and 0.02, respectively); compared with subjects consuming coffee consumption and adiponectin in men (P for trend = 0.046), but not in women (P for trend = 0.43, P for interaction = 0.11). Moreover, there was a positive association between coffee consumption and resistin in current male smokers (P for trend = 0.01), but not in male non-smokers (P for trend = 0.35, P for interaction = 0.11). Green tea consumption was not associated with any adipokine. Higher consumption of coffee and caffeine but not green tea was associated with lower serum levels of leptin and PAI-1 in Japanese adults.

  3. Sequence analysis of three canine adipokine genes revealed an association between TNF polymorphisms and obesity in Labrador dogs.

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    Mankowska, M; Stachowiak, M; Graczyk, A; Ciazynska, P; Gogulski, M; Nizanski, W; Switonski, M

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is an emerging health problem in purebred dogs. Due to their crucial role in energy homeostasis control, genes encoding adipokines are considered candidate genes, and their variants may be associated with predisposition to obesity. Searching for polymorphism was carried out in three adipokine genes (TNF, RETN and IL6). The study was performed on 260 dogs, including lean (n = 109), overweight (n = 88) and obese (n = 63) dogs. The largest cohort was represented by Labrador Retrievers (n = 136). Altogether, 24 novel polymorphisms were identified: 12 in TNF (including one missense SNP), eight in RETN (including one missense SNP) and four in IL6. Distributions of five common SNPs (two in TNF, two in RETN and one in IL6) were further analyzed with regard to body condition score. Two SNPs in the non-coding parts of TNF (c.-40A>C and c.233+14G>A) were associated with obesity in Labrador dogs. The obtained results showed that the studied adipokine genes are highly polymorphic and two polymorphisms in the TNF gene may be considered as markers predisposing Labrador dogs to obesity. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Prognostic value of adipokines in patients with myocardial infarction and glucose metabolism disorders

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    Kamila Kahramonzhonovna Kholmatova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AimsTo evaluate the prognostic value of adipokines in patients with myocardial infarction (MI and various glucose metabolism disorders.Materials and MethodsConsecutive patients aged ≤80 years and diagnosed with MI (380 patients, 63.4% males were examined. The patients were classified into four groups: I, with normal glucose tolerance; II, with prediabetes; III and IV - with newly detected and previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Levels of insulin, C-peptide and cortisol during glucose tolerance test and basal levels of apolipoproteins AI, B100, leptin and adiponectin were determined in 113 patients with Q MI. Cardiovascular events were analysed for the next 2 years after MI. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors of poor prognosis after MI.ResultsElevated levels of leptin with decreased levels of adiponectin were observed in all MI patients independent of the degree of glucose metabolism disturbance. A linear trend of leptin level increase was observed starting from group I to group IV (Jonckheere’s test: J=2218.0; z=3.411; р=0.001. Multiple regression analysis showed that the basal insulin level was an independent predictor of death during the 2 years after MI (OR=0.639; р=0.033. MI prior to hospitalisation (OR=5.633; р=0.013, basal hypercortisolaemia (OR=5.435; р=0.016, glycaemia (OR=1.213; р=0.023 and heart rate (OR=1.051; р=0.032 on admission were associated with the occurrence of repeated MI. Leptin levels (OR=1.018; р=0.031 and creatine kinase-MB fraction (OR=1.009; р=0.018 were risk factors of the occurrence of the combined end-point of cardiovascular events.ConclusionAn imbalance of adipokines was observed in MI patients regardless of the presence of glucose disorders. The levels of leptin, glycaemia, insulin and basal hypercortisolaemia were significantly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events during the late post-infarction period.

  5. The Effect of Renal Denervation on Plasma Adipokine Profile in Patients with Treatment Resistant Hypertension

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    Nina Eikelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN to lower blood pressure (BP at least partially via the reduction of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. A number of adipocyte-derived factors are implicated in BP control in obesity.Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether RDN may have salutary effects on the adipokine profile in patients with resistant hypertension (RH.Methods: Fifty seven patients with RH undergoing RDN program have been included in this study (65% males, age 60.8 ± 1.5 years, BMI 32.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, mean ± SEM. Throughout the study, the patients were on an average of 4.5 ± 2.7 antihypertensive drugs. Automated seated office BP measurements and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, adiponectin and resistin were assessed at baseline and the 3 months after RDN.Results: There was a significant reduction in mean office systolic (168.75 ± 2.57 vs. 155.23 ± 3.17 mmHg, p < 0.001 and diastolic (90.68 ± 2.31 vs. 83.74 ± 2.36 mmHg, p < 0.001 BP 3 months after RDN. Body weight, plasma leptin and resistin levels and heart rate remained unchanged. Fasting insulin concentration significantly increased 3 months after the procedure (20.05 ± 1.46 vs. 29.70 ± 2.51 uU/ml, p = 0.002. There was a significant drop in circulating NEFA at follow up (1.01 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.04 mEq/l, p < 0.001. Adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after RDN (5,654 ± 800 vs. 6,644 ± 967 ng/ml, p = 0.024.Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that RDN is associated with potentially beneficial effects on aspects of the adipokine profile. Increased adiponectin and reduced NEFA production may contribute to BP reduction via an effect on metabolic pathways.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00483808, NCT00888433.

  6. Adipokines, asymmetrical dimethylarginine, and pulmonary function in adolescents with asthma and obesity.

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    Huang, Fengyang; Del-Río-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Torres-Alcántara, Saúl; Pérez-Ontiveros, José Alfredo; Ruiz-Bedolla, Eliseo; Saucedo-Ramírez, Omar Josué; Villafaña, Santiago; Sánchez Muñoz, Fausto; Bravo, Guadalupe; Hong, Enrique

    2017-03-01

    This study was to investigate whether the metabolic abnormalities of adipokines and asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) associate with pulmonary function deficits in adolescents with obesity and asthma. This study enrolled 28 obese adolescents with asthma, 46 obese adolescents without asthma, 58 normal-weight adolescents with asthma, and 63 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of leptin, high-molecule-weight (HMW) adiponectin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), and pulmonary function were qualified. The obese subjects had higher levels of leptin and ADMA but lower levels of HMW adiponectin than the normal-weight subjects with or without asthma. The subjects with asthma had higher levels of RBP4 than those without asthma. The obese adolescents with asthma had lowest forced expiratory lung volume in the first second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio among the four study groups. In all the study subjects and in the subjects with asthma alone, the FEV1/FVC ratio associated negatively with leptin, however, such association was rendered non-significant when adjusted for BMI. The pulmonary function deficits associated inversely with BMI percentile in the subjects with asthma. However, the decreased FEV1/FVC ratio was not correlated with HMW adiponectin, RBP4 or ADMA. Our present study confirmed obstructive pattern of pulmonary function characterized by the reduced FEV1/FVC ratio in the obese adolescents with asthma. These pulmonary deficits were associated inversely with the increased BMI percentile.

  7. Roles of FGFs as adipokines in adipose tissue development, remodeling, and metabolism

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    Nobuyuki eItoh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available White and brown adipose tissues, which store and burn lipids, respectively, play critical roles in energy homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs are signaling proteins with diverse functions in development, metabolism, and neural function. Among twenty-two FGFs, FGF1, FGF10, and FGF21 play roles as adipokines, adipocyte-secreted proteins, in the development and function of white and brown adipose tissues. FGF1 is a critical transducer in white adipose tissue remodeling. The PPARγ–FGF1 axis is critical for energy homeostasis. FGF10 is essential for embryonic white adipocyte development. FGF21 activates brown adipose tissue in response to cold exposure. FGF21 also stimulates the accumulation of brown-like cells in white adipose tissue during cold exposure and is an upstream effector of adiponectin, which controls systemic energy metabolism. These findings provide new insights into the roles of FGF signaling in white and brown adipose tissues and potential therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.

  8. Effect of heat stress on adipokines and some blood metabolites in goats from Jordan.

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    Al-Dawood, Amani

    2017-02-01

    To date and to the best of our knowledge, there have been no available data on the interaction between heat stress (HS) and secretion of adipokines and some blood metabolites in Baladi goats from Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the changes in leptin, adiponectin, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in Baladi goats under HS conditions in Jordan. Six goats were exposed to direct solar radiation versus six goats exposed to shade regimen. Blood samples were collected and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, NEFA and BHB were measured. Ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH) and body weight (BW) were recorded. Results indicated that leptin and adiponectin concentrations were significantly increased under HS. The concentration of NEFA was significantly increased under HS at the 7th and 14th days of the experiment, while mean total concentration of NEFA was not significantly affected by HS. Neither weekly nor mean total concentrations of BHB were significantly affected by HS during the experimental period. In conclusion, HS is associated with changes in leptin and adiponectin concentrations in Baladi goats. Heat-stressed goats were able to keep their blood NEFA and BHB concentrations similar to those of thermo-neutral goats. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Evaluation of Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers, and Sex Hormones in Simple and Complex Breast Cysts’ Fluid

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    Paweł Madej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between levels of adipokines in the breast cyst fluid and in the circulation in relation to the type of cysts. Material and Measurements. A cross-sectional study involved 86 women with breast cysts (42 with simple cysts and 44 with complex cysts. Plasma and breast cyst fluid leptin, adiponectin, visfatin/NAMPT, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, in addition to serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin, and anthropometric parameters and body composition (by bioimpedance method, were measured. Results. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were significantly lower in breast cyst fluid than in plasma regardless of the cyst type. Contrarily, the levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α were significantly increased, and IL-6 levels were similar in the breast cyst fluid and plasma in both study groups. There was no correlation between corresponding levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, TNF-α, and IL-6 in breast cyst fluid and plasma. Conclusions. Higher levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α in the fluid from simple and complex breast cysts than in plasma suggest that their local production is related to inflammation.

  10. Phobic anxiety is associated with higher serum concentrations of adipokines and cytokines in women with diabetes.

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    Brennan, Aoife M; Fargnoli, Jessica L; Williams, Catherine J; Li, Tricia; Willett, Walter; Kawachi, I; Qi, Lu; Hu, Frank B; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2009-05-01

    Phobic anxiety has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether associations of phobic anxiety with several known markers of CVD might be contributors. We used a 16-point validated index (Crown-Crisp) measured in 1988 to categorize 984 women with type 2 diabetes from the Nurses' Health Study as having low, moderate, or high phobic anxiety. Groups were then compared for differences in adipokines (adiponectin and leptin), inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha receptor II), and markers of endothelial function (sE-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule [sICAM]-1) measured on blood samples provided between 1989 and 1990. Higher levels of phobic anxiety were associated with higher BMI and lower education. Higher levels of phobic anxiety were also associated with higher leptin and soluble TNF-alpha receptor II in both crude analyses and after adjustment for potential confounders. sICAM and sE-selectin were higher in the highest tertile compared with the middle tertile, but there was no significant trend across tertiles. We found no association between phobic anxiety and adiponectin. High levels of phobic anxiety are associated with increased levels of leptin and inflammatory markers, which may in part explain the previously observed relationship between anxiety and other psychosocial disorders with CVD.

  11. Independent circadian and sleep/wake regulation of adipokines and glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Steven A; Hilton, Michael F; Orlova, Christine; Ayers, R Timothy; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2005-05-01

    Leptin and adiponectin play important physiological roles in regulating appetite, food intake, and energy balance and have pathophysiological roles in obesity and anorexia nervosa. To assess the relative contributions of day/night patterns in behaviors (sleep/wake cycle and food intake) and of the endogenous circadian pacemaker on observed day/night patterns of adipokines, in six healthy subjects we measured circulating leptin, soluble leptin receptor, adiponectin, glucose, and insulin levels throughout a constant routine protocol (38 h of wakefulness with constant posture, temperature, and dim light, as well as identical snacks every 2 h) and throughout sleep and fasting periods before and after the constant routine. There were significant endogenous circadian rhythms in leptin, glucose, and insulin, with peaks around the usual time of awakening. Sleep/fasting resulted in additional systematic decreases in leptin, glucose, and insulin, whereas wakefulness/food intake resulted in a systematic increase in leptin. Thus, the day/night pattern in leptin is likely caused by combined effects from the endogenous circadian pacemaker and day/night patterns in behaviors. Our data imply that alterations in the sleep/wake schedule would lead to an increased daily range in circulating leptin, with lowest leptin upon awakening, which, by influencing food intake and energy balance, could be implicated in the increased prevalence of obesity in the shift work population.

  12. Maternal and Fetal Lipid and Adipokine Profiles and Their Association with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solis-Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal metabolic changes impact fetal metabolism resulting in a higher risk for developing chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal and fetal adipokine and lipid profiles, as well as the influence of maternal weight on this association. Methods. Healthy pregnant women at term who delivered by C-section were enrolled. Maternal and fetal glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed by obesity and maternal weight gain. Statistics included descriptives, correlations, and mean differences (SPSS v20.0. Results. Adiponectin and resistin concentrations were higher in fetal blood, while leptin was lower (p<0.05. A significant inverse association between maternal resistin and fetal LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C (r=-0.327; p=0.022 was observed. A positive correlation was found between maternal and fetal resistin (r=0.358; p=0.013. Women with excessive weight gain had higher leptin levels and their fetuses showed higher LDL-C levels (p<0.05. Conclusions. Maternal resistin showed an inverse association with fetal LDL-C, suggesting that maternal adiposity status may play an active role in the regulation of fetal lipid profile and consequently, in fetal programming. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy may exert an effect over metabolic mediators in both mother and newborn.

  13. Adipocyte lipid chaperone AP2 is a secreted adipokine regulating hepatic glucose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haiming; Sekiya, Motohiro; Ertunc, Meric Erikci; Burak, M Furkan; Mayers, Jared R; White, Ariel; Inouye, Karen; Rickey, Lisa M; Ercal, Baris C; Furuhashi, Masato; Tuncman, Gürol; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2013-05-07

    Proper control of hepatic glucose production is central to whole-body glucose homeostasis, and its disruption plays a major role in diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that although established as an intracellular lipid chaperone, aP2 is in fact actively secreted from adipocytes to control liver glucose metabolism. Secretion of aP2 from adipocytes is regulated by fasting- and lipolysis-related signals, and circulating aP2 levels are markedly elevated in mouse and human obesity. Recombinant aP2 stimulates glucose production and gluconeogenic activity in primary hepatocytes in vitro and in lean mice in vivo. In contrast, neutralization of secreted aP2 reduces glucose production and corrects the diabetic phenotype of obese mice. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and pancreatic clamp studies upon aP2 administration or neutralization demonstrated actions of aP2 in liver. We conclude that aP2 is an adipokine linking adipocytes to hepatic glucose production and that neutralizing secreted aP2 may represent an effective therapeutic strategy against diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. FNDC5/irisin is not only a myokine but also an adipokine.

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    Arturo Roca-Rivada

    Full Text Available Exercise provides clear beneficial effects for the prevention of numerous diseases. However, many of the molecular events responsible for the curative and protective role of exercise remain elusive. The recent discovery of FNDC5/irisin protein that is liberated by muscle tissue in response to exercise might be an important finding with regard to this unsolved mechanism. The most striking aspect of this myokine is its alleged capacity to drive brown-fat development of white fat and thermogenesis. However, the nature and secretion form of this new protein is controversial. The present study reveals that rat skeletal muscle secretes a 25 kDa form of FNDC5, while the 12 kDa/irisin theoretical peptide was not detected. More importantly, this study is the first to reveal that white adipose tissue (WAT also secretes FNDC5; hence, it may also behave as an adipokine. Our data using rat adipose tissue explants secretomes proves that visceral adipose tissue (VAT, and especially subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, express and secrete FNDC5. We also show that short-term periods of endurance exercise training induced FNDC5 secretion by SAT and VAT. Moreover, we observed that WAT significantly reduced FNDC5 secretion in fasting animals. Interestingly, WAT of obese animals over-secreted this hormone, which might suggest a type of resistance. Because 72% of circulating FNDC5/irisin was previously attributed to muscle secretion, our findings suggest a muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk through a regulatory feedback mechanism.

  15. Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese Children and Its Relationship to Insulin Resistance and Adipokines

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    Christian L. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] are associated with insulin resistance in adults. Less data are available in pediatric populations. Serum 25(OHD serum concentrations were assessed in 125 obese and 31 nonobese children (age 11.9±2.7 y, range 6–16 y, 49% male living in Bonn, Germany. The relationship between 25(OHD, measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and measures of insulin sensitivity and adipokines adiponectin and resistin were analyzed. Seventy-six % of subjects were 25(OHD deficient (<20 ng/mL. Higher insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR r=−0.269, P=0.023, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c as well as lower quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI r=0.264, P=0.030 values were found in obese children with lower 25(OHD concentrations even after adjustment for gender, age, and body mass index. Furthermore, 25(OHD correlated significantly with adiponectin, but not with resistin. Our results suggest that hypovitaminosis D is a risk factor for developing insulin resistance independent of adiposity.

  16. Adipokine Serum visfatin level in pregnancy induced hypertension and uncomplicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Asmat; Nazli, Rubina; Fatima, Sadia; Ali, Roshan; Khan, Ihsanullah; Khattak, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy is the significant disease that badly affects the maternal and fetal prognosis and lead to higher mortality and morbidity in the prenatal period. Visfatin, potentially a new adipokine has emerged having high contribution in pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. The objective of the study was to find the level of Visfatin in pregnancy induced hypertension and normal pregnant women. This study was carried out in tertiary care hospitals, Peshawar from March-October 2014. A total of 234 pregnant women (gestational age >20 weeks) were included in the study with distribution as Preeclampsia (PE=86), Eclampsia (E=74) and control (N=74). Blood was taken for measuring Visfatin level by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. SPSS version 19 was used for statistical analysis. Student's t test was performed to evaluate the mean differences in patients and control. Serum level of visfatin was significantly higher in pregnancy induced hypertension when compared with control (P value36 weeks and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly significant in pregnancy induced hypertension when compared with control (p value<0.001). Pregnancy induced hypertensive women showed increased level of serum Visfatin than normal pregnant women.

  17. The adipokine zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is downregulated with fat mass expansion in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, T; Ding, Q; Tzanavari, T; Kos, K; Pinkney, J; Wilding, J; Trayhurn, P; Bing, C

    2010-03-01

    Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a novel adipokine, which may act locally to influence adipocyte metabolism. This study assessed the effect of increased adiposity on ZAG expression in adipose tissue in human subjects. The study also examined the association between ZAG and adiponectin expression in human adipose tissue, and whether ZAG modulates adiponectin secretion by human adipocytes. Adipose tissue (visceral and subcutaneous) was collected from human subjects with a wide range of BMIs. Human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes were used for in vitro studies. ZAG mRNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR and protein by Western blotting. In human subjects, ZAG mRNA level was negatively correlated with BMI (r = -0.61, P ZAG mRNA and insulin resistance parameters including plasma insulin (r = -0.65, P ZAG mRNA was positively correlated with adiponectin (r = 0.5, P ZAG secretion by differentiated human adipocytes was abundant. Addition of recombinant ZAG stimulated adiponectin release from human adipocytes. ZAG gene expression in adipose tissue is downregulated with increased adiposity and circulating insulin. ZAG mRNA is positively correlated with adiponectin mRNA, and ZAG enhances adiponectin production by human adipocytes. We suggest that ZAG is linked to obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance.

  18. Obesity and Its Metabolic Complications: The Role of Adipokines and the Relationship between Obesity, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Un Ju; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity is closely associated with an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, which leads to an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is now recognized not only as a main site of storage of excess energy derived from food intake but also as an endocrine organ. The expansion of adipose tissue produces a number of bioactive substances, known as adipocytokines or adipokines, which trigger chronic low-grade inflammation and interact with a range of processes in many different organs. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, dysregulated production or secretion of these adipokines caused by excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of several adipokines associated with obesity and the potential impact on obesity-related metabolic diseases. Multiple lines evidence provides valuable insights into the roles of adipokines in the development of obesity and its metabolic complications. Further research is still required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the metabolic actions of a few newly identified adipokines. PMID:24733068

  19. Association of recently described adipokines with liver histology in biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, M; Verhelst, X; Geerts, A; Lapauw, B; Calders, P

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, as is the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is increasingly recognized that an impaired pattern in adipokine secretion could play a pivotal role in the development of NAFLD. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the potential link between newly described adipokines and liver histology in biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. A computerized literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science electronic databases. Thirty-one cross-sectional studies were included, resulting in a total of seven different investigated adipokines. Studies included in this review mainly had a good methodological quality. Most adipokines were suggested to be involved in the inflammatory response that develops within the context of NAFLD, either at hepatic or systemic level, and/or hepatic insulin resistance. Based on literature, clinical studies suggest that chemerin, resistin and adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding protein potentially are involved in NAFLD pathogenesis and/or progression. However, major inconsistency still exists, and there is a high need for larger studies, together with the need of standardized assays to determine adipokine levels. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Influence of resveratrol on endoplasmic reticulum stress and expression of adipokines in adipose tissues/adipocytes induced by high-calorie diet or palmitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Ting; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Nuojin; Gui, Li; Dai, Fang; Fang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Qiu; Lu, Yunxia

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether resveratrol treatment alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes the expression of adipokines in adipose tissues and cells. 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-calorie diet (HCD group) or high-calorie diet supplemented with resveratrol (high-calorie diet  + resveratrol group) for 3 months. Insulin resistance, serum lipids and proinflammatory indices, the size and inflammatory cell infiltration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were analyzed. The gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. The induced mature 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated with resveratrol and then palmitic acid, and the gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in the high-calorie diet-fed mice exhibited adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammatory activation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Resveratrol alleviated high-calorie diet-induced insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress, increased expression of SIRT1, and reversed expression of adipokines in varying degrees in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. The effects of resveratrol on palmitic acid-treated adipocytes were similar to those shown in the tissues. Resveratrol treatment obviously reversed adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation, thus increasing the expression of SIRT1 and inverting the expression of adipokines in vivo and in vitro.

  1. Obesity and its metabolic complications: the role of adipokines and the relationship between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Un Ju; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2014-04-11

    Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity is closely associated with an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, which leads to an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is now recognized not only as a main site of storage of excess energy derived from food intake but also as an endocrine organ. The expansion of adipose tissue produces a number of bioactive substances, known as adipocytokines or adipokines, which trigger chronic low-grade inflammation and interact with a range of processes in many different organs. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, dysregulated production or secretion of these adipokines caused by excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of several adipokines associated with obesity and the potential impact on obesity-related metabolic diseases. Multiple lines evidence provides valuable insights into the roles of adipokines in the development of obesity and its metabolic complications. Further research is still required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the metabolic actions of a few newly identified adipokines.

  2. Effects of short-term dry immersion on bone remodeling markers, insulin and adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirova, Liubov E.; Thomas, Mireille; Normand, Myriam; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Beck, Arnaud; Costes-Salon, Marie-Claude; Bonneau, Christine; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Vico, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry immersion (DI), a ground-based model of microgravity previously used in Russia, has been recently implemented in France. The aim of this study was to analyze early events in a short-term DI model in which all conditions are met to investigate who is first challenged from osteo- or adipo-kines and to what extent they are associated to insulin-regulating hormones. Methods Twelve healthy men were submitted to a 3-day DI. Fasting blood was collected during pre-immersion phase for the determination of the baseline data collection (BDC), daily during DI (DI24h, DI48H and DI72h), then after recovery (R+3h and R+24h). Markers of bone turnover, phosphocalcic metabolism, adipokines and associated factors were measured. Results Bone resorption as assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b and N-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen levels increased as early as DI24h. At the same time, total procollagen type I N- and C-terminal propeptides and osteoprotegerin, representing bone formation markers, decreased. Total osteocalcin [OC] was unaffected, but its undercarboxylated form [Glu-OC] increased from DI24h to R+3h. The early and progressive increase in bone alkaline phosphatase activities suggested an increased mineralization. Dickkopf-1 and sclerostin, as negative regulators of the Wnt-β catenin pathway, were unaltered. No change was observed either in phosphocalcic homeostasis (calcium and phosphate serum levels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF23]) or in inflammatory response. Adiponectemia was unchanged, whereas circulating leptin concentrations increased. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [lipocalin-2], a potential regulator of bone homeostasis, was found elevated by 16% at R+3h compared to DI24h. The secretory form of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase [visfatin] concentrations almost doubled after one day of DI and remained elevated. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels progressively

  3. Effects of short-term dry immersion on bone remodeling markers, insulin and adipokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Thérèse Linossier

    Full Text Available Dry immersion (DI, a ground-based model of microgravity previously used in Russia, has been recently implemented in France. The aim of this study was to analyze early events in a short-term DI model in which all conditions are met to investigate who is first challenged from osteo- or adipo-kines and to what extent they are associated to insulin-regulating hormones.Twelve healthy men were submitted to a 3-day DI. Fasting blood was collected during pre-immersion phase for the determination of the baseline data collection (BDC, daily during DI (DI24h, DI48H and DI72h, then after recovery (R+3h and R+24h. Markers of bone turnover, phosphocalcic metabolism, adipokines and associated factors were measured.Bone resorption as assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b and N-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen levels increased as early as DI24h. At the same time, total procollagen type I N- and C-terminal propeptides and osteoprotegerin, representing bone formation markers, decreased. Total osteocalcin [OC] was unaffected, but its undercarboxylated form [Glu-OC] increased from DI24h to R+3h. The early and progressive increase in bone alkaline phosphatase activities suggested an increased mineralization. Dickkopf-1 and sclerostin, as negative regulators of the Wnt-β catenin pathway, were unaltered. No change was observed either in phosphocalcic homeostasis (calcium and phosphate serum levels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF23] or in inflammatory response. Adiponectemia was unchanged, whereas circulating leptin concentrations increased. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [lipocalin-2], a potential regulator of bone homeostasis, was found elevated by 16% at R+3h compared to DI24h. The secretory form of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase [visfatin] concentrations almost doubled after one day of DI and remained elevated. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels progressively increased

  4. Impact of glucocorticoid hormones on adipokine secretion and human adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, John N

    2013-08-01

    The glucocorticoid hormones alter the metabolism of the adipose tissue after an approximately 2-h lag period. The effects are mediated through the nuclear receptors that alter the expression of a wide variety of genes through the mechanisms that are similar to those seen in the other cells. There are many direct metabolic effects of the glucocorticoids on the adipose tissue metabolism, and every year, new effects are added to the list of proteins whose expression is influenced by the glucocorticoids. Furthermore, some enzymatic processes are affected by these hormones only in the presence of the other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) or insulin. Most of the effects of the glucocorticoids are on the gene transcription, and the effects on the mRNA are reflected in the altered levels of the target proteins. The glucocorticoids enhance the leptin release, while reducing that of the inflammatory adipokines and stimulating that of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the presence of insulin. The activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) is enhanced by the glucocorticoids along with that of α1 glycoprotein 1 and serum amyloid A release by the adipose tissue. In contrast, the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF)-stimulated lipolysis in the adipose tissue is blocked by the glucocorticoids. It is still unclear which, if any, of these effects account for the insulin resistance due to the glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue. However, recent work suggests that, at least in mice, the reduction in the osteocalcin release by the osteoblasts in the presence of the glucocorticoids accounts for much of the in vivo insulin resistance. In summary, there are multiple direct effects of the glucocorticoids, both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory, on the adipose tissue.

  5. Obesity induced rapid melanoma progression is reversed by orlistat treatment and dietary intervention: role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pandey, Vimal; Vijayakumar, Maleppillil Vavachan; Boreddy, Purushotham Reddy; Mohammad, Naoshad; Singh, Shivendra Vikram; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, owing to adiposity, is associated with increased risk and development of various cancers, and linked to their rapid growth as well as progression. Although a few studies have attempted to understand the relationship between obesity and melanoma, the consequences of controlling body weight by reducing adiposity on cancer progression is not well understood. By employing animal models of obesity, we report that controlling obesity either by orlistat treatment or by restricting caloric intake significantly slows down melanoma progression. The diminished tumor progression was correlated with decreased fat mass (adiposity) in obese mice. Obesity associated factors contributing to tumor progression were decreased in the experimental groups compared to respective controls. In tumors, protein levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN), caveolin (Cav)-1 and pAkt, which are tumor promoting molecules implicated in melanoma growth under obese state, were decreased. In addition, increased necrosis and reduction in angiogenesis as well as proliferative markers PCNA and cyclin D1 were observed in tumors of the orlistat treated and/or calorically restricted obese mice. We observed that growth of melanoma cells cultured in conditioned medium (CM) from orlistat-treated adipocytes was reduced. Adipokines (leptin and resistin), via activating Akt and modulation of FASN as well as Cav-1 respectively, enhanced melanoma cell growth and proliferation. Together, we demonstrate that controlling body weight reduces adipose mass thereby diminishing melanoma progression. Therefore, strategic means of controlling obesity by reduced caloric diet or with antiobesity drugs treatment may render obesity-promoted tumor progression in check and prolong survival of patients. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and GH and an increase (P<0.01) in the serum concentration of TSH at PNDs 17 and 18. These conspicuous perturbations led to some histopathological deterioration in the thyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (P<0.01) serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor and lower (P<0.01) serum concentrations of IGF1 and insulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  7. Running a marathon induces changes in adipokine levels and in markers of cartilage degradation--novel role for resistin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Vuolteenaho

    Full Text Available Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3, cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40 as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3:30:46±0:02:46 (h:min:sec. The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = -0.448, p = 0.002. YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009 and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001 and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008. The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation.

  8. Running a marathon induces changes in adipokine levels and in markers of cartilage degradation--novel role for resistin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3:30:46±0:02:46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = -0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, pmarathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation.

  9. Running a Marathon Induces Changes in Adipokine Levels and in Markers of Cartilage Degradation – Novel Role for Resistin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3∶30∶46±0∶02∶46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = –0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, pmarathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation. PMID:25333960

  10. Associations of maternal and cord blood adipokines with offspring adiposity in Project Viva: is there an interaction with child age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L-J; Rifas-Shiman, S L; Aris, I M; Young, J G; Mantzoros, C; Hivert, M-F; Oken, E

    2017-10-13

    Higher leptin and lower adiponectin correlate with adult and childhood adiposity, but it is unclear how exposure to these adipokines during gestation relates to offspring growth. We aimed to investigate the relationships of maternal and cord adipokines with offspring adiposity across childhood to early adolescence, as well as interactions with child age. In mother-child pairs in the Project Viva cohort, we measured adipokines in mothers at second trimester (n=1106) and in cord blood at birth (n=657). We measured offspring adiposity indices at early childhood (mean 3.3±s.d. 0.3 years), mid-childhood (7.9±0.8 years) and early adolescence (13.2±0.9 years). We analyzed associations of maternal and cord adipokines with offspring longitudinal adiposity using a linear mixed model adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and other confounders. Mothers with higher BMI and GWG had higher leptin. Offspring born to mothers with the highest vs lowest quartile of leptin had lower BMI z-score (-0.49 units, 95% confidence interval (CI):-0.72,-0.26), waist circumference (-2.6 cm, 95% CI: -3.7,-1.5) and sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds (-2.8 mm, 95% CI: -4.1,-1.4) in early life. An interaction term between maternal leptin and child age was positive, suggesting that the associations between maternal leptin and child adiposity were not constant over time. Offspring born to mothers with lowest vs highest quartile of maternal adiponectin had lower early life adiposity (BMI z-score -0.27 units, 95% CI: -0.48,-0.05). Results were similar for cord leptin but not cord adiponectin. Our findings showed higher maternal and cord leptin, and lower maternal adiponectin are associated with lower offspring adiposity from childhood to early adolescence, independent of maternal BMI and GWG. However, the strength of these associations was not constant over time.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 31 October 2017; doi:10

  11. A prospective study of gynecological cancer risk in relation to adiposity factors: cumulative incidence and association with plasma adipokine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meei-Maan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations of obesity and obesity-related metabolic factors (adiposity factors with uterine corpus cancer (UCC and ovarian cancer (OVC risk have been described. Still, a cause-effect relationship and the underlying mediators remain unclear, particularly for low-incidence populations. We aimed to prospectively determine whether adiposity factors could predict the development of UCC and OVC in Taiwanese women. To explore the biological mediators linking adiposity factors to cancer risk, we examined the association of two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, with the gynecological cancers. METHODS: Totally, 11,258 women, aged 30-65, were recruited into the Community-Based Cancer Screening Program (CBCSP study during 1991-1993, and were followed for UCC and OVC cases until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs. Adiposity factors and risk covariates were assessed at recruitment. Newly-developed cancer cases were determined from data in the government's National Cancer Registry and Death Certification System. For adipokienes study, a nested case-control study was conducted within the cohort. Baseline plasma samples of 40 incident gynecological cancer cases and 240 age-menopause-matched controls were assayed for adipokines levels. FINDINGS: There were 38 and 30 incident cases of UCC and OVC, respectively, diagnosed during a median 19.9 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that alcohol intake (HR = 16.00, 95%  = 4.83-53.00, high triglyceride levels (HR = 2.58, 95% = 1.28-5.17, and years of endogenous estrogen exposure per 5-year increment (HR = 1.91, 95%  = 1.08-3.38 were associated with increased UCC risk. High body mass index (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2, HR = 2.90, 95%  = 1.30-6.46 was associated with increased OVC risk. Analysis further showed an independent effect of adipokines on UCC and OVC risk after adjustment of the risk covariates. CONCLUSION: We provided evidence

  12. Different modulation by dietary restriction of adipokine expression in white adipose tissue sites in the rat

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    Esteve Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Overweight male rats had their food intake reduced a 40% compared with free-feeding controls. On day ten, the rats were killed; circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triacylglycerols and other parameters were measured. The main WAT sites were dissected: mesenteric, retroperitoneal, epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal, which were weighed and frozen. Later all subcutaneous WAT was also dissected and weighed. Samples were used for DNA (cellularity analysis and mRNA extraction and semiquantitarive RT-PCR analysis of specific cytokine gene expressions. Results There was a good correlation between serum leptin and cumulative WAT leptin gene mRNA, but not for adiponectin. Food restriction reduced WAT size, but not its DNA content (except for epididymal WAT. Most cytokines were correlated to WAT site weight, but not to DNA. There was WAT site specialization in the differential expression (and probably secretion of adipokines: subcutaneous WAT showed the highest concentration for leptin, CD68 and MCP-1, mesenteric WAT for TNFα (and both tissues for the interleukins 1β and 6; resistin was highly expressed in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT. Conclusion Food restriction induced different patterns for mesenteric and the other WAT sites, which may be directly related to both the response to intestine-derived energy availability, and an inflammatory-related response. However, retroperitoneal WAT, and to a lower extent, subcutaneous and epididymal, reacted decreasing the expression of

  13. The relationship of serum adipokines with malnutrition inflammation score in haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipoor, Elham; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Yaseri, Mehdi; Zahed, Narges Sadat; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

    2017-08-01

    Protein-energy wasting is a prevalent disorder in haemodialysis. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are novel adipokines with recognized lipolytic effects and proposed role in metabolic homoeostasis. This study was conducted to investigate the association of ZAG and ATGL concentrations with malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) and metabolic profile of patients with haemodialysis. Eighty-eight patients under regular haemodialysis were divided based on MIS to normal to mild wasting (NMW; n = 35) or moderate wasting (MW; n = 53) group. Anthropometric measurements along with fasting serum concentrations of ZAG, ATGL, free fatty acids (FFAs), albumin, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), hs-CRP, lipid profile and glucose metabolism were assessed. Adipose triglyceride lipase concentration was significantly higher in MW than NMW group (10·89 ± 5·7 vs. 8·02 ± 3·37 mIU/mL; P = 0·008). The ZAG and FFAs were not significantly different between two groups. ATGL was directly correlated with FFAs in all of the patients (r = 0·284, P = 0·007) and MW (r = 0·32, P = 0·021), and marginally in NMW (r = 0·31, P = 0·057) groups. ATGL and odds of having mild or moderate wasting were significantly correlated (OR = 1·21, P = 0·033). A positive association was observed between ATGL with TG (r = 0·31, P = 0·049) and also with transferrin and TIBC (r = 0·44, P = 0·001) only in MW group. An inverse relationship was observed between ATGL and HDL in all of the participants (r=-0·222, P = 0·04). No significant correlation was observed between ZAG and other parameters. The serum concentrations of ATGL, but not ZAG, were significantly higher in MW compared to NMW group. Each unit increase in ATGL concentrations was correlated with 21% increase in the odds of wasting severity. ATGL might play a role in wasting pathogenesis and metabolic profile in haemodialysis. © 2017 Stichting European Society

  14. Potential beneficial effect of some adipokines positively correlated with the adipose tissue content on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Magdalena; Janowska, Joanna; Chudek, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. However, in the case of heart failure, obese and overweight patients have a more favourable prognosis compared to patients who have a normal body weight. This phenomenon is referred to as the "obesity paradox," and it is explained by, among others, a positive effect of adipokines produced by adipose tissue, particularly by the tissue located in the direct vicinity of the heart and blood vessels. The favourable effect on the cardiovascular system is mostly associated with adiponectin and omentin, but the levels of these substances are reduced in obese patients. Among the adipokines which levels are positively correlated with the adipose tissue content, favourable activity is demonstrated by apelin, progranulin, chemerin, TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-)α, CTRP-3 (C1q/tumour necrosis factor (TNF) related protein), leptin, visfatin and vaspin. This activity is associated with the promotion of regeneration processes in the damaged myocardium, formation of new blood vessels, reduction of the afterload, improvement of metabolic processes in cardiomyocytes and myocardial contractile function, inhibition of apoptosis and fibrosis of the myocardium, as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atheromatous effects. The potential use of these properties in the treatment of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease, as well as in pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension and the limitation of the loss of cardiomyocytes during cardioplegia-requiring cardiosurgical procedures, is studied. The most advanced studies focus on analogues of apelin and progranulin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrition education guided by Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents on metabolic syndrome characteristics, adipokines and inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Xiu; Guo, Hong-Wei; Wan, Wen-Tao; Xue, Kun

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether "Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents" have beneficial effects on anthropometric and metabolic variables, adipokines and inflammatory markers in metabolic syndrome patients. A multi-stage sampling method was applied to select metabolic syndrome patients in two districts of Shanghai. Two hundred and seventy-two metabolic syndrome patients were divided into control and intervention groups according to their district. Nutrition education guided by "Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents" was performed in the intervention group for one year. Nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior were improved in the intervention group. Potassium intake and food to total energy ratio for grain, vegetable and fruit increased while sodium intake as well as fat to total energy ratio decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group (pleptin and tumor necrosis factor-α compared to the control group (pleptin and tumor necrosis factor-α were lower, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was higher in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.05). This study confirmed "Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents" had beneficial effects on anthropometric, lipids, adipokines and inflammatory markers in metabolic syndrome patients.

  16. Resveratrol metabolites modify adipokine expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mature adipocytes.

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    Itziar Eseberri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Due to the low bioavailability of resveratrol, determining whether its metabolites exert any beneficial effect is an interesting issue. METHODS: 3T3-L1 maturing pre-adipocytes were treated during differentiation with 25 µM of resveratrol or with its metabolites and 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes were treated for 24 hours with 10 µM resveratrol or its metabolites. The gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and apelin was assessed by Real Time RT-PCR and their concentration in the incubation medium was quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: Resveratrol reduced mRNA levels of leptin and increased those of adiponectin. It induced the same changes in leptin secretion. Trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and trans-resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide increased apelin and visfatin mRNA levels. Trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate reduced leptin mRNA levels and increased those of apelin and visfatin. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows for the first time that resveratrol metabolites have a regulatory effect on adipokine expression and secretion. Since resveratrol has been reported to reduce body-fat accumulation and to improve insulin sensitivity, and considering that these effects are mediated in part by changes in the analyzed adipokines, it may be proposed that resveratrol metabolites play a part in these beneficial effects of resveratrol.

