Discrete Element Simulation of Asphalt Mastics Based on Burgers Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yu; FENG Shi-rong; HU Xia-guang
2007-01-01
In order to investigate the viscoelastic performance of asphalt mastics, a micro-mechanical model for asphalt mastics was built by applying Burgers model to discrete element simulation and constructing Burgers contact model. Then the numerical simulation of creep tests was conducted, and results from the simulation were compared with the analytical solution for Burgers model. The comparision snowed that the two results agreed well with each other, suggesting that discrete element model based on Burgers model could be employed in the numerical simulation for asphalt mastics.
Bec, Jeremie; Khanin, Konstantin
2007-01-01
The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions or random forcing. Such work was frequently motivated by new emerging applications of Burgers mod...
A discrete model of a modified Burgers' partial differential equation
Mickens, R. E.; Shoosmith, J. N.
1990-01-01
A new finite-difference scheme is constructed for a modified Burger's equation. Three special cases of the equation are considered, and the 'exact' difference schemes for the space- and time-independent forms of the equation are presented, along with the diffusion-free case of Burger's equation modeled by a difference equation. The desired difference scheme is then obtained by imposing on any difference model of the initial equation the requirement that, in the appropriate limits, its difference scheme must reduce the results of the obtained equations.
A Lattice Boltzmann Model and Simulation of KdV-Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGChao-Ying; TANHui-Li; LIUMu-Ren; KONGLing-Jiang
2004-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann model of KdV-Burgers equation is derived by using the single-relaxation form of the lattice Boltzmann equation. With the present model, we simulate the traveling-wave solutions, the solitary-wave solutions, and the sock-wave solutions of KdV-Burgers equation, and calculate the decay factor and the wavelength of the sock-wave solution, which has exponential decay. The numerical results agree with the analytical solutions quite well.
A lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model for a class of the generalized Burgers equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Xiao-Mei; Shi Bao-Chang
2006-01-01
A new lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model for a class of the generalized Burgers equations is proposed.It is a general LBGK model for nonlinear Burgers equations with source term in arbitrary dimensional space. The linear stability of the model is also studied. The model is numerically tested for three problems in different dimensional space, and the numerical results are compared with either analytic solutions or numerical results obtained by other methods.Satisfactory results are obtained by the numerical simulations.
Mathematical modeling and exact solutions to rotating flows of a Burgers' fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this study is to provide the modeling and exact analytic solutions for hydromagnetic oscillatory rotating flows of an incompressible Burgers' fluid bounded by a plate. The governing time-dependent equation for the Burgers' fluid is different than those from the Navier-Stokes' equation. The entire system is assumed to rotate around an axis normal to the plate. The governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically for two physical problems. The solutions for the three cases, when the two times angular velocity is greater than the frequency of oscillation or it is smaller than the frequency or it is equal to the frequency (resonant case), are discussed in second problem. In Burgers' fluid, it is also found that hydromagnetic solution in the resonant case satisfies the boundary condition at infinity. Moreover, the obtained analytical results reduce to several previously published results as the special cases. (author)
The Burgers Equation for a New Continuum Model with Consideration of Driver’s Forecast Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new continuum model with consideration of driver’s forecast effect is obtained to study the density wave problem and the stop-and-go phenomena. The stability condition of the new model is derived by using linear analysis. The triangular shock wave, one type of density wave, which is determined by Burgers equation in the stable region, is discussed in great detail with reductive perturbation method. The local cluster appears when we perform the numerical simulations for the new model. It also proves that the driver’s forecast effect has the positive effect of reducing the local cluster.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rytter, Mikkel
2016-01-01
Based on a number of ‘burger episodes’ during ten days of itikaf at a Sufi lodge in Pakistan, this article discusses the difficulties of religious self-cultivation among young Muslim pilgrims from Denmark. The focus on food and eating is not only used to discuss how religious brotherhoods...... and spiritual kinship are created and maintained, but also becomes a prism to discuss emic conceptualizations of the nafs, the lower self, as well as how the jihad of dedicated Sufi Muslims is tested by fatal attractions of various kinds – in this case, in the guise of tasty burgers....
Maqbool, Khadija; Anwar Bég, O.; Sohail, Ayesha; Idreesa, Shafaq
2016-05-01
The theoretical analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) incompressible flows of a Burgers fluid through a porous medium in a rotating frame of reference is presented. The constitutive model of a Burgers fluid is used based on a fractional calculus formulation. Hydrodynamic slip at the wall (plate) is incorporated and the fractional generalized Darcy model deployed to simulate porous medium drag force effects. Three different cases are considered: namely, the flow induced by a general periodic oscillation at a rigid plate, the periodic flow in a parallel plate channel and, finally, the Poiseuille flow. In all cases the plate(s) boundary(ies) are electrically non-conducting and a small magnetic Reynolds number is assumed, negating magnetic induction effects. The well-posed boundary value problems associated with each case are solved via Fourier transforms. Comparisons are made between the results derived with and without slip conditions. Four special cases are retrieved from the general fractional Burgers model, viz. Newtonian fluid, general Maxwell viscoelastic fluid, generalized Oldroyd-B fluid and the conventional Burgers viscoelastic model. Extensive interpretation of graphical plots is included. We study explicitly the influence of the wall slip on primary and secondary velocity evolution. The model is relevant to MHD rotating energy generators employing rheological working fluids.
Exact Solutions of a Coupled Burgers System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Ling
2006-01-01
The exact solutions of a new coupled Burgers system are studied in three different ways. The first type of solutions are found thanks to the coupled Burgers system possessing a simple single Burgers reduction. The second type of multiple soliton solutions are revealed via the decouple procedure. The third type of exact solutions are found by means of a prior ansatz and solutions of the heat conduction equation. Two different kinds of soliton fission phenomena of the model are discovered and a special type of completely elastic soliton collision without phase shift of the model is also displayed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Carcione
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The Earth crust presents two dissimilar rheological behaviours depending on the in-situ stress-temperature conditions. The upper, cooler, part is brittle while deeper zones are ductile. Seismic waves may reveal the presence of the transition but a proper characterization is required. We first obtain a stress–strain relation including the effects of shear seismic attenuation and ductility due to shear deformations and plastic flow. The anelastic behaviour is based on the Burgers mechanical model to describe the effects of seismic attenuation and steady-state creep flow. The shear Lamé constant of the brittle and ductile media depends on the in-situ stress and temperature through the shear viscosity, which is obtained by the Arrhenius equation and the octahedral stress criterion. The P- and S-wave velocities decrease as depth and temperature increase due to the geothermal gradient, an effect which is more pronounced for shear waves. We then obtain the P-S and SH equations of motion recast in the velocity-stress formulation, including memory variables to avoid the computation of time convolutions. The equations correspond to isotropic anelastic and inhomogeneous media and are solved by a direct grid method based on the Runge–Kutta time stepping technique and the Fourier pseudospectral method. The algorithm is tested with success against known analytical solutions for different shear viscosities. A realistic example illustrates the computation of surface and reverse-VSP synthetic seismograms in the presence of an abrupt brittle-ductile transition.
Rational Solutions in a Coupled Burgers System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Ling
2006-01-01
Three types of the rational solutions for a new coupled Burgers system are studied in detail in terms of the reduction and decoupled procedures. The first two types of rational solutions are singular and valid for one type of model parameter c＞0, and another type of rational solutions is nonsingular at any type and valid for another type of model parameter c＜0.
Adhesive joint and composites modeling in SIERRA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohashi, Yuki; Brown, Arthur A.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Chambers, Robert S.; Foulk, James W., III (.,; )
2005-11-01
Polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites play an important role in many Defense Program applications. Recently an advanced nonlinear viscoelastic model for polymers has been developed and incorporated into ADAGIO, Sandia's SIERRA-based quasi-static analysis code. Standard linear elastic shell and continuum models for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites have also been added to ADAGIO. This report details the use of these models for advanced adhesive joint and composites simulations carried out as part of an Advanced Simulation and Computing Advanced Deployment (ASC AD) project. More specifically, the thermo-mechanical response of an adhesive joint when loaded during repeated thermal cycling is simulated, the response of some composite rings under internal pressurization is calculated, and the performance of a composite container subjected to internal pressurization, thermal loading, and distributed mechanical loading is determined. Finally, general comparisons between the continuum and shell element approaches for modeling composites using ADAGIO are given.
Adhesive contact:from atomistic model to continuum model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fan Kang-Qi; Jia Jian-Yuan; Zhu Ying-Min; Zhang Xiu-Yan
2011-01-01
Two types of Lennard-Jones potential are widely used in modeling adhesive contacts. However, the relationships between the parameters of the two types of Lennard-Jones potential are not well defined. This paper employs a selfconsistent method to derive the Lennard-Jones surface force law from the interatomic Lennard-Jones potential with emphasis on the relationships between the parameters. The effect of using correct parameters in the adhesion models is demonstrated in single sphere-flat contact via continuum models and an atomistic model. Furthermore, the adhesion hysteresis behaviour is investigated, and the S-shaped force-distance relation is revealed by the atomistic model. It shows that the adhesion hysteresis loop is generated by the jump-to-contact and jump-off-contact, which are illustrated by the S-shaped force-distance curve.
Intermittency of Burgers' Turbulence
Balkovsky, E; Kolokolov, I V; Lebedev, V
1997-01-01
We consider the tails of probability density function (PDF) for the velocity that satisfies Burgers equation driven by a Gaussian large-scale force. The saddle-point approximation is employed in the path integral so that the calculation of the PDF tails boils down to finding the special field-force configuration (instanton) that realizes the extremum of probability. For the PDFs of velocity and it's derivatives $u^{(k)} = \\partial_x^ku$, the general formula is found: $\\ln{\\cal P}(|u^{(k)}|) \\propto -(|u^{(k)}|/{\\rm Re}^k)^{3/(k+1)}$.
Maulik, Romit
2016-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a relaxation filtering closure approach to account for subgrid scale effects in explicitly filtered large eddy simulations using the concept of anisotropic diffusion. We utilize the Perona-Malik diffusion model and demonstrate its shock capturing ability and spectral performance for solving the Burgers turbulence problem, which is a simplified prototype for more realistic turbulent flows showing the same quadratic nonlinearity. Our numerical assessments present the behavior of various diffusivity functions in conjunction with a detailed sensitivity analysis with respect to the free modeling parameters. In comparison to direct numerical simulation (DNS) and under-resolved DNS results, we find that the proposed closure model is efficient in the prevention of energy accumulation at grid cut-off and is also adept at preventing any possible spurious numerical oscillations due to shock formation under the optimal parameter choices. In contrast to other relaxation filtering approaches, it...
Computational modeling of leukocyte adhesion cascade (LAC)
Sarkar, Kausik
2005-11-01
In response to an inflammation in the body, leukocytes (white blood cell) interact with the endothelium (interior wall of blood vessel) through a series of steps--capture, rolling, adhesion and transmigration--critical for proper functioning of the immune system. We are numerically simulating this process using a Front-tracking finite-difference method. The viscoelastcity of the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus are incorporated and allowed to change with time in response to the cell surface molecular chemistry. The molecular level forces due to specific ligand-receptor interactions are accounted for by stochastic spring-peeling model. Even though leukocyte rolling has been investigated through various models, the transitioning through subsequent steps, specifically firm adhesion and transmigration through endothelial layer, has not been modeled. The change of viscoelastic properties due to the leukocyte activation is observed to play a critical role in mediating the transition from rolling to transmigration. We will provide details of our approach and discuss preliminary results.
As the body moves, tissues or organs inside are normally able to shift around each other. This is because these tissues have ... occur if the adhesions cause an organ or body part to: Twist Pull ... unable to move normally The risk of forming adhesions is high ...
Hu, Shihao; Jiang, Haodan; Xia, Zhenhai; Gao, Xiaosheng
2010-09-01
With unique hierarchical fibrillar structures on their feet, gecko lizards can walk on vertical walls or even ceilings. Recent experiments have shown that strong binding along the shear direction and easy lifting in the normal direction can be achieved by forming unidirectional carbon nanotube array with laterally distributed tips similar to gecko's feet. In this study, a multiscale modeling approach was developed to analyze friction and adhesion behaviors of this hierarchical fibrillar system. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube array with laterally distributed segments at the end was simulated by coarse grained molecular dynamics. The effects of the laterally distributed segments on friction and adhesion strengths were analyzed, and further adopted as cohesive laws used in finite element analysis at device scale. The results show that the laterally distributed segments play an essential role in achieving high force anisotropy between normal and shear directions in the adhesives. Finite element analysis reveals a new friction-enhanced adhesion mechanism of the carbon nanotube array, which also exists in gecko adhesive system. The multiscale modeling provides an approach to bridge the microlevel structures of the carbon nanotube array with its macrolevel adhesive behaviors, and the predictions from this modeling give an insight into the mechanisms of gecko-mimicking dry adhesives.
Optimized Baxter model of protein solutions: electrostatics versus adhesion
Prinsen, P.; Odijk, T.
2004-01-01
A theory is set up of spherical proteins interacting by screened electrostatics and constant adhesion, in which the effective adhesion parameter is optimized by a variational principle for the free energy. An analytical approach to the second virial coefficient is first outlined by balancing the repulsive electrostatics against part of the bare adhesion. A theory similar in spirit is developed at nonzero concentrations by assuming an appropriate Baxter model as the reference state. The first-...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present finite difference schemes for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation. A new version of exact finite difference scheme for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation is proposed using the solitary wave solution. Then nonstandard finite difference schemes are constructed to solve two equations. Numerical experiments are presented to verify the accuracy and efficiency of such NSFD schemes.
Lei Zhang; Lisha Wang; Xiaohua Ding
2014-01-01
We present finite difference schemes for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation. A new version of exact finite difference scheme for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation is proposed using the solitary wave solution. Then nonstandard finite difference schemes are constructed to solve two equations. Numerical experiments are presented to verify the accuracy and efficiency of such NSFD schemes.
BOUNDARY CONTROL OF MKDV-BURGERS EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Li-xin; ZHAO Zhi-feng; WANG Jing-feng
2006-01-01
The boundary control of MKdV-Burgers equation was considered by feedback control on the domain [0,1]. The existence of the solution of MKdV-Burgers equation with the feedback control law was proved. On the base, priori estimates for the solution was given. At last, the existence of the weak solution of MKdV-Burgers equation was proved and the global-exponential and asymptotic stability of the solution of MKdV-Burgers equation was given.
Solution and transcritical bifurcation of Burgers equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tang Jia-Shi; Zhao Ming-Hua; Han Feng; Zhang Liang
2011-01-01
Burgers equation is reduced into a first-order ordinary differential equation by using travelling wave transformation and it has typical bifurcation characteristics. We can obtain many exact solutions of the Burgers equation, discuss its transcritical bifurcation and control dynamical behaviours by extending the stable region. The transcritical bifurcation exists in the (2 + 1)-dimensional Burgers equation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rytter, Mikkel
2013-01-01
Based on a number of burger incidents during ten days of itikaf at a Sufi astana (lodge) in Pakistan, this article discusses religious self-cultivation among Muslim pilgrims from Denmark. The focus on food and eating is not only used to discuss how religious brotherhoods and spiritual kinship...... are established and maintained, but also becomes a prism to discuss emic conceptualizations of nafs, the lower self, and how dedicated Sufis struggle with fatal attractions of various kinds - which in this case appears in the guise of tasty burgers....
Modeling and characterization of interfacial adhesion and fracture
Yao, Qizhou
2000-09-01
The loss of interfacial adhesion is mostly seen in the failure of polymer adhesive joints. In addition to the intrinsic physical attraction across the interface, the interfacial adhesion strength is believed to highly depend on a number of factors, such as adhesive chemistry/structure, surface topology, fracture pattern, thermal and elastic mismatch across the interface. The fracture failure of an adhesive joint involves basically three aspects, namely, the intrinsic interfacial strength, the driving force for fracture and other energy dissipation. One may define the intrinsic interfacial strength as the maximum value of the intrinsic interfacial adhesion. The total work done by external forces to the component that contains the interface is partitioned into two parts. The first part is consumed by all other energy dissipation mechanisms (plasticity, heat generation, viscosity, etc.). The second part is used to debond the interface. This amount should equal to the intrinsic adhesion of the interface according to the laws of conservation of energy. It is clear that in order to understand the fundamental physics of adhesive joint failure, one must be able to characterize the intrinsic interfacial adhesion and be able to identify all the major energy dissipation mechanisms involved in the debonding process. In this study, both physical and chemical adhesion mechanisms were investigated for an aluminum-epoxy interface. The physical bonding energy was estimated by computing the Van de Waals forces across the interface. A hydration model was proposed and the associated chemical bonding energy was calculated through molecular simulations. Other energy dissipation mechanisms such as plasticity and thermal residual stresses were also identified and investigated for several four-point bend specimens. In particular, a micromechanics based model was developed to estimate the adhesion enhancement due to surface roughness. It is found that for this Al-epoxy system the major
Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats
Bernhard Kraemer; Christian Wallwiener; Rajab, Taufiek K; Christoph Brochhausen; Markus Wallwiener; Ralf Rothmund
2014-01-01
Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1), brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2), sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3), isc...
Adhesion of perfume-filled microcapsules to model fabric surfaces.
He, Yanping; Bowen, James; Andrews, James W; Liu, Min; Smets, Johan; Zhang, Zhibing
2014-01-01
The retention and adhesion of melamine formaldehyde (MF) microcapsules on a model fabric surface in aqueous solution were investigated using a customised flow chamber technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A cellulose film was employed as a model fabric surface. Modification of the cellulose with chitosan was found to increase the retention and adhesion of microcapsules on the model fabric surface. The AFM force-displacement data reveal that bridging forces resulting from the extension of cellulose chains dominate the adhesion between the microcapsule and the unmodified cellulose film, whereas electrostatic attraction helps the microcapsules adhere to the chitosan-modified cellulose film. The correlation between results obtained using these two complementary techniques suggests that the flow chamber device can be potentially used for rapid screening of the effect of chemical modification on the adhesion of microparticles to surfaces, reducing the time required to achieve an optimal formulation.
Simulation of Cell Adhesion using a Particle Transport Model
Chesnutt, Jennifer
2005-11-01
An efficient computational method for simulation of cell adhesion through protein binding forces is discussed. In this method, the cells are represented by deformable elastic particles, and the protein binding is represented by a rate equation. The method is first developed for collision and adhesion of two similar cells impacting on each other from opposite directions. The computational method is then applied in a particle-transport model for a cloud of interacting and colliding cells, each of which are represented by particles of finite size. One application might include red blood cells adhering together to form rouleaux, which are chains of red blood cells that are found in different parts of the circulatory system. Other potential applications include adhesion of platelets to a blood vessel wall or mechanical heart valve, which is a precursor of thrombosis formation, or adhesion of cancer cells to organ walls in the lymphatic, circulatory, digestive or pulmonary systems.
Model coupling friction and adhesion for steel-concrete interfaces
Raous, Michel
2010-01-01
The interface behaviour between steel and concrete, during pull-out tests, is numerically investigated using an interface model coupling adhesion and Coulomb friction. This model, first developed by Raous, Cang\\'emi, Cocou and Monerie (RCCM), is based on the adhesion intensity variable, introduced by Fr\\'emond, which is a surface damage variable. The RCCM model is here completed by taking a variable friction coefficient to simulate the slip weakening of the interface when sliding occurs. Identification of the parameters and validation of the model are carried on pull out experiments conducted at the INSA of Toulouse on steel-concrete interface of reinforced concrete.
Viscous Instanton for Burgers' Turbulence
Balkovsky, E.; Falkovich, G.; Kolokolov, I.; Lebedev, V.
1996-01-01
We consider the tails of probability density functions (PDF) for different characteristics of velocity that satisfies Burgers equation driven by a large-scale force. The saddle-point approximation is employed in the path integral so that the calculation of the PDF tails boils down to finding the special field-force configuration (instanton) that realizes the extremum of probability. We calculate high moments of the velocity gradient $\\partial_xu$ and find out that they correspond to the PDF w...
Park, Jeong Woo; Bak, Koang Hum; Cho, Tae Koo; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ryu, Je Il
2016-01-01
Objective A common cause of failure in laminectomy surgery is when epidural, peridural, or perineural adhesion occurs postoperatively. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a temperature-sensitive, anti-adhesive agent (TSAA agent), Guardix-SG®, as a mechanical barrier for the prevention or reduction of peridural scar adhesion in a rabbit laminectomy model. Methods Twenty-six mature rabbits were used for this study. Each rabbit underwent two separate laminectomies at lumbar v...
Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernhard Kraemer
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1, brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2, sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3, ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4, bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5, and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6. Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P<0.01. Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0% and 5 (4% were significantly less than the other groups (P<0.01. Furthermore, group 6 (69% was significantly higher than group 1 (48% (P<0.05 and group 4 (47% (P<0.05. There was no difference between group 3 (60% and group 6 (P=0.2. From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models.
Thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in pork burger patties.
Gurman, P M; Ross, T; Holds, G L; Jarrett, R G; Kiermeier, A
2016-02-16
Predictive models, to estimate the reduction in Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration in beef burgers, have been developed to inform risk management decisions; no analogous model exists for Salmonella spp. in pork burgers. In this study, "Extra Lean" and "Regular" fat pork minces were inoculated with Salmonella spp. (Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:-, Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Typhimurium) and formed into pork burger patties. Patties were cooked on an electric skillet (to imitate home cooking) to one of seven internal temperatures (46, 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64 °C) and Salmonella enumerated. A generalised linear logistic regression model was used to develop a predictive model for the Salmonella concentration based on the internal endpoint temperature. It was estimated that in pork mince with a fat content of 6.1%, Salmonella survival will be decreased by -0.2407log10 CFU/g for a 1 °C increase in internal endpoint temperature, with a 5-log10 reduction in Salmonella concentration estimated to occur when the geometric centre temperature reaches 63 °C. The fat content influenced the rate of Salmonella inactivation (P=0.043), with Salmonella survival increasing as fat content increased, though this effect became negligible as the temperature approached 62 °C. Fat content increased the time required for patties to achieve a specified internal temperature (P=0.0106 and 0.0309 for linear and quadratic terms respectively), indicating that reduced fat pork mince may reduce the risk of salmonellosis from consumption of pork burgers. Salmonella serovar did not significantly affect the model intercepts (P=0.86) or slopes (P=0.10) of the fitted logistic curve. This predictive model can be applied to estimate the reduction in Salmonella in pork burgers after cooking to a specific endpoint temperature and hence to assess food safety risk.
Modified non-linear Burgers' equations and cosmic ray shocks
Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Mckenzie, J. F.
1988-01-01
A reductive perturbation scheme is used to derive a generalized non-linear Burgers' equation, which includes the effects of dispersion, in the long wavelength regime for the two-fluid hydrodynamical model used to describe cosmic ray acceleration by the first-order Fermi process in astrophysical shocks. The generalized Burger's equation is derived for both relativistic and non-relativistic cosmic ray shocks, and describes the time evolution of weak shocks in the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. The inclusion of dispersive effects modifies the phase velocity of the shock obtained from the lower order non-linear Burger's equation through the introduction of higher order terms from the long wavelength dispersion equation. The travelling wave solution of the generalized Burgers' equation for a single shock shows that larger cosmic ray pressures result in broader shock transitions. The results for relativistic shocks show a steepening of the shock as the shock speed approaches the relativistic cosmic ray sound speed. The dependence of the shock speed on the cosmic ray pressure is also discussed.
Oscillating flow of a Burgers' fluid in a pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analysis is made to see the influences of Hall current on the flow of a Burgers' fluid. The velocity field corresponding to flow in a pipe is determined. The closed form analytical solutions for several Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models can be obtained from the present analysis as the limiting cases. The purpose of this work is twofold. Firstly, to investigate the oscillating flow in a pipe using Burgers? fluid model. Secondly, to see the effects of Hall current on the velocity field. The flow in a pipe is induced due to imposition of an oscillating pressure gradient. An exact analytical solution to the governing problem is given using the Fourier transform technique. The obtained expression for the velocity field shows that there are pronounced effects of Hall and rheological parameters. The considered fluid model is a viscoelastic model and has been used to characterize food products such as cheese, soil, asphalt and asphalt mixes etc. (author)
The relativistic Burgers equation on a FLRW background and its finite volume approximation
Ceylan, Tuba; LeFloch, Philippe G.; Okutmustur, Baver
2015-01-01
A relativistic generalization of the inviscid Burgers equation was proposed by LeFloch, Makhlof, and Okutmustur and then investigated on a Schwarzschild background. Here, we extend their analysis to a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. This problem is more challenging due to the existence of non-trivial spatially homogeneous solutions. First, we derive the relativistic Burgers model of interest and determine its spatially homogeneous solutions. Second, we design a numerica...
The relativistic Burgers equation on a FLRW background and its finite volume approximation
Ceylan, Tuba; LeFloch, Philippe G.; Okutmustur, Baver
2015-01-01
A relativistic generalization of the inviscid Burgers equation was proposed by LeFloch, Makhlof, and Okutmustur and then investigated on a Schwarzschild background. Here, we extend their analysis to a Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) background. This problem is more challenging due to the existence of non-trivial spatially homogeneous solutions. First, we derive the relativistic Burgers model of interest and determine its spatially homogeneous solutions. Second, we design a numerica...
Organizational Communication and Workforce Diversity Case Company: Burger King, Finland
Raqib, Maliha
2015-01-01
The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to examine the internal work process related communication of Burger King, Finland. The main focus of this thesis is to assess the current communication flow and recognize communication weak points. Therefore, three investigative questions were formulated to understand the phenomena and provide development suggestions for further communication progress. The theoretical framework consists of theories related to basic human communication model, organ...
Advances in modeling and design of adhesively bonded systems
Kumar, S
2013-01-01
The book comprehensively charts a way for industry to employ adhesively bonded joints to make systems more efficient and cost-effective Adhesively bonded systems have found applications in a wide spectrum of industries (e.g., aerospace, electronics, construction, ship building, biomedical, etc.) for a variety of purposes. Emerging adhesive materials with improved mechanical properties have allowed adhesion strength approaching that of the bonded materials themselves. Due to advances in adhesive materials and the many potential merits that adhesive bonding offers, adhesive bonding has replac
Viscous instanton for Burgers' turbulence
Balkovsky, E; Kolokolov, I V; Lebedev, V
1996-01-01
We consider the tails of probability density functions (PDF) for different characteristics of velocity that satisfies Burgers equation driven by a large-scale force. The saddle-point approximation is employed in the path integral so that the calculation of the PDF tails boils down to finding the special field-force configuration (instanton) that realizes the extremum of probability. We calculate high moments of the velocity gradient \\partial_xu and find out that they correspond to the PDF with \\ln[{\\cal P}(\\partial_xu)]\\propto-(-\\partia l_xu/{\\rm Re})^{3/2} where {\\rm Re} is the Reynolds number. That stretched exponential form is valid for negative \\partial_xu with the modulus much larger than its root-mean-square (rms) value. The respective tail of PDF for negative velocity differences w is steeper than Gaussian, \\ln{\\cal P}(w)\\sim-(w/u_{\\rm rms})^3, as well as single-point velocity PDF \\ln{\\cal P}(u)\\sim-(|u|/u_{\\rm rms})^3. For high velocity derivatives u^{(k)}=\\partial_x^ku, the general formula is found: ...
THE EXACT SOLUTIONS OF THE BURGERS EQUATION AND HIGHER-ORDER BURGERS EQUATION IN (2+1) DIMENSIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAI CHENG-LIN
2001-01-01
Some exact solutions of the Burgers equation and higher-order Burgers equation in (2+1) dimensions are obtained by using the extended homogeneous balance method. In these solutions there are solitary wave solutions, close formal solutions for the initial value problems of the Burgers equation and higher-order Burgers equation, and also infinitely many rational function solutions. All of the solutions contain some arbitrary functions that may be related to the symmetry properties of the Burgers equation and the higher-order Burgers equation in (2+1) dimensions.
Adhesion of Aeromonas sp. to cell lines used as models for intestinal adhesion.
Kirov, S M; Hayward, L. J.; Nerrie, M. A.
1995-01-01
Adhesion to HEp-2 cells has been shown to correlate with enteropathogenicity for Aeromonas species. Such adhesion is thought to reflect the ability of strains to adhere to human intestinal enterocytes, although HEp-2 cells are not of intestinal origin. In this study strains of Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria isolated from various sources were investigated in parallel assays for their ability to adhere to HEp-2 cells and to an intestinal cell line (Caco-2). Quantitative assays showed identica...
A Bäcklund Transformation for the Burgers Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xifang Cao
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We give a Bäcklund transformation in a unified form for each member in the Burgers hierarchy. By applying the Bäcklund transformation to the trivial solutions, we generate some solutions of the Burgers hierarchy.
Generalized Cole–Hopf transformations for generalized Burgers equations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Mayil Vaganan; E Emily Priya
2015-11-01
A detailed review of the invention of Cole–Hopf transformations for the Burgers equation and all the subsequent works which include generalizations of the Burgers equation and the corresponding developments in Cole–Hopf transformations are documented.
Tripathi, D; Anwar Bég, O
2014-02-01
A mathematical study of the peristaltic flow of complex rheological viscoelastic fluids using the generalized fractional Burgers' model through a non-uniform channel is presented. This model is designed to study the movement of chyme and undigested chyme (biophysical waste materials) through the small intestine to the large intestine. To simulate blockages and impedance of debris generated by cell shedding, infections, adhesions on the wall and undigested material, a drag force porous media model is utilized. This effectively mimicks resistance to chyme percolation generated by solid matrix particles in the regime. The conduit geometry is mathematically simulated as a sinusoidal propagation with linear increment in shape of the bolus along the length of channel. A modified Darcy-Brinkman model is employed to simulate the generalized flows through isotropic, homogenous porous media, a simplified but physically robust approximation to actual clinical situations. To model the rheological properties of chyme, a viscoelastic Burgers' fluid formulation is adopted. The governing equations are simplified by assuming long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Numerical and approximate analytical solutions are obtained with two semi-numerical techniques, namely the homotopy perturbation method and the variational iteration method. Visualization of the results is achieved with Mathematica software. The influence of the dominant hydromechanical and geometric parameters such as fractional viscoelastic parameters, wave number, non-uniformity constant, permeability parameter, and material constants on the peristaltic flow characteristics are depicted graphically. PMID:24300568
Notes on Solutions to Burgers-type Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da; LIU Shi-Kuo
2004-01-01
A transformation is introduced and applied to solve Burgers-type equations,such as Burgers equation,Burgers-KdV equation and Burgers-KdV-Kuramoto equation.Many kinds of travelling wave solutions including solitary wave solution are obtained,and it is shown that this is a powerful method to solve nonlinear equations with odd-order and even-order derivatives simultaneously.
Modified Burgers' equation by the local discontinuous Galerkin method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Rong-Pei; Yu Xi-Jun; Zhao Guo-Zhong
2013-01-01
In this paper,we present the local discontinuous Galerkin method for solving Burgers' equation and the modified Burgers' equation.We describe the algorithm formulation and practical implementation of the local discontinuous Galerkin method in detail.The method is applied to the solution of the one-dimensional viscous Burgers' equation and two forms of the modified Burgers' equation.The numerical results indicate that the method is very accurate and efficient.
Algebraic dynamics solution and algebraic dynamics algorithm of Burgers equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Algebraic dynamics solution and algebraic dynamics algorithm of nonlinear partial differential evolution equations in the functional space are applied to Burgers equation. The results indicate that the approach is effective for analytical solutions to Burgers equation, and the algorithm for numerical solutions of Burgers equation is more stable, with higher precision than other existing finite difference algo-rithms.
Assembly and mechanosensory function of focal adhesions: experiments and models.
Bershadsky, Alexander D; Ballestrem, Christoph; Carramusa, Letizia; Zilberman, Yuliya; Gilquin, Benoit; Khochbin, Saadi; Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Verkhovsky, Alexander B; Shemesh, Tom; Kozlov, Michael M
2006-04-01
Initial integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions (focal complexes) appear underneath the lamellipodia, in the regions of the "fast" centripetal flow driven by actin polymerization. Once formed, these adhesions convert the flow behind them into a "slow", myosin II-driven mode. Some focal complexes then turn into elongated focal adhesions (FAs) associated with contractile actomyosin bundles (stress fibers). Myosin II inhibition does not suppress formation of focal complexes but blocks their conversion into mature FAs and further FA growth. Application of external pulling force promotes FA growth even under conditions when myosin II activity is blocked. Thus, individual FAs behave as mechanosensors responding to the application of force by directional assembly. We proposed a thermodynamic model for the mechanosensitivity of FAs, taking into account that an elastic molecular aggregate subject to pulling forces tends to grow in the direction of force application by incorporating additional subunits. This simple model can explain a variety of processes typical of FA behavior. Assembly of FAs is triggered by the small G-protein Rho via activation of two major targets, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and the formin homology protein, Dia1. ROCK controls creation of myosin II-driven forces, while Dia1 is involved in the response of FAs to these forces. Expression of the active form of Dia1, allows the external force-induced assembly of mature FAs, even in conditions when Rho is inhibited. Conversely, downregulation of Dia1 by siRNA prevents FA maturation even if Rho is activated. Dia1 and other formins cap barbed (fast growing) ends of actin filaments, allowing insertion of the new actin monomers. We suggested a novel mechanism of such "leaky" capping based on an assumption of elasticity of the formin/barbed end complex. Our model predicts that formin-mediated actin polymerization should be greatly enhanced by application of external pulling force. Thus, the formin-actin complex
Some new exact solutions to the Burgers-Fisher equation and generalized Burgers-Fisher equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Lu; Guo Yu-Cui; Xu Shu-Jiang
2007-01-01
Some new exact solutions of the Burgers-Fisher equation and generalized Burgers-Fisher equation have been obtained by using the first integral method. These solutions include exponential function solutions, singular solitary wave solutions and some more complex solutions whose figures are given in the article. The result shows that the first integral method is one of the most effective approaches to obtain the solutions of the nonlinear partial differential equations.
Transient flows of a Burgers' fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analysis is performed to develop the analytical solutions for some unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a Burgers' fluid between two plates. A uniform magnetic field is applied transversely to the fluid motion. The exact solutions are given for three problems. Results for the velocity fields are discussed and compared with the flows of Oldroyd-B, Maxwell, second grade and Newtonian fluids. (author)
Optimized Baxter model of protein solutions: electrostatics versus adhesion
Prinsen, P.; Odijk, T.
2004-01-01
A theory is set up of spherical proteins interacting by screened electrostatics and constant adhesion, in which the effective adhesion parameter is optimized by a variational principle for the free energy. An analytical approach to the second virial coefficient is first outlined by balancing the rep
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaocong He
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An analytical model for predicting the stress distributions within single-lap adhesively bonded beams under tension is presented in this paper. By combining the governing equations of each adherend with the joint kinematics, the overall system of governing equations can be obtained. Both the adherends and the adhesive are assumed to be under plane strain condition. With suitable boundary conditions, the stress distribution of the adhesive in the longitudinal direction is determined.
An innovative wheel–rail contact model for railway vehicles under degraded adhesion conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The accurate modelling of the wheel–rail contact plays a fundamental role in the railway field since the contact forces heavily affect the vehicle dynamics, the wear of the contact surfaces and the vehicle safety. Concerning the wheel–rail contact, an important open problem is represented by the degraded adhesion. A realistic adhesion model is quite difficult to obtain because of the complex and highly non-linear behaviour of the adhesion coefficient and the presence of external unknown contaminants (the third body); this is especially true when degraded adhesion and large sliding between the wheel and rail contact surfaces occur.In this work the authors present an adhesion model particularly developed to describe degraded adhesion conditions. The new approach will have to be suitable to be employed within the wheel–rail contact models typical of the multibody applications. In other words, the contact model, comprising the new adhesion model, will have to guarantee a good accuracy and, at the same time, a high numerical efficiency to be implemented directly online inside the general multibody model of the vehicles (e.g. in Matlab-Simulink or Simpack environments) ( www.mathworks.com http://www.mathworks.com , 2012; www.simpack.com http://www.simpack.com , 2012).The model analysed in the paper is based on some of the main phenomena characterising the degraded adhesion, such as large sliding at the contact interface, high energy dissipation, the consequent cleaning effect on the contact surfaces and the final adhesion recovery due to the removal of external unknown contaminants.The adhesion model has been validated because of the experimental data provided by Trenitalia S.p.A. coming from on-track tests performed in Velim (Czech Republic). The tests have been carried out on a straight railway track under degraded adhesion conditions with the railway vehicle UIC-Z1 equipped with a fully-working Wheel Slide Protection (WSP) system.The validation highlighted the
An innovative wheel–rail contact model for railway vehicles under degraded adhesion conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meli, E., E-mail: enrico.meli@unifi.it; Ridolfi, A., E-mail: a.ridolfi@unifi.it [University of Florence, Department of Industrial Engineering (Italy)
2015-03-15
The accurate modelling of the wheel–rail contact plays a fundamental role in the railway field since the contact forces heavily affect the vehicle dynamics, the wear of the contact surfaces and the vehicle safety. Concerning the wheel–rail contact, an important open problem is represented by the degraded adhesion. A realistic adhesion model is quite difficult to obtain because of the complex and highly non-linear behaviour of the adhesion coefficient and the presence of external unknown contaminants (the third body); this is especially true when degraded adhesion and large sliding between the wheel and rail contact surfaces occur.In this work the authors present an adhesion model particularly developed to describe degraded adhesion conditions. The new approach will have to be suitable to be employed within the wheel–rail contact models typical of the multibody applications. In other words, the contact model, comprising the new adhesion model, will have to guarantee a good accuracy and, at the same time, a high numerical efficiency to be implemented directly online inside the general multibody model of the vehicles (e.g. in Matlab-Simulink or Simpack environments) ( www.mathworks.com http://www.mathworks.com , 2012; www.simpack.com http://www.simpack.com , 2012).The model analysed in the paper is based on some of the main phenomena characterising the degraded adhesion, such as large sliding at the contact interface, high energy dissipation, the consequent cleaning effect on the contact surfaces and the final adhesion recovery due to the removal of external unknown contaminants.The adhesion model has been validated because of the experimental data provided by Trenitalia S.p.A. coming from on-track tests performed in Velim (Czech Republic). The tests have been carried out on a straight railway track under degraded adhesion conditions with the railway vehicle UIC-Z1 equipped with a fully-working Wheel Slide Protection (WSP) system.The validation highlighted the
Mesoscopic Modeling of Blood Clotting: Coagulation Cascade and Platelets Adhesion
Yazdani, Alireza; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George
2015-11-01
The process of clot formation and growth at a site on a blood vessel wall involve a number of multi-scale simultaneous processes including: multiple chemical reactions in the coagulation cascade, species transport and flow. To model these processes we have incorporated advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) of multiple species into an extended version of Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method which is considered as a coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics method. At the continuum level this is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation plus one advection-diffusion equation for each specie. The chemistry of clot formation is now understood to be determined by mechanisms involving reactions among many species in dilute solution, where reaction rate constants and species diffusion coefficients in plasma are known. The role of blood particulates, i.e. red cells and platelets, in the clotting process is studied by including them separately and together in the simulations. An agonist-induced platelet activation mechanism is presented, while platelets adhesive dynamics based on a stochastic bond formation/dissociation process is included in the model.
Creep simulation of adhesively bonded joints using modified generalized time hardening model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadigh, Mohammad Ali Saeimi [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-04-15
Creep behavior of double lap adhesively bonded joints was investigated using experimental tests and numerical analysis. Firstly, uniaxial creep tests were carried out to obtain the creep characteristics and constitutive parameters of the adhesive at different stress and temperature levels. Generalized time hardening model was used to predict the creep behavior of the adhesive. This model was modified to simulate the creep behavior at different stress and temperature levels. Secondly, the developed model was used to simulate the creep behavior of bonded joints using finite element based numerical analysis. Creep deformations of the joints were measured experimentally and good agreement was observed in comparison with the results obtained using numerical simulation. Afterward, stress redistribution due to the creep along the adhesively bonded joint was obtained numerically. It was observed that temperature level had a significant effect on the stress redistribution along the adhesive thickness.
Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.
Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein
2015-01-01
Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers.
Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.
Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein
2015-01-01
Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. PMID:25282702
Model for probing membrane-cortex adhesion by micropipette aspiration and fluctuation spectroscopy
Alert, Ricard; Casademunt, Jaume; Brugués, Jan; Sens, Pierre
2016-01-01
We propose a model for membrane-cortex adhesion that couples membrane deformations, hydrodynamics, and kinetics of membrane-cortex ligands. In its simplest form, the model gives explicit predictions for the critical pressure for membrane detachment and for the value of adhesion energy. We show that these quantities exhibit a significant dependence on the active acto-myosin stresses. The model provides a simple framework to access quantitative information on cortical activity by means of micro...
A Spectral Adaptive Mesh Refinement Method for the Burgers equation
Nasr Azadani, Leila; Staples, Anne
2013-03-01
Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a powerful technique in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Many CFD problems have a wide range of scales which vary with time and space. In order to resolve all the scales numerically, high grid resolutions are required. The smaller the scales the higher the resolutions should be. However, small scales are usually formed in a small portion of the domain or in a special period of time. AMR is an efficient method to solve these types of problems, allowing high grid resolutions where and when they are needed and minimizing memory and CPU time. Here we formulate a spectral version of AMR in order to accelerate simulations of a 1D model for isotropic homogenous turbulence, the Burgers equation, as a first test of this method. Using pseudo spectral methods, we applied AMR in Fourier space. The spectral AMR (SAMR) method we present here is applied to the Burgers equation and the results are compared with the results obtained using standard solution methods performed using a fine mesh.
A Computational Model of Soil Adhesion and Resistance for a Non-smooth Bulldozing Plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi Wei-ping; Ren Lu-quan; Tian Li-mei
2005-01-01
Adhesive forces exist between soil and the surfaces of soil-engaging components; they increase working resistance and energy consumption. This paper tries to find an approach to reduce the adhesion and resistance of bulldozing plate. A simplified mechanical model of adhesion and resistance between soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is proposed. The interaction force between moist soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is analyzed. The pressure and friction distribution on the bulldozing plate are computed, and the anti-adhesive effect of a corrugated bulldozing plate is simulated numerically.Numerical results show that the wavy bulldozing plate achieves an effective drag reduction in moist soil. The optimal wavy shape of the corrugated bulldozing plate with the minimal resistance is designed. The basic principle of reducing soil adhesion of the non-smooth surface is discovered.
Evaluation of explicit and implicit LES closures for Burgers turbulence
Maulik, Romit
2016-01-01
In this work, we perform an aposteriori error analysis on implicit and explicit large eddy simulation closure models for solving the Burgers turbulence problem. Our closure modeling efforts include both functional and structural models equipped with various low-pass filters. We introduce discrete binomial smoothing filters and an enhanced version of the Van Cittert algorithm to accelerate the convergence of approximate deconvolution processes including regularization and relaxation filtering approaches. Our implicit modeling efforts consist of various high-order schemes including compact and non-compact fifth-order upwind schemes as well as weighted essential non-oscillatory (WENO) and compact reconstructed WENO (CRWENO) schemes, and the resulting schemes are shown to effectively converge to the direct numerical simulation (DNS) for increasing resolutions. Comparing with DNS and underresolved DNS computations, our numerical assessments illustrate the ability of these methods to capture the energy content near...
Exact solutions and conservation laws of the system of two-dimensional viscous Burgers equations
Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim
2016-10-01
Fluid turbulence is one of the phenomena that has been studied extensively for many decades. Due to its huge practical importance in fluid dynamics, various models have been developed to capture both the indispensable physical quality and the mathematical structure of turbulent fluid flow. Among the prominent equations used for gaining in-depth insight of fluid turbulence is the two-dimensional Burgers equations. Its solutions have been studied by researchers through various methods, most of which are numerical. Being a simplified form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and its wide range of applicability in various fields of science and engineering, development of computationally efficient methods for the solution of the two-dimensional Burgers equations is still an active field of research. In this study, Lie symmetry method is used to perform detailed analysis on the system of two-dimensional Burgers equations. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras up to conjugacy is derived and used to obtain distinct exact solutions. These solutions not only help in understanding the physical effects of the model problem but also, can serve as benchmarks for constructing algorithms and validation of numerical solutions of the system of Burgers equations under consideration at finite Reynolds numbers. Independent and nontrivial conserved vectors are also constructed.
广义Burgers-KP方程的新解%New Solutions of the Generalized Burgers-KP Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许斌
2009-01-01
e new travelling wave solutions of the generalized Burgers-KP with variable-coefficient are found out.%利用G/C拓展方法得到了Burgers-KP方程的三种新的精确行波解,推广了Abdul-Majid Wazwaz得到的已有结果,并把G/G方法推广到变系数的Burgers-KP方程,同时得到了变系数Burgers-KP方程的某些新的精确解.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peder Bent; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø
1989-01-01
A general-purpose model for studying the reflection of acoustic plane waves or line-focused beams from a stratified medium is presented. Loss of adhesion between one or more pairs of layers is taken into account by assuming a partial layer tangential-displacement slip between the layers....... Measurements of the reflection of focused ultrasonic beams from an aluminum plate covered by a thin self-adhesive aluminum foil, whose adhesion to the aluminum plate locally is decreased, are presented. The measured reflection coefficients are compared to calculated beam-reflection coefficients...
SIMILARITY REDUCTIONS OF THE(2+1)-DIMENSIONAL BURGERS SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU DANG-BO; CHU KAI-QIN
2001-01-01
In this paper, using the direct method of the (2+1)-dimensional multi-component Burgers system, some types of similarity reductions are obtained. The corresponding group explanations of the reductions, Virasoro integrability and soliton solutions of Burgers system are also discussed.
Nonclassical Potential Symmetries and New Explicit Solutions of Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QINMao-Chang; MEIFeng-Xiang; XUXue-Jun
2005-01-01
A new method is used to determine the nonclassical potential symmetry generators of Burgers equation.Some classes of new explicit solutions, which cannot be obtained by Lie symmetry group of Burgers equation or its integrated equation, are obtained by using these new nonclassical potential symmetry generators.
Dongsheng Wang; Junyan Yi; Decheng Feng
2014-01-01
Adhesion between asphalt and aggregate plays an important role in the performance of asphalt mixtures. A low-frequency adhesion fatigue test was proposed in this paper to study the effect of environment on the asphalt-aggregate adhesion system. The stress-based fatigue model had been utilized to describe the fatigue behavior of thin-film asphalt and aggregate system. The factors influencing the adhesion fatigue performance were also investigated. Experiment results show that asphalt has more ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zuo Jin-Ming; Zhang Yao-Ming
2011-01-01
This paper studies the coupled Burgers equation and the high-order Bonssinesq-Burgers equation. The Hirota bilinear method is applied to show that the two equations are completely integrable. Multiple-kink (soliton) solutions and multiple-singular-kink (soliton) solutions are derived for the two equations.
The New Exact Solutions for Burgers- Fisher Equation%Burgers-Fisher方程的新精确解
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
雷军
2004-01-01
利用改进的tanh函数方法将Burgers-Fisher方程化为一阶非线性常微分方程组.通过求解这个非线性常微分方程组,获得了Burgers-Fisher方程新的精确类孤子解和三角函数解.
Nardini, John T; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong; Bortz, David M
2016-07-01
The in vitro migration of keratinocyte cell sheets displays behavioral and biochemical similarities to the in vivo wound healing response of keratinocytes in animal model systems. In both cases, ligand-dependent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activation is sufficient to elicit collective cell migration into the wound. Previous mathematical modeling studies of in vitro wound healing assays assume that physical connections between cells have a hindering effect on cell migration, but biological literature suggests a more complicated story. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental observations of collectively migrating sheets of keratinocytes, we investigate the role of cell-cell adhesion during in vitro keratinocyte wound healing assays. We develop and compare two nonlinear diffusion models of the wound healing process in which cell-cell adhesion either hinders or promotes migration. Both models can accurately fit the leading edge propagation of cell sheets during wound healing when using a time-dependent rate of cell-cell adhesion strength. The model that assumes a positive role of cell-cell adhesion on migration, however, is robust to changes in the leading edge definition and yields a qualitatively accurate density profile. Using RNAi for the critical adherens junction protein, α-catenin, we demonstrate that cell sheets with wild type cell-cell adhesion expression maintain migration into the wound longer than cell sheets with decreased cell-cell adhesion expression, which fails to exhibit collective migration. Our modeling and experimental data thus suggest that cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained migration as cells pull neighboring cells into the wound during wound healing. PMID:27105673
Nardini, John T; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong; Bortz, David M
2016-07-01
The in vitro migration of keratinocyte cell sheets displays behavioral and biochemical similarities to the in vivo wound healing response of keratinocytes in animal model systems. In both cases, ligand-dependent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activation is sufficient to elicit collective cell migration into the wound. Previous mathematical modeling studies of in vitro wound healing assays assume that physical connections between cells have a hindering effect on cell migration, but biological literature suggests a more complicated story. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental observations of collectively migrating sheets of keratinocytes, we investigate the role of cell-cell adhesion during in vitro keratinocyte wound healing assays. We develop and compare two nonlinear diffusion models of the wound healing process in which cell-cell adhesion either hinders or promotes migration. Both models can accurately fit the leading edge propagation of cell sheets during wound healing when using a time-dependent rate of cell-cell adhesion strength. The model that assumes a positive role of cell-cell adhesion on migration, however, is robust to changes in the leading edge definition and yields a qualitatively accurate density profile. Using RNAi for the critical adherens junction protein, α-catenin, we demonstrate that cell sheets with wild type cell-cell adhesion expression maintain migration into the wound longer than cell sheets with decreased cell-cell adhesion expression, which fails to exhibit collective migration. Our modeling and experimental data thus suggest that cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained migration as cells pull neighboring cells into the wound during wound healing.
Modeling of adhesion in tablet compression - I. atomic force microscopy and molecular simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, J. J.; Li, T.; Bateman, S. D.; Erck, R.; Morris, K. R.; Energy Technology; Purdue Univ.; Novartis Pharmaceutical Corp.
2003-04-01
Adhesion problems during tablet manufacturing have been observed to be dependent on many formulation and process factors including the run time on the tablet press. Consequently, problems due to sticking may only become apparent towards the end of the development process when a prolonged run on the tablet press is attempted for the first time. It would be beneficial to predict in a relative sense if a formulation or new chemical entity has the potential for adhesion problems early in the development process. It was hypothesized that favorable intermolecular interaction between the drug molecules and the punch face is the first step or criterion in the adhesion process. Therefore, the rank order of adhesion during tablet compression should follow the rank order of these energies of interaction. The adhesion phenomenon was investigated using molecular simulations and contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three model compounds were chosen from a family of profen compounds. Silicon nitride AFM tips were modified by coating a 20-nm iron layer on the surfaces by sputter coating. Profen flat surfaces were made by melting and recrystallization. The modified AFM probe and each profen surface were immersed in the corresponding profen saturated water during force measurements using AFM. The work of adhesion between iron and ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and flurbiprofen in vacuum were determined to be -184.1, -2469.3, -17.3 mJ {center_dot} m-2, respectively. The rank order of the work of adhesion between iron and profen compounds decreased in the order: ketoprofen > ibuprofen > flurbiprofen. The rank order of interaction between the drug molecules and the iron superlattice as predicted by molecular simulation using Cerius2 is in agreement with the AFM measurements. It has been demonstrated that Atomic Force Microscopy is a powerful tool in studying the adhesion phenomena between organic drug compounds and metal surface. The study has provided insight into the adhesion problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. de Miranda
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A simple beam model for the evaluation of tile debonding due to substrate shrinkage is presented. The tile-adhesive-substrate package is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam laying on a two-layer elastic foundation. An effective discrete model for inter-tile grouting is introduced with the aim of modelling workmanship defects due to partial filled groutings. The model is validated using the results of a 2D FE model. Different defect configurations and adhesive typologies are analysed, focusing the attention on the prediction of normal stresses in the adhesive layer under the assumption of Mode I failure of the adhesive.
Model for Probing Membrane-Cortex Adhesion by Micropipette Aspiration and Fluctuation Spectroscopy
Alert, Ricard; Casademunt, Jaume; Brugués, Jan; Sens, Pierre
2015-04-01
We propose a model for membrane-cortex adhesion which couples membrane deformations, hydrodynamics and kinetics of membrane-cortex ligands. In its simplest form, the model gives explicit predictions for the critical pressure for membrane detachment and for the value of adhesion energy. We show that these quantities exhibit a significant dependence on the active acto-myosin stresses. The model provides a simple framework to access quantitative information on cortical activity by means of micropipette experiments. We also extend the model to incorporate fluctuations and show that detailed information on the stability of membrane-cortex coupling can be obtained by a combination of micropipette aspiration and fluctuation spectroscopy measurements.
Model for probing membrane-cortex adhesion by micropipette aspiration and fluctuation spectroscopy
Alert, Ricard; Brugués, Jan; Sens, Pierre
2016-01-01
We propose a model for membrane-cortex adhesion which couples membrane deformations, hydrodynamics and kinetics of membrane-cortex ligands. In its simplest form, the model gives explicit predictions for the critical pressure for membrane detachment and for the value of adhesion energy. We show that these quantities exhibit a significant dependence on the active acto-myosin stresses. The model provides a simple framework to access quantitative information on cortical activity by means of micropipette experiments. We also extend the model to incorporate fluctuations and show that detailed information on the stability of membrane-cortex coupling can be obtained by a combination of micropipette aspiration and fluctuation spectroscopy measurements.
Application of Extended Tanh Method to Generalized Burgers-type Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamid Panahipour
2012-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we show that the extended tanh method can be applied readily to generate exact soliton solutions of generalized forms of Burgers-KdV, Burgers-EW, two-dimensional Burgers-KdV and two-dimensional Burgers-EW equations.
A simplified model for dynamics of cell rolling and cell-surface adhesion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cimrák, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.cimrak@fri.uniza.sk [Cell-in-fluid Research Group, http://cell-in-fluid.fri.uniza.sk Faculty of Management Science and Informatics, University of Žilina Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)
2015-03-10
We propose a three dimensional model for the adhesion and rolling of biological cells on surfaces. We study cells moving in shear flow above a wall to which they can adhere via specific receptor-ligand bonds based on receptors from selectin as well as integrin family. The computational fluid dynamics are governed by the lattice-Boltzmann method. The movement and the deformation of the cells is described by the immersed boundary method. Both methods are fully coupled by implementing a two-way fluid-structure interaction. The adhesion mechanism is modelled by adhesive bonds including stochastic rules for their creation and rupture. We explore a simplified model with dissociation rate independent of the length of the bonds. We demonstrate that this model is able to resemble the mesoscopic properties, such as velocity of rolling cells.
Stapleton, Scott; Gries, Thomas; Waas, Anthony M.; Pineda, Evan J.
2014-01-01
Enhanced finite elements are elements with an embedded analytical solution that can capture detailed local fields, enabling more efficient, mesh independent finite element analysis. The shape functions are determined based on the analytical model rather than prescribed. This method was applied to adhesively bonded joints to model joint behavior with one element through the thickness. This study demonstrates two methods of maintaining the fidelity of such elements during adhesive non-linearity and cracking without increasing the mesh needed for an accurate solution. The first method uses adaptive shape functions, where the shape functions are recalculated at each load step based on the softening of the adhesive. The second method is internal mesh adaption, where cracking of the adhesive within an element is captured by further discretizing the element internally to represent the partially cracked geometry. By keeping mesh adaptations within an element, a finer mesh can be used during the analysis without affecting the global finite element model mesh. Examples are shown which highlight when each method is most effective in reducing the number of elements needed to capture adhesive nonlinearity and cracking. These methods are validated against analogous finite element models utilizing cohesive zone elements.
The superposition method in seeking the solitary wave solutions to the KdV-Burgers equation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Yuanxi Xie; Jilashi Tang
2006-03-01
In this paper, starting from the careful analysis on the characteristics of the Burgers equation and the KdV equation as well as the KdV-Burgers equation, the superposition method is put forward for constructing the solitary wave solutions of the KdV-Burgers equation from those of the Burgers equation and the KdV equation. The solitary wave solutions for the KdV-Burgers equation are presented successfully by means of this method.
A New Material Model for 2D FE Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Libin ZHAO
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Effective and convenient stress analysis techniques play important roles in the analysis and design of adhesively bonded composite joints. A new material model is presented at the level of composite ply according to the orthotropic elastic mechanics theory and plane strain assumption. The model proposed has the potential to reserve nature properties of laminates with ply-to-ply modeling. The equivalent engineering constants in the model are obtained only by the material properties of unidirectional composites. Based on commercial FE software ABAQUS, a 2D FE model of a single-lap adhesively bonded joint was established conveniently by using the new model without complex modeling process and much professional knowledge. Stress distributions in adhesive were compared with the numerical results by Tsai and Morton and interlaminar stresses between adhesive and adherents were compared with the results from a detailed 3D FE analysis. Good agreements in both cases verify the validity of the proposed model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.5960
Numerical analysis of single particle impact in the context of Cold Spray: a new adhesion model
Profizi, P.; Combescure, A.; Ogawa, K.
2016-03-01
A new adhesion model for numerical simulation of single particle impact in the context of Cold Spray is introduced. As in other studies, cohesive forces are put between the particle and substrate to account for adhesion. In this study however, the forces are put only when a local physical criterion is met. The physical phenomenon most often attributed to Cold Spray adhesion is a shear stress instability. The Johnson-Cook material law is used with a shear damage softening law to enable strong localization at the interface without the need for an extremely fine mesh. This localization is then detected as a drop in local yield stress value by the algorithm, which then implements a local cohesive force. The evolution of this cohesive force is defined by an energy dissipative cohesive model, using a surface adhesion energy as a material parameter. Each cohesive link is broken once all its associated surface energy is dissipated. A criterion on the damage value is also used to break a cohesive bond prematurely, to account for the effect of erosion at higher speeds. This model is found to reproduce the Cold Spray-like adhesion behavior with observed critical and maximum speeds.
On the decay of Burgers turbulence
Gurbatov, S N; Aurell, E; Frisch, U; Tóth, G
1997-01-01
This work is devoted to the decay ofrandom solutions of the unforced Burgers equation in one dimension in the limit of vanishing viscosity. The initial velocity is homogeneous and Gaussian with a spectrum proportional to $k^n$ at small wavenumbers $k$ and falling off quickly at large wavenumbers. In physical space, at sufficiently large distances, there is an ``outer region'', where the velocity correlation function preserves exactly its initial form (a power law) when $n$ is not an even integer. When $11$. A systematic derivation is given in which both the leading term and estimates of higher order corrections can be obtained. High-resolution numerical simulations are presented which support our findings.
Solving the Burgers-KdV equation by a combination method%用组合法求解Burgers-KdV方程
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢元喜
2009-01-01
通过分析Burgers方程、KdV方程和Burgers-KdV方程的特点,提出了一种由Burgers方程的解和KdV方程的解构造Burgers-KdV方程解的组合法,并由此求得了Burgers-KdV方程的若干显式精确解.%In view of the analysis on the characteristics of the Burgers equation,KdV equation and Burgers-KdV equation,aacombination method is presented to construct the solutions of the Burgers-KdV equation by combining with those of the Burgers equation and KdV equation.As a result,many explicit and exact solutions of the Burgers-KdV equation are successfully derived by this technique.
Higashi, Julie Miyo
Infections involving Staphylococcus epidermidis remain a life threatening complication associated with the use of polymer based cardiovascular devices. One of the critical steps in infection pathogenesis is the adhesion of the bacteria to the device surface. Currently, mechanisms of S. epidermidis adhesion are incompletely understood, but are thought to involve interactions between bacteria, device surface, and host blood elements in the form of adsorbed plasma proteins and surface adherent platelets. Our central hypothesis is that elements participating in thrombosis also promote S. epidermidis adhesion by specifically binding to the bacterial surface. The adhesion kinetics of S. epidermidis RP62A to host modified model biomaterial surface octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) under hydrodynamic shear conditions were characterized. Steady state adhesion to adsorbed proteins and surface adherent platelets was achieved at 90-120 minutes and 60-90 minutes, respectively. A dose response curve of S. epidermidis adhesion in the concentration range of 10sp7{-}10sp9 bac/mL resembled a multilayer adsorption isotherm. Increasing shear stress was found to LTA, and other LTA blocking agents significantly decreased S. epidermidis adhesion to the fibrin-platelet clots, suggesting that this interaction between S. epidermidis and fibrin-platelet clots is specific. Studies evaluated the adhesion of S. epidermidis to polymer immobilized heparin report conflicting results. Paulsson et al., showed that coagulase negative staphylococci adhered in comparable numbers to both immobilized heparin and nonheparinized surfaces, while exhibiting significantly greater adhesion to both surfaces than S. aureus. Preadsorption of the surfaces with specific heparin binding plasma proteins vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen significantly increased adhesion. It was postulated that immobilized heparin contained binding sites for the plasma proteins, exposing bacteria binding domains of the
New Travelling Wave Solutions to Compound KdV-Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Jun; KE Yun-Quan; ZHANG Wei-Jun
2004-01-01
The compound KdV-Burgers equation and combined KdV-mKdV equation are real physical models concerning many branches in physics.In this paper,applying the improved trigonometric function method to these equations,rich explicit and exact travelling wave solutions,which contain solitary-wave solutions,periodic solutions,and combined formal solitary-wave solutions,are obtained.
On exact solutions for oscillatory flows in a generalized Burgers fluid with slip condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, Tasawar [Dept. of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan); Dept. of Mathematics, Coll. of Sciences, KS Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Najam, Saher [Theoretical Plasma Physics Div., PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sajid, Muhammad; Mesloub, Said [Dept. of Mathematics, Coll. of Sciences, KS Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Ayub, Muhammad [Dept. of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)
2010-05-15
An analysis is performed for the slip effects on the exact solutions of flows in a generalized Burgers fluid. The flow modelling is based upon the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nature of the fluid and modified Darcy law in a porous space. Two illustrative examples of oscillatory flows are considered. The results obtained are compared with several limiting cases. It has been shown here that the derived results hold for all values of frequencies including the resonant frequency. (orig.)
MADE SANJIWANI; KETUT JAYANEGARA; I PUTU EKA N. KENCANA
2015-01-01
The were two aims of this research. First is to get model of the relation between the latent variable quality of service and product quality to customer satisfaction. The second was to determine the influence of service quality on customer satisfaction and the influence of product quality on consumer satisfaction at Burger King Bali. This research implemented Partial Least Square method with 3 second order variables is the service quality, product quality, and customer satisfaction. In this r...
A Regularization of Burgers Equation using a Filtered Convective Velocity
Norgard, Greg
2008-01-01
This paper examines the properties of a regularization of Burgers equation in one and multiple dimensions using a filtered convective velocity, which we have dubbed as convectively filtered Burgers (CFB) equation. A physical motivation behind the filtering technique is presented. An existence and uniqueness theorem for multiple dimensions and a general class of filters is proven. Multiple invariants of motion are found for the CFB equation and are compared with those found in viscous and inviscid Burgers equation. Traveling wave solutions are found for a general class of filters and are shown to converge to weak solutions of inviscid Burgers equation with the correct wave speed. Accurate numerical simulations are conducted in 1D and 2D cases where the shock behavior, shock thickness, and kinetic energy decay are examined. Energy spectrum are also examined and are shown to be related to the smoothness of the solutions.
Advanced adhesives in electronics
Bailey, C
2011-01-01
Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices to act as passive and active components. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of conductive adhesives. This book reviews key types of conductive adhesives, processing methods, properties and the way they can be modelled as well as potential applications.$bAdhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic ...
Burgers' turbulence problem with linear or quadratic external potential
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Leonenko, N.N.
2005-01-01
We consider solutions of Burgers' equation with linear or quadratic external potential and stationary random initial conditions of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. We study a class of limit laws that correspond to a scale renormalization of the solutions.......We consider solutions of Burgers' equation with linear or quadratic external potential and stationary random initial conditions of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. We study a class of limit laws that correspond to a scale renormalization of the solutions....
Modeling of cell adhesion and deformation mediated by receptor-ligand interactions.
Golestaneh, Amirreza F; Nadler, Ben
2016-04-01
The current work is devoted to studying adhesion and deformation of biological cells mediated by receptors and ligands in order to enhance the existing models. Due to the sufficient in-plane continuity and fluidity of the phospholipid molecules, an isotropic continuum fluid membrane is proposed for modeling the cell membrane. The developed constitutive model accounts for the influence of the presence of receptors on the deformation and adhesion of the cell membrane through the introduction of spontaneous area dilation. Motivated by physics, a nonlinear receptor-ligand binding force is introduced based on charge-induced dipole interaction. Diffusion of the receptors on the membrane is governed by the receptor-ligand interaction via Fick's Law and receptor-ligand interaction. The developed model is then applied to study the deformation and adhesion of a biological cell. The proposed model is used to study the role of the material, binding, spontaneous area dilation and environmental properties on the deformation and adhesion of the cell. PMID:26093646
Optimal response to non-equilibrium disturbances under truncated Burgers-Hopf dynamics
Thalabard, Simon
2016-01-01
We model and compute the average response of truncated Burgers-Hopf dynamics to finite perturbations away from the Gibbs equipartition energy spectrum using a dynamical optimization framework recently conceptualized in a series of papers. Non-equilibrium averages are there approximated in terms of geodesic paths in probability space that best-fit the Liouvillean dynamics over a family of quasi-equilibrium trial densities. By recasting the geodesic principle as an optimal control problem, we solve numerically for the non-equilibrium responses using an augmented Lagrangian, non-linear conjugate gradient descent method. For moderate perturbations, we find an excellent agreement between the optimal predictions and the direct numerical simulations of the truncated Burgers-Hopf dynamics. In this near-equilibrium regime, we argue that the optimal response theory provides an approximate yet predictive counterpart to fluctuation-dissipation identities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kottner R.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Adhesively bonded joints can be numerically simulated using the cohesive crack model. The critical strain energy release rate and the critical opening displacement are the parameters which must be known when cohesive elements in MSC.Marc software are used. In this work, the parameters of two industrial adhesives Hunstman Araldite 2021 and Gurit Spabond 345 for bonding of epoxy composites are identified. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB and End Notched Flexure (ENF test data were used for the identification. The critical opening displacements were identified using an optimization algorithm where the tests and their numerical simulations were compared.
Localized Modeling of Biochemical and Flow Interactions during Cancer Cell Adhesion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julie Behr
Full Text Available This work focuses on one component of a larger research effort to develop a simulation tool to model populations of flowing cells. Specifically, in this study a local model of the biochemical interactions between circulating melanoma tumor cells (TC and substrate adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN is developed. This model provides realistic three-dimensional distributions of bond formation and attendant attraction and repulsion forces that are consistent with the time dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD framework of the full system model which accounts local pressure, shear and repulsion forces. The resulting full dynamics model enables exploration of TC adhesion to adherent PMNs, which is a known participating mechanism in melanoma cell metastasis. The model defines the adhesion molecules present on the TC and PMN cell surfaces, and calculates their interactions as the melanoma cell flows past the PMN. Biochemical rates of reactions between individual molecules are determined based on their local properties. The melanoma cell in the model expresses ICAM-1 molecules on its surface, and the PMN expresses the β-2 integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. In this work the PMN is fixed to the substrate and is assumed fully rigid and of a prescribed shear-rate dependent shape obtained from micro-PIV experiments. The melanoma cell is transported with full six-degrees-of-freedom dynamics. Adhesion models, which represent the ability of molecules to bond and adhere the cells to each other, and repulsion models, which represent the various physical mechanisms of cellular repulsion, are incorporated with the CFD solver. All models are general enough to allow for future extensions, including arbitrary adhesion molecule types, and the ability to redefine the values of parameters to represent various cell types. The model presented in this study will be part of a clinical tool for development of personalized medical treatment programs.
Yamazaki, Mutsuo; Sato, Shunichi; Saito, Daizo; Okada, Yoshiaki; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru
2004-07-01
Adhesion monitoring of grafted skins is very important in successful treatment of severe burns and traumas. However, current diagnosis of skin grafting is usually done by visual observation, which is not reliable and gives no quantitative information on the skin graft adhesion. When the grafted skin adheres well, neovascularities will be generated in the grafted skin tissue, and therefore adhesion may be monitored by detecting the neovascularities. In this study, we attempted to measure photoacoustic signals originate from the neovascularities by irradiating the grafted skins with 532-nm nanosecond light pulses in rat autograft and allograft models. The measurement showed that immediately after skin grafting, photoacoustic signal originate from the blood in the dermis was negligibly small, while 6 - 24 hours after skin grafting, signal was observed from the dermis in the graft. We did not observe a significant difference between the signals from the autograft and the allograft models. These results indicate that neovascularization would take place within 6 hours after skin grafting, and the rejection reaction would make little effect on adhesion within early hours after grafting.
From flexibility to cooperativity: multiscale modeling of cadherin-mediated cell adhesion
Wu, Yinghao
2013-03-01
Cadherins constitute a large family of Ca2 +-dependent adhesion molecules in the Inter-cellular junctions that play a pivotal role in the assembly of cells into specific three-dimensional tissues. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying cadherin-mediated cell adhesion are still not fully understood, it seems likely that both cis dimers that are formed by binding of extracellular domains of two cadherins on the same cell surface, and trans-dimers formed between cadherins on opposing cell surfaces, are critical to trigger the junction formation. Here we present a new multiscale computational strategy to model the process of junction formation based on the knowledge of cadherin molecular structures and its 3D binding affinities. The cell interfacial region is defined by a simplified system where each of two interacting membrane surfaces is represented as a two-dimensional lattice with each cadherin molecule treated as a randomly diffusing unit. The binding energy for a pair of interacting cadherins in this two-dimensional discrete system is obtained from 3D binding affinities through a renormalization process derived from statistical thermodynamics. The properties of individual cadherins used in the lattice model are based on molecular level simulations. Our results show that within the range of experimentally-measured binding affinities, cadherins condense into junctions driven by the coupling of cis and trans interactions. The key factor appears to be a loss of molecular flexibility during trans dimerization that increases the magnitude of lateral cis interactions. We have also developed stochastic dynamics to study the adhesion of multiple cells. Each cell in the system is described as a mechanical entity and adhesive properties between two cells are derived from the lattice model. The cellular simulations are used to study the specific problems of tissue morphogenesis and tumor metastasis. The consequent question and upcoming challenge is to understand the
Zebrafish Egg Infection Model for Studying Candida albicans Adhesion Factors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yin-Zhi Chen
Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is associated with 30-40% mortality in severely immunocompromised patients. Among the causal agents, Candida albicans is the dominant one. Various animal models have been developed for investigating gene functions in C. albicans. Zebrafish injection models have increasingly been applied in elucidating C. albicans pathogenesis because of the conserved immunity, prolific fecundity of the zebrafish and the low costs of care systems. In this study, we established a simple, noninvasive zebrafish egg bath infection model, defined its optimal conditions, and evaluated the model with various C. albicans mutant strains. The deletion of SAP6 did not have significant effect on the virulence. By contrast, the deletion of BCR1, CPH1, EFG1, or TEC1 significantly reduced the virulence under current conditions. Furthermore, all embryos survived when co-incubated with bcr1/bcr1, cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1, efg1/efg1, or tec1/tec1 mutant cells. The results indicated that our novel zebrafish model is time-saving and cost effective.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.
2013-01-01
In this paper, a new traction-separation law is developed that represents the constitutive relation of ductile adhesive materials in Modes I, II, and III. The proposed traction-separation laws model the elastic, plastic, and failure material response of a ductile adhesive layer. Initially, the in...
IgG Adhesion on Hydrophobic Surfaces: Theory, Modelling, and Application to ELISA
de Thier, P
2016-01-01
Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays (ELISA) are a range of widely used analytical methods whose implementation requires to build antibodies (IgG) thin films onto surfaces predominantly made of polystyrene. The high hydrophobicity of polystyrene ensures a spontaneous and strong adhesion of proteins allowing to easily build IgG monolayers. Since the ELISA improvements definitely lie in the comprehension of physico-chemical mechanisms on which IgG immobilization on hydrophobic surfaces are relied, this work develops a theorization essay (thermodynamics of the so-called hydrophobic effect and of thin films building) emphasized by numerical modelling (random sequential additions model, i.e. RSA) and experimental estimations by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ELISA. Keeping in mind the hydrophobic effect, thermodynamics (of irreversible processes) allows to explain why IgG adhesion on polystyrene occurs whereas numerical modelling approaches show a way of surface saturation leading to promote IgG orientations expe...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongsheng Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Adhesion between asphalt and aggregate plays an important role in the performance of asphalt mixtures. A low-frequency adhesion fatigue test was proposed in this paper to study the effect of environment on the asphalt-aggregate adhesion system. The stress-based fatigue model had been utilized to describe the fatigue behavior of thin-film asphalt and aggregate system. The factors influencing the adhesion fatigue performance were also investigated. Experiment results show that asphalt has more important effect on the adhesion performance comparing with aggregate. Basalt, which is regarded as hydrophobic aggregates with low silica content, has better adhesion performance to asphalt binder when compared with granite. The effects of aging on the adhesion fatigue performance are different for PG64-22 and rubber asphalt. Long-term aging is found to reduce the adhesion fatigue lives for rubber asphalt and aggregate system, while the effect of long-term aging for aggregate and PG64-22 binder system is positive. Generally the increased stress amplitude and test temperature could induce greater damage and lead to less fatigue lives for adhesion test system.
Wang, Dongsheng; Yi, Junyan; Feng, Decheng
2014-01-01
Adhesion between asphalt and aggregate plays an important role in the performance of asphalt mixtures. A low-frequency adhesion fatigue test was proposed in this paper to study the effect of environment on the asphalt-aggregate adhesion system. The stress-based fatigue model had been utilized to describe the fatigue behavior of thin-film asphalt and aggregate system. The factors influencing the adhesion fatigue performance were also investigated. Experiment results show that asphalt has more important effect on the adhesion performance comparing with aggregate. Basalt, which is regarded as hydrophobic aggregates with low silica content, has better adhesion performance to asphalt binder when compared with granite. The effects of aging on the adhesion fatigue performance are different for PG64-22 and rubber asphalt. Long-term aging is found to reduce the adhesion fatigue lives for rubber asphalt and aggregate system, while the effect of long-term aging for aggregate and PG64-22 binder system is positive. Generally the increased stress amplitude and test temperature could induce greater damage and lead to less fatigue lives for adhesion test system. PMID:25054187
Darboux Transformations and Soliton Solutions for Classical Boussinesq-Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Rui
2008-01-01
Two basic Darboux transformations of a spectral problem associated with a classical Boussinesq-Burgers equation are presented in this letter.They are used to generate new solutions of the classical Boussinesq-Burgers equation.
Antioxidant Small-spotted Catshark Burgers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joana Patriarca
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Tons of fish are rejected daily, not only on board, but also on shore during the industrial processing (INE, 2012. In order to reuse these wastes, restructured seafood products must be developed. On the other hand, in western countries a trend in the increase of the number of cancer cases is observed, especially among the youngsters (Steliarova-Foucher et al, 2004. A healthy and high quality nutrition plays an important role on cancer prevention (Davis et al, 2010; Kuno et al, 2012. Many authors found several phytochemical compounds naturally present in foods with powerful antioxidant properties. These have the ability to stop or delay the development of the tumors, by inducing apoptosis and prevent angiogenesis or metastasis (Kou et al, 2013. In the present work, it was developed a restructured functional food based on rejected small-spotted catshark. The functional capacity of this food is attained by the addition of ingredients with proven antioxidant ability. Studies have been made to optimize the antioxidant extraction process from the fish burger through different combinations of solvent extraction. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the restructured product was characterized in terms of total phenolic content (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. Apparently, a higher level of antioxidants is detected when methanol is used for extraction during twelve hours at room temperature. The results also showed the functional fish product presents a higher capacity for DPPH reduction and increased values for ORAC by comparison with small-spotted catshark only.
Non-linear vorticity upsurge in Burgers flow
Lam, F
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that numerical solutions of Burgers' equation can be obtained by a scale-totality algorithm for fluids of small viscosity (down to one billionth). Two sets of initial data, modelling simple shears and wall boundary layers, are chosen for our computations. Most of the solutions are carried out well into the fully turbulent regime over finely-resolved scales in space and in time. It is found that an abrupt spatio-temporal concentration in shear constitutes an essential part during the flow evolution. The vorticity surge has been instigated by the non-linearity complying with instantaneous enstrophy production while ad hoc disturbances play no role in the process. In particular, the present method predicts the precipitous vorticity re-distribution and accumulation, predominantly over localised regions of minute dimension. The growth rate depends on viscosity and is a strong function of initial data. Nevertheless, the long-time energy decay is history-independent and is inversely proportional to ti...
Painlevé Analysis and Some Solutions of(2+1)-Dimensional Generalized Burgers Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HONG Ke-Zhu; WU B-in; CHEN Xian-Feng
2003-01-01
Burgers equation ut = 2uux + uxx describes a lot of phenomena in physics fields, and it has attracted much attention.In this paper,the Burgers equation is generalized to (2+1) dimensions.By means of the Painlev(e') analysis,the most generalized Painlev(e') integrable(2+1)-dimensional integrable Burgers systems are obtained.Some exact solutions of the generalized Burgers system are obtained via variable separation approach.
Stokes' First Problem for an MHD Burgers Fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Masood Khan
2013-01-01
This work is related to the flow of a magnetohydrodynamic Burgers fluid.The flow of an incompressible conducting Burgers fluid in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field over a plate that is moved suddenly is considered.By the application of the Laplace and Fourier sine transforms techniques,the exact analytical expressions for the velocity field and associated shear stress are determined in simple forms.They are written as a sum of steady-state and transient solutions.The graphical results are plotted for different values of indispensable parameters and some interesting results are concluded.The corresponding solutions for the hydrodynamic Burgers fluid appear as the limiting cases of the obtained solutions.
Burns, John A.; Marrekchi, Hamadi
1993-01-01
The problem of using reduced order dynamic compensators to control a class of nonlinear parabolic distributed parameter systems was considered. Concentration was on a system with unbounded input and output operators governed by Burgers' equation. A linearized model was used to compute low-order-finite-dimensional control laws by minimizing certain energy functionals. Then these laws were applied to the nonlinear model. Standard approaches to this problem employ model/controller reduction techniques in conjunction with linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory. The approach used is based on the finite dimensional Bernstein/Hyland optimal projection theory which yields a fixed-finite-order controller.
B-spline collocation methods for numerical solutions of the Burgers' equation
İdris Dağ; Dursun Irk; Ali Şahin
2005-01-01
Both time- and space-splitted Burgers' equations are solved numerically. Cubic B-spline collocation method is applied to the time-splitted Burgers' equation. Quadratic B-spline collocation method is used to get numerical solution of the space-splitted Burgers' equation. The results of both schemes are compared for some test problems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jae-Sung Bae; Kwang-Ho Jang; Hee-Kyung Jin
2005-01-01
AIM: To assess the adhesion- and abscess-reducing capacities of various concentrations of polysaccharides derived from fungus, Phellinus gilvus (PG) or Phellinus linteus (PL) in a rat peritonitis model.METHODS: In 96 SD rats, experimental peritonitis was induced using the cecal ligation and puncture model (CLP).Rats were randomly assigned to 8 groups; Ringer's lactate solution (RL group), hyaluronic acid (HA group), 0.025%,0.25%, and 0.5% polysaccharides from PG (PG0.025, 0.25,and 0.5 groups), and PL (PL0.025, 0.25, and 0.5 groups).Adhesions and abscesses were noted at 7 d after CLP.RT-PCR assay was performed to assess the cecal tissue.RESULTS: Adhesion formation was significantly reduced in PG0.25, 0.5, PL0.25, 0.5, and HA groups (2.5±0.7,2.4±0.7, 3.8±1.0, 3.6±0.8, and 2.7±1.1, P＜0.05). The incidence of abscesses was significantly reduced in all treated groups compared to RL group (58%, P＜0.05). The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene expression was greatly up-regulated by increasing the concentration of polysaccharides. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA were highly expressed in PG0.25, 0.5, PL0.25, and 0.5groups.CONCLUSION: We concluded that 0.5% polysaccharide derived from PG and PL was the optimal concentration in preventing adhesion and abscess formation and may act by modulating activity of uPA and TNF-α in a rat peritonitis model.