  17. Effects of time of day and the wingate test on appetite perceptions, food intake and plasma levels of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, J; Jaworek, J; Pokorski, J; Nitecki, J; Nitecka, E; Pokorska, J; Mazur-Bialy, A; Szklarczyk, J

    2016-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that several aspects of adipose-related physiology including adipokine release, exhibit daily oscillations. Physical exercise exerts a strong influence on adipokine release and a possible reverse disruption of peripheral circadian clocks. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of time of day and the Wingate test on appetite perception, food intake and plasma levels of adipokines. Twenty-four moderately active non-smoking males (mean ± S.D. age: 27.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.79 ± 0.1 m; weight: 76.1 ± 11.7 kg) were recruited for this study and divided in two groups; one fed with an ad libitum test meal and another one without an ad libitum test meal. Each subject participated in the following studies performed at 11:00 and 23:00 hours on separate days: 1) Exercise study (ES): a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and 2) sedentary study (SS). Subjects rated their appetite perceptions (hunger and prospective food consumption) on a 100-milimeter visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline, after exercise, after test meal and during the postprandial/control period. At those time points blood samples were obtained for the measurement of plasma leptin, visfatin and apelin concentrations. Appetite perception and energy intake results at test meal decreased in response to WAnT in comparison with sedentary subjects. Time of day had no statistically significant effect on energy intake but the appetite perception score after test meal at 24:00 hours was statistically higher than that after test meal at 12:00 hours. No significant differences in the tested plasma adipokine concentrations between the trials existed at baseline, however, all plasma adipokine levels at 24:00 hours were higher than those at 12:00 hours. Plasma apelin concentrations after WAnT were significantly higher than its pre-exercise value at 12:00 hours, unlike those at 24:00 hours. Sedentary experiments showed a modest, yet significant, rise in plasma apelin levels

  18. Effect of weight loss with or without exercise on inflammatory markers and adipokines in postmenopausal women : The SHAPE-2 Trial, a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gemert, Willemijn A.; May, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818658; Schuit, Albertine J.; Oosterhof, Blanche Y M; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/260610178

    2016-01-01

    Background: We investigated the effect of equivalent weight loss, by a hypocaloric diet or mainly exercise, on inflammatory markers and adipokines in overweight postmenopausal women. Methods: Women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), mainly exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Goal of both

  19. Effect of Weight Loss with or without Exercise on Inflammatory Markers and Adipokines in Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Trial, A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A; May, Anne M; Schuit, Albertine J; Oosterhof, Blanche Y M; Peeters, Petra H M; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of equivalent weight loss, by a hypocaloric diet or mainly exercise, on inflammatory markers and adipokines in overweight postmenopausal women. METHODS: Women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), mainly exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Goal of both

  20. Ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine which is overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects and in obesity-associated cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Ehrlund, Anna; Mejhert, Niklas; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Peter; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Obesity confers an increased risk of developing specific cancer forms. Although the mechanisms are unclear, increased fat cell secretion of specific proteins (adipokines) may promote/facilitate development of malignant tumors in obesity via cross-talk between adipose tissue(s) and the tissues prone

  1. Lifestyle intervention and adipokine levels in subjects at high risk for type 2 diabetes: the study on lifestyle intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE¿We investigated whether circulating adipokine concentrations can be altered by lifestyle intervention according to general recommendations in subjects at risk for diabetes as well as the potential of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin as biomarkers for lifestyle-induced improvements in

  2. Associations of markers of matrix metabolism, inflammation markers, and adipokines with superior cam deformity of the hip and their relation with future hip osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spil, W. E.; Agricola, R.; Drossaers-Bakker, K. W.; Weinans, H.; Lafeber, F. P J G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: First, to study how markers of matrix metabolism, inflammation markers, and adipokines relate to (superior) cam deformity and (possible) cam impingement of the hip. Second, to investigate whether they can identify subjects with cam deformity that are at risk of future hip osteoarthritis

  3. Effects of regular exercise on obesity and type 2 diabete mellitus in Korean children: improvements glycemic control and serum adipokines level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Soo; Kang, Sunghwun

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to clarify the effects of regular exercise on lipid profiles and serum adipokines in Korean children. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were divided into controls (n=10), children who were obese (n=10), and children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=10). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, lipid profiles, glucagon, insulin and adipokines (leptin, resistin, visfatin and retinol binding protein 4) were measured before to and after a 12-week exercise program. [Results] Body weight, body mass index, and percentage body fat were significantly higher in the obese and diabetes groups compared with the control group. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycemic control levels were significantly decreased after the exercise program in the obese and diabetes groups, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased. Adipokines were higher in the obese and diabetes groups compared with the control group prior to the exercise program, and were significantly lower following completion. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular exercise has positive effects on obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean children by improving glycemic control and reducing body weight, thereby lowering cardiovascular risk factors and adipokine levels.

  4. The prediction role of indexes of circulating adipokines for common anthropometric and nutritional characteristics of obesity in the obese Central European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienertová-Vašků, Julie; Novák, Jan; Zlámal, Filip; Forejt, Martin; Havlenová, Soňa; Jackowská, Aneta; Tomandl, Josef; Tomandlová, Marie; Šplíchal, Zbyněk; Vašků, Anna

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between 8 selected adipokines (leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, agouti-related peptide, omentin, visfatin, adipsin and resistin), dietary composition and anthropometric parameters found in the Central European obese population. A total of 65 unrelated obese Central European Caucasian individuals were recruited for the study. Phenotypic measurements included weight, height, BMI, lean body mass, fat mass, body fat, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and skinfold thickness. Participants completed standardized self-reported 7-day food records. Plasma levels of leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), resistin, adipsin, omentin and visfatin were examined using ELISA. Multiple associations (weight, height, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR and sum of skinfold thickness) with the circulation levels of the investigated adipokines were identified. Leptin-Leptin receptor (L-LR) levels were found to correlate with total energy intake and macronutrients while adipsin was found to strongly correlate with multiple adipokines. Furthermore, the L-LR index was found to constitute a more accurate description of the relationship between BMI and body weight than individual measurements and the Ag-LR index was found to strongly correlate with both anthropometric and dietary characteristics. Following confirmation on larger population samples and on samples of different ethnicities, the reported adipokine indexes could become a useful tool for estimating nutritional status and predicting the body composition of specific patient groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ceruloplasmin Is a Novel Adipokine Which Is Overexpressed in Adipose Tissue of Obese Subjects and in Obesity-Associated Cancer Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Ehrlund, Anna; Mejhert, Niklas; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Peter; Rehli, Michael; Baillie, J. Kenneth; de Hoon, Michiel J. L.; Haberle, Vanja; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Lizio, Marina; Andersson, Robin; Mungall, Christopher J.; Meehan, Terrence F.; Schmeier, Sebastian; Bertin, Nicolas; Jørgensen, Mette; Dimont, Emmanuel; Schmidl, Christian; Schaefer, Ulf; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Plessy, Charles; Vitezic, Morana; Severin, Jessica; Semple, Colin A.; Ishizu, Yuri; Francescatto, Margherita; Alam, Intikhab; Albanese, Davide; Altschuler, Gabriel M.; Archer, John A. C.; Babina, Magda; Baker, Sarah; Balwierz, Piotr J.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Blake, Judith A.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Califano, Andrea; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; Carbajo, Daniel; Chen, Yun; Chierici, Marco; Ciani, Yari; Clevers, Hans C.; Dalla, Emiliano; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Diehl, Alexander D.; Dohi, Taeko; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Fang, Hai; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Favorov, Alexander V.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Frith, Martin C.; Fujita, Rie; Fukuda, Shiro; Furlanello, Cesare; Furuno, Masaaki; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gibson, Andrew; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Gough, Julian; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Harbers, Matthias; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hasegawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Yuki; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Herlyn, Meenhard; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Sui, Shannan J. Ho; Hofmann, Oliver M.; Hoof, Ilka; Hori, Fumi; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Iida, Kei; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Jankovic, Boris R.; Jia, Hui; Joshi, Anagha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Kai, Chieko; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kasianov, Artem S.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Katayama, Shintaro; Kato, Sachi; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Miki; Kojima, Soichi; Kondo, Naoto; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Krampitz, Sarah; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Kwon, Andrew T.; Laros, Jeroen F. J.; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Li, Kang; Lilje, Berit; Lipovich, Leonard; Mackay-sim, Alan; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Mar, Jessica C.; Marchand, Benoit; Mathelier, Anthony; Meynert, Alison; Mizuno, Yosuke; de Lima Morais, David A.; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Motakis, Efthymios; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakazato, Kenichi; van Nimwegen, Erik; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Pain, Arnab; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Persson, Helena; Piazza, Silvano; Prendergast, James G. D.; Rackham, Owen J. L.; Ramilowski, Jordan A.; Rashid, Mamoon; Ravasi, Timothy; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roncador, Marco; Roy, Sugata; Rye, Morten B.; Saijyo, Eri; Sajantila, Antti; Saka, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sakai, Mizuho; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schneider, Claudio; Schultes, Erik A.; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sengstag, Thierry; Sheng, Guojun; Shimoji, Hisashi; Shimoni, Yishai; Shin, Jay W.; Simon, Christophe; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Masanori; Swoboda, Rolf K.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Tagami, Michihira; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tatum, Zuotian; Thompson, Mark; Toyoda, Hiroo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Valen, Eivind; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Watanabe, Shoko; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Wood, Emily J.; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Zabierowski, Suzan E.; Zhang, Peter G.; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zucchelli, Silvia; Summers, Kim M.; Suzuki, Harukazu; Daub, Carsten O.; Kawai, Jun; Heutink, Peter; Hide, Winston; Freeman, Tom C.; Lenhard, Boris; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Taylor, Martin S.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Sandelin, Albin; Hume, David A.; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2014-01-01

    Obesity confers an increased risk of developing specific cancer forms. Although the mechanisms are unclear, increased fat cell secretion of specific proteins (adipokines) may promote/facilitate development of malignant tumors in obesity via cross-talk between adipose tissue(s) and the tissues prone

  6. Effect of pre-existing maternal obesity, gestational diabetes and adipokines on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Martha

    2014-02-01

    To determine the effect of maternal obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and adipokines on the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, synthesis and metabolism. Human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues were obtained from lean, overweight and obese normal glucose tolerant (NGT) women and women with GDM. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to determine the level of expression. Adipose tissue explants were performed to determine the effect of the adipokines TNFα, IL-1β and leptin on adipose tissue gene expression. Pre-existing maternal obesity and GDM are associated with decreased expression in genes involved in fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport (LPL, FATP2, FATP6, FABPpm and ASCL1), triacylglyceride (TAG) biosynthesis (MGAT1,7 MGAT2 and DGAT1), lipogenesis (FASN) and lipolysis (PNPLA2, HSL and MGLL). Decreased gene expression was also observed for the transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism (LXRα, PPARα, PPARδ, PPARγ, RXRα and SREBP1c). On the other hand, the gene expression of the adipokines TNFα, IL-1β and or leptin was increased in adipose tissue from obese and GDM women. Functional in vitro studies revealed that these adipokines decreased the gene expression of LPL, FATP2, FATP6, ASCL1, PNPLA2, PPARδ, PPARγ and RXRα. Pregnancies complicated by pre-existing maternal obesity and GDM are associated with abnormal adipose tissue lipid metabolism, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. © 2014.

  7. Temporal relationship between serum adipokines, biomarkers of bone and cartilage turnover, and cartilage volume loss in a population with clinical knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Patricia A; Jones, Simon W; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wluka, Anita E; Maciewicz, Rose A

    2011-03-01

    The association of obesity with both hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA) is suggestive of a link between dysfunctional metabolism and joint integrity. Given the role of adipokines in mediating bone and cartilage homeostasis, we undertook this study to examine the relationship between adipokines and bone and cartilage biomarkers in a population of subjects with OA, and to determine whether adipokine levels predicted 2-year cartilage integrity. One hundred seventeen subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at 2-year followup. Cartilage volume was assessed from these images. Serum adipokine levels were measured at baseline. Bone and cartilage biomarker levels were measured at baseline and at 2-year followup. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between baseline levels of adipokines and adipokine receptors (leptin, soluble leptin receptor [sOB-Rb], resistin, and adiponectin) and changes in levels of bone biomarkers (osteocalcin, N-terminal type I procollagen propeptide [PINP], C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen, N-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen, or C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen generated by matrix metalloproteinases), levels of cartilage biomarkers (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, N-terminal type IIA procollagen propeptide [PIIANP], or C2C), cartilage defects score, and cartilage volume over 2 years. Baseline leptin was associated with increased levels of bone formation biomarkers (osteocalcin and PINP) over 2 years, while sOB-Rb was associated with reduced levels of osteocalcin. Baseline sOB-Rb was associated with reduced levels of the cartilage formation biomarker PIIANP, an increased cartilage defects score, and increased cartilage volume loss over 2 years. All results were independent of age, sex, and body mass index. The findings of this study support the concept that serum adipokines may provide a nonmechanical link between obesity and joint integrity

  8. ADIPOQ -11377C>G Polymorphism Increases the Risk of Adipokine Abnormalities and Child Obesity Regardless of Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Joanna; Kuryłowicz, Alina; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Weker, Halina; Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR, and ADIPOQ loci are associated with the development of obesity and serum levels of the respective adipokines in prepubertal white children with obesity. Frequencies of -2548G>A LEP (rs7799039), Q223R (rs1137101) and K656N (rs8129183) LEPR, and -11377C>G (rs266729) and -11426A>G (rs16861194) ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 101 obese (standard deviation score [SDS]-body mass index [BMI] >2) and 67 normal-weight (SDS-BMI ) children. Serum adipokine concentrations were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The GC/GG genotypes of -11377C>G ADIPOQ polymorphism were associated with a higher risk of obesity (P = 0.022, odds ratio 2.08 [95% confidence interval 1.11-3.90]). Individuals carrying the GG genotype had a higher leptin/total adiponectin ratio by 25% than CC homozygotes (P trend = 0.05). In the multivariate linear regression model, we found differences among particular genotypes of this polymorphism in concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (P trend = 0.043) and HMW/total adiponectin ratio (P trend = 0.048), with the lowest values in GG homozygotes. Positive correlations between SDS-BMI and dietary reference intake percentage were observed in individuals homozygous for allele C (r = 0.403, P = 0.01) and CG heterozygotes (r = 0.428, P = 0.004). No significant correlations between both parameters were found in the GG homozygotes. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, only -11377C>G ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with obesity during the prepubertal period. Adipokine abnormalities coexisting with the lack of relations between SDS-BMI and dietary intake may predict a higher risk of future obesity-related disorders in obese children carrying the GG genotype than in those with other genotypes.

  9. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat, calorie-restricted diet on adipokine levels in obese, diabetic participants

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    Marion L Vetter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion L Vetter1,2,3, Alisha Wade1, Leslie G Womble3, Cornelia Dalton-Bakes1, Thomas A Wadden3, Nayyar Iqbal1,21Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Center for Weight and Eating Disorders, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: The effect of dietary macronutrient composition on adipokine concentrations remains unclear. Greater reductions in leptin have been reported in participants who followed low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets, although these studies did not adjust for the important effects of weight loss on adipokines. We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition on adipokine levels in 144 obese, diabetic participants who were randomly assigned to a low-carbohydrate (<30 g/day or low-fat diet (≤30% of calories from fat with a deficit of 500 kcal/day. Weight, adipokines, and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Complete data were available for 79 participants. At month 6, weight, leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-a concentrations did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05 for all variables. However, significant changes in leptin and adiponectin occurred over time (P < 0.001 and P < 0.012, respectively. Modest weight loss, rather than macronutrient composition, likely accounted for the favorable changes observed in leptin and adiponectin over time.Keywords: diet, adipokine, obesity, diabetes, carbohydrate, hormone

  10. BEHAVIOR OF ADIPOKINES AFTER A YEAR FOLLOW-UP IN THE OBESITY OUTPATIENT CLINIC FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Fernanda; de Moraes Silveira, Carla Rosane; Gomes Beghetto, Mariur; dos Santos Oliveira, Fernanda; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2015-10-01

    demonstrate adipokines progression, along 12 months, in obese children and adolescents who attend the Obesity Outpatient Clinic for Children and Adolescents of the HCPA. children and adolescents in medical treatment for obesity were followed for 12 months, assessing anthropometry, blood pressure, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and insulin, inter leukine- 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and adiponectin in two points in time: at inclusion and after 12 months follow-up in the Obesity Outpatient Clinic for Children and Adolescents. 27 children and adolescents were assessed with median age of 10.3 years. The mean BMI z-scores lowered during this period (p obesity along the 12-months follow-up. Adiponectin increased in 45% of the sample, the increase being more pronounced in females. children and adolescents in medical treatment for obesity, after one-year follow-up, did not improve their adiponectin profile. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. PKA-independent cAMP stimulation of white adipocyte exocytosis and adipokine secretion: modulations by Ca2+ and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Ali M; Brännmark, Cecilia; Musovic, Saliha; Olofsson, Charlotta S

    2014-12-01

    We examined the effects of cAMP, Ca(2+) and ATP on exocytosis and adipokine release in white adipocytes by a combination of membrane capacitance patch-clamp recordings and biochemical measurements of adipokine secretion. 3T3-L1 adipocyte exocytosis proceeded even in the complete absence of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i; buffered with BAPTA) provided cAMP (0.1 mm) was included in the intracellular (pipette-filling) solution. Exocytosis typically plateaued within ∼10 min, probably signifying depletion of a releasable vesicle pool. Inclusion of 3 mm ATP in combination with elevation of [Ca(2+)]i to ≥700 nm augmented the rate of cAMP-evoked exocytosis ∼2-fold and exocytosis proceeded for longer periods (≥20 min) than with cAMP alone. Exocytosis was stimulated to a similar extent upon substitution of cAMP by the Epac (exchange proteins activated by cAMP) agonist 8-Br-2'-O-Me-cAMP (1 mm included in the pipette solution). Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by addition of Rp-cAMPS (0.5 mm) to the cAMP-containing pipette solution was without effect. A combination of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10 μm) and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX (200 μm; forsk-IBMX) augmented adiponectin secretion measured over 30 min 3-fold and 2-fold in 3T3-L1 and human subcutaneous adipocytes, respectively. This effect was unaltered by pre-loading of cells with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and 2-fold amplified upon inclusion of the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 μm) in the extracellular solution. Adiponectin release was also stimulated by the membrane-permeable Epac agonist 8-Br-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM but unaffected by inclusion of the membrane-permeable PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS (200 μm). The adipokines leptin, resistin and apelin were present in low amounts in the incubation medium (1-6% of measured adiponectin). Adipsin was secreted in substantial quantities (50% of adiponectin concentration) but release of this adipokine was unaffected by forsk

  12. A phase 1 pharmacokinetic study of ATX-101: serum lipids and adipokines following synthetic deoxycholic acid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Patricia; Lee, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection, Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.) is a proprietary formulation of pure synthetic deoxycholic acid (DCA). It is undergoing clinical investigation as an injectable drug for contouring the submental area by reducing submental fat (SMF). When injected into subcutaneous fat, ATX-101 causes focal adipocytolysis, the targeted destruction of fat cells. This phase 1 study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamic effects of ATX-101 (100-mg total dose). Following PK evaluation of baseline endogenous DCA, lipids, and adipokines in the initial stage of the study (samples collected at hours 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 12, 15.5, and 24.5), 10 subjects received subcutaneous injections of ATX-101 into abdominal fat. PK evaluation of DCA, lipids, and adipokines was repeated in the second phase of the study. After ATX-101 injections, plasma concentration of DCA increased transiently, reached a maximum plasma concentration rapidly, and returned to endogenous concentrations within 12 h postdose. ATX-101 injection was not associated with any clinically meaningful changes in systemic concentrations of total cholesterol, total triglycerides, free fatty acids, C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6. Adverse events were mild in severity, transient, and showed a temporal relationship to dosing. This study demonstrated favorable safety and PK profiles, and no clinically meaningful changes in DCA, lipids, and proinflammatory cytokines following subcutaneous injection of ATX-101. Our results support continued clinical investigation of ATX-101 as an injectable drug to reduce SMF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Long-term Effect of Ileal Transposition on Adipokine Serum Level in Zucker (Orl)-Lepr(fa) Fatty Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasz, Sawczyn; Dominika, Stygar; Iwona, Karcz-Socha; Jodok, Fink; Bronisława, Skrzep-Poloczek; Marcin, Kłosok; Bogdan, Doleżych; Maria, Augustyniak; Agnieszka, Zawisza-Raszka; Michał, Kukla; Marek, Michalski; Aleksandra, Fimiarz; Krystyna, Żwirska-Korczala; Kondrad, Karcz Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Ileal transposition surgery is an increasingly used procedure in combination with sleeve gastrectomy to control obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A short-term effect on glycemia amelioration after the ileal transposition (IT) procedure is observed; however, it appears that the effect is time dependent, and it remains uncertain if this effect is also linked with an adipose tissue hormonal activity. Twenty male Zucker rats underwent IT or sham surgery. Six months after surgery, serum levels of adiponectin, vaspin, resistin, chemerin RBP4 were analyzed using ELISA kits. Tissue concentrations of glycogen sythase kinase alfa (GSK-3α), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6PC), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) in muscle and GLUT4 in visceral fat, white adipose tissue, and muscle were assessed in duplicate by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Additionally, the transposed ileum and analogical ileal segment of sham-operated rats were processed for histomorphometry analysis. The animals which underwent IT showed significantly a higher adiponectin and vaspin serum level. Concentrations of resistin decreased after IT surgery but were not significantly different between the groups. The plasma level of chemerin decreased significantly after IT and correlated negatively with adiponectin serum level in the IT group. The effects of IT on RBP4 serum level appeared to be significantly lower than those in the sham group and correlated with GLUT4 concentration in IT white adipose tissue negatively, but positively with the sham group. The data suggest that ileum transposition leads to a stimulatory effect on important adipokines involved in glucose metabolism. The adipokine serum level could be a useful biomarker of postoperative physiological state.

  14. Omentin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing properties, is negatively associated with insulin resistance in normal gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benny; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Hemi, Rina; Yinon, Yoav; Schiff, Eyal; Mashiach, Roy; Kanety, Hannah; Sivan, Eyal

    2015-05-01

    Omentin, a newly identified adipokine, enhances insulin mediated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, thus, inducing systemic insulin-sensitizing effect. The aims of this study were to determine whether circulating maternal omentin levels are associated with insulin resistance indices and to assess which compartment, maternal, fetal, or placental, is the source of omentin in maternal circulation. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and omentin were determined in 25 healthy pregnant women at the third trimester, before and 3 days after elective cesarean section. Cord blood omentin was measured in the 25 term neonates. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity before and after delivery. Antepartum maternal omentin levels were negatively correlated with insulin levels (r=-0.41, P=0.04) and positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S; r=0.4, P=0.04). Postpartum omentin levels were negatively correlated with maternal body mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Median maternal omentin levels was comparable before and after delivery (57.2, inter-quartile range: 38.2-76.2 ng/mL vs. 53.4, 39.8-69.4 ng/mL, respectively, P=0.25) and highly correlated (r=0.83, P<0.001). Antepartum maternal and neonatal omentin levels did not differ significantly (fetal: 62.2, 44.3-74.2 ng/mL, P=0.77) and did not correlate (P=0.6). Circulating maternal omentin levels are correlated with insulin resistance indices, suggesting that this adipokine may play a role in metabolic adaptations of normal gestation. The strong correlation between anteparum and postpartum maternal omentin levels, as well as the lack of association between maternal and neonatal omentin levels, suggest that placental or fetal compartments are unlikely as the main source of circulating maternal omentin.

  15. Comparison of gut hormones and adipokines stimulated by glucagon test among patients with type II diabetes mellitus after metabolic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Inui, Akio; Chang, En-Su; Chen, Shu-Chun; Lee, Wei-Jei; Chen, Chih-Yen

    2016-02-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) achieves a higher remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in non-morbidly obese patients. However, the mechanisms of the higher remission are unknown. To compare glucagon-provoked acute insulin responses, as well as changes of gut and pancreatic hormones and adipokines between patients with T2DM after RYGB and SG at one year post-operatively, a total of 14 RYGB and 13 SG patients were followed-up and evaluated for glucose metabolism, gut and pancreatic hormones, and adipokines. One year after surgery, 1-mg intravenous glucagon tests were performed. The differences in each hormone at different time points and the area under the curve (AUC) were compared between the two groups. Glucagon-stimulated acute insulin responses were not different between the RYGB and SG groups, nor were they different between the remitters and non-remitters at one year after the metabolic surgery. Plasma des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 levels significantly decreased at 6 min after glucagon stimulation in the RYGB and SG groups, as well as in the remitters and non-remitters. The glucagon test did not affect intestinal hormones. Plasma resistin was suppressed after intravenous glucagon stimulation in both RYGB and SG groups. In conclusion, intravenous glucagon inhibited plasma levels of des-acyl ghrelin, nesfatin-1, and resistin in T2DM patients at one year after both RYGB and SG, whereas post-glucagon suppression of plasma obestatin and resistin was shown in the remitters but not in the non-remitters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Guoyue, E-mail: yuanguoyue@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Zhou, Libin [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Li, Lianxi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Yang, Ying [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Mao, Chaoming [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Chen, Mingdao, E-mail: mingdaochensh@yahoo.com [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP increases TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-{gamma} mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin mRNA levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-{alpha}, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-{gamma} genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  17. Increasing Adiposity Is Associated With Higher Adipokine Levels and Lower Bone Mineral Density in Obese Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Lina; Napoli, Nicola; Waters, Debra; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although obesity is associated with high bone mass, recent reports suggest an increase in the incidence of fractures in obese patients. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the influence of increasing body fat on bone mineral density (BMD) and to determine the influence of the different adipokines on BMD in frail obese elderly patients. Design and Setting: This is a cross-sectional study of baseline characteristics of elderly obese patients participating in a lifestyle therapy with diet with or without exercise and conducted in a university setting. Patients: One hundred seventy-three, elderly (≥65 y old), obese (body mass index of ≥30 kg/m2) who were mostly frail participated in the study. Outcome Measures: BMD, percentage of total body fat, percentage of fat-free mass, percentage of lean mass, body mass index, adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, bone turnover markers (osteocalcin and C-telopeptide), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, free estradiol, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured. Results: Higher tertiles of percentage body fat and lower lean mass were associated with a lower BMD. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were highest in the highest fat tertile (third, 5.5 ± 5.4 vs first, 1.5 ± 1.3 mg/L, P BMD. Osteocalcin levels were highest in the highest fat tertile in women but not in men. Physical function test scores decreased with increasing fat tertiles in women (P BMD, higher adipokine levels, and worsening frailty in elderly obese adults. PMID:24878039

  18. The effects of an eight-week aerobic training program on plasma adipokine concentrations in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidlamir A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Obesity is currently a worldwide health epidemic which has incited major interest among researchers to look for the underlying mechanisms that regulate body weight. In fact, adiponectin and leptin concentrations that are called adipokines are altered in obesity with a decreased production of adiponectin and an increased production of leptin. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-insulin resistance properties, but increased levels of leptin are observed in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week aerobic training program on the plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in healthy middle-aged men. "n"nMethods : Thirty healthy middle-aged men were selected based on their body fat percentage and were assigned to two equal groups. The experimental group took the 8-week training, four days a week on alternate days with an intensity of 60-80% of their heart rate reserve but the control group lived their sedentary life. Blood samples were collected before and after the training program from all subjects and plasma adipokine levels were measured."n"nResults : Plasma adiponectin concentration increased while

  19. The role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines on exercise-induced bronchospasm in obese adolescents undergoing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patrícia Leão; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Sanches, Priscila Lima; Piano, Aline; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Carnier, June; Inoue, Daniela; do Nascimento, Claudia Mo; Oyama, Lila M; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sérgio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a greater prevalence in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in obese adolescents. However, the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines and the repercussions of obesity treatment on EIB need to be explored further. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines on EIB in obese adolescents evaluated after long-term interdisciplinary therapy. Thirty-five post-pubertal obese adolescents, including 20 non-EIB (body mass index [BMI] 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)) and 15 EIB (BMI 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)), were enrolled in this study. Body composition was measured by plethysmography, using the BOD POD body composition system, and visceral fat was analyzed by ultrasound. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were analyzed. EIB and lung function were evaluated according to the American Thoracic Society criteria. Patients were recruited to a 1-year interdisciplinary intervention of weight loss, consisting of medical, nutritional, exercise, and psychological components. Anthropometrics and lung function variables improved significantly after the therapy in both groups. Furthermore we observed a reduction in EIB occurrence in obese adolescents after treatment. There was an increase in adiponectin levels and a reduction in leptin levels after the therapy. In addition, a low FEV(1) value was a risk factor associated with EIB occurrence at baseline, and was correlated after treatment with changes in anthropometric and maximal O(2) consumption values as well as the adipokines profile. In the present study it was demonstrated that 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy decreased EIB frequency in obese adolescents, paralleled by an increase in lung function and improvement in pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines.

  20. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  1. Inhibitory effects of harpagoside on TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory adipokine expression through PPAR-γ activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kon; Park, Kyoung Sik

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is closely associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory adipokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, which contribute to chronic and low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Harpagoside, a major iridoid glycoside present in devil's claw, has been reported to show anti-inflammatory activities by suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in murine macrophages. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of harpagoside on both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced inflammatory adipokine expression and its underlying signaling pathways in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Harpagoside significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced mRNA synthesis and protein production of the atherogenic adipokines including IL-6, PAI-1, and MCP-1. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism revealed that pretreatment with harpagoside activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. These findings suggest that the clinical application of medicinal plants which contain harpagoside may lead to a partial prevention of obesity-induced atherosclerosis by attenuating inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship of adipokine to insulin sensitivity and glycemic regulation in obese women: The effect of body weight reduction by caloric restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velojić-Golubović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Visceral fat is highly active metabolic and endocrine tissue which secretes many adipokines that act both on local and systemic level. It is believed that adipokines and "low-grade inflammatory state" represent a potential link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Leptin and adiponectin are considered to be the most important adipokines with the potential metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Body weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and decreases risk for most complications associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate loss of body weight on the level of leptin and adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and abnormalities of glycoregulation in obese women, to determine whether and to what extent the secretory products of adipose tissue, leptin and adiponectin contribute to insulin sensitivity, as well as to assess their relationship and influence on glycemia and insulinemia during the period of losing body weight using a calorie restricted diet. Methods. The study involved 90 obese female subjects (BMI

  3. A cross-sectional study of the association between adipokine levels and bone mineral density according to obesity and menopausal status in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Ji-Hee; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Moon Jong; Koo, Hyung Suk; Kim, Hyung Yuk; Kim, Hye-Jung; Park, Ki Hyun; Joo, Nam-Seok; Park, Kyung-Chae

    2017-11-01

    Results regarding the association between adipokine levels and bone mineral density (BMD) have been inconsistent; the effects of sex, menopause, and central obesity remain unknown. We evaluated the association between serum leptin, adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and BMD according to menopause and central obesity status in Korean women. This cross-sectional study comprised 255 women undergoing examinations at the CHA Bundang Medical Center. Participants were divided according to menopause, and central obesity status. We measured serum adipokine levels and BMD using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, alkaline phosphatase levels and the Homeostasis Model Assessment index, leptin levels were negatively associated with non-vertebral BMD (total hip, β = -0.576, P = 0.006; femoral neck, β = -0.608, P = 0.007) in postmenopausal women without central obesity. Among women without central obesity, HMW adiponectin levels were positively associated with total hip BMD (β = 0.240, P = 0.010) in premenopausal women but negatively associated with BMD (lumbar, β = -0.436, P = 0.012; femoral neck, β = -0.468, P = 0.007) in postmenopausal women. Thus, the association between adipokine levels and BMD varies according to the menopause and central obesity status.

  4. Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: compartmentalization and physiological correlates.

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    Carlos O Mendivil

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of hormone regulation in lung parenchyma is quite limited. We aimed to quantify a diverse array of biologically relevant protein mediators in alveolar lining fluid (ALF, compared to serum concentrations, and explore factors associated with protein compartmentalization on either side of the air-blood barrier.Participants were 24 healthy adult non-smoker volunteers without respiratory symptoms or significant medical conditions, with normal lung exams and office spirometry. Cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were analyzed for 24 proteins (including enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines using a highly sensitive multiplex ELISA. Measurements were normalized to ALF concentrations. The ALF:serum concentration ratios were examined in relation to measures of protein size, hydrophobicity, charge, and to participant clinical and spirometric values.ALF measurements from 24 individuals detected 19 proteins, including adiponectin, adipsin, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, C-reactive protein, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and visfatin. C-peptide and serpin E1 were not detected in ALF for any individual, and IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were not detected in either ALF or serum for any individual. In general, ALF levels were similar or lower in concentration for most proteins compared to serum. However, ghrelin, resistin, insulin, visfatin and GLP-1 had ALF concentrations significantly higher compared to serum. Importantly, elevated ALF:serum ratios of ghrelin, visfatin and resistin correlated with protein net charge and isoelectric point, but not with molecular weight or hydrophobicity.Biologically relevant enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines can be detected in the ALF of

  5. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

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    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  6. Determining the association between adipokine expression in multiple tissues and phenotypic features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obesity

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    Wolfs, M G M; Gruben, N; Rensen, S S; Verdam, F J; Greve, J W; Driessen, A; Wijmenga, C; Buurman, W A; Franke, L; Scheja, L; Koonen, D P Y; Shiri-Sverdlov, R; van Haeften, T W; Hofker, M H; Fu, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-associated disease, and in obesity adipokines are believed to be involved in the development of NAFLD. However, it is still not clear whether adipokines in the liver and/or adipose tissues can be related to the development of specific characteristics of NAFLD, such as steatosis and inflammation. We aimed to address this question by simultaneously examining the adipokine expression in three tissue types in obese individuals. Methods: We enrolled 93 severely obese individuals with NAFLD, varying from simple steatosis to severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Their expression of 48 adipokines in the liver, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was correlated to their phenotypic features of NAFLD. We further determined whether the correlations were tissue specific and/or independent of covariates, including age, sex, obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Results: The expression of adipokines showed a liver- and adipose tissue-specific pattern. We identified that the expression of leptin, angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and chemerin in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was associated with different NAFLD features, including steatosis, ballooning, portal and lobular inflammation. In addition, the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C) (IGF1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) in the liver tissue and the expression of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) in both the liver and SAT were associated with NAFLD features. The correlations between ANGPT2 and CXCL10, and NAFLD features were dependent on insulin resistance and T2D, but for the other genes the correlation with at least one NAFLD feature remained significant after correcting for the covariates. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in obese individuals, VAT-derived leptin and chemerin, and hepatic expression of TNF, IGF1, IL

  7. Insulin resistance and adipokines serum levels in a caucasian cohort of hiv-positive patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy: a cross sectional study.

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    Arama, Victoria; Tiliscan, Catalin; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Ion, Daniela; Mihailescu, Raluca; Munteanu, Daniela; Hristea, Adriana; Arama, Stefan Sorin

    2013-01-26

    Insulin resistance is frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may be related to antiretroviral therapy. Cytokines secreted by adipose tissue (adipokines) are linked to insulin sensitivity. The present study is aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and its association with several adipokines, in a non-diabetic Romanian cohort of men and women with HIV-1 infection, undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A cross-sectional study was conducted in an unselected sample of 89 HIV-1-positive, non-diabetic patients undergoing stable cART for at least 6 months. Metabolic parameters were measured, including fasting plasma insulin, and circulating adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Insulin resistance was estimated by measuring the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI), using a cut-off value of 0.33. A linear regression model was fitted to QUICKI to test the association of IR and adipokines levels. A total of 89 patients (aged 18-65, median: 28 years) including 51 men (57.3%) and 38 women (42.7%) were included in the study. Fifty nine patients (66.3%) were diagnosed with IR based on QUICKI values lower than the cut-off point. IR prevalence was 72.5% in men and 57.6% in women. The presence of the IR was not influenced by either the time of the HIV diagnosis or by the duration of cART. Decreased adiponectin and increased serum triglycerides were associated with increased IR in men (R=0.43, p=0.007). Hyperleptinemia in women was demonstrated to be associated with the presence of IR (R=0.33, p=0.03). Given the significant prevalence of the IR in our young non-diabetic cohort with HIV infection undergoing antiretroviral therapy reported in our study and the consecutive risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events, we suggest that the IR management should be a central component of HIV-infection therapeutic strategy. As adipokines play major

  8. Insulin resistance and adipokines serum levels in a caucasian cohort of hiv-positive patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy: a cross sectional study

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    Arama Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance is frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and may be related to antiretroviral therapy. Cytokines secreted by adipose tissue (adipokines are linked to insulin sensitivity. The present study is aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR and its association with several adipokines, in a non-diabetic Romanian cohort of men and women with HIV-1 infection, undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an unselected sample of 89 HIV-1-positive, non-diabetic patients undergoing stable cART for at least 6 months. Metabolic parameters were measured, including fasting plasma insulin, and circulating adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels. Insulin resistance was estimated by measuring the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI, using a cut-off value of 0.33. A linear regression model was fitted to QUICKI to test the association of IR and adipokines levels. Results A total of 89 patients (aged 18–65, median: 28 years including 51 men (57.3% and 38 women (42.7% were included in the study. Fifty nine patients (66.3% were diagnosed with IR based on QUICKI values lower than the cut-off point. IR prevalence was 72.5% in men and 57.6% in women. The presence of the IR was not influenced by either the time of the HIV diagnosis or by the duration of cART. Decreased adiponectin and increased serum triglycerides were associated with increased IR in men (R=0.43, p=0.007. Hyperleptinemia in women was demonstrated to be associated with the presence of IR (R=0.33, p=0.03. Conclusions Given the significant prevalence of the IR in our young non-diabetic cohort with HIV infection undergoing antiretroviral therapy reported in our study and the consecutive risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events, we suggest that the IR management should be a central component of HIV

  9. Effects of clozapine on adipokine secretions/productions and lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

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    Tomomi Tsubai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA, is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT2C and histamine H1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin. Long-term exposure decreased leptin as well as adiponectin secretion, and further increased lipid droplets accumulation. However, short- and long-term exposures to blonanserin did not affect these parameters. A selective serotonin 5-HT2C, but not a histamine H1, receptor antagonist enhanced the decreased secretion of leptin induced by short-term exposure to clozapine, but did not affect the increased accumulation of lipid droplets. Our findings indicate that clozapine, but not blonanserin, strongly and directly affected the secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, in adipocytes and caused adipocyte enlargement.

  10. Effects of clozapine on adipokine secretions/productions and lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

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    Tsubai, Tomomi; Yoshimi, Akira; Hamada, Yoji; Nakao, Makoto; Arima, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2017-02-01

    Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT 2C and histamine H 1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin. Long-term exposure decreased leptin as well as adiponectin secretion, and further increased lipid droplets accumulation. However, short- and long-term exposures to blonanserin did not affect these parameters. A selective serotonin 5-HT 2C , but not a histamine H 1 , receptor antagonist enhanced the decreased secretion of leptin induced by short-term exposure to clozapine, but did not affect the increased accumulation of lipid droplets. Our findings indicate that clozapine, but not blonanserin, strongly and directly affected the secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, in adipocytes and caused adipocyte enlargement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanism of Butyrate Stimulation of Triglyceride Storage and Adipokine Expression during Adipogenic Differentiation of Porcine Stromovascular Cells

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    Yan, Hui; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.