A CLASS OF ALTERNATING GROUP METHOD OF BURGERS' EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王文洽
2004-01-01
Some new Saul' yev type asymmetric difference schemes for Burgers' equation is given, by the use of the schemes, a kind of alternating group four points method for solving nonlinear Burgers' equation is constructed here. The basic idea of the method is that the grid points on the same time level is divided into a number of groups, the difference equations of each group can be solved independently, hence the method with intrinsic parallelism can be used directly on parallel computer. The method is unconditionally stable by analysis of linearization procedure. The numerical experiments show that the method has good stability and accuracy.
CONVERGENCE OF ADOMIAN METHOD FOR SOLVING KDV– BURGER EQUATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. El-Azab
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, convergence of Adomian decomposition method (ADM when applied to KdV–Burgers equation is proved. Two approaches for extracting the soliton solutions to the nonlinear dispersive and dissipative KdV– Burgers equation are implemented. The first one is the classical ADM while, the second is the modified ADM which is called the general iteration method. Test examples are given and a comparison between the two approaches is carried out to illustrate the pertinent feature of the general iteration method.
Nanobioprobe for the Determination of Pork Adulteration in Burger Formulations
Ali, M. E.; MUSTAFA, S.; Hashim, U.; Che Man, Y. B.; K L Foo
2012-01-01
We report the development of a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe through a covalent integration of a fluorophore-labeled 27-nucleotide AluI-fragment of swine cytochrome b gene to a 3 nm gold nanoparticle for the determination of pork adulteration in processed meat products. We tested the probe to estimate adulterated pork in ready-to-eat pork-spiked beef burgers. The probe quantitatively detected 1–100% spiked pork in burger formulations with ≥90% accuracy. A plot of observed fluorescence ag...
Modeling and Adhesive Tool Wear in Dry Drilling of Aluminum Alloys
Girot, F.; Gutiérrez-Orrantia, M. E.; Calamaz, M.; Coupard, D.
2011-01-01
One of the challenges in aeronautic drilling operations is the elimination of cutting fluids while maintaining the quality of drilled parts. This paper therefore aims to increase the tool life and process quality by working on relationships existing between drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed rate), coatings and tool geometry. In dry drilling, the phenomenon of Built-Up Layer is the predominant damage mechanism. A model fitting the axial force with the cutting parameters and the damage has been developed. The burr thickness and its dispersion decrease with the feed rate. The current diamond coatings which exhibit a strong adhesion to the carbide substrate can limit this adhesive layer phenomenon. A relatively smooth nano-structured coating strongly limits the development of this layer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cotter Finbarr E
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.
Light propagation in a Cole-Cole nonlinear medium via Burgers-Hopf equation
Konopelchenko, Boris; Moro, Antonio
2004-01-01
Recently, a new model of propagation of the light through the so-called weakly three-dimensional Cole-Cole nonlinear medium with short-range nonlocality has been proposed. In particular, it has been shown that in the geometrical optics limit, the model is integrable and it is governed by the dispersionless Veselov-Novikov (dVN) equation. Burgers-Hopf equation can be obtained as 1+1-dimensional reduction of dVN equation. We discuss its properties in the specific context of nonlinear geometrica...
A Class of Exact Solution to Burgers-mKdV Equation%Burgers-mKdV方程的一类精确解
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
夏鸿鸣
2006-01-01
直接假设Burgers-mKdV方程ul+6u2ux+μuxx+δuxxx=0的精确解的一种形式,将求解Burgers-mKdV方程的问题转化为一个代数方程组的求解,获得了Burgers-mKdV方程的一类精确解.
Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Ultimate Tensile Capacity of Adhesive Anchors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Bo; WU Zhi-min; SONG Zhi-fei
2007-01-01
To predict the tensile capacity of adhesive anchors, a multilayered feed-forward neural network trained with the backpropagation algorithm is constructed. The ANN model have 5 inputs, including the compressive strength of concrete, tensile strength of concrete, anchor diameter, hole diameter, embedment of anchors, and ultimate load. The predictions obtained from the trained ANN show a good agreement with the experiments. Meanwhile, the predicted ultinate tensile capacity of anchors is close to the one calculated from the strength formula of the combined cone-bond failure model.
Hoffman, Grant T.; Soller, Eric C.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; Duffy, Mark T.; Bloom, Jeffrey N.; Gilmour, Travis M.; Gonnerman, Krista N.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.
2004-07-01
Composite adhesives composed of biodegradable scaffolds impregnated with a biological or synthetic adhesive were investigated for use in wound closure as an alternative to using either one of the adhesives alone. Two different scaffold materials were investigated: (i) a synthetic biodegradable material fabricated from poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid); and (ii) a biological material, small intestinal sub mucosa, manufactured by Cook BioTech. The biological adhesive was composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser. The synthetic adhesive was Ethicon's Dermabond, a 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate. The tensile strength of skin incisions repaired ex vivo in a rat model, by adhesive alone or in combination with a scaffold, as well as the time-to-failure, were measured and compared. The tensile strength of repairs formed using the scaffold-enhanced biological adhesives were on average, 80% stronger than their non-enhanced counterparts, with an accompanying increase in the time-to-failure of the repairs. These results support the theory that a scaffold material with an irregular surface that bridges the wound provides a stronger, more durable and consistent adhesion, due to the distribution of the tensile stress forces over the many micro-adhesions provided by the irregular surface, rather than the one large continuous adhesive contact. This theory is also supported by several previous ex vivo experiments demonstrating enhanced tensile strength of irregular versus smooth scaffold surfaces in identical tissue repairs performed on bovine thoracic aorta, liver, spleen, small intestine and lung tissue.
On a stochastic Burgers equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ekaterina T. Kolkovska
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the one-dimensional Burgers equation perturbed by a white noise term with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a non-Lipschitz coefficient. We obtain existence of a weak solution proving tightness for a sequence of polygonal approximations for the equation and solving a martingale problem for the weak limit.
The Burgers of Calais- on Performance and Experience Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nagbøl, Søren Peter; Flensborg, Ingelise
2015-01-01
is reconciled. Based on a sculpture of AugustRodin (1840-1917) The Burgers of Calais which is on display at the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen, we will present how the educational activities as performativity can unfold and be reconciled with physically-based (gebildung) formation processes. Using various...
Space-time finite elements numerical solutions of Burgers Problems
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M. Morandi Cecchi
1996-05-01
Full Text Available A finite-element numerical method to solve a weak formulation of quasi-linear parabolic problems on space-time domain governed by Burgers equation is given. Stability and errors estimates theorems for the numerical solution are proved for smooth initial conditions and numerical examples are presented.
Velocity and velocity-difference distributions in Burgers turbulence
Boldyrev, S.; Linde, T.; Polyakov, A.
2003-01-01
We consider the one-dimensional Burgers equation randomly stirred at large scales by a Gaussian short-time correlated force. Using the method of dissipative anomalies, we obtain velocity and velocity-difference probability density functions and confirm the results with high-resolution numerical simulations.
Sensory profile of beef burger with reduced sodium content
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Camila Barbosa Carvalho
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This study determined the sensory profile of three beef burger samples, namely, CON (control, F25 (25% sodium reduction and F50 (50% sodium reduction, based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The samples´ microbial, physical and chemical composition was evaluated. Twelve panelists were selected and trained using as criteria the panelists´ discrimination power, reproducibility and consensus. Eleven terms were generated by the method of network descriptors. The intensity of each descriptor in each sample was evaluated by unstructured scale of 9 cm. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan´s mean test and principal component analysis. The sensory profile shows that low sodium beef burgers had lower fat and salty flavor when compared to untreated control and greater flavor and spice aroma. The above proves that reducing sodium intake causes increased perception burger tasters when compared to the presence of spices in the product. Treatment with 50% sodium reduction obtained the best results for texture softness and appearance. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05 in the chemical composition of ash, protein and fat in all burgers. In the case of general sensory attributes, treatments with sodium reduction obtained higher intensities of the attributes evaluated, except for meat and salt flavors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dianchen Lu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The homotopy analysis method is applied to solve the variable coefficient KdV-Burgers equation. With the aid of generalized elliptic method and Fourier’s transform method, the approximate solutions of double periodic form are obtained. These solutions may be degenerated into the approximate solutions of hyperbolic function form and the approximate solutions of trigonometric function form in the limit cases. The results indicate that this method is efficient for the nonlinear models with the dissipative terms and variable coefficients.
Rachid, Hassan
2015-12-01
In the present study,we investigate the unsteady peristaltic transport of a viscoelastic fluid with fractional Burgers' model in an inclined tube. We suppose that the viscosity is variable in the radial direction. This analysis has been carried out under low Reynolds number and long-wavelength approximations. An analytical solution to the problem is obtained using a fractional calculus approach. Figures are plotted to show the effects of angle of inclination, Reynolds number, Froude number, material constants, fractional parameters, parameter of viscosity and amplitude ratio on the pressure gradient, pressure rise, friction force, axial velocity and on the mechanical efficiency.
A class of blowup and global analytical solutions of the viscoelastic Burgers' equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
An, Hongli, E-mail: hongli.an@connect.polyu.hk [College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Cheung, Ka-Luen, E-mail: kaluen@ied.edu.hk [Department of Mathematics and Information Technology, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, 10 Po Ling Road, Tai Po, New Territories (Hong Kong); Yuen, Manwai, E-mail: nevetsyuen@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Information Technology, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, 10 Po Ling Road, Tai Po, New Territories (Hong Kong)
2013-11-08
In this Letter, by employing the perturbational method, we obtain a class of analytical self-similar solutions of the viscoelastic Burgers' equations. These solutions are of polynomial-type whose forms, remarkably, coincide with that given by Yuen for the other physical models, such as the compressible Euler or Navier–Stokes equations and two-component Camassa–Holm equations. Furthermore, we classify the initial conditions into several groups and then discuss the properties on blowup and global existence of the corresponding solutions, which may be readily seen from the phase diagram.
Sikkink, C.J.J.M.; Man, B.M. de; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Goor, H. van
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND: Prevention of adhesion and abscess formation would decrease mortality and morbidity after peritonitis. In this study the effect of a new anti-adhesive, auto-cross-linked hyaluronic acid polysaccharide (ACP) gel, on adhesion and abscess formation was studied in a rat peritonitis model. MA
Explicit and Exact Solutions to the Burgers-BBM Equation%Burgers-BBM方程新的精确解
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
洪宝剑; 卢殿臣; 赵康生
2007-01-01
借助两个推广形式的Riccati方程组和Mathematica软件,求出了Burgers-BBM方程,BBM方程,KDV-Burgers方程的大量新的精确解,包括各种形式的孤立波解和三角函数周期解.
A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals
Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.
2015-01-01
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Kursat Dabak
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Adhesion of the tendon is a major challenge for the orthopedic surgeon during tendon repair. Manipulation of biological environment is one of the concepts to prevent adhesion. Lots of biochemicals have been studied for this purpose. We aimed to determine the effect of phospholipids on adhesion and biomechanical properties of tendon in an animal tendon repair model. Seventy-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Achilles tendons of rats were cut and repaired. Phospholipids were applied at two different dosages. Tendon adhesion was determined histopathologically and biomechanical test was performed. At macroscopic evaluation of adhesion, there are statistically significant differences between multiple-dose phospholipid injection group and Control group and also hyaluronic acid group and Control group (p0.008. Ultimate strength was highest at hyaluronic acid injection group and lowest at multiple-dose phospholipid injection group. Single-dose phospholipids (surfactant application may have a beneficial effect on the tendon adhesion. Although multiple applications of phospholipids seem the most effective regime to reduce the tendon adhesion among groups, it deteriorated the biomechanical properties of tendon.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢元喜; 朱曙华
2007-01-01
基于对 KdV-Burgers方程和KdV-Burgers-Kuramoto方程特点的分析,提出了一种由Burgers方程的解和 KdV 方程的解通过线性叠加构造 KdV-Burgers 方程的解以及由 KdV 方程的解和Kuramoto-Sivashinsky 方程的解通过线性叠加构造 KdV-Burgers-Kuramoto 方程的解的方法,并用该法求得了 KdV-Burgers 方程和 KdV-Burgers-Kuramoto 方程的若干精确解.
Balagam, Rajesh; Czerwinski, Fabian; Sun, Mingzhai; Kaplan, Heidi B; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Igoshin, Oleg A
2014-01-01
Myxococcus xanthus is a model organism for studying bacterial social behaviors due to its ability to form complex multi-cellular structures. Knowledge of M. xanthus surface gliding motility and the mechanisms that coordinate it are critically important to our understanding of collective cell behaviors. Although the mechanism of gliding motility is still under investigation, recent experiments suggest that there are two possible mechanisms underlying force production for cell motility: the focal adhesion mechanism and the helical rotor mechanism which differ in the biophysics of the cell-substrate interactions. Whereas the focal adhesion model predicts an elastic coupling, the helical rotor model predicts a viscous coupling. Using a combination of computational modeling, imaging, and force microscopy, we find evidence for elastic coupling in support of the focal adhesion model. Using a biophysical model of the M. xanthus cell, we investigated how the mechanical interactions between cells are affected by intera...
... adhesions? Abdominal adhesions can cause intestinal obstruction and female infertility—the inability to become pregnant after a year of trying. Abdominal adhesions can lead to female infertility by preventing fertilized eggs from reaching the uterus, ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG Yunfeng; GUO Yinbiao
2009-01-01
The strong stiction of adjacent surfaces with meniscus is a major design concern in the devices with a micro-sized interface.Today, more and more research works are devoted to understand the adhesion mechanism. This paper concerns the elastic-plastic adhesion of a fractal rough surface contacting with a perfectly wetted rigid plane. The topography of rough surface is modeled with a two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function. The Laplace pressure is dealt with the Dugdale approximation. Then the adhesion model of the plastically deformed asperities with meniscus can be established with the fractal microcontact model. According to the plastic flow criterion, the elastic-plastic adhesion model of the contacting rough surfaces with meniscus can be solved by combining the Maugis-Dugdale (MD) model and its extension with the Morrow method. The necessity for considering the asperities' plastic deformation has been validated by comparing the simulation result of the presented model with that of the elastic adhesion model. The stiction mechanism of rough surfaces with meniscus is also discussed.
A model for cell motility on soft bio-adhesive substrates.
Sarvestani, Alireza S
2011-02-24
Mechanical stiffness of bio-adhesive substrates has been recognized as a major regulator of cell motility. We present a simple physical model to study the crawling locomotion of a contractile cell on a soft elastic substrate. The mechanism of rigidity sensing is accounted for using Schwarz's two-spring model Schwarz et al. (2006). The predicted dependency between the speed of motility and substrate stiffness is qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. The model demonstrates that the rigidity dependent motility of cells is rooted in the regulation of actomyosin contractile forces by substrate deformation at each anchorage point. On stiffer substrates, the traction forces required for cell translocation acquire larger magnitude but show weaker asymmetry which leads to slower cell motility. On very soft substrates, the model predicts a biphasic relationship between the substrate rigidity and the speed of locomotion, over a narrow stiffness range, which has been observed experimentally for some cell types. PMID:21106198
High Fat Diet Induces Adhesion of Platelets to Endothelium in Two Models of Dyslipidemia
Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Díaz, Natalia; Albornoz, María Eliana; Huilcaman, Ricardo; Morales, Erik
2014-01-01
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all global deaths. It is currently accepted that, in the atherogenic process, platelets play an important role, contributing to endothelial activation and modulation of the inflammatory phenomenon, promoting the beginning and formation of lesions and their subsequent thrombotic complications. The objective of the present work was to study using immunohistochemistry, the presence of platelets, monocytes/macrophages, and cell adhesion molecules (CD61, CD163, and CD54), in two stages of the atheromatous process. CF-1 mice fed a fat diet were used to obtain early stages of atheromatous process, denominated early stage of atherosclerosis, and ApoE−/− mice fed a fat diet were used to observe advanced stages of atherosclerosis. The CF-1 mice model presented immunostaining on endothelial surface for all three markers studied; the advanced atherosclerosis model in ApoE−/− mice also presented granular immunostaining on lesion thickness, for the same markers. These results suggest that platelets participate in atheromatous process from early stages to advance d stages. High fat diet induces adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells in vivo. These findings support studying the participation of platelets in the formation of atheromatous plate. PMID:25328689
D'Arrigo, C; Candal-Couto, J J; Greer, M; Veale, D J; Woof, J M
1995-04-01
Human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) were found to adhere to a novel model of blood vessel wall-associated IgG. The internal surfaces of cellulose acetate hollow fibres, of comparable internal diameter to small blood vessels, were coated with normal serum human IgG, heat-aggregated IgG (HAIgG), laminin or fibrinogen. Under conditions of flow mimicking those in a small vessel, PMN were found to adhere markedly only to immunoglobulin-coated fibres. Arrest on HAIgG was inhibited by excess soluble IgG but not by bovine serum albumin (BSA), demonstrating that the adhesion was IgG-specific and presumably mediated by Fc gamma R on the PMN surface. Pre-adsorption of serum components onto HAIgG-coated fibres enhanced PMN arrest, due most probably to fixation of complement components by immobilized HAIgG, resulting in additional potential to entrap PMN via complement receptors such as CR3. Treatment of PMN with the regulatory neuropeptide substance P also enhanced adhesion to HAIgG-coated fibres and caused increased surface expression of Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII. A mouse cell line derived from L cells, hR4C6, stably transfected with human Fc gamma RII, was found to adhere under flow to HAIgG-coated fibres, whilst untransfected parent L cells did not. This adhesion was similarly inhibited by excess soluble IgG, confirming the capability of Fc gamma R to mediate cell arrest. The study strongly suggests that Fc gamma R may play an important role in intravascular PMN arrest and we speculate that in inflammatory diseases PMN may adhere via Fc gamma R to immobilized immunoglobulin on the vascular endothelium, with subsequent degranulation and tissue damage. PMID:7535210
Choquard, Philippe
2013-01-01
The coupling between dilatation and vorticity, two coexisting and fundamental processes in fluid dynamics is investigated here, in the simplest cases of inviscid 2D isotropic Burgers and pressureless Euler-Coriolis fluids respectively modeled by single vortices confined in compressible, local, inertial and global, rotating, environments. The field equations are established, inductively, starting from the equations of the characteristics solved with an initial Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity fields namely a vorticity free and a divergence free part and, deductively, by means of a canonical Hamiltonian Clebsch like formalism, implying two pairs of conjugate variables. Two vector valued fields are constants of the motion: the velocity field in the Burgers case and the momentum field per unit mass in the Euler-Coriolis one. Taking advantage of this property, a class of solutions for the mass densities of the fluids is given by the Jacobian of their sum with respect to the actual coordinates. Implementatio...
Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S W
2016-01-01
Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite. PMID:27508942
Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S. W.
2016-01-01
Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch’s postulates for this parasite. PMID:27508942
Classical and Quantum Burgers Fluids: A Challenge for Group Analysis
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Philip Broadbridge
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The most general second order irrotational vector field evolution equation is constructed, that can be transformed to a single equation for the Cole–Hopf potential. The exact solution to the radial Burgers equation, with constant mass influx through a spherical supply surface, is constructed. The complex linear Schrödinger equation is equivalent to an integrable system of two coupled real vector equations of Burgers type. The first velocity field is the particle current divided by particle probability density. The second vector field gives a complex valued correction to the velocity that results in the correct quantum mechanical correction to the kinetic energy density of the Madelung fluid. It is proposed how to use symmetry analysis to systematically search for other constrained potential systems that generate a closed system of vector component evolution equations with constraints other than irrotationality.
Intermittency in fractal Fourier hydrodynamics: Lessons from the Burgers equation.
Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Frisch, Uriel; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar
2016-03-01
We present theoretical and numerical results for the one-dimensional stochastically forced Burgers equation decimated on a fractal Fourier set of dimension D. We investigate the robustness of the energy transfer mechanism and of the small-scale statistical fluctuations by changing D. We find that a very small percentage of mode-reduction (D ≲ 1) is enough to destroy most of the characteristics of the original nondecimated equation. In particular, we observe a suppression of intermittent fluctuations for D < 1 and a quasisingular transition from the fully intermittent (D=1) to the nonintermittent case for D ≲ 1. Our results indicate that the existence of strong localized structures (shocks) in the one-dimensional Burgers equation is the result of highly entangled correlations amongst all Fourier modes. PMID:27078449
Intermittency in Fractal Fourier Hydrodynamics: Lessons from the Burgers Equation
Buzzicotti, Michele; Frisch, Uriel; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar
2016-01-01
We present theoretical and numerical results for the one-dimensional stochastically forced Burgers equation decimated on a fractal Fourier set of dimension $D$. We investigate the robustness of the energy transfer mechanism and of the small-scale statistical fluctuations by changing $D$. We find that a very small percentage of mode-reduction ($D \\lesssim 1$) is enough to destroy most of the characteristics of the original non-decimated equation. In particular, we observe a suppression of intermittent fluctuations for $D <1$ and a quasi-singular transition from the fully intermittent ($D=1$) to the non-intermittent case for $D \\lesssim 1$. Our results indicate that the existence of strong localized structures (shocks) in the one-dimensional Burgers equation is the result of highly entangled correlations amongst all Fourier modes.
Phase and precession evolution in the Burgers equation
Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Bustamante, Miguel D
2015-01-01
We present a phenomenological study of the phase dynamics of the one-dimensional stochastically forced Burgers equation. We propose a way to link coherent structures in real space with the evolution of triads in Fourier space. The method is based on the idea that the real space structures can be associated with entangled correlations amongst the phase precession frequencies and the amplitude evolution of triads in Fourier space. As a result, triad precession frequencies show a non-Gaussian distribution with multiple peaks and fat tails, and there is a significant correlation between triad precession frequencies and amplitude growth. Links with dynamical systems approach are briefly discussed, such as the role of unstable critical points in state space. This analysis has been further developed for Burgers equation evolved on a fractal Fourier set. In this latter case, we observe a depletion of intermittency as a function of the fractal dimension $D$, and the simultaneous reduction of the correlation between th...
Rashidi, M. M.; Erfani, E.
2009-09-01
In this study, we present a numerical comparison between the differential transform method (DTM) and the homotopy analysis method (HAM) for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer problems. The first differential equation is the Burgers' equation serves as a useful model for many interesting problems in applied mathematics. The second one is the modeling equation of a straight fin with a temperature dependent thermal conductivity. In order to show the effectiveness of the DTM, the results obtained from the DTM is compared with available solutions obtained using the HAM [M.M. Rashidi, G. Domairry, S. Dinarvand, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 708-717; G. Domairry, M. Fazeli, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 489-499] and whit exact solutions. The method can easily be applied to many linear and nonlinear problems. It illustrates the validity and the great potential of the differential transform method in solving nonlinear partial differential equations. The obtained results reveal that the technique introduced here is very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear partial differential equations and nonlinear ordinary differential equations that we are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.
Power Series Solution for Solving Nonlinear Burgers-Type Equations
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E. López-Sandoval
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Power series solution method has been traditionally used to solve ordinary and partial linear differential equations. However, despite their usefulness the application of this method has been limited to this particular kind of equations. In this work we use the method of power series to solve nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is applied to solve three versions of nonlinear time-dependent Burgers-type differential equations in order to demonstrate its scope and applicability.
A weak Galerkin finite element method for Burgers' equation
Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Tie
2016-01-01
We propose a weak Galerkin(WG) finite element method for solving the one-dimensional Burgers' equation. Based on a new weak variational form, both semi-discrete and fully-discrete WG finite element schemes are established and analyzed. We prove the existence of the discrete solution and derive the optimal order error estimates in the discrete $H^1$-norm and $L^2$-norm, respectively. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate our theoretical analysis.
Exact solutions of (3 + 1)-dimensional stochastic Burgers equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Tieying [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Dalian Nationalities for University, Dalian 116600 (China)]. E-mail: wangty@dlnu.edu.cn; Ren Yonghong [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Yali [Department of Mathematics, Chaoyang Teachers College, Chaoyang 122000 (China)
2006-08-15
A generalized tan h function method is used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear stochastic partial differential equations. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation, which has more exact solutions. More Wick-type stochastic multiple soliton-like solutions and triangular periodic solutions are obtained for the (3 + 1)-dimensional Wick-type stochastic Burgers equation via Hermite transformation.
Conservation laws of inviscid Burgers equation with nonlinear damping
Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim
2014-06-01
In this paper, the new conservation theorem presented in Ibragimov (2007) [14] is used to find conservation laws of the inviscid Burgers equation with nonlinear damping ut+g(u)ux+λh(u)=0. We show that this equation is both quasi self-adjoint and self-adjoint, and use these concepts to simplify conserved quantities for various choices of g(u) and h(u).
Cohesive zone modelling of interface fracture near flaws in adhesive joints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peter Feraren; Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2004-01-01
of crack propagation on the location and shape of the crack front and on the initial joint strength. Subsequently, the cohesive zone model is used to model interface fracture through a planar adhesive layer containing a periodic array of elliptical flaws. The effects of flaw shape are investigated......, as well as the significance of fracture process parameters. The results from simulations of fracture in a bond containing circular flaws show that localization of crack propagation in the vicinity of a flaw has significant effect on the joint strength and crack front shape. The localization effects...... are highly dependent on the fracture process zone width relative to the flaw dimensions. It is also seen that with increasing fracture process zone width, the strength variation with the flaw shape decreases, however, the strength is effected over a wider range of propagation, (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Xiaoyan; WANG Guixue; YANG Yang
2003-01-01
A sudden tubular expansion with a semi- permeable wall was constructed from a tubular dialysis membrane to investigate the effects of filtration flow and flow disturbance on particle deposition. The expansion was perfused with a dilute, neutrally buoyant suspension of 1.10 ?m diameter polystyrene latex spheres (as models of platelets) in Tris buffer solution containing 10% Dextran T70 and 2% bovine serum albumin. The results showed that adhesion of particles correlated positively with the filtration rate and inversely with the wall shear rate. In the vortex flow region distal to the expansion, particle adhesion was significantly elevated with a maximum at the reattachment point where the wall shear rate was the lowest and particles were constantly carried toward the vessel wall along the curved streamlines. In conclusion, filtration flow has a profound impact on the interaction of blood cells such as platelets with blood vessel walls, and the disturbed flow with a low wall shear rate can enhance the deposits of platelet thrombi to the vessel wall.
Nanobioprobe for the Determination of Pork Adulteration in Burger Formulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the development of a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe through a covalent integration of a fluorophore-labeled 27-nucleotide AluI-fragment of swine cytochrome b gene to a 3 nm gold nanoparticle for the determination of pork adulteration in processed meat products. We tested the probe to estimate adulterated pork in ready-to-eat pork-spiked beef burgers. The probe quantitatively detected 1-100% spiked pork in burger formulations with ≥90% accuracy. A plot of observed fluorescence against the known concentration of AluI-digested pork DNA targets generated a concave curve, demonstrating a power relationship (y=2.956x0.509) with a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.986. No cross-species detection was found in a standard set of pork, beef, chicken, mutton, and chevon burgers. The method is suitable for the determination of very short-length nucleic acid targets which cannot be estimated by conventional and real-time PCR but are essential for the determination of micro RNA in bio diagnostics and degraded DNA in forensic testing and food analysis.
Nanobioprobe for the Determination of Pork Adulteration in Burger Formulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Ali
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We report the development of a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe through a covalent integration of a fluorophore-labeled 27-nucleotide AluI-fragment of swine cytochrome b gene to a 3 nm gold nanoparticle for the determination of pork adulteration in processed meat products. We tested the probe to estimate adulterated pork in ready-to-eat pork-spiked beef burgers. The probe quantitatively detected 1–100% spiked pork in burger formulations with ≥90% accuracy. A plot of observed fluorescence against the known concentration of AluI-digested pork DNA targets generated a concave curve, demonstrating a power relationship (y=2.956x0.509 with a regression coefficient (R2 of 0.986. No cross-species detection was found in a standard set of pork, beef, chicken, mutton, and chevon burgers. The method is suitable for the determination of very short-length nucleic acid targets which cannot be estimated by conventional and real-time PCR but are essential for the determination of microRNA in biodiagnostics and degraded DNA in forensic testing and food analysis.
Asymptotics for the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Nakao HAYASHI; Pavel I. NAUMKIN
2006-01-01
We study large time asymptotics of solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation ut + uux - uxx + uxxx = 0, x ∈ R, t ＞ 0.We are interested in the large time asymptotics for the case when the initial data have an arbitrary size. We prove that ifthe initial data u0 ∈ Hs (R) ∩L1 (R), where s ＞ -1/2,then there exists a uniquesolution u (t,x) ∈ C∞ ((0, ∞);H∞ (R)) to the Cauchy problem for the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation, which has asymptotics u (t) = t-1/2fM((·)t-1/2) + o(t-1/2) as t →∞, where fM is the self-similar solution for the Burgers equation. Moreover if xu0 (x) ∈ L1 (R),then the asymptotics are true u (t) = t-1/2fM((·)t-1/2) + O(t-1/2-γ),where γ∈ (0,1/2).
The generalized Burgers equation with and without a time delay
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Nejib Smaoui
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the generalized Burgers equation with and without a time delay when the boundary conditions are periodic with period 2π. For the generalized Burgers equation without a time delay, that is, ut=vuxx−uux+u+h(x, 0
An Explicit B(a)cklund Transformation of Burgers Equation with Applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L(U) Zhuo-Sheng
2005-01-01
In this paper, an explicit B(a)cklund transformation (BT) of the Burgers equation is obtained by using the further extended tanh method [Phys. Lett. A 307 (2003) 269; Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 17 (2003) 669]. Based on the BT and some newly obtained seed solutions, infinite sequences of exact solutions for the Burgers equation are generated.Further more, this BT of the Burgers equation is applied to solve the variant Boussinesq equations and the approximate equations of long water wave.
İnan B.; Bahadir A. R.
2015-01-01
In this paper, numerical solutions of the generalized Burgers-Huxley equation are obtained using a new technique of forming improved exponential finite difference method. The technique is called implicit exponential finite difference method for the solution of the equation. Firstly, the implicit exponential finite difference method is applied to the generalized Burgers-Huxley equation. Since the generalized Burgers-Huxley equation is nonlinear the scheme leads to a system of nonlinear equatio...
Burgers equation with no-flux boundary conditions and its application for complete fluid separation
Watanabe, Shinya; Matsumoto, Sohei; Higurashi, Tomohiro; Ono, Naoki
2016-09-01
Burgers equation in a one-dimensional bounded domain with no-flux boundary conditions at both ends is proven to be exactly solvable. Cole-Hopf transformation converts not only the governing equation to the heat equation with an extra damping but also the nonlinear mixed boundary conditions to Dirichlet boundary conditions. The average of the solution v bar is conserved. Consequently, from an arbitrary initial condition, solutions converge to the equilibrium solution which is unique for the given v bar. The problem arises naturally as a continuum limit of a network of certain micro-devices. Each micro-device imperfectly separates a target fluid component from a mixture of more than one component, and its input-output concentration relationships are modeled by a pair of quadratic maps. The solvability of the initial boundary value problem is used to demonstrate that such a network acts as an ideal macro-separator, separating out the target component almost completely. Another network is also proposed which leads to a modified Burgers equation with a nonlinear diffusion coefficient.
Bijleveld, H.; Livestock Research,
2004-01-01
De Wageningse projectgroep "Houden van Hennen" heeft twee ontwerpen gemaakt voor houderijsystemen, het Rondeel en de Plantage, voor leghennen waarin de wensen van kippen, pluimveehouders en burgers samenkomen
Oner, Gokalp; Ulug, Pasa
2015-01-01
Introduction Evaluation of treatment attempts in postoperative adhesion formation is pivotal for the prevention of several morbidities including infertility, pelvic pain, bowel obstruction, and subsequent intraoperative complications. The purpose of this systemic review was to assess the literature on the rat uterine horn model for adhesion formation and treatment modalities to prevent adhesion in the most frequently used experimental animal model. Material and methods We performed a systemic...
McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; Duffy, Mark T.; Bloom, Jeffrey N.; Soller, Eric C.; Gilmour, Travis M.; Hoffman, Grant T.; Edward, Deepak
2004-07-01
Our Scaffold-Enhanced Biological Adhesive (SEBA) system was investigated as an alternative to sutures or adhesives alone for repair of wounds. Two scaffold materials were investigated: (i) a synthetic biodegradable material fabricated from poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid); and (ii) a biologic material, small intestinal submucosa, manufactured by Cook BioTech. Two adhesive materials were also investigated: (i) a biologic adhesive composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser; and (ii) Ethicon"s Dermabond, a 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate. The tensile strength and time-to-failure of skin incisions repaired in vivo in a rat model were measured at seven days postoperative. Incisions closed by protein solder alone, by Dermabond alone, or by suture, were also tested for comparison. The tensile strength of repairs formed using the SEBA system were 50% to 65% stronger than repairs formed by suture or either adhesive alone, with significantly less variations within each experimental group (average standard deviations of 15% for SEBA versus 38% for suture and 28% for adhesive alone). In addition, the time-to-failure curves showed a longevity not previously seen with the suture or adhesive alone techniques. The SEBA system acts to keep the dermis in tight apposition during the critical early phase of wound healing when tissue gaps are bridged by scar and granulation tissue. It has the property of being more flexible than either of the adhesives alone and may allow the apposed edges to move in conjunction with each other as a unit for a longer period of time and over a greater range of stresses than adhesives alone. This permits more rapid healing and establishment of integrity since the microgaps between the dermis edges are significantly reduced. By the time the scaffolds are sloughed from the wound site, there is greater strength and healing than that produced by adhesive alone or
Qinjie Wu; Ning Wang; Tao He; Jinfeng Shang; Ling Li; Linjiang Song; Xi Yang; Xia Li; Na Luo; Wenli Zhang; Changyang Gong
2015-01-01
Tissue adhesion is a common complication after surgery. In this work, a dexamethasone loaded polymeric micelles in thermosensitive hydrogel composite (Dex hydrogel) was prepared, which combined the anti-adhesion barrier with controlled release of anti-adhesion drug. Dexamethasone (Dex) was encapsulated in polymeric micelles (Dex micelles), and then the Dex micelles were loaded into biodegradable and thermosensitive hydrogel. The obtained Dex hydrogel showed a temperature-dependent sol-gel-sol...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Jiang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is an experimental study and numerical analysis on mechanical behavior of the adhesively-bonded joint between FRP sandwich bridge deck and steel girder. Generally, there are three typical stress states in the adhesively-bonded joint: shear stress, tensile stress, and combination of both. To realize these stress states in the adhesively-bonded joint during tests, a specific loading device is developed with the capacity of providing six different loading angles, which are 0°(pure tension, 18°, 36°, 54°, 72° and 90°(pure shear. Failure modes of adhesively-bonded joints are investigated. It indicates that, for the pure shear loading, the failure mode is the cohesive failure (near the interface between the adhesive layer and the steel support in the adhesive layer. For the pure tensile and combined loading conditions, the failure mode is the combination of fiber breaking, FRP delamination and interfacial adhesion failure between the FRP sandwich deck and the adhesive layer. The load-bearing capacities of adhesive joints under combined loading are much lower than those of the pure tensile and pure shear loading conditions. According to the test results of six angle loading conditions, a tensile/shear failure criterion of the adhesively-bonded joint is obtained. By using Finite Element (FE modeling method, linear elastic simulations are performed to characterize the stress distribution throughout the adhesively-bonded joint.
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Rui Zhen Tan
Full Text Available Robust tissue patterning is crucial to many processes during development. The "French Flag" model of patterning, whereby naïve cells in a gradient of diffusible morphogen signal adopt different fates due to exposure to different amounts of morphogen concentration, has been the most widely proposed model for tissue patterning. However, recently, using time-lapse experiments, cell sorting has been found to be an alternative model for tissue patterning in the zebrafish neural tube. But it remains unclear what the sorting mechanism is. In this article, we used computational modeling to show that two mechanisms, chemotaxis and differential adhesion, are needed for robust cell sorting. We assessed the performance of each of the two mechanisms by quantifying the fraction of correct sorting, the fraction of stable clusters formed after correct sorting, the time needed to achieve correct sorting, and the size variations of the cells having different fates. We found that chemotaxis and differential adhesion confer different advantages to the sorting process. Chemotaxis leads to high fraction of correct sorting as individual cells will either migrate towards or away from the source depending on its cell type. However after the cells have sorted correctly, there is no interaction among cells of the same type to stabilize the sorted boundaries, leading to cell clusters that are unstable. On the other hand, differential adhesion results in low fraction of correct clusters that are more stable. In the absence of morphogen gradient noise, a combination of both chemotaxis and differential adhesion yields cell sorting that is both accurate and robust. However, in the presence of gradient noise, the simple combination of chemotaxis and differential adhesion is insufficient for cell sorting; instead, chemotaxis coupled with delayed differential adhesion is required to yield optimal sorting.
Diffusive approximation of a time-fractional Burgers equation in nonlinear acoustics
Lombard, Bruno
2016-01-01
A fractional time derivative is introduced into the Burgers equation to model losses of nonlinear waves. This term amounts to a time convolution product, which greatly penalizes the numerical modeling. A diffusive representation of the fractional derivative is adopted here, replacing this nonlocal operator by a continuum of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time ordinary differential equations. Then a quadrature formula yields a system of local partial differential equations, well-suited to numerical integration. The determination of the quadrature coefficients is crucial to ensure both the well-posedness of the system and the computational efficiency of the diffusive approximation. For this purpose, optimization with constraint is shown to be a very efficient strategy. Strang splitting is used to solve successively the hyperbolic part by a shock-capturing scheme, and the diffusive part exactly. Numerical experiments are proposed to assess the efficiency of the numerical modeling, and to illustrate the e...
Ellery, Adam J.; Baker, Ruth E.; Simpson, Matthew J.
2016-10-01
Migration of cells and molecules in vivo is affected by interactions with obstacles. These interactions can include crowding effects, as well as adhesion/repulsion between the motile cell/molecule and the obstacles. Here we present an analytical framework that can be used to separately quantify the roles of crowding and adhesion/repulsion using a lattice-based random walk model. Our method leads to an exact calculation of the long time Fickian diffusivity, and avoids the need for computationally expensive stochastic simulations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
夏铁成; 张鸿庆; 李佩春
2003-01-01
In this paper, many new explicit and exact travelling wave solutions for Burgers-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piscounov(Burgers-KPP) equations are obtained by using hyperbola function method andWu-elimination method, which include new singular solitary wave solutions and periodic solutions. Par-ticular important cases of the equation, such as the generalized Burgers-Fisher equation, Burgers-Chaffee-infante equation and KPP equation, the corresponding solutions can be obtained also. Themethod can also solve other nonlinear partial differential equations.
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Yaoyao Linghu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The work of adhesion and the interface energy of NiAl/V coherent interface systems have been investigated using first-principles methods. The adhesion of the Ni-terminated interface is larger than the Al-terminated interface. The difference in charge density and the density of states show that the Ni-terminated interface is dominated by metallic bonds, and the Al-terminated interface is dominated by metallic and covalent bonds. To account for the effects of misfit dislocations on the semicoherent interfaces, the Peierls–Nabarro model combined with generalized stacking fault energy is employed to determine the interface energy. It is found that misfit dislocations can reduce the adhesion of the interface, and the reduction increases with the maximum of the restoring force.
Three-dimensional multi-scale model of deformable platelets adhesion to vessel wall in blood flow.
Wu, Ziheng; Xu, Zhiliang; Kim, Oleg; Alber, Mark
2014-08-01
When a blood vessel ruptures or gets inflamed, the human body responds by rapidly forming a clot to restrict the loss of blood. Platelets aggregation at the injury site of the blood vessel occurring via platelet-platelet adhesion, tethering and rolling on the injured endothelium is a critical initial step in blood clot formation. A novel three-dimensional multi-scale model is introduced and used in this paper to simulate receptor-mediated adhesion of deformable platelets at the site of vascular injury under different shear rates of blood flow. The novelty of the model is based on a new approach of coupling submodels at three biological scales crucial for the early clot formation: novel hybrid cell membrane submodel to represent physiological elastic properties of a platelet, stochastic receptor-ligand binding submodel to describe cell adhesion kinetics and lattice Boltzmann submodel for simulating blood flow. The model implementation on the GPU cluster significantly improved simulation performance. Predictive model simulations revealed that platelet deformation, interactions between platelets in the vicinity of the vessel wall as well as the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors played significant roles in platelet adhesion to the injury site. Variation of the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors as well as changes of platelet stiffness can represent effects of specific drugs reducing or enhancing platelet activity. Therefore, predictive simulations can improve the search for new drug targets and help to make treatment of thrombosis patient-specific. PMID:24982253
Caron, L.; Metivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Fleitout, L.; Rouby, H.
2015-12-01
Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models most often assume a mantle with a viscoelastic Maxwell rheology and a given ice history model. Here we use a Bayesian Monte Carlo with Markov Chains formalism to invert the global GIA signal simultaneously for the mechanical properties of the mantle and for the volume of the various ice-sheets using as starting ice models two distinct previously published ice histories. Burgers as well as Maxwell rheologies are considered.The fitted data consist of 5720 paleo sea level records from the last 35kyrs, with a world-wide distribution. Our ambition is to present not only the best fitting model, but also the range of possible solutions (within the explored space of parameters) with their respective probability of explaining the data, and thus reveal the trade-off effects and range of uncertainty affecting the parameters. Our a posteriori probality maps exhibit in all cases two distinct peaks: both are characterized by an upper mantle viscosity around 5.1020Pa.s but one of the peaks features a lower mantle viscosity around 3.1021Pa.s while the other indicates lower mantle viscosity of more than 1.1022Pa.s. The global maximum depends upon the starting ice history and the chosen rheology: the first peak (P1) has the highest probability only in the case with a Maxwell rheology and ice history based on ICE-5G, while the second peak (P2) is favored when using ANU-based ice history or Burgers rheology, and is our preferred solution as it is also consistent with long-term geodynamics and gravity gradients anomalies over Laurentide. P2 is associated with larger volumes for the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice-sheets and as a consequence of total ice volume balance, smaller volumes for the Antactic ice-sheet. This last point interfers with the estimate of present-day ice-melting in Antarctica from GRACE data. Finally, we find that P2 with Burgers rheology favors the existence of a tectosphere, i.e. a viscous sublithospheric layer.
Adhesion of DOPA-Functionalized Model Membranes to Hard and Soft Surfaces.
Guvendiren, Murat; Brass, David A; Messersmith, Phillip B; Shull, Kenneth R
2009-01-01
The adhesive proteins secreted by marine mussels form a natural glue that cures rapidly to form strong and durable bonds in aqueous environments. These mussel adhesive proteins contain an unusual amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA), which is largely responsible for their cohesive and adhesive strengths. In this study, we incorporated DOPA into diblock and triblock polymers and developed a membrane contact experiment to assess the adhesive interactions of these materials with TiO(2) and tissue surfaces. In a typical experiment a micrometer-thick DOPA-functionalized elastomeric membrane is attached to the end of a cylindrical glass tube. Application of a positive pressure to the tube brings the membrane into contact with the surface of interest. The negative pressure needed to separate the membrane from the substrate is a measure of the strength of the adhesive interaction. The test confirms previous results obtained with TiO(2) substrates. Because the membrane geometry is well suited for rough or chemically heterogeneous surfaces, it is ideal for studies of tissue adhesion. DOPA was found to give strong adhesion to tissue surfaces, with the strongest adhesion obtained when the DOPA groups were oxidized while in contact with the tissue surface. PMID:21461121
Dry adhesives with sensing features
Krahn, J.; Menon, C.
2013-08-01
Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Peritoneal Adhesion Prevention Devices in a Rat Model
Poehnert, D; Grethe, L; Maegel, L; Jonigk, D; Lippmann, T; Kaltenborn, A; Schrem, H; Klempnauer, J; Winny, M
2016-01-01
Background: Abdominal operations are followed by adhesions, a prevalent cause of abdominal pain, and the most frequent cause for bowel obstruction and secondary female infertility. This rat study addresses adhesion prevention capability of Adept®, Interceed®, Seprafilm®, and a novel device, 4DryField® PH which is provided as powder and generates its effect as gel. Methods: Sixty-eight male Lewis rats had cecal abrasion and creation of an equally sized abdominal wall defect, and were grouped randomly: A control group without treatment (n=10); two groups treated with 4DryField® PH using premixed gel (n=15) or in-situ gel technique (n=16); one group each was treated with Seprafilm® (n=8), Interceed® (n=9), or Adept® (n=10). Sacrifice was on day 7 to evaluate incidence, quality, and quantity of adhesions, as expressed via adhesion reduction rate (AR). Histologic specimens were evaluated. Statistical analyses used ANOVA and unpaired t-tests. Results: 4DryField® PH significantly reduced incidence and severity of adhesions both as premixed gel (AR: 85.2%) and as in-situ made gel (AR: 100%), a comparison between these two application techniques showed no differences in efficacy. Seprafilm® did not reduce incidence but severity of adhesions significantly (AR: 53.5%). With Interceed® (AR: 3.7%) and Adept® (AR: 16.1%) no significant adhesion-reduction was achieved. Except for inflammatory response with Interceed®, histopathology showed good tissue compatibility of all other devices. Conclusion: 4DryField® PH and Seprafilm® showed significant adhesion prevention capabilities. 4DryField® PH achieved the highest adhesion prevention effectiveness without restrictions concerning mode of application and compatibility and, thus, is a promising strategy to prevent abdominal adhesions. PMID:27429589
BUSINESS PROCESS MODELING AND PRODUCTION CONTROL SYSTEM SPECIFICATION IN THE SELF-ADHESIVE INDUSTRY
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Marcos Ricardo Rosa Georges
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This article presents the development of an information system for production control in an industry of self-adhesive products. The option to develop their own information system is due to the high specificity of their production system and unsuccessful attempt to adopt ERP systems available. The development of the intended information system was based on the modeling of all businesses processes throughout production, recognizing all data, processes and people involved, and especially the flow of information and decisions made during production. This body of information raised through the modeling of businesses processes enabled the specification of the structure of the data contained in every notation form from the shop floor, as well as the definition of access screens for all reports, and data manipulations required for production. By using a database, spreadsheets and some microcomputers interconnected in a network, a production control system was implemented on the shop-floor six months after the beginning of the system development. Details of the businesses processes modeled, of the data structure and of all flows are presented in this article. Comments on the results complete this study.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel
2003-01-01
We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel
2004-01-01
We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....
Discrete Symmetries Analysis and Exact Solutions of the Inviscid Burgers Equation
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Hongwei Yang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the Lie point symmetries and discrete symmetries of the inviscid Burgers equation. By employing the Lie group method of infinitesimal transformations, symmetry reductions and similarity solutions of the governing equation are given. Based on discrete symmetries analysis, two groups of discrete symmetries are obtained, which lead to new exact solutions of the inviscid Burgers equation.
Global solutions for 2D coupled Burgers-complex-Ginzburg-Landau equations
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Hongjun Gao
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study the periodic initial-value problem of the 2D coupled Burgers-complex-Ginzburg-Landau (Burgers-CGL equations. Applying the Brezis-Gallout inequality which is available in 2D case and establishing some prior estimates, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of a global solution under certain conditions.
Burger King in Portugal : to lead or to follow?
Patrone, Sara Saraiva
2012-01-01
In 2001, the Burger King (BK) brand, managed by Ibersol group entered the growing fast food Portuguese market. Marginally higher prices along with the fact of having entered the market 10 years after its most direct competitor (McDonald´s), led BK to a sub leader position. Although being recognized as offering superior quality products when compared to McDonald´s, BK´s growth margins in the Portuguese market have been decreasing since 2007. The company´s uncertainty situation, offers the p...
Operator splitting for partial differential equations with Burgers nonlinearity
Holden, Helge; Risebro, Nils Henrik
2011-01-01
We provide a new analytical approach to operator splitting for equations of the type $u_t=Au+u u_x$ where $A$ is a linear differential operator such that the equation is well-posed. Particular examples include the viscous Burgers' equation, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the Benney-Lin equation, and the Kawahara equation. We show that the Strang splitting method converges with the expected rate if the initial data are sufficiently regular. In particular, for the KdV equation we obtain second-order convergence in $H^r$ for initial data in $H^{r+5}$ with arbitrary $r\\ge 1$.
Helical flows of fractionalized Burgers' fluids
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Muhammad Jamil
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The unsteady flows of Burgers’ fluid with fractional derivatives model, through a circular cylinder, is studied by means of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. The motion is produced by the cylinder that at the initial moment begins to rotate around its axis with an angular velocity Ωt, and to slide along the same axis with linear velocity Ut. The solutions that have been obtained, presented in series form in terms of the generalized Ga,b,c(•, t functions, satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions. Moreover, the corresponding solutions for fractionalized Oldroyd-B, Maxwell and second grade fluids appear as special cases of the present results. Furthermore, the solutions for ordinary Burgers’, Oldroyd-B, Maxwell, second grade and Newtonian performing the same motion, are also obtained as special cases of general solutions by substituting fractional parameters α = β = 1. Finally, the influence of the pertinent parameters on the fluid motion, as well as a comparison among models, is shown by graphical illustrations.
Modeling and design optimization of adhesion between surfaces at the microscale.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sylves, Kevin T. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)
2008-08-01
This research applies design optimization techniques to structures in adhesive contact where the dominant adhesive mechanism is the van der Waals force. Interface finite elements are developed for domains discretized by beam elements, quadrilateral elements or triangular shell elements. Example analysis problems comparing finite element results to analytical solutions are presented. These examples are then optimized, where the objective is matching a force-displacement relationship and the optimization variables are the interface element energy of adhesion or the width of beam elements in the structure. Several parameter studies are conducted and discussed.
Effect of hyaluronic acid on postoperative intraperitoneal adhesion formation in the rat model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urman, B.; Gomel, V.; Jetha, N. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))
1991-09-01
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid solution in preventing intraperitoneal (IP) adhesions. The study design was prospective, randomized and blinded and involved 83 rats. Measured serosal injury was inflicted using a CO2 laser on the right uterine horn of the rat. Animals randomized to groups 1 and 2 received either 0.4% hyaluronic acid or its diluent phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally before and after the injury. In groups 3 and 4, the same solutions were used only after the injury. Postoperative adhesions were assessed at second-look laparotomy. Histologic assessment of the fresh laser injury was carried out on uteri pretreated with hyaluronic acid, PBS, or nothing. Pretreatment with hyaluronic acid was associated with a significant reduction in postoperative adhesions and a significantly decreased crater depth. Hyaluronic acid appears to reduce postoperative IP adhesion formation by coating the serosal surfaces and decreasing the extent of initial tissue injury.
Burgers-like equation for spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry in QCD
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Warchoł, Piotr
2013-01-01
We link the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in Euclidean QCD to the collision of spectral shock waves in the vicinity of zero eigenvalue of Dirac operator. The mechanism, originating from complex Burger's-like equation for viscid, pressureless, one-dimensional flow of eigenvalues, is similar to recently observed weak-strong coupling phase transition in large $N_c$ Yang-Mills theory. The spectral viscosity is proportional to the inverse of the size of the random matrix that replaces the Dirac operator in the universal (ergodic) regime. We obtain the exact scaling function and critical exponents of the chiral phase transition for the averaged characteristic polynomial for $N_c \\ge3$ QCD. We reinterpret our results in terms of known properties of chiral random matrix models and lattice data.
Burgers-like equation for spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We link the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in Euclidean QCD to the collision of spectral shock waves in the vicinity of zero eigenvalue of the Dirac operator. The mechanism, originating from complex Burger's-like equation for viscid, pressureless, one-dimensional flows of eigenvalues, is similar to the recently observed weak-strong coupling phase transition in large Nc Yang–Mills theory. The spectral viscosity is proportional to the inverse size of the random matrix that replaces the Dirac operator in the universal (ergodic) regime. We obtain the exact scaling function and critical exponents of the chiral phase transition for the averaged characteristic polynomial for Nc⩾3 QCD. We reinterpret our results in terms of known properties of chiral random matrix models and lattice data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A generalized derivation of the equations governing surface carrier diffusion in the surface region of an insulator is presented, based on the Mott-Gurney model of ionic diffusion as first proposed in Liesegang et al (1995 J. Appl. Phys. 77 5782; 1996 J. Appl. Phys. 80 6336). The resulting non-linear equations are decoupled for the case of one-dimensional diffusion and we show that the decay of the electric field is described by the inviscid Burgers equation. Imposing initial and boundary conditions reflecting the experimental configuration for a Cartesian system as discussed in Liesegang et al, a general solution for the carrier density in the surface of an insulating sample is derived for the case of one-dimensional charge motion
Maximum Rate of Growth of Enstrophy in Solutions of the Fractional Burgers Equation
Yun, Dongfang
2016-01-01
This investigation is a part of a research program aiming to characterize the extreme behavior possible in hydrodynamic models by probing the sharpness of estimates on the growth of certain fundamental quantities. We consider here the rate of growth of the classical and fractional enstrophy in the fractional Burgers equation in the subcritical, critical and supercritical regime. First, we obtain estimates on these rates of growth and then show that these estimates are sharp up to numerical prefactors. In particular, we conclude that the power-law dependence of the enstrophy rate of growth on the fractional dissipation exponent has the same global form in the subcritical, critical and parts of the supercritical regime. This is done by numerically solving suitably defined constrained maximization problems and then demonstrating that for different values of the fractional dissipation exponent the obtained maximizers saturate the upper bounds in the estimates as the enstrophy increases. In addition, nontrivial be...
MHD flow of Burger's fluid over an off-centered rotating disk in a porous medium
Khan, Najeeb Alam; Khan, Sidra; Ullah, Saif
2015-08-01
In this study, off-centered stagnation flow of three dimensional Burger's fluid over an infinite rotating disk in a porous medium with a uniform magnetic field, which is applying normal to the disk, is investigated. A uniform suction/injection is applied through the surface of the porous disk. The structure has been modeled in the form of ordinary differential equations, which are reduced from partial differential equations by using the similarity transformation. Analytical solution is obtained by non-perturbation technique of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The influence of non-dimensional parameters on velocity profile is presented in graphical form and the numerical comparison is made with the viscous fluid as a special case.
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Urman, B.; Gomel, V. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))
1991-09-01
The local application of 0.25% or 0.4% HA before the induction of a measured laser injury on the rat uterine horn was associated with a significant reduction (P less than 0.05) in postoperative IP adhesions when compared with the group of animals pretreated with the diluent vehicle PBS or received no pretreatment. However, 0.4% HA, when applied in a similar manner, was ineffective in reducing reformation of adhesions after microsurgical adhesiolysis.
Prevention of Polyglycolic Acid-Induced Peritoneal Adhesions Using Alginate in a Rat Model
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Mari Matoba
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Postoperative intra-abdominal or intrathoracic adhesions sometimes cause significant morbidity. We have designed three types of alginate-based treatments using strongly cross-linked (SL, weakly cross-linked (WL, and non-cross-linked (NL alginate with calcium gluconate. In rat experiments, we compared the antiadhesive effects of the three types of alginate-based treatments, fibrin glue treatment (a standard treatment, and no treatment against adhesions caused by polyglycolic acid (PGA mesh (PGA-induced adhesions. The antiadhesive materials were set on the PGA sheet fixed on the parietal peritoneum of the abdomen. Fifty-six days later, the adhesions were evaluated macroscopically by the adhesion scores and microscopically by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostaining. We also tested the fibroblast growth on the surface of the antiadhesive materials in vitro. The antiadhesive effects of WL and NL were superior to the no treatment and fibrin glue treatment. A microscopic evaluation confirmed that the PGA sheet was covered by a peritoneal layer constructed of well-differentiated mesothelial cells, and the inflammation was most improved in the NL and WL. The fibroblast growth was inhibited most on the surfaces of the NL and WL. These results suggest that either the WL or NL treatments are suitable for preventing PGA-induced adhesions compared to SL or the conventional treatment.
Cho, K H; Iwasaki, Y; Imamura, H; Hida, K; Abe, H
1994-01-01
An experimental model was devised to elucidate the role of spinal blockade in posttraumatic syringomyelia. Thirty-eight Japanese White rabbits, each weighing about 3 kg, were used in this study. The animals were divided into four groups: in Group 1, eight animals received traumatic injury only; in Group 2, 12 animals received traumatic injury following injection of 100 mg kaolin suspended in 1 cc normal saline solution into the subarachnoid space at the site of trauma; in Group 3, nine animals received traumatic injury following injection of 200 mg kaolin in 1 cc normal saline solution into the subarachnoid space at the site of trauma; and in Group 4, nine animals without traumatic injury received an injection of 200 mg kaolin in 1 cc normal saline solution into the subarachnoid space. The subjective criteria for syrinx formation were the presence of a definite round cyst having a smooth margin and an upper or lower extension of more than 2 cm from the injured site. Syrinx formation was seen in 12.5% (one of eight rabbits) in Group 1, 41.7% (five of 12 animals) in Group 2, 55.5% (five of nine rabbits) in Group 3 and 0% (none of nine animals) in Group 4 (p duration of survival, was also statistically significant. In summary, subarachnoid block secondary to adhesive arachnoiditis is important in initiating the extension of the syringomyelia cavity.
Nanoparticle Adhesion and Mobility in Thin Layers: Nanodiamonds As a Model.
Couty, Magdalèna; Girard, Hugues A; Saada, Samuel
2015-07-29
Small size and enhanced properties of nanoparticles (NP) are great advantages toward device miniaturization. However, adhesion is essential for the reliability of such NP layer-based devices. In this work, we present some quick tests to investigate the adhesion behavior of the whole NP layer by mimicking several applicative environments: biological buffers and cells, corrosion, and microfabrication processes. This statistic approach evaluates both adhesion and mobility respectively through particle density and layer homogeneity. We chose nanodiamonds (ND) as reference particles because they are spherical and inert and exhibit either positive or negative zeta potential for the same diameter while surfactant-free. Several deposition methods were used to prepare a wide range of ND layers with various densities and size distribution. We found some unexpected results confirming that the deposition method has to be carefully selected according to the targeted application. A selection of the suitable method(s) to prepare ND layers which are resilient in their applicative environment can be done based on these results. However, ND adhesion still remains critical in some conditions and thus requires further improvement. Most important, this study points out that NP adhesion behavior is more complex than simple particle detachment-or not-from the surface. The particles could also reorganize themselves in clusters. We evidenced, in particular, a surprising mobility driven by air/water interfaces during evaporation of water microdroplets. Further comparison with other materials would indicate if the highlighted phenomena could be extended to any nanoparticles layer.
Lazarou, George; Apostol, Radu; Khullar, Poonam; Okonkwo, Linda; Nezhat, Farr
2015-01-01
Background and Objectives: To determine if surgery using ultrasonic energy for dissection results in less adhesion formation than monopolar electrosurgical energy in the late (8 weeks) postoperative period. Methods: Injuries were induced in rabbits by using ultrasonic energy on one uterine horn and the adjacent pelvic sidewall and using monopolar energy on the opposite side. Eight weeks postoperatively, the rabbits underwent autopsy and clinical and pathologic scoring of adhesions was performed by blinded investigators. Results: There was no significant difference in clinical adhesion scores between the two modalities. The mean clinical score for monopolar cautery was 1.00 versus 0.88 for the Harmonic device (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, Ohio) (P = .71). Furthermore, there was no significant difference found in the pathologic adhesion scores between the ultrasonic scalpel and monopolar energy. The mean pathologic score for monopolar electrosurgery was 4.35 versus 3.65 for the Harmonic scalpel (P = .30). Conclusion: Neither monopolar electrosurgery nor ultrasonic dissection is superior in the prevention of adhesion formation in the late postoperative period. PMID:26005316
Options for preventing postlaminectomy adhesion: a comparative study in rabbit model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘瑞军; 周跃
2002-01-01
Objective: To compare the various methods for prevention of peridural adhesion. Methods: Laminectomy was performed in lumbar 1, 3 and 5 segments in 30 adult rabbits that were divided into 5 groups. A 10 mm×5 mm dura was exposed, and then covered with autogenou purifieds pearl fat (APPF) mixed with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in Group A, with APPF treated with insulin in Group B, with APPF in Group C, with 2% sodium hyaluronate (SHA) in Group D, and uncovered in Group E. The slide sections for histological study were observed at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The specimens were observed with a computed imaging analysis system at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively.Results: Severe peridural adhesions were formed in Groups B, C, D and E after laminectomy. But no adhesion was formed in the Group A at all time points. bFGF could stimulate pearl fat revascularization, increase the number of newly formed vessels and contribute to the survival of pearl fat. However, insulin had no certain effect in preventing degradation and deterioration of pearl fat. SHA had some effect in prevention of peridural adhesions only in the early stage, which was weakened with the lapse of time. Conclusions: APPF implantation mixed with bFGF provides a potential new approach to improving fat survival and preventing peridural adhesion postlaminectomy.
QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHICKEN BURGERS ENRICHED WITH VEGETABLE OILS, INULIN AND WHEAT FIBER
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A. Cegielka
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to modify the composition of chicken burgers in terms of nutritional value by substitution of 20% of pork jowl with a mixture of rapeseed oil and linseed oil, and addition of inulin (1% or wheat fiber (3%. Substitution of pork jowl with vegetable oils resulted in significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and rosemary extract retarded the oxidation process of lipids. Addition of wheat fiber was helpful in maintaining the thermal processing yield and texture of burgers. Microbiological quality of vacuum packed burgers subjected to 21-day storage at +4°C±1 and -20°C±1 was satisfactory.
Reductions and conserved quantities for discrete compound KdV-Burgers equations
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He Yu-Fang; Liu Yong-Song; Fu Jing-Li
2011-01-01
We present two methods to reduce the discrete compound KdV-Burgers equation, which are reductions of the independent and dependent variables: the translational invariant method has been applied in order to reduce the independent variables; and a discrete spectral matrix has been introduced to reduce the number of dependent variables.Based on the invariance of a discrete compound KdV-Burgers equation under infinitesimal transformation with respect to its dependent and independent variables, we present the determining equations of transformation Lie groups for the KdV-Burgers equation and use the characteristic equations to obtain new forms of invariants.
A numerical solution of the Burgers' equation using septic B-splines
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Ramadan, Mohamed A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shiben El-Koom (Egypt)] e-mail: mramadan@mailer.eun.eg; El-Danaf, Talaat S. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shiben El-Koom (Egypt); Abd Alaal, Faisal E.I. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shiben El-Koom (Egypt)
2005-11-01
In this paper, numerical solutions of the nonlinear Burgers' equation are obtained by a method based on collocation of septic B-splines over finite elements. Applying the Von-Neumann stability analysis, the proposed method is shown to be unconditionally stable. Numerical solutions of the modified Burgers' equation are also obtained by making a simple change of the suggested numerical scheme for the Burgers' equation. The accuracy of the presented method is demonstrated by two test problems. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.
A numerical solution of the Burgers' equation using septic B-sp lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramadan, Mohamed A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shiben El-Koom (Egypt)] e-mail: mramadan@mailer.eun.eg; El-Danaf, Talaat S. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shiben El-Koom (Egypt); Abd Alaal, Faisal E.I. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shiben El-Koom (Egypt)
2005-11-01
In this paper, numerical solutions of the nonlinear Burgers' equation are obtained by a method based on collocation of septic B-sp lines over finite elements. Applying the Von-Neumann stability analysis, the proposed method is shown to be unconditionally stable. Numerical solutions of the modified Burgers' equation are also obtained by making a simple change of the suggested numerical scheme for the Burgers' equation. The accuracy of the presented method is demonstrated by two test problems. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.
Burgers方程的精确解%Exact solutions of Burgers equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李伟
2013-01-01
借助于Cole-Hope变换,积分变换法和拟解的方法,获得Burgers方程,(2+1)维Burgers方程,(2+1)维高阶Burgers方程的新的精确解.这种方法可以解决一系列的偏微分方程.%With the help of cole - Hope transform, integral method and quasi solution method, some new exact solutions of Burgers equation, (2 +1) dimensional Burger equation and ( 2 + 1) dimensional higher - order Burgers equation were presented. This method could solve a series of partial differential equations.
Adhesive friction based on finite element study and n-point asperity model
Sahoo, Prasanta; Waghmare, Ajay K.
2016-08-01
The present work considers analysis of adhesive friction of rough surfaces using n- point asperity concept for statistical definition of surface roughness features, and accurate finite element analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of single asperity contact. Well defined adhesion index and plasticity index are used to study the prospective contact situations arising out of variation in material properties and surface roughness features. From the present results it is possible to locate the combinations of adhesion index and plasticity index that may yield very low coefficient of friction. Thus suitable choice of surface and material parameters for the contact of two rough surfaces can be made in order to minimize friction typically at low load and micro scale roughness situations.
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Osvaldo N. Oliveira
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS, it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of afs, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2013-01-01
We discuss the (2+1)-dimensional Burgers equation which is considered as an important model in nonlinear physics. Using the truncated Painlevé expansion, an auto Bäcklund transformation of the (2+1)-dimensional Burgers equation is derived, and then a number of new exact solutions are obtained.% 2+1维Burgers方程是非线性物理中的一个重要模型。利用截断Painlevé分析方法，建立了一个自Bäcklund变换定理，求得了大量的新的严格解。
Gumuslu, Esen; Cine, Naci; Ertan Gökbayrak, Merve; Mutlu, Oguz; Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Ipek; Ulak, Guner
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a potent and selective agonist for the GLP-1 receptor, ameliorates the symptoms of diabetes through stimulation of insulin secretion. Exenatide is a potent and selective agonist for the GLP-1 receptor. Cell adhesion molecules are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and are involved in synaptic rearrangements in the mature brain. MATERIAL AND METHODS The present study demonstrated the effects of exenatide treatment (0.1 µg/kg, subcutaneously, twice daily for 2 weeks) on the gene expression levels of cell adhesion molecules, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in the brain tissue of diabetic BALB/c male mice by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ-NA) injection to male mice. RESULTS The results of this study revealed that hippocampal gene expression of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM were found to be up-regulated in STZ-NA-induced diabetic mice compared to those of controls. A significant decrease in the gene expression levels of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM were determined after 2 weeks of exenatide administration. CONCLUSIONS Cell adhesion molecules may be involved in the molecular mechanism of diabetes. Exenatide has a strong beneficial action in managing diabetes induced by STZ/NA by altering gene expression of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM. PMID:27465247
Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus
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Maxwell L. Van Tassell
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host.
Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation and its traveling solitary waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
The Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation has wide applications in physics, engineering and fluid mechanics. The Poincare phase plane analysis reveals that the Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation has neither nontrivial bell-profile traveling solitary waves, nor periodic waves. In the present paper, we show two approaches for the study of traveling solitary waves of the Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation: one is a direct method which involves a few coordinate transformations, and the other is the Lie group method. Our study indicates that the Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation indirectly admits one-parameter Lie groups of transformations with certain parametric conditions and a traveling solitary wave solution with an arbitrary velocity is obtained accordingly. Some incorrect statements in the recent literature are clarified.
New multi-soliton solutions for generalized Burgers-Huxley equation
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Liu Jun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The double exp-function method is used to obtain a two-soliton solution of the generalized Burgers-Huxley equation. The wave has two different velocities and two different frequencies.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND OXIDATIVE STABILITY IN SPICED LAMB MEAT BURGERS
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Almudena Cózar
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of adding two powdered spices (rosemary and thyme on the pH, colour coordinates, Cooking yield (CY Cooking loss (CL, Diameter Reduction (DR, Shear Force (SF, microbiological levels and lipid oxidation (LO in two types of lamb burgers (L= leg meat; LNB= leg+neck+breast meat was assessed over a six day period. Both spices increased stability during the storage period, LO values being six times lower than those of the non-spiced control group at 6 days. L samples showed higher CY, lower CL and DR than LNB burgers, with significant differences at 6 d (P < 0.001. The length of storage only affected (P < 0.01 these parameters in L burgers. In general, SF was higher in LNB than in L burgers but did not vary with time. The colour coordinates showed lower values in L than in LNB samples. The formulation type affected TVC and Pseudomonas spp.
A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms.
Yamamoto, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Aoyama, Takashi; Sakai, Takeharu
2015-04-01
Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated.
EXISTENCE OF PERIODIC SOLUTIONS OF THE BURGERS-GINZBURG-LANDAU EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄海洋
2004-01-01
In this paper, the existence of the periodic solutions for a forced Burgers equation coupled to a non-homogeneous Ginzburg-Landau equation is proved by LeraySchauder fixed point theorem and Galerkin method under appropriate conditions.
Analytical Approach to Space-and Time-Fractional Burgers Equations
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Ahmet Yildirim; Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din
2010-01-01
@@ A scheme is developed to study numerical solution of the space- and time-fractional Burgers equations under initial conditions by the homotopy analysis method.The fractional derivatives axe considered in the Caputo sense.The solutions are given in the form of series with easily computable terms.Numerical solutions are calculated for the fractional Burgers equation to show the nature of solution as the fractional derivative parameter is changed.
Application of the Homotopy Perturbation Method to the Burgers Equation with Delay
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S.Karimi Vanani; F.Soleymani
2012-01-01
The homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is presented to obtain the solution of the time-delayed Burgers equation.The HPM is a an efficient approach to obtain an analytical approximate solution of linear and nonlinear problems.The HPM provides approximate solutions in the form of a convergent series with easily computable components.Some experiments are employed to illustrate the validity and flexibility of the HPM for solving the time-delayed Burgers equation.
NEW EXPLICIT AND EXACT TRAVELLING WAVE SOLUTIONS FOR A COMPOUND KdV-BURGERS EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIA TIE-CHENG; ZHANG HONG-QING; YAN ZHEN-YA
2001-01-01
In this paper, new explicit and exact travelling wave solutions for a compound KdV-Burgers equation are obtained by using the hyperbola function method and the Wu elimination method, which include new solitary wave solutions and periodic solutions. Particularly important cases of the equation, such as the compound KdV, mKdV-Burgers and mKdV equations can be solved by this method. The method can also solve other nonlinear partial differential equations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Ya; Yang Duo
2013-01-01
In this paper,the finite symmetry transformation group of the (2+ 1)-dimensional coupled Burgers equation is studied by the modified direct method,and with the help of the truncated Painlevé expansion approach,some special localized structures for the (2+ 1)-dimensional coupled Burgers equation are obtained,in particular,the dromion-like and solitoff-like structures.
Multi-soliton solution, rational solution of the Boussinesq-Burgers equations
Abdel Rady, A. S.; Osman, E. S.; Khalfallah, Mohammed
2010-05-01
In this paper we consider the Boussinesq-Burgers equations and establish the transformation which turns the Boussinesq-Burgers equations into the single nonlinear partial differential equation, then we obtain an auto-Bäcklund transformation and abundant new exact solutions, including the multi-solitary wave solution and the rational series solutions. Besides the new trigonometric function periodic solutions are obtained by using the generalized tan h method.
Laplace homotopy perturbation method for Burgers equation with space- and time-fractional order
Johnston, S. J.; Jafari, H.; Moshokoa, S. P.; Ariyan, V. M.; Baleanu, D.
2016-07-01
The fractional Burgers equation describes the physical processes of unidirectional propagation of weakly nonlinear acoustic waves through a gas-filled pipe. The Laplace homotopy perturbation method is discussed to obtain the approximate analytical solution of space-fractional and time-fractional Burgers equations. The method used combines the Laplace transform and the homotopy perturbation method. Numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to partial differential equations of fractional orders.
PAINLEV PROPERTY OF BURGERS-KDV EQUATION AND ITS EXACT SOLUTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the Painlev property of the Burgers-KdV equation. Two types of exact solutions to the equation are obtained by the standard truncated expansion metIn this paper, we introduce the Painlev property of the Burgers-KdV equation. Two types of exact solutions to the equation are obtained by the standard truncated expansion method and the extended standard truncated expansion method, respectively.hod and the extended standard truncated expansion method, respectively.
Meier Bürgisser, Gabriella; Calcagni, Maurizio; Bachmann, Elias; Fessel, Gion; Snedeker, Jess G; Giovanoli, Pietro; Buschmann, Johanna
2016-01-01
After tendon rupture repair, two main problems may occur: re-rupture and adhesion formation. Suitable non-murine animal models are needed to study the healing tendon in terms of biomechanical properties and extent of adhesion formation. In this study 24 New Zealand White rabbits received a full transection of the Achilles tendon 2 cm above the calcaneus, sutured with a 4-strand Becker suture. Post-surgical analysis was performed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks. In the 6-week group, animals received a cast either in a 180 deg stretched position during 6 weeks (adhesion provoking immobilization), or were re-casted with a 150 deg position after 3 weeks (adhesion inhibiting immobilization), while in the other groups (3 and 12 weeks) a 180 deg position cast was applied for 3 weeks. Adhesion extent was analyzed by histology and ultrasound. Histopathological scoring was performed according to a method by Stoll et al. (2011), and the main biomechanical properties were assessed. Histopathological scores increased as a function of time, but did not reach values of healthy tendons after 12 weeks (only around 15 out of 20 points). Adhesion provoking immobilization led to an adhesion extent of 82.7±9.7%, while adhesion inhibiting immobilization led to 31.9±9.8% after 6 weeks. Biomechanical properties increased over time, however, they did not reach full strength nor elastic modulus at 12 weeks post-operation. Furthermore, the rabbit Achilles tendon model can be modulated in terms of adhesion formation to the surrounding tissue. It clearly shows the different healing stages in terms of histopathology and offers a suitable model regarding biomechanics because it exhibits similar biomechanics as the human flexor tendons of the hand. PMID:27635037
Meier Bürgisser, Gabriella; Calcagni, Maurizio; Bachmann, Elias; Fessel, Gion; Snedeker, Jess G.; Giovanoli, Pietro
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT After tendon rupture repair, two main problems may occur: re-rupture and adhesion formation. Suitable non-murine animal models are needed to study the healing tendon in terms of biomechanical properties and extent of adhesion formation. In this study 24 New Zealand White rabbits received a full transection of the Achilles tendon 2 cm above the calcaneus, sutured with a 4-strand Becker suture. Post-surgical analysis was performed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks. In the 6-week group, animals received a cast either in a 180 deg stretched position during 6 weeks (adhesion provoking immobilization), or were re-casted with a 150 deg position after 3 weeks (adhesion inhibiting immobilization), while in the other groups (3 and 12 weeks) a 180 deg position cast was applied for 3 weeks. Adhesion extent was analyzed by histology and ultrasound. Histopathological scoring was performed according to a method by Stoll et al. (2011), and the main biomechanical properties were assessed. Histopathological scores increased as a function of time, but did not reach values of healthy tendons after 12 weeks (only around 15 out of 20 points). Adhesion provoking immobilization led to an adhesion extent of 82.7±9.7%, while adhesion inhibiting immobilization led to 31.9±9.8% after 6 weeks. Biomechanical properties increased over time, however, they did not reach full strength nor elastic modulus at 12 weeks post-operation. Furthermore, the rabbit Achilles tendon model can be modulated in terms of adhesion formation to the surrounding tissue. It clearly shows the different healing stages in terms of histopathology and offers a suitable model regarding biomechanics because it exhibits similar biomechanics as the human flexor tendons of the hand. PMID:27635037
Anti-adhesive effect of poloxamer-based thermo-sensitive sol-gel in rabbit laminectomy model.
Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Jae Hyup; So, Jungwon; Min, Kyungdan
2016-11-01
Poloxamer-based thermo-sensitive sol-gel has been developed to reduce the incidence of postoperative scar formation at the laminectomy site. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of poloxamer based thermo-sensitive sol-gel compared to hyaluronate based solution after laminectomy, using a rabbit model. A thermo-sensitive anti-adhesive with a property of sol-gel transition was manufactured by a physical mixture of Poloxamer188/407, Chitosan and Gelatin. The viscosity in different temperatures was assessed. 72 adult New Zealand rabbits underwent lumbar laminectomy and were randomly divided into experimental (treated with the newly developed agent), positive (treated with hyaluronate based solution), and negative control groups. Each group was subdivided into 1 and 4-week subgroups. Gross and histological evaluations were performed to assess the extent of epidural adhesion. The experimental group showed significantly higher viscosity compared to the positive control group and showed a significant increase of viscosity as the temperature increased. Gross evaluation showed no statistically significant differences between the 1- and 4-week subgroups. However, histologic evaluation showed significant differences both in 1- and 4-week subgroups. Although the 4-week histologic results of the experimental and the positive control subgroups showed no significant difference, both subgroups revealed higher value compared to the negative control subgroup with regard to the ratio of adhesion less than 50 %. The new poloxamer based thermo-sensitive agent showed superior efficacy over the hyaluronate based agent at 1 week postoperatively. At 4 weeks postoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences between the two agents, although both showed efficacy over the sham group. PMID:27646404
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meat industry in Egypt has a great economic potential, but till now it has not received adequate attention. Beef burgers were prepared (50 g, 1 cm thick steaks) and aerobically packaged into polyethylene pages then divided into control, cooking and gamma-irradiated (3 and 4 kGy) groups. Samples stored at (5±degree c) and periodically judged after 5, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30 days. The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of stored cooked beef burger, as compared to control samples. In addition, the dose of 3 kGy is considered the most adequate for irradiation of this meat product because it obtained the same results reflected by 4 kGy. The microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing for stored cooking and irradiated beef burger steaks were examined according an experimental design presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption of this product during the refrigeration storage periods. For the non-irradiated beef burger samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated beef burger samples this factor was lipid oxidation. Conclusion: The cooking before food irradiation may be of practical efficacy in enhancing the technical effectiveness and feasibility of irradiation of a variety of meat products. Recommendation: The necessity for a proper preservation method for marketing the processing beef burger steaks in each of its numerous retail markets should be established central irradiation units for processing and packing before distribution in these retail markets
Conti, Roberto; Meli, Enrico; Pugi, Luca; Malvezzi, Monica; Bartolini, Fabio; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Toni, Paolo
2012-05-01
Scaled roller rigs used for railway applications play a fundamental role in the development of new technologies and new devices, combining the hardware in the loop (HIL) benefits with the reduction of the economic investments. The main problem of the scaled roller rig with respect to the full scale ones is the improved complexity due to the scaling factors. For this reason, before building the test rig, the development of a software model of the HIL system can be useful to analyse the system behaviour in different operative conditions. One has to consider the multi-body behaviour of the scaled roller rig, the controller and the model of the virtual vehicle, whose dynamics has to be reproduced on the rig. The main purpose of this work is the development of a complete model that satisfies the previous requirements and in particular the performance analysis of the controller and of the dynamical behaviour of the scaled roller rig when some disturbances are simulated with low adhesion conditions. Since the scaled roller rig will be used to simulate degraded adhesion conditions, accurate and realistic wheel-roller contact model also has to be included in the model. The contact model consists of two parts: the contact point detection and the adhesion model. The first part is based on a numerical method described in some previous studies for the wheel-rail case and modified to simulate the three-dimensional contact between revolute surfaces (wheel-roller). The second part consists in the evaluation of the contact forces by means of the Hertz theory for the normal problem and the Kalker theory for the tangential problem. Some numerical tests were performed, in particular low adhesion conditions were simulated, and bogie hunting and dynamical imbalance of the wheelsets were introduced. The tests were devoted to verify the robustness of control system with respect to some of the more frequent disturbances that may influence the roller rig dynamics. In particular we verified
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王治安; 蒋咪娜
2001-01-01
考查了广义Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers 方程 ut+f(u)x=μuxx+δuxxx的Cauchy 问题解的一致估计.粗略地讲就是 Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers 方程是无粘 Burgers 方程的一个粘性逼近.%In this paper, we study the convergence of viscosity solutions to the generalized Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation u t+f(u)x=μuxx+δuxxx with initial date u|t=0=u0(x)→ u±, as x→±∞ where μ > 0, δ∈R and u-Burgers equation is a viscous approximation of the Burgers equation without viscosity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Køhler, Lene B; Christensen, Claus; Rossetti, Clara;
2010-01-01
, and the effect of dennexinA was independent of polysialic acid expression. Consistent with the effect of dennexinA on NCAM-mediated adhesion in vitro, the peptide impaired long-term memory retention in rats in the Morris water maze test. Thus, dennexins are novel site-specific pharmacological tools...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdur Rashid; Ghulam Mustafa
2003-01-01
采用带限制算子的傅立叶拟谱方法近似求解了Burger's方程,分别证明了它的(Burger's方程)一般化的稳定性和收敛性,并获得了数值结果.%A Fourier pseudospectral approximation with a restraint operator is developed for solving Burger's equation. The generalized stability and convergence are proved respectively. The numerical results are also presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘辉; 谢元喜
2005-01-01
基于对Burgers方程、KdV方程和Burgers-KdV方程特点的分析,提出了一种由Burgers方程的解和KdV方程的解构造Burgers-KdV方程的解的叠加法,并用该法求得了Burgers-KdV方程的解,所得结果与已有结果完全吻合.