    2015-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), products of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, exert multiple metabolic effects in cells. Previously, we had demonstrated that soluble fiber influenced fat mass accumulation, gut microbial community structure and SCFA production in pigs. The current study was designed to identify effects of SCFA treatment during adipogenic differentiation of porcine stromovascular cells on lipid metabolism and adipokine expression. Differentiating cells were treated with varying concentrations of butyrate. Results show that butyrate treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, perhaps through upregulation of glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis and other mechanisms that include induction of SREBP-1c, C/EBPα/β, GLUT4, LPL, PPARγ, GPAT4, DGAT1 and DGAT2 expression. In addition, butyrate induced adiponectin expression, resulting in activation of downstream target genes, such as AMPK and AKT. Activation of AMPK by butyrate led to phosphorylation of ACC. Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Our studies also provide evidence that butyrate may inhibit lipolysis, perhaps in an FFAR3-dependent manner. Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:26713737

  12. Mechanism of Butyrate Stimulation of Triglyceride Storage and Adipokine Expression during Adipogenic Differentiation of Porcine Stromovascular Cells.

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    Hui Yan

    Full Text Available Short chain fatty acids (SCFA, products of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, exert multiple metabolic effects in cells. Previously, we had demonstrated that soluble fiber influenced fat mass accumulation, gut microbial community structure and SCFA production in pigs. The current study was designed to identify effects of SCFA treatment during adipogenic differentiation of porcine stromovascular cells on lipid metabolism and adipokine expression. Differentiating cells were treated with varying concentrations of butyrate. Results show that butyrate treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, perhaps through upregulation of glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis and other mechanisms that include induction of SREBP-1c, C/EBPα/β, GLUT4, LPL, PPARγ, GPAT4, DGAT1 and DGAT2 expression. In addition, butyrate induced adiponectin expression, resulting in activation of downstream target genes, such as AMPK and AKT. Activation of AMPK by butyrate led to phosphorylation of ACC. Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Our studies also provide evidence that butyrate may inhibit lipolysis, perhaps in an FFAR3-dependent manner. Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity.

  13. Association Between Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Biomarkers Related to Insulin Resistance, Subclinical Inflammation, and Adipokines.

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    Wolf, Kathrin; Popp, Anita; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Hampel, Regina; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Koenig, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette

    2016-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is present long before the onset of type 2 diabetes and results not only from inherited and lifestyle factors but also likely from environmental conditions. We investigated the association between modeled long-term exposure to air pollution at residence and biomarkers related to IR, subclinical inflammation, and adipokines. Data were based on 2,944 participants of the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region Augsburg) F4 study conducted in southern Germany (2006-2008). We analyzed associations between individual air pollution concentration estimated by land use regression and HOMA-IR, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels from fasting samples using multivariable linear regression models. Effect estimates were calculated for the whole study population and subgroups of individuals who did not have diabetes, had prediabetes, or had diabetes. Among all participants, a 7.9 μg/m(3) increment in particulate matter of air pollution and IR in the general population was attributable mainly to individuals with diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Altered genes profile of renin-angiotensin system, immune system, and adipokines receptors in leukocytes of children with primary hypertension.

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    Litwin, Mieczysław; Michałkiewicz, Jacek; Trojanek, Joanna; Niemirska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Szalecki, Mieczysław

    2013-02-01

    Renin-angiotensin system, metabolic abnormalities, and immune activity have a role in the pathogenesis of primary hypertension. We assessed the leukocyte mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme, renin, angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor, CD14 molecule, adiponectin type 1 receptor, and leptin receptor in hypertensive children before and after nonpharmacological treatment. Leukocyte mRNA expression was measured by means of quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 23 hypertensive children before and after 6 months of nonpharmacological treatment based on dietary advice and physical activities. Twenty-three normotensive children matched for age, sex, and body mass index served as a control group. Before treatment patients had elevated expression of angiotensin converting enzyme and CD14 mRNA, decreased expression of angiotensinogen and angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA, and unchanged expression of renin, adiponectin, and leptin receptors mRNA as compared with controls. Renin mRNA negatively correlated with 24-hour mean arterial pressure and carotid intima-media thickness. Six months of nonpharmacological treatment caused decrease of blood pressure and normalization of metabolic abnormalities. Renin, adiponectin, and leptin receptors mRNA expression decreased and were lower than in control group. Changes in blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, body mass index, and waist circumference did not correlate with changes in the expression of renin-angiotensin system genes, CD14, leptin, and adiponectin receptors mRNA. We conclude that leukocytes of hypertensive children displayed alterations in the expression of renin-angiotensin system genes as well as those of CD14. Nonpharmacological treatment resulted in downregulation of genes involved in renin-angiotensin activation and those engaged in leukocyte responses to adipokines.

  15. Adipokines : rôle dans l’obésité et l’insulino‐résistance

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    Aubert Roberte

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Le tissu adipeux longtemps considéré comme un organe de stockage est maintenant reconnu comme un organe endocrine. Cette revue étudie l’action de 3 adipokines sécrétées par le tissu adipeux et impliquées dans le contrôle de l’homéostasie énergétique et l’insulino‐résistance, la leptine, l’adiponectine et la résistine. La découverte de la leptine a permis la compréhension des mécanismes centraux de la prise alimentaire et de la dépense énergétique. L’espoir que la leptine puisse intervenir dans le traitement de l’obésité a été déçu, mais elle joue un rôle important dans l’insulino‐sensibilité. L’adiponectine circulante est diminuée dans l’obésité et la perte pondérale augmente son taux. Elle améliore la sensibilité à l’insuline en agissant sur le métabolisme glucidique et lipidique. Bien que pour le moment le rôle de la résistine soit encore mal défini, les études chez l’animal suggèrent qu’elle soit impliqués dans l’insulino‐résistance. Chez l’homme il n’y a pas de relation entre l’expression de la résistine et l’obésité. On peut donc se demander si la résistine, dans l’espèce humaine, est bien le lien entre obésité et diabète de type 2.

  16. Periodontitis contributes to aberrant metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by stimulating the expression of adipokines.

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    Luo, S; Yang, X; Wang, D; Ni, J; Wu, J; Xu, Z; Xuan, D; Zhang, J

    2016-08-01

    Periodontitis has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of local aberrant secretion of adipokines in diabetic rats on systemic metabolism. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used as a diabetic model and associated control, respectively. Periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature for 36 wk. Rats were grouped into OLETF with (OP+) or without (OP-) periodontitis and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka with (LP+) or without (LP-) periodontitis. Alveolar bone resorption and destruction were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining. After 20 wk of periodontitis induction, lipids, insulin, interleukin-1, leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were analyzed, and mRNA expressions of NF-κB, Mark8, TLR2 and -4, IKBKB and Nampt were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in adipose tissue. After ligation, OLETF rats exhibited typical periodontitis lesions with the clinical features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. When compared with the OP(-) group, the area under curve of the oral glucose tolerance test and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were significantly higher in the OP(+) group. Micro-computed tomography showed that the OP(+) group had more bone resorption than the OP(-) group. When compared with the OP(-) group, the OP(+) group also exhibited higher total cholesterol (p 0.05) and higher expression of Nampt (p periodontitis can alter lipid profiles in affected rats, elevate adipose tissue expression of Nampt and affect the metabolism of adipose tissue through the NF-κB pathway to inflame diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. New adipokines vaspin and omentin. Circulating levels and gene expression in adipose tissue from morbidly obese women

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    Aguilar Carmen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaspin and omentin are recently described molecules that belong to the adipokine family and seem to be related to metabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were twofold: to evaluate vaspin and omentin circulating levels and mRNA expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in non-diabetic morbidly obese women; and to assess the relationship of vaspin and omentin with anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and other adipo/cytokines. Design We analysed vaspin and omentin circulating levels in 71 women of European descent (40 morbidly obese [BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2] and 31 lean [BMI ≤ 25]. We assessed vaspin and omentin gene expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from 46 women: 40 morbidly obese and 6 lean. We determined serum vaspin and plasma omentin levels with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and adipose tissue mRNA expression by real time RT-PCR. Results Serum vaspin levels in the morbidly obese were not significantly different from those in controls. They correlated inversely with levels of lipocalin 2 and interleukin 6. Vaspin mRNA expression was significantly higher in the morbidly obese, in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma omentin levels were significantly lower in the morbidly obese and they correlated inversely with glucidic metabolism parameters. Omentin circulating levels, then, correlated inversely with the metabolic syndrome (MS. Omentin expression in visceral adipose tissue was significantly lower in morbidly obese women than in controls. Conclusions The present study indicates that vaspin may have a compensatory role in the underlying inflammation of obesity. Decreased omentin circulating levels have a close association with MS in morbidly obese women.

  18. Effects of a 12-week lifestyle intervention on health outcome and serum adipokines in middle-aged Korean men with borderline high blood pressure.

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    Kim, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Woon; Kang, Ji Yeon; Choi, Tae In; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-10-01

    High blood pressure, in relation to blood levels of adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin, is highly associated with an unhealthy lifestyle including sedentary behaviors, poor dietary habits such as excess sodium intake, and heavy drinking. Strategies to reduce blood pressure may benefit the levels of adipokines. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of lifestyle intervention on blood pressure and serum adipokines in middle-aged Korean men with borderline high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥ 130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure [DBP] ≥ 85 mm Hg). Fifty-two men (aged 42.5 ± 8.5 years) with normal weight (body mass index [BMI] sodium diet, how to understand calorie requirements, and strategies to implement regular exercise for blood pressure regulation over 12 weeks. In order to increase the awareness of sodium education, a salt sensory test using an unseasoned soup was performed. Anthropometrics, blood pressure measurements, 24-hour recalls were performed, and blood levels of lipids, fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, and adiponectin were analyzed at week 0 and at week 12. Sodium consumption was roughly estimated using the Dish-based Frequency Questionnaire-15. Weight, BMI, body fat (kg and %), waist circumference, hip circumference, and blood pressure were significantly decreased after 12 weeks (p leptin were significantly higher in the obese subjects than in the normal weight subjects. In the obese subjects, a significantly negative correlation was found between leptin levels at baseline and percentage change in DBP (r = -0.338, p leptin was negatively associated with the changes in blood pressure after this short-term intervention.

  19. The role of leptin in the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease. Interactions with the adipokines amylin, ghrelin and the pituitary hormone prolactin.

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    Folch, Jaume; Patraca, Iván; Martínez, Nohora; Pedrós, Ignacio; Petrov, Dmitry; Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Marin, Miguel; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Camins, Antoni

    2015-11-01

    Leptin (Lep) is emerging as a pivotal molecule involved in both the early events and the terminal phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the canonical pathway, Lep acts as an anorexigenic factor via its effects on hypothalamic nucleus. However, additional functions of Lep in the hippocampus and cortex have been unravelled in recent years. Early events in the sporadic form of AD likely involve cellular level alterations which can have an effect on food intake and metabolism. Thus, AD can be conceivably interpreted as a multiorgan pathology that not only results in a dramatic neuronal loss in brain areas such as the hippocampus and the cortex (ultimately leading to a significant cognitive impairment) but as a disease which also affects body-weight homeostasis. According to this view, body-weight control disruptions are to be expected in both the early- and late-stage AD, concomitant with changes in serum Lep content, alterations in Lep transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and Lep receptor-related signalling abnormalities. Lep is a member of the adipokine family of molecules, while the Lep receptor belongs to the class I cytokine receptors. Since cellular response to adipokine signalling can be either potentiated or diminished as a result of specific ligand-receptor interactions, Lep interactions with other members of the adipokine family including amylin, ghrelin and hormones such as prolactin require further investigation. In this review, we provide a general perspective on the functions of Lep in the brain, with a particular focus on the sporadic AD.

  20. Distinct effects of oleic acid and its trans-isomer elaidic acid on the expression of myokines and adipokines in cell models.

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    Granados, Nuria; Amengual, Jaume; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2011-04-01

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) and cis-monounsaturated fat appear to exert detrimental and beneficial effects, respectively, on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle are a source of signalling proteins (adipokines and myokines), some of which have been related to the control of insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigated the possible differential effects of elaidic acid (EA; trans-9-18 : 1) - the major component in industrially produced TFA - and oleic acid (OA; cis-9-18 : 1) - its cis-isomer naturally present in food - on cellular glucose uptake and the expression of selected myokines and adipokines using cell models. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were pretreated with the vehicle (control cells) or fatty acids for 24 h, after which basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake and the expression of selected signalling proteins were measured. In C2C12 myotubes, pretreatment with OA, but not with EA, led to increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake and IL-6 expression levels, while pretreatment with EA, but not with OA, led to reduced IL-15 mRNA levels and increased TNF-α expression levels. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, exposure to OA, but not to EA, resulted in reduced resistin gene expression and increased adiponectin gene expression. The results show evidence of distinct, direct effects of OA and EA on muscle glucose uptake and the expression of target myokines and adipokines, thus suggesting novel mechanisms by which cis- and trans-monounsaturated fat may differentially affect systemic functions.

  1. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

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    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  2. Is a child's growth pattern early in life related to serum adipokines at the age of 10 years?

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    Flexeder, C; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Klümper, C; Koletzko, B; Müller, M J; Koletzko, S; Heinrich, J

    2014-01-01

    Growth parameters during infancy and early childhood might predict adipokine levels later in life. This study investigates the association between peak growth velocities, body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity rebound (AR), with leptin and adiponectin levels at age 10 years. Peak height (PHV) and weight (PWV) velocities were calculated from height and weight measurements obtained between birth and age 2 years from 2880 children participating in the GINIplus (German Infant Nutritional Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISAplus (Influences of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Immune System and the Development of Allergies in Childhood plus Air Pollution and Genetics) birth cohorts. BMI and age at AR were calculated using BMI measurements between age 1.5 and 12 years. Blood samples were collected during a physical examination at age 10. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models were fitted after adjustment for potential confounding factors and results are presented per interquartile range increase in the exposure. Age at AR was negatively associated with leptin in males and females (percent difference β*: -41.71%; 95% confidence interval: (-44.34;-38.96) and β*: -43.22%; (-45.59; -40.75), respectively). For both males and females PWV (β*: 14.23%; (7.60; 21.26) and β*: 18.54%; (10.76; 26.87), respectively) and BMI at AR (β*: 63.08%; (55.04; 71.53) and β*: 67.02%; (59.30; 75.10), respectively) were positively associated with leptin levels. PHV showed a positive effect on leptin in females only (β*: 10.75%; (3.73; 18.25)). Growth parameters were not significantly associated with adiponectin except for age at AR among females (β: 0.75 ng/ml; (0.42; 1.09)) and PWV among males (β: 0.45 ng/ml; (0.11; 0.79)). Growth patterns in early life may be associated with leptin levels at age 10 years.

  3. Overexpressing the novel autocrine/endocrine adipokine WISP2 induces hyperplasia of the heart, white and brown adipose tissues and prevents insulin resistance

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    Grünberg, John R; Hoffmann, Jenny M; Hedjazifar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    WISP2 is a novel adipokine, most highly expressed in the adipose tissue and primarily in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. As a secreted protein, it is an autocrine/paracrine activator of canonical WNT signaling and, as an intracellular protein, it helps to maintain precursor cells undifferenti......WISP2 is a novel adipokine, most highly expressed in the adipose tissue and primarily in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. As a secreted protein, it is an autocrine/paracrine activator of canonical WNT signaling and, as an intracellular protein, it helps to maintain precursor cells...... undifferentiated. To examine effects of increased WISP2 in vivo, we generated an aP2-WISP2 transgenic (Tg) mouse. These mice had increased serum levels of WISP2, increased lean body mass and whole body energy expenditure, hyperplastic brown/white adipose tissues and larger hyperplastic hearts. Obese Tg mice...... of Tg adipose tissue improved glucose tolerance in recipient mice supporting a role of secreted FAHFAs. The growth-promoting effect of WISP2 was shown by increased BrdU incorporation in vivo and Tg serum increased mesenchymal precursor cell proliferation in vitro. In contrast to conventional canonical...

  4. Association between the chondrocyte phenotype and the expression of adipokines and their receptors: evidence for a role of leptin but not adiponectin in the expression of cartilage-specific markers.

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    Francin, Pierre-Jean; Guillaume, Cécile; Humbert, Anne-Claude; Pottie, Pascale; Netter, Patrick; Mainard, Didier; Presle, Nathalie

    2011-11-01

    Although extensive evidence support the key role of adipokines in cartilage homeostasis, contradictory data have been found for their expression and their effects in chondrocytes. This study was then undertaken to determine whether a phenotypic modulation may affect the expression of adipokines and their receptors in human chondrocytes. The expression of leptin, adiponectin and their receptors, as well as cartilage-specific genes was examined in chondrocytes obtained from patients with osteoarthritis either directly after cells harvest or after culture in monolayer or in alginate beads. The results showed major changes in the gene expression pattern after culture in monolayer with a shift from the adipokines to their receptors. Interestingly, this downregulation of adipokines was associated with a loss of chondrocyte phenotype, and chondrocytes recovered a cartilage-like expression profile of leptin and adiponectin when cultured in a tridimensional chondrocyte phenotype-inducing system, but ceased expressing their receptors. Further experiments clearly showed that leptin but not adiponectin promoted the expression of cartilage-specific markers through mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling pathways. In conclusion, our data indicate that any phenotypic modulation could affect chondrocyte responsiveness to leptin or adiponectin, and provide evidence for an important role for leptin in regulating the expression of cartilage-specific markers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Exercise and dietary advice intervention for survivors of triple-negative breast cancer: effects on body fat, physical function, quality of life, and adipokine profile.

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    Swisher, Anne K; Abraham, Jame; Bonner, Daniel; Gilleland, Diana; Hobbs, Gerald; Kurian, Sobha; Yanosik, Mary Anne; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Regular exercise and healthy eating are routinely recommended for breast cancer survivors, and past studies show benefits in quality of life and decreased inflammation. However, this has not been tested specifically in triple-negative breast cancer survivors. Increasing physical activity and losing body fat are thought to positively affect inflammatory biomarkers that have been associated with breast cancer. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an exercise and dietary counseling program can improve body fat, physical function, and quality of life in survivors of this aggressive breast cancer. Secondarily, we sought to determine if participation in the program had beneficial effects on obesity-related markers of the adipokine profile. Sixty-six survivors of triple-negative breast cancer with BMI >25 were invited to participate. Twenty-eight enrolled and 23 completed the randomized, controlled trial (13 intervention, 10 control). Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (150 min per week, for 12 weeks) and diet counseling were compared to usual care, education only. The primary outcome of interest was weight loss (body mass, BMI, % fat), and secondary outcomes included physical function (exercise capacity), quality of life (Function After Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B)), cytokines (C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-6), and adipokine profile (leptin, adiponectin, insulin). Participants in the program lost more body fat (2.4 % loss vs. 0.4 % gain, p exercise capacity. The intervention had no effect on serum cytokines and adipokines after 12 weeks in the program. However, serum leptin and adiponectin and their ratio were significantly correlated with BMI in the intervention group (p Exercise and dietary counseling led to loss of body fat and improved quality of life in survivors of triple-negative breast cancer. BMI was associated with favorable changes in leptin and adiponectin which may reflect a change in adiposity with

  6. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction.

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    Yea Eun Kang

    Full Text Available The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25. The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037 but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035 but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and

  7. Comparative Assessment of Serum Adipokines Zinc-α2-glycoprotein and Adipose Triglyceride Lipase, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Between Normal Weight and Obese Patients with Hemodialysis.

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    Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Yaseri, Mehdi; Zahed, Narges Sadat; Alipoor, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the potential relationship of obesity, adipose tissue and novel adipokines with cardiometabolic risk factors in end-stage renal disease. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are novel adipokines with proposed desirable effects on inflammation, and lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of ZAG and ATGL, and the relationship of these adipokines with cardiovascular risk factors in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) patients undergoing hemodialysis. Patients with regular hemodialysis including 44 normal weight (18.5

  8. Adipokines, insulin resistance, and adiposity as a predictors of metabolic syndrome in child survivors of lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia of a developing country.

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    Barbosa-Cortés, Lourdes; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Del Carmen Rodríguez-Zepeda, María; Rivera-Márquez, Hugo; de la Vega-Martínez, Alan; Martin-Trejo, Jorge; Shum-Luis, Juan; Solis-Labastida, Karina; López-Aguilar, Enrique; Matute-González, Guadalupe; Bernaldez-Rios, Roberto

    2017-02-13

    There is a growing body of evidence indicating that pediatric survivors of cancer are at a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome. This study evaluated some probable predictors of metabolic syndrome (MS), such as leptin and adiponectin concentrations, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, insulin resistance, and adiposity, in a sample of child survivors of lymphoma and leukemia in Mexico City. Fifty two children (leukemia n = 26, lymphoma n = 26), who were within the first 5 years after cessation of therapy, were considered as eligible to participate in the study. Testing included fasting insulin, glucose, adipokines and lipids; body fat mass was measured by DXA. The MS components were analyzed according to tertiles of adipokines, insulin resistance, and adiposity. Comparisons between continuous variables were performed according to the data distribution. The MS components were analyzed according to tertiles of adipokines, insulin resistance, and adiposity. With the purpose of assessing the risk of a present MS diagnosis, odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% IC) were obtained using logistic regression analysis according to the various metabolic markers. The median children age was 12.1 years, and the interval time from the completion of therapy to study enrollment was 4 years. Among the MS components, the prevalence of HDL-C low was most common (42%), followed by central obesity (29%). The HOMA-IR (OR 9.0, 95% CI 2.0; 41.1), body fat (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.6; 19.3), leptin level (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6; 20.2) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (OR 9.4, 95% CI 2.0; 49.8) in the highest tertile, were predictive factors of developing MS; whereas the lowest tertile of adiponectin was associated with a protective effect but not significant. Biomarkers such as HOMA-IR, leptin and leptin/adiponectin are associated with each of the components of the MS and with a heightened risk of suffering MS among children survivors of cancer. Given the close relationship

  9. Effect of aerobic interval training on serum IL-10, TNFα, and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis: possible relations with fatigue and quality of life.

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    Mokhtarzade, Motahare; Ranjbar, Rouholah; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Patel, Darpan; Molanouri Shamsi, Mehdieh

    2017-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the relationship between these factors with fatigue and quality of life were assessed. Forty women with multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤3) were randomized into either a non-exercising control or training group. The training group performed 8-weeks of upper and lower limb aerobic interval training. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factorα, interleukin-10, leptin, and adiponectin were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Moreover, antropometric measures and measures for fatigue and quality of life were determined at the onset of and after exercise training. The results revealed that leptin and tumor necrosis factorα levels significantly decreased subsequent to the aerobic interval training. Although blood adiponectin levels considerably increased in the training group, interleukin-10 and interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factorα ratio underwent no substantial change after the exercise training. In addition, the aerobic interval training was associated with improvement in fatigue, quality of life, and maximal oxygen consumption. Our findings suggested that aerobic interval training can be an effective strategy for managing the immune system at least by its significant impact on inflammatory cytokines and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis. Additionally, this positive impact improved fatigue and adipose tissue indicators.

  10. Exercise-Induced Weight Loss is More Effective than Dieting for Improving Adipokine Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation in Obese Men.

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    Khoo, Joan; Dhamodaran, Subbiah; Chen, Dan-Dan; Yap, Siew-Yoon; Chen, Richard Yuan-Tud; Tian, Roger Ho-Heng

    2015-12-01

    The adipokines chemerin and adiponectin are reciprocally related in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Weight loss increases adiponectin and reduces chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammation, but the effects of caloric restriction and physical activity are difficult to separate in combined lifestyle modification. We compared effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on chemerin, adiponectin, insulin resistance, and inflammation in obese men. Eighty abdominally obese Asian men (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2), waist circumference [WC] ≥ 90 cm, mean age 42.6 years) were randomized to reduce daily intake by ~500 kilocalories (n = 40) or perform moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise (200-300 min/week) (n = 40) to increase energy expenditure by a similar amount for 24 weeks. The diet and exercise groups had similar decreases in energy deficit (-456 ± 338 vs. -455 ± 315 kcal/day), weight (-3.6 ± 3.4 vs. -3.3 ± 4.6 kg), and WC (-3.4 ± 4.4 vs. -3.6 ± 3.2 cm). The exercise group demonstrated greater reductions in fat mass (-3.9 ± 3.5 vs. -2.7 ± 5.3 kg), serum chemerin (-9.7 ± 11.1 vs. -4.3 ± 12.4 ng/ml), the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-2.11 ± 3.13 vs. -1.49 ± 3.08 mg/L), and insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment (-2.45 ± 1.88 vs. -1.38 ± 3.77). Serum adiponectin increased only in the exercise group. Exercise-induced fat mass loss was more effective than dieting for improving adipokine profile, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation in obese men, underscoring metabolic benefits of increased physical activity.

  11. Age may determine the effect of hypolipidemic agents on plasma adipokine levels in patients with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

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    Krysiak, Robert; Żmuda, Witold; Marek, Bogdan; Okopień, Bogusław

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-lowering agents affect adipose tissue function. No study has investigated the role of age in the effects of hypolipidaemic agents on plasma adipokines. The study was a retrospective analysis of data of 65 hypercholesterolaemic patients treated for 90 days with simvastatin, ezetimibe, or simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy. Circulating levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), as well as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were assessed separately for patients aged between 35 and 50 years and between 51 and 65 years, at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Patients in the age between 51 and 65 years had higher plasma levels of TNF-alpha and hsCRP, and lower plasma levels of adiponectin than patients aged between 35 and 50 years. In both age groups, simvastatin reduced plasma levels of hsCRP, leptin, visfatin, and TNF-alpha and increased circulating levels of adiponectin. This effect was particularly pronounced if simvastatin was administered in combination with ezetimibe. Ezetimibe alone increased plasma adiponectin and reduced plasma levels of leptin and hsCRP only in older adults. Irrespectively of age, ezetimibe administered alone did not affect visfatin and TNF-alpha. The effect of simvastatin on plasma hsCRP and the investigated adipokines did not differ between both groups. In turn, the effect of ezetimibe and simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy on leptin, adiponectin, and hsCRP was stronger in older than in younger adults. Our results show that age may partially determine the effect of ezetimibe, but not of simvastatin, on adipose tissue function. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (3): 271-276).

  12. A prospective 4-year study of insulin resistance and adipokines in morbidly obese diabetic and non-diabetic patients after gastric banding

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    Vaidotas Urbanavicius

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There are insufficient data regarding the changes in adipokine levels after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB in diabetic and non-diabetic patients and their effects on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes remission. Aim : To assess leptin, adiponectin, and insulin resistance changes after LAGB in diabetic and non-diabetic morbidly obese patients. Material and methods : One hundred and three patients (37 with and 66 without type 2 diabetes underwent LAGB from January 2009 to January 2010. Glycated hemoglobin, insulin, adipokine levels and insulin resistance were evaluated preoperatively, and 1 and 4 years after LAGB. Results : The mean patient age was 45.9 ±11.7 years and mean preoperative body mass index was 47.5 ±7.3 kg/m2. A total of 80 of 103 patients (77.6% completed the 4-year follow-up. After 4 years the mean excess weight loss was 38.8% and 39.5% in diabetic and non-diabetic patients respectively. Leptin levels decreased significantly in both groups at 1 year, but after 4 years this was noted only in non-diabetic patients. After 1 year adiponectin levels increased significantly only in non-diabetic patients (p = 0.003 and remained almost the same at 4 years. A significant decrease in insulin resistance was noted in both groups 1 year after LAGB and diabetes remission was observed in 23 (62.1% patients. There was a negative correlation between preoperative insulin resistance and adiponectin levels throughout the follow-up period. Leptin levels positively correlated with BMI throughout the study period (baseline r = 0.45; p < 0.001; after 1 year r = 0.71; p < 0.001; after 4 years r = 0.68; p < 0.001. There was no significant correlation between leptin and adiponectin concentrations preoperatively or after 1 year; however, at 4 years it was significant (r = 0.27; p < 0.02. Conclusions : The most significant metabolic changes occurred within 1 year after LAGB. The 4-year follow-up revealed stabilization in

  13. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Circulating Levels of Novel Adipokine Adipolin/CTRP12 in Overweight and Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Mehrdadi, P; Kolahdouz Mohammadi, R; Alipoor, E; Eshraghian, M R; Esteghamati, A; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M J

    2017-03-01

    Background: Adipolin, the novel adipokine that is proposed to be reduced in diabetes, obesity and inflammation, may improve glycemic control. It is known that coenzyme Q10 could improve insulin sensitivity. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of Q10 supplementation on adipolin concentration and glucose metabolism in overweight and obese diabetic patients. Material & Methods: Sixty four patients with type 2 diabetes and 25Q10 or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Fasting serum levels of adipolin, glucose, insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were measured before and after supplementation. Results: Following supplementation, adipolin levels decreased significantly in Q10 group (38.19±32.02 to 29.03±34.23 ng/ml;P=0.001). HbA1c decreased dramatically following supplementation only in Q10 group (8.6±2.2% to 7.9±2.1%, PQ10 compared to placebo group at the end of study (P=0.056). Moreover, weight (P=0.003), BMI (P=0.003) and waist circumference (P=0.016) decreased significantly in Q10 group. No significant alterations were observed in FBS, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR within or between Q10 and placebo groups. Conclusions: Coenzyme Q10 reduced HbA1c considerably in overweight and obese patients with diabetes, although interestingly adipolin levels declined simultaneously. In this study, Q10 modulated glucose homeostasis, which was expected to be mediated by increasing adipolin. The similar mechanisms of action of Q10 and adipolin may justify lowering effect of Q10 on adipolin. In addition, the possible anti-adipogenic effect of Q10 might explain the significant reduction in weight and waist circumference and hence the adipolin decrease. Further studies are required to evaluate the precise role of adipolin in glucose metabolism as well as the probable effects of coenzyme Q10 on adipose tissue and adipokines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Adding anthropometric measures of regional adiposity to BMI improves prediction of cardiometabolic, inflammatory and adipokines profiles in youths: a cross-sectional study.

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    Samouda, Hanen; de Beaufort, Carine; Stranges, Saverio; Guinhouya, Benjamin C; Gilson, Georges; Hirsch, Marco; Jacobs, Julien; Leite, Sonia; Vaillant, Michel; Dadoun, Frédéric

    2015-10-24

    Paediatric research analysing the relationship between the easy-to-use anthropometric measures for adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors remains highly controversial in youth. Several studies suggest that only body mass index (BMI), a measure of relative weight, constitutes an accurate predictor, whereas others highlight the potential role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (Waist C), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of adding anthropometric measures of body fat distribution (Waist C Z Score, WHR Z Score and/or WHtR) to BMI Z Score to predict cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese youth. We also examined the consistency of these associations with the "total fat mass + trunk/legs fat mass" and/or the "total fat mass + trunk fat mass" combinations, as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the gold standard measurement of body composition. Anthropometric and DXA measurements of total and regional adiposity, as well as a comprehensive assessment of cardiometabolic, inflammatory and adipokines profiles were performed in 203 overweight and obese 7-17 year-old youths from the Paediatrics Clinic, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg. Adding only one anthropometric surrogate of regional fat to BMI Z Score improved the prediction of insulin resistance (WHR Z Score, R(2): 45.9%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 45.5%), HDL-cholesterol (WHR Z Score, R(2): 9.6%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 10.8%. WHtR, R(2): 6.5%), triglycerides (WHR Z Score, R(2): 11.7%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 12.2%), adiponectin (WHR Z Score, R(2): 14.3%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 17.7%), CRP (WHR Z Score, R(2): 18.2%. WHtR, R(2): 23.3%), systolic (WHtR, R(2): 22.4%), diastolic blood pressure (WHtR, R(2): 20%) and fibrinogen (WHtR, R(2): 21.8%). Moreover, WHR Z Score, Waist C Z Score and/or WHtR showed an independent significant contribution according to these models. These results were in line with the DXA findings. Adding

  15. Effects of varying degrees of intermittent hypoxia on proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines in rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

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    Qing He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Intermittent hypoxia (IH, resulted from recurring episodes of upper airway obstruction, is the hallmark feature and the most important pathophysiologic pathway of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. IH is believed to be the most important factor causing systemic inflammation. Studies suggest that insulin resistance (IR is positively associated with OSA. In this study, we hypothesized that the recurrence of IH might result in cellular and systemic inflammation, which was manifested through the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines after IH exposure, and because IR is linked with inflammation tightly, this inflammatory situation may implicate an IR status. METHODS: We developed an IH 3T3-L1 adipocyte and rat model respectively, recapitulating the nocturnal oxygen profile in OSA. In IH cells, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB DNA binding reactions, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1, necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL -6, leptin, adiponectin mRNA transcriptional activities and protein expressions were measured. In IH rats, blood glucose, insulin, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin and adiponectin levels were analyzed. RESULTS: The insulin and blood glucose levels in rats and NF-κB DNA binding activities in cells had significantly statistical results described as severe IH>moderate IH>mild IH>sustained hypoxia>control. The mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1α and Glut-1 in severe IH group were the highest. In cellular and animal models, both the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin were the highest in severe IH group, when the lowest in severe IH group for adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/adipokines, which are the systemic inflammatory markers, are associated with IH closely and are proportional to the severity of IH. Because IR and glucose intolerance are linked with inflammation tightly, our results may implicate the clinical

  16. Adipokines and Sexual Hormones Associated with the Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Pharmacologically Untreated Subjects: Data from the Brisighella Heart Study

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    Arrigo F. G. Cicero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the association of the sex hormone pattern and the serum level of the main adipokines to metabolic syndrome (MS and its components in 199 pharmacologically untreated subjects. Men and women included in the age-class subgroups were matched for body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, fasting plasma glucose, and plasma lipids. Men without MS had significantly lower leptin/adiponectin ratio than men with MS. Women without MS had lower leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio than women with MS but had significantly higher adiponectin, estrone, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels. In men, the leptin/adiponectin ratio is the main factor associated to MS diagnosis (OR: 3.36, 95% CI 1.40–8.08, while in women adiponectin alone appears to be a protective factor (OR: 0.87, 95% CI 0.79–0.95. In conclusion, in a sample of pharmacologically untreated subjects, leptin/adiponectin ratio seems to be the factor more strongly associated to MS and its components.

  17. Change of Body Composition and Adipokines and Their Relationship with Insulin Resistance across Pubertal Development in Obese and Nonobese Chinese Children: The BCAMS Study

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    Lu Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transient increase in insulin resistance (IR is a component of puberty. We investigated the impact of body composition and adipokines on IR during puberty in Chinese children. This study included 3223 schoolchildren aged 6–18 years. IR was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. We revealed that body mass index (BMI and waist circumference increased gradually during puberty in both genders, while fat-mass percentage (FAT% increased steadily only in girls. Change of leptin showed striking sexual dimorphisms: in girls leptin increased steadily during puberty, whereas in boys, after a transient rise at the beginning of puberty, leptin declined by Tanner staging even in those overweight or obese. Inversely, adiponectin level decreased significantly during puberty. In both genders, HOMA-IR started to increase at the beginning of puberty, peaked in the middle, and revised at late puberty in overweight/obesity boys while it stayed high till the end of puberty in girls and normal weight boys. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that leptin presented a stronger indicator of HOMA-IR than anthropometric measures during puberty. Our results demonstrated that gender-specific FAT% and leptin changed with pubertal development. Leptin emerged as a stronger predictor of IR than traditional anthropometric indices, suggesting a prominent role in the development of pubertal IR.

  18. Effects of short-term add-on ezetimibe to statin treatment on expression of adipokines and inflammatory markers in diabetic and dyslipidemic patients.

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    Guimarães, Elizandra Silva; Cerda, Alvaro; Dorea, Egidio Lima; Bernik, Marcia Martins Silveira; Gusukuma, Maria Cecilia; Pinto, Gelba Almeida; Fajardo, Cristina Moreno; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo

    2017-09-21

    The influence of short-term add-on ezetimibe to simvastatin treatment on expression of adipokines and inflammatory markers was investigated in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemic nondiabetic (HC, n = 37) and diabetic (DM, n = 47) patients were treated with simvastatin (SV, 10 or 20 mg/d/8-wk) and then SV plus ezetimibe (SV + EZ, 10 mg each/d/4 wk). Serum lipids, glycemic profile, and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, adiponectin, resistin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1) were evaluated before and after the add-on ezetimibe therapy. mRNA expression of ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2, RETN, VCAM1, and ICAM1 was measured by real-time PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Serum concentrations of LDL and HDL cholesterol, and adiponectin were higher in HC than DM patients (P add-on ezetimibe therapy reduced total and LDL cholesterol, apoB and adiponectin serum levels in HC and DM groups, and resistin in HC subjects (P add-on ezetimibe therapy (P add-on ezetimibe therapy in HC individuals (P add-on ezetimibe to simvastatin treatment suppressing effects on hypercholesterolemia and adiponectinemia is independent of the diabetes status. Resistin serum levels and leukocyte mRNA expression are influenced by add-on ezetimibe to statin treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Serum Adipokines in Community-Living Elderly Japanese Women: Independent Association with Plasminogen Activator-Inhibitor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mika; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Kurata, Miki; Fukuo, Keisuke; Kazumi, Tsutomu

    2015-11-01

    Associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) with serum adipokines and basal lipoprotein lipase mass (serum LPL) have not been extensively studied in elderly Asians, who in general have lower body mass index than European populations. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted including 159 community-living elderly Japanese women whose age averaged 77 years. MetS was defined by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, but using a body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) instead of waist circumference. Serum LPL, leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured. Both the presence of MetS and the number of MetS components were associated with higher homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance, serum levels of leptin, PAI-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and with lower serum levels of LPL and adiponectin (all P independent of fat mass index and insulin resistance. Although proinflammatory, prothrombotic, and anti-inflammatory states were associated with MetS, higher PAI-1 was associated with MetS independent of fat mass index and insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women, in whom obesity is rare.

  20. A Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic and Intense Exercise on the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Marker Adipokines, Adiponectin and Retinol Binding Protein-4

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    Amy Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With a more sedentary population comes growing rates of obesity and increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM risk. Exercise generally induces positive changes in traditional T2DM risk markers such as lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity; however alterations in concentrations of many circulating cytokines and their respective receptors are also becoming apparent. These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis. Plasma levels of two adipocyte-originating cytokines, adiponectin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4, alter following exercise. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-insulin resistance roles and its secretion increases with physical activity, whilst elevated RBP-4 leads to increased insulin resistance, and secretion decreases with increasing physical activity; thus these plasma adipokine levels alter favourably following exercise. Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations. Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term.

  1. Impact of the adipokine adiponectin and the hepatokine fetuin-A on the development of type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort- and cross-sectional phenotyping studies.

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    Norbert Stefan

    Full Text Available Among adipokines and hepatokines, adiponectin and fetuin-A were consistently found to predict the incidence of type 2 diabetes, both by regulating insulin sensitivity.To determine to what extent circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A are independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes in humans, and the major mechanisms involved.Relationships with incident diabetes were tested in two cohort studies: within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam study (628 cases and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 470 cases. Relationships with body fat compartments, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were studied in the Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program (TULIP; N = 358.Circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A, independently of several confounders and of each other, associated with risk of diabetes in EPIC-Potsdam (RR for 1 SD: adiponectin: 0.45 [95% CI 0.37-0.54], fetuin-A: 1.18 [1.05-1.32] and the NHS (0.51 [0.42-0.62], 1.35 [1.16-1.58]. Obesity measures considerably attenuated the association of adiponectin, but not of fetuin-A. Subjects with low adiponectin and concomitantly high fetuin-A had the highest risk. Whereas both proteins were independently (both p<1.8×10(-7 associated with insulin sensitivity, circulating fetuin-A (r = -0.37, p = 0.0004, but not adiponectin, associated with insulin secretion in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.We provide novel information that adiponectin and fetuin-A independently of each other associate with the diabetes risk. Furthermore, we suggest that they are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes via different mechanisms, possibly by mediating effects of their source tissues, expanded adipose tissue and nonalcoholic fatty liver.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Febuxostat Therapy on Adipokines and Markers of Kidney Fibrosis in Asymptomatic Hyperuricemic Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Filipowicz, Rebecca; Wang, Bin; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Roy, Abinash C; DuVall, Scott L; Farrukh, Hanadi; Habib, Arsalan N; Bjordahl, Terrence; Simmons, Debra L; Munger, Mark; Stoddard, Greg; Kohan, Donald E; Greene, Tom; Huang, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    In observational studies, higher uric acid levels are associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and kidney disease. The objective of this study is to examine whether reduction of plasma uric acid with febuxostat, a xanthine oxido reductase inhibitor, impacts adipose tissue oxidative stress, adipokines, and markers of systemic inflammation or kidney fibrosis. This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Academic university setting was used. Overweight or obese adults with hyperuricemia and type 2 diabetic nephropathy were included. Adipose tissue thiobarbituric acid reducing substances (TBARS) and adiponectin concentrations and urinary transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were primary endpoints. Plasma C-reactive protein, high molecular weight-adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and TBARS and albuminuria were among predefined secondary endpoints. Participants were randomly assigned to febuxostat (n = 40) or matching placebo (n = 40) and followed for 24 weeks. Baseline plasma uric acid levels were 426 ± 83 µmol/L; 95% completed the study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) declined from 54 ± 17 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at baseline to 51 ± 17 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 24 weeks (P = .05). In separate mixed-effects models, compared with placebo, febuxostat reduced uric acid by 50% (P < .001) but had no significant effects on subcutaneous adipose tissue TBARS (-7.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 57.4%-101.4%) or adiponectin (6.7%, 95% CI, 26.0%-53.8%) levels or urinary TGF-β/creatinine ratio (18.0%, 95% CI, 10.0%-54.8%) or secondary endpoints. Relatively modest sample size and short duration of follow-up. In this population with progressive diabetic nephropathy, febuxostat effectively reduced plasma uric acid. However, no detectable effects were observed for the prespecified primary or secondary endpoints. The study was registered in clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01350388).

  3. Circulating anti-inflammatory adipokines High Molecular Weight Adiponectin and Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) are inhibited in early sepsis, but increase with clinical recovery: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welters, Ingeborg D; Bing, Chen; Ding, Cherlyn; Leuwer, Martin; Hall, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue has been identified as an endocrine organ secreting adipokines involved in metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, is reduced in sepsis. High Molecular Weight (HMW) adiponectin, the biologically most relevant molecule, has been investigated very little in human sepsis. Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a novel adipokine and its expression in adipose tissue is positively correlated with adiponectin expression. It is not yet known whether ZAG has a role in sepsis. In this study we assessed levels of HMW adiponectin and ZAG during different stages of sepsis. A prospective observational pilot study was carried out on 21 septic patients. Serum samples were taken on day 1 and 2 post ICU admission and on day of discharge. Samples were analysed for total and HMW adiponectin, HMW/total adiponectin ratio, and ZAG. Results were correlated with clinical and metabolic data. There were no differences in total adiponectin, HMW adiponectin and ZAG plasma concentrations between day 1 (admission) and day 2 of the sepsis episode. Compared to admission, a significant increase in total and HMW adiponectin and ZAG was observed on the day of discharge when clinical improvement had been achieved. There was also an increase in the HMW/total adiponectin ratio at that time. Our data demonstrate an increase in both HMW adiponectin and total adiponectin in patients who had clinically recovered from sepsis. The increase in HMW/total adiponectin ratio with improvement of the clinical condition suggests that HMW adiponectin may have a greater role in the inflammatory process and insulin resistance seen in sepsis. In this pilot study, we have also demonstrated a significant increase in ZAG in critically ill patients temporally related to recovery from sepsis.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Febuxostat Therapy on Adipokines and Markers of Kidney Fibrosis in Asymptomatic Hyperuricemic Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Filipowicz, Rebecca; Wang, Bin; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Roy, Abinash C.; DuVall, Scott L.; Farrukh, Hanadi; Habib, Arsalan N.; Bjordahl, Terrence; Simmons, Debra L.; Munger, Mark; Stoddard, Greg; Kohan, Donald E.; Greene, Tom; Huang, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: In observational studies, higher uric acid levels are associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and kidney disease. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine whether reduction of plasma uric acid with febuxostat, a xanthine oxido reductase inhibitor, impacts adipose tissue oxidative stress, adipokines, and markers of systemic inflammation or kidney fibrosis. Design: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting: Academic university setting was used. Patients: Overweight or obese adults with hyperuricemia and type 2 diabetic nephropathy were included. Measurements: Adipose tissue thiobarbituric acid reducing substances (TBARS) and adiponectin concentrations and urinary transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) were primary endpoints. Plasma C-reactive protein, high molecular weight–adiponectin, interleukin–6, tumor necrosis factor–α, and TBARS and albuminuria were among predefined secondary endpoints. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to febuxostat (n = 40) or matching placebo (n = 40) and followed for 24 weeks. Results: Baseline plasma uric acid levels were 426 ± 83 µmol/L; 95% completed the study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) declined from 54 ± 17 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline to 51 ± 17 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 24 weeks (P = .05). In separate mixed-effects models, compared with placebo, febuxostat reduced uric acid by 50% (P < .001) but had no significant effects on subcutaneous adipose tissue TBARS (−7.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 57.4%-101.4%) or adiponectin (6.7%, 95% CI, 26.0%-53.8%) levels or urinary TGF-β/creatinine ratio (18.0%, 95% CI, 10.0%-54.8%) or secondary endpoints. Limitations: Relatively modest sample size and short duration of follow-up. Conclusions: In this population with progressive diabetic nephropathy, febuxostat effectively reduced plasma uric acid. However, no detectable effects were observed for the prespecified primary or secondary endpoints. Trial Registration

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of Chinese schoolchildren: comparison of two definitions and assessment of adipokines as components by factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although attention to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children has increased, there is still no universally accepted definition and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Our aim was to compare the current definitions of childhood MetS in a Chinese cohort and to examine the clustering pattern of MetS risk factors, particularly inclusion of leptin and adiponectin as additional components. Methods 3373 schoolchildren aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and adipokines were measured. MetS was identified using both the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definitions. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to establish grouping of metabolic characteristics. Results For children ≥10 years, the prevalence of MetS was 14.3% in the obese group and 3.7% in the overweight group according to the new IDF definition, and 32.3% in the obese group and 8.4% in the overweight group according to the modified ATPIII definition. Frequency of hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and central obesity according to the new IDF definition was 16.7%, 20.7%, 15.8%, 25.5% and 75.5% in obese boys and 14.7%, 24.0%, 12.0%, 11.0% and 89.0% in obese girls, respectively. Metabolic abnormalities in children under 10 years of age were also noted. Using factor analysis on eight conventional variables led to the extraction of 3 factors. Waist circumference (WC) provided a connection between two factors in boys and all three factors in girls, suggesting its central role in the clustering of metabolic risk factors. Addition of leptin and adiponectin also led to the extraction of 3 factors, with leptin providing a connection between two factors in girls. When using WC, mean arterial pressure, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio, HOMA-IR and leptin/adiponectin ratio as variables, a single-factor model was extracted. WC had the

  6. Secretion of One Adipokine Nampt/Visfatin Suppresses the Inflammatory Stress-Induced NF-κB Activity and Affects Nampt-Dependent Cell Viability in Huh-7 Cells

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    Yi-Ching Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nampt/visfatin acts in both intracellular and extracellular compartments to regulate multiple biological roles, including NAD metabolism, cancer, inflammation, and senescence. However, its function in chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has not been well-defined. Here we use Huh-7 hepatoma cells as a model to determine how Nampt/visfatin affects cellular survival under oxidative stress. We found that the transition of Nampt/visfatin from intracellular into extracellular form was induced by H2O2 treatment in 293T cells and confirmed that this phenomenon was not due to cell death but through the secretion of Nampt/visfatin. In addition, Nampt/visfatin suppressed cell viability in oxidative treatment in Huh-7 cells and acted on the inhibition of hepatoma cell growth. Oxidative stress also reduced the Nampt-mediated activation of NF-κB gene expression. In this study, we identify a novel feature of Nampt/visfatin which functions as an adipokine that can be secreted upon cellular stress. Our results provide an example to understand how adipokine interacts with chemotherapeutic treatment by oxidative stress in HCC.

  7. Obesidade e adipocinas inflamatórias: implicações práticas para a prescrição de exercício Obesity and inflammatory adipokines: practical implications for exercise prescription

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    Wagner Luiz do Prado

    2009-10-01

    tissue release a large amount of bioactive peptides called adipokines (which are proteins synthesized and released by adipose tissue. Thus, the aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between obesity and inflammatory adipokines, trying to discuss the role of physical exercise in the treatment of this pathology. The results have shown that one of the most important recent discoveries is the concept that obesity is characterized by a chronic inflammation state. Among all adipokines, IL-6, TNF- α, leptin (pro-inflammatory and adiponectin (anti-inflammatory, have received special attention from the specialized literature. High concentration of these adipokines promotes impact in several body functions, which is strongly linked with cardiovascular diseases. Since obesity is considered an inflammatory disease, and exercise directly modulates this process, it is essential that one of the main aims of exercise therapies is the improvement of the inflammatory response of obese individuals.

  8. The levels of the adipokines adipsin and leptin are associated with knee osteoarthritis progression as assessed by MRI and incidence of total knee replacement in symptomatic osteoarthritis patients: a post hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Dorais, Marc; Abram, François; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Limited studies have explored the association between adipokines and knee OA structural progression using quantitative MRI (qMRI), and very few have included total knee replacement (TKR) as a disease outcome. The objective of this study was to compare serum levels of five adipokines to cartilage volume loss (CVL) and investigate their predictive value for TKR. The according-to-protocol population (n = 138) of a knee OA trial was used. Serum levels of adipsin (complement factor D), leptin, adiponectin, resistin and serpin E1, and cartilage volume were determined at baseline and 24 months with specific ELISAs and qMRI, respectively. Study knee TKR incidence up to 4 years post-trial was also assessed. Greater baseline values of adipsin and leptin correlated with increased CVL in the global knee and medial femur (P ⩽ 0.032) and of adipsin in the lateral compartment and femur (P ⩽ 0.028). Adiponectin showed an inverse correlation in the medial compartment and femur (P ⩽ 0.027). Resistin and serpin E1 were not associated with CVL. Multivariate analyses revealed that patients in the highest tertile at baseline of adipsin presented a greater odds ratio of CVL in the lateral compartment and femur (⩾2.87; P ⩽ 0.011), and those in the highest tertile of leptin in the medial compartment (2.78; P = 0.038). Most clinically relevant, patients in the highest tertile of adipsin or leptin at baseline had significantly greater incidence of TKR (P = 0.027). Data demonstrate that both adipsin and leptin predict greater CVL over time in the lateral and medial compartment, respectively. Importantly, this study also demonstrates that higher baseline levels of adipsin or leptin are associated with higher incidence of TKR. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Circulating Levels of the Adipokines Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-4 (MCP-4), Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1β (MIP-1β), and Eotaxin-3 in Severe Obesity and Following Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, A; Zaibi, M S; Alomar, S Y; De Vuono, S; Ricci, M A; Alaeddin, A; Siepi, D; Boni, M; Vaudo, G; Trayhurn, P; Lupattelli, G

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the involvement of the adipokines eotaxin-3, MIP-1β, and MCP-4 in obesity and related comorbidities and the modification of their circulating levels after bariatric surgery. Eighty severely obese subjects and 20 normal-weight controls were included in the study. Circulating levels of MCP-4, MIP-1β, and eotaxin-3, and the main clinical, biochemical, and instrumental parameters for the evaluation of cardiovascular and metabolic profile were determined in controls and in obese subjects at baseline and 10 months after surgery. Within the obese group at baseline, eotaxin-3 levels were higher in males than females and in smokers than non-smokers and showed a positive correlation with LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and leptin. MIP-1β showed a positive correlation with age and leptin and a negative correlation with adiponectin and was an independent predictor of increased carotid artery intima-media thickness. MCP-4 levels were higher in obese subjects than controls and showed a positive correlation with body mass index, eotaxin-3, and MIP-1β. Bariatric surgery induced a marked decrease in all the 3 adipokines. MCP-4 is a novel biomarker of severe obesity and could have an indirect role in favoring sub-clinical atherosclerosis in obese patients by influencing the circulating levels of eotaxin-3 and MIP-1β, which are directly related to the main atherosclerosis markers and risk factors. The reduction of circulating levels of MCP-4, eotaxin-3, and MIP-1β could be one of the mechanisms by which bariatric surgery contributes to the reduction of cardiovascular risk in these patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. 25. Novel adipokine tazarotene induced gene 2 correlations with increased cardiovascular risk determined by body composition, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabesity in Saudi women

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    S.S. Habib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tazarotene induced gene 2 (TIG2 is a novel adipokine that is believed to be a mediator for the adipose tissue inflammation that occurs in obesity. The present study compared TIG2 levels between healthy and type 2 diabetic women matched for age and body composition. We also aimed to assess the relationship of serum TIG2 levels with body composition, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabesity in Saudi adult women. This observation case-control study was conducted at the Departments of Physiology and Medicine, Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September 2013 to April 2014. A total of 100 subjects were recruited, including 51 adult diabetic females, and a control group consisting of 49 healthy females. Finally 80 subjects were selected as per inclusion criteria. In the finally selected group, 45 of were diabetics and 35 were healthy subjects matched for age, BMI and body composition with age ranging between 30 and 65 years. Body composition analysis was estimated using Bioelectrical impendence analyzer. Fasting 10 ml venous blood samples were analyzed for glycemic markers, lipids and TIG2. Insulin resistance indexes were calculated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI using standard formulas. The two groups were matched for age, BMI, body fat percentage (BF%, basal metabolic rate (BMR, truncal fat and WHR. Serum TIG2 levels were higher in diabetics than controls (256.09 pm 57.01 vs 305.63 pm 73.66, p = 0.001. Systolic blood pressure (p = 0.001, weight (p = 0.040, fat mass (p = 0.045 and visceral fat (p = 0.025 were found to be significantly higher in diabetics when compared to controls. FBS, HBA1C, LDL, TG, insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICKIE and TIG2 were significantly higher and HDL was significantly lower in diabetics compared to controls. In Spearman’s correlation analysis. TIG2 correlated positively with age (r = 0.300, p = 0.007, WHR (r

  11. Possível papel das adipocinas no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e na artrite reumatoide Possible role of adipokines in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis

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    Vitalina de Souza Barbosa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos têm sido descritos mediadores sintetizados no tecido adiposo, chamados adipocinas. Eles apresentam ação hormonal, regulando o apetite e o metabolismo da glicose, mas também atuam como citocinas, com efeitos sobre o sistema imune, incluindo efeitos na autoimunidade. As adipocinas mais importantes são: leptina, adiponectina, visfatina e resistina. Algumas delas vêm sendo estudadas nas doenças autoimunes reumáticas, particularmente no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES e na artrite reumatoide (AR. Estudos mostram níveis elevados de leptina e de adiponectina no LES, porém a correlação com a atividade da doença ainda é discutida. Na AR, os estudos também mostram aumento dos níveis de leptina e de adiponectina, observando-se correlação com a atividade da doença e a erosão articular; os resultados, porém, são conflitantes. Esta revisão descreve os papéis da leptina e da adiponectina no sistema imune e suas atuações no LES e na AR.In recent years, mediators synthesized in the adipose tissue, the so-called adipokines, have been described. They have a hormonal action, regulating appetite and glucose metabolism, but also act as cytokines with effects on the immune system, including effects on autoimmunity. The most important adipokines are leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin, and some of them have been assessed in autoimmune rheumatic diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Studies have shown high levels of leptin and adiponectin in SLE, but correlation with disease activity is questionable. In RA, studies have also reported increased levels of leptin and adiponectin, and correlation with disease activity and joint erosion, but the results are confl icting. This review describes the role of leptin and adiponectin on the immune system, as well as on SLE and RA.

  12. Adipocinas y síndrome metabólico: múltiples facetas de un proceso fisiopatológico complejo Adipokines and metabolic syndrome: multiple aspects of a complex pathophysiological process

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    Julio C Sánchez N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la alta morbimortalidad de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su relación con trastornos de base como la obesidad y el síndrome metabólico, es crucial entender cuáles son los mecanismos y procesos que desencadenan la alteración del metabolismo y a su vez la generación de dichas enfermedades. En tal sentido, el tejido adiposo y el adipocito tienen un papel fundamental en este proceso, mediante la producción de múltiples adipocinas, algunas clásicas y otras de reciente descripción, pero que hasta ahora empieza a dilucidarse en medio del complejo panorama de interacciones fisiopatológicas conducentes al desarrollo de resistencia a la insulina y del complejo desequilibrio metabólico que conlleva un sinnúmero de complicaciones clínicas. Un grupo de estas adipocinas tiene claros efectos proinflamatorios, mientras que otras pueden clasificarse como anti-inflamatorias, las cuales contrarrestan en cierta medida y hasta cierto punto las acciones de las otras. Cuando esta homeostasis se rompe, la cascada de inflamación crónica allí originada desencadena resistencia a la insulina y se inicia el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico a partir de la obesidad, que a su vez genera alteraciones de la respuesta del adipocito a diferentes estímulos. Esto, sumado a los efectos de otros elementos, configura un complejo cuadro de factores que es necesario tener en cuenta para el abordaje correcto de la obesidad y sus patologías asociadas.Due to the high morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and their relationship with basic disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, the understanding of the mechanisms and processes that trigger metabolic alterations and generate such diseases, is a crucial matter. In this regard, adipose tissue and adipocytes have a crucial role in this process through the production of multiple adipokines, some of them classical and others recently described; however, until now their role is beginning

  13. Adipokines: a link between obesity and dementia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiliaan, A.J.; Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Gustafson, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Being overweight or obese, as measured with body-mass index or central adiposity (waist circumference), and the trajectory of body-mass index over the life course have been associated with brain atrophy, white matter changes, disturbances of blood-brain barrier integrity, and risk of all-cause

  14. Adipokines in breast milk and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Liguori, Stefania Alfonsina; Lupica, Maria Maddalena

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown that the early life environment affects feeding behaviour, food intake and energy balance in later life, suggesting there is a link between foetal and infant growth and the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Although there is an evident epidemiological association between low birth weight and adult-onset diseases, the incidence of metabolic diseases in adulthood among people who were born prematurely is still unknown. Considerable advances have been made during the last years in the scientific knowledge of the benefits of early nutrition, such as breastfeeding, on health and well-being later in life. Nutritional researchers have focussed their attention on the biological characteristics of human breast milk, which represents the main source of nutrients in the first months of life for breastfed infants. Recently, leptin and ghrelin have been detected in the breast milk of mothers of term and preterm infants. Adiponectin and resistin, present in term human milk, have not been investigated in the breast milk of mothers of preterm infants. These hormones are involved in the regulation of energy balance and may have a role in the regulation of growth and development in the neonatal period and infancy, as well as long-term effects on metabolic programming. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin have been found at lower levels in pre-term infants compared with term newborns, whereas there seems to be no difference in ghrelin levels. Future research is necessary to clarify the role of hormones present in breast milk for identifying potential short- and long-term effects of breastfeeding on the health of children born prematurely. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. O impacto da obesidade sobre os componentes da síndrome metabólica e as adipocitoquinas em crianças pré-púberes Impact of obesity on metabolic syndrome components and adipokines in prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel R. Madeira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o impacto da obesidade sobre os componentes da síndrome metabólica e sobre os níveis de adipocitoquinas em crianças pré-púberes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal comparando 30 crianças obesas, 31 com sobrepeso e 33 eutróficas, oriundas do ambulatório de pediatria geral de um hospital universitário, quanto às médias de glicose, lipídios séricos, insulina, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, relação glicose/insulina, adiponectina e leptina. Compararam-se as frequências de acantose nigricans e das alterações de cintura, pressão arterial, glicose, lipídios séricos e insulina. Avaliou-se a correlação entre escore z de índice de massa corporal (IMC e adipocitoquinas. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença nas médias dos obesos, quanto a HDL-colesterol e adiponectina, e nas dos eutróficos, quanto a insulina, HOMA-IR, relação glicose/insulina e leptina (p OBJECTIVE: To verify the impact of obesity on metabolic syndrome components and adipokine levels in prepubertal children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared 30 obese, 31 overweight and 33 eutrophic children attending a university hospital-based outpatient pediatric clinic. Parameters assessed included glucose, serum lipids, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, glucose/insulin relation, adiponectin, and leptin. We compared the frequency of acanthosis nigricans and changes in waist, blood pressure, glucose, serum lipids, and insulin. The correlation between body mass index (BMI z score and adipokines was evaluated. RESULTS: Among obese children, there was a difference in the mean values of HDL cholesterol and adiponectin, whereas among the eutrophic children, there was a difference in the mean values of insulin, HOMA-IR, glucose/insulin relation, and leptin (p < 0.001. A difference was also observed regarding the frequency of acanthosis nigricans and alteration in waist and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.005 in the

  16. Relationship between adipokines, inflammation, and vascular reactivity in lean controls and obese subjects with metabolic syndrome Relação entre as adipocinas, inflamação e reatividade vascular em controles magros e pacientes obesos com síndrome metabólica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bahia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Adipokines interfere with insulin action and endothelial cell function. We investigated the relationship among adipokines, metabolic factors, inflammatory markers, and vascular reactivity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome and lean controls. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 19 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome and 8 lean volunteers evaluated as controls. Vascular reactivity was assessed by venous occlusion pletysmography measuring braquial forearm blood flow (FBF and vascular resistance (VR responses to intra-arterial infusions of endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine-Ach and independent (sodium nitroprusside-SNP vasodilators. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate C reactive protein (CRP, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, fibrinogen, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile. Patients were classified with regard to insulin resistance through the HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: PAI-1, CRP and fibrinogen were higher and adiponectin was lower in metabolic syndrome subjects compared to controls. Metabolic syndrome subjects had impaired vascular reactivity. Adiponectin and PAI-1 were associated with insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and HDLc; and resistin with CRP. Adiponectin was associated with VR after Ach in the pooled group and resistin with D FBF after Ach in the metabolic syndrome group. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome subjects exhibited low levels of adiponectin and high levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and PAI-1. Adiponectin and PAI-1 correlated with insulin resistance markers. Adiponectin and resistin correlated with vascular reactivity parameters. An adipocyte-endothelium interaction might be an important mechanism of inflammation and vascular dysfunction.A Síndrome Metabólica é um importante fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. As adipocinas interferem com a ação da insulina e com a função endotelial. OBJETIVO: Investigar a rela

  17. Promoting effects of the adipokine, apelin, on diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-hai Zhang

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, increased glomerular permeability, and albuminuria are thought to contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Apelin receptor (APLNR and the endogenous ligand of APLNR, apelin, induce the sprouting of endothelial cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner, which may be one of the mechanisms of DN. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apelin in the pathogenesis of DN. Therefore, we observed apelin/APLNR expression in kidneys from patients with type 2 diabetes as well as the correlation between albuminuria and serum apelin in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also measured the proliferating, migrating, and chemotactic effects of apelin on glomerular endothelial cells. To measure the permeability of apelin in glomerular endothelial cells, we used transwells to detect FITC-BSA penetration through monolayered glomerular endothelial cells. The results showed that serum apelin was significantly higher in the patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy people (p<0.05, Fig. 1B and that urinary albumin was positively correlated with serum apelin (R = 0.78, p<0.05. Apelin enhanced the migration, proliferation, and chemotaxis of glomerular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Apelin also promoted the permeability of glomerular endothelial cells (p<0.05 and upregulated the expression of VEGFR2 and Tie2 in glomerular endothelial cells (p<0.05. These results indicated that upregulated apelin in type 2 diabetes, which may be attributed to increased fat mass, promotes angiogenesis in glomeruli to form abnormal vessels and that enhanced apelin increases permeability via upregulating the expression of VEGFR2 and Tie2 in glomerular endothelial cells.

  18. Obesity and dementia: Adipokines interact with the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Gustafson, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a pandemic and a serious global health concern. Obesity is a risk factor for multiple conditions and contributes to multi-morbidities, resulting in increased health costs and millions of deaths each year. Obesity has been associated with changes in brain structure, cognitive deficits,

  19. Adipokines: biological functions and metabolically healthy obese profile

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Solange; Alvarez-Leite,Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Solange Silveira Pereira,1,2 Jacqueline I Alvarez-Leite1,21Laboratory for Atherosclerosis and Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, 2Alfa Institute of Gastroenterology, Clinics Hospital, Medicine School, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, BrazilAbstract: Adipose tissue is an extremely active organ, and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of comorbidities associated with obesity. Since the discover...

  20. Adiponectin: an adipokine with protective features against metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esfahani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS as a collection of obesity-associated disorders is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, pro-thrombotic state, elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant peptide hormones derived from adipose tissue. This protein plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism and prevents development of vascular changes. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects are the other features of adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with hypertension and pro-thrombotic state. In this review, we discuss the crucial role of adiponectin in prevention of metabolic syndrome considering its effects on the components of this syndrome. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification may increase plasma adiponectin level or tissue sensitivity which seems to be a promising target for prevention and therapeutic approaches of MetS and related diseases.

  1. Effect of Stromal Adipokines on Breast Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    transferrin, high density lipoprotein, selenium , glutamine, glutathione and N-acetyl- cysteine. Cells are grown in a humidified, 370C incubator at 1% O2. F...investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). International Journal of Cancer. 2004; 111: 762-771. 10. World Health Organization. Obesity and

  2. Adipokines and inflammation markers and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dossus, Laure; Franceschi, Silvia; Biessy, Carine

    2018-01-01

    Other than the influence of ionizing radiation and benign thyroid disease, little is known about the risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) which is an increasing common cancer worldwide. Consistent evidence shows that body mass is positively associated with TC risk. As excess weight...

  3. Obesity and inflammatory adipokines: practical implications for exercise prescription

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, Wagner Luiz do; Lofrano, Mara Cristina; Oyama, Lila Missae; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2009-01-01

    A obesidade é uma doença complexa de etiologia multifacetada, com sua própria fisiopatologia, comorbidades e capacidades desabilitantes. Aceitar a obesidade como uma doença é fundamental para o seu tratamento. Atualmente, o tecido adiposo é um dos principais focos das pesquisas em obesidade, devido a uma revolução no entendimento da função biológica desse tecido desde a última década. Já está muito claro que o tecido adiposo branco secreta múltiplos peptídeos bioativos, denominados adipocinas...

  4. Proinflammatory tissue response and recovery of adipokines during 4 days of subcutaneous large-pore microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Trine Schnedler; Kaastrup, Peter; Stallknecht, Bente

    2009-01-01

    , IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-alpha and adiponectin using Luminex Multiplex technology. RESULTS: Interstitial IL-1beta increased from a sub-detectable level to 69+/-22 pg/ml on day 1 (pfold on day 0 (pfold...... on day 0 (pfold to an apparent plateau on day 0 (palpha increased 7-fold to an apparent plateau on day 0 (p... (121+/-28 pg/ml, p=beta, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha were all returning towards baseline level. Adiponectin was unchanged on day 0 (1,040,422+/-295,510 pg/ml, p=0.36), decreased to 346,300+/-48,002 pg/ml on day 1 (p=0.002) and remained unchanged hereafter. DISCUSSION...

  5. Blood Pressure in Adolescence, Adipokines and Inflammation in Young Adults. The Rio de Janeiro Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves, E-mail: erikamaria@cardiol.br; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Fonseca, Flávia Lopes; Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; Freitas, Elizabete Viana de; Brandão, Ayrton Pires [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    The impact of blood pressure (BP) during adolescence on other cardiovascular risk factors in young adults is important for the primary prevention. To evaluate BP, anthropometric indexes, metabolic and inflammatory profiles in young individuals stratified by their BP behavior recorded for 18 years. A total of 116 individuals, of whom 63 were males, from the Rio de Janeiro study (follow-up of 17.76 ± 1.63 years), were assessed at two moments: A1 (12.40 ± 1.49 years) and A2 (30.09 ± 2.01 years). The 116 individuals were divided into two groups: GN (n = 71), of participants with normal BP at A1; and GH (n = 45), of those with abnormal BP at A1. BP, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured at A1 and A2. At A2, abdominal circumference (AC) and laboratory, metabolic and inflammatory variables were included. 1) No difference was observed between the groups as regards age and gender; 2) At A2, GH showed higher mean weight, BMI, BP, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 and A1 (p < 0.02), apolipoprotein B100 / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p < 0.010); and higher prevalences of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001), of increased AC (p < 0.001) and of hypertension (p < 0.02); 3) No difference was observed between the groups as regards the inflammatory variables; 4) There was a positive correlation of BP at A1 with BP, BMI, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR at A2 (p < 0.05). BP in adolescence was associated with higher values of BP, and anthropometric and metabolic variables in young adulthood, but not with inflammatory variables.

  6. Severe Burn and Disuse in the Rat Independently Adversely Impact Body Composition and Adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Scopus and Google Scholar • Research which is freely available for redistribution Submit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submit Wade et al. Critical Care 2013, 17:R225 Page 12 of 12 http://ccforum.com/content/17/5/R225

  7. Adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein regulated by growth hormone and linked to insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gajdosechova, Lucia; Vlcek, Miroslav; Janakova, Zuzana; Fedeles, Jozef; Pura, Mikulas; Gasperikova, Daniela; Smith, Steven R; Tkacova, Ruzena; Klimes, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic obesity is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and lipid-mobilizing activity of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Adipose tissue (AT) of growth hormone (GH) -deficient patients is characterized by extreme adipocyte hypertrophy due to defects in AT lipid metabolism. It was hypothesized that zinc-α2-glycoprotein is regulated by GH and mediates some of its beneficial effects in AT. AT from patients with GH deficiency and individuals with obesity-related GH deficit was obtained before and after 5-year and 24-month GH supplementation therapy. GH action was tested in primary human adipocytes. Relationships of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein with adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in nondiabetic patients with noncancerous cachexia and hypertrophic obesity. AT in GH-deficient adults displayed a substantial reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. GH therapy normalized AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Obesity-related relative GH deficit was associated with almost 80% reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in AT. GH increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in both AT of obese men and primary human adipocytes. Interdependence of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in regulating AT morphology and metabolic phenotype was evident from their relationship with adipocyte size and AT-specific and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The results demonstrate that GH is involved in regulation of AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein; however, the molecular mechanism linking GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in AT is yet unknown. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Adipokines and inflammation markers and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: The EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Franceschi, Silvia; Biessy, Carine; Navionis, Anne-Sophie; Travis, Ruth C; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bonnet, Fabrice; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renee T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Peppa, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Skeie, Guri; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sandström, Maria; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2018-04-01

    Other than the influence of ionizing radiation and benign thyroid disease, little is known about the risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) which is an increasing common cancer worldwide. Consistent evidence shows that body mass is positively associated with TC risk. As excess weight is a state of chronic inflammation, we investigated the relationship between concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the risk of TC. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and included 475 first primary incident TC cases (399 women and 76 men) and 1,016 matched cancer-free cohort participants. Biomarkers were measured in serum samples using validated and highly sensitive commercially available immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) of TC by levels of each biomarker were estimated using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for BMI and alcohol consumption. Adiponectin was inversely associated with TC risk among women (OR T3vs.T1  = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.98, P trend  = 0.04) but not among men (OR T3vs.T1  = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.67-2.76, P trend  = 0.37). Increasing levels of IL-10 were positively associated with TC risk in both genders and significantly so in women (OR T3vs.T1  = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.13-2.25, P trend  = 0.01) but not in men (OR T3vs.T1  = 1.78, 95% CI: 0.80-3.98, P trend  = 0.17). Leptin, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were not associated with TC risk in either gender. These results indicate a positive association of TC risk with IL-10 and a negative association with adiponectin that is probably restricted to women. Inflammation may play a role in TC in combination with or independently of excess weight. © 2017 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO); licensed by UICC.

  10. Disparity in fetal growth between twin and singleton gestation: the role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemet, R; Shulman, Y; Hemi, R; Brandt, B; Sivan, E; Kanety, H; Mazaki-Tovi, S

    2017-10-19

    Twin pregnancies are characterized by unique pattern of attenuated fetal weight gain during late gestation compared with singleton gestation. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating twin growth has not yet elucidated. Leptin and adiponectin are two adipocytokines implicated in metabolism and energy balance of fetuses, newborns and adults. Moreover, these hormones have been suggested to play a role in fetal growth. The objective of the study was to determine cord blood adiponectin and leptin in twins and singletons, with and without growth impairment. This was a case-control study. It included two groups of newborns, matched for gestational age and birth weight percentile: singleton (n=60 newborns) and twins (n=44 newborns). Adiponectin and leptin were determined in cord blood, and compared between the groups according to clinical and demographic characteristics. Non-parametric and parametric statistical methods were employed. Median adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower in twins vs singletons (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Among small for gestational age newborns (SGA), median concentration of adiponectin (P=0.04), but not leptin (P=0.1), was lower in twins compared to singletons. In pooled analysis (singleton plus twins), cord blood adiponectin and leptin were strongly correlated with gestational age (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively) and birth weight (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Regression analysis revealed that plurality (P=0.02) was significantly and independently associated with cord blood adiponectin concentrations, after adjustment for confounding variables. Similar regression in which leptin was the independent variable revealed that only birth weight (P=0.01) was significantly and independently associated with cord blood leptin concentrations. Twin pregnancies are associated with lower cord blood concentrations of adiponectin and leptin compared with singleton gestations. However, only cord blood adiponectin, but not leptin, was lower in SGA neonates. Collectively, these data suggest that adiponectin may be implicated in the mechanism accounting for the growth disparity between twins and singletons.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 19 October 2017; doi:10.1038/jp.2017.152.

  11. Immunomodulatory Role of Diet and Adipokines in Multiple Sclerosis and Its Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    molecule expression on vascular endothelium , (Ouedraogo, Gong et al. 2007) and polarizes macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype (Ohashi, Parker...We evaluated ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) by mass-spectrometry in lipids extracted from lymph node cells isolated from...have also evaluated by immunofluorescence staining the effects of adiponectin on endothelial expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM1 and of VE

  12. Low sodium diet and adipokine secretion: implications for the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeli, S

    2014-01-01

    The influence of dietary sodium intake on cardiovascular risk factors has been a matter of decade-long discussions. Needed is a clear-cut elucidation of the beneficial mechanisms of action of reduced salt intake. In a recent study, lean and obese mice were subjected to a high or low salt diet for 16 weeks. The low salt diet tremendously reduced fasting insulin in obese animals, and HOMA-IR was improved. Reduced adiponectin expression in the heart and in peritoneal adipose tissue in obese animals was restored or even increased compared to normal levels with the low salt diet. Corresponding with the beneficial effect on adiponectin, inflammatory markers were reduced to lean levels by the low salt diet. Whether the increase in adiponectin would have been larger if the rise in aldosterone had been prevented is one of the questions raised by this study. The data obtained in this animal study are based on a robust methodological basis for two reasons: first, the long-term intervention of 16 weeks clearly represents a strength of the study; second, dietary sodium restriction was modest, as judged by only 2-fold increased plasma renin activity. Overall, the data presented by Baudrand et al. in the current issue of NMCD may path the way to a better understanding of the mode of action of modest sodium restriction. However, a replication of the results in a more human-like diet-induced obesity mouse model is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suvarthi [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kumar, Ashutosh [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Seth, Ratanesh Kumar [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tokar, Erik J. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kadiiska, Maria B. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Mason, Ronald P. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh, E-mail: schatt@mailbox.sc.edu [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates protein radical and 3-nitrotyrosine formation. ► BDCM exposure in obesity activates Kupffer cells and NADPH oxidase. ► BDCM/leptin synergy promotes necrotic cell-death and augments steatohepatitis.

  14. The influence of intensive physical training on salivary adipokine levels in Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, N D; Mamali, I; Armeni, A K; Markantes, G K; Theodoropoulou, A; Alexandrides, T K; Leglise, M; Markou, K B; Georgopoulos, N A

    2012-12-01

    Exercise challenges homeostasis and establishes a new dynamic equilibrium. Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RG's) begin exercise at an early age, undergo physical and psychological stress, and adopt negative energy balance to retain a lean physique. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of negative energy balance, acute and chronic exercise on salivary adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels and their interaction with salivary cortisol, and insulin levels in elite RG's. This study is unique in character, as all variables were assessed on the field of competition. The study included 51 elite RG's participating in "Kalamata 2010 World Cup" in Kalamata, Greece on April 2010. Twenty-seven healthy age-matched girls were used as controls. Anthropometric values were assessed; baseline and post exercise salivary cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin levels were measured. Comparisons regarding hormonal features between RG's and controls were adjusted for BMI and body fat percentage. Salivary adiponectin levels were higher (p<0.05) and visfatin lower (p=0.094) in RG's compared with controls, while no significant changes were observed regarding salivary cortisol, insulin, and resistin levels. In elite RG's acute intensive anaerobic exercise led to increased salivary insulin levels (p<0.001), reduced salivary adiponectin (p<0.001) and visfatin levels (p<0.05), and no changes in salivary resistin levels. Moreover, diurnal variation of salivary cortisol was lost. In elite RG's salivary adiponectin is upregulated and salivary visfatin is downregulated after chronic intensive exercise and negative energy balance, while both salivary adiponectin and visfatin levels are suppressed after short term intensive anaerobic exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Lipocalin 2: a "sexy" adipokine that regulates 17Beta-estradiol and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this article we review the findings of Guo et. al. (Endocrinology, 153: 1183-1193) that the protein, Lipocalin 2 is more highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue than in gondal tissue of female mice. Of particular interest is that the paper by Guo et. al. observed that ablation of the Lip...

  16. Cytokine and adipokine are biofactors can act in blood and colostrum of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Mahmi; França, Eduardo Luzia; Morais, Tassiane Cristina; Fiorin, Vanessa; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Honório-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Breast milk contains bioactive components that contribute to newborn development. However, colostrum may undergo biochemical and immunological changes as a function of maternal overweight and obesity. To investigate this hypothesis, this study determined the levels of hormones and immunological markers in the serum and colostrum of overweight and obese mothers. Colostrum and serum samples were collected from 15 normoweight, 15 overweight, and 15 obese women for determination of leptin, adiponectin, cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Obese mothers exhibited higher levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP, serum and colostrum leptin and colostrum adiponectin and lower levels of serum adiponectin. Leptin levels in maternal serum and colostrum were positively correlated, as was pre-pregnancy BMI and serum TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and leptin. Adiponectin levels in colostrum and serum were negatively correlated. The results suggest that obesity changes hormonal and immunological components of maternal serum and colostrum. The modifications can have short-term and long-term effects on newborn development. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):243-250, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Possible role of adipokines in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Vitalina de Souza; Rêgo, Jozelia; Silva, Nílzio Antônio da

    2012-01-01

    Nos últimos anos têm sido descritos mediadores sintetizados no tecido adiposo, chamados adipocinas. Eles apresentam ação hormonal, regulando o apetite e o metabolismo da glicose, mas também atuam como citocinas, com efeitos sobre o sistema imune, incluindo efeitos na autoimunidade. As adipocinas mais importantes são: leptina, adiponectina, visfatina e resistina. Algumas delas vêm sendo estudadas nas doenças autoimunes reumáticas, particularmente no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) e na artri...