Nonempirical potentials in modelling of boron adhesion on a (110) tungsten surface
Dorfman, S; Mundim, K C; Fuks, D; Gordon, A; Felsteiner, J
2003-01-01
We have performed the atomistic simulations of the adhesion process of a boron atom on a tungsten(110) surface on the basis of the generalized simulation annealing formalism. The interatomic potentials used in these simulations were obtained from ab initio total energy calculations on the basis of the recursion procedure. The nonempirical calculations have been carried out in the framework of density functional theory in the coherent potential approximation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许伯强; 田立新
2001-01-01
This paper studies the numerical solution of the Galerkin projection onto a periodic wavelet basis of the Burgers partial differential equation with periodic boundary conditions.Based on the orthogonal transformation of both periodic spline wavelet within each scale and the symmetry of Burgers' equation,the nonlinerar Burgers' equation to ODEs is slmplified and the numerical solution is obtained.In phase space,an analysis is given to combinations of wavelets which represent ‘global’ functions.It is shown that the local models of the numerical solution based on periodic wavelets are more distinguishable than those of Fourier modes.This study provides a foundation for further work in which we use wavelet base to extract local models of nonlinear evolution equations.%研究周期边界条件下非线性Burgers 方程的周期小波基下Galerkin解.利用周期样条小波基的正交变换，结合Burgers方程所具有的对称性作线性变换，约化非线性Burgers方程为一组常微分方程组，得到该方程的Galerkin解，在相空间中进行分析，采用能表征全域特性的小波组合函数，数值分析表明周期小波基下Galerkin解与Fourier分析下的数值解比较更能反映方程的局部特征.本文的研究为非线性发展方程的局部复杂性研究提供了一个新的基础.
Winny, M; Grethe, L; Maegel, L; Jonigk, D; Lippmann, T.; Klempnauer, J; Poehnert, D
2016-01-01
Background: Meshes implanted intraperitoneally are known to cause adhesions potentially resulting in complications such as chronic pain, enterocutaneous fistula, or mesh infection. This study introduces a model for investigation of intestine-to-mesh adhesions and evaluates as to whether missing of visceral peritoneum is causative. Methods: In 18 rats, rectangular 1.5 x 2 cm patches of an uncoated polypropylene mesh (Ultrapro®) were sewn to the inner abdominal wall next to the cecum. Additiona...
Fletcher, D. I.; Lewis, S.
2013-01-01
Predictive modelling of wear and adhesion at rolling-sliding contacts such as a railway rail and wheel depends on understanding the relationship between slip and shear force at the contact surface, i.e. the creep verses force curve. This paper describes a new approach to creep curve measurement using a twin disc machine running with a continuous programmed variation of creep, enabling an entire creep curve to be defined in a single experiment. The work focuses on very low levels of creep, ran...
A brand loyalty model for arts festivals / Susanna Elizabeth Burger
Burger, Susanna Elizabeth
2015-01-01
The number of festivals and events worldwide as well as in South Africa has increased significantly over the past decade. With more than 600 festivals being staged annually in South Africa, it is clear that festivals are competing with each other to attract and retain visitors in order to remain sustainable. For this reason, creating and sustaining a loyal visitor base through marketing and branding activities has become increasingly important for festivals. This, however, is a complex task s...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Yong-Bo; TIAN Chou; SHAO Nan
2005-01-01
In this article, we study the (2+1)-extension of Burgers equation and the KP equation. At first, based on a known Backlund transformation and corresponding Lax pair, an invariance which depends on two arbitrary functions for (2+1)-extension of Burgers equation is worked out. Given a known solution and using the invariance, we can find solutions of the (2+1)-extension of Burgers equation repeatedly. Secondly, we put forward an invariance of Burgers equation which cannot be directly obtained by constraining the invariance of the (2+ 1)-extension of Burgers equation.Furthermore, we reveal that the invariance for finding the solutions of Burgers equation can help us find the solutions of KP equation. At last, based on the invariance of Burgers equation, the corresponding recursion formulae for finding solutions of KP equation are digged out. As the application of our theory, some examples have been put forward in this article and some solutions of the (2+ 1)-extension of Burgers equation, Burgers equation and KP equation are obtained.
Jin, Fan; Guo, Xu; Gao, Huajian
2013-12-01
A cohesive zone model of axisymmetric adhesive contact between a rigid sphere and a power-law graded elastic half-space is established by extending the double-Hertz model of Greenwood and Johnson (1998). Closed-form solutions are obtained analytically for the surface stress, deformation fields and equilibrium relations among applied load, indentation depth, inner and outer radii of the cohesive zone, which include the corresponding solutions for homogeneous isotropic materials and the Gibson solid as special cases. These solutions provide a continuous transition between JKR and DMT type contact models through a generalized Tabor parameter μ. Our analysis reveals that the magnitude of the pull-off force ranges from (3+k)πRΔγ/2 to 2πRΔγ, where k, R and Δγ denote the gradient exponent of the elastic modulus for the half-space, the radius of the sphere and the work of adhesion, respectively. Interestingly, the pull-off force for the Gibson solid is found to be identically equal to 2πRΔγ, independent of the corresponding Tabor parameter. The obtained analytical solutions are validated with finite element simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilyas Khan
Full Text Available The present work is concerned with exact solutions of Stokes second problem for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD flow of a Burgers' fluid. The fluid over a flat plate is assumed to be electrically conducting in the presence of a uniform magnetic field applied in outward transverse direction to the flow. The equations governing the flow are modeled and then solved using the Laplace transform technique. The expressions of velocity field and tangential stress are developed when the relaxation time satisfies the condition γ = λ²/4 or γ> λ²/4. The obtained closed form solutions are presented in the form of simple or multiple integrals in terms of Bessel functions and terms with only Bessel functions. The numerical integration is performed and the graphical results are displayed for the involved flow parameters. It is found that the velocity decreases whereas the shear stress increases when the Hartmann number is increased. The solutions corresponding to the Stokes' first problem for hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids are obtained as limiting cases of the present solutions. Similar solutions for Stokes' second problem of hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids and those for Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids can also be obtained as limiting cases of these solutions.
Khan, Ilyas; Ali, Farhad; Shafie, Sharidan
2013-01-01
The present work is concerned with exact solutions of Stokes second problem for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a Burgers' fluid. The fluid over a flat plate is assumed to be electrically conducting in the presence of a uniform magnetic field applied in outward transverse direction to the flow. The equations governing the flow are modeled and then solved using the Laplace transform technique. The expressions of velocity field and tangential stress are developed when the relaxation time satisfies the condition γ = λ²/4 or γ> λ²/4. The obtained closed form solutions are presented in the form of simple or multiple integrals in terms of Bessel functions and terms with only Bessel functions. The numerical integration is performed and the graphical results are displayed for the involved flow parameters. It is found that the velocity decreases whereas the shear stress increases when the Hartmann number is increased. The solutions corresponding to the Stokes' first problem for hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids are obtained as limiting cases of the present solutions. Similar solutions for Stokes' second problem of hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids and those for Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids can also be obtained as limiting cases of these solutions. PMID:23667442
Khan, Ilyas; Ali, Farhad; Shafie, Sharidan
2013-01-01
The present work is concerned with exact solutions of Stokes second problem for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a Burgers' fluid. The fluid over a flat plate is assumed to be electrically conducting in the presence of a uniform magnetic field applied in outward transverse direction to the flow. The equations governing the flow are modeled and then solved using the Laplace transform technique. The expressions of velocity field and tangential stress are developed when the relaxation time satisfies the condition γ = λ2/4 or γ>λ2/4. The obtained closed form solutions are presented in the form of simple or multiple integrals in terms of Bessel functions and terms with only Bessel functions. The numerical integration is performed and the graphical results are displayed for the involved flow parameters. It is found that the velocity decreases whereas the shear stress increases when the Hartmann number is increased. The solutions corresponding to the Stokes' first problem for hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids are obtained as limiting cases of the present solutions. Similar solutions for Stokes' second problem of hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids and those for Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids can also be obtained as limiting cases of these solutions. PMID:23667442
A Collocation Method for Numerical Solutions of Coupled Burgers' Equations
Mittal, R. C.; Tripathi, A.
2014-09-01
In this paper, we propose a collocation-based numerical scheme to obtain approximate solutions of coupled Burgers' equations. The scheme employs collocation of modified cubic B-spline functions. We have used modified cubic B-spline functions for unknown dependent variables u, v, and their derivatives w.r.t. space variable x. Collocation forms of the partial differential equations result in systems of first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In this scheme, we did not use any transformation or linearization method to handle nonlinearity. The obtained system of ODEs has been solved by strong stability preserving the Runge-Kutta method. The proposed scheme needs less storage space and execution time. The test problems considered in the literature have been discussed to demonstrate the strength and utility of the proposed scheme. The computed numerical solutions are in good agreement with the exact solutions and competent with those available in earlier studies. The scheme is simple as well as easy to implement. The scheme provides approximate solutions not only at the grid points, but also at any point in the solution range.
Technological aspects of manufacturing and numerical modelling of clinch-adhesive joints
Sadowski, Tomasz; Golewski, Przemysław
2015-01-01
This short book describes the basic technological aspects involved in the creation of purely clinch and clinch-adhesive joints made of different types of adherent materials and employing different joining technologies. Basic parameters that need to be taken into account in the design process are also presented, while a comparison of experimental testing of the hybrid joint with simple clinching for a combination of different joining materials underlines the advantages of opting for hybrid joints. The book’s conclusions will facilitate the practical application of this new fastening technology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kelsey Roe
Full Text Available Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV causes blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE. Infection with WNV (NY99 strain significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1 did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101 strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via 'Trojan horse' route, and improve WNV disease outcome.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Said Durmus
2011-01-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compares the efficacies of vitamin E and selenium, both individually and in combination, for the prevention of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in rats. METHODS: Forty-seven female rats were divided into five groups. The sham animals (S group, n = 7 were given only laparotomies and intraperitoneally received 0.9% NaCl (2 ml. In the 40 other rats, abrasions of the left uterine horn were performed, followed by intraperitoneal administration of either 2 ml 0.9% NaCl (C group, 10 mg vitamin E (vitamin E group, 0.2 mg/kg selenium (Se group or 10 mg vitamin E with 0.2 mg/kg selenium (vitamin E + Se group, with 10 animals in each treatment group. RESULTS: Adhesion formation was significantly reduced in animals in the Se and vitamin E + Se groups (p<0.05. Tissue catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not significantly differ between the groups. However, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduced glutathione levels were slightly increased in the vitamin E, Se and vitamin E + Se groups. In the vitamin E group, malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly lower than in the C group (p<0.05, but no significant differences were present among the S, C, Se and vitamin E + Se groups. Levels of nitric oxide were significantly higher in the C group than in the other groups (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal administration of selenium or combined vitamin E and selenium appears to be effective in preventing intra-abdominal adhesion formation in rat models through the reduction of lipid peroxidation products.
Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski
2015-08-01
The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones. PMID:26243932
Torres, J. R.; Jay, G. D.; Kim, K.-S.; Bothun, G. D.
2016-05-01
A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.
Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vejborg, Rebecca Munk
2008-01-01
tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters......, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...
Chazov, E. I.; Alexeev, A. V.; Antonov, A. S.; Koteliansky, V. E.; Leytin, V. L.; Lyubimova, E. V.; Repin, V. S.; Sviridov, D. D.; Torchilin, V. P.; Smirnov, V. N.
1981-09-01
Human umbilical endothelial cells (ECs) were grown on fibrillar type I collagen in 16.4-mm multiwell tissue culture plates. Human platelets were added to the wells, and platelet adhesion to collagen was examined by scanning electron microscopy and radioisotopic technique in the absence of ECs and in preconfluent and confluent EC cultures. Single adherent platelets of different shapes as well as small aggregates were seen on collagen surface. Human plasma fibronectin added to the system stimulated platelet adhesion and their spreading on collagen. ECs had no effect on the percentage of platelets adherent to collagen-coated gaps in preconfluent culture but decreased the number of spread platelets. It is demonstrated that collagen-coated gaps can bind 14C-labeled liposome-antibody and 14C-labeled liposome-fibronectin conjugates. ECs grown on fibrillar collagen are suggested as useful models for screening of antiplatelet drugs and for the study of drug targeting to the areas of vascular injury for prevention of thrombosis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Auemphon Mordmuang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is one of the most important infectious diseases in dairy herds, and staphylococci are the most important etiologic agents of this disease. Antibiotics and chemical agents used in livestock for prevention and cure of the disease can accumulate in milk and give rise to food safety concerns. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract was studied as an alternative approach to reduce the bacterial infections. The ethanolic extract of this plant demonstrated antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values as low as 16–64 μg/mL against staphylococcal isolates. In addition, the extract had an effect on the bacterial cell surface properties by increasing its hydrophobicity in a concentration dependent manner. To further extend the antibacterial efficacy, silver nanoparticles synthesized with the extract, a pure rhodomyrtone, and liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone were applied and their inhibitory effects on bacterial adhesion and invasion were determined by ex vivo study in a bovine udder epidermal tissue model. These agents exerted remarkable antibacterial activity against staphylococci and decreased the adhesion of the bacterial cells to the tissues. These results supported that R. tomentosa ethanolic extract could be applied as an alternative agent for bovine udder care in dairy farms.
The Legacy of the Burger Court and the Schools, 1969-1986. NOLPE Monograph/Book Series No. 41.
Vacca, Richard S.; Hudgins, H. C., Jr.
This book is limited to a study of the education opinions of the Supreme Court during the time that Warren Earl Burger served as Chief Justice. Over 100 opinions having direct bearing on education were issued during the Burger years, a total greater than in the entire Court's history. The first chapter presents the history of the establishment of…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weng Jianping
2005-01-01
The travelling solutions of the Burgers equation may be used as the seed solutions.According to the fraction-type deforming relation between the Burgers equation and the plasma motion equation, some travelling solutions of the plasma motion equation are achieved with this seed solutions as discussed in this paper.
Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation and its traveling solitary waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao-sheng FENG; Qing-guo MENG
2007-01-01
The Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation has wide applications in physics, engineering equation has neither nontrivial bell-profile traveling solitary waves, nor periodic waves. In the present paper, we show two approaches for the study of traveling solitary waves of the Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation: one is a direct method which involves a few coordinate transformations, and the other is the Lie group method. Our study indicates that the Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation indirectly admits one-parameter Lie groups of transformations with certain parametric conditions and a traveling solitary wave solution with an arbitrary velocity is obtained accordingly. Some incorrect statements in the recent literature are clarified.
New Travelling Wave Solutions of Burgers Equation with Finite Transport Memory
Sakthivel, Rathinasamy; Chun, Changbum; Lee, Jonu
2010-09-01
The nonlinear evolution equations with finite memory have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. The Burgers equation with finite memory transport (time-delayed) describes convection-diffusion processes. In this paper, we establish the new solitary wave solutions for the time-delayed Burgers equation. The extended tanh method and the exp-function method have been employed to reveal these new solutions. Further, we have calculated the numerical solutions of the time-delayed Burgers equation with initial conditions by using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). Our results show that the extended tanh and exp-function methods are very effective in finding exact solutions of the considered problem and HPM is very powerful in finding numerical solutions with good accuracy for nonlinear partial differential equations without any need of transformation or perturbation
Zhu, C
2003-01-01
This paper is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of the entropy solution to the initial boundary value problem for the inviscid Burgers equation. To apply the method of vanishing viscosity to study the existence of the entropy solution, we first introduce the initial boundary value problem for the viscous Burgers equation, and as in Evans (1998 Partial Differential Equations (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) and Hopf (1950 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 3 201-30), give the formula of the corresponding viscosity solutions by Hopf-Cole transformation. Secondly, we prove the convergence of the viscosity solution sequences and verify that the limiting function is an entropy solution. Finally, we give an example to show how our main result can be applied to solve the initial boundary value problem for the Burgers equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Changjiang; Duan, Renjun [Laboratory of Nonlinear Analysis, Department of Mathematics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, People' s Republic of China (China)
2003-02-28
This paper is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of the entropy solution to the initial boundary value problem for the inviscid Burgers equation. To apply the method of vanishing viscosity to study the existence of the entropy solution, we first introduce the initial boundary value problem for the viscous Burgers equation, and as in Evans (1998 Partial Differential Equations (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) and Hopf (1950 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 3 201-30), give the formula of the corresponding viscosity solutions by Hopf-Cole transformation. Secondly, we prove the convergence of the viscosity solution sequences and verify that the limiting function is an entropy solution. Finally, we give an example to show how our main result can be applied to solve the initial boundary value problem for the Burgers equation.
On the MHD flow of fractional generalized Burgers' fluid with modified Darcy's law
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
T. Hayat; M. Khan; S. Asghar
2007-01-01
This work is concerned with applying the fractional calculus approach to the magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) pipe flow of a fractional generalized Burgers' fluid in a porous space by using modified Darcy's relationship. The fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field in the transverse direction. Exact solution for the velocity distribution is developed with the help of Fourier transform for fractional calculus. The solutions for a Navier-Stokes, second grade, Maxwell, Oldroyd-B and Burgers' fluids appear as the limiting cases of the present analysis.
A spectral domain decomposition approach for the generalized Burger's-Fisher equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, we use the spectral collocation method using Chebyshev polynomials for spatial derivatives and fourth order Runge-Kutta method for time integration to solve the generalized Burger's-Fisher equation (B-F). Firstly, theory of application of Chebyshev spectral collocation method (CSCM) and domain decomposition on the generalized Burger's-Fisher equation is presented. This method yields a system of ordinary differential algebraic equations (DAEs). Secondly, we use fourth order Runge-Kutta formula for the numerical integration of the system of DAEs. The numerical results obtained by this way have been compared with the exact solution to show the efficiency of the method
Busscher, HJ; Poortinga, AT; Bos, R.R.M.
1998-01-01
Gliding and near-surface swimming of microorganisms are described as a mobile form of microbial adhesion that need not necessarily be reversible. It is argued that the reversibility of microbial adhesion depends on the depth of the secondary interaction minimum, calculated from the forces between an
New Multiple Soliton-like Solutions to (3+1)-Dimensional Burgers Equation with Variable Coefficients
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Huai-Tang; ZHANG Hong-Qing
2004-01-01
A new generalized tanh function method is used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation, which has more new solutions. More new multiple soliton-like solutions are obtained for the (3+ 1 )-dimensional Burgers equation with variable coefficients.
EXISTENCE OF WEAK SOLUTIONS FOR A DEGENERATE GENERALIZED BURGERS EQUATION WITH LARGE INITIAL DATA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张辉
2002-01-01
It is obtained the existence of the weak solution for a degenerate generalized Burgers equation under the restriction u0 ∈ L∞. The main method is to add viscosity perturbation and obtain some estimates in L1 norm. Meanwhile it is obtained the solution is exponential decay when the initial data has compact support.
Dissociated Structure of Dislocation Loops with Burgers Vector alpha in Electron-Irradiated Cu-Ni
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen; Leffers, Torben; Barlow, P.
1977-01-01
The rectangular dislocation loops with total Burgers vector a100 which are formed in Cu-Ni alloys during 1 MeV electron irradiation at elevated temperatures have been examined by weak-beam electron microscopy. The loop edges were found to take up a Hirth-lock configuration, dissociating into two...
Construction of New Exact Solutions for the (3 + 1-Dimensional Burgers System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zitian Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By means of a variable separation method and a generalized direct ansätz function approach, new exact solutions including cross kink-wave solutions, doubly periodic kinky-wave solutions, and breather type of two-solitary wave solutions for the (3 + 1-dimensional Burgers system are obtained. Moreover, the mechanical features are also investigated.
Nonlocalization of Nonlocal Symmetry and Symmetry Reductions of the Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
金艳; 贾曼; 楼森岳
2012-01-01
Symmetry reduction method is one of the best ways to find exact solutions. In this paper, we study the possibility of symmetry reductions of the well known Burgers equation including the nonlocal symmetry. The related new group Jnvariant solutions are obtained. Especially, the interactions among solitons, Airy waves, and Kummer waves are explicitly given.
Large Time Behaviour of Solutions of a System of Generalized Burgers Equation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K T Joseph
2005-11-01
In this paper we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions of a system of partial differential equations. When = 1 the equation reduces to the Burgers equation and was studied by Hopf. We consider both the inviscid and viscous case and show a new feature in the asymptotic behaviour.
Variable Separation Solutions for the (2+1)-Dimensional Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐晓艳; 楼森岳
2003-01-01
Considering that the multi-linear variable separation approach has been proved to be very useful to solve many (2+1)-dimensional integrable systems, we obtain the variable separation solutions of the Burgers equation with arbitrary number of variable separated functions. The Y-shaped soliton fusion phenomenon is revealed.
A control problem for Burgers' equation with bounded input/output
Burns, John A.; Kang, Sungkwon
1990-01-01
A stabilization problem for Burgers' equation is considered. Using linearization, various controllers are constructed which minimize certain weighted energy functionals. These controllers produce the desired degree of stability for the closed-loop nonlinear system. A numerical scheme for computing the feedback gain functional is developed and several numerical experiments are performed to show the theoretical results.
A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms.
Yamamoto, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Aoyama, Takashi; Sakai, Takeharu
2015-04-01
Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated. PMID:25920838
Measurement and assessment of aflatoxin B1 and its producing molds in Iranian sausages and burgers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siavash Maktabi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is one of the most well-known hepatocarcinogens in humans. Contamination of raw materials, used in the production of sausages and burgers, with aflatoxin producing molds can lead to increased level of aflatoxin in the final products and can impose hazards to human health. Unfortunately, aflatoxin is resistant to heating and freezing processes, etc. and can remain in these products untile consumption. Methods: During a six-month period, 45 sausage and 53 burger samples from valid brands across the country were randomly purchased from the stores. The samples were analyzed for AFB1 by ELISA technique. Meanwhile, the number of molds was calculated and aflatoxin producing molds were identified by direct and slide culture methods. Results: The findings showed that 2 susage samples (4.9% and 3 burger samples (6.3% were contaminated with >1 ng/g aflatoxin. Moreover, 4 burger samples (8.9% contaminated with mold included aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, mucor, and penicillium while, none of the susage samples showed mold contamination. Conclusion: The Iranian meat products had a relative aflatoxin B1 contamination during the study period, but the contamination rate was low and in allowable range. Standard hygienic preparation and packaging of meat products molds is recommended to reduce fungal contamination, especially aflatoxin-producing molds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyun Kang
Full Text Available We investigated the mobility of a temperature-sensitive poloxamer/Alginate/CaCl2 mixture (PACM in relation to gravity and cardiac motion and the efficacy of PACM on the prevention of pericardial adhesion in a supine rabbit model.A total of 50 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups according to materials applied after epicardial abrasion: PACM and dye mixture (group PD; n = 25 and saline as the control group (group CO; n = 25. In group PD, rabbits were maintained in a supine position with appropriate sedation, and location of mixture of PACM and dye was assessed by CT scan at the immediate postoperative period and 12 hours after surgery. The grade of adhesions was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically two weeks after surgery.In group PD, enhancement was localized in the anterior pericardial space, where PACM and dye mixture was applied, on immediate post-surgical CT scans. However, the volume of the enhancement was significantly decreased at the anterior pericardial space 12 hours later (P < .001. Two weeks after surgery, group PD had significantly lower macroscopic adhesion score (P = .002 and fibrosis score (P = .018 than did group CO. Inflammation score and expression of anti-macrophage antibody in group PD were lower than those in group CO, although the differences were not significant.In a supine rabbit model study, the anti-adhesion effect was maintained at the area of PACM application, although PACM shifted with gravity and heart motion. For more potent pericardial adhesion prevention, further research and development on the maintenance of anti-adhesion material position are required.
Okara, a soymilk industry by-product, as a non-meat protein source in reduced fat beef burgers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simone Ing Tie Su
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Okara is a by-product generated during the manufacture of soymilk and tofu. Wet okara was added to beef burgers at 0%, 20%, and 25%. The effects of okara on certain physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of reduced fat beef burgers were investigated. The beef burgers formulated with okara (104.0-106.0 kcal/100 g had 60% less calories than commercial beef burgers (268.8 kcal/100 g. The texture profile analysis showed that the addition of wet okara led to a significant increase in hardness (p < 0.05 and a concomitant reduction in the values of chewiness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Lower sensory scores (p < 0.05 of flavour were observed in the beef burgers containing 25% wet okara. However, the sensory evaluation results showed that juiciness, appearance, tenderness, and overall acceptability of beef burgers formulated with okara did not differ statistically from that of the control (0% okara. Wet okara (20% can be used as a non-meat protein source in the production of reduced-fat beef burgers without changing their sensory quality.
Ramakrishnan, N.; Tourdot, Richard W.; Eckmann, David M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi
2016-01-01
In order to achieve selective targeting of affinity–ligand coated nanoparticles to the target tissue, it is essential to understand the key mechanisms that govern their capture by the target cell. Next-generation pharmacokinetic (PK) models that systematically account for proteomic and mechanical factors can accelerate the design, validation and translation of targeted nanocarriers (NCs) in the clinic. Towards this objective, we have developed a computational model to delineate the roles played by target protein expression and mechanical factors of the target cell membrane in determining the avidity of functionalized NCs to live cells. Model results show quantitative agreement with in vivo experiments when specific and non-specific contributions to NC binding are taken into account. The specific contributions are accounted for through extensive simulations of multivalent receptor–ligand interactions, membrane mechanics and entropic factors such as membrane undulations and receptor translation. The computed NC avidity is strongly dependent on ligand density, receptor expression, bending mechanics of the target cell membrane, as well as entropic factors associated with the membrane and the receptor motion. Our computational model can predict the in vivo targeting levels of the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1)-coated NCs targeted to the lung, heart, kidney, liver and spleen of mouse, when the contributions due to endothelial capture are accounted for. The effect of other cells (such as monocytes, etc.) do not improve the model predictions at steady state. We demonstrate the predictive utility of our model by predicting partitioning coefficients of functionalized NCs in mice and human tissues and report the statistical accuracy of our model predictions under different scenarios. PMID:27429783
Ramakrishnan, N.; Tourdot, Richard W.; Eckmann, David M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi
2016-06-01
In order to achieve selective targeting of affinity-ligand coated nanoparticles to the target tissue, it is essential to understand the key mechanisms that govern their capture by the target cell. Next-generation pharmacokinetic (PK) models that systematically account for proteomic and mechanical factors can accelerate the design, validation and translation of targeted nanocarriers (NCs) in the clinic. Towards this objective, we have developed a computational model to delineate the roles played by target protein expression and mechanical factors of the target cell membrane in determining the avidity of functionalized NCs to live cells. Model results show quantitative agreement with in vivo experiments when specific and non-specific contributions to NC binding are taken into account. The specific contributions are accounted for through extensive simulations of multivalent receptor-ligand interactions, membrane mechanics and entropic factors such as membrane undulations and receptor translation. The computed NC avidity is strongly dependent on ligand density, receptor expression, bending mechanics of the target cell membrane, as well as entropic factors associated with the membrane and the receptor motion. Our computational model can predict the in vivo targeting levels of the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1)-coated NCs targeted to the lung, heart, kidney, liver and spleen of mouse, when the contributions due to endothelial capture are accounted for. The effect of other cells (such as monocytes, etc.) do not improve the model predictions at steady state. We demonstrate the predictive utility of our model by predicting partitioning coefficients of functionalized NCs in mice and human tissues and report the statistical accuracy of our model predictions under different scenarios.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Anthony von Fraunhofer
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhesion is a multidisciplinary science relevant to many practical fields. The main application of adhesion is bonding by adhesives. This technique is widely used in the industrial world and more specifically in the advanced technical domains. Adhesion is also involved in multi-component materials such as coatings, multilayer materials, polymer blends, composite materials... The multidisciplinary aspect of adhesion is well demonstrated by considering the wide variety of concepts, models and theories proposed for its description. An example of the adhesion between a fiber and a matrix in a composite material will lead to a general model relating the molecular properties of the interface to its capacity of stress transfer and hence to the macroscopic mechanical properties of the composite. This relationship is valid whatever the fiber (glass, carbon, polymeric) or the polymer matrix (thermoplastics, thermosetting). Any deviation from this model can be attributed to the existence of an interfacial zone or interphase exhibiting properties, mainly mechanical properties, different from the bulk matrix. Two examples are examined: the first one deals with the creation of a trans crystalline interphase in a semi-crystalline thermoplastic matrix and the second one is concerned with the formation of a pseudo glassy interphase in an elastomer matrix. These examples stress the need for complementary approaches in the understanding of adhesion phenomena at different levels of knowledge, from molecular to macroscopic. They also show how important it is to understand the mechanisms of formation of inter phases in order to be able to master the performance of multicomponent materials. (Author)
Gagnon, Mélanie; Zihler Berner, Annina; Chervet, Noémie; Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe
2013-09-01
Human intestinal cell models are widely used to study host-enteric pathogen interactions, with different cell lines exhibiting specific characteristics and functions in the gut epithelium. In particular, the presence of mucus may play an important role in adhesion and invasion of pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the mucus-secreting HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cell model to test adhesion and invasion of Salmonella strains and compare with data obtained with the more commonly used Caco-2 and HT-29 models. Adhesion of Salmonella to HT29-MTX cell model was significantly higher, likely due to high adhesiveness to mucins present in the native human mucus layer covering the whole cell surface, compared to the non- and low-mucus producing Caco-2 and HT-29 cell models, respectively. In addition, invasion percentages of some clinical Salmonella strains to HT29-MTX cultures were remarkably higher than to Caco-2 and HT-29 cells suggesting that these Salmonellae have subverted the mucus to enhance pathogenicity. The transepithelial electrical resistances of the infected HT29-MTX cell model decreased broadly and were highly correlated with invasion ability of the strain. Staining of S. Typhimurium-infected cell epithelium confirmed the higher invasion by Salmonella and subsequent disruption of tight junctions of HT29-MTX cell model compared with the Caco-2 and HT-29 cell models. Data from this study suggest that the HT29-MTX cell model, with more physiologically relevant characteristics with the mucus layer formation, could be better suited for studying cells-pathogens interactions.
Apply of trigonometric series in Burgers-KdV equation%三角级数在 Burgers-KdV 混合型方程中的应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马敏艳; 吉飞宇; 鱼翔
2012-01-01
利用三角级数法将 Burgers-KdV 混合型方程转化为一组非线性代数方程，进而用待定系数法求解方程组，最后求出了 Burgers-KdV 混合型方程的精确解% The Burgers-KdV equation is changed into nonlinear algebraic equations based on the trigonometric series, and it can be solved by the method of undetermined coeﬃcients and the Maple software. As a result, the exact solution to the Burgers-KdV equation is successfully derived.
Theoretical modeling of the catch-slip bond transition in biological adhesion
Gunnerson, Kim; Pereverzev, Yuriy; Prezhdo, Oleg
2006-05-01
The mechanism by which leukocytes leave the blood stream and enter inflamed tissue is called extravasation. This process is facilitated by the ability of selectin proteins, produced by the endothelial cells of blood vessels, to form transient bonds with the leukocytes. In the case of P-selectin, the protein bonds with P-selectin glycoprotein ligands (PSGL-1) produced by the leukocyte. Recent atomic force microscopy and flow chamber analyses of the binding of P-selectin to PSGL-1 provide evidence for an unusual biphasic catch-bond/slip-bond behavior in response to the strength of exerted force. This biphasic process is not well-understood. There are several theoretical models for describing this phenomenon. These models use different profiles for potential energy landscapes and how they change under forces. We are exploring these changes using molecular dynamics. We will present a simple theoretical model as well as share some of our early MD results for describing this phenomenon.
Host Selection of Microbiota via Differential Adhesion.
McLoughlin, Kirstie; Schluter, Jonas; Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Smith, Adrian L; Foster, Kevin R
2016-04-13
The host epithelium is the critical interface with microbial communities, but the mechanisms by which the host regulates these communities are poorly understood. Here we develop the hypothesis that hosts use differential adhesion to select for and against particular members of their microbiota. We use an established computational, individual-based model to study the impact of host factors that regulate adhesion at the epithelial surface. Our simulations predict that host-mediated adhesion can increase the competitive advantage of microbes and create ecological refugia for slow-growing species. We show how positive selection via adhesion can be transformed into negative selection if the host secretes large quantities of a matrix such as mucus. Our work predicts that adhesion is a powerful mechanism for both positive and negative selection within the microbiota. We discuss molecules-mucus glycans and IgA-that affect microbe adhesion and identify testable predictions of the adhesion-as-selection model. PMID:27053168
Michal Staninec; Tsuji, Grant H.
2012-01-01
Introduction: There are many luting cements coming to market which claim to be adhesive, but there is no clinical protocol currently for testing these claims. There is a standardized protocol for testing direct restorations bonded to dentin and it is used extensively. Case Report: We describe a clinical procedure for restoring a non-carious cervical lesion (NCCL) with a ceramic inlay using Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and an adhesive resin cement...
Power and power-logarithmic expansions for travelling-wave solutions of the Burgers-Huxley equation
Efimova, Olga Yu.; Kudryashov, Nikolai A.; Chmykhov, Mikhail A.
2005-01-01
The Burgers-Huxley equation is studied. All power and power-logarithmic expansions for travelling-wave solutions of this equation are presented. Using the power expansions, some exact solutions of this equation are found.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闻小永; 高以天; 薛玉山; 郭睿; 齐风华; 丁鑫
2012-01-01
Burgers-type equations can describe some phenomena in fluids, plasmas, gas dynamics, traffic, etc. In this paper, an integrable hierarchy covering the lattice Burgers equation is derived from a discrete spectral problem. N-fold Darboux transformation （DT） and conservation laws for the lattice Burgers equation are constructed based on its Lax pair. N-soliton solutions in the form of Vandermonde-like determinant are derived via the resulting DT with symbolic computation, structures of which are shown graphically. Coexistence of the elastic-inelastic interaction among the three solitons is firstly reported for the lattice Burgers equation, even if the similar phenomenon for certern continuous systems is known. Results in this paper might be helpful for understanding some ecological problems describing the evolution of competing species and the propagation of nonlinear waves in fluids.
Anti-periodic traveling wave solution to a forced two-dimensional generalized KdV-Burgers equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN Junyu
2003-01-01
The anti-periodic traveling wave solutions to a forced two-dimensional generalized KdV-Burgers equation are studied.Some theorems concerning the boundness, existence and uniqueness of the solution to this equation are proved.
Non-Lie Symmetry Group and New Exact Solutions for the Two-Dimensional KdV-Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hong; TIAN Ying-Hui; CHEN Han-Lin
2011-01-01
@@ By using the modified Clarkson-Kruskal (CK) direct method, we obtain the non-Lie symmetry group of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation.Under some constraint conditions, Lie point symmetry is also obtained.Through the symmetry group, some new exact solutions of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation are found.%By using the modified Clarkson-Kruskal (CK) direct method, we obtain the non-Lie symmetry group of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation. Under some constraint conditions, Lie point symmetry is also obtained.Through the symmetry group, some new exact solutions of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation are found.
Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H
2016-08-01
The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (Ppapain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties. PMID:27045253
Grabmaier, U.; Kania, G.; Kreiner, J.; Grabmeier, J.; Uhl, A.; Huber, B. C.; Lackermair, K.; Herbach, N.; Todica, A.; Eriksson, U.; Weckbach, L. T.; Brunner, S.
2016-01-01
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is strongly upregulated in hearts of mice with coxsackie virus-induced as well as in patients with viral infection-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the role of its soluble form as a biomarker in inflammatory heart diseases remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) directly correlated with disease activity and progression of cardiac dysfunction in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). EAM was induced by immunization of BALB/c mice with heart-specific myosin-alpha heavy chain peptide together with complete Freund`s adjuvant. ELISA revealed strong expression of cardiac VCAM-1 (cVCAM-1) throughout the course of EAM in immunized mice compared to control animals. Furthermore, sVCAM-1 was elevated in the plasma of immunized compared to control mice at acute and chronic stages of the disease. sVCAM-1 did not correlate with the degree of acute cardiac inflammation analyzed by histology or cardiac cytokine expression investigated by ELISA. Nevertheless, heart to body weight ratio correlated significantly with sVCAM-1 at chronic stages of EAM. Cardiac systolic dysfunction studied with positron emission tomography indicated a weak relationship with sVCAM-1 at the chronic stage of the disease. Our data provide evidence that plasma levels of sVCAM-1 are elevated throughout all stages of the disease but showed no strong correlation with the severity of EAM. PMID:27501319
Gazzillo, Domenico; Giacometti, Achille; Fantoni, Riccardo; Sollich, Peter
2006-11-01
We investigate the dependence of the stickiness parameters tij=1/(12τij) —where the τij are the conventional Baxter parameters—on the solute diameters σi and σj in multicomponent sticky hard sphere (SHS) models for fluid mixtures of mesoscopic neutral particles. A variety of simple but realistic interaction potentials, utilized in the literature to model short-ranged attractions present in real solutions of colloids or reverse micelles, is reviewed. We consider: (i) van der Waals attractions, (ii) hard-sphere-depletion forces, (iii) polymer-coated colloids, and (iv) solvation effects (in particular hydrophobic bonding and attractions between reverse micelles of water-in-oil microemulsions). We map each of these potentials onto an equivalent SHS model by requiring the equality of the second virial coefficients. The main finding is that, for most of the potentials considered, the size-dependence of tij(T,σi,σj) can be approximated by essentially the same expression, i.e., a simple polynomial in the variable σiσj/σij2 , with coefficients depending on the temperature T , or—for depletion interactions—on the packing fraction η0 of the depletant particles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈正争; 肖清华
2013-01-01
This paper is concerned with the nonlinear stability of planar shock profiles to the Cauchy problem of the generalized KdV-Burgers equation in two dimensions. Our analysis is based on the energy method developed by Goodman [5] for the nonlinear stability of scalar viscous shock profiles to scalar viscous conservation laws and some new decay estimates on the planar shock profiles of the generalized KdV-Burgers equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shibayama, T. [Univ. of Hokkaido, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research
1998-09-01
A procedure for determining the Burgers vector anisotropy in irradiated ferritic steels allowing identification of all a<100> and all a/2<111> dislocations in a region of interest is applied to a pressurized tube specimen of JLF-1 irradiated at 430 C to 14.3 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV) or 61 dpa. Analysis of micrographs indicates large anisotropy in Burgers vector populations develop during irradiation creep.