  18. Favorable effect of short-term lifestyle intervention on human paraoxonase-1 activity and adipokine levels in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncsos, Péter; Seres, Ildikó; Harangi, Mariann; Páll, Dénes; Józsa, Lajos; Bajnok, László; Nagy, Endre V; Paragh, György

    2011-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in adult and child populations throughout the world. Childhood obesity has a great impact on adult cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; treatment of this pathological state is important given the significant health consequences. We investigated the effect of short-term lifestyle changes on the alteration of human serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activities, leptin, adiponectin, E-selectin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as atherogenic and antiatherogenic factors in obese children. PON1 protects lipoproteins against oxidation by hydrolyzing lipid peroxides in oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) and therefore may protect against atherosclerosis. A total of 23 white obese and overweight children (age, 11.43 ± 1.78 years; 8 girls, 15 boys) participated in a 2-week-long lifestyle camp based on a diet and exercise program. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the national body mass index (BMI) reference tables for age and sex. After a 2-week-long supervised diet and aerobic exercise program, obese children had significantly lower leptin (55.02 ± 33.42 ng/ml vs 25.37 ± 19.07 ng/ml; p obesity. These findings emphasize the major role of primary prevention and nonpharmaceutical treatment of childhood obesity through lifestyle changes based on diet and increased physical activity.

  19. Abnormal levels of adipokines in adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes - Results from the EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate long-term consequences of diabetes during pregnancy, we determined adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescents born by women with type 1 diabetic (T1D) or non-diabetic mothers, and determined associations between adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescence and th...... is a consequence of being born to mothers with T1D. No direct association between maternal glycemic control and adiponectin and leptin levels or LAR in the adolescence was found. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01559181.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate long-term consequences of diabetes during pregnancy, we determined adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescents born by women with type 1 diabetic (T1D) or non-diabetic mothers, and determined associations between adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescence....... In males, this was seen despite similar TBF in index and control offspring. LAR was increased in index offspring (both males and females) compared with control offspring. There were no association between offspring adiponectin and maternal HbA1c levels in pregnancy. Leptin and LAR seemed to be associated...

  20. Effects of a multi-component camp-based intervention on inflammatory markers and adipokines in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, T.; Larsen, K. T.; Moller, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    arm (DCIA) or the standard intervention arm (SIA). The intervention for the DCIA consisted of a 6-week camp-based intervention and a 46-week family-based intervention. The SIA was offered one weekly physical activity session for 6 weeks and one educational meeting. C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte...

  1. Adipokines and inflammatory mediators after initial periodontal treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardeşler, Levent; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Kinane, Denis F

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of initial periodontal treatment on clinical periodontal measurements, glycemic control, and systemic inflammatory mediator levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis. Thirteen well-controlled (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] or =7%) patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis and 15 systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis were enrolled. Blood samples were collected at baseline from all patients and 1 and 3 months after the initial periodontal treatment from patients with diabetes. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, adiponectin, and leptin were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study groups showed similar improvements in clinical periodontal variables at all evaluation times (P 0.05). IL-6 levels decreased in well-controlled patients with diabetes and in the systemically healthy group (P limits of this study, patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis exhibited similar clinical periodontal improvements as their systemically healthy counterparts. Initial periodontal treatment appeared to improve glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with diabetes. Decreases in levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, CRP, and leptin and an increase in adiponectin levels after periodontal therapy may be a function of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Effects of Late Gestational High Fat Diet on Body Weight, Metabolic Regulation and Adipokine Expression in Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Carreras, Alba; Hakim, Fahed; Cunningham, John M.; Wang, Yang; Gozal, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Gestational exposures such as dietary changes can alter offspring phenotype through epigenetic modifications and promote increased risk for specific diseases, such as metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that high fat diet (HFD) during late gestation would lead increased risk for insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia via associated epigenetic alterations in tissue adipocytokine genes. Methods Offspring mice of mothers fed a HFD during late gestation (HFDO) were weighed and thei...

  3. Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Chen

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Nrg4 exerts pleiotropic beneficial effects on energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Biologic therapeutics based on Nrg4 may improve both type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in patients.

  4. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone protects mice from diet-induced obesity and modulates adipokines expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Mathé, Véronique; Lafont, René; Even, Patrick; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2012-02-01

    Besides their well-known effect in the molting control in insects, ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that display potential pharmacologic and metabolic properties in mammals. The most common ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is found in many plants such as quinoa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of quinoa extract (Q) enriched in 20E supplementation to prevent the onset of diet-induced obesity and to regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in mice. Mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by 20E-enriched Q or pure 20E for 3 weeks. Supplementation with Q reduced adipose tissue development in HF mice without modification of their body weight gain. This adipose tissue-specific effect was mainly associated with a reduced adipocyte size and a decrease in the expression of several genes involved in lipid storage, including lipoprotein lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, Q-treated mice exhibited marked attenuation of mRNA levels of several inflammation markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, CD68) and insulin resistance (osteopontin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) as compared to HF mice. Q supplementation also reversed the effects of HF-induced downregulation of the uncoupling protein(s) (UCP(s)) mRNA levels in muscle. Similar results were obtained in mice fed a HF diet supplemented with similar amounts of pure 20E, suggesting that the latter accounted for most of the Q effects. Our study indicates that Q has an antiobesity activity in vivo and could be used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.

  5. Visceral adiposity index (VAI is predictive of an altered adipokine profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco C Amato

    Full Text Available AIMS: Although there is still no clear definition of "adipose tissue dysfunction" or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Hip Circumference (HC, Waist/Hip ratio (WHR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI] and several adipocytokines [Visfatin, Resistin, Leptin, Soluble leptin receptors (sOB-R, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Adipsin, PAI-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-18] in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one DM2 patients (age: 65.25 ± 6.38 years; 42 men and 49 women in stable treatment for the last six months with metformin in monotherapy (1.5-2 g/day were cross-sectionally studied. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Serum adipocytokine levels were assayed with Luminex based kits. RESULTS: At the Pearson's correlation, among all the indices investigated, VAI showed a significant correlation with almost all adipocytokines analyzed [Visfatin, Resistin and hsCRP (all p<0.001; Adiponectin, sOb-R, IL-6, IL-18, HGF (all p<0.010; Ghrelin and VEGF (both p<0.05]. Through a two-step cluster analysis, 55 patients were identified with the most altered adipocytokine profile (patients with ATD. At a ROC analysis, VAI showed the highest C-statistic [0.767 (95% CI 0.66-0.84] of all the indices. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the VAI, among the most common indexes of adiposity assessment, shows the best correlation with the best known adipocytokines and cardiometabolic risk serum markers. Although to date we are still far from clearly identifying an ATD, the VAI would be an easy tool for clearly mirroring a condition of cardiometabolic risk, in the absence of an overt metabolic syndrome.

  6. The association of bone turnover markers with pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines in patients with gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Telejko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to assess differences in circulating osteocalcin (OC and osteoprotegerin (OPG, as well as in their expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and placental tissue obtained from patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Materials and method. Serum levels of OC, OPG and soluble nuclear factor-kB ligand (sRANKL were measured in 49 women with GDM and 30 subjects with NGT between weeks 24–32 of gestation, and three months after childbirth. OC and OPG mRNA expression was measured in 23 patients with GDM and 23 women with NGT at term, using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results. The patients with GDM had decreased OC mRNA expression in SAT (p=0.015, lower adiponectin mRNA expression in VAT (p=0.039, and a lower circulating adiponectin level (p=0.04. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum adiponectin was significantly associated with OC mRNA expression in SAT (b=0.49, p=0.03. Three months postpartum, the OPG/sRANKL ratio was markedly higher in the subjects with prior GDM (p=0.03 and correlated positively with HbA1c (R=0.33; p=0.04, fasting insulin (R=0.35; p=0.03 and HOMA-IR (R=0.34; p=0.04. Conclusions. In the patients with GDM decreased OC mRNA expression in SAT might be associated with a reduced stimulatory effect on adiponectin expression in adipose tissue. On the other hand, higher OPG/sRANKL ratio suggests a better protection against bone loss in the subjects with prior GDM.

  7. Adipocitocinas: uma nova visão do tecido adiposo Adipokines: a new view of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Esteves Duque Guimarães

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A identificação da leptina, hormônio secretado pelos adipócitos, cujo efeito sobre o sistema nervoso simpático e a função endócrina confere participação ativa no controle do dispêndio energético, bem como do apetite, acrescentou às funções do tecido adiposo no organismo humano o papel de órgão multifuncional, produtor e secretor de inúmeros peptídeos e proteínas bioativas, denominadas adipocitocinas. Alterações na quantidade de tecido adiposo, como ocorrem na obesidade, afetam a produção da maioria desses fatores secretados pelos adipócitos. Ainda que essas alterações estejam freqüentemente associadas às inúmeras disfunções metabólicas e ao aumento do risco de doenças cardiovasculares, permanece sob investigação o envolvimento do tecido adiposo no desenvolvimento dessas complicações, considerada a sua função endócrina. As concentrações de várias adipocitocinas elevam-se na obesidade e têm sido relacionadas à hipertensão (angiotensinogênio, ao prejuízo da fibrinólise (inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e à resistência à insulina (proteína estimuladora de acilação, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, interleucina-6 e resistina. De outro modo, leptina e adiponectina têm efeitos sobre a sensibilidade à insulina. Na obesidade, a resistência insulínica também está relacionada à resistência à leptina e aos teores plasmáticos reduzidos de adiponectina. Leptina e adiponectina ainda exercem efeitos orgânicos adicionais distintos: frente à participação da leptina no controle da ingestão alimentar, a adiponectina apresenta potente ação anti-aterogênica. Algumas drogas utilizadas no controle do diabetes elevam a produção endógena de adiponectina, em roedores e humanos, indicando que o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos com alvo nas adipocitocinas pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica de prevenção da resistência insulínica e da aterosclerose em indivíduos obesos.Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes whose effect on the sympathetic nervous system and endocrine function confers active participation in the control of energy expenditure and appetite. Its identification added to the fat tissues in the human body the role of a multifunctional organ that produces and secretes a number of bioactive peptides and proteins, called adipocytokines. Changes in the amount of fat tissue, such as the ones that occur in obesity, affect the production of most of these factors secreted by adipocytes. Even if these changes are frequently associated with many metabolic disorders and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, the role of fat tissue in the development of these complications, considered its endocrine function, continue to be investigated. The concentration of various adipocytokines increase in obesity and have been associated with hypertension (angiotensinogen, fibrinolysis impairment (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and insulin resistance (protein that stimulates acylation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukine-6 and resistin. On the other hand, leptin and adiponectin affect insulin sensitivity. In obesity, insulin resistance is also associated with leptin resistance and reduced plasma levels of adiponectin. Leptin and adiponectin still have complementary and distinct organic functions: adiponectin has potent antiatherogenic activity while leptin participates in the control of food intake. Some medications used to control diabetes increase adiponectin production in rodents and humans, suggesting that the development of new medications that target the adipocytokines can represent a new therapeutic alternative to prevent insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in obese individuals.

  8. Adipokines, C-reactive protein and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - results from a population- based ALS registry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Gabriele; Peter, Raphael S; Rosenbohm, Angela; Koenig, Wolfgang; Dupuis, Luc; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ludolph, Albert C

    2017-06-29

    To investigate the associations of leptin, adiponectin and high-sensitive (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) with risk and prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Data from a population-based case-control study in Southern Germany (10/2010-6/2014) of 289 ALS patients (mean age of 65.7 (SD 10.5) years, 59.5% men) and 506 controls were included. During median follow-up of 14.5 months of 279 ALS patients 104 (53.9% men, 68.9 (10.3) years) died. Serum samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin and hs-CRP. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ALS risk. Survival models were used to appraise the prognostic value. ALS patients were characterized by lower levels of school education, BMI and smoking prevalence. Adjusted for covariates, leptin was inversely associated with ALS risk (top vs. bottom quartile: OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.80), while for adiponectin a positive association was found (OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.78-4.68). Among ALS patients increasing leptin concentrations were associated with longer survival (p for trend 0.002), while for adiponectin no association was found (p for trend 0.55). For hs-CRP no association was found. Leptin and adiponectin, two key hormones regulating energy metabolism, were strongly and independently related with ALS risk. Leptin levels were further negatively related with overall survival of ALS patients.

  9. Waist circumference, ghrelin and selected adipose tissue-derived adipokines as predictors of insulin resistance in obese patients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Mariusz; Rosniak-Bak, Kinga; Paradowski, Marek; Misztal, Malgorzata; Kujawski, Krzysztof; Banach, Maciej; Rysz, Jacek

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the association between anthropometric obesity parameters, serum concentrations of ghrelin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) in obese non-diabetic insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant patients. Study subjects included 37 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) out-clinic patients aged 25 to 66 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR. Serum fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and leptin were measured by using the ELISA method. Body weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured to calculate BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) values for all the patients. According to HOMA-IR, patients were divided into two groups: A, insulin sensitive (n=19); and B, insulin resistant (n=18). Patients with insulin resistance have greater mean waist circumference (WC) higher mean serum insulin level and leptin concentration, but lower concentrations of adiponectin and ghrelin. In the insulin-sensitive patient group we observed positive correlations between BMI and HOMA-IR, WC and HOMA-IR, and adiponectin and leptin, and negative correlations between ghrelin and HOMA-IR, WC and adiponectin, and WHR and adiponectin. In the insulin-resistant group, there was a positive correlation between resistin and ghrelin and a negative correlation between WHR and leptin. Waist circumference, adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin are associated with insulin resistance and may be predictors of this pathology.

  10. The effect of prolonged aerobic exercise on serum adipokine levels during an ultra-marathon endurance race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Mamali, Irene; Maragkos, Spyros; Leonidou, Lydia; Armeni, Anastasia K; Markantes, George K; Tsekouras, Athanasios; Sakellaropoulos, George C; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of prolonged intensive aerobic exercise and acute energy deficit (180 km ultra-marathon race) on serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels and their association and interaction with serum cortisol and insulin levels in highly trained ultra-endurance runners. The study included 17 highly trained ultra-endurance male athletes (mean age 51.29±6.84 years and body mass index (ΒΜΙ) 23.51±1.90) participating in the 5th Olympian Race held in Greece on May 2010. Anthropometric values were assessed; Serum cortisol, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels were measured at baseline, post-exercise and ~20 hours after the end of the race. All hormonal values of the post-exercise and recovery status were corrected for plasma volume changes. The estimated energy deficit during the ultra-endurance event was about 5000 Kcal. At the end of the race serum resistin levels were elevated (p<0.001) and serum leptin levels were reduced (p<0.001) and failed to reach pre-exercise levels, although showing a tendency towards restoration. No significant changes were noted in serum adiponectin and visfatin levels. Ultra-endurance aerobic exercise and acute negative energy balance lead to an up-regulation of serum resistin levels and a down-regulation of serum leptin levels.

  11. Valsartan ameliorates the constitutive adipokine expression pattern in mature adipocytes: a role for inverse agonism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Arif U; Ohmori, Koji; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Naoko; Noma, Takahisa; Tokuda, Masaaki; Kohno, Masakazu

    2014-07-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II receptor blockers (ARBs) alleviate obesity-related insulin resistance, which suggests an important role for the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in the regulation of adipocytokines. Therefore, we treated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes with 50 μmol l(-1) of valsartan, a selective AT1R blocker without direct agonism to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. In the absence of effective concentrations of Ang II, unstimulated mature adipocytes expressed and secreted high levels of interleukin (IL)-6. This constitutive proinflammatory activity was attenuated by the suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation by valsartan but was unaffected by the Ang II type 2 receptor blocker PD123319. COS7 cells co-transfected with AT1R and IL-6, which expressed NF-κB but lacked PPAR-γ, showed no constitutive but substantial ligand-dependent IL-6 reporter activity, which was counteracted by valsartan. Valsartan preserved cytosolic IκB-α and subsequently reduced nuclear NF-κB1 protein expression in mature adipocytes. Interestingly, valsartan did not increase PPAR-γ messenger RNA expression per se but enhanced the transcriptional activity of PPAR-γ in mature adipocytes; this enhancement was accompanied by upregulation of the PPAR coactivator (PGC)-1α. Moreover, T0090907, a PPAR-γ inhibitor, increased IL-6 expression, and this increase was attenuated by valsartan. Indeed, addition of valsartan without direct PPAR-γ agonism increased adiponectin production in mature adipocytes. Together, the findings indicate that valsartan blocks the constitutive AT1R activity involving the NF-κB pathway that limits PPAR-γ activity in mature adipocytes. Thus, inverse agonism of AT1R attenuates the spontaneous proinflammatory response and enhances the constitutive insulin-sensitizing activities of mature adipocytes, which may underlie the beneficial metabolic impacts of ARBs.

  12. Absence of an adipogenic effect of rosiglitazone on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes: increase of lipid catabolism and reduction of adipokine expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Renes, J.; Bouwman, F.; Bunschoten, A.; Mariman, E.; Keijer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The thiazolidinedione (TZD) rosiglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-¿ agonist that induces adipocyte differentiation and, hence, lipid accumulation. This is in apparent contrast to the long-term glucose-lowering, insulin-sensitising effect of rosiglitazone. We

  13. Similar Metabolic, Innate Immunity, and Adipokine Profiles in Adult and Pediatric Sepsis Versus Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavladaki, Theonymfi; Spanaki, Anna Maria; Dimitriou, Helen; Kondili, Efmorfia; Choulaki, Christianna; Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Briassoulis, George

    2017-11-01

    To examine whether the septic profiles of heat shock protein 72, heat shock protein 90α, resistin, adiponectin, oxygen consumption, CO2 production, energy expenditure, and metabolic pattern, along with illness severity, nutritional, and inflammatory indices, differ between adult and pediatric patients compared with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and healthy controls. To evaluate whether these biomolecules may discriminate sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adult and pediatric patients. Prospective cohort study. University ICU and PICU. Seventy-eight adults (sepsis/23; systemic inflammatory response syndrome/23; healthy controls/33), 67 children (sepsis/18; systemic inflammatory response syndrome/23; controls/27), mechanically ventilated. None. Flow cytometry determined mean fluorescence intensity for monocyte or neutrophil heat shock protein expression. Resistin, adiponectin, and extracellular heat shock proteins were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; energy expenditure by E-COVX (GE Healthcare). Genomic DNA was extracted with PureLink Genomic DNA kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) to detect heat shock protein 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Similarly, in adult and pediatric patients, Acute Physiology and Chronic Evaluation-II/Acute Physiology and Pediatric Risk of Mortality-III, Simplified Acute Physiology Score-III, C-reactive protein, lactate, and resistin were higher and myocardial contractility, monocyte heat shock protein 72, oxygen consumption, CO2 production, energy expenditure, metabolic pattern, glucose, and albumin lower in sepsis compared with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or controls (p shock protein 90α, and lactate achieved a receiver operating characteristic curve greater than 0.80 in children and greater than 0.75 in adults (p shock protein 72 analysis did not disclose any diagnosis or mortality group differences regarding either rs6457452 or rs1061581 haplotypes. Sepsis presents with similar profiles in adult and pediatric patients, characterized by enhanced inflammatory hormonal response and by repressed innate immunity, metabolism, and myocardial contractility. These features early distinguish sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndrome across all age groups.

  14. Ghrelin, adipokines, metabolic factors in relation with weight status in school-children and results of a 1-year lifestyle intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhojan, Christine; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Larifla, Laurent; Deloumeaux, Jacqueline; Clepier, Josiane; Plumasseau, Jean; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Foucan, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Overweight in Guadeloupe is a public health matter affecting children and adults. In the present study we evaluated the metabolic profile, including serum ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels, in normal weight, overweight and obese school children and we analyzed the potential changes in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors after a 1-year lifestyle intervention program. Parameters were assessed at baseline and at 1 year. Three groups (G) were defined according the International Obesity Task Force reference values, G1: normal weight / G2: overweight / G3: obese. The lifestyle intervention included dietary counseling, regular physical activity and family support. A total of 120 children (G1: n = 44, G2: n = 39, G3: n = 37), aged 11- 15 years and 59 % girls were enrolled. Obese children showed significant lower HDL-C, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations, higher triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, insulin and leptin levels and also higher frequencies of abdominal obesity (G1: 2.3 %, G2: 28.2 %, G3: 73 %) and insulin resistance (GI: 39 %, G2: 72 %, G3: 89 %) than the other groups. In the overall sample, the linear regressions exploring the associations of ghrelin, adiponectin and leptin with age, gender, BMI z-score, HOMA-IR and tanner stage as independent variables showed strong associations of leptin levels with weight status and insulin resistance at baseline. The models accounted for 58 % of variability in leptin levels compared with 26 and 15 % for adiponectin and ghrelin levels respectively. In 83 children who completed the program, significant decreases in BMI z-score in overweight and obese children were noted. Leptin levels decreased significantly only in the obese group whereas adiponectin concentrations increased significantly in the three groups, In obese children, a significant correlation was found between changes in BMI Z-score, and changes in leptin levels (r = 0.39; P = 0.049) but not with changes in adiponectin levels. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were highly prevalent in obese children highlighting their risk of metabolic complications in adulthood. A 1-year long lifestyle intervention was associated with improvement in BMI z-score and metabolic parameters.

  15. Effect of obesity intervention programs on adipokines, insulin resistance, lipid profile, and low-grade inflammation in 3- to 5-y-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Sauer, Pieter J.

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity can cause the development of cardiovascular risk factors. We assessed the effect of a multidisciplinary intervention program on cardiovascular risk factors and compared this effect with a usual-care program in 3- to 5-y-old overweight or obese children. METHODS:

  16. Inflammatory Adipokines Decrease Expression of Two High Molecular Weight Isoforms of Tropomyosin Similar to the Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Savill

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and cancer are increased in Type 2 diabetes. TPM1 and TPM4 genes encode proteins associated with cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. High (HMW and low (LMW molecular weight isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 are altered in several cancer cells and the 3'UTR of TPM1 mRNA is tumour suppressive. Leukocytes influence cardiovascular and neoplastic disease by immunosurveillance for cancer and by chronic inflammation in Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim was to determine changes in expression of isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 genes in leukocytes from Type 2 diabetic patients and to use the leukocyte cell line THP1 to identify possible mediators of changes in the patients. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. In diabetes, expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 were markedly decreased (0.55 v 1.00; p = 0.019 but HMW isoforms from TPM4 were not significantly different (0.76 v 1.00; p = 0.205. Within individual variance in expression of HMW isoforms was very high. The change in expression in HMW isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 was replicated in THP1 cells treated with 1 ng/ml TNFα (0.10 and 0.12 v 1.00 respectively or 10 ng/ml IL-1α (0.17 and 0.14 v 1.00 respectively. Increased insulin or glucose concentrations had no substantial effects on TPM1 or TPM4 expression. Decreased TPM1 mRNA resulted in decreases in HMW protein levels. Expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 is decreased in Type 2 diabetes. This is probably due to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1α in Type 2 diabetes. Lower levels of TPM1 mRNA reduce tumour suppression and could contribute to increased cancer risk in Type 2 diabetes. Decreased HMW tropomyosin isoforms are associated with cancer. Decreased HMW isoforms give rise to cells that are more plastic, motile, invasive and prone to dedifferentiation resulting in leukocytes that are more invasive but less functionally effective.

  17. Obesity and its metabolic complications: the role of adipokines and the relationship between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung, Un Ju; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity is closely associated with an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...

  18. Association of 1-y changes in diet pattern with cardiovascular disease risk factors and adipokines: results from the 1-y randomized Oslo Diet and Exercise Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.R.; Sluik, D.; Rokling-Andersen, M.H.; Anderssen, S.A.; Drevon, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We hypothesized that favorable changes in dietary patterns would lead to a reduction in body size and an improvement in metabolic status. Objective: The objective was to study changes in diet patterns relative to changes in body size, blood pressure, and circulating concentrations of

  19. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is elevated in metabolically unhealthy obesity and affects lipid deposition, adipogenesis, and adipokine secretion of human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Berti

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The hepatokine FGF21 exerts weak lipogenic and anti-adipogenic actions and marked adiponectin-suppressive and leptin and interleukin-6 release-promoting effects in human differentiating preadipocytes. Together with the higher serum concentrations in MUHO subjects, our findings reveal FGF21 as a circulating factor promoting the development of metabolically unhealthy adipocytes.

  20. Overexpressing the novel autocrine/endocrine adipokine WISP2 induces hyperplasia of the heart, white and brown adipose tissues and prevents insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünberg, John R; Hoffmann, Jenny M; Hedjazifar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    undifferentiated. To examine effects of increased WISP2 in vivo, we generated an aP2-WISP2 transgenic (Tg) mouse. These mice had increased serum levels of WISP2, increased lean body mass and whole body energy expenditure, hyperplastic brown/white adipose tissues and larger hyperplastic hearts. Obese Tg mice...... of Tg adipose tissue improved glucose tolerance in recipient mice supporting a role of secreted FAHFAs. The growth-promoting effect of WISP2 was shown by increased BrdU incorporation in vivo and Tg serum increased mesenchymal precursor cell proliferation in vitro. In contrast to conventional canonical...

  1. Effect of Lys656Asn Polymorphism of Leptin Receptor Gene on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Serum Adipokine Levels after a High Polyunsaturated Fat Diet in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Gonzalez Sagrado, M; Conde, R; de la Fuente, B; Primo, D

    2015-11-01

    Human obesity is characterized by high levels of leptin, and leptin levels may change with weight loss and dietary restriction. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Lys656Asn polymorphism in the leptin receptor gene on cardiovascular risk factors, weight loss, and serum leptin levels to a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A sample of 132 obese patients was analyzed in a prospective way with a dietary intervention. The enriched PUFAs hypocaloric intervention consisted in a diet of 1,459 kcal, 45.7% of carbohydrates, 34.4% of lipids, and 19.9% of proteins. In wild-type group, BMI (-1.9 ± 1.4 kg/m(2) ), weight (-4.4 ± 3.2 kg), fat mass (-4.2 ± 3.8 kg), waist circumference (-4.1 ± 3.1 cm), systolic blood pressure (-7.0 ± 12.1 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (-3.9 ± 6.8 mmHg), insulin (-1.8 ± 5.6 MUI/l) and HOMA-IR (-0.5 ± 1.5 Units) decreased. In mutant genotype group, BMI (-2.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) ), weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg), waist circumference (-3.1 ± 4.1 cm), total cholesterol (-25.2 ± 19.6 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (-16.6 ± 25.6 mg/dl), and tryglicerides (-26.6 ± 39.1 mg/dl) decreased. Only leptin levels have a significant decrease in wild genotype group (-6.6 ± 10.2 ng/ml) (25.1%). Carriers of ASn656 allele have a different response than wild-type obese, with a lack of decrease in insulin levels, leptin levels, and HOMA-IR. However, obese patients with this mutant allele have a better lipid profile after weight loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Serum Level of the Adipokine “Vaspin” in Relation to Metabolic Parameters: Short – Term Effect of Specific Dietary Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha I. A. Moaty

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The effect of the dietary supplements may play a role in alleviating the impact of the components of the MetS and may also sustain the level of the vaspin in the sensitization of the C-peptide in order to attain glucose homeostasis.

  3. Early changes in adipokine levels and baseline limb fat may predict HIV lipoatrophy over 2 years following initiation of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calmy, A; Carey, D; Mallon, P W G

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No biological marker has been identified that predicts the development of lipodystrophy (LD). We investigated whether metabolic and body composition parameters could predict the development of LD over 2 years in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: We used stored p...

  4. Changes in IGF-I, urinary free cortisol and adipokines during dronabinol therapy in anorexia nervosa: Results from a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Frystyk, Jan; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    : This was a prospective, double-blind randomised crossover study, conducted at a specialised care centre for eating disorders. The results are based on twenty-four adult women with chronic AN, who completed the study. The participants received dronabinol (oral capsules, 5mg daily) and matching placebo over four weeks......, dronabinol treatment caused a small, yet significant increase in BMI as compared to placebo (+0.23kg/m(2); P=0.04). This modest weight gain predicted a corresponding increase in bioactive IGF-I, while the amount of daily energy expenditure due to physical activity had a comparable but opposite effect...... dronabinol intervention. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that low-dosage therapy with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist dronabinol affected neither the concentration nor the activity of the circulating IGF-system in women with severe and chronic AN. However, our results suggest that such treatment may...

  5. Elevated levels of adipokines predict outcome after acute myocardial infarction: A long-term follow-up of the Glucose Tolerance in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsinger, Viveca; Brismar, Kerstin; Malmberg, Klas; Mellbin, Linda; Näsman, Per; Rydén, Lars; Söderberg, Stefan; Tenerz, Åke; Norhammar, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Adiponectin and leptin are associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Information on the prognostic value after an acute myocardial infarction is still conflicting. Patients (n = 180) without known diabetes and with admission glucose of acute myocardial infarction in 1998-2000 were followed for mortality and cardiovascular events (first of cardiovascular mortality/acute myocardial infarction/stroke/heart failure) until the end of 2011 (median: 11.6 years). Plasma adiponectin and leptin were related to outcome in Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses. Median age was 64 years and 69% were male. Total mortality was 34% (n = 61) and 44% (n = 80) experienced a cardiovascular event. Adiponectin at discharge predicted cardiovascular events (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval; 1.45; 1.02-2.07, p = 0.038), total mortality (2.53; 1.64-3.91, p myocardial infarction and heart failure, adiponectin predicted total mortality (1.79; 1.07-3.00, p = 0.027) but not cardiovascular events. High levels of leptin were associated with cardiovascular events during the first 7 years, after which the association was attenuated. Leptin did not predict total mortality. In patients with acute myocardial infarction but without previously known diabetes, high levels of adiponectin at discharge predicted total mortality. The present results support the hypothesis that high rather than low levels of adiponectin predict mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

  6. L-4F Inhibits Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein-induced Inflammatory Adipokine Secretion via Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A-CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β Signaling Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhu Xie

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: OxLDL induces C/EBPβ protein synthesis in a time-dependent manner and enhances MCP-1 secretion and expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. L-4F dose-dependently counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effect of oxLDL, and cyclic AMP/PKA-C/EBPβ signaling pathway may participate in it.

  7. Curcuma longa polyphenols improve insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and attenuate proinflammatory response of 3T3-L1 adipose cells during oxidative stress through regulation of key adipokines and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Le Sage, Fanny; Hatia, Sarah; Catan, Aurélie; Janci, Laurent; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-07-08

    Plant polyphenols may exert beneficial action against obesity-related oxidative stress and inflammation which promote insulin resistance. This study evaluated the effect of polyphenols extracted from French Curcuma longa on 3T3-L1 adipose cells exposed to H2 O2 -mediated oxidative stress. We found that Curcuma longa extract exhibited high amounts of curcuminoids identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which exerted free radical-scavenging activities. Curcuma longa polyphenols improved insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene expression and adiponectin secretion which decreased in H2 O2 -treated cells. Curcuminoids attenuated H2 O2 -enhanced production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor κappa B. Moreover, they reduced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species elevated by H2 O2 and modulated the expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes. Collectively, these findings highlight that Curcuma longa polyphenols protect adipose cells against oxidative stress and may improve obesity-related metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):418-430, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Association of adipokines, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations with clinical characteristics and presence of spinal syndesmophytes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Fajardo-Robledo, Nicte S.; Miriam Saldaña-Cruz, A.; Moreno-Sandoval, Inocente V.; Bonilla-Lara, David; Zavaleta-Muñiz, Soraya; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernan; Hernandez-Cuervo, Paulina; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Norma Alejandra; Vazquez-Villegas, Maria L; Muñoz-Valle, J. Francisco; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto G

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify correlations of the serum leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations with the clinical characteristics, presence of spinal syndesmophytes, and body composition in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Forty-eight patients with AS were compared with 41 sex- and age-matched controls. Assessment included clinical characteristics and the presence of spinal syndesmophytes. The serum leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, and IL-6 concentrations were determined. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Patients with AS and controls had similar fat mass and lean mass. Patients with AS had higher serum TNF-α and leptin concentrations than controls (52.3 vs. 1.5 pg/mL and 17.2 vs. 9.0 µg/mL, respectively). The IL-6 and adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. Patients with syndesmophytes had higher leptin concentrations than those without syndesmophytes (22.1 vs. 10.9 µg/mL); this difference remained after adjustment for the body mass index. Conclusion Elevated leptin concentrations are associated with spinal radiographic damage in patients with AS and can serve as a biomarker. Future studies should evaluate whether leptin might be a potential target for treatments to avoid structural damage. PMID:28534699

  9. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  10. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M.; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight) was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance...... with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose...... cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats....

  11. Regulation of Adiponectin Secretion by Adipocytes in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    OpenAIRE

    Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Trivax, Bradley S.; Yildiz, Bulent O.; Bertolotto, Cristina; Mathur, Ruchi; Heneidi, Saleh; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Context: Adipose tissue dysfunction associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulation of adipokine secretion might significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

  12. 3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid promotes adiopkine expression during murine 3T3-L1 fibroblast differentiation into adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifen Dong

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that ISA promoted adipogenesis by up-regulating expressions of C/EBP β, PPAR γ, C/EBP α, aP2 and FAS, and also stimulated adipokines during adipocyte differentiation. Further study should clarify the relationship between stimulation of adipokines and cognitive enhancing effect of ISA.

  13. Evaluation of Serum Resistin Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease and Effects of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Its Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Devanoorkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistin and adiponectin are the adipokines secreted by adipocytes and various inflammatory cells. These adipokines are known to play an important role in insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the serum resistin levels in periodontal health and disease and also, to determine the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on its levels.

  14. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors...... such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH....

  15. Physiological concentrations of leptin do not affect human neutrophils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, V.M.; Langereis, J.D.; Aalst, C.W. van; Linden, J. van der; Ulfman, L.H.; Koenderman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipokine that is thought to be important in many inflammatory diseases, and is known to influence the function of several leukocyte types. However, no clear consensus is present regarding the responsiveness of neutrophils for this adipokine. In this study a 2D DIGE proteomics approach

  16. Obesity-Induced Changes in Adipose Tissue Microenvironment and Their Impact on Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, José J; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Gokce, Noyan; Walsh, Kenneth

    2016-05-27

    Obesity is causally linked with the development of cardiovascular disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that cardiovascular disease is the collateral damage of obesity-driven adipose tissue dysfunction that promotes a chronic inflammatory state within the organism. Adipose tissues secrete bioactive substances, referred to as adipokines, which largely function as modulators of inflammation. The microenvironment of adipose tissue will affect the adipokine secretome, having actions on remote tissues. Obesity typically leads to the upregulation of proinflammatory adipokines and the downregulation of anti-inflammatory adipokines, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus on the microenvironment of adipose tissue and how it influences cardiovascular disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases, through the systemic actions of adipokines. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Regulation of vascular tone by adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Voorde Johan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ secreting several mediators called adipokines. Adipokines include hormones, inflammatory cytokines and other proteins. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, resulting in an overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines and a lower production of anti-inflammatory adipokines. The pathological accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for many other diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Multiple physiological roles have been assigned to adipokines, including the regulation of vascular tone. For example, the unidentified adipocyte-derived relaxing factor (ADRF released from adipose tissue has been shown to relax arteries. Besides ADRF, other adipokines such as adiponectin, omentin and visfatin are vasorelaxants. On the other hand, angiotensin II and resistin are vasoconstrictors released by adipocytes. Reactive oxygen species, leptin, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and apelin share both vasorelaxing and constricting properties. Dysregulated synthesis of the vasoactive and proinflammatory adipokines may underlie the compromised vascular reactivity in obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  18. Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Cardiometabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are incompletely understood. Microvascular dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of both insulin resistance and hypertension in obesity. CONTENT: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT is a local deposit of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature. PVAT is present throughout the body and has been shown to have a local effect on blood vessels. The influence of PVAT on the vasculature changes with increasing adiposity. PVAT similarly to other fat depots, is metabolically active, secreting a wide array of bioactive substances, termed ‘adipokines’. Adipokines include cytokines, chemokines and hormones that can act in a paracrine, autocrine or endocrine fashion. Many of the proinflammatory adipokines upregulated in obesity are known to influence vascular function, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, vascular stiffness and smooth muscle migration. Adipokines also stimulate immune cell migration into the vascular wall, potentially contributing to the inflammation found in atherosclerosis. Finally, adipokines modulate the effect of insulin on the vasculature, thereby decreasing insulin-mediated muscle glucose uptake. This leads to alterations in nitric oxide signaling, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenesis. SUMMARY: PVAT surrounds blood vessels. PVAT and the adventitial layer of blood vessels are in direct contact with each other. Healthy PVAT secretes adipokines and regulates vascular function. Obesity is associated with changes in adipokine secretion and the resultant inflammation of PVAT. The dysregulation of adipokines changes the effect of PVAT on the vasculature. Changes in perivascular adipokines secretion in obesity appear to contribute to the development of obesity-mediated vascular disease. KEYWORDS: obesity, perivascular adipose tissue, PVAT

  19. Serum chemerin levels are independently associated with quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors: A pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jee-Yon Lee; Mi-Kyung Lee; Nam-Kyu Kim; Sang-Hui Chu; Duk-Chul Lee; Hye-Sun Lee; Ji-Won Lee; Justin Y Jeon

    2017-01-01

    ...); therefore, it is important to identify clinical markers related with CRC survivor QOL. Here we investigated the relationship between serum chemerin levels, a newly identified proinflammatory adipokine, and QOL in CRC survivors...

  20. Apelin and energy metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bertrand, Chantal; Valet, Philippe; Castan-Laurell, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    .... Apelin, a ubiquitously expressed peptide was known to exert different physiological effects mainly on the cardiovascular system and the regulation of fluid homeostasis prior to its characterization as an adipokine...

  1. Aripiprazole-induced adverse metabolic alterations in polyl:C neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horská, K.; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Dražanová, Eva; Karpíšek, M.; Demlová, R.; Kašpárek, T.; Kotolová, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, SEP (2017), s. 148-158 ISSN 0028-3908 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : adipokine * aripiprazole * leptin * polyl:C * schizophrenia * wistar rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.012, year: 2016

  2. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D

    2017-01-01

    , oxidative stress and the accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts that compromise collagen properties, increase marrow adiposity, release inflammatory factors and adipokines from visceral fat, and potentially alter the function of osteocytes. Additional factors including treatment-induced...

  3. Adipose tissue dysfunction and hypertriglyceridemia : mechanisms and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Woestijne, A. P.; Monajemi, H.; Kalkhoven, E.; Visseren, F. L. J.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma triglyceride levels, as often seen in obese subjects, are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. By secreting adipokines (such as adiponectin and leptin) and other proteins (such as lipoprotein lipase and cholesteryl ester transferase protein),

  4. Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Linjie; Zhang Xiaoxia; Gao Feng; Lai Yongqiang; Gong Fengying; Zhang Fuzhuang; Mi Shuhua; Gao Xiuying; Tao Hong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD) by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the r...

  5. Human adipogenesis is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation and gene-expression changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Christa; Olsson, Anders Henrik; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To define the genomic distribution and function of DNA methylation changes during human adipogenesis. METHODS: We isolated adipocyte-derived stem cells from 13 individuals and analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in cultured adipocyte-derived stem cells and mature adipocy...... for cell cycle and adipokine signaling. CONCLUSION: Human adipogenesis is associated with significant DNA methylation changes across the entire genome and may impact regulation of cell cycle and adipokine signaling....

  6. 36 h fasting of young men influences adipose tissue DNA methylation of LEP and ADIPOQ in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Line; Jørgensen, Sine W; Gillberg, Linn

    2017-01-01

    were studied during 36 h fasting. Eight subjects from each group completed a control study (overnight fast). We analyzed SAT LEP and ADIPOQ methylation (Epityper MassARRAY), gene expression (q-PCR), and adipokine plasma levels. Results: After overnight fast (control study), LEP and ADIPOQ DNA....... The altered epigenetic flexibility in LBW subjects might contribute to their differential response to fasting, adipokine levels, and increased risk of metabolic disease....