A Constitutive Model for Uni-axial Compaction of Non-adhesive Corn Stalk Powder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Dong; Sun Yanling
2004-01-01
In order to study mechanical behaviors of corn stalk powder during the compaction, the yield criterion for corn stalk powder is proposed with a plasticity theory. From the stress-strain curves of uni-axial compaction test for corn stalk powder, the constitutive model, in which the equations are modified by experiments on corn stalk powder, is adopted to describe plastic behaviors of powder, and is discussed based on the incremental theory and deformation theory. The numerical results agree well with the experimental ones.
Gelation in a model 1-component system with adhesive hard-sphere interactions
Kim, Jung Min; Eberle, Aaron; Fang, Jun; Wagner, Norman
2012-02-01
Colloidal dispersions can undergo a dynamical arrest of the disperse phase leading to a system with solid-like properties when either the volume fraction or the interparticle potential is varied. Systems that contain low to moderate particulate concentrations form gels whereas higher concentrations lead to glassy states in which caging by nearest neighbors can be a significant contributor to the arrested long-time dynamics. Colloid polymer mixtures have been the prevalent model system for studying the effect of attraction, where attractions are entropically driven by depletion effects, in which gelation has been shown to be a result of phase separation [1]. Using the model 1-component octadecyl coated silica nanoparticle system, Eberle et al. [2] found the gel-line to intersect the spinodal to the left of the critical point, and at higher concentrations extended toward the mode coupling theory attractive driven glass line. . We continue this study by varying the particle diameter and find quantitative differences which we explain by gravity. 1. Lu, P.J., et al., Nature, 2008. 453(7194): p. 499-504.2. Eberle, A.P.R., N.J. Wagner, and R. Castaneda-Priego, Physical Review Letters, 2011. 106(10).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This investigation was carried out to extend the shelf-life of chicken burger using ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) at different concentrations (1 and 2%) as individual treatment using gamma irradiation at doses of 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy as individual treatment and combined treatments. The untreated and treated samples of chicken burger were divided into three groups, the first was control, the second group was chicken burger samples treated with 1% EEP then irradiated at doses of 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy and the third group was chicken burger samples treated with 2 % EEP then irradiated at doses of 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy. The effects of these treatments on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken burger samples were studied post-treatment and during cold storage (4±10C). The results showed that concentrations of EEP at 1 and 2% reduced the total bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae total mold and yeast count, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococccus faecalis and Bacillus cereus, and the growth of Salmonella spp, was not detected in all treated samples. Also, shelf-life periods were increased up to 27 days for chicken burger treated by 2% EEP and gamma radiation at dose of 4.5 kGy and these combined treatment were more effective as antimicrobial, consequently may be useful as natural food preservative
The tyger phenomenon for the Galerkin-truncated Burgers and Euler equations
Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Nazarenko, Sergei; Matsumoto, Takeshi
2010-01-01
It is shown that the solutions of inviscid hydrodynamical equations with suppression of all spatial Fourier modes having wavenumbers in excess of a threshold $\\kg$ exhibit unexpected features. The study is carried out for both the one-dimensional Burgers equation and the two-dimensional incompressible Euler equation. At large $\\kg$, for smooth initial conditions, the first symptom of truncation, a localized short-wavelength oscillation which we call a "tyger", is caused by a resonant interaction between fluid particle motion and truncation waves generated by small-scale features (shocks, layers with strong vorticity gradients, etc). These tygers appear when complex-space singularities come within one Galerkin wavelength $\\lambdag = 2\\pi/\\kg$ from the real domain and typically arise far away from preexisting small-scale structures at locations whose velocities match that of such structures. Tygers are weak and strongly localized at first - in the Burgers case at the time of appearance of the first shock their ...
Bacterial adhesion and biofilms on surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Trevor Roger Garrett; Manmohan Bhakoo; Zhibing Zhang
2008-01-01
Bacterial adhesion has become a significant problem in industry and in the domicile,and much research has been done for deeper understanding of the processes involved.A generic biological model of bacterial adhesion and population growth called the bacterial biofilm growth cycle,has been described and modified many times.The biofilm growth cycle encompasses bacterial adhesion at all levels,starting with the initial physical attraction of bacteria to a substrate,and ending with the eventual liberation of cell dusters from the biofilm matrix.When describing bacterial adhesion one is simply describing one or more stages of biofilm development,neglecting the fact that the population may not reach maturity.This article provides an overview of bacterial adhesion.cites examples of how bac-terial adhesion affects industry and summarises methods and instrumentation used to improve our understanding of the adhesive prop-erties of bacteria.
Gelation and state diagram for a model nanoparticle system with adhesive hard sphere interactions
Wagner, Norman; Aaron, Eberle
2012-02-01
We provide the first comprehensive state diagram of thermoreversible gelation in a model nanoparticle system from dilute concentrations to the attractive driven glass. We show the temperature dependence of the interparticle potential is related to a surface molecular phase transition of the brush layer using neutron reflectivity (NR) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) [1]. We establish the temperature dependence of the interparticle potential using SANS, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and rheology. The potential parameters extracted from SANS suggest that, for this system, gelation is an extension of the Mode Coupling Theory (MCT) attractive driven glass line (ADG) to lower volume fractions and follows the percolation transition. Below the critical concentration, gelation proceeds without competition for phase separation [2]. These results are used to develop a complete state diagram for the sticky hard sphere reference system. [4pt] [1] A.P.R. Eberle, N.J. Wagner, B. Akgun, S.K. Satija, Langmuir 26 3003 (2010).[0pt] [2] A.P.R. Eberle, N.J. Wagner, R. Castaneda-Priego, Phys. Rev. Let. 105704 (2011).
Micciché, Maurizio; Arzt, Eduard; Kroner, Elmar
2014-05-28
The goal of our study is to better understand the design parameters of bioinspired dry adhesives inspired by geckos. For this, we fabricated single macroscopic pillars of 400 μm diameter with different aspect ratios and different tip shapes (i.e., flat tips, spherical tips with different radii, and mushroom tips with different diameters). Tilt-angle-dependent adhesion measurements showed that although the tip shape of the pillars strongly influences the pull-off force, the pull-off strength is similar for flat and mushroom-shaped tips. We found no tilt-angle dependency of adhesion for spherical tip structures and, except for high tilt angle and low preload experiments, no tilt-angle effect for mushroom-tip pillars. For flat-tip pillars, we found a strong influence of tilt angle on adhesion, which decreased linearly with increasing aspect ratio. The experiments show that for the tested aspect ratios between 1 and 5, a linear decrease of tilt-angle dependency is found. The results of our studies will help to design bioinspired adhesives for application on smooth and rough surfaces.
Strazza, Marianne; Pirrone, Vanessa; Wigdahl, Brian; Dampier, Will; Lin, Wei; Feng, Rui; Maubert, Monique E.; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio A.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Nonnemacher, Michael R.
2016-01-01
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) has been defined as a critically important protective barrier that is involved in providing essential biologic, physiologic, and immunologic separation between the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. Insults to the BBB can cause overall barrier damage or deregulation of the careful homeostasis maintained between the periphery and the CNS. These insults can, therefore, yield numerous phenotypes including increased overall permeability, interendothelial gap formation, alterations in cytokine and chemokine secretion, and accelerated cellular passage. The current studies expose the human brain microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3, to prolonged morphine exposure and aim to uncover the mechanisms underlying alterations in barrier function in vitro. These studies show alterations in the mRNA and protein levels of the cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule that correlate with an increased firm adhesion of the CD3+ subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overall, these studies suggest that prolonged morphine exposure may result in increased cell migration into the CNS, which may accelerate pathological processes in many diseases that involve the BBB. PMID:27294916
Yaqoob, M.A.; de, Rooij, R.; Schipper, D.J.
2013-01-01
The adhesion force due to capillary interaction between two hydrophilic surfaces is strongly dependent on the partial pressure of water and is often calculated using the Kelvin equation. The validity of the Kelvin equation is questionable at low relative humidity (RH) of water, like in high vacuum and dry nitrogen environments, where water is only present as layers of several molecules thick at the surfaces. A model from ordered to bulk form of water has been developed using the Brunauer, Emm...
Using plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) to improve the nutritional components of burger
Daniela Baldeón Clavijo; Francisco Velásquez Rodríguez; Jesús Eligio Castellanos Estupiñán
2015-01-01
(Received: 2015/03/18 - Accepted: 2015/05/27)Three levels of paste Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha Inchi) consisting of 10, 15% and 20% were evaluated to replace the weight percent lard conventionally used to improve the nutritional quality of the common hamburger, compared with a reference group. The experimental units were 10 burgers, weighing 100 g. each and a total of 120 were analyzed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The research was conducted in the Universidad Est...
Development of Galerkin Method for Solving the Generalized Burger's-Huxley Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. El-Kady
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical treatments for the generalized Burger's—Huxley GBH equation are presented. The treatments are based on cardinal Chebyshev and Legendre basis functions with Galerkin method. Gauss quadrature formula and El-gendi method are used to convert the problem into a system of ordinary differential equations. The numerical results are compared with the literatures to show efficiency of the proposed methods.
Burgers-like equation for spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry in QCD
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Nowak, Maciej A.; Warchoł, Piotr
2013-01-01
We link the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in Euclidean QCD to the collision of spectral shock waves in the vicinity of zero eigenvalue of Dirac operator. The mechanism, originating from complex Burger's-like equation for viscid, pressureless, one-dimensional flow of eigenvalues, is similar to recently observed weak-strong coupling phase transition in large $N_c$ Yang-Mills theory. The spectral viscosity is proportional to the inverse of the size of the random matrix that replaces t...
Anomalous scaling in the random-force-driven Burgers equation. A Monte Carlo study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mesterhazy, D. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2011-07-15
We present a new approach to determine numerically the statistical behavior of small-scale structures in hydrodynamic turbulence. Starting from the functional integral for the random-force-driven Burgers equation we show that Monte Carlo simulations allow for the computation of structure function scaling exponents to high precision. Given the general applicability of Monte Carlo methods, this opens up the possibility to address also other systems relevant to turbulence within this framework. (orig.)
Anomalous scaling in the random-force-driven Burgers equation. A Monte Carlo study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mesterhazy, David [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann Inst. fuer Computing
2011-12-15
We present a new approach to determine the small-scale statistical behavior of hydrodynamic turbulence by means of lattice simulations. Using the functional integral representation of the random-force-driven Burgers equation we show that high-order moments of velocity differences satisfy anomalous scaling. The general applicability of Monte Carlo methods provides the opportunity to study also other systems of interest within this framework. (orig.)
Analysis of the self-similar solutions of a generalized Burger's equation with nonlinear damping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rao Ch. Srinivasa
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear ordinary differential equation resulting from the self-similar reduction of a generalized Burgers equation with nonlinear damping is studied in some detail. Assuming initial conditions at the origin we observe a wide variety of solutions – (positive single hump, unbounded or those with a finite zero. The existence and nonexistence of positive bounded solutions with different types of decay (exponential or algebraic to zero at infinity for specific parameter ranges are proved.
Comparison of Spectral and Differential Quadrature Methods for Solving the Burger-Huxley Equation
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Jalal Izadian
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the Burger-Huxley equation is solved by two methods: Spectral method and Differential Quadrature Method (DQM. The Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto point distribution is utilized in spectral method. The integrity and computational accuracy of the spectral method in solving some test problems are demonstrated through various case studies. The results show that spectral method is more accurate than DQM.
The Upwind Finite Volume Element Method for Two-Dimensional Burgers Equation
Qing Yang
2013-01-01
A finite volume element method for approximating the solution to two-dimensional Burgers equation is presented. Upwind technique is applied to handle the nonlinear convection term. We present the semi-discrete scheme and fully discrete scheme, respectively. We show that the schemes are convergent to order one in space in ${L}^{\\mathrm{2}}$ -norm. Numerical experiment is presented finally to validate the theoretical analysis.
Weiguo Zhang; Xiang Li
2011-01-01
We focus on studying approximate solutions of damped oscillatory solutions of generalized KdV-Burgers equation and their error estimates. The theory of planar dynamical systems is employed to make qualitative analysis to the dynamical systems which traveling wave solutions of this equation correspond to. We investigate the relations between the behaviors of bounded traveling wave solutions and dissipation coefficient, and give two critical values λ1 and λ2 which can characte...
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Wei Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Based on a general fractional Riccati equation and with Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative to an extended fractional Riccati expansion method for solving the time fractional Burgers equation and the space-time fractional Cahn-Hilliard equation, the exact solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions are obtained. The obtained results show that the presented method is effective and appropriate for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.
Numerical Computation of the Tau Approximation for the Delayed Burgers Equation
Khaksar, Haghani F.; Karimi, Vanani S.; Sedighi, Hafshejani J.
2013-02-01
We investigate an efficient extension of the operational Tau method for solving the delayed Burgers equation(DBE) arising in physical problems. This extension gives a useful numerical algorithm for the DBE including linear and nonlinear terms. The orthogonality of the Laguerre polynomials as the basis function is the main characteristic behind the method to decrease the volume of computations and runtime of the method. Numerical results are also presented for some experiments to demonstrate the usefulness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm.
Embed-Solitons and Their Evolutional Behaviors of (3+1)-Dimensional Burgers System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Hai-Ping; ZHENG Chun-Long
2007-01-01
With the help of an extended mapping approach and a linear variable separation method, new families of variable separation solutions with arbitrary functions for the (3+1)-dimensional Burgers system are derived. Based on thc derived exact solutions, some novel and interesting localized coherent excitations such as embed-solitons are revealed by selecting appropriate boundary conditions and/or initial qualifications. The time evolutional properties of the novel localized excitation are also briefly investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid, E-mail: wazwaz@sxu.ed [Department of Mathematics, Saint Xavier University, Chicago, IL 60655 (United States)
2010-08-15
Combined equations of the Burgers hierarchy are constructed using the sense of the combined Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-modified KdV (mKdV) equation. The Cole-Hopf transformation method is used to study the resulting equations. Multiple kink solutions and multiple singular kink solutions are formally established for each combined equation. The kink solutions of any combination differ only in the dispersion relation.
New exact solutions of the non-homogeneous Burgers equation in (1+1) dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel [Department of Science, University of Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima Villas San Sebastian, C P 28045, Colima (Mexico)
2007-04-15
We construct an invertible transformation between the non-homogeneous Burgers equation (NBE) and the stationary Schroedinger equation in (1+1) dimensions. By means of this transformation, each solution of the stationary Schroedinger equation generates a fully time-dependent solution of the NBE. As applications we derive exact solutions of the NBE for general power-law nonhomogeneities, generalizing former results on the linear case.
Mancini, Simone; Preziuso, Giovanna; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Szendrő, Zsolt; Fratini, Filippo; Paci, Gisella
2015-12-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Curcuma longa powder and ascorbic acid on some quality traits of rabbit burgers. The burgers (burgers control with no additives; burgers with 3.5 g of turmeric powder/100g meat; burgers with 0.1g of ascorbic acid/100g meat) were analyzed at Days 0 and 7 for pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, fatty acid profile, TBARS, antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) and microbial growth. The addition of turmeric powder modified the meat color, produced an antioxidant capacity similar to ascorbic acid and determined a lower cooking loss than other formulations. Turmeric powder might be considered as a useful natural antioxidant, increasing the quality and extending the shelf life of rabbit burgers.
Approximate Damped Oscillatory Solutions for Compound KdV-Burgers Equation and Their Error Estimates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei-guo ZHANG; Yan ZHAO; Xiao-yan TENG
2012-01-01
In this paper,we focus on studying approximate solutions of damped oscillatory solutions of the compound KdV-Burgers equation and their error estimates.We employ the theory of planar dynamical systems to study traveling wave solutions of the compound KdV-Burgers equation.We obtain some global phase portraits under different parameter conditions as well as the existence of bounded traveling wave solutions.Furthermore,we investigate the relations between the behavior of bounded traveling wave solutions and the dissipation coefficient r of the equation.We obtain two critical values of r,and find that a bounded traveling wave appears as a kink profile solitary wave if |r| is greater than or equal to some critical value,while it appears as a damped oscillatory wave if |r| is less than some critical value.By means of analysis and the undetermined coefficients method,we find that the compound KdV-Burgers equation only has three kinds of bell profile solitary wave solutions without dissipation.Based on the above discussions and according to the evolution relations of orbits in the global phase portraits,we obtain all approximate damped oscillatory solutions by using the undetermined coefficients method.Finally,using the homogenization principle,we establish the integral equations reflecting the relations between exact solutions and approximate solutions of damped oscillatory solutions.Moreover,we also give the error estimates for these approximate solutions.
On the multivariate Burgers equation and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation
Kampen, Joerg
2009-01-01
We prove global existence of the multivariate viscous Burgers equation system defined on the whole space or on a domain isomorphic to the $n$-torus and with time horizon up to infinity and $C^{\\infty}$- data (satisfying some growth conditions if the problem is posed on the whole space). The proof is by a semi-explicit perturbative expansion in transformed coordinates where the convergence is guaranteed by certain a priori estimates. Under some moderate conditions uniqueness of the global solution of the multivariate Burgers equation is a consequence of uniqueness of solutions of a semilinear system. The global solution ${\\bf u}$ constructed is H\\"older continuous and serves to define coefficients of a system which is linear in terms of ${\\bf u}$. The fundamental solution of the latter system is called the fundamental functional and is dependent on the initial data of the Burgers problem in a generic way. The fundamental functional proves useful in order to construct solutions for a class of semilinear partial...
Zhu, Changjiang; Duan, Renjun
2003-02-01
This paper is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of the entropy solution to the initial boundary value problem for the inviscid Burgers equation \\left\\{\\begin{array}{@{}l@{\\qquad}l@{}} u_t+\\big(\\frac{u^2}{2}\\big)_x=0 x\\gt0\\quad t\\gt0\\\\ u(x,0)=u_0(x) x\\geq0\\\\ u(0,t)=0 t\\geq0. \\end{array}\\right. To apply the method of vanishing viscosity to study the existence of the entropy solution, we first introduce the initial boundary value problem for the viscous Burgers equation, and as in Evans (1998 Partial Differential Equations (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) and Hopf (1950 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 3 201-30), give the formula of the corresponding viscosity solutions by Hopf-Cole transformation. Secondly, we prove the convergence of the viscosity solution sequences and verify that the limiting function is an entropy solution. Finally, we give an example to show how our main result can be applied to solve the initial boundary value problem for the Burgers equation.
My 2030s. Citizens about the Biobased Economy; My 2030s. Burgers over de Biobased Economy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van den Berg, N.; Hulshof, M.; Van der Veen, M.
2013-02-15
My 2030s is the first qualitative study of the needs and concerns of citizens about the Biobased Economy, an economy in which fossil fuels are largely substituted by vegetable alternatives. This final report describes the reason and purpose of My 2030s, the course of the public debates and the results of research into ideas of citizens on the Biobased Economy The report concludes with recommendations on how the stakeholders can actively involve citizens in one of the major transitions of the next century [Dutch] My 2030s is het eerste kwalitatieve onderzoek naar de wensen en zorgen van burgers over de Biobased Economy, een economie waarin fossiele grondstoffen grotendeels zijn vervangen door plantaardige alternatieven. Dit eindrapport beschrijft de aanleiding en opzet van My 2030s, het verloop van de publieksdebatten en de resultaten van het onderzoek naar denkbeelden van burgers over de Biobased Economy. Het rapport eindigt met aanbevelingen over hoe de stakeholders burgers actief kunnen betrekken bij een van de belangrijkste transities van de komende eeuw.
Mittal, K L
2014-01-01
This comprehensive book will provide both fundamental and applied aspects of adhesion pertaining to microelectronics in a single and easily accessible source. Among the topics to be covered include; Various theories or mechanisms of adhesionSurface (physical or chemical) characterization of materials as it pertains to adhesionSurface cleaning as it pertains to adhesionWays to improve adhesionUnraveling of interfacial interactions using an array of pertinent techniquesCharacterization of interfaces / interphasesPolymer-polymer adhesionMetal-polymer adhesion (metallized polymers)Polymer adhesi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michal Staninec
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: There are many luting cements coming to market which claim to be adhesive, but there is no clinical protocol currently for testing these claims. There is a standardized protocol for testing direct restorations bonded to dentin and it is used extensively. Case Report: We describe a clinical procedure for restoring a non-carious cervical lesion (NCCL with a ceramic inlay using Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM technology and an adhesive resin cement.The procedure was straightforward and the result was good at one month. Discussion: NCCL′s can be restored with CAD-CAM technology in one appointment. This technique can be used to clinically test adhesion of luting cements to dentin, similarly to the current standard for direct restorations.
Laemers, M.T.A.B.; Groot-van Leeuwen, L.E. de; Fredriks, R.
2007-01-01
In de eerste Awb-evaluatie is de werking van de Awb voornamelijk vanuit het perspectief van bestuursorganen en rechters onderzocht. Aangezien de Awb-procedure er onder andere toe dient om problemen tussen belanghebbenden (veelal burgers) en overheidsorganen te beslechten is het perspectief van de burger eveneens van belang. In de tweede evaluatie is op kleine schaal aandacht besteed aan de ervaringen van burgers met Awb-procedures. In dat onderzoek zijn repeat players (personen die – veelal b...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shengqi Fu; Lei Yang; Shuling Zhang; Shilong Sun; Xingai Mao
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have confirmed the neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia on ischemic brain injury.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of mild hypothermia on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and serum interleukin-6 levels in ischemic brain tissues of focal brain ischemia rats, and to explore the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia on ischemic brain injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, neurobiological experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, Xinxiang Medical College, China from February to July 2006.MATERIALS: Thirty healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were used to establish middle cerebral artery occlusion models using the suture method. The immunohistochemistry (streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) kit was purchased from Boster, China. Interleukin-6 radioimmunoassay was supplied by Institute of Radioimmunity, Technology Development Center, General Hospital of Chinese PLA. METHODS: The rats were equally and randomly assigned into mild hypothermia and control groups, and middle cerebral artery occlusion models were established. The rectal temperature was maintained at (37 ± 0.5)℃ in the control group. In the mild hypothermia group, the rectal temperature was maintained at (33±1)℃.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 12 hours after model establishment, the ischemic brain hemispheres were coronally sliced at the level of the optic chiasm. The number of intercellular adhesion molecule- 1 -positive vessels per high-power field was observed with an optical microscope. Serum interleukin-6 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, intercellular adhesion molecule-I and serum interleukin-6 expressions were significantly decreased in ischemic brain tissues of the mild hypothermia group (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Mild hypothermia exhibits a neuroprotective effect by reducing serum interleukin-6 and intercellular adhesion molecule- 1
Design and fabrication of polymer based dry adhesives inspired by the gecko adhesive system
Jin, Kejia
There has been significant interest in developing dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which offers several advantages compared to conventional pressure sensitive adhesives. Specifically, gecko adhesive pads have anisotropic adhesion properties: the adhesive pads (spatulae) stick strongly when sheared in one direction but are non-adherent when sheared in the opposite direction. This anisotropy property is attributed to the complex topography of the array of fine tilted and curved columnar structures (setae) that bear the spatulae. In this thesis, easy, scalable methods, relying on conventional and unconventional techniques are presented to incorporate tilt in the fabrication of synthetic polymer-based dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which provide anisotropic adhesion properties. In the first part of the study, the anisotropic adhesion and friction properties of samples with various tilt angles to test the validity of a nanoscale tape-peeling model of spatular function are measured. Consistent with the Peel Zone model, samples with lower tilt angles yielded larger adhesion forces. Contact mechanics of the synthetic array were highly anisotropic, consistent with the frictional adhesion model and gecko-like. Based on the original design, a new design of gecko-like dry adhesives was developed which showed superior tribological properties and furthermore showed anisotropic adhesive properties without the need for tilt in the structures. These adhesives can be used to reversibly suspend weights from vertical surfaces (e.g., walls) and, for the first time to our knowledge, horizontal surfaces (e.g., ceilings) by simultaneously and judiciously activating anisotropic friction and adhesion forces. Furthermore, adhesion properties between artificial gecko-inspired dry adhesives and rough substrates with varying roughness are studied. The results suggest that both adhesion and friction forces on a rough substrate depends significantly on the
Dynamic analysis of two adhesively bonded rods
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Kenneth L. Kuttler
2009-07-01
Full Text Available This work presents two models for the dynamic analysis of two rods that are adhesively bonded. The first model assumes that the adhesive is an elasto-plastic material and that complete debonding occurs when the stress reaches the yield limit. In the second model the degradation of the adhesive is described by the introduction of material damage. Failure occurs when the material is completely damaged, or the damage reaches a critical floor value. Both models are analyzed and the existence of a weak solution is established for the model with damage. In the quasistatic case, a new condition for adhesion is found as the limit of the adhesive thickness tends to zero.
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A Farahnak
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Background: Cercariae (larva of helminth parasites are covered by a thick glycocalyx coat, which serves as an osmotic protection during their free existence, and contain carbohydrates conjugated as glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucopolysaccharides. Although, limited studies have been made on life cycle of cercariae from fresh water snails, however, carbohydrate studies on cercariae have not been done in Iran so far. This study was made to determine the cercariae specifications from Lymnaea gedrosiana and evaluation of surface carbohydrates as receptors for host lectins in a host-parasite relationship system as a model in human schistosomiasis including cercarial dermatitis in Khuzestan Province. Methods: For this purpose, snails were collected from Dezful region in Khuzestan Province and cercariae were obtained by shedding method and identified by valuable keys. Experimental infection was established in the Culex pipiens (Culicidae mosquitoes larvae for further identification and mode of adhesion. To detect the mode of adhesion, surface carbohydrates of cercariae were detected by lentil (Lens culinaris lectins. Results: Examined snails were infected with xiphidiocerceria of trematodes and metacercariae were obtained from Culex pipiens. Also, Mannose monosaccharides- CH2OH (CHOH 4CHO - were detected particularly on the glands of cercariae. Conclusion: Adhesion of cercariae to their host by lectins-carbohydrates bonds is the first stage of host-parasite relationship. This phenomenon could be happened for animal schistosome's cercaria in cercarial dermatitis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Jakob
2015-01-01
cleaving of a single chunk of graphite. For both cases, parallel and serial exfoliation, it is investigated how many generations of cleavages are needed. An approximate model with the probability distribution expressed as a simple closed form is presented and compared with the simulations.......Single-crystal graphite can be cleaved by the use of an adhesive tape. This was also the initial route for obtaining graphene, a one-layer thick graphite slab. In this letter a few simple and fun considerations are presented in an attempt to shed some light on why this procedure is successful...
Urano, Hideki; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Michiro; Ohnisi, Tetsuro; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Endo, Nobuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi
2016-01-01
We developed a novel hydrogel derived from sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in which phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was introduced into the carboxyl groups of CMC to prevent perineural adhesions. This hydrogel has previously shown excellent anti-adhesive effects even after aggressive internal neurolysis in a rat model. Here, we confirmed the effects of the hydrogel on morphological and physiological recovery after nerve decompression. We prepared a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression using silicone tubing. Morphological and physiological recovery was confirmed at one, two, and three months after nerve decompression by assessing motor conduction velocity (MCV), the wet weight of the tibialis anterior muscle and morphometric evaluations of nerves. Electrophysiology showed significantly quicker recovery in the CMC-PE group than in the control group (24.0 ± 3.1 vs. 21.0± 2.1 m/s (p < 0.05) at one months and MCV continued to be significantly faster thereafter. Wet muscle weight at one month significantly differed between the CMC-PE (BW) and control groups (0.148 ± 0.020 vs. 0.108 ± 0.019%BW). The mean wet muscle weight was constantly higher in the CMC-PE group than in the control group throughout the experimental period. The axon area at one month was twice as large in the CMC-PE group compared with the control group (24.1 ± 17.3 vs. 12.3 ± 9 μm2) due to the higher ratio of axons with a larger diameter. Although the trend continued throughout the experimental period, the difference decreased after two months and was not statistically significant at three months. Although anti-adhesives can reduce adhesion after nerve injury, their effects on morphological and physiological recovery after surgical decompression of chronic entrapment neuropathy have not been investigated in detail. The present study showed that the new anti-adhesive CMC-PE gel can accelerate morphological and physiological recovery of nerves after decompression surgery. PMID:27741280
Critical length scale controls adhesive wear mechanisms
Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H.; Molinari, Jean-Francois
2016-06-01
The adhesive wear process remains one of the least understood areas of mechanics. While it has long been established that adhesive wear is a direct result of contacting surface asperities, an agreed upon understanding of how contacting asperities lead to wear debris particle has remained elusive. This has restricted adhesive wear prediction to empirical models with limited transferability. Here we show that discrepant observations and predictions of two distinct adhesive wear mechanisms can be reconciled into a unified framework. Using atomistic simulations with model interatomic potentials, we reveal a transition in the asperity wear mechanism when contact junctions fall below a critical length scale. A simple analytic model is formulated to predict the transition in both the simulation results and experiments. This new understanding may help expand use of computer modelling to explore adhesive wear processes and to advance physics-based wear laws without empirical coefficients.
Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints
Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.
2012-01-01
Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper a model is presented that describes the distribution of adhesion values typically experimentally observed for different MEMS devices that have been fabricated in the same way. This spread is attributed to the fact that different devices differ in the details of their surface roughness, even if these surface roughnesses are modeled as coming from the same ‘parent’ stochastic process. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the effect of surface roughness and relative humidity has been evaluated in detail, both on the expected mean value of the surface interaction energy between the MEMS surfaces, and the expected spread on this value from device to device. By comparing the new model to existing literature reporting this experimentally observed spread, we have found excellent agreement between the experimental spread observed, and the spread calculated with the theoretical model using Monte Carlo simulations. This work paves the way to detailed adhesion failure predictive modeling. It may be used to assess the reliability of MEMS designs that rely on contacting surfaces for their operation, but have a limited restoring force available to separate the surfaces when in contact. (paper)
Wang, Ying; Johnson, John A; Fulp, Abigail; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M
2013-02-22
Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is a major cause of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. The adhesive strength of the bond between a plaque and the vascular wall, measured as local energy release rate, G, is used for quantitative plaque stability estimation. We tested the hypothesis that adhesive strength varies with plaque composition. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP12) deficiency was previously reported to alter lesion composition. To estimate G values, peeling experiments are performed on aortic plaques from apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE KO) and apoE MMP12 double knockout (DKO) male mice after 8 months on high-fat diet. For plaques in apoE KO and apoE MMP12 DKO mice, experimental values for G differ significantly (paveraging 19.2J/m(2) and 12.1J/m(2), respectively. Histology confirms that plaques delaminate along their interface with the underlying internal elastic lamina (IEL) in both genotypes. Quantitative image analysis of stained tissue sections demonstrates a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) between local collagen content of lesions and G values in both genotypes, indicating that adhesive strength of plaques depends on local collagen content. Surprisingly, macrophage content of aortic plaques is neither significantly correlated with G values nor significantly different between genotypes. The IEL underlying plaques in apoE KO mice is significantly more fragmented (number of breaks and length of breaks) than in apoE MMP12 DKO mice, suggesting that elastin fragmentation also influences adhesion strength of plaques. Overall, our results suggest that plaques adhere more strongly to the underlying IEL in apoE KO mice than in apoE MMP12 DKO mice. PMID:23261250
Beliard, Aude; Noël, Agnès; Goffin, Frédéric; Frankenne, Francis; Foidart, Jean-Michel
2003-01-01
Objective: To evaluate, in a new original in vitro assay, putative factors that could modulate the adhesion of endometrial cells to peritoneum. Design: Prospective, controlled in vitro study. Setting: Academic research laboratory. Patient(s): Fourteen nonmenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy or laparoscopy for benign gynecologic indication. Intervention(s): Endometrial cells obtained from women with regular cycles without endometriosis were labeled with (111)Indium and confronted in vitro ...
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Yu-Chen Hou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Migration of T cells into the colon plays a major role in the pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of glutamine (Gln supplementation on chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules expressed by T cells in mice with dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis. Methods. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a Gln diet replacing 25% of the total nitrogen. After being fed the diets for 5 days, half of the mice from both groups were given 1.5% DSS in drinking water to induce colitis. Mice were killed after 5 days of DSS exposure. Results. DSS colitis resulted in higher expression levels of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand- (PSGL- 1, leukocyte function-associated antigen- (LFA- 1, and C-C chemokine receptor type 9 (CCR9 by T helper (Th and cytotoxic T (Tc cells, and mRNA levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in colons were upregulated. Gln supplementation decreased expressions of PSGL-1, LFA-1, and CCR9 by Th cells. Colonic gene expressions of endothelial adhesion molecules were also lower in Gln-colitis mice. Histological finding showed that colon infiltrating Th cells were less in the DSS group with Gln administration. Conclusions. Gln supplementation may ameliorate the inflammation of colitis possibly via suppression of T cell migration.
Evaluation of a new range of light-activated surgical adhesives for tissue repair in a porcine model
Riley, Jill N.; Hodges, Diane E.; March, Keith L.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.
2001-05-01
An in vitro study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a new range of light-activated surgical adhesives for incision repair in a wide range of tissue types. Biodegradable polymer membranes of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and salt particles using a solvent-casting and particulate- leaching technique. The porous membranes were doped with protein solder composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5 mg/ml indocyanine green (ICG) dye mixed in deionized water. Tissue incisions were repaired using the surgical adhesive in conjunction with an 805-nm diode laser. Nine organs were tested ranging from skin to liver to the small intestine, as well as the coronary, pulmonary, carotid, femoral and splenetic arteries. Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by Student's T-test. Repairs formed on the small intestine were most successful followed by spleen, atrium, kidney, muscle and skin. The strongest vascular repairs were achieved in the carotid artery and femoral artery. The new surgical adhesive could possibly be used as a simple and effective method to stop bleeding and repair tissue quickly in an emergency situation, or as a substitute to mechanical staples or sutures in many clinical applications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Muwei Li; Xianpei Wang; Lei Yang; Chuanyu Gao; Yexin Ma
2008-01-01
Plaque rupture,platelet aggregation,and thrombogenesis are the main mechanisms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS),and inflammation factors play key roles in plaque unstability.Psychological stress promotes acute inflammatory response,leading to increased circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP),IL-6,and serum intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1.But it is not clear that whether psychological stress has a direct effect on atherosclerotic plaque stability.The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of chronic psychological stress on inflammatory marker (ICAM-1 ) in atherosclerotic plaque,and inflammatory markers in peripheral blood.Materials and methods Sixty male rabbits were randomized into 2 groups:the control group (n =10) and the atherosclerotic group (n =50).The latter were fed on high fatty diet and were given a large dose of vitamin D3 (3 600 000IU/kg) via intraperitoneal injection.After 8 weeks,the atherosclerotic model was estaslished.Then the 50 atherosclerotic model rabbits were divided into 3 subgroups:no-stress subgroup (n = 16),physiological stress subgroup (n = 16) and psychological stress subgroup (n =18).In physiological stress subgroup and psychological stress subgroup,drinking was cut from twice a day to once a day.At the same time,psychological stress subgroup was given empty bottle stress,and this process lasted for 2 weeks.One hour after the last stress,the blood samples were collected and the serum levels of CRP,IL-6 amd ICAM-1 were tested by radioimmunoassay or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The aorta and heart were extracted for pathology examination,and the express of ICAM-1 was tested by immunohistochemical examination.Results (1) After effective atherosclerotic animal model construction,the expression of ICAM-1 in aorta was higher in atherosclerotic group than that in control group (P＜0.01),and was notably higher in psychological stress subgroup than that in no-stress subgroup or in physiological stress subgroup (2
Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage
Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo
2015-01-01
Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424
Detection of Antibiotic Resistant Listeria spp. in Beef Burgers Distributed in Ahvaz City, Iran
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Maktabi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Background Listeria spp. are able to be survive in many foods during frozen storage. One particular species, Listeria monocytogenes, is one of the most important food-borne pathogens globally. The antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms is a worldwide public health concern because of increasing global trade and travel. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and antibiotic resistance of Listeria spp. in the Iranian beef burgers distributed in Ahvaz city. Materials and Methods During a five-month period, 150 frozen burgers were purchased from local markets in Ahvaz city, and tested for presence of Listeria spp. The experimental procedure consisted of a one-step enrichment in Listeria enrichment broth, followed by plating on Oxford agar. Suspected colonies were subjected to subsequent biochemical tests and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics was investigated using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results were analyzed via the chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test using SPSS 16.0 software. Results Out of 150 samples, only two were contaminated with Listeria innocua, and the statistical analysis showed no significant differences in the prevalence of Listeria between companies (P > 0.05. One of the isolates was resistant to tetracycline and the other to co-trimoxazole. Both of the isolates showed an intermediate susceptibility to chloramphenicol; however, they were sensitive to the other tested antibiotics. Conclusions L. innocua is not a pathogen, but the presence of the bacterium could be an indicator of probable contamination with L. monocytogenes. Moreover, there is a potential risk to public health from the consumption of raw or undercooked burgers, which may increase the possibility of the acquisition of resistance to antibiotics.
Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage.
Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca
2015-11-06
Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life.
PH dependent adhesive peptides
Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan
2010-06-29
A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹东波; 颜家壬; 潘留仙
2003-01-01
The exact soliton solutions of KdV-Burgers equation and MKdV-Burgers equation are obtained by using trigonometric function transformed method based on the idea of the homogeneous balance method. The method can also be applied to solve more nonlinear mathematical physics equation or equations.%基于齐次平衡法的思想,用三角函数变换法获得了KdV-Burgers方程和MKdV-Burgers方程的精确孤子解.这种方法还能用来求解更多的非线性数学物理方程或方程组.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
史秀珍; 斯仁道尔吉
2012-01-01
通过构造新的试探函数,将变系数Burgers方程与KdV-Burgers方程化为易于求解的常微分方程组并对其求解,进而得到变系数Burgers方程与KdV-Burgers方程新的精确解.%By introducing new trial functions, the Burgers equation with variable coefficients and the KdV-Burgers equation are reduced into the simple solvable ordinary differential equations. New exact solutions of them are obtained by solving the ordinary differential equations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mancini
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of turmeric powder and ascorbic acid on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity in cooked rabbit burgers. The burgers were derived from 3 different formulations (C, control, with no additives; Tu with 3.5% of turmeric powder and AA with 0.1% of ascorbic acid and were stored at 4°C for 0 and 7 d and cooked. The lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] and antioxidant capacity (2,2-azinobis-[3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] {ABTS}, 1,1-diphenyl-2-pircydrazyl [DPPH] and ferric reducing ability [FRAP] were evaluated. A significant interaction between storage time and formulation (P<0.001 was observed for DPPH, FRAP and TBARS in cooked burgers. At day 0 and day 7, the DPPH value was higher in Tu and AA compared to C burgers. At day 0, C showed a lower level of FRAP than the Tu and AA burgers. At day 7, the FRAP values tended to decrease but remained significantly higher in Tu and AA compared to C burgers. Lipid oxidation at day 0 in Tu and AA showed lower TBARS values compared to C burgers. The addition of 3.5% turmeric powder in rabbit burgers exerts an antioxidant effect during storage and it seems more effective in controlling lipid oxidation than ascorbic acid after cooking.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kongkarn Kijroongrojana
2009-11-01
Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. S. Shukla
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical solution of two dimensional nonlinear coupled viscous Burger equation is discussed with appropriate initial and boundary conditions using the modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method. In this method, the weighting coefficients are computed using the modified cubic B-spline as a basis function in the differential quadrature method. Thus, the coupled Burger equation is reduced into a system of ordinary differential equations. An optimal five stage and fourth-order strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta scheme is applied for solving the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of the scheme is illustrated by taking two numerical examples. Computed results are compared with the exact solutions and other results available in literature. Obtained numerical result shows that the described method is efficient and reliable scheme for solving two dimensional coupled viscous Burger equation.