  7. Serum Concentrations of Leptin and Adiponectin in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, H. S.; Kang, J. H.; Jeung, E.?B.; Yang, M.?P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The concentrations of circulating adipokines in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) have not been investigated in detail. Objectives To determine whether serum concentrations of adipokines differ between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD and whether circulating concentrations depend on the severity of heart failure resulting from MMVD. Animals In the preliminary study, 30 healthy dogs and 17 client?owned dogs with MMVD, and in the subsequent study, 30 healthy dogs and 46...

  8. [Sleep disorder and lifestyle-related disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.

  9. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R. B.; Jones, M.; Forsberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. ObjectiveWe wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases...... with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with asthma. MethodsThe Global Asthma and Allergy Network of Excellence (GA(2)LEN) clinical follow-up survey is a clinical...... measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females...

  10. Metabolic factors in osteoarthritis: obese people do not walk on their hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Erlangga

    2012-07-19

    Obesity is an important risk factor for the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Recently, the paradigm that obesity predisposes people to OA because of extra-mechanical loading only has shifted to the paradigm that metabolic factors (adipokines) are also involved in the pathophysiology of OA. In a cross-sectional study in the previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Massengale and colleagues investigated the association between one of the adipokines - leptin - and hand OA. Hand joints are an ideal target to investigate the role of adipokines since they are not weight-bearing. Interestingly, no association with OA was found, bringing into question a metabolic, rather than a mechanical, explanation for the association between obesity and OA.

  11. Adiponectin and leptin: new targets in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; López, Verónica; Lago, Francisca; Pino, Jesús; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús; Gualillo, Oreste

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex mechanism of cell/tissue responses to injuries triggered by multiple causes, including trauma, pathogens or autoimmune abnormal responses. In the last years, a novel line of thought is emerging by giving a more holistic vision of chronic arthropathies through a recently identified group of molecules, called adipokines. Actually, most of these recently identified factors, produced prevalently by white adipose tissue but also by cells of the joints (chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts) and immune cells, play a significant role in chronic inflammation. Adipokines dysregulation has emerged as a common characteristic of chronic inflammation in rheumatic diseases in particular when obesity or, more precisely, adipose tissue dysfunction is associated with common rheumatic diseases, such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. In this MiniReview, we discuss the role of adipokines in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis providing an updated overview of their pathophysiological role and potential use as therapeutic targets. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Peritoneal Dialysis: The Role of Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation and angiogenesis are the most common complications in patients undergoing maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD, resulting in progressive peritoneum remolding and, eventually, utrafiltration failure. Contributing to the deeper tissue under the peritoneal membrane, adipocytes play a neglected role in this process. Some adipokines act as inflammatory and angiogenic promoters, while others have the opposite effects. Adipokines, together with inflammatory factors and other cytokines, modulate inflammation and neovascularization in a coordinated fashion. This review will also emphasize cellular regulators and their crosstalk in long-term PD. Understanding the molecular mechanism, targeting changes in adipocytes and regulating adipokine secretion will help extend therapeutic methods for preventing inflammation and angiogenesis in PD.

  13. Adipose tissue: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClercq, Vanessa; Taylor, Carla; Zahradka, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The ever-increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with obesity is linked through signaling pathways within adipose tissue. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, producing and secreting a variety of bioactive molecules. In obesity, the adipose tissue itself undergoes changes in cell size which alters its normal physiological function. Altered adipocyte function changes production and secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, angiotensinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and several inflammatory molecules. Adipokines interact with other tissues and cells in the body, including many pathways linked to CVD. Future research in the area of obesity-related CVD requires further investigation into a combination of lifestyle and pharmacological therapies that alter adipokine production by reducing adipocyte size.

  14. The Impact of Organokines on Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Mook Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immoderate energy intake, a sedentary lifestyle, and aging have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. There is an urgent need for the development of novel pharmacological interventions that can target excessive fat accumulation and decreased muscle mass and/or strength. Adipokines, bioactive molecules derived from adipose tissue, are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, inflammation, energy expenditure, insulin resistance and secretion, glucose and lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Recently, there is emerging evidence that skeletal muscle and the liver also function as endocrine organs that secrete myokines and hepatokines, respectively. Novel discoveries and research into these organokines (adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines may lead to the development of promising biomarkers and therapeutics for cardiometabolic disease. In this review, I summarize recent data on these organokines and focus on the role of adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines in the regulation of insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

  15. Associations between obesity and asthma in a low-income, urban, minority population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Conroy, Lorraine; Karadkhele, Anand; Rosul, Linda; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2013-05-01

    Community-based studies of obesity, asthma, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and adipokines among low-income, urban, minority populations are lacking. Oxidative stress, perhaps modulated by adipokines, may increase airway inflammation in obese individuals. To characterize associations between obesity and asthma in a low-income, urban, minority community and evaluate adipokines, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidant-antioxidant balance in association with asthma and obesity. A door-to-door evaluation of asthma and obesity prevalence was performed in a low-income housing development. Nonsmoking adults and children underwent additional evaluation, including allergy skin testing, and measures of serum adipokines, and indicators of oxidative stress in blood and exhaled breath. The prevalences of current asthma and a body mass index in the 85th percentile or higher were 15.8% and 35.3%, respectively, among 350 nonsmokers older than 4 years. Asthma and obesity were not associated with one another (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.84). Among 116 nonsmoking participants who underwent biomarker evaluation, obesity was not associated with exhaled nitric oxide. In multivariate logistic models that adjusted for age category, sex, and a body mass index in 85th percentile or higher, leptin concentrations in the highest quartile were associated with asthma (odds ratio, 8.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-50.2) but not with atopy. Adiponectin was associated with total antioxidant capacity in exhaled breath. Asthma and obesity, although both common in a low-income, minority community, were not associated with one another. Nevertheless, adipokines were associated with asthma status and with markers of oxidative stress in the lungs, providing some support for an adipokine-inflammatory mechanistic link between the two conditions. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  17. Regulation of Nutrient Metabolism and Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic and immune-related pathways intersect at numerous levels. Their common regulation is effectuated by several hormonal signaling routes that involve specific nuclear hormone receptors and adipokines. Glucocorticoids and leptin are hormones that play a key role in coordinating energy

  18. Insulin modulates the secretion of proteins from mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes: a role for transcriptional regulation of processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Bouwman, F.; Renes, J.; Mariman, E.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Under conditions of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, fat cells are subjected to increased levels of insulin, which may have a major impact on the secretion of adipokines. Materials and methods Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we investigated how insulin affects the

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... EFFECTS OF ADIPONECTIN ON MARKERS OF ENDOTHELIAL ACTIVATION. AND MARKERS OF INFLAMMATION IN HUMAN CORONARY ARTERY ... disease. Much, however, remains to be examined on the link between adipokines and cardiovascular diseases. Adipose tissue secretes a variety of ...

  20. Molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity potential effect of Moringa oleifera in the experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateheya Mohamed Metwally

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: It is reasonable to assume that the anti-obesity, anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic properties of M. oleifera are mechanistically achieved via working directly on the adipokines of the visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, M. oleifera may be a good therapeutic candidate for the symptoms of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Comparison of Isotope-labeled Amino Acid Incorporation Rates (CILAIR) Provides a Quantitative Method to Study Tissue Secretomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, Johan; Dijkstra, Martijn; Weening, Desiree; de Vries, Marcel; Hoek, Annemieke; Vonk, Roel J.

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ involved in regulation of whole-body energy metabolism via storage of lipids and secretion of various peptide hormones (adipokines). We previously characterized the adipose tissue secretome and showed that [(13)C]lysine incorporation into secreted proteins can be

  2. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass and phospholipid transfer protein activity are associated with leptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; de Vries, R.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Tol, A.; Sluiter, W. J.

    Adipose tissue contributes to plasma levels of lipid transfer proteins and is also the major source of plasma adipokines. We hypothesized that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET, a measure of CETP

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rate of inbreeding and effective population size in four major South African dairy cattle breeds. Abstract PDF · Vol 37, No 3 (2007) - Articles Short Communication Single nucleotide polymorphisms in five adipokine genes in dairy cattle populations. Abstract PDF · Vol 38, No 2 (2008) - Articles Estimates of genetic parameters ...

  4. Human Adipose Tissue Conditioned Media from Lean Subjects Is Protective against H2O2 Induced Neurotoxicity in Human SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxiao Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue secretes numerous hormone-like factors, which are known as adipokines. Adipokine receptors have been identified in the central nervous system but the potential role of adipokine signaling in neuroprotection is unclear. The aim of this study is to determine (1 Whether adipokines secreted from cultured adipose tissue of lean humans is protective against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells; and (2 To explore potential signaling pathways involved in these processes. Adipose tissue conditioned media (ATCM from healthy lean subjects completely prevented H2O2 induced neurotoxicity, while this effect is lost after heating ATCM. ATCM activated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and Akt at serine 308 in SH-SY5Y cells. PD98059 (25 µM, SP600125 (5 µM and LY29400 (20 µM partially blocked the protective effects of ATCM against H2O2 induced neurotoxicity. Findings demonstrate that heat-sensitive factors secreted from human adipose tissue of lean subjects are protective against H2O2 induced neurotoxicity and ERK1/2, JNK, and PI3K signaling pathways are involved in these processes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates preliminary but encouraging data to further support that adipose tissue secreted factors from lean human subjects might possess neuroprotective properties and unravel the specific roles of ERK1/2, JNK and PI3K in these processes.

  5. Weight loss after gastric bypass surgery in women is followed by a metabolically favorable decrease in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonyte, Kotryna; Olsson, Tommy; Näslund, Ingmar

    2010-01-01

    The role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1) in the pathogenesis of obesity has been elucidated in humans and in various rodent models. Obesity is accompanied by disturbances in glucocorticoid metabolism, circulating adipokine levels, and fatty acid (FA) reesterification...

  6. Fedme og risiko for marginal parodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Rohde, Jeanett Friis

    2017-01-01

    forskellige kriterier for marginal parodontitis berøres. Litteraturgennemgangen tager udgangspunkt i de biologiske mekanismer, der udløses i fedtvæv ved overvægt/fedme og medfører en kronisk inflammatorisk tilstand med frigivelse af bl.a. adipokiner. Epidemiologiske tværsnitsog longitudinelle studier af...

  7. Adiponectin | Noaemi | Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adiposetissue is not considered anymore as a passive depot for storing excess energy in the form of triglycerides but as an active organ secreting several hormones or adipokines. This review gives some knowledge about history of discovery, ways of measurements, and biochemical and pathophysiological effects of ...

  8. Adiponectin and leptin induce VCAM-1 expression in human and murine chondrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Conde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, the most common rheumatic diseases, are characterized by irreversible degeneration of the joint tissues. There are several factors involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases including pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and adhesion molecules. OBJECTIVE: Up to now, the relationship between adipokines and adhesion molecules at cartilage level was not explored. Thus, the aim of this article was to study the effect of leptin and adiponectin on the expression of VCAM-1 in human and murine chondrocytes. For completeness, intracellular signal transduction pathway was also explored. METHODS: VCAM-1 expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis upon treatment with leptin, adiponectin and other pertinent reagents in cultured human primary chondrocytes. Signal transduction pathways have been explored by using specific pharmacological inhibitors in the adipokine-stimulated human primary chondrocytes and ATDC5 murine chondrocyte cell line. RESULTS: Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that leptin and adiponectin increase VCAM-1 expression in human and murine chondrocytes. In addition, both adipokines have additive effect with IL-1β. Finally, we demonstrate that several kinases, including JAK2, PI3K and AMPK are at a play in the intracellular signalling of VCAM-1 induction. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that leptin and adiponectin could perpetuate cartilage-degrading processes by inducing also factors responsible of leukocyte and monocyte infiltration at inflamed joints.

  9. Short Communication Single nucleotide polymorphisms in five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dairy cattle. The study focused on adipokines, including leptin (LEP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin-8 (IL8) and interleukin-10 (IL10) as candidate genes. The three populations of interest included young Jersey and Holstein (modern Holstein) sires, and Holstein sires born prior to 1970 (traditional Holstein).

  10. Sex Differences: Implications for the Obesity-Asthma Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated in several studies that obesity and adipokines are more strongly associated with asthma in women than in men. The reason for this controversial sex difference is not known. Based on our prior studies, we hypothesize that sex-related difference in ectopic fat may explain the obesity-asthma association in women. PMID:21088605

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seo, Dong-Il. Vol 38, No 1 (2016) - Articles Changes in insulin resistance and adipokines in obese women following a 12-week programme of combined exercise training. Abstract · Vol 38, No 2 (2016) - Articles Effect of a low-intensity resistance exercise programme with blood flow restriction on growth hormone and ...

  12. A diet containing a high- versus low-daidzein level does not protect against liver steatosis in the obese Zucker rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Obesity increases the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through adipokine dysregulation and inflammation. Previously, we reported a high-isoflavone soy protein isolate (HISPI) diet was associated with significantly heavier body weights and ...

  13. High-fat diet enhances and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 deficiency reduces bone loss in mice with pulmonary metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone is adversely affected by metastasis and metastasis-associated complications. Obesity is a risk factor for both bone and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), that contribute to obesity and obesit...

  14. Discordant gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes: effect of interleukin-6 infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, A.; Wolsk, Emil; Bruce, C.

    2006-01-01

    was to determine the effect of Interleukin-6 (IL6) infusion on circulating adipokines and on gene expression in human adipose tissue. To do this we used real-time RT-PCR. Methods  Both diabetic and control subjects underwent basal skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies. A subset...

  15. Adipose tissue as an immunological organ : implications for childhood obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is increasingly considered as an inflammatory disorder. In adults, obesity induces inflammation of adipose tissue (AT). Through the release of inflammatory lipids and immune mediating proteins called adipokines, AT inflammation spreads to other tissues ranging from liver and muscle to the

  16. Endotrophin triggers adipose tissue fibrosis and metabolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Gupta, Olga T

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model to demonst...

  17. Associations of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Adiponectin Gene with Adiponectin Levels and Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mazen Al Khaldi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to (1 study the influence of polymorphisms in adiponectin gene on adiponectin levels and potential associations with breast, prostate and colon cancer; (2 investigate the associations of adiponectin levels with other adipokines and breast, prostate and colon cancers.

  18. Branched Chain Amino Acids Are Associated with Insulin Resistance Independent of Leptin and Adiponectin in Subjects with Varying Degrees of Glucose Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connelly, Margery A.; Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin influence insulin resistance and reflect adipocyte dysfunction. We examined the

  19. Resistin Regulates Pituitary Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro

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    F. Rodriguez-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipokine resistin is an insulin-antagonizing factor that also plays a regulatory role in inflammation, immunity, food intake, and gonadal function and also regulates growth hormone (GH secretion in rat adenopituitary cells cultures with the adipokine. Although adipose tissue is the primary source of resistin, it is also expressed in other tissues, including the pituitary. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible action of resistin on the lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland in vivo (rats in two different nutritional status, fed and fast, treated with resistin on acute and a chronic way and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine. Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we demonstrated that central acute and chronic administration of resistin enhance mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes which participated on lipolysis and moreover inhibiting mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes involved in lipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that resistin has a regulatory role on lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland providing a novel insight in relation to the mechanism by which this adipokine can participate in the integrated control of lipid metabolism.

  20. Resistin Regulates Pituitary Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Pacheco, F.; Novelle, M. G.; Vazquez, M. J.; Garcia-Escobar, E.; Soriguer, F.; Rojo-Martinez, G.; García-Fuentes, E.; Malagon, M. M.; Dieguez, C.

    2013-01-01

    The adipokine resistin is an insulin-antagonizing factor that also plays a regulatory role in inflammation, immunity, food intake, and gonadal function and also regulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in rat adenopituitary cells cultures with the adipokine. Although adipose tissue is the primary source of resistin, it is also expressed in other tissues, including the pituitary. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible action of resistin on the lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland in vivo (rats in two different nutritional status, fed and fast, treated with resistin on acute and a chronic way) and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine). Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we demonstrated that central acute and chronic administration of resistin enhance mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes which participated on lipolysis and moreover inhibiting mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes involved in lipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that resistin has a regulatory role on lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland providing a novel insight in relation to the mechanism by which this adipokine can participate in the integrated control of lipid metabolism. PMID:23710116

  1. Serum Visfatin in Relation to Some Parameters of Iron Metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Visfatin is an adipokine mainly synthesized and secreted in visceral fat. Visfatin was found to have important proinflammatory and immunomodulating properties. The aim of the present work was to clarify the relation between plasma visfatin, some parameters of iron metabolism and insulin resistance in altered glucose ...

  2. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not related to metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apelin is an adipokine that was identified to play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Apelin rs2235306 gene polymorphism was linked to insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. Aim of the study: To assess the relation of apelin rs2235306 polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and its ...

  3. Potential Mechanisms of Exercise in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. This condition shares same array of underlying abnormalities as occurs in diabetes outside of pregnancy, for example, genetic and environmental causes. However, the role of a sedentary lifestyle and/or excess energy intake is more prominent in GDM. Physically active women are less likely to develop GDM and other pregnancy-related diseases. Weight gain in pregnancy causes increased release of adipokines from adipose tissue; many adipokines increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Increased intramyocellular lipids also increase cellular oxidative stress with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. A well-planned program of exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, in spite of old myths, is also recommended during pregnancy. This paper briefly reviews the role of adipokines in gestational diabetes and attempts to shed some light on the mechanisms by which exercise can be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in GDM. In this regard, we discuss the mechanisms by which exercise increases insulin sensitivity, changes adipokine profile levels, and boosts antioxidant mechanisms.

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Oral Administration of Energy Drinks on Blood Chemistry, Tissue Histology and Brain Acetylcholine in Rabbits Abstract · Vol 22, No 1 (2012) - Articles Circulating Adipokine levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria Abstract · Vol 22, No 3 (2012) - Articles Aluminium-induced Liver and Testicular Damage: ...

  5. Potential Mechanisms of Exercise in Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. This condition shares same array of underlying abnormalities as occurs in diabetes outside of pregnancy, for example, genetic and environmental causes. However, the role of a sedentary lifestyle and/or excess energy intake is more prominent in GDM. Physically active women are less likely to develop GDM and other pregnancy-related diseases. Weight gain in pregnancy causes increased release of adipokines from adipose tissue; many adipokines increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Increased intramyocellular lipids also increase cellular oxidative stress with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. A well-planned program of exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, in spite of old myths, is also recommended during pregnancy. This paper briefly reviews the role of adipokines in gestational diabetes and attempts to shed some light on the mechanisms by which exercise can be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in GDM. In this regard, we discuss the mechanisms by which exercise increases insulin sensitivity, changes adipokine profile levels, and boosts antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23691290

  6. Serum Cytokines as Biomarkers in Islet Cell Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Torren, Cornelis R; Verrijn Stuart, Annemarie A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817589; Lee, DaHae; Meerding, Jenny; van de Velde, Ursule; Pipeleers, Daniel; Gillard, Pieter; Keymeulen, Bart; de Jager, Wilco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304816906; Roep, Bart O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Islet cell transplantation holds a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, but many islet recipients do not reach long-lasting insulin independence. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether serum cytokines, chemokines and adipokines are associated with the clinical outcome of islet

  7. CST, an Herbal Formula, Exerts Anti-Obesity Effects through Brain-Gut-Adipose Tissue Axis Modulation in High-Fat Diet Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbuZar Ansari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain, gut, and adipose tissue interact to control metabolic pathways, and impairment in the brain-gut-adipose axis can lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity. Chowiseungcheng-tang (CST, a herbal formulation, is frequently used to treat metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of CST and its link with brain-gut-adipose axis using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The animals were provided with a normal research diet (NRD or high-fat diet (HFD in absence or presence of CST or orlistat (ORL for 12 weeks. CST had a significant anti-obesity effect on a number of vital metabolic and obesity-related parameters in HFD-fed mice. CST significantly decreased the expression levels of genes encoding obesity-promoting neuropeptides (agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and increased the mRNA levels of obesity-suppressing neuropeptides (proopiomelanocortin, cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the hypothalamus. CST also effectively decreased the expression level of gene encoding obesity-promoting adipokine (retinol-binding protein-4 and increased the mRNA level of obesity-suppressing adipokine (adiponectin in visceral adipose tissue (VAT. Additionally, CST altered the gut microbial composition in HFD groups, a phenomenon strongly associated with key metabolic parameters, neuropeptides, and adipokines. Our findings reveal that the anti-obesity impact of CST is mediated through modulation of metabolism-related neuropeptides, adipokines, and gut microbial composition.

  8. CST, an Herbal Formula, Exerts Anti-Obesity Effects through Brain-Gut-Adipose Tissue Axis Modulation in High-Fat Diet Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, AbuZar; Bose, Shambhunath; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Jing-Hua; Song, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Hojun

    2016-11-11

    The brain, gut, and adipose tissue interact to control metabolic pathways, and impairment in the brain-gut-adipose axis can lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity. Chowiseungcheng-tang (CST), a herbal formulation, is frequently used to treat metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of CST and its link with brain-gut-adipose axis using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The animals were provided with a normal research diet (NRD) or high-fat diet (HFD) in absence or presence of CST or orlistat (ORL) for 12 weeks. CST had a significant anti-obesity effect on a number of vital metabolic and obesity-related parameters in HFD-fed mice. CST significantly decreased the expression levels of genes encoding obesity-promoting neuropeptides (agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y), and increased the mRNA levels of obesity-suppressing neuropeptides (proopiomelanocortin, cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript) in the hypothalamus. CST also effectively decreased the expression level of gene encoding obesity-promoting adipokine (retinol-binding protein-4) and increased the mRNA level of obesity-suppressing adipokine (adiponectin) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Additionally, CST altered the gut microbial composition in HFD groups, a phenomenon strongly associated with key metabolic parameters, neuropeptides, and adipokines. Our findings reveal that the anti-obesity impact of CST is mediated through modulation of metabolism-related neuropeptides, adipokines, and gut microbial composition.

  9. MR spectroscopy of hepatic fat and adiponectin and leptin levels during testosterone therapy in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L V; Andersen, P E; Diaz, Alejandro Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often have lowered testosterone levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ectopic fat increases the risk of CVD, whereas subcutaneous gluteofemoral fat protects against CVD and has a beneficial adipokine-secreting profile. Testosterone r...

  10. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction : Clinical Relevance and Diagnostic Possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrover, I. M.; Spiering, W.; Leiner, T.; Visseren, F. L J

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction is defined as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, causing insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation, hypercoagulability, and elevated blood pressure. These can lead to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. Although quantity

  11. Low adiponectin levels at baseline and decreasing adiponectin levels over 10 years of follow-up predict risk of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, S; Jensen, J S; Bjerre, Mette

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and may play a key role in the interplay between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus, this large population-based cohort investigated whether adiponectin at baseline and/or a decrease in adiponectin during...

  12. Adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in preeclampsia in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adiponectin and Leptin are closely related adipokines that are associated with the oxidative stresses and endothelial dysfunction and proposed to participate in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. This study is to determine changes in serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in PE women in order to speculate a ...

  13. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  14. Short Communication Single nucleotide polymorphisms in five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity in candidate genes for fitness and production traits was explored in three populations of dairy cattle. The study focused on adipokines, including leptin (LEP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin-8 (IL8) and interleukin-10 (IL10) as candidate genes. The three populations of interest included young ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issue, Title. Vol 38, No 1 (2016), Changes in insulin resistance and adipokines in obese women following a 12-week programme of combined exercise training, Abstract. Dong-Il Seo, Wi-Young So, Dong Jun Sung. Vol 36, No 2 (2014), Changing relationships with significant others: Reflections of National and International ...

  16. Associations among serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic mediators, body condition, and uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions (metritis, clinical endometritis or subclinical endometritis) and in cows experiencing loss of body condition, and to assess the relationship of adipokines and body condition loss in the establishment of persistent uterine inflammatory conditions. Methods Lactating multiparous Holstein cows (N = 40), with body condition scores (BCS) from 2 to 4 (eight cows for each 0.5 score increment) were enrolled. Body condition was monitored for all cows weekly for 7 weeks post calving; cows with uterine inflammatory conditions were also re-evaluated 2 weeks later. Blood samples were collected from 1 week prior to calving to 7 weeks after calving for determination of serum concentrations of adipokines, insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1. Results Cows with metritis or clinical endometritis had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 compared to normal cows (P cows with subclinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P cows with metritis or clinical endometritis. Cows with low BCS (2 and 2.5) had significantly higher adiponectin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 than those with high BCS (3 to 4). Cows with persistent uterine inflammatory conditions had higher adiponectin, leptin TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and insulin compared to normal and spontaneously recovered cows, except for IGF-1 (P cows. PMID:24209779

  17. Do patients with aggressive periodontitis have evidence of diabetes? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R C; Jaedicke, K M; Barksby, H E; Jitprasertwong, P; Al-Shahwani, R M; Taylor, J J; Preshaw, P M

    2011-12-01

    Complex relationships exist between diabetes and periodontal disease. Diabetes is accepted as a risk factor for periodontal disease, and recent evidence supports the existence of a bidirectional relationship between these two diseases. It has been hypothesized that inflammation, lipids and adipokines may mediate these relationships. However, research regarding the above relationships with respect to aggressive periodontitis is very limited. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether patients with aggressive periodontitis (not previously diagnosed with diabetes) have evidence of diabetes and have altered serum levels of inflammatory mediators, lipids and adipokines. Glycaemic control markers (random plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin), inflammatory mediators (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interferon-γ and interleukin-18), lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were measured in serum samples from 30 patients with aggressive periodontitis and 30 age- and sex-matched periodontally healthy control subjects, none of whom had a previous diagnosis of diabetes. Levels of glycaemic control markers, inflammatory mediators, lipids and adipokines were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the aggressive periodontitis patients and healthy subjects for unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusting for body mass index, smoking, ethnicity, age and sex). The p-value for the adjusted analysis of adiponectin in female aggressive periodontitis patients compared with the female control subjects reached 0.064, the mean adiponectin level being lower in the female aggressive periodontitis patients (4.94 vs. 5.97 μg/mL). This pilot study provided no evidence to suggest that patients with aggressive periodontitis (not previously diagnosed with diabetes) have evidence of diabetes or altered serum levels of inflammatory

  18. Adiponectin induced AMP-activated protein kinase impairment mediates insulin resistance in Bama mini-pig fed high-fat and high-sucrose diet

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    Miaomiao Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks. Plasma glucose and blood biochemistry levels were measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Adipokines, including adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and glucose-induced insulin secretion were also examined by radioimmunoassay. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed by Pearce’s correlation analysis. Results Obese pigs showed hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and IL-6 amounts dramatically increased (p<0.05 in obese pigs both in serum and adipose tissue, corroborating data from obese mice and humans. However, circulating resistin and TNF-α showed no difference, while the values of TNF-α in adipose tissue were significantly higher in obese pigs, also in agreement with data from obese humans but not rodent models. Moreover, strong associations of skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adiponectin and HOMA-IR index were obtained. Conclusion AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. In addition, Bama mini-pig has the possibility of a conformable

  19. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Obesity

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    José A. Morales-González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease of multifactorial origin and can be defined as an increase in the accumulation of body fat. Adipose tissue is not only a triglyceride storage organ, but studies have shown the role of white adipose tissue as a producer of certain bioactive substances called adipokines. Among adipokines, we find some inflammatory functions, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6; other adipokines entail the functions of regulating food intake, therefore exerting a direct effect on weight control. This is the case of leptin, which acts on the limbic system by stimulating dopamine uptake, creating a feeling of fullness. However, these adipokines induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, generating a process known as oxidative stress (OS. Because adipose tissue is the organ that secretes adipokines and these in turn generate ROS, adipose tissue is considered an independent factor for the generation of systemic OS. There are several mechanisms by which obesity produces OS. The first of these is the mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids, which can produce ROS in oxidation reactions, while another mechanism is over-consumption of oxygen, which generates free radicals in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that is found coupled with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Lipid-rich diets are also capable of generating ROS because they can alter oxygen metabolism. Upon the increase of adipose tissue, the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, was found to be significantly diminished. Finally, high ROS production and the decrease in antioxidant capacity leads to various abnormalities, among which we find endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide (NO, and an increase in endothelium-derived contractile factors, favoring atherosclerotic disease.

  20. Trans fat intake lowers total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels without changing insulin sensitivity index in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiliang; Wang, Baowu; Pace, Ralphenia D; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2009-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that trans fat intake increases the risk of some chronic diseases. We hypothesize that trans fat intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus by changing the lipid profile in plasma, the secretion of adipokines in adipose tissue, and the insulin sensitivity. Accordingly, the major objective of present study was to investigate the effect of dietary intake of trans fat on lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and adipokine levels in plasma. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 4.5% trans fat or a control diet containing no trans fat for 16 weeks. Fasting glucose level was monitored every 2 weeks. At the end of feeding experiment, blood, heart, kidney, liver, omental adipose tissue, and semitendinosus muscle were collected. The trans fat content in organs, lipid profile, adipokine, insulin, and glucose levels in plasma were analyzed. The trans fat content in adipose tissue, heart, kidney, liver, and muscle of rats fed trans fat were 169.9, 0.6, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.5 mg/g samples, respectively. The trans fat content in these organs contributed to 15.9%, 1.2%, 2.3%, 4.3%, and 6.1% of the total fat, respectively. The plasma glucose level, insulin level, and insulin sensitivity index were not significantly different between the trans fat and control groups. The results indicated that trans fat intake might not be related to insulin resistance. However, lipid profile and plasma adipokine levels were significantly changed after trans fat feeding. The trans fat fed group showed significantly lower total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the control group. The decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level may indicate the detrimental effect of trans fat intake on lipid profile. Adiponectin and resistin levels were significantly higher in the trans fat group than the control group. Leptin levels were significantly lower in the trans fat group than

  1. Obesity-Related Metabolic Syndrome: Mechanisms of Sympathetic Overactivity

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    Maria Paola Canale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased worldwide over the past few years. Sympathetic nervous system overactivity is a key mechanism leading to hypertension in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Sympathetic activation can be triggered by reflex mechanisms as arterial baroreceptor impairment, by metabolic factors as insulin resistance, and by dysregulated adipokine production and secretion from visceral fat with a mainly permissive role of leptin and antagonist role of adiponectin. Chronic sympathetic nervous system overactivity contributes to a further decline of insulin sensitivity and creates a vicious circle that may contribute to the development of hypertension and of the metabolic syndrome and favor cardiovascular and kidney disease. Selective renal denervation is an emerging area of interest in the clinical management of obesity-related hypertension. This review focuses on current understanding of some mechanisms through which sympathetic overactivity may be interlaced to the metabolic syndrome, with particular regard to the role of insulin resistance and of some adipokines.

  2. The role of adiponectin in reproduction: from polycystic ovary syndrome to assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos G; Segars, James H

    2010-11-01

    To summarize the effects of the adipokine adiponectin on the reproductive endocrine system, from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to the gonads and target tissues of the reproductive system. A Medline computer search was performed to identify relevant articles. Research institution. None. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that acts to reduce insulin resistance and atherogenic damage, but it also exerts actions in other tissues. Adiponectin mediates its actions in the periphery mainly via two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Adiponectin receptors are present in many reproductive tissues, including the central nervous system, ovaries, oviduct, endometrium, and testes. Adiponectin influences gonadotropin release, normal pregnancy, and assisted reproduction outcomes. Adiponectin, a beneficial adipokine, represents a major link between obesity and reproduction. Higher levels of adiponectin are associated with improved menstrual function and better outcomes in assisted reproductive cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Secretion of Adipsin as an Assay to Measure Flux from the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, Alexandria; Chaudhary, Natasha; McGraw, Timothy E

    2017-04-05

    In this protocol we describe a quantitative biochemical assay to assess the efficiency of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi protein transport in adipocytes (Bruno et al., 2016). The assay takes advantage of the fact that adipocytes secrete various bioactive proteins, known as adipokines. As a measure of ER to Golgi flux we determine the rate of bulk secretion of the adipokine adipsin post washout of Brefeldin A (BFA) treatment using immunoblotting. Because BFA treatment results in an accumulation of adipsin in the ER, the exit of adipsin from the ER upon BFA washout is synchronized across cells and experimental conditions. Thus, using this simple assay one can robustly determine if perturbations, such as knocking down a protein, have an effect on ER to Golgi protein transport.

  4. [Leptin: a link between obesity and osteoarthritis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlain, Bernard; Presle, Nathalie; Pottie, Pascale; Mainard, Didier; Netter, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    In addition to aging, obesity is one of the most common underlying causes of osteoarthritis (OA). Mechanical loading, together with biochemical and systemic factors linked to altered lipid metabolism, are thought to contribute to the onset of OA. It has been suggested that OA is a systemic metabolic disease associated with lipid disorders affecting joint homeostasis. These gradual changes may be due to the local effect of adipokines, and especially leptin. Indeed, their relative levels in joints differ from that found in plasma. In particular, leptin levels are increased and adiponectin and resistin levels are reduced This hypothesis is supported by--leptin overexpression in OA cartilage and its correlation with the degree of cartilage destruction,--abundant leptin synthesis by osteophytes, and--the high leptin levels found in OA joints from female patients. This link between OA and adipokines provides new leads regarding the prevention of OA and the identification of new drug targets.

  5. The mechanisms linking adiposopathy to type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jichun; Kang, Jihong; Guan, Youfei

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is defined as excessive accumulation of body fat in proportion to body size. When obesity occurs, the functions of adipose tissue may be deregulated, which is termed as adiposopathy. Adiposopathy is an independent risk factor for many diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In overweight or obese subjects with adiposopathy, hyperlipidemia exerts lipotoxicity in pancreatic islet and liver and induces pancreatic β cell dysfunction and liver insulin resistance, which are the decisive factors causing type 2 diabetes. Moreover, adipokines have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. When adiposopathy occurs, abnormal changes in the serum adipokine profile correlate with the development and progression of pancreatic β cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in peripheral tissue. The current paper briefly discusses the latest findings regarding the effects of adiposopathy-related lipotoxicity and cytokine toxicity on the development of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Cato, Liam D; Miah, Mohammed A L; Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gonzalez, Ana M; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. PMID:27186074

  7. Adiponectin: an attractive marker for metabolic disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Andrea; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Turchiarelli, Viviana; Nigro, Ersilia; Corbi, Graziamaria; Scudiero, Olga; Sofia, Matteo; Daniele, Aurora

    2013-10-14

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease which may be complicated by development of co-morbidities including metabolic disorders. Metabolic disorders commonly associated with this disease contribute to lung function impairment and mortality. Systemic inflammation appears to be a major factor linking COPD to metabolic alterations. Adipose tissue seems to interfere with systemic inflammation in COPD patients by producing a large number of proteins, known as "adipokines", involved in various processes such as metabolism, immunity and inflammation. There is evidence that adiponectin is an important modulator of inflammatory processes implicated in airway pathophysiology. Increased serum levels of adiponectin and expression of its receptors on lung tissues of COPD patients have recently highlighted the importance of the adiponectin pathway in this disease. Further, in vitro studies have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory activity for this adipokine at the level of lung epithelium. This review focuses on mechanisms by which adiponectin is implicated in linking COPD with metabolic disorders.

  8. Leptin as a link between the immune system and kidney-related diseases: leading actor or just a coadjuvant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Vieira, P M M; Bassi, E J; Araujo, R C; Câmara, N O S

    2012-08-01

    Food intake and nutritional status modify the physiological responses of the immune system to illness and infection and regulate the development of chronic inflammatory processes, such as kidney disease. Adipose tissue secretes immune-related proteins called adipokines that have pleiotropic effects on both the immune and neuroendocrine systems, linking metabolism and immune physiology. Leptin, an adipose tissue-derived adipokine, displays a variety of immune and physiological functions, and participates in several immune responses. Here, we review the current literature on the role of leptin in kidney diseases, linking adipose tissue and the immune system with kidney-related disorders. The modulation of this adipose hormone may have a major impact on the treatment of several immune- and metabolic-related kidney diseases. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Leptin and adiponectin levels in discordant dichorionic twins at 72 hours of age-associations with anthropometric parameters and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Svetlana J; Mirković, Ljiljana B; Jovandarić, Miljana Z; Milenković, Dušan M; Banković, Violeta V; Janković, Borisav Z

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) in adults has been associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Leptin and adiponectin correlations with anthropometric parameters and IR at 72 h in discordant twins were tested. We included 24 discordant (birth weight discordance ≥20% in relation to the heavier cotwin) and 30 concordant (birth weight discordance ≤10%) twins. A correlation between leptin (but not adiponectin) level and birth weight (BW), birth length and head circumference in IUGR twins was recorded (ptwins were similar to appropriate-for-gestational-age cotwins and unrelated to adipokines. In IUGR twins, adiponectin and insulin associated positively. In larger concordant twins' leptin level correlated with HOMA-IR and insulin. Leptin, but not adiponectin, levels correlate positively with anthropometric parameters in IUGR twins. IR in IUGR twins is unrelated to adipokines in the first few days of life.

  10. Elevated body mass index as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jocelyn S Garland Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is defined by the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative as the presence of reduced kidney function or kidney damage for a period of 3 months or greater. Obesity is considered a risk factor for CKD development, but its precise role in contributing to CKD and end stage kidney disease is not fully elucidated. In this narrative review, the objectives are to describe the pathogenesis of CKD in obesity, including the impact of altered adipokine secretion in obesity and CKD, and to provide an overview of the clinical studies assessing the risk of obesity and CKD development. Keywords: obesity, chronic renal disease, adipokine

  11. Circulating neuregulin 4 levels are inversely associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Jiang; Mingzhu Lin; Yanfang Xu; Jin Shao; Xuejun Li; Huijie Zhang; Shuyu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) has been identified as a new secreted adipokine that may protect against development of obesity and metabolic disorders. However, information is not available regarding the association between circulating Nrg4 and subclinical atherosclerosis in humans. We measured serum Nrg4 in 485 obese adult subjects (aged 40 years or older) who had the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) recruited from the community. Individuals with increased CIMT and carotid plaque ha...

  12. Effects of rhythmic aerobic exercise plus core stability training on serum chemerin levels and Glycemic index of overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Z Taghavian; H Rabiee; Faramarzi, M; A Azamian

    2017-01-01

        Background & aim: Chemerin are novel adipokines that are secreted from adipose tissue and improved insulin sensitive. The purpose of this study was to examine the ffects of rhythmic aerobic exercise plus core stability training on serum chemerin levels and Insulin resistance, glucose levels and body composition of overweight women.   Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 40 healthy women aged 25-45, waist circumference equal to and above 88 cm, body mass in...

  13. Hyperuricemia as a Mediator of the Proinflammatory Endocrine Imbalance in the Adipose Tissue in a Murine Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, William; McRae, Steven; Marek, George; Wymer, David; Pannu, Varinderpal; BAYLIS, CHRIS; Johnson, Richard J.; Sautin, Yuri Y.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hyperuricemia is strongly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome and can predict visceral obesity and insulin resistance. Previously, we showed that soluble uric acid directly stimulated the redox-dependent proinflammatory signaling in adipocytes. In this study we demonstrate the role of hyperuricemia in the production of key adipokines. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes, human primary adipocytes, and a mouse model of metabolic syndrome and hyperuri...

  14. The association between obesity and gynecological cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yin-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem and has significant implications for a variety of diseases, including human cancers. A positive association between obesity and incidence of many gynecological cancers, including endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer has been observed. The mechanism proposed to connect obesity and these cancers was sex hormone, insulin resistance, and certain adipokines. Obesity adversely affects survival in most studies. For endometrial cancer, the obesity was ass...

  15. Effects of obesity on transcriptomic changes and cancer hallmarks in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Velazquez-Torres, Guermarie; Phan, Liem; Zhang, Fanmao; Chou, Ping-Chieh; Shin, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Hyun Ho; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Zhao, Ruiying; Chen, Jian; Gully, Chris; Carlock, Colin; Qi, Yuan; Zhang, Ya; Wu, Yun; Esteva, Francisco J; Luo, Yongde; McKeehan, Wallace L; Ensor, Joe; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Pusztai, Lajos; Fraser Symmans, W; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching Jim

    2014-07-01

    Obesity increases the risk of cancer death among postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, but the direct evidence for the mechanisms is lacking. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate direct evidence for the mechanisms mediating this epidemiologic phenomenon. We analyzed transcriptomic profiles of pretreatment biopsies from a prospective cohort of 137 ER+ breast cancer patients. We generated transgenic (MMTV-TGFα;A (y) /a) and orthotopic/syngeneic (A (y) /a) obese mouse models to investigate the effect of obesity on tumorigenesis and tumor progression and to determine biological mechanisms using whole-genome transcriptome microarrays and protein analyses. We used a coculture system to examine the impact of adipocytes/adipokines on breast cancer cell proliferation. All statistical tests were two-sided. Functional transcriptomic analysis of patients revealed the association of obesity with 59 biological functional changes (P cancer hallmarks. Gene enrichment analysis revealed enrichment of AKT-target genes (P = .04) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes (P = .03) in patients. Our obese mouse models demonstrated activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway in obesity-accelerated mammary tumor growth (3.7- to 7.0-fold; P obesity-induced secretion of adipokines and breast tumor formation and growth (0.5-fold, P = .04; 0.3-fold, P cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Metformin suppress adipocyte-induced cell proliferation and adipocyte-secreted adipokines in vitro. Adipokine secretion and AKT/mTOR activation play important roles in obesity-accelerated breast cancer aggressiveness in addition to hyperinsulinemia, estrogen signaling, and inflammation. Metformin and everolimus have potential for therapeutic interventions of ER+ breast cancer patients with obesity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Exercise-Induced Dose-Response Alterations in Adiponectin and Leptin Levels Are Dependent on Body Fat Changes in Women at Risk for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Kathleen; Digiovanni, Laura; Good, Jerene; Salvatore, Domenick; Fenderson, Desiré; Domchek, Susan; Stopfer, Jill; Galantino, Mary Lou; Bryan, Cathy; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Schmitz, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer. Physical activity protects against breast cancer and one of the mechanisms which may underlie this association is exercise-induced changes in adipokine levels. The WISER Sister Trial was a three-armed randomized controlled trial in premenopausal women (n = 137) with an elevated risk for breast cancer. A 5-menstrual-cycle-long dosed aerobic exercise intervention compared low-dose exercise (150 min/wk; n = 44) or high-dose exercise (300 min/wk; n = 48) with a control group asked to maintain usual activity levels (n = 45). Exercise intensity progressed to and was maintained at 70% to 80% of age predicted heart rate max. Body composition and adipokine levels were measured at baseline and follow-up. We observed significant linear trends for increased fitness capacity (Δ%: -2.0% control, 10.1% low dose, 13.1% high dose), decreased fat tissue-to-total tissue mass (Δ%: 0.7% control, -2.9% low dose, -3.7% high dose), increased body fat adjusted adiponectin (Δ%: -0.6% control, 0.6% low dose, 0.9% high dose), and decreased body fat adjusted leptin (Δ%: 0.7% control, -8.2% low dose, -10.2% high dose). In this randomized clinical trial of premenopausal women at risk for breast cancer, we demonstrate a dose-response effect of exercise on adiponectin and leptin and that dose response is dependent on changes in body fat. Improved adipokine levels, achieved by aerobic exercise training-induced decreases in body fat, may decrease breast cancer risk for high-risk premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(8); 1195-200. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Adiponectin, resistin and leptin in paediatric chronic renal failure: correlation with auxological and endocrine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Maria Cristina; Montaperto, Daniela; Maringhini, Silvio; Corrado, Ciro; Gucciardino, Eleonora; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) compromises nutrition, growth, puberty, glycometabolic homeostasis, and adipokine secretion (i.e. adiponectin, resistin, and leptin). Adipokines play a role in the clinical outcome, but data in paediatric patients is scant. To evaluate the link between kidney function, adiponectin, resistin, leptin, hormonal status, nutritional state and late outcome of CRF children. We studied leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels in 31 CRF patients (19 males, 12 females, aged 12.1 ± 4.47 years) managed conservatively, and 30 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Clinical, auxological, biochemical, hormonal data, glucose and insulin levels were correlated with adipokine levels. Six percent of patients had glycaemia T0' > 126 mg/dl, 23 % glycaemia T60' > 126, and 23 % glycaemia T120' ≥ 140. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measured during follow-up was in the normal range in all patients (4-5.6 %). Insulinaemia was significantly higher in CRF patients than controls. Homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were more elevated in patients (32 % had HOMA-IR > 2.5) than controls. Leptin levels were significantly higher in CRF patients than controls and differed significantly between males and females. Leptin correlated significantly with creatinine, body mass index (BMI), BA, pubertal stage, insulin-like growth factor 1, and HOMA-IR in females. Adiponectin levels were significantly higher in patients than controls, higher in patients with BMI < 85th centile and significantly inversely correlated to BMI, BA, haemoglobin, ferritin, proteins, albumin, and creatininuria. Resistin levels showed a direct correlation with C-reactive protein and an inverse correlation with haemoglobin. Normal resistin levels are an expression of both adequate nutritional state and controlled inflammatory state. Adiponectin could protect against chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Preventing obesity and ensuring a

  18. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Sik eChoe; Jin Young eHuh; In Jae eHwang; Jong In eKim; Jae Bum eKim

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue (WAT) functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue (BAT) accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secret various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic a...

  19. The Effect of 12 Weeks Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined Exercises on Omentin-1 Levels and Insulin Resistance among Type 2 Diabetic Middle-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    AminiLari, Zeinab; Fararouei, Mohammad; Amanat, Sasan; Sinaei, Ehsan; Dianatinasab, Safa; AminiLari, Mahmood; Daneshi, Nima; Dianatinasab, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that omentin-1 derived from adipokines can affect physiological regulations and some metabolic dis-eases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic (cycle ergometer), resistance, and combined exercises on omentin-1 level, glucose and insulin resistance indices in overweight middle age women with T2DM. In this study, 60 overweight middle age diabetic women were selected using s...

  20. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, R B; Jones, M; Forsberg, B; Janson, C; Bossios, A; Dahlen, S-E; Toskala, E M; Al-Kalemji, A; Kowalski, M L; Rymarczyk, B; Salagean, E M; van Drunen, C M; Bachert, C; Wehrend, T; Krämer, U; Mota-Pinto, A; Burney, P; Leynaert, B; Jarvis, D

    2014-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. We wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with asthma. The Global Asthma and Allergy Network of Excellence (GA(2) LEN) clinical follow-up survey is a clinical survey, embedded in a larger multi-centre cross-sectional postal survey, involving, with a case/control design, enrichment of the sample with subjects with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We recorded serum leptin or adiponectin in 845 men and 1110 women in 15 centres and also anthropometric measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females, adjusting for confounders (area, age, smoking history, and number of elder siblings) and also mutually adjusting associations with adipokines and fatness measures. One thousand nine hundred and fifty-five subjects aged 16-77 years had information on leptin or adiponectin levels. Leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio were positively associated with the level of asthma, especially in females (Somers' D of leptin by asthma score, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.30; P = 0.00079). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for confounders and became non-significant after additionally adjusting for fatness measures and multiple comparisons. Asthma levels are positively associated with serum leptin. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that this association is secondary to associations of both with fatness

  1. Défenses antioxydantes, inflammation et immunomodulation, au cours du diabète gestationnel, dans les compartiments maternel, foetal et placentaire

    OpenAIRE

    Grissa, Oussama

    2010-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as ‘carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy’, irrespective to necessary treatment and its evolution in the post partum. GDM is associated with a number of complications/ pathologies both in mother and in their newborns, with short and long-term. In this study, we investigated the role of cytokines, adipokines and antioxidant status during GDM and macrosomia. Our study has demonstrated that th...

  2. Leptin modulates electrophysiological characteristics and isoproterenol-induced arrhythmogenesis in atrial myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yung-Kuo; Chen, Yao-Chang; Huang, Jen-Hung; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is an important risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Leptin is an important adipokine. However, it is not clear whether leptin directly modulates the electrophysiological characteristics of atrial myocytes. Results Whole cell patch clamp and indo-1 fluorescence were used to record the action potentials (APs) and ionic currents in isolated rabbit left atrial (LA) myocytes incubated with and without (control) leptin (100 nM) for 1 h to investigate the role of leptin on a...

  3. Leptin Is Associated With Persistence of Hyperglycemia in Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James I.C.; Askelund, Kathryn J.; Premkumar, Rakesh; Phillips, Anthony R.J.; Murphy, Rinki; Windsor, John A.; Petrov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adipokines have many homeostatic roles, including modulation of glucose metabolism, but their role in the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia associated with acute and critical illnesses in general, and acute pancreatitis (AP) in particular, is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a panel of adipokines and hyperglycemia in the early course of AP, as well as the role of adipokines as predictors of AP severity. Adiponectin, leptin, omentin, resistin, and visfatin were measured on a daily basis in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. A first set of analyses was undertaken with admission glycemia stratified by severity, and a second set of analyses was undertaken based on persistence of early hyperglycemia. All of the analyses were adjusted for confounders. A total of 32 patients with AP were included in this study. None of the studied adipokines was significantly associated with glucose level on admission. Leptin was significantly (P = 0.003) increased in patients with persistent hyperglycemia. Adiponectin was significantly associated with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.015), visfatin with APACHE II score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.014), and omentin with APACHE II score in all of the patients regardless of the presence or absence of hyperglycemia (P = 0.021). Leptin is significantly associated with persistent hyperglycemia in the early course of AP. Omentin has a potential to become an accurate predictor of AP severity. PMID:26871770

  4. Serum Vaspin Levels Are Associated with the Development of Clinically Manifest Arthritis in Autoantibody-Positive Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen I Maijer

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that overweight may increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA in autoantibody positive individuals. Adipose tissue could contribute to the development of RA by production of various bioactive peptides. Therefore, we examined levels of adipokines in serum and synovial tissue of subjects at risk of RA.Fifty-one individuals positive for immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA, without arthritis, were included in this prospective study. Levels of adiponectin, vaspin, resistin, leptin, chemerin and omentin were determined in baseline fasting serum samples (n = 27. Synovial tissue was obtained by arthroscopy at baseline and we examined the expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin by immunohistochemistry.The development of clinically manifest arthritis after follow-up was associated with baseline serum vaspin levels (HR1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.020, also after adjustment for overweight (HR1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.5; p = 0.016. This association was not seen for other adipokines. Various serum adipokine levels correlated with BMI (adiponectin r = -0.538, leptin r = 0.664; chemerin r = 0.529 and systemic markers of inflammation such as CRP levels at baseline (adiponectin r = -0.449, omentin r = -0.557, leptin r = 0.635, chemerin r = 0.619, resistin r = 0.520 and ESR (leptin r = 0.512, chemerin r = 0.708, p-value<0.05. Synovial expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin was not associated with development of clinically manifest arthritis.In this exploratory study, serum adipokines were associated with an increased inflammatory state in autoantibody-positive individuals at risk of developing RA. Furthermore, serum vaspin levels may assist in predicting the development of arthritis in these individuals.

  5. Influences of the common FTO rs9939609 variant on inflammatory markers throughout a broad range of body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    A recent study reported that the fatness associated A-allele of FTO rs9939609 increased plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels independent of fatness. We aimed to investigate if this gene variant had fatness-independent effects on plasma hs-CRP and 10 additional circulating ob...... obesity-related adipokines throughout a broad range of body mass index (BMI) among Danish men....

  6. 36 h fasting of young men influences adipose tissue DNA methylation of LEP and ADIPOQ in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Line; Jørgensen, Sine W; Gillberg, Linn

    2017-01-01

    epigenetic marks, also in postnatal life. Here, we aimed to study the effects of short-term fasting on leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from subjects with LBW and NBW. Methods: Twenty-one young LBW men and 18 matched NBW controls....... The altered epigenetic flexibility in LBW subjects might contribute to their differential response to fasting, adipokine levels, and increased risk of metabolic disease....

  7. The Effects of Leptin Replacement on Neural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto J. Paz-Filho

    2016-01-01

    Leptin, an adipokine synthesized and secreted mainly by the adipose tissue, has multiple effects on the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolism. Its recently-approved analogue, metreleptin, has been evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with leptin deficiency due to mutations in the leptin gene, lipodystrophy syndromes, and hypothalamic amenorrhea. In such patients, leptin replacement therapy has led to changes in brain structure and function in intr...

  8. Serum Leptin and Skeletal Differences between Obese and Non-Obese Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Koršić, Marta; Kušec, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects body composition, adipokine secretion, and skeletal integrity. The aim was to determine the association between leptin, body mass (BM) and body composition parameters - fat mass (FM) and fat mass index (FMI), lean tissue mass (LTM), lean tissue mass index (LTMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) in 67 male COPD patients. Methods: BM, body composition and biochemical indicators were measured or calculated using standard methods. Data...

  9. Leptin, adiponectin and pulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Assad, Nour; Sood, Akshay

    2012-10-01

    Adipose tissue produces leptin and adiponectin - energy-regulating adipokines that may also play a role in inflammatory pulmonary conditions, as suggested by some murine studies. Leptin and adiponectin and their respective receptors are expressed in the human lung. The association between systemic or airway leptin and asthma in humans is currently controversial, particularly among adults. The majority of the evidence among children however suggests that systemic leptin may be associated with greater asthma prevalence and severity, particularly among prepubertal boys and peripubertal/postpubertal girls. Systemic and airway leptin concentrations may also be disproportionately higher in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, particularly among women, and reflect greater airway inflammation and disease severity. Quite like leptin, the association between systemic and airway adiponectin and asthma in humans is also controversial. Some but not all studies, demonstrate that serum adiponectin concentrations are protective against asthma among premenopausal women and peripubertal girls. On the other hand, serum adiponectin concentrations are inversely associated with asthma severity among boys but positively associated among men. Further, systemic and airway adiponectin concentrations are higher in COPD patients than controls, as demonstrated by case-control studies of men. Systemic adiponectin is also positively associated with lung function in healthy adults but inversely associated with lung function in subjects with COPD. It is therefore possible that pro-inflammatory effects of adiponectin dominate under certain physiologic conditions and anti-inflammatory effects under others. The adipokine-lung disease literature has critical gaps that include a lack of adequately powered longitudinal or weight-intervention studies; inadequate adjustment for confounding effect of obesity; and unclear understanding of potential sex interactions. It is also uncertain

  10. [Persistence of chronic inflammatory responses, role in the development of chronic pancreatitis, obesity and pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristich, T N

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the review--to analyze the basic data of the role of chronic low-intensity inflammatory response as general biological process in the development and progression of chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and pancreatic cancer. Highlighted evidence from epidemiological studies showing that chronic pancreatitis and obesity are independent risk factors for pancreatic cancer, regardless of diabetes. Studied role of adipokines as Cytokines regulating of immune inflammatory response. Draws attention to the staging of pancreatic cancer in obesity.

  11. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya, E-mail: suzukis@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup −/−}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup −/−} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup −/−} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.

  12. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes:A randomised cross-over trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Knop, Filip K.; Memon, Ashfaque Ahmed; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Picazo, Óscar; Chanrai, Madhvi; Sunquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Jönsson, Tommy

    2016-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. Methods In a r...

  13. Enhanced A-FABP expression in visceral fat: potential contributor to the progression of NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yong Yoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsAdipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes various metabolically important substances including adipokines, which represent a link between insulin resistance and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The factors responsible for the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis remain elusive, but adipokine imbalance may play a pivotal role. We evaluated the expressions of adipokines such as visfatin, adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding protein (A-FABP, and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4 in serum and tissue. The aim was to discover whether these adipokines are potential predictors of NASH.MethodsPolymerase chain reaction, quantification of mRNA, and Western blots encoding A-FABP, RBP-4, and visfatin were used to study tissue samples from the liver, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The tissue samples were from biopsy specimens obtained from patients with proven NASH who were undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to gallbladder polyps.ResultsPatients were classified into two groups: NASH, n=10 and non-NASH, n=20 according to their nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Activity Score. Although serum A-FABP levels did not differ between the two groups, the expressions of A-FABP mRNA and protein in the visceral adipose tissue were significantly higher in NASH group than in non-NASH group (104.34 vs. 97.05, P<0.05, and 190.01 vs. 95.15, P<0.01, respectively. Furthermore, the A-FABP protein expression ratio between visceral adipose tissue and liver was higher in NASH group than in non-NASH group (4.38 vs. 1.64, P<0.05.ConclusionsNASH patients had higher levels of A-FABP expression in their visceral fat compared to non-NASH patients. This differential A-FABP expression may predispose patients to the progressive form of NASH.

  14. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Novosad; Supriya Khan; Bruce Wolfe; Akram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as ...

  15. Favorable effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate dietary patterns on serum leptin, but not adiponectin, among overweight and obese premenopausal women: a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Llanos, Adana AM; Krok, Jessica L.; Peng, Juan; Pennell, Michael L.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Vitolins, Mara Z.; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The most effective dietary pattern for breast cancer prevention has been greatly debated in recent years. Studies have examined hypocaloric diets, with particular emphasis on macronutrient composition, yielding inconclusive data. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of calorie-restricted low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets (LFD and LCD, respectively) on circulating adipokines among overweight and obese premenopausal women. Methods Seventy-nine overweight and obese pre...

  16. Assessment of Serum Concentrations of Ghrelin, Obestatin, Omentin-1, and Apelin in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Polkowska; Izabela Szczepaniak; Artur Bossowski

    2016-01-01

    The increasing knowledge on the functions of gastric peptides and adipokines in the body allows the assumption of their major role linking the process of food intake, nutritional status, and body growth, largely through the regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. The aim of the study was the assessment of serum levels of selected gastric peptides and adipocytokines in children with type 1 diabetes, with respect to the disease duration. The study involved 80 children aged 4?18...

  17. Low dose aspirin is associated with plasma chemerin levels and may reduce adipose tissue inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Herová Magdalena; Schmid Mattia; Gemperle Claudio; Loretz Christa; Hersberger Martin

    2014-01-01

    Chemerin is a peptide chemoattractant for macrophages and an adipokine regulating adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. Plasma chemerin is increased in chronic inflammatory diseases and in obesity. As inflammation and obesity are risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) we investigated possible associations of plasma chemerin with inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis in a CAD case control study (n=470). Chemerin levels were associated with C reactive protein BMI and LDL levels a...

  18. Mendelian randomization supports causality between maternal hyperglycemia and epigenetic regulation of leptin gene in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Allard, C.; Desgagné, V; Patenaude, J; Lacroix, M; Guillemette, L; Battista, MC; Doyon, M; Ménard, J; Ardilouze, JL; P Perron; Bouchard, L.; Hivert, MF

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is an adipokine that acts in the central nervous system and regulates energy balance. Animal models and human observational studies have suggested that leptin surge in the perinatal period has a critical role in programming long-term risk of obesity. In utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia has been associated with increased risk of obesity later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms are suspected to be involved in fetal programming of long term metabolic diseases. We investigated whether ...

  19. Adiponectin Is a Candidate Biomarker of Lower Extremity Bone Density in Men With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Ashley L; Battaglino, Ricardo A.; Donovan, Jayne; Gagnon, David; Lazzari, Antonio A.; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major regulator of bone metabolism and in the general population obesity is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD). However, bone-fat interactions are multifactorial, and may involve pathways that influence both bone formation and resorption with competing effects on the skeleton. One such pathway involves adipocyte production of adipokines that regulate bone metabolism. In this study we determined the association between BMD, walking status, and circulating ad...

  20. Association between G-2548A leptin gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Rostami; Leila Kohan; Mohammad Mohammadian Panah; Fereshteh Fereiduni

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptin is an adipokine made by fat cells and plays a key role in proliferation, cell survival, migration and immune response. Several studies have suggested that individuals with high serum leptin concentrations would increase the risk of breast cancer. G -2548A polymorphism in the leptin gene is located in the promoter region and is associated with the change of leptin serum level. In this study, the association between G -2548A polymorphism in leptin gene and breast cancer susce...

  1. Adipose-immune cross-talks in two pig lines divergently selected for feed efficiency - Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Merlot, Elodie; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Louveau, Isabelle; Le Floc'H, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Chronic immune stimulation deteriorates adipose tissue accretion through the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In turn, adipokines modulate immune cell activity. It has been shown that pig genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, influences their energy and protein metabolism, both in healthy and inflammatory states. This study aimed to determine if this selection also interfered with immuneadipose cross-talks. Male and female growing pigs...

  2. Dose-dependent effects of atorvastatin on myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarash O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olga Barbarash, Olga Gruzdeva, Evgenya Uchasova, Ekaterina Belik, Yulia Dyleva, Victoria KaretnikovaFederal State Budgetary Institution, Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, the Russian Federation Background: Dyslipidemia is a key factor determining the development of both myocardial infarction (MI and its subsequent complications. Dyslipidemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction, activation of inflammation, thrombogenesis, and formation of insulin resistance. Statin therapy is thought to be effective for primary and secondary prevention of complications associated with atherosclerosis.Methods: This study examined 210 patients with Segment elevated MI (ST elevated MI who were treated with atorvastatin from the first 24 hours after MI. Group 1 (n=110 were given atorvastatin 20 mg/day. Group 2 (n=100 were given atorvastatin 40 mg/day. At days 1 and 12 after MI onset, insulin resistance levels determined by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, lipid profiles, and serum glucose, insulin, adipokine, and ghrelin levels were measured.Results: Free fatty acid levels showed a sharp increase during the acute phase of MI. Treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg/day, and especially with 40 mg/day, resulted in a decrease in free fatty acid levels. The positive effect of low-dose atorvastatin (20 mg/day is normalization of the adipokine status. Administration of atorvastatin 20 mg/day was accompanied with a statistically significant reduction in glucose levels (by 14% and C-peptide levels (by 38%, and a decrease in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index on day 12.Conclusion: Determination of atorvastatin dose and its use during the in-hospital period and subsequent periods should take into account changes in biochemical markers of insulin resistance and adipokine status in patients with MI.Keywords: myocardial infarction, statin, insulin resistance, adipokines

  3. The role of leptin in obesity and diabetes mellitus in dog

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Patrícia Isabel Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Canine obesity is a serious breeding and health issue. Recent studies reported that 34-59% of dogs visiting veterinary are overweight and 5-20% are obese. Recent studies have shown that during the development of obesity there is several alterations at the cellular and molecular levels that contribute to the secretion of local and systemic molecules, called adipokines. These molecules contribute to the existence of a chronic low grade inflammatory state, to angiogenesis, to...

  4. The role of chemerin in human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Stojek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is not merely a storage depot of triacylglycerols but also a major endocrine organ. Its cells, including adipocytes, synthesize and secrete a range of biologically active molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines that display the properties of cytokines are often called adipocytokines. In recent years there has been increasing interest in a new adipokine called chemerin. Chemerin is a protein synthesized mostly by the adipose tissue and the liver as inactive pre-pro-chemerin. After the intracellular hydrolytic cutting off of the 20-amino-acid N-terminal polypeptide, it is secreted into the bloodstream as inactive pro-chemerin. Biologically active chemerin is then derived from pro-chemerin after cleavage of the C-terminal fragment by serum proteases involved in inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Proteolytic cleavage leads to formation of several chemerin-derived peptides, both biologically active (often with opposing functions and inactive.Within the last decade, there has been a growing number of publications regarding the role of chemerin in human disease. It seems to be implicated in the inflammatory response, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and alimentary tract disorders. The article presents the most recent information on the role of chemerin in human disease, and specifically alimentary tract disorders. The available evidence suggests that chemerin is an important link between adipose tissue mass, metabolic processes, the immune system and inflammation, and therefore plays a major role in human pathophysiology.

  5. Role of omentin and chemerin in metabolic syndrome and tumor diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Szydło

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years adipokines have been a center of appreciation and interest. They are biologically active molecules causing pleiotropic effects. They assist in angiogenesis, adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation, and modulate tissue sensitivity for insulin. Adipokines are produced in adipose tissue, so an abnormal quantity of this tissue leads to impaired levels of these factors. Because of their different concentrations in various conditions, it would be plausible to use them as markers for individual conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, gastric cancer, lung cancer or colon cancer. Such adipokines as leptin, resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and apelin are subjects of research. In our study we focused on the function and significance of chemerin and omentin in metabolic syndrome and cancers. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, both chemerin and omentin enhance the body sensitivity to insulin, which results in increased glucose uptake. However, in diabetic patients, serum concentration of omentin decreases, while that of chemerin increases. A similar trend was observed in obese patients. As a cancer marker, chemerin turned out to be helpful in diagnosis of gastric cancer, mesothelioma, and polycystic ovary syndrome, which can lead to endometrial cancer. An elevated concentration of omentin was noted in colon cancer, and increased expression of the omentin gene was reported in nasal polyps and mesothelioma.

  6. Apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Chu

    Full Text Available Apelin, a novel adipokine, is the specific endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Consistent with its putative role as an adipokine, apelin has been linked to states of insulin resistance. However, the function of apelin in hepatic insulin resistance, a vital part of insulin resistance, and its underlying mechanisms still remains unclear. Here we define the impacts of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes. Our studies indicate that apelin reversed TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in HepG2 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes and liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice by improving JNK-IRS1-AKT-GSK pathway. Moreover, Western blot revealed that APJ, but not apelin, expressed in the hepatocytes and liver tissues of mice. We found that F13A, a competitive antagonist for G protein-coupled receptor APJ, suppressed the effects of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes, suggesting APJ is involved in the function of apelin. In conclusion, we show novel evidence suggesting that apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin appears as a beneficial adipokine with anti-insulin resistance properties, and thus as a promising therapeutic target in metabolic disorders.

  7. In Utero Nutritional Manipulation Provokes Dysregulated Adipocytokines Production in F1 Offspring in Rats

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    Mervat Y. Hanafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine environment plays a pivotal role in the origin of fatal diseases such as diabetes. Diabetes and obesity are associated with low-grade inflammatory state and dysregulated adipokines production. This study aims to investigate the effect of maternal obesity and malnutrition on adipokines production (adiponectin, leptin, and TNF-α in F1 offspring in rats. Materials and Methods. Wistar rats were allocated in groups: F1 offspring of control mothers under control diet (CF1-CD and under high-fat diet (CF1-HCD, F1 offspring of obese mothers under CD (OF1-CD and under HCD (OF1-HCD, and F1 offspring of malnourished mothers under CD (MF1-CD and under HCD (MF1-HCD. Every 5 weeks postnatally, blood samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. Results. At the end of the 30-week follow-up, OF1-HCD and MF1-HCD exhibited hyperinsulinemia, moderate dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose homeostasis compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD. OF1-HCD and MF1-HCD demonstrated low serum levels of adiponectin and high levels of leptin compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD. OF1-CD, OF1-HCD, and MF1-HCD had elevated serum levels of TNF-α compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD (p<0.05. Conclusion. Maternal nutritional manipulation predisposes the offspring to development of insulin resistance in their adult life, probably via instigating dysregulated adipokines production.

  8. Elevated Serum Levels of Cysteine and Tyrosine: Early Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Adults at Increased Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome

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    Nina Mohorko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As there is effective intervention for delaying or preventing metabolic diseases, which are often present for years before becoming clinically apparent, novel biomarkers that would mark metabolic complications before the onset of metabolic disease should be identified. We investigated the role of fasting serum amino acids and their associations with inflammatory markers, adipokines, and metabolic syndrome (MetS components in subjects prior to the onset of insulin resistance (IR. Anthropometric measurements, food records, adipokines, biochemical markers, and serum levels of amino acids were determined in 96 asymptomatic subjects aged 25–49 years divided into three groups according to the number of MetS components present. Cysteine and tyrosine were significantly higher already in group with one component of MetS present compared to subjects without MetS components. Serum amino acid levels correlated with markers of inflammation and adipokines. Alanine and glycine explained 10% of insulin resistance variability. The role of tyrosine and cysteine, that were higher already with 1 component of MetS present, should be further investigated as they might point to future insulin disturbances.

  9. Effect of Weight Reduction Following Bariatric Surgery on Serum Visfatin and Adiponectin Levels in Morbidly Obese Subjects

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    Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipokines are signaling and mediator proteins secreted from adipose tissue. A novel adipokine, visfatin, was reported as a protein which was mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. Controversial results have been shown regarding the changes of adipokines following weight reduction. So we investigated the effects of weight reduction on serum concentrations of adiponectin and visfatin in morbidly obese subjects. Methods: 35 severely obese patients (26 females and 9 males, aged 15-58 years, were studied. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical parameters as well as adiponectin and visfatin were analyzed before and 6 weeks after weight reduction. Results: Anthropometric indices decreased significantly. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were reduced significantly. The reduction of visfatin and the elevation of adiponectin were significant as well. However, other parameters like fasting glucose and insulin did not change. Moreover, we could not find any significant correlation between the change of serum visfatin and that of adiponectin. Conclusions: 6-week weight reduction after bariatric surgery resulted in decreased serum visfatin and increased adiponectin levels. However, we cannot find any significant correlation between changes of adiponectin, visfatin, BMI, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. Further studies with different design are suggested to clarify these associations.

  10. Serum levels of leptin and adiponectin and clinical parameters in women with fibromyalgia and overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Eduardo S; Andretta, Aline; Batista, Emmanuelle Dias; Lobo, Márcia Maria Marques Teles; Miranda, Renata Costa de; Nisihara, Renato; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Boguszewski, César L

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the serum levels of adipokines in women with fibromyalgia with and without overweight/obesity, and to correlate the adipokines levels with clinical parameters associated with fibromyalgia and adipose tissue mass (body fat). The study included 100 women divided into four groups: (a) fibromyalgia and overweight/obesity; (b) fibromyalgia and normal weight; (c) controls and overweight/obesity; and (d) controls and normal weight. Patients and controls were evaluated for clinical, anthropometric, and fibromyalgia-related parameters. Assessments included serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of adipokines were further adjusted for fat mass. Fibromyalgia patients with overweight/obesity or normal weight had no differences in clinical parameters. Unadjusted leptin levels were lower in fibromyalgia patients than controls, a finding that was more remarkable in fibromyalgia patients with overweight/obesity. Leptin levels had no correlation with clinical parameters of fibromyalgia or inflammation markers (MCP-1 and CRP), and adiponectin levels showed no difference between groups. No correlation was observed between adjusted leptin levels and clinical parameters of fibromyalgia. Patients with fibromyalgia and overweight/obesity presented lower levels of leptin than controls with overweight/obesity.

  11. Therapies for Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mendiola-Precoma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia associated with a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, with a prevalence of 44 million people throughout the world in 2015, and this figure is estimated to double by 2050. This disease is characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, and hypometabolism; it is related to amyloid-β peptide accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as a decrease in acetylcholine levels and a reduction of cerebral blood flow. Obesity is a major risk factor for AD, because it induces adipokine dysregulation, which consists of the release of the proinflammatory adipokines and decreased anti-inflammatory adipokines, among other processes. The pharmacological treatments for AD can be divided into two categories: symptomatic treatments such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonists and etiology-based treatments such as secretase inhibitors, amyloid binders, and tau therapies. Strategies for prevention of AD through nonpharmacological treatments are associated with lifestyle interventions such as exercise, mental challenges, and socialization as well as caloric restriction and a healthy diet. AD is an important health issue on which all people should be informed so that prevention strategies that minimize the risk of its development may be implemented.

  12. The synovial fluid adiponectin-leptin ratio predicts pain with knee osteoarthritis.

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    Gandhi, Rajiv; Takahashi, Mark; Smith, Holly; Rizek, Randy; Mahomed, Nizar N

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin, and cartilage degeneration is being increasingly recognized. We asked what the relationship is between these hormones and patient-reported knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain. We collected demographic data, Short Form McGill Pain scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scores, and synovial fluid (SF) samples from 60 consecutive patients with severe knee OA at the time of joint replacement surgery. SF samples were analyzed for leptin and adiponectin using specific ELISA. Non-parametric correlations and linear regression modeling were used to identify the relationship between the adipokines and pain levels. The correlations between the individual adipokines and the pain scales were low to moderate and consistently less than that for the corresponding adiponectin/leptin (A/L) ratio. Linear regression modeling showed that the A/L ratio was a significant predictor of a greater level of pain on the MPQ-SF (p=0.03) but not the WOMAC pain scale (p=0.77). A greater A/L ratio was associated with less pain with severe knee OA and this metabolic pathway may represent a target for novel therapeutics.

  13. Severity of Osteoarthritis Is Associated with Increased Arterial Stiffness

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    Kaspar Tootsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA is associated with increased cardiovascular comorbidity and mortality. Evidence is lacking about whether arterial stiffness is involved in OA. The objective of our study was to find out associations between OA, arterial stiffness, and adipokines. Design. Seventy end-stage knee and hip OA patients (age 62±7 years and 70 asymptomatic controls (age 60±7 years were investigated using the applanation tonometry to determine their parameters of arterial stiffness. Serum adiponectin, leptin, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3 levels were determined using the ELISA method. Correlation between variables was determined using Spearman’s rho. Multiple regression analysis with a stepwise selection procedure was employed. Results. Radiographic OA grade was positively associated with increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV (r=0.272, p=0.023. We found that OA grade was also associated with leptin and MMP-3 levels (rho=-0.246, p=0.040 and rho=0.235, p=0.050, resp.. In addition, serum adiponectin level was positively associated with augmentation index and inversely with large artery elasticity index (rho=0.293, p=0.006 and rho=-0.249, p=0.003, resp.. Conclusions. Our results suggest that OA severity is independently associated with increased arterial stiffness and is correlated with expression of adipokines. Thus, increased arterial stiffness and adipokines might play an important role in elevated cardiovascular risk in end-stage OA.

  14. Association between leptin, adiponectin and resistin and long-term progression of hand osteoarthritis.

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    Yusuf, Erlangga; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Bijsterbosch, Jessica; Klein-Wieringa, Inge; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Slagboom, P Eline; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kloppenburg, Margreet

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the association between baseline serum adipokines levels-leptin, adiponectin and resistin-and long-term progression of hand osteoarthritis (HOA). Baseline and 6-year radiographs of 164 patients (mean age 60 years, 81% women) with HOA (defined as a Kellgren and Lawrence score ≥2 in at least two hand joints) were assessed for joint space narrowing (JSN) in 32 hand joints using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International atlas. Progression was defined as a change in the sum of the JSN score above the smallest detectable change of 2, reflecting change above measurement error. Serum adipokines were measured at baseline and patients were categorised by adipokine tertiles. RRs (and 95% CI) of HOA progression for patients in the second and third tertiles were calculated relative to the first tertile, using generalised estimating equations. Adjustments were made for age, sex and body mass index. Patients in the two highest tertiles of adiponectin had a decreased risk of 70% (RR=0.3 (0.2 to 0.7)) for HOA progression in comparison with patients in the lowest tertile. Leptin and resistin levels were not associated with progression. Adiponectin levels are associated with progression of HOA, suggesting that adiponectin may be involved in the pathophysiology of OA.

  15. Leptin-adiponectin imbalance as a marker of metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents: The BCAMS study.

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    Li, Ge; Xu, Linxin; Zhao, Yanglu; Li, Lujiao; Fu, Junling; Zhang, Qian; Li, Naishi; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Changhong; Mi, Jie; Gao, Shan; Li, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin have opposite effects on subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance, both involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to investigate whether leptin/adiponectin ratio (L/A), as a marker of these two adipokines imbalance, may improve diagnosis of MS in children and adolescents, and determined its cut-off value in the diagnosis of MS. A total of 3,428 subjects aged 6-18 years were selected from Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome study. Adipokine leptin and adiponectin were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratio of MS per 1 z-score of adipokine was examined using logistic regression. Diagnosis accuracy was assessed using c-statistics (AUC) and net reclassification index. The levels of leptin and L/A increased with number of positive MS components, while the levels of adiponectin declined in both boys and girls (all P leptin and adiponectin, respectively; and AUCs in boys were 0.822, 0.798, and 0.697 for L/A, leptin and adiponectin, respectively. Notably, L/A outperformed individual leptin or adiponectin in discriminating a diagnosis of MS (all P leptin-adiponectin imbalance, as reflected by an increase in L/A level, was found to be a better diagnostic biomarker for MS than leptin or adiponectin alone. Future longitudinal studies are needed to further validate the gender-specific cutoff values.

  16. High leptin levels are associated with migraine with aura.

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    Pisanu, Claudia; Preisig, Martin; Castelao, Enrique; Glaus, Jennifer; Cunningham, Janet L; Del Zompo, Maria; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Schiöth, Helgi B; Mwinyi, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Background Migraine is a prevalent disorder characterised by recurrent headache attacks preceded or accompanied by aura in a subgroup of patients. Migraine often occurs together with major depressive disorder (MDD). Alterations of adipokine levels have been reported both in migraine and in MDD. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the associations between serum leptin and adiponectin levels and migraine or migraine subtypes. Analyses were adjusted for a lifetime history of MDD in order to investigate the association between adipokines and migraine under consideration of depression status. Methods We included 3025 participants from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study. The impact of leptin and adiponectin levels on a diagnosis of migraine was analysed by binary regression analyses, adjusting for variables known to influence adipokine levels. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the presence of aura. Results Crude leptin levels were significantly higher in subjects with migraine than controls (Mann-Whitney U = 515,102, p = 6 × 10 -7 ). When performing adjusted analyses, leptin levels were found to be significantly higher in subjects with migraine (odds ratio = 1.22, p = 0.024) and migraine with aura (odds ratio = 1.34, p = 0.004). Conclusion High leptin levels might play a role in the pathogenesis of migraine and migraine with aura.

  17. The relationship between breast milk leptin and adiponectin with child body composition from 3 to 5 years: a follow-up study.

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    Meyer, D M; Brei, C; Stecher, L; Much, D; Brunner, S; Hauner, H

    2017-08-01

    Research indicates that breast milk contains bioactive components that influence metabolism in infancy and may play a role in the prevention of obesity in early childhood. In our initial study, 147 breastfeeding mother/child pairs were followed from birth to 2 years of age to examine the relationship between breast milk leptin and total adiponectin (collected at 6 weeks and 4 months postpartum) and infant body composition. Higher breast milk total adiponectin was related to greater fat mass and weight gain in children at 1 and 2 years of age, whereas leptin showed no association. In this follow-up, we examined the relationship between both adipokines and children's body weight, body mass index percentiles, sum of four skin-folds, percentage of body fat, fat mass and lean body mass at 3, 4 and 5 years of age. Breast milk adipokines were largely unrelated to child anthropometric measures. Our results do not provide significant evidence that breast milk adipokines can predict adiposity in preschool children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Olive oil attenuates the cholesterol-induced development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis despite increased insulin resistance in a rodent model.