Exact Solutions for an MHD Generalized Burgers fluid: Stokes' Second Problem
Khan, Masood; Anjum, Asia
2013-01-01
This paper offers the exact analytical solutions for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible generalized Burgers fluid corresponding to the second problem of Stokes in the presence of the transverse magnetic field. Modified Darcy's law has been taken into account. The expression for the velocity field and associated tangential stress, presented as a sum of the steady-state and transient solutions, are obtained by means of the integral transforms. Moreover, several figures are plotted to investigate the effects of various emerging parameters on the velocity field. The obtained results show that the magnitude of the velocity and boundary layer thickness significantly reduce in the presence of magnetic field.
A NEW VISCOUS REGULARIZATION OF THE RIEMANN PROBLEM FOR BURGERS' EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jinghua; Zhang Hui
2000-01-01
This paper gives a new viscous regularization of the Riemann problem for Burgers' equation ut += 0 with Riemann initial data u = u_(x _＜ 0),u =u+(x ＞ 0) at t = 0. The regularization is given by ut += εetuxx with appropriate initial data. The method is different from the classical method, through comparison of three viscous equations of it. Here it is also shown that the difference of the three regularizations approaches zero in appropriate integral norms depending on the data as ε → 0+ for any given T ＞ 0.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Qi [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Chen Yong [M.M. Key Lab, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Nonlinear Science Center and Department of Mathematics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); E-mail: chenyong@dlut.edu.cn; Zhang Hongqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)
2005-09-01
In this paper, we present a new Riccati equation rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. Compared with most existing tanh methods and other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only recover some known solutions, but also find some new and general solutions. The solutions obtained in this paper include rational triangular periodic wave solutions, rational solitary wave solutions and rational wave solutions. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on (2 + 1)-dimensional Burgers equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruschi, M; Calogero, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Roma (Italy); Droghei, R [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma Tre (Italy)], E-mail: mario.bruschi@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: francesco.calogero@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: francesco.calogero@uniroma1.it, E-mail: droghei@fis.uniroma3.it
2009-11-27
An isochronous system is introduced by modifying the Nth ODE of the stationary Burgers hierarchy, and then, by investigating its behaviour near its equilibria, neat Diophantine relations are identified, involving (well-known) polynomials of arbitrary degree having integer zeros, or equivalently matrices the determinants of which yield such polynomials. The basic idea to arrive at such relations is not new, but the specific application reported in this paper is new, and it is likely to open the way to several analogous new findings.
Nonequivalent Similarity Reductions and Exact Solutions for Coupled Burgers-Type Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M.H.M. Moussa; R.A.K. Omar; Rehab M. El-Shiekh; H.R. El-Melegy
2012-01-01
Using the machinery of Lie group analysis, the nonlinear system of coupled Burgers-type equations is studied. Using the infinitesimal generators in the optimal system of subalgebra of the said Lie algebras, it leads to two nonequivalent similarity transformations by using it we obtain two reductions in the form of system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The search for solutions of these systems by using the G/G-method has yielded certain exact solutions expressed by rational functions, hyperbolic functions, and trigonometric functions. Some figures are given to show the properties of the solutions.
Nonequivalent Similarity Reductions and Exact Solutions for Coupled Burgers-Type Equations
M. H. M., Moussa; R. A. K., Omar; Rehab, M. El-Shiekh; H. R., El-Melegy
2012-01-01
Using the machinery of Lie group analysis, the nonlinear system of coupled Burgers-type equations is studied. Using the infinitesimal generators in the optimal system of subalgebra of the said Lie algebras, it leads to two nonequivalent similarity transformations by using it we obtain two reductions in the form of system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The search for solutions of these systems by using the G'/G-method has yielded certain exact solutions expressed by rational functions, hyperbolic functions, and trigonometric functions. Some figures are given to show the properties of the solutions.
Strong obstruction of the Berends-Burgers-van Dam spin-3 vertex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bekaert, Xavier [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 6083 du CNRS, Federation de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Universite Fran cois Rabelais, Parc de Grandmount, 37200 Tours (France); Boulanger, Nicolas; Leclercq, Serge, E-mail: Xavier.Bekaert@lmpt.univ-tours.f, E-mail: nicolas.boulanger@umons.ac.b, E-mail: serge.leclercq@umons.ac.b [Service de Mecanique et Gravitation, Universite de Mons-UMONS, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium)
2010-05-07
In the 1980s, Berends, Burgers and van Dam (BBvD) found a nonabelian cubic vertex for self-interacting massless fields of spin three in flat spacetime. However, they also found that this deformation is inconsistent at higher orders for any multiplet of spin-3 fields. For arbitrary symmetric gauge fields, we severely constrain the possible nonabelian deformations of the gauge algebra and, using these results, prove that the BBvD obstruction cannot be cured by any means, even by introducing fields of spin that are higher (or lower) than 3.
Nonequivalent Similarity Reductions and Exact Solutions for Coupled Burgers-Type Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the machinery of Lie group analysis, the nonlinear system of coupled Burgers-type equations is studied. Using the infinitesimal generators in the optimal system of subalgebra of the said Lie algebras, it leads to two nonequivalent similarity transformations by using it we obtain two reductions in the form of system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The search for solutions of these systems by using the G'/G-method has yielded certain exact solutions expressed by rational functions, hyperbolic functions, and trigonometric functions. Some figures are given to show the properties of the solutions. (general)
Strong obstruction of the Berends-Burgers-van Dam spin-3 vertex
Bekaert, Xavier; Leclercq, Serge
2010-01-01
In the eighties, Berends, Burgers and van Dam (BBvD) found a nonabelian cubic vertex for self-interacting massless fields of spin three in flat spacetime. However, they also found that this deformation is inconsistent at higher order for any multiplet of spin-three fields. For arbitrary symmetric gauge fields, we severely constrain the possible nonabelian deformations of the gauge algebra and, using these results, prove that the BBvD obstruction cannot be cured by any means, even by introducing fields of spin higher (or lower) than three.
Elastocapilllarity in insect adhesion: the case of beetle adhesive hair
Gernay, Sophie; Gilet, Tristan; Lambert, Pierre; Federle, Walter
2014-11-01
The feet of many insects are covered with dense arrays of hair-like structures called setae. Liquid capillary bridges at the tip of these micrometric structures are responsible for the controlled adhesion of the insect on a large variety of substrates. The resulting adhesion force can exceed several times the body weight of the insect. The high aspect-ratio of setae suggests that flexibility is a key ingredient in this capillary-based adhesion mechanism. There is indeed a strong coupling between their elastic deformation and the shape of the liquid meniscus. In this experimental work, we observe and quantify the local deflection of dock beetle seta tips under perpendicular loading using interference microscopy. Our results are then interpreted in the light of an analytic model of elastocapillarity. This research has been funded by the FRIA/FNRS and the Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST) initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yue-Yue; ZHANG Jie-Fang
2006-01-01
In this paper, the cylindrical KP-Burgers equation with variable coefficient for two-temperature ions in unmagnified dusty plasma with dissipative effects and transverse perturbations in cylindrical geometry is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation technique. With the help of variable-coefficient generalized projected Ricatti equation expansion method, the cylindrical KP-Burgers equation is solved and shock wave solution is obtained. The effects of some important parameters to the shock wave solution are illustrated from the wave evolution figures. The effects caused by dissipation and transverse perturbations are also discussed.
THE CAUCHY PROBLEM FOR THE GENERALIZED KORTEWEG-DE VRIES-BURGERS EQUATION IN H-s
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贾月玲
2003-01-01
The Cauchy problem for the generalized Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation is considered and the local existence and uniqueness of solutions in Lq (0, T; Lp)∩ L∞(0, T; H-s)(0 ≤ s ＜ 1) are obtained for initial data inH-s. Moreover, the local solutions are global if the initial data are sufficiently small in critical case. Particularly, for s = 0, the generalized Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation satisfies the energy equality, so the initial data can be arbitrarily large to obtain the global solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiraporn Janwised
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a new technique, a three-level average linear-implicit finite difference method, for solving the Rosenau-Burgers equation. A second-order accuracy on both space and time numerical solution of the Rosenau-Burgers equation is obtained using a five-point stencil. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the numerical solution. Moreover, the convergence and stability of the numerical solution are also shown. The numerical results show that our method improves the accuracy of the solution significantly.
Jiraporn Janwised; Ben Wongsaijai; Thanasak Mouktonglang; Kanyuta Poochinapan
2014-01-01
We introduce a new technique, a three-level average linear-implicit finite difference method, for solving the Rosenau-Burgers equation. A second-order accuracy on both space and time numerical solution of the Rosenau-Burgers equation is obtained using a five-point stencil. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the numerical solution. Moreover, the convergence and stability of the numerical solution are also shown. The numerical results show that our method improves the accuracy of the solu...
Prevention of bacterial adhesion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria
2010-01-01
that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...
Mittal, K L
2015-01-01
The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal. The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments. Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and n
Nucleation and growth of cadherin adhesions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cell-cell contact formation relies on the recruitment of cadherin molecules and their anchoring to actin. However, the precise chronology of events from initial cadherin trans-interactions to adhesion strengthening is unclear, in part due to the lack of access to the distribution of cadherins within adhesion zones. Using N-cadherin expressing cells interacting with N-cadherin coated surfaces, we characterized the formation of cadherin adhesions at the ventral cell surface. TIRF and RIC microscopies revealed streak-like accumulations of cadherin along actin fibers. FRAP analysis indicated that engaged cadherins display a slow turnover at equilibrium, compatible with a continuous addition and removal of cadherin molecules within the adhesive contact. Association of cadherin cytoplasmic tail to actin as well as actin cables and myosin II activity are required for the formation and maintenance of cadherin adhesions. Using time lapse microscopy we deciphered how cadherin adhesions form and grow. As lamellipodia protrude, cadherin foci stochastically formed a few microns away from the cell margin. Neo-formed foci coalesced aligned and coalesced with preformed foci either by rearward sliding or gap filling to form cadherin adhesions. Foci experienced collapse at the rear of cadherin adhesions. Based on these results, we present a model for the nucleation, directional growth and shrinkage of cadherin adhesions
McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Riley, Jill N.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.
2003-06-01
An ex vivo study was conducted to compare the tensile strength of tissue samples repaired using three different techniques: (i) application of a scaffold-enhanced light-activated albumin protein solder, (ii) application of a scaffold-enhanced n-butyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive, and (iii) repair via conventional suture technique. Biodegradable polymer scaffolds of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and salt particles using a solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique. Group I porous scaffolds were doped with protein solder composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser. Group II scaffolds were doped with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate, and required no light-activation. No stay sutures were required for Group I or II experiments. Group III repairs were performed using a single 4-0 suture. Thirteen organs were tested ranging from skin to liver to the small intestine, as well as the coronary, pulmonary, carotid, femoral and splenic arteries. Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by Student"s T-test. Using the protein solder of Group I, repairs formed on the ureter were most successful followed by small intestine, sciatic nerve, spleen, atrium, kidney, muscle, skin and ventricle. The strongest vascular repairs were achieved in the carotid artery and femoral artery. Overall, the tensile strength of Group III repairs performed via suture techniques were equivalent in magnitude to that of Group I repairs, however, a larger variance was observed in the suture repair group. Group II repairs utilizing the cyanoacrylate-doped scaffold all performed extremely well. Bonds formed using the Group II adhesive were approximately 30% stronger than Group I and III organ repairs and approximately 20% stronger than Group I and III vascular repairs. Application of the polymer scaffold assists in tissue alignment and reduces
Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.
2015-01-01
Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李连东; 张存泰; 阮磊; 龚良庚; 李治群; 倪明科
2010-01-01
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a chemically modified chitosan anti-adhesion membrane for preventing postoperative pericardial adhesions in rabbit myocardial infarction model. Methods Twenty-five Japanese white rabbits underwent myocardial infarction by ligation of coronary artery after thoracotomy, and devided into treatment and control groups randomly. The treatment group had a chitosan anti-adhesion membrane placed between the heart and retrostemal injured surfaces, while control group received nothing. Then Chest was subsequently closed. Eleven rabbits survived the operation in each group. After a period of 3 months, there were 8 rabbits alive in control group and 9 rabbits alive in treatment group. The animals were examined by Cine magnetic resonance imaging. sacrificed under anesthesia, and independent observers, blinded to treatment, graded the formation of pericardial adhesions by magnetic resonance cinema and histologioal anatomy respectively. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon' s rank test. Results Cine magnetic resonance imaging revealed that there were 2,2,4 cases of mild adhesion, moderate adhesion,and severe adhesion in group, and 7, 2, 0 respectively (P<0.05). Thoracotomy indicated there were 1,1,2,4 cases of adhesions, mild adhesions, moderate adhesions, and severe adhesions in group A, and 3, 4, 2, 0 in group B respectively (P < 0. 05). Conclusion Placement of a chemically modified chitosan anti-adhesion membrane between injured surfaces effectively reduced the formation of postoperative pericardial adhesion in rabbits of myocardial infarction model.%目的 观察改性壳聚糖防粘连膜对心肌梗死兔心脏与周围组织粘连程度的影响.方法 25只日本长耳白兔,开胸结扎冠状动脉制备心肌梗死模型,随机分为对照组(A组)和改性壳聚糖防粘连膜组(B组),A组正常关胸,B组关胸前在心脏和胸壁间置入改性壳聚糖防粘连膜.每组造模型成功各11只.术后3个月A组存活8
The Almost Periodic Solution of a KdV-Burgers Equation%一类KdV-Burgers方程的概周期解
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
施秀莲
2014-01-01
KdV-Burgers方程出现在许多物理模型中，是非线性科学领域中的重要模型之一。本文讨论一类具有阻尼和非齐次项的KdV-Burgers方程的概周期解存在性问题。首先利用Galerkin方法构造出方程的有界解，并利用一些数学不等式给出这个解的先验估计；然后利用所得的先验估计和标准的紧致性方法证明方程广义解的存在性；最后证明当方程的非齐次项函数是关于时间变量的概周期函数时，该广义解就是方程的概周期解。%The KdV-Burgers equation appears in many physical models. It is one of the most important models in nonlinear science. This paper mainly investigates the existence of the almost periodic solution to a class of KdV-Burgers equations with damping and non-homogeneous terms. The bounded solution to this equation is constructed by using the Galerkin method and the priori estimates are given by employing some mathematical inequalities. Then the existence of the generalized solution is proved by means of the obtained priori estimates and the standard compact method. Finally, it is proved that the generalized solution is the almost periodic solution to the discussed equation when the non-homogeneous term is an almost periodic function with respect to the time variable.
An injured tissue affects the opposite intact peritoneum during postoperative adhesion formation
Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kono, Toru; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Hira, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki
2015-01-01
The pathophysiology of adhesion formation needs to be clarified to reduce the adhesion-related morbidity. The epithelial characteristics of the peritoneum suggest a protective role against adhesion formation, yet how the peritoneum is involved in adhesion formation is not well characterized. We microscopically observed an experimental model of adhesion formation to investigate the effects of an injured tissue on the opposite intact peritoneum. Adhesions were induced between injured and intact...
Stephens, Neil; Ruivenkamp, Martin
2016-01-01
Abstract In vitro meat (IVM), also known as cultured meat, involves growing cells into muscle tissue to be eaten as food. The technology had its most high-profile moment in 2013 when a cultured burger was cooked and tasted in a press conference. Images of the burger featured in the international media and were circulated across the Internet. These images—literally marks on a two-dimensional surface—do important work in establishing what IVM is and what it can do. A combination of visual semiotics and narrative analysis shows that images of IVM afford readings of their story that are co-created by the viewer. Before the cultured burger, during 2011, images of IVM fell into four distinct categories: cell images, tissue images, flowcharts, and meat in a dish images. The narrative infrastructure of each image type affords different interpretations of what IVM can accomplish and what it is. The 2013 cultured burger images both draw upon and depart from these image types in an attempt to present IVM as a normal food stuff, and as ‘matter in place’ when placed on the plate. The analysis of individual images and the collection of images about a certain object or subject—known as the imagescape—is a productive approach to understanding the ontology and promise of IVM and is applicable to other areas of social life. PMID:27695202
New Multiple Soliton-like Solutions to （3＋1）-Dimensional Burgers Equation with Variable Coefficients
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENHuai-Tang; ZHANGHong-Qing
2004-01-01
A new generalized tanh function method is used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation, which has more new solutions. More new multiple soliton-like solutions are obtained for the (3+1)-dimensional Burgers equation with variable coefficients.
N-soliton Solution of Variable Coefficient Burgers Equation%变系数Burgers方程的N孤子解
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
夏鸿呜
2011-01-01
将简化的双线性方法进行了推广，并运用这种方法获得了变系数Burgers方程的N孤子解。%The simplified bilinear method is extended,and use this method to obtain N-soliton solution of the Burgers equation with variable coefficients.
Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Gambo, Yusuf Ya'u.
2016-08-01
The nonlocal boundary value problem for viscous Burgers' equation is considered. Solutions to the 1-D equation are presented numerically by Rothe, Crank-Nicholson and r-modified Crank-Nicholson difference schemes. Matlab codes for all the three schemes are designed based on the idea of fixed-point iteration procedure and modified Gauss elimination method. The numerical results are compared.
Dislocation Loops with a Burgers Vector Produced by 1 MeV Electron Irradiation in FCC Copper-Nickel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leffers, Torben; Barlow, P.
1975-01-01
Dislocation loops with Burgers vector a are formed in Cu-Ni alloys during 1 MeV electron irradiation in a high-voltage electron microscope at 350°-400°C. The dislocation loops are of interstitial type and pure edge in character with line vectors. Some of the loops are seen to dissociate into loop...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Steve Tardif
2011-01-01
@@ Fertilisation in mammals involves many synchronized steps including spermegg adhesion.Prior to sperm-oolemma fusion,spermatozoa need to undergo the acrosome reaction (AR) or exocytosis.The universal belief,for many years,has been that the AR was initiated upon binding to the zona pellucida (ZP).As such acrosomal proteins were not thought to be involved in the primary contact with the ZP.These proteins were only suggested to be biologically relevant once the sperm were attached to the ZP and during subsequent events.However,recent data in the mouse have unequivocally demonstrated that spermatozoa can begin exocytosis before contact with ZP.1 It is a remarkable finding as not only will the interpretation of the interaction between sperm and cumulus cells need to be revised,but the processes of capacitation,vesiculation and exposure of acrosomal content need reexamination.
Zhang, Lin; Sun, Yan
2014-04-29
Platelet adhesion on a collagen surface through integrin α2β1 has been proven to be significant for the formation of arterial thrombus. However, the molecular determinants mediating the integrin-collagen complex remain unclear. In the present study, the dynamics of integrin-collagen binding and molecular interactions were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) analysis. Hydrophobic interaction is identified as the major driving force for the formation of the integrin-collagen complex. On the basis of the MD simulation and MM-PBSA results, an affinity binding model (ABM) of integrin for collagen is constructed; it is composed of five residues, including Y157, N154, S155, R288, and L220. The ABM has been proven to capture the major binding motif contributing 84.8% of the total binding free energy. On the basis of the ABM, we expect to establish a biomimetic design strategy of platelet adhesion inhibitors, which would be beneficial for the development of potent peptide-based drugs for thrombotic diseases. PMID:24697616
Reversible Thermoset Adhesives
Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.
Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo
2012-03-27
This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample.
Pathophysiology and prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Willy Arung1; Michel Meurisse; Olivier Detry
2011-01-01
Peritoneal adhesions represent an important clinical challenge in gastrointestinal surgery. Peritoneal adhesions are a consequence of peritoneal irritation by infection or surgical trauma, and may be considered as the pathological part of healing following any peritoneal injury, particularly due to abdominal surgery. The balance between fibrin deposition and degradation is critical in determining normal peritoneal healing or adhesion formation. Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are a major cause of morbidity resulting in multiple complications, many of which may manifest several years after the initial surgical procedure. In addition to acute small bowel obstruction, peritoneal adhesions may cause pelvic or abdominal pain, and infertility. In this paper, the authors reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis and various prevention strategies of adhesion formation, using Medline and PubMed search. Several preventive agents against postoperative peritoneal adhesions have been investigated. Their role aims in activating fibrinolysis, hampering coagulation, diminishing the inflammatory response, inhibiting collagen synthesis or creating a barrier between adjacent wound surfaces. Their results are encouraging but most of them are contradictory and achieved mostly in animal model. Until additional findings from future clinical researches, only a meticulous surgery can be recommended to reduce unnecessary morbidity and mortality rates from these untoward effects of surgery. In the current state of knowledge, pre-clinical or clinical studies are still necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the several proposed prevention strategies of postoperative peritoneal adhesions.
The evolution of adhesiveness as a social adaptation.
Garcia, Thomas; Doulcier, Guilhem; De Monte, Silvia
2015-11-27
Cellular adhesion is a key ingredient to sustain collective functions of microbial aggregates. Here, we investigate the evolutionary origins of adhesion and the emergence of groups of genealogically unrelated cells with a game-theoretical model. The considered adhesiveness trait is costly, continuous and affects both group formation and group-derived benefits. The formalism of adaptive dynamics reveals two evolutionary stable strategies, at each extreme on the axis of adhesiveness. We show that cohesive groups can evolve by small mutational steps, provided the population is already endowed with a minimum adhesiveness level. Assortment between more adhesive types, and in particular differential propensities to leave a fraction of individuals ungrouped at the end of the aggregation process, can compensate for the cost of increased adhesiveness. We also discuss the change in the social nature of more adhesive mutations along evolutionary trajectories, and find that altruism arises before directly beneficial behavior, despite being the most challenging form of cooperation.
The evolution of adhesiveness as a social adaptation.
Garcia, Thomas; Doulcier, Guilhem; De Monte, Silvia
2015-01-01
Cellular adhesion is a key ingredient to sustain collective functions of microbial aggregates. Here, we investigate the evolutionary origins of adhesion and the emergence of groups of genealogically unrelated cells with a game-theoretical model. The considered adhesiveness trait is costly, continuous and affects both group formation and group-derived benefits. The formalism of adaptive dynamics reveals two evolutionary stable strategies, at each extreme on the axis of adhesiveness. We show that cohesive groups can evolve by small mutational steps, provided the population is already endowed with a minimum adhesiveness level. Assortment between more adhesive types, and in particular differential propensities to leave a fraction of individuals ungrouped at the end of the aggregation process, can compensate for the cost of increased adhesiveness. We also discuss the change in the social nature of more adhesive mutations along evolutionary trajectories, and find that altruism arises before directly beneficial behavior, despite being the most challenging form of cooperation. PMID:26613415
Flow of Generalized Burgers' Fluid between Side Walls Induced by Sawtooth Pulses Stress
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Qamar Sultan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of a generalized Burgers' fluid between two parallel side walls perpendicular to a plate. The flow is generated from rest at time induced by sawtooth pulses stress applied to the bottom plate. The solutions obtained by means of the Laplace and the Fourier cosine and sine transforms in this order are presented as a sum between the corresponding Newtonian and non-Newtonian contributions. We investigate the effect of magnetic field and permeability on the fluid motion by a numerical procedure for the inverse Laplace transform, namely Stehfest's algorithm. Moreover, the influence of side walls on the fluid motion, the effect of pulse period, magnetic and porosity parameters and material parameters is presented by graphical illustrations.
Using plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi to improve the nutritional components of burger
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Daniela Baldeón Clavijo
2015-06-01
Full Text Available (Received: 2015/03/18 - Accepted: 2015/05/27Three levels of paste Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha Inchi consisting of 10, 15% and 20% were evaluated to replace the weight percent lard conventionally used to improve the nutritional quality of the common hamburger, compared with a reference group. The experimental units were 10 burgers, weighing 100 g. each and a total of 120 were analyzed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The research was conducted in the Universidad Estatal Amazónica and bromatológics and microbiological analyzes to determine the quality of the raw material and products are made in laboratory of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences of the Universidad Central del Ecuador. As supplements sensory tests and studies Benefit / Cost performed. The results show the variation of 10% pulp Sacha Inchi as the most recommended for use in industry.
Existence of solutions to Burgers equations in domains that can be transformed into rectangles
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Yassine Benia
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This work is concerned with Burgers equation $\\partial _{t}u+u\\partial_x u-\\partial _x^2u=f$ (with Dirichlet boundary conditions in the non rectangular domain $\\Omega =\\{(t,x\\in R^2;\\ 0
A generalized simplest equation method and its application to the Boussinesq-Burgers equation.
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Bilige Sudao
Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized simplest equation method is proposed to seek exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs. In the method, we chose a solution expression with a variable coefficient and a variable coefficient ordinary differential auxiliary equation. This method can yield a Bäcklund transformation between NLEEs and a related constraint equation. By dealing with the constraint equation, we can derive infinite number of exact solutions for NLEEs. These solutions include the traveling wave solutions, non-traveling wave solutions, multi-soliton solutions, rational solutions, and other types of solutions. As applications, we obtained wide classes of exact solutions for the Boussinesq-Burgers equation by using the generalized simplest equation method.
Forced convection analysis for generalized Burgers nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet
Khan, Masood; Khan, Waqar Azeem
2015-10-01
This article reports the two-dimensional forced convective flow of a generalized Burgers fluid over a linearly stretched sheet under the impacts of nano-sized material particles. Utilizing appropriate similarity transformations the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The analytic results are carried out through the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to investigate the impact of various pertinent parameters for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The obtained results are presented in tabular form as well as graphically and discussed in detail. The presented results show that the rate of heat transfer at the wall and rate of nanoparticle volume fraction diminish with each increment of the thermophoresis parameter. While incremented values of the Brownian motion parameter lead to a quite opposite effect on the rates of heat transfer and nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall.
A generalized simplest equation method and its application to the Boussinesq-Burgers equation.
Sudao, Bilige; Wang, Xiaomin
2015-01-01
In this paper, a generalized simplest equation method is proposed to seek exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). In the method, we chose a solution expression with a variable coefficient and a variable coefficient ordinary differential auxiliary equation. This method can yield a Bäcklund transformation between NLEEs and a related constraint equation. By dealing with the constraint equation, we can derive infinite number of exact solutions for NLEEs. These solutions include the traveling wave solutions, non-traveling wave solutions, multi-soliton solutions, rational solutions, and other types of solutions. As applications, we obtained wide classes of exact solutions for the Boussinesq-Burgers equation by using the generalized simplest equation method.
Di Labbio, G.; Kiyanda, C. B.; Mi, X.; Higgins, A. J.; Nikiforakis, N.; Ng, H. D.
2016-06-01
In this study, the applicability of the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) criterion is tested numerically for heterogeneous explosive media using a simple detonation analog. The analog system consists of a reactive Burgers' equation coupled with an Arrhenius type reaction wave, and the heterogeneity of the explosive media is mimicked using a discrete energy source approach. The governing equation is solved using a second order, finite-volume approach and the average propagation velocity of the discrete detonation is determined by tracking the leading shock front. Consistent with previous studies, the averaged velocity of the leading shock front from the unsteady numerical simulations is also found to be in good agreement with the velocity of a CJ detonation in a uniform medium wherein the energy source is spatially homogenized. These simulations have thus implications for whether the CJ criterion is valid to predict the detonation velocity in heterogeneous explosive media.
Seadawy, Aly R.
2015-12-01
The propagation of dust-ion-acoustic waves with high-energy electrons and positrons in three-dimensional is considered. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers (ZKB) equations for the dust-ion-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas is obtained. The conservations laws and integrals of motion for the ZKB equation are deduced. In the present study, by applying the modified direct algebraic method, we found the electric field potential, electric field and quantum statistical pressure in form water wave solutions for three-dimensional ZKB equation. The solutions for the ZKB equation are obtained precisely and efficiency of the method can be demonstrated. The stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making the graphs of the exact solutions are discussed and analyzed.
Multilinear Variable Separation Approach in (3+1)-Dimensions: the Burgers Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
应金萍; 楼森岳
2003-01-01
The multi-linear variable separation approach has been proved to be very useful in solving many (2+ 1 )-dimensional integrable systems. Taking the (3+1)-dimensional Burgers equation as a simple example, here we extend the multi-linear variable separation approach to (3+1)-dimensions. The form of the universal formula obtained from many (2+1)-dimensional system is still valid. However, a more general arbitrary function (with three independent variables) has been included in the formula. Starting from the universal formula, one may obtain abundant (3+1)-dimensional localized excitations. In particular, we display a special paraboloid-type camber soliton solution and a dipole-type dromion solution which is localized in all directions.
A unified approach for the numerical solution of time fractional Burgers' type equations
Esen, A.; Bulut, F.; Oruç, Ö.
2016-04-01
In this paper, a relatively new approach is devised for obtaining approximate solution of time fractional partial differential equations. Time fractional diffusion equation and time fractional Burgers-Fisher equation are solved with Haar wavelet method where fractional derivatives are Caputo derivative. Time discretization of the problems made by L1 discretization formula and space derivatives discretized by Haar series. L2 and L_{∞} error norms are used for measuring accuracy of the proposed method. Numerical results obtained with proposed method compared with exact solutions as well as with available results from the literature. The numerical results verify the feasibility of Haar wavelet combined with L1 discretization formula for the considered problems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG XiangJun; LIU Yuan; LIU YongHe; AHMED S.I.-U.
2009-01-01
Some insects and animals, such as bugs, grasshoppers and tree frogs, realize their efficient adhesion mechanism to glass surface, wall and ceiling by injecting a wetting liquid thin film into the pad-substrate contact area. Their ability to control adhesion (attaching or detaching from a surface) is in many cases connected to the contact geometry and surface patterns of their attachment pads. This paper focuses on the dependence of the capillary adhesion (wet adhesion) on the micro patterns of the bio-adhesive pads. The objective is to reveal the possible mechanism for a bio-adhesive pad to control capillary force through adjusting its micro-scale surface pattern and topography. A capillary adhesion force model is built up taking account of the combined role of micro-dimple geometry as well as the wetting behavior of the confined liquid thin film. Calculated results of the apparent contact angle on the regularly micro-dimpled surfaces are compared with and in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Simulation of the capillary adhesion force reveals that it is controllable in a large mag-nitude by adjusting a dimensionless surface pattern parameter k defined as a/(a+b), where a is the dia-meter of micro dimple, and (a+b) is the side length of one pattern cell. When adjusting the parameter k more than 0.75, the capillary adhesion force could be switchable from attractive to repulsive. This effect of micro patterns on the interfacial capillary force is proved to be dominant when the pad-substrate clearance decreases to the nano/micrometer scale. These results indicate that a controllable and switchable capillary adhesive mechanism might be utilized by a living insect or animal to realize its stable adhesion and quick releasing movement through adjusting the micro-pattern topography of its bio-adhesive pad.
Xu Jiang; Xuhong Qiang; Henk Kolstein; Frans Bijlaard
2016-01-01
The research presented in this paper is an experimental study and numerical analysis on mechanical behavior of the adhesively-bonded joint between FRP sandwich bridge deck and steel girder. Generally, there are three typical stress states in the adhesively-bonded joint: shear stress, tensile stress, and combination of both. To realize these stress states in the adhesively-bonded joint during tests, a specific loading device is developed with the capacity of providing six different loading ang...
Ivankovic, Alojz; Karac, Aleksandar; Blackman, B.R.K.; et al
2011-01-01
Adhesive bonding of lightweight, high-performance materials is regarded as a key enabling technology for the development of vehicles with increased crashworthiness, better fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. However, as automotive structures can be exposed to impact events during service, it is necessary to gain a sound understanding of the performance of adhesive joints under different rates of loading. Therefore, characterising the behaviour of adhesive joint...
Tissue adhesives in otorhinolaryngology
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Schneider, Gerlind
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The development of medical tissue adhesives has a long history without finding an all-purpose tissue adhesive for clinical daily routine. This is caused by the specific demands which are made on a tissue adhesive, and the different areas of application. In otorhinolaryngology, on the one hand, this is the mucosal environment as well as the application on bones, cartilage and periphery nerves. On the other hand, there are stressed regions (skin, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, trachea and unstressed regions (middle ear, nose and paranasal sinuses, cranial bones. But due to the facts that adhesives can have considerable advantages in assuring surgery results, prevention of complications and so reduction of medical costs/treatment expenses, the search for new adhesives for use in otorhinolaryngology will be continued intensively. In parallel, appropriate application systems have to be developed for microscopic and endoscopic use.
Fabrication and characterization of hierarchical nanostructured smart adhesion surfaces.
Lee, Hyungoo; Bhushan, Bharat
2012-04-15
The mechanics of fibrillar adhesive surfaces of biological systems such as a Lotus leaf and a gecko are widely studied due to their unique surface properties. The Lotus leaf is a model for superhydrophobic surfaces, self-cleaning properties, and low adhesion. Gecko feet have high adhesion due to the high micro/nanofibrillar hierarchical structures. A nanostructured surface may exhibit low adhesion or high adhesion depending upon fibrillar density, and it presents the possibility of realizing eco-friendly surface structures with desirable adhesion. The current research, for the first time uses a patterning technique to fabricate smart adhesion surfaces: single- and two-level hierarchical synthetic adhesive structure surfaces with various fibrillar densities and diameters that allows the observation of either the Lotus or gecko adhesion effects. Contact angles of the fabricated structured samples were measured to characterize their wettability, and contamination experiments were performed to study for self-cleaning ability. A conventional and a glass ball attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip were used to obtain the adhesive forces via force-distance curves to study scale effect. A further increase of the adhesive forces on the samples was achieved by applying an adhesive to the surfaces.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ardham, Vikram Reddy; Leroy, Frédéric, E-mail: vandervegt@csi.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: f.leroy@theo.chemie.tu-darmstadt.de [Eduard-Zintl-Institut für Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 4, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Deichmann, Gregor; Vegt, Nico F. A. van der, E-mail: vandervegt@csi.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: f.leroy@theo.chemie.tu-darmstadt.de [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)
2015-12-28
We address the question of how reducing the number of degrees of freedom modifies the interfacial thermodynamic properties of heterogeneous solid-liquid systems. We consider the example of n-hexane interacting with multi-layer graphene which we model both with fully atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) models. The CG models are obtained by means of the conditional reversible work (CRW) method. The interfacial thermodynamics of these models is characterized by the solid-liquid work of adhesion W{sub SL} calculated by means of the dry-surface methodology through molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the CRW potentials lead to values of W{sub SL} that are larger than the atomistic ones. Clear understanding of the relationship between the structure of n-hexane in the vicinity of the surface and W{sub SL} is elucidated through a detailed study of the energy and entropy components of W{sub SL}. We highlight the crucial role played by the solid-liquid energy fluctuations. Our approach suggests that CG potentials should be designed in such a way that they preserve the range of solid-liquid interaction energies, but also their fluctuations in order to preserve the reference atomistic value of W{sub SL}. Our study thus opens perspectives into deriving CG interaction potentials that preserve the thermodynamics of solid-liquid contacts and will find application in studies that intend to address materials driven by interfaces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We address the question of how reducing the number of degrees of freedom modifies the interfacial thermodynamic properties of heterogeneous solid-liquid systems. We consider the example of n-hexane interacting with multi-layer graphene which we model both with fully atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) models. The CG models are obtained by means of the conditional reversible work (CRW) method. The interfacial thermodynamics of these models is characterized by the solid-liquid work of adhesion WSL calculated by means of the dry-surface methodology through molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the CRW potentials lead to values of WSL that are larger than the atomistic ones. Clear understanding of the relationship between the structure of n-hexane in the vicinity of the surface and WSL is elucidated through a detailed study of the energy and entropy components of WSL. We highlight the crucial role played by the solid-liquid energy fluctuations. Our approach suggests that CG potentials should be designed in such a way that they preserve the range of solid-liquid interaction energies, but also their fluctuations in order to preserve the reference atomistic value of WSL. Our study thus opens perspectives into deriving CG interaction potentials that preserve the thermodynamics of solid-liquid contacts and will find application in studies that intend to address materials driven by interfaces
Ardham, Vikram Reddy; Deichmann, Gregor; van der Vegt, Nico F A; Leroy, Frédéric
2015-12-28
We address the question of how reducing the number of degrees of freedom modifies the interfacial thermodynamic properties of heterogeneous solid-liquid systems. We consider the example of n-hexane interacting with multi-layer graphene which we model both with fully atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) models. The CG models are obtained by means of the conditional reversible work (CRW) method. The interfacial thermodynamics of these models is characterized by the solid-liquid work of adhesion WSL calculated by means of the dry-surface methodology through molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the CRW potentials lead to values of WSL that are larger than the atomistic ones. Clear understanding of the relationship between the structure of n-hexane in the vicinity of the surface and WSL is elucidated through a detailed study of the energy and entropy components of WSL. We highlight the crucial role played by the solid-liquid energy fluctuations. Our approach suggests that CG potentials should be designed in such a way that they preserve the range of solid-liquid interaction energies, but also their fluctuations in order to preserve the reference atomistic value of WSL. Our study thus opens perspectives into deriving CG interaction potentials that preserve the thermodynamics of solid-liquid contacts and will find application in studies that intend to address materials driven by interfaces.
Burgers方程的两种不同形式的精确解%Two kinds of exact solutions of the Burgers equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘转玲
2014-01-01
应用 Painleve′直接截断法，求解了Burgers方程，得到了Burgers方程的一些含指数形式和幂函数形式的精确解。%Based on Painleve′direct truncation method , the Burgers equation are solved and some with exponential function and power function form of the exact solutions of Burgers equation are obtained .
Particle diameter influences adhesion under flow.
Shinde Patil, V R; Campbell, C. J.; Yun, Y.H.; Slack, S M; Goetz, D J
2001-01-01
The diameter of circulating cells that may adhere to the vascular endothelium spans an order of magnitude from approximately 2 microm (e.g., platelets) to approximately 20 microm (e.g., a metastatic cell). Although mathematical models indicate that the adhesion exhibited by a cell will be a function of cell diameter, there have been few experimental investigations into the role of cell diameter in adhesion. Thus, in this study, we coated 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-microm-diameter microspheres with ...
Jiang, X.; Qiang, X.; Kolstein, M.H.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.
2016-01-01
The research presented in this paper is an experimental study and numerical analysis on mechanical behavior of the adhesively-bonded joint between FRP sandwich bridge deck and steel girder. Generally, there are three typical stress states in the adhesively-bonded joint: shear stress, tensile stress,
Packham, D E
2006-01-01
This second edition of the successful Handbook of Adhesion provides concise and authoritative articles covering many aspects of the science and technology associated with adhesion and adhesives. It is intended to fill a gap between the necessarily simplified treatment of the student textbook and the full and thorough treatment of the research monograph and review article. The articles are structured in such a way, with internal cross-referencing and external literature references, that the reader can build up a broader and deeper understanding, as their needs require.This second edition includ
[Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].
Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu
2014-01-01
The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF WOOD ADHESIVE JOINTS
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Thomas GEREKE
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Engineered wood products such as glulam or cross-laminated timber are widely established in the construction industry. Their structural behaviour and reliability clearly bases on the adhesive bonding. In order to understand and improve the performance of glued wood members a finite element modelling of standard single lap shear samples was carried out. A three-dimensional model of a longitudinal tensile-shear specimen with quasi-centric load application was developed. The main influences of wood and adhesive parameters on structural performance were identified. Therefore, variations of the elasticity, the annual ring angle, fibre angle, and the interface zone and their effect on the occurring stresses in the adhesive bond line were investigated numerically. The adhesive bond line is most significantly sensitive to the Young´s modulus of the adhesive itself. A variation of the fibre angle of the glued members in the standard test is an essential criterion and to be considered when preparing lap shear specimens. A model with representation of early- and latewood gives a more detailed insight into wooden adhesive joints.