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    Buettner, R; Ascher, M; Gäbele, E; Hellerbrand, C; Kob, R; Bertsch, T; Bollheimer, L C

    2013-10-01

    It is indefinite whether nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) results as by-product from general metabolic perturbations and adipokine dysregulations or whether defined dietary factors also play a pathogenetic role. Here, we examine the effects of a modification of dietary lipids in a NASH inducing diet on metabolic changes as well as hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with variations of the atherogenic diet (AD), which induces pathophysiological changes resembling human NASH. Dietary variants (AD without cholesterol, cholate, or choline; change of neutral fat to olive oil or coconut oil) were fed for 8 weeks. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile, liver histology, and lipid content as well as expression of proinflammatory and profibrogenic genes were examined. AD led to clear signs of hepatic steatosis and inflammation together with an increase in TNF and collagen type 1 expression. AD without cholesterol showed markedly less liver damage without changes of insulin action and adipokine profile. AD with olive oil and AD without cholate clearly attenuated hepatic inflammation, whereas fat deposition and features of the metabolic syndrome were increased in these animals. Insulin resistance and hepatic fat deposition per se do not cause significant hepatic inflammation in this rodent model. However, dietary cholesterol is an important causal agent for the development of NASH. Olive oil plays a protective role in this respect, which might be due to the high content of monounsaturated fatty acids. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to influence adipose tissue function

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    Visseren Frank LJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is associated with metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, inflammation and hypercoagulobility which can all be understood as consequences of adipose tissue dysfunction. The potential role for adipose tissue derived cytokines and adipokines in the development of vascular disease and diabetes may produce a clinical need to influence adipose tissue function. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions affect plasma cytokine and adipokine levels. The effects of these interventions depend on weight loss per se, changes in fat distribution without weight loss and/or direct effects on adipose tissue inflammation. Weight loss, as a result of diet, pharmacology and surgery, positively influences plasma adipokines and systemic inflammation. Several classes of drugs influence systemic inflammation directly through their anti-inflammatory actions. PPAR-γ agonism positively influences adipose tissue inflammation in several classes of intervention such as the thiazolidinediones and perhaps salicylates, CB1-antagonists and angiotensin II receptor blockers. Furthermore, within drug classes there are differential effects of individual pharmacologic agents on adipose tissue function. It can be concluded that several commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have unintended influences on adipose tissue function. Improving adipose tissue function may contribute to reducing the risk of vascular diseases and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Epicardial adipose tissue as a metabolic transducer: role in heart failure and coronary artery disease.

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    Patel, Vaibhav B; Shah, Saumya; Verma, Subodh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2017-07-31

    Obesity and diabetes are strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue is identified as a complex endocrine organ, which by exerting a wide array of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels can have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. Different terms including "epicardial," "pericardial," and "paracardial" have been used to describe adipose tissue deposits surrounding the heart. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a unique and multifaceted fat depot with local and systemic effects. The functional and anatomic proximity of EAT to the myocardium enables endocrine, paracrine, and vasocrine effects on the heart. EAT displays a large secretosome, which regulates physiological and pathophysiological processes in the heart. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) secretes adipose-derived relaxing factor, which is a "cocktail" of cytokines, adipokines, microRNAs, and cellular mediators, with a potent effect on paracrine regulation of vascular tone, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, atherosclerosis-susceptibility, and restenosis. Although there are various physiological functions of the EAT and PVAT, a phenotypic transformation can lead to a major pathogenic role in various cardiovascular diseases. The equilibrium between the physiological and pathophysiological properties of EAT is very delicate and susceptible to the influences of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Various adipokines secreted from EAT and PVAT have a profound effect on the myocardium and coronary arteries; targeting these adipokines could be an important therapeutic approach to counteract cardiovascular disease.

  1. New peptides players in metabolic disorders

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    Agata Mierzwicka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among new peptides responsible for the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and carbohydrate metabolism, adipokines are of great importance. Adipokines are substances of hormonal character, secreted by adipose tissue. Apart from the well-known adipokines, adropin and preptin are relatively newly discovered, hence their function is not fully understood. They are peptides not secreted by adipose tissue but their role in the metabolic regulations seems to be significant. Preptin is a 34-amino acid peptide, a derivative of proinsulin growth factor II (pro-IGF-II, secreted by pancreatic β cells, considered to be a physiological enhancer of insulin secretion. Additionally, preptin has a stimulating effect on osteoblasts, inducing their proliferation, differentiation and survival. Adropin is a 76-amino acid peptide, encoded by the energy homeostasis associated gene (Enho, mainly in liver and brain, and its expression is dependent on a diet. Adropin is believed to play an important role in metabolic homeostasis, fatty acids metabolism control, insulin resistance prevention, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. The results of studies conducted so far show that the diseases resulting from metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or cardiovascular disease are accompanied by significant changes in the concentration of these peptides. It is also important to note that preptin has an anabolic effect on bone tissue, which might be preventive in osteoporosis.

  2. Hypertrophic Mesenteric Adipose Tissue May Play a Role in Atherogenesis in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

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    Theocharidou, Eleni; Balaska, Aikaterini; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Tellis, Constantinos C; Gossios, Thomas D; Athyros, Vasilios G; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Karagiannis, Asterios

    2016-09-01

    Adipokines released by the adipose tissue are known to play a role in atherogenesis. The hypertrophic mesenteric fat in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) also produces adipokines that are considered to play a role in intestinal inflammation. Whether they also contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis in IBD is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the role of 2 adipokines, resistin and adiponectin, in IBD. We previously published data on 3 markers of cardiovascular risk, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, in 44 patients with IBD and 44 controls matched for established cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we measured resistin and adiponectin levels, and assessed their correlations with carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. Resistin levels were significantly higher in patients with IBD (13.7 versus 10 ng/mL; P = 0.022), but there was no difference in adiponectin levels. Resistin levels were significantly higher in patients with active disease compared with those in remission (18.9 versus 11.3 ng/mL; P = 0.014). Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in Crohn's disease compared with ulcerative colitis (6736.3 ± 3105 versus 10,476.1 ± 5575.7 ng/mL; P = 0.026). Adiponectin correlated inversely with pulse wave velocity (rho = -0.434; P effect.

  3. Exclusive enteral nutrition ameliorates mesenteric adipose tissue alterations in patients with active Crohn's disease.

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    Feng, Yun; Li, Yi; Mei, Shuqin; Zhang, Liang; Gong, Jianfeng; Gu, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2014-10-01

    Mesenteric adipose tissue hypertrophy is a hallmark of Crohn's disease and can express various adipokines. Exclusive enteral nutrition could effectively induce remission in Crohn's disease with mechanisms largely unknown. We investigated whether exclusive enteral nutrition could modify mesenteric fat in patients with active Crohn's disease. Sixteen patients who underwent resection for ileum Crohn's disease were studied. As a control group, eight patients without inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Before operation, eight Crohn's disease patients received exclusive enteral nutrition for four weeks, and the other patients had no nutritional therapy. The mesenteric fat samples were obtained during operation. Adipocyte size, adipokine production and topical C-reactive protein level were assessed. The adipocyte size from patients treated with exclusive enteral nutrition was much larger than that from Crohn's disease patients without nutritional therapy. Furthermore, protein levels of proinflammatory adipokines such as TNF-alpha and leptin were lower while protein level of adiponectin was higher in these patients. As to mRNA level, the expression of adiponctin was up-regulated and leptin was down-regulated in the patients received enteral nutrition. Exclusive enteral nutrition could ameliorate mesenteric fat alterations which are associated with intestinal injury in patients with Crohn's disease by restoring adipocyte morphology and diminishing the inflammatory environment of mesenteric fat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Sarcopenia, obesity, and natural killer cell immune senescence in aging: altered cytokine levels as a common mechanism.

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    Lutz, Charles T; Quinn, LeBris S

    2012-08-01

    Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty. A key feature of frailty, sarcopenia is the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and endurance that characterize even the healthy elderly. Increases in adiposity, particularly in visceral adipose tissue, are almost universal in aging individuals and can contribute to sarcopenia and insulin resistance by increasing levels of inflammatory cytokines known collectively as adipokines. Aging also is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity, known as immune senescence, which are risk factors for cancer and all-cause mortality. The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle tissue and declines in aging rodent models. IL-15 inhibits fat deposition and insulin resistance, is anabolic for skeletal muscle in certain situations, and is required for the development and survival of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. We review the effect that adipokines and myokines have on NK cells, with special emphasis on IL-15. We posit that increased adipokine and decreased IL-15 levels during aging constitute a common mechanism for sarcopenia, obesity, and immune senescence.

  5. Adiponectin: anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects.

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    Villarreal-Molina, M T; Antuna-Puente, B

    2012-10-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that plays an essential role in regulating several metabolic functions through the secretion of biological mediators called "adipokines". Dysregulation of adipokines plays a crucial role in obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin (APN) is the most abundant adipokine accounting for the 0.01% of total serum protein, and is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including energy metabolism, inflammation, and vascular physiology. APN plasma levels are reduced in individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, all traits with low-grade chronic inflammation. It is has been suggested that the absence of APN anti-inflammatory effects may be a contributing factor to this inflammation. APN inhibits the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced endothelial adhesion molecules, macrophage-to-foam cell transformation, tumor necrosis factor-α expression in macrophages and adipose tissue, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. It also has anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects, which play a role in its cardioprotective action. This review will focus on APN as an anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective plasma protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

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    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  7. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Fabio V Comim

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  8. Hypothalamic actions of apelin on energy metabolism: new insight on glucose homeostasis and metabolic disorders.

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    Knauf, C; Drougard, A; Fournel, A; Duparc, T; Valet, P

    2013-12-01

    Hypothalamus is key area implicated in control of glucose homeostasis. This structure integrates nervous and peripheral informations to adapt a response modifying peripheral glucose utilization and maintaining energetic balance. Among peripheral signals, adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin are of special importance since deregulations of their actions are closely associated to metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. During the past ten years, we have identified a new adipokine named apelin which has emerging role in the control of metabolism. The originality of the apelinergic system is to be largely represented in peripheral tissues (adipose tissue, intestine, etc.) and in the brain. Then, apelin is released by adipose tissue as all adipokines, but also present another crucial role as neurotransmitter in hypothalamic neurons. By acting in the whole body, apelin exerts pleiotropic actions and is now considered as a major determinant of physiological functions. Besides its general beneficial effects on peripheral targets, central action of apelin remains still a matter of debate. In this review, we have made a parallel between peripheral vs. central actions of apelin in term of signalization and effects. Then, we have focused our attention on hypothalamic apelin and its potential role in glucose metabolism and associated pathologies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Perivascular adipose tissue-secreted angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) accelerates neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury.

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    Tian, Zhe; Miyata, Keishi; Tazume, Hirokazu; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi; Horio, Eiji; Takahashi, Otowa; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Araki, Kimi; Hirata, Yoichiro; Tabata, Minoru; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Takeya, Motohiro; Hao, Hiroyuki; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka; Kawasuji, Michio; Oike, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Much attention is currently focused on the role of perivascular adipose tissue in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Some researchers view it as promoting CVD through secretion of cytokines and growth factors called adipokines, while recent reports reveal that perivascular adipose tissue can exert a protective effect on CVD development. Furthermore, adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, reportedly suppresses neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury, whereas such vascular remodeling is enhanced by pro-inflammatory adipokines secreted by perivascular adipose, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These findings suggest that extent of vascular remodeling, a pathological process associated with CVD development, depends on the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from perivascular adipose tissue. We previously demonstrated that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2), a pro-inflammatory factor secreted by adipose tissue, promotes adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we examined whether Angptl2 secreted by perivascular adipose tissue contributes to vascular remodeling after endovascular injury in studies of transgenic mice expressing Angptl2 in adipose tissue (aP2-Angptl2 transgenic mice) and Angptl2 knockout mice (Angptl2(-/-) mice). To assess the role of Angptl2 secreted by perivascular adipose tissue on vascular remodeling after endovascular injury, we performed adipose tissue transplantation experiments using these mice. Wild-type mice with perivascular adipose tissue derived from aP2-Angptl2 mice exhibited accelerated neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury compared to wild-type mice transplanted with wild-type tissue. Conversely, vascular inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury were significantly attenuated in wild-type mice transplanted with Angptl2(-/-) mouse-derived perivascular adipose tissue compared to wild-type mice

  10. Evaluation of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

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    Ozuguz, P; Kacar, S D; Asik, G; Ozuguz, U; Karatas, S

    2016-02-09

    The research evaluating adipokines are very few in patients with acne vulgaris. The hypothesis that hyperinsulinemic and high glycemic index diet plays a role in the pathogenesis of acne is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate adipokines such as leptin (L), adiponectin (A), ghrelin and A levels, and A/L rates that indicate insulin resistance in nonobese patients with severe acne vulgaris. Thirty patients who are nonobese with moderate acne vulgaris, aged 18 to 25 years, and 15 age-sex compatible controls were included in our study. The acne lesions were assessed using the Global Acne Grading Scale (GAGS). All participants were evaluated for the parameters that may affect the metabolism of serum L, A, and ghrelin levels in blood, and their body mass index were calculated. The significance level was determined as p ≤ 0.05. Of the 30 patients, 17 were women and 13 were men. The mean age was 20.60 years and the mean duration of the disease were 2.8 years. All of patients had moderate acne vulgaris (GAGS 19-30). Of the 15 controls, 11 were women and 4 were men. The mean age was 21.20 years. There were not a statistically significant difference in L, ghrelin, A levels, and A/L ratio between the two groups. Adipokines may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. L, A, ghrelin, and insulin resistance may not participate in the responsible mechanisms in nonobese patients with moderate acne vulgaris. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Adipose tissue angiopoietin-like protein 4 messenger RNA changes with altered energy balance in lactating Holstein cows.

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    Koltes, D A; Spurlock, D M

    2012-11-01

    Negative energy balance at the onset of lactation is unfavorably associated with fitness traits in high-producing dairy cows. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is an adipokine that has been associated with the regulation of lipid metabolism through the inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity and regulation of lipolysis. Expression of ANGPTL4 messenger RNA (mRNA) increases during early lactation, but its regulation with changing energy status is currently unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine whether ANGPTL4 mRNA abundance is responsive to declining energy balance induced by the transition from pregnancy to lactation, feed restriction, and GH administration in lactating dairy cows. The mRNA abundance of leptin, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor 2 were also measured to compare adipokine mRNA profiles during changes in energy metabolism. Repeated adipose tissue biopsies were taken from different cows during transition from late pregnancy to lactation (n = 26), feed restriction (n = 19), and GH administration (n = 20). As expected, milk yield increased with the onset of lactation and GH administration (P Energy balance declined in each experiment, resulting in negative energy balance at the onset of lactation and after feed restriction. Abundance of ANGPTL4 mRNA expression increased 2- to 6-fold with declining energy balance in each experiment. Leptin mRNA declined with feed restriction, and adiponectin mRNA decreased with the onset of lactation. The consistency and magnitude of the increase in ANGPTL4 mRNA across multiple models of altered energy balance identifies it as an adipokine that is uniquely responsive to changes in energy balance in the lactating dairy cow. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Compounds of psoriasis with obesity and overweight

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    Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independent risk factor for its development and is associated with a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the reduction of body weight, using low-calorie diet combined with exercise, reduces the severity of psoriasis.Visceral adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17 and adipokines (adiponectin, omentin, chemerin. They participate in the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and consequently of the cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages of visceral adipose tissue have a special role and they increase significantly in obesity. They are responsible for the development of inflammation in adipose tissue and produce inflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-6, Il-8, Il-17, Il-18, MCP-1 and other adipokines: resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4. This explains the concept of «psoriatic march «and observations of the frequent coexistence of psoriasis with obesity. Inflammation associated with systemic disease, fanned by pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines produced by the visceral adipose tissue lead to the development of insulin resistance, endothelial cell damage. Endothelial dysfunction predisposes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and faster development of cardiovascular events. Complication of obesity is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which states twice as likely in patients with plaque psoriasis and is associated with the severity of the disease. Another consequence is the development of depression. Probably the proinflammatory cytokines can interact with metabolism of neurotransmitters. Obesity also has a significant impact on the treatment of psoriasis, increasing the risk of adverse effects of systemic drugs, reducing the efficacy of biological agents which dose should be adjusted to the weight of

  13. Serum omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin levels and central obesity in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin are novel adipokines which closely associate with obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulating levels of omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin in NAFLD patients and to clarify their relationship with biochemical parameters, abdominal obesity, and high sensitive C-reactive protein. Materials and Methods: In a case–control study, serum levels of omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin were measured in 41 NAFLD patients and 41 healthy volunteers. The study was performed in the outpatients' clinic of Imam-Ali Hospital in Zahedan, Iran, during February to July 2015. Fatty liver was confirmed by ultrasonography. The association of the adipokines with lipid profile and anthropometric parameters was assessed using multivariable linear regression models. In this model, those variables that showedP 0.05. Multiple regression analysis showed that the serum levels of apelin and vaspin correlated positively with waist circumference (WC (P < 0.01 andP< 0.05, respectively and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 andP< 0.01, respectively while serum omentin-1 was inversely correlated with WC (P < 0.01 and positively corrected with high-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings showed that among the analyzed adipokines only apelin was different in patients with NAFLD when compared to controls. Considering the multivariate regression analysis, apelin seems be more suitable diagnostic marker in predicting of NAFLD and omentin might be considered as a protective factor in occurrence of NAFLD, particularly in those with central obesity.

  14. Association of circulating omentin-1 level with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes

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    Yoo Hye

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipokines contribute directly to the atherosclerotic process, connecting metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes to cardiovascular disease. Omentin-1 is a recently discovered novel adipokine, so data about the relationship of this adipokine to vascular health in type 2 diabetes is limited. Methods We enrolled 60 people with type 2 diabetes, with or without carotid plaque, and 30 participants with normal glucose tolerance. We measured serum omentin-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. Vascular health was assessed by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Results Serum omentin-1 levels were significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes patients compared to normal glucose controls and was further reduced in type 2 diabetes patients with carotid plaque compared to those without carotid plaque. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure, history of use of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and serum omentin-1 level were independent factors determining baPWV in people with type 2 diabetes (r2 = 0.637. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, circulating omentin-1 level was an independent decisive factor for the presence of carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes patients, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of smoking and medication (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.420-0.919; P = 0.017. Conclusions Circulating omentin-1 level was independently correlated with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes, even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and detailed medication history.

  15. Nocturnal levels of chemerin and progranulin in adolescents: influence of sex, body mass index, glucose metabolism and sleep.

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    Daxer, Johann; Herttrich, Theresa; Zhao, Ying Y; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Körner, Antje; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kiess, Wieland; Quante, Mirja

    2017-01-01

    Adipokines have been implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and sleep regulation. However, the role of chemerin and progranulin, two recently described adipokines, in the context of sleep remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess variations by sex, across different sleep stages and in relation to glucose metabolism. The study sample included 34 overweight/obese and 32 normal-weight adolescents from secondary schools and the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Child study cohort. We obtained longitudinal serum adipokine levels during in-laboratory polysomnography followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Overweight/obese adolescents had significantly higher mean nocturnal serum chemerin area under the curve (AUC) levels (348.2±133.3 vs. 241.7±67.7 vs. ng/mL×h, pweight controls. In detail, higher chemerin AUC levels in obese/overweight subjects were exclusively due to increased levels in females. No overall difference for serum progranulin AUC was found between the groups. However, when assessing sex-specific levels, serum progranulin AUC levels were ~30% higher in overweight/obese males compared to overweight/obese females. Of note, nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin AUC did not exhibit a correlation with markers of glucose metabolism or sleep stages. Collectively, we report a sexual dimorphism in nocturnal progranulin and chemerin levels, which may help explain underlying differences in energy balance and body composition between males and females in the context of obesity.

  16. Is there NO help for leptin?

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    Joffin, Nolwenn; Niang, Fatoumata; Forest, Claude; Jaubert, Anne-Marie

    2012-10-01

    Since the initial identification of leptin as the product of the ob gene in 1994, the signaling pathways by which this hormone alters cell physiology have been the subject of extensive investigations. The fact that leptin can induce nitric oxide (NO) production was first demonstrated in studies of the pituitary gland and pancreatic islets. A large number of additional studies further showed that this adipokine stimulates NO synthesis in multiple tissues. This review article discusses the role of leptin in NO production and its pathophysiological consequences. The role of this gaseous messenger in cell physiology depends on the cell type, the concentration of NO and the duration of exposure. It can be either a potent oxidant or a protector of cell integrity against the formation of reactive oxygen species. Leptin plays two opposing roles on arterial pressure. It exerts a hypertensive effect due to sympathetic activation and a vasorelaxant effect due to NO production. This adipokine acts via NO to produce pro-inflammatory factors in cartilage pathology, potentially contributing to an increased risk for osteoarthritis. Another well-documented role of leptin-induced NO, acting either directly or via the hypothalamus, concerns lipid metabolism in muscle and adipose tissue. In adipocytes, the direct and rapid action of leptin is to activate the nitric oxide synthase III, which favors lipolysis. In contrast, in the long-term, leptin reduces lipolysis. However, both in the short-term and in the long-term, glyceroneogenesis and its key enzyme, the cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxykinase (PEPCK-C), are down-regulated by the adipokine, thus favoring fatty acid release. Hence, leptin-induced NO production plays a crucial role in fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue. The resulting effects are to prevent lipid storage and to improve energy expenditure, with possible improvements of the obese state and its associated diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  17. Higher Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations Predict Poorer Performance-based Physical Functioning in Midlife Women: the Michigan Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

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    Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A; Zheng, Huiyong; Mancuso, Peter; Harlow, Siobán D

    2016-04-01

    Excess fat mass is a greater contributor to functional limitations than is reduced lean mass or the presence of obesity-related conditions. The impact of fat mass on physical functioning may be due to adipokines, adipose-derived proteins that have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. Serum samples from 1996 to 2003 that were assayed for leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were provided by 511 participants from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Physical functioning performance was assessed annually during study visits from 1996 to 2003. Among this population of Black and White women (mean baseline age = 45.6 years, SD = 2.7 years), all of whom were premenopausal at baseline, higher baseline leptin concentrations predicted longer stair climb, sit-to-rise, and 2-pound lift times and shorter forward reach distance (all p osteoarthritis, and C-reactive protein. Baseline total adiponectin concentrations did not predict any mobility measures but did predict quadriceps strength; a 1 µg/mL higher adiponectin concentration was associated with 0.64 Nm lower quadriceps strength (p = .02). Resistin was not associated with any of the physical functioning performance measures. Change in the adipokines was not associated with physical functioning. In this population of middle-aged women, higher baseline leptin concentrations predicted poorer mobility-based functioning, whereas higher adiponectin concentrations predicted reduced quadriceps strength. These findings suggest that the relationship between the adipokines and physical functioning performance is independent of other known correlates of poor functioning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Higher Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations Predict Poorer Performance-based Physical Functioning in Midlife Women: the Michigan Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

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    Zheng, Huiyong; Mancuso, Peter; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excess fat mass is a greater contributor to functional limitations than is reduced lean mass or the presence of obesity-related conditions. The impact of fat mass on physical functioning may be due to adipokines, adipose-derived proteins that have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. Methods. Serum samples from 1996 to 2003 that were assayed for leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were provided by 511 participants from the Michigan site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Physical functioning performance was assessed annually during study visits from 1996 to 2003. Results. Among this population of Black and White women (mean baseline age = 45.6 years, SD = 2.7 years), all of whom were premenopausal at baseline, higher baseline leptin concentrations predicted longer stair climb, sit-to-rise, and 2-pound lift times and shorter forward reach distance (all p osteoarthritis, and C-reactive protein. Baseline total adiponectin concentrations did not predict any mobility measures but did predict quadriceps strength; a 1 µg/mL higher adiponectin concentration was associated with 0.64 Nm lower quadriceps strength (p = .02). Resistin was not associated with any of the physical functioning performance measures. Change in the adipokines was not associated with physical functioning. Conclusion. In this population of middle-aged women, higher baseline leptin concentrations predicted poorer mobility-based functioning, whereas higher adiponectin concentrations predicted reduced quadriceps strength. These findings suggest that the relationship between the adipokines and physical functioning performance is independent of other known correlates of poor functioning. PMID:26302979

  19. The mediating effect of leptin on the relationship between body weight and knee osteoarthritis in older adults.

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    Fowler-Brown, Angela; Kim, Dae Hyun; Shi, Ling; Marcantonio, Edward; Wee, Christina C; Shmerling, Robert H; Leveille, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Emerging evidence suggests that adipokines, substances produced by adipose tissue, may play a role in the development of knee OA. The aim of this study was to determine whether the inflammatory adipokine leptin partially mediates the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and knee OA. We used baseline data from 653 participants who were 70 years of age or older in the population-based Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly Boston Study. Height and weight were measured, and participants were assessed for knee OA using clinical criteria. Serum leptin was measured using a microsphere-based assay. The average BMI and the average serum leptin level were 27.5 kg/m(2) and 589 pM, respectively; the prevalence of knee OA was 24.7%. In regression models adjusted for covariates, we found that a 5-kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with 32% increased odds of knee OA (odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10, 1.58); a 200-pM increase in serum leptin levels was associated with 11% increased odds of knee OA (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05, 1.17). The ratio of the standardized coefficients for the indirect:total effect calculated using the product-of-coefficients method was 0.49, suggesting that approximately half of the total effect of BMI on knee OA may be mediated by serum leptin. The estimated 95% CIs for the mediated effect suggest that this effect is statistically significant. Similarly, mediation analysis using a counterfactual approach suggested that the effect of leptin mediation was statistically significant. We found that almost half of the association between elevated BMI and knee OA could be explained by the inflammatory adipokine leptin. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Relationship between plasma adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 and uric Acid in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.

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    Park, Chan Seok; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Park, Hun-Jun; Shin, Woo-Seung; Kim, Pum-Jun; Chang, Kiyuk; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Youn, Ho-Joong; Chung, Wook-Sung; Seung, Ki Bae; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2011-04-01

    Adipokines have been suggested for their potential use in tracking the clinical progress in the subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of adipokines {adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)} and the serum level of uric acid in hypertensive (HTN) patients with MS. In this study, 38 totally untreated HTN patients were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP) were taken in the 12 HTN patients without MS and the 26 HTN patients with MS. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of adiponectin, RBP4, nitric oxide (NO), glucose, creatinine, uric acid, lipid profile and insulin. The HTN with MS group had significant higher values of body mass index, waist length, serum uric acid and triglyceride levels than the HTN without MS group. Compared to the HTN without MS group, the HTN with MS group showed significantly lower adiponectin (p=0.030), NO (p=0.003) and high density lipoprotein levels (puric acid level (R=-0.413, p=0.036), and serum RBP4 levels positively correlated with uric acid level (R=0.527, p=0.006) in the HTN with MS group. Multiple linear regression analysis using RBP4 and adiponectin levels as the dependent variables showed that uric acid level correlated with serum RBP4 level (p=0.046) and adiponectin level (p=0.044). The HTN with MS group showed a correlation with two types of adipokines (adiponectin, RBP4) and uric acid. Adiponectin, RBP4 and uric acid may be important components associated with MS, especially when associated with hypertension.

  1. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

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    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  2. The activity of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with BMI in metabolically healthy humans

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    Alexander Stephen PH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoid system (ECS is a ubiquitously expressed signalling system, with involvement in lipid metabolism and obesity. There are reported changes in obesity of blood concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglcyerol (2-AG, and of adipose tissue expression levels of the two key catabolic enzymes of the ECS, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL. Surprisingly, however, the activities of these enzymes have not been assayed in conditions of increasing adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether FAAH and MGL activities in human subcutaneous adipocytes are affected by body mass index (BMI, or other markers of adiposity and metabolism. Methods Subcutaneous abdominal mature adipocytes, fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained from 28 metabolically healthy subjects representing a range of BMIs. FAAH and MGL activities were assayed in mature adipocytes using radiolabelled substrates. Serum glucose, insulin and adipokines were determined using ELISAs. Results MGL activity showed no relationship with BMI or other adiposity indices, metabolic markers (fasting serum insulin or glucose or serum adipokine levels (adiponectin, leptin or resistin. In contrast, FAAH activity in subcutaneous adipocytes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference, but not with skinfold thickness, metabolic markers or serum adipokine levels. Conclusions In this study, novel evidence is provided that FAAH activity in subcutaneous mature adipocytes increases with BMI, whereas MGL activity does not. These findings support the hypothesis that some components of the ECS are upregulated with increasing adiposity in humans, and that AEA and 2-AG may be regulated differently.

  3. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.

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    Olivia Santos Gondim

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,, Overweight Group (OVG and Obese Group (OBG. We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength, cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals.

  4. Adipose tissue and reproductive health.

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    Mathew, Hannah; Castracane, V Daniel; Mantzoros, Christos

    2017-11-16

    The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons. Meanwhile, adiponectin is notable for its action in mediating insulin sensitivity, with receptors found at every level of the reproductive axis. Both have been examined in the context of physiologic and pathologic reproductive conditions. Leptin has been shown to influence puberty, pregnancy, hypothalamic amenorrhea, and lipodystrophy, and with a potential therapeutic role for both metabolic and reproductive health. Adiponectin mediates the relative state of insulin resistance in pregnancy, and has been implicated in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome and reproductive malignancies. There are numerous other adipokines, including resistin, visfatin, chemerin and retinol binding protein-4, which may also play roles in reproductive health and disease states. The continued examination of these and other adipokines in both normal reproduction and reproductive pathologies represents an important avenue for continued study. Here, we seek to provide a broad, yet comprehensive overview of many facets of these relationships and highlight areas of consideration for clinicians and future study. Copyright © 2017

  5. Gender differences in the adipose secretome system in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pivotal role of leptin.

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    Breyer, Marie-Kathrin; Rutten, Erica P A; Vernooy, Juanita H J; Spruit, Martijn A; Dentener, Mieke A; van der Kallen, Carla; vanGreevenbroek, Marleen M J; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2011-07-01

    COPD is characterized by a multi-component character involving a state of low-grade systemic inflammation and an increased prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidity. The role of circulating leptin and other adipokines in the involvement of the systemic inflammation in COPD is only studied scarcely. To investigate gender related differences in the adipokine metabolism in relation to systemic inflammatory biomarkers in clinically stable subjects with COPD. In total, 91 clinically stable COPD patients and 35 healthy control subjects, matched for body mass index (BMI) with the COPD subjects, were included. Lung function measurement and body composition were performed in patients with COPD. In the total group, plasma concentration of the adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) and systemic inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and its soluble receptors 55 and 75 (sTNFα-R55, R75) were analyzed. The COPD group was characterized by increased levels of CRP, IL-6 and leptin. Plasma adiponectin and resistin concentrations were not different between the COPD and the control group. Within the COPD group, there was a significant interaction between gender and BMI on the leptin/fat mass ratio. In COPD women, a significant correlation between leptin and CRP was present. In men with clinically stable COPD, leptin, adiponectin and resistin appear to be physiologically regulated, while in women, leptin metabolism is altered. Leptin secretion is increased in COPD women when compared to healthy women and compared to COPD men, and to a greater extent in overweight women with COPD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of leptin and resistin levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Kumor-Kisielewska, Anna; Kierszniewska-Stępień, Dorota; Pietras, Tadeusz; Kroczyńska-Bednarek, Jadwiga; Kurmanowska, Zofia; Antczak, Adam; Górski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in the world. The increasing severity of inflammatory processes in the respiratory tract leads to exacerbation of COPD. This process may be associated with changes in the synthesis of adipokines, the peptides that participate in immune processes. The aim of this study was to identify more sensitive and specific laboratory markers useful in diagnosing inflammatory processes in patients with COPD. The study involved 33 patients with COPD without exacerbation. During the previous year, 1 episode of exacerbation was reported in 15 patients and no exacerbations were reported in the remaining 18 patients. Serum concentrations of adipokines were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In patients with COPD, we observed a 2-fold increase in leptin levels compared with healthy controls (18.8 ±10.2 ng/ml vs. 9.06 ±4.33 ng/ml; P = 0.042). Mean resistin levels in these patients were also 2-fold higher than those in controls (8.24 ±4.18 ng/ml vs. 3.58 ±1.51 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.027). Significant positive correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin as well as CRP and resistin levels were observed in patients with COPD (r = 0.75 and r = 0.83, respectively; P leptin levels either in patients with COPD or in healthy controls. A significant increase in leptin and resistin levels in patients with COPD may suggest that these adipokines are involved in the inflammatory process underlying the disease.

  7. Adiponectin is associated with dynamic hyperinflation and a favourable response to inhaled glucocorticoids in patients with COPD.

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    Leivo-Korpela, Sirpa; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Nieminen, Riina; Kööbi, Lea; Järvenpää, Ritva; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Saarelainen, Seppo; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Adipokines are protein mediators first described as products of adipose tissue regulating energy metabolism and appetite. Recently, adipokines have also been found to modulate inflammation and smooth muscle cell responses. Therefore we investigated the association of two adipokines, adiponectin and leptin, with the degree of emphysema, pulmonary function, symptoms and glucocorticoid responsiveness in patients with COPD. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels, spirometry, body plethysmography and symptoms were measured in 43 male COPD patients with smoking history ≥ 20 pack-years, post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC COPD, plasma adiponectin levels correlated positively with airway resistance (Raw) (r = 0.362, p = 0.019) and functional residual capacity (FRC) (r = 0.355, p = 0.046). Furthermore, the baseline adiponectin concentration correlated negatively with the fluticasone induced changes in St George's Respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) symptom score (r = -0.413, p = 0.040) and in FRC % pred (r = -0.428, p = 0.003), i.e. a higher baseline plasma adiponectin level was associated with more pronounced alleviation of symptoms and dynamic hyperinflation. Plasma leptin levels were not related to the measures of lung function, symptoms or glucocorticoid responsiveness. Plasma adiponectin levels were associated with peripheral airway obstruction and dynamic hyperinflation in patients with COPD. A higher adiponectin level predicted more favourable relief of symptoms and hyperinflation during glucocorticoid treatment. Adiponectin may have a role in the COPD pathogenesis; it may also be a biomarker of disease severity and treatment responses in this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leptin and adiponectin, but not IL18, are related with insulin resistance in treated HIV-1-infected patients with lipodystrophy.

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    Veloso, Sergi; Escoté, Xavier; Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; López-Dupla, Miguel; Peraire, Joaquim; Viladés, Consuelo; Domingo, Pere; Castro, Antoni; Olona, Montserrat; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Leal, Manuel; Vendrell, Joan; Richart, Cristóbal; Vidal, Francesc

    2012-05-01

    Leptin, adiponectin and IL18 are adipokines related with obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in the general population. Treated HIV-1-infected patients with lipodystrophy may develop insulin resistance and proatherogenic dyslipidemia. We assessed the relationship between plasma adipokine levels, adipokine genetics, lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbances. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and IL18 levels were assessed in 446 individuals: 282 HIV-1-infected patients treated with antiretroviral drugs (132 with lipodystrophy and 150 without) and 164 uninfected controls (UC). The LEP2410A>G, LEPRQ223R, ADIPQ276G>T, ADIPOR2-Intron5A>G and IL18-607C>A polymorphisms were validated by sequencing. Leptin levels were higher in UC than in HIV-1-infected, either with or without lipodystrophy (plipodystrophy compared with those without lipodystrophy (p=0.006). In patients with lipodystrophy, leptin had a positive correlation with insulin and with HOMA-IR. Adiponectin levels were non-significantly different in UC and HIV-1-infected patients. Patients with lipodystrophy had lower adiponectin levels than non-lipodystrophy subjects (plipodystrophy, adiponectin was negatively correlated with insulin, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Plasma IL18 levels were higher in HIV-1-infected patients compared with UC (plipodystrophy. In patients with lipodystrophy there was a negative correlation between IL18 levels and LDLc. Genetic analyses indicated no significant associations with lipodystrophy nor with insulin resistance or with lipid abnormalities. In conclusion, HIV-1-infected patients have reduced plasma leptin levels. This reduction is magnified in patients with lipodystrophy whose adiponectin levels were lower than that of non-lipodystrophy subjects. Plasma IL18 levels are increased in infected patients irrespective of the presence of lipodystrophy. The polymorphisms assessed are not associated with lipodystrophy or metabolic disturbances in treated HIV-1-infected patients. Copyright

  9. Lower Circulating C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP3 Levels Are Associated with Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Risa M Wolf

    Full Text Available C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3 is a novel adipokine that lowers blood glucose levels, reduces liver triglyceride synthesis, and is protective against hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mouse models. We hypothesized that higher circulating serum levels of CTRP3 would be associated with a lean body mass index (BMI and a more favorable metabolic profile in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate CTRP3 levels in lean individuals compared to obese individuals.This was a cross-sectional study of obese (n=44 and lean control patients (n=60. Fasting metabolic parameters were measured in all patients and serum CTRP3 levels were measured by ELISA.BMI of the lean group was 21.9 ± 0.2 kg/m2 and obese group was 45.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2. We found significantly lower circulating levels of CTRP3 in obese individuals (405 ± 8.3 vs. 436 ± 6.7 ng/mL, p=0.004 compared to the lean group. Serum CTRP3 levels were inversely correlated with BMI (p=0.001, and triglycerides (p<0.001, and significantly associated with gender (p<0.01, ethnicity (p=0.05, HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01, and adiponectin (p<0.01. We found BMI (p<0.01, gender (p<0.01, and ethnicity (p<0.05 to be significant predictors of CTRP3 levels when controlling for age in multiple regression analysis.CTRP3 is a beneficial adipokine whose circulating levels are significantly lower in obese individuals. Obesity causes dysregulation in adipokine production, including the down-regulation of CTRP3. Lower CTRP3 levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Optimizing CTRP3 levels through novel therapies may improve obesity and its comorbidities.

  10. Clinical and biochemical effects of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese and diabetic patients: a pilot open study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Giannitti, Chiara; Urso, Renato; Tołodziecki, Michał; Ponikowska, Irena

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type 2 diabetes. Spa therapy has long been used for treating obesity and its comorbidities. Enlargement of adipose tissue has been linked to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion and adipose tissue inflammation. Adipokines are currently investigated as potential drug targets in these conditions. Our primary aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The secondary aim was to examine whether this combined program influences the response of serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Fifty obese males were enrolled and 21 of these featured a type 2 diabetes. During the 3-week period of the study, the patients were on a 1,000-kcal diet and were involved in mineral bath and total body's mud-pack applications (15 procedures). Patients were assessed at baseline and at the end of the therapy for clinical and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia, and adipokines). We showed that a 3-week program of spa therapy in obese patients induced significant decrease of body weight, body mass index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemia, and serum levels of leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. So, a cycle of mud-bath therapy associated with a controlled diet may be a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes decreasing body weight and many risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Combined use of serum adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 levels was comparable to 2-hour post-load glucose in diabetes prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cho Woo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue inflammation and dysregulated adipokine secretion are implicated in obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the use of serum adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, and several proinflammatory adipokines, as biomarkers of diabetes risk and whether they add to traditional risk factors in diabetes prediction. METHODS: We studied 1300 non-diabetic subjects from the prospective Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS. Serum adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 (TNF-α R2, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured in baseline samples. RESULTS: Seventy-six participants developed diabetes over 5.3 years (median. All five biomarkers significantly improved the log-likelihood of diabetes in a clinical diabetes prediction (CDP model including age, sex, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, waist circumference, fasting glucose and dyslipidaemia. In ROC curve analysis, "adiponectin + TNF-α R2" improved the area under ROC curve (AUC of the CDP model from 0.802 to 0.830 (P = 0.03, rendering its performance comparable to the "CDP + 2-hour post-OGTT glucose" model (AUC = 0.852, P = 0.30. A biomarker risk score, derived from the number of biomarkers predictive of diabetes (low adiponectin, high TNF-α R2, had similar performance when added to the CDP model (AUC = 0.829 [95% CI: 0.808-0.849]. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of serum adiponectin and TNF-α R2 as biomarkers provided added value over traditional risk factors for diabetes prediction in Chinese and could be considered as an alternative to the OGTT.

  12. Compounds of psoriasis with obesity and overweight.

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    Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Agnieszka; Placek, Waldemar

    2017-08-24

    Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independen