Yielding elastic tethers stabilize robust cell adhesion.
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Matt J Whitfield
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding elasticity. Here we address the function of yielding elastic adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether elasticity was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding elasticity is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, strain-hardening and linear elastic tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds.
Self-similar solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations: KdV, mKdV and Burgers equations
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S.A. El-Wakil
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A method for solving three types of nonlinear evolution equations namely KdV, modified KdV and Burgers equations, with self-similar solutions is presented. The method employs ideas from symmetry reduction to space and time variables and similarity reductions for nonlinear evolution equations are performed. The obtained self-similar solutions of KdV and mKdV equations are related to Bessel and Airy functions whereas those of Burgers equation are related to the error and Hermite functions. These solutions appear as new types of solitary, shock and periodic waves. Also, the method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, we use the spectral collocation method using Chebyshev polynomials for spatial derivatives and fourth order Runge-Kutta method for time integration to solve the generalized Burger's-Huxley equation (GBHE). To reduce round-off error in spectral collocation (pseudospectral) method we use preconditioning. Firstly, theory of application of Chebyshev spectral collocation method with preconditioning (CSCMP) and domain decomposition on the generalized Burger's-Huxley equation presented. This method yields a system of ordinary differential algebric equations (DAEs). Secondly, we use fourth order Runge-Kutta formula for the numerical integration of the system of DAEs. The numerical results obtained by this way have been compared with the exact solution to show the efficiency of the method.
Isolation and biochemical characterization of underwater adhesives from diatoms.
Poulsen, Nicole; Kröger, Nils; Harrington, Matthew J; Brunner, Eike; Paasch, Silvia; Buhmann, Matthias T
2014-01-01
Many aquatic organisms are able to colonize surfaces through the secretion of underwater adhesives. Diatoms are unicellular algae that have the capability to colonize any natural and man-made submerged surfaces. There is great technological interest in both mimicking and preventing diatom adhesion, yet the biomolecules responsible have so far remained unidentified. A new method for the isolation of diatom adhesive material is described and its amino acid and carbohydrate composition determined. The adhesive materials from two model diatoms show differences in their amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, but also share characteristic features including a high content of uronic acids, the predominance of hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the presence of 3,4-dihydroxyproline, an extremely rare amino acid. Proteins containing dihydroxyphenylalanine, which mediate underwater adhesion of mussels, are absent. The data on the composition of diatom adhesives are consistent with an adhesion mechanism based on complex coacervation of polyelectrolyte-like biomolecules.
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD)
... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) LAD is an immune deficiency in ... are slow to heal also may have LAD. Treatment and Research Doctors prescribe antibiotics to prevent and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiation processing has been employed in some countries as a mean of treatment to assure microbiological safety of meat and meat products, avoiding the occurrence of food-borne disease. The ionizing radiation may cause some undesirable changes on chemistry composition of food and the lipid oxidation is one of the main reactions. In meat products processing industry, the lipid composition is directly related to nutritional and sensory quality of the product. For preventing oxidation, use of antioxidants which can be synthetic or natural, has been practically applied in some products. Currently, most attention has been given to natural antioxidants from herbs and spices like rosemary and oregano. The aim this study was to assess the antioxidant effects of either rosemary and oregano extract in beef burgers submitted to irradiation in 60Co source with dose 6, 7 e 8 kGy, electron beams with dose 3,5 e 7 kGy and storage under freeze along 0, 45 e 90 days. The results showed that rosemary extract has the major antioxidant effects when it is used on heterogeneous food matrix like beef burger, but oregano extract was better efficient to delay lipid oxidation along storage time when it is used in synergism with rosemary and/or BHT/BHA. Although to have occurred changes in the fatty acids composition it was not possible to demonstrate a straight dependence of irradiation dose and/or storage time. Sensory analysis showed that between the samples prepared with natural antioxidants, the beef burger prepared with oregano has received better scores by panelists. Irradiated beef burger prepared with rosemary has received better scores when compared to non-irradiated one. The use of spices with antioxidant activity to avoid the oxidative damage in foods that contain fats in their formulation is thought to be promising to application in food facilities. (author)
耦合Burgers方程的显式精确解%Explicit Exact Solutions for Coupled Burgers System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘洪伟
2011-01-01
Regarding coupled Burgers system, this paper discovers the explicit exact solutions expressed through hyperbolic function, triangular function and rational function by application of F- expansion method and assistance of Ricctia equations.%针对耦合Burgers系统,采用F-展开法和Ricctia方程辅助,得到了系统的分别由双曲函数、三角函数和有理函数表示的显式精确解.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M. Soltan Dallal
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Background and objective: Shahr-e-Ray , Islamshahr and South Tehran were selected for this investigation. The main reason for the selection of these sites was based on the population density. The main objective of this investigation was to assess the sources and distribution of Salmonella serovars from barbecued meat, ground beef burgers and their antimicrobial resistance."nMaterials and Methods: In a one year period, a total of 390 samples of food, consisting of 195 samples of raw barbecuing meat and ground beef burgers and 195 samples of cooked ones were examined for the presence of Salmonella contamination."nResults: From a total of 195 raw samples, (n=33 ,16.9% were Salmonella positive. Most detections of Salmonella occurred in Shahr-e- Ray (n=15, 45.5% and then in South Tehran (n=10, 30.3% and Islamshahr (n=8, 24.2%. The highest rates of detection of Salmonella occurred in Summer (n=17,51.5%. In serological evaluations of Salmonella, thompson serovar had the highest prevalence in barbecuing meat and ground beef burger samples (n=18,54.5%. Salmonella serovars were: (n=31, 93.9%, (n=30 ,90.9 % and (n=30, 90.9 % resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin and nalidixic acid respectively."nConclusion: The results show that there is no reason for concern in consuming cooked barbecuing meat and ground beef burgers. In case of raw samples, microbes could originate from the vendors. Vendors have to be educated on hygienic practices which could help to reduce risks of food- borne infection. These data indicate that food handlers may contribute to contamination and that there are some handling practices that require more attention.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stam, T.; Diependaal, F.; Van ' t Hull, C.
2013-06-15
In the Solar Vision it is explained how the Amsterdam municipality plans to enable its citizens and businesses to realize their own solar energy project. The Solar Vision is prepared based on input from residents, businesses and institutions [Dutch] In de zonvisie staat hoe de gemeente Amsterdam haar burgers en bedrijven in staat wil stellen om hun eigen zonne-energieproject te realiseren. De zonvisie is mede opgesteld op basis van input van bewoners, bedrijven en instellingen.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Chun-Long
2004-01-01
By means of the standard truncated Painleve expansion and a variable separation approach, a general variable separation solution of the generalized Burgers system is derived. In addition to the usual localized coherent soliton excitations like dromions, lumps, rings, breathers, instantons, oscillating soliton excitations, peakons, foldons,and previously revealed chaotic and fractal localized solutions, some new types of excitations - compacton and Jacobi periodic wave solutions are obtained by introducing appropriate lower dimensional piecewise smooth functions and Jacobi elliptic functions.
Management of adhesive capsulitis
Neviaser, Andrew
2015-01-01
Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive cri...
Lüdecke, Claudia; Roth, Martin; Yu, Wenqi; Horn, Uwe; Bossert, Jörg; Jandt, Klaus D
2016-09-01
Microbial adhesion to natural and synthetic materials surfaces is a key issue e.g. in food industry, sewage treatment and most importantly in the biomedical field. The current development and progress in nanoscale structuring of materials surfaces to control microbial adhesion requires an advanced understanding of the microbe-material-interaction. This study aimed to investigate the nanostructure of the microbe-material-interface and link it to microbial adhesion kinetics as function of titanium surface nanoroughness to gain new insight into controlling microbial adhesion via materials' surface nanoroughness. Adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was statistically significantly reduced (p≤0.05) by 55.6 % and 40.5 %, respectively, on physical vapor deposited titanium thin films with a nanoroughness of 6nm and the lowest surface peak density compared to 2nm with the highest surface peak density. Cross-sectioning of the microbial cells with a focused ion beam (FIB) and SEM imaging provided for the first time direct insight into the titanium-microbe-interface. High resolution SEM micrographs gave evidence that the surface peaks are the loci of initial contact between the microbial cells and the material's surface. In a qualitative model we propose that the initial microbial adhesion on nanorough surfaces is controlled by the titanium surface peak density via nano adhesion points. This new understanding will help towards the design of materials surfaces for controlling microbial adhesion. PMID:27288816
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔娟娟; 冯占芹; 张守强; 郑增娟; 张维芬
2014-01-01
背景：开腹手术后常造成腹膜粘连，给患者带来极大的痛苦，至今仍没有发现一种有效的药物或方法能够完全预防腹膜粘连，羧甲基壳聚糖是具有优良生物相容性和生物降解性，是理想的预防腹腔粘连的生物材料。目的：研究羧甲基壳聚糖防粘连冲洗液预防大鼠术后腹膜粘连的效果，探讨其防粘连的作用机制。 方法：取56只成年雄性Wistar大鼠建立盲肠刮伤/腹壁缺损的动物手术模型，随机分为4组，分别以生理盐水、医用透明质酸、医用几丁糖和羧甲基壳聚糖防粘连冲洗液涂布于盲肠刮伤面及腹壁缺损处。术后2，3周进行粘连分级和病理组织观察，同时测定转化生长因子β1表达、血液中白细胞数量及羟脯氨酸含量。 结果与结论：透明质酸组、几丁糖组粘连分级评分结果优于生理盐水组(P OBJECTIVE:To investigate the novel anti-adhesion properties of carboxymethyl chitosan anti-adhesion solution on the prevention of postsurgical adhesion in vivo in a rat model. METHODS:Fifty-six adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 0.9% normal saline solution (group A), hyaluronic acid gels (group B), medical chitosan gels (group C) and carboxymethyl chitosan anti-adhesion solution (group D). The model of postoperative intestinal adhesion was established by making cecal scratches/abdominal wal defects. Al the rats were scarified after 2 or 3 weeks. Whole blood was colected by cardio-puncture, lung tissue and tissue adhesion were stripped. The incidence and degree of adhesions, histological effects, expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), the amounts of hydroxyproline and white blood cels were observed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The formation of postsurgical adhesions in groups B, C and D was significantly decreased, which was lighter than that of group A (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the adhesion formation in group D was
Bioinspired pressure actuated adhesive system
Paretkar, D.R.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Schneider, A.S.; Martina, D.; Creton, C.; Arzt, E.
2011-01-01
We developed a dry synthetic adhesive system inspired by gecko feet adhesion that can switch reversibly from adhesion to non-adhesion with applied pressure as external stimulus. Micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with pillars of 30 µm length and 10 µm diameter were fabricated using
Álvarez-Santos, Mayra; Carbajal, Verónica; Tellez-Jiménez, Olivia; Martínez-Cordero, Erasmo; Ruiz, Victor; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Lascurain, Ricardo; Santibañez-Salgado, Alfredo; Bazan-Perkins, Blanca
2016-10-01
The extracellular domains of some membrane proteins can be shed from the cell. A similar phenomenon occurs with β1 integrins (α1β1 and α2β1) in guinea pig. The putative role of β1 integrin subunit alterations due to shedding in airway smooth muscle (ASM) in an allergic asthma model was evaluated. Guinea pigs were sensitized and challenged with antigen. Antigenic challenges induced bronchoobstruction and hyperresponsiveness at the third antigenic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectronmicroscopy studies showed that the cytosolic and extracellular domains of the β1 integrin subunit shared the same distribution in airway structures in both groups. Various polypeptides with similar molecular weights were detected with both the cytosolic and extracellular β1 integrin subunit antibodies in isolated airway myocytes and the connective tissue that surrounds the ASM bundle. Flow cytometry and Western blot studies showed that the expression of cytosolic and extracellular β1 integrin subunit domains in ASM was similar between groups. An increment of ITGB1 mRNA in ASM was observed in the asthma model group. RACE-PCR of ITGB1 in ASM did not show splicing variants. The expression levels of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and paxillin diminished in the asthma model, but not talin. The levels of phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) at Thr(696) increased in asthma model. Our work suggests that β1 integrin is secreted in guinea pig airway wall. This secretion is not altered in asthma model; nevertheless, β1 integrin cytodomain assembly proteins in focal cell adhesions in which ILK and paxillin are involved are altered in asthma model. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2385-2396, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26969873
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rui Ganho; Mario Estvez; Mnica Armenteros; David Morcuende
2013-01-01
The efifciency of extracts from Arbutus unedo L. (AU), Crataegus monogyna L. (CM), Rosa canina L. (RC), and Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (RU) to inhibit lipid oxidation in raw, cooked and cooked and chilled (2°C/12 d) porcine burger patties, was investigated. The modiifcation of the fatty acid proifle during processing treatments (cooking and chilling), the quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS), and lipid-derived volatiles, were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) gradually decreased during cooking and the subsequent storage of cooked burger patties with this decrease being signiifcantly greater (P<0.05) in control patties than in those with added berry extracts. In accordance, the control patties showed signiifcantly higher TBA-RS numbers and counts of lipid-derived volatiles in all treatments when compared to the berry-added counterparts (P<0.05). Results from the present work show, for the ifrst time, that extracts from A. unedo, C. monogyna, R. canina, and R. ulmifolius are promising antioxidants which could enhance the nutritional, safety and sensory properties of porcine burger patties.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王黎明; 胡青春
2012-01-01
This paper includes an illustration of the electrostatic adhesion mechanism which is applied in the parti cular area of wall climbing robots. The adhesion mechanism of electrostatic adhesion technology will be researched at the beginning, then, the theoretical attraction force model between the electrodes and wall is built. Through the principle of virtual work, the paper obtains a mathematical expression of electrostatic adhesion, and for more com plexity, makes a specific investigation of double electrodes type, which is the base of comb-shaped electrodes. Schwarz-Christoffel transform will be utilized in this part, and it is an effective method in dealing with non-uniform electric field. Next, Matlab software is used to analyze the key factors which affect the adsorption strength in the e lectrodes. To illustrate the problem further, a simulation of voltage between the electrodes is done. Finally, to veri fy this adhesive function, an experiment with comb-shaped electrodes is done, from which it can be concluded that electrostatic adhesion can be a large attraction power in wall-climbing robots application.%本文对应用于静电吸附式爬壁机器人这一特殊领域的静电吸附原理进行分析,对静电力进行数学解析建模,通过施瓦兹-克里斯托菲数学变换重点分析影响梳状电极吸附力的结构因素,并借助Ansoft软件求解出不同占空比下的电极电容矩阵,最后通对设计的柔性板梳状电极进行实际实验测试,验证静电吸附在爬壁机器人应用上的可靠性.
Response of Acartia tonsa to Burgers' Vortex: Deconstructing Turbulence-Copepod Interactions
Young, D. L.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.
2014-11-01
In situ studies suggest that in many oceanic regimes, turbulence affects the vertical position of copepods primarily by changing their behavior, and only secondarily by altering their physical position. We test the hypothesis that fine-scale turbulence alters copepod behavior, presenting as alterations in directed movement and changes in swimming kinematics. To this end, we create two Burgers' vortices, specifying the rotation rate and axial strain rate to correspond to turbulent vortices with size scale equaling the inverse wavenumber of the median viscous dissipation rate (i.e. r = 8.1 η) for typical turbulent conditions in the coastal or near surface region (i.e., mean turbulent dissipation rates of 0.009 and 0.096 cm2/s3) . The vortex flow is quantified via tomo-PIV. Behavioral assays of Acartia tonsa are conducted, generating 3D trajectories for analysis of swimming kinematics and response to hydrodynamic cues. A. tonsa did not significantly respond to the vortex corresponding to dissipation rate of 0.009 cm2/s3, but drastically altered their swimming behavior in the presence of the 0.096 cm2/s3 vortex, including increased relative swim speed, angle of alignment with the vortex axis, net-to-gross displacement ratio, and escape acceleration, along with decreased turn frequency (relative to stagnant control conditions). Further, A. tonsa escape location is preferentially in the core of the stronger vortex, indicating that the hydrodynamic cue triggering the distinctive escape behavior is vorticity.
Exponentially slow traveling waves on a finite interval for Burgers' type equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pieter De Groen
1998-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study for small positive $epsilon$ the slow motion of the solution for evolution equations of Burgers' type with small diffusion, $$ u_t=epsilon u_{xx}+f(u,u_x,, quad u(x,0=u_0(x, quad u(pm 1,t=pm 1, $$ on the bounded spatial domain $[-1,1]$; $f$ is a smooth function satisfying $f(1>0, f(-1<0$ and $int_{-1}^{1}f(tdt=0$. The initial and boundary value problem~($star$ has a unique asymptotically stable equilibrium solution that attracts all solutions starting with continuous initial data $u_0$. On the infinite spatial domain ${mathbb R}$ the differential equation has slow speed traveling wave solutions generated by profiles that satisfy the boundary conditions of~($star$. As long as its zero stays inside the interval $[-1,1]$, such a traveling wave suitably describes the slow long term behaviour of the solution of ($star$ and its speed characterizes the local velocity of the slow motion with exponential precision. A solution that starts near a traveling wave moves in a small neighborhood of the traveling wave with exponentially slow velocity (measured as the speed of the unique zero during an exponentially long time interval $(0,T$. In this paper we give a unified treatment of the problem, using both Hilbert space and maximum principle methods, and we give rigorous proofs of convergence of the solution and of the asymptotic estimate of the velocity.
Fourth-order compact schemes for the numerical simulation of coupled Burgers' equation
Bhatt, H. P.; Khaliq, A. Q. M.
2016-03-01
This paper introduces two new modified fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta (ETDRK) schemes in combination with a global fourth-order compact finite difference scheme (in space) for direct integration of nonlinear coupled viscous Burgers' equations in their original form without using any transformations or linearization techniques. One scheme is a modification of the Cox and Matthews ETDRK4 scheme based on (1 , 3) -Padé approximation and other is a modification of Krogstad's ETDRK4-B scheme based on (2 , 2) -Padé approximation. Efficient versions of the proposed schemes are obtained by using a partial fraction splitting technique of rational functions. The stability properties of the proposed schemes are studied by plotting the stability regions, which provide an explanation of their behavior for dispersive and dissipative problems. The order of convergence of the schemes is examined empirically and found that the modification of ETDRK4 converges with the expected rate even if the initial data are nonsmooth. On the other hand, modification of ETDRK4-B suffers with order reduction if the initial data are nonsmooth. Several numerical experiments are carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and adaptability of the proposed schemes. The numerical results indicate that the proposed schemes provide better accuracy than other schemes available in the literature. Moreover, the results show that the modification of ETDRK4 is reliable and yields more accurate results than modification of ETDRK4-B, while solving problems with nonsmooth data or with high Reynolds number.
Influence of Discrete Sources on Detonation Propagation in a Burgers Equation Analog System
Mi, XiaoCheng
2015-01-01
An analog to the equations of compressible flow that is based on the inviscid Burgers equation is utilized to investigate the effect of spatial discreteness of energy release on the propagation of a detonation wave. While the traditional Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) treatment of a detonation wave assumes that the energy release of the medium is homogeneous through space, the system examined here consists of sources represented by $\\delta$-functions embedded in an otherwise inert medium. The sources are triggered by the passage of the leading shock wave following a delay that is either of fixed period or randomly generated. The solution for wave propagation through a large array ($10^3$-$10^4$) of sources in one dimension can be constructed without the use of a finite difference approximation by tracking the interaction of sawtooth-profiled waves for which an analytic solution is available. A detonation-like wave results from the interaction of the shock and rarefaction waves generated by the sources. The measurement ...
The E-assessment burger: Supporting the Before and After in E-Assessment Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Adams
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a threshold concept-driven e-assessment system that supports teachers in writing effective formative multiple-choice questions, creating quizzes tailored to students’ learning pathways. The system, which has been co-designed with teachers, acts as the ‘bun’ on either side of an ‘e-assessment burger’ pedagogically scaffolding quiz creation (the top of the bun, integrating the quiz within personalized learning trajectories (the burger and feeding the results back to the learners and teachers to guide the direction of future learning pathways (the bottom of the bun. The evaluation with 26 students in 3 subjects across two schools identified that supporting the before and after e-assessment empowers a shift in teachers’ encouragement for student ownership of assessment, guiding their learning pathways. Teachers also provide insights into how the system scaffolding and visualisations inspired changes to sequencing learning and teaching practices. In conclusion the changing role of assessment within a school ecosystem is debated.
Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment
Giesbers, Bas; Van Bruggen, Jan; Hermans, Henry; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Burgers, Jan; Koper, Rob; Latour, Ignace
2005-01-01
Giesbers, B., van Bruggen, J., Hermans, H., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Burgers, J., Koper, R., & Latour, I. (2007). Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (1), 237-247.
Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.
Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo
2015-02-01
A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Dynamic force spectroscopy to probe adhesion strength of living cells
Prechtel, K.; Bausch, A. R.; Marchi-Artzner, V.; Kantlehner, M.; Kessler, H; Merkel, R
2002-01-01
We studied the mechanical strength of the adhesion of living cells to model membranes. The latter contained a RGD lipopeptide which is a high affinity binding site for a cell adhesion molecule (integrin alpha(V)beta(3)). Cells adhered specifically to the vesicles. We used micropipette aspiration for breaking this adhesion with well defined forces. Systematic variation of the rate of force application revealed pronounced kinetic effects. The dependence of the detachment forces on the loading r...
Bosch, Rosa; Moreno, María José; Dieguez-Gonzalez, Rebeca; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Gallardo, Alberto; Trias, Manuel; Grañena, Albert; Sierra, Jorge; Casanova, Isolda; Mangues, Ramon
2013-08-01
Central nervous system dissemination is a relatively uncommon but almost always fatal complication in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Optimal therapy for central nervous involvement in this malignancy has not been established. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of E7123, a celecoxib derivative that inhibits focal adhesion signaling, in a novel xenograft model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement. Cells obtained after disaggregation of HT subcutaneous tumors (HT-SC cells) were intravenously injected in NOD/SCID mice. These mice received oral vehicle or 75 mg/kg of E7123 daily until they were euthanized for weight loss or signs of sickness. The antitumor effect of E7123 was validated in an independent experiment using a bioluminescent mouse model. Intravenously injected HT-SC cells showed higher take rate and higher central nervous system tropism (associated with increased expression of β1-integrin and p130Cas proteins) than HT cells. The oral administration of E7123 significantly increased survival time in 2 independent experiments using mice injected with unmodified or bioluminescent HT-SC cells. We have developed a new xenograft model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement that can be used in the pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs for this malignancy. E7123 is a new, well-tolerated and orally available therapeutic agent that merits further investigation since it may improve current management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with central nervous system involvement.
Keira Melican; Paula Michea Veloso; Tiffany Martin; Patrick Bruneval; Guillaume Duménil
2013-01-01
Septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis is typically rapidly evolving and often fatal despite antibiotic therapy. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying the disease is necessary to reduce fatality rates. Postmortem samples from the characteristic purpuric rashes of the infection show bacterial aggregates in close association with microvessel endothelium but the species specificity of N. meningitidis has previously hindered the development of an in vivo model to study the rol...
Multibody simulation of adhesion pili
Zakrisson, Johan; Servin, Martin; Axner, Ove; Lacoursiere, Claude; Andersson, Magnus
2014-01-01
We present a coarse grained rigid multibody model of a subunit assembled helix-like polymer, e.g., adhesion pili expressed by bacteria, that is capable of describing the polymers force-extension response. With building blocks representing individual subunits the model appropriately describes the complex behavior of pili expressed by the gram-negative uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria under the action of an external force. Numerical simulations show that the dynamics of the model, which include both the effects of unwinding and rewinding, are in good quantitative agreement with the characteristic force-extension response as observed experimentally for type 1 and P pili. By tuning the model, it is also possible to reproduce the force-extension response in the presence of anti-shaft antibodies, which dramatically changes the mechanical properties. Thus, the model and the results in this work give enhanced understanding of how a pilus unwinds under action of external forces and provide new perspective of th...
Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G
2016-02-01
Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies.
Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G
2016-05-01
The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers.
Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives
Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar
2015-01-01
Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structur...
Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins
Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.
2014-01-01
Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.
Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.
Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar
2015-11-01
Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864
Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.
Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar
2015-11-01
Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.
Immunotherapeutic modulation of intraperitoneal adhesions by Asparagus racemosus.
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Rege N
1989-10-01
Full Text Available The hypothesis that macrophages appear to play a pivotal role in the development of intraperitoneal adhesions and that modulation of macrophage activity, therefore, is likely to provide a tool for prevention of adhesions, was tested in the present study. Effect of Asparagus racemosus, an indigenous agent with immunostimulant properties, was evaluated in an animal model of intraperitoneal adhesions induced by caecal rubbing. Animals were sacrificed 15 days following surgery. The peritoneal macrophages were collected to assess their activity. At the same time, peritoneal cavity was examined for the presence of adhesions, which were graded. A significant decrease was observed in the adhesion scores attained by animals receiving Asparagus racemosus. This was associated with significant increase in the activity of macrophages (70.1 +/- 2.52, compared to that in surgical controls (53.77 +/- 10.8. These findings support our hypothesis and provide a novel approach for the prevention and management of post-operative adhesions.
Sticking around: an up-close look at drop adhesion
Paxson, Adam T
2013-01-01
We present a fluid dynamics video showing the adhesion of a drop to a superhydrophobic surface. We use environmental scanning electron microscopy to observe depinning events at the microscale. As the drop moves along the surface, the advancing portion of the contact line simply lies down onto the upcoming roughness features, contributing negligibly to adhesion. After measuring the local receding contact angle of capillary bridges formed on a micropillar array, we find that these depinning events follow the Gibbs depinning criterion. We further extend this technique to two-scale hierarchical structures to reveal a self-similar depinning mechanism in which the adhesion of the entire drop depends only on the pinning at the very smallest level of roughness hierarchy. With this self-similar depinning mechanism we develop a model to predict the adhesion of drops to superhydrophobic surfaces that explains both the low adhesion on sparsely structured surfaces and the surprisingly high adhesion on surfaces whose featu...
Physical model of granule adhesion to the belt-electrodes of a tribo-aero-electrostatic separator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of tribo-aero-electrostatic separation technologies, which consist in the selective sorting of mixed granular insulating materials in a fluidized bed affected by an electric field orthogonally oriented to the direction of the fluidization air. The aim of the present paper is to put the theoretical bases for the optimization of this process, i. e. maximize the total mass of the granules collected at the two electrodes that generate the electric field. The various forces that drive a granule of given mass and electric charge through the electric field and make it stick to an electrode are expressed as functions of the several input variables and parameters of the process, such as the applied high-voltage or the surface roughness, the size and the position of the electrodes. The concepts of 'critical electrostatic field' and 'virtual climbing distance' are introduced. The prediction of the theoretical model are confirmed by the results of three sets of experiments, carried out on samples of a granular mixture consisting of 50% Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and 50% High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS), originating from the recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment. Higher separation efficiency was obtained when the electric field in the active zone was intensified by the use of an additional electrode connected to the ground and when the collecting electrodes were covered by a thin insulating layer.
Physical model of granule adhesion to the belt-electrodes of a tribo-aero-electrostatic separator
Li, Jia; Dascalescu, Lucian; Miloudi, Mohamed; Bilici, Mihai; Xu, Zhenming
2013-03-01
Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of tribo-aero-electrostatic separation technologies, which consist in the selective sorting of mixed granular insulating materials in a fluidized bed affected by an electric field orthogonally oriented to the direction of the fluidization air. The aim of the present paper is to put the theoretical bases for the optimization of this process, i. e. maximize the total mass of the granules collected at the two electrodes that generate the electric field. The various forces that drive a granule of given mass and electric charge through the electric field and make it stick to an electrode are expressed as functions of the several input variables and parameters of the process, such as the applied high-voltage or the surface roughness, the size and the position of the electrodes. The concepts of "critical electrostatic field" and "virtual climbing distance" are introduced. The prediction of the theoretical model are confirmed by the results of three sets of experiments, carried out on samples of a granular mixture consisting of 50% Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and 50% High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS), originating from the recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment. Higher separation efficiency was obtained when the electric field in the active zone was intensified by the use of an additional electrode connected to the ground and when the collecting electrodes were covered by a thin insulating layer.
Hu, Shihao; Xia, Zhenhai; Gao, Xiaosheng
2012-04-01
The adhesion and friction coupling of hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays was investigated with a hierarchical multiscale modeling approach. At device level, vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) arrays with laterally distributed segments on top were analyzed via finite element methods to determine the macroscopic adhesion and friction force coupling. At the nanoscale, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to explore the origin of the adhesion enhancement due to the existence of the laterally distributed CNTs. The results show interfacial adhesion force is drastically promoted by interfacial friction force when a single lateral CNT is being peeled from an amorphous carbon substrate. By fitting with experiments, we find that under shearing loadings the maximum interfacial adhesion force is increased by a factor of ~5, compared to that under normal loadings. Pre-existing surface asperities of the substrate have proven to be the source of generating large interfacial friction, which in turn results in an enhanced adhesion. The critical peeling angles derived from the continuum and nano- levels are comparable to those of geckos and other synthetic adhesives. Our analysis indicates that the adhesion enhancement factor of the hierarchically structured VA-CNT arrays could be further increased by uniformly orienting the laterally distributed CNTs on top. Most importantly, a significant buckling of the lateral CNT at peeling front is captured on the molecular level, which provides a basis for the fundamental understanding of local deformation, and failure mechanisms of nanofibrillar structures. This work gives an insight into the durability issues that prevent the success of artificial dry adhesives.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Lipides]. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br
2007-07-01
Radiation processing has been employed in some countries as a mean of treatment to assure microbiological safety of meat and meat products. Use of antioxidants for preventing lipid oxidation has been applied in those products. The present study aimed at evaluating the protecting effects of rosemary extract on the lipid profile of irradiated beef burgers. The samples were prepared with 400 ppm of rosemary extract, irradiated at doses 0, 3.5 and 7 kGy, stored at - 20 deg C for 45 days and after this time, evaluated in regard to the oxidative stability of lipids (TBARS values) and lipid profile in a GC (Gas chromatography). Non-irradiated and non-rosemary extract samples were used as a control. TBARS values were of 0.3 and 1.1 mgTBARS/kg of sample for rosemary extract and control samples (without extract) irradiated at 3.5 kGy, respectively. At 7 kGy, TBARS values were of 0.6 and 1.3 mgTBARS/kg of samples for rosemary extract and control samples (without extract), respectively. Total saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) did not change in beef burgers, although they showed small differences between the batches, this differences were not significant (P<0.05). The amounts of Trans fatty acid increased significantly (P<0.05) only when used irradiation dose of 7 kGy (0.86 g/100 g of sample). These results showed that the rosemary extract can avoid the developing of lipid oxidation and the irradiation processing did not change lipid profile in beef burgers. (author)
A design methodology for biologically inspired dry fibrillar adhesives
Aksak, Burak
Realization of the unique aspects of gecko adhesion and incorporating these aspects into a comprehensive design methodology is essential to enable fabrication of application oriented gecko-inspired dry fibrillar adhesives. To address the need for such a design methodology, we propose a fibrillar adhesion model that evaluates the effect of fiber dimensions and material on adhesive performance of fiber arrays. A fibrillar adhesion model is developed to predict the adhesive characteristics of an array of fibrillar structures, and quantify the effect of fiber length, radius, spacing, and material. Photolithography techniques were utilized to fabricate elastomer microfiber arrays. Fibers that are fabricated from stiff SU-8 photoresist are used to fabricate a flexible negative mold that facilitates fabrication of fiber arrays from various elastomers with high yield. The tips of the cylindrical fibers are modified to mushroom-like tip shapes. Adhesive strengths in excess of 100 kPa is obtained with mushroom tipped elastomer microfibers. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are utilized as enhanced friction materials by partially embedding inside soft polyurethanes. Friction coefficients up to 1 were repeatedly obtained from the resulting VACNF composite structures. A novel fabrication method is used to attach Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) molecular brush-like structures on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These brushes are grown on unstructured PDMS and PDMS fibers with mushroom tips. Pull-off force is enhanced by up to 7 times with PBA brush grafted micro-fiber arrays over unstructured PDMS substrate. Adhesion model, initially developed for curved smooth surfaces, is extended to self-affine fractal surfaces to better reflect the adhesion performance of fiber arrays on natural surfaces. Developed adhesion model for fiber arrays is used in an optimization scheme which estimates optimal design parameters to obtain maximum adhesive strength on a given
TOPICAL REVIEW: Recent advances in the fabrication and adhesion testing of biomimetic dry adhesives
Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.
2010-10-01
In the past two years, there have been a large number of publications on the topic of biomimetic dry adhesives from modeling, fabrication and testing perspectives. We review and compare the most recent advances in fabrication and testing of these materials. While there is increased convergence and consensus as to what makes a good dry adhesive, the fabrication of these materials is still challenging, particularly for anisotropic or hierarchal designs. Although qualitative comparisons between different adhesive designs can be made, quantifying the exact performance and rating each design is significantly hampered by the lack of standardized testing methods. Manufacturing dry adhesives, which can reliably adhere to rough surfaces, show directional and self-cleaning behavior and are relatively simple to manufacture, is still very challenging—great strides by multiple research groups have however made these goals appear achievable within the next few years.
Pathogenesis of postoperative adhesion formation
Hellebrekers, B.W.J.; Kooistra, T.
2011-01-01
Background: Current views on the pathogenesis of adhesion formation are based on the "classical concept of adhesion formation", namely that a reduction in peritoneal fibrinolytic activity following peritoneal trauma is of key importance in adhesion development. Methods: A non-systematic literature s
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongwei Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper, by using multiple-scale method, the Benjamin-Ono-Burgers-MKdV (BO-B-MKdV equation is obtained which governs algebraic Rossby solitary waves in stratified fluids. This equation is first derived for Rossby waves. By analysis and calculation, some conservation laws are derived from the BO-B-MKdV equation without dissipation. The results show that the mass, momentum, energy, and velocity of the center of gravity of algebraic Rossby waves are conserved and the presence of a small dissipation destroys these conservations.
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H. Kheiri
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, analytic solutions of the modifiedBurgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation(mBKdVE and theNewell-Whitehead equation are obtained by the Homotopy analysismethod(HAM and the Homotopy Pad$acute{e}$method(HPad$acute{e}$M. The obtained approximation by using HAMcontains an auxiliary parameter which is a way to control and adjustthe convergence region and rate of the solution series. Theapproximation solution by $[m,m]$ HPad$acute{e}$M is oftenindependent of auxiliary parameter $ar{h}$ and this techniqueaccelerate the convergence of the related series.
Exact Solutions of the Time Fractional BBM-Burger Equation by Novel (G′/G-Expansion Method
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Muhammad Shakeel
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The fractional derivatives are used in the sense modified Riemann-Liouville to obtain exact solutions for BBM-Burger equation of fractional order. This equation can be converted into an ordinary differential equation by using a persistent fractional complex transform and, as a result, hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions are attained. The performance of the method is reliable, useful, and gives newer general exact solutions with more free parameters than the existing methods. Numerical results coupled with the graphical representation completely reveal the trustworthiness of the method.
Travelling Wave Solutions for Time-delayed KdV-Burgers Equation%时滞KdV-Burgers方程的行波解
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李二强; 李灵晓
2012-01-01
The time-delayed KdV-Burgers equation was derived by using the flux relaxation method. The travelling wave solutions of the time-delayed KdV-Burgers equation and the KdV-Burgers equation were obtained by the ( 1/G) -expansion method. According to these solutions, the qualitative analysis of the nonlinear ODEs reduced by using traveling wave variable of the time-delayed KdV-Burgers equation was given. When the delayed constant timed by the square of the traveling speed c equals the dissipative coefficient,there exist bell solitary wave and cnoidal wave solutions in the time-delayed KdV-Burgers equation, while the KdV-Burgers equation has no the two types solutions. The existence of time delaying affects the amplitude and the wave width of the solitary waves.%利用流量松弛方法导出了时滞KdV-Burgers方程,并利用(1/G)-展开法,求得时滞KdV-Burgers及KdV-Burgers方程的行波解.结合所求得的解,对时滞KdV-Burgers方程行波约化后所得的常微分方程组(ODEs)进行了定性分析.研究表明:当时间特征常数(r)与行波波速c的平方之积等于耗散系数α(即(r)c2=α)时,时滞KdV-Burgers方程出现了椭圆余弦波解和钟状孤波解,而KdV-Burgers方程没有此类解.另外,时滞的存在还影响到孤立波的振幅和波宽.
Wheeler, J; Mariani, E; Piazolo, S; Prior, D J; Trimby, P; Drury, M R
2009-03-01
The Weighted Burgers Vector (WBV) is defined here as the sum, over all types of dislocations, of [(density of intersections of dislocation lines with a map) x (Burgers vector)]. Here we show that it can be calculated, for any crystal system, solely from orientation gradients in a map view, unlike the full dislocation density tensor, which requires gradients in the third dimension. No assumption is made about gradients in the third dimension and they may be non-zero. The only assumption involved is that elastic strains are small so the lattice distortion is entirely due to dislocations. Orientation gradients can be estimated from gridded orientation measurements obtained by EBSD mapping, so the WBV can be calculated as a vector field on an EBSD map. The magnitude of the WBV gives a lower bound on the magnitude of the dislocation density tensor when that magnitude is defined in a coordinate invariant way. The direction of the WBV can constrain the types of Burgers vectors of geometrically necessary dislocations present in the microstructure, most clearly when it is broken down in terms of lattice vectors. The WBV has three advantages over other measures of local lattice distortion: it is a vector and hence carries more information than a scalar quantity, it has an explicit mathematical link to the individual Burgers vectors of dislocations and, since it is derived via tensor calculus, it is not dependent on the map coordinate system. If a sub-grain wall is included in the WBV calculation, the magnitude of the WBV becomes dependent on the step size but its direction still carries information on the Burgers vectors in the wall. The net Burgers vector content of dislocations intersecting an area of a map can be simply calculated by an integration round the edge of that area, a method which is fast and complements point-by-point WBV calculations. PMID:19250469
A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive
Chary, Sathya; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly
2013-02-01
Geckos utilize a robust reversible adhesive to repeatedly attach and detach from a variety of vertical and inverted surfaces, using structurally anisotropic micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures. These fibers, when suitably articulated, are able to control the real area of contact and thereby generate high-to-low van der Waals forces. Key characteristics of the natural system include highly anisotropic adhesion and shear forces for controllable attachment, a high adhesion to initial preload force ratio (μ‧) of 8-16, lack of inter-fiber self-adhesion, and operation over more than 30 000 cycles without loss of adhesion performance. A highly reusable synthetic adhesive has been developed using tilted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) half-cylinder micron-scale fibers, retaining up to 77% of the initial value over 10 000 repeated test cycles against a flat glass puck. In comparison with other gecko-inspired adhesives tested over 10 000 cycles or more thus far, this paper reports the highest value of μ‧, along with a large shear force of ˜78 kPa, approaching the 88-226 kPa range of gecko toes. The anisotropic adhesion forces are close to theoretical estimates from the Kendall peel model, quantitatively showing how lateral shearing articulation in a manner similar to the gecko may be used to obtain adhesion anisotropy with synthetic fibers using a combination of tilt angle and anisotropic fiber geometry.
聚烯烃织物背胶干燥特性及干燥模型研究%Study on drying characteristics and drying model of polyolefin fabric adhesive
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许利; 林珩; 易红玲; 贾丽洲; 郑柏存
2014-01-01
研究了聚烯烃织物背胶在不同干燥温度和风速时的干燥曲线、干燥速率曲线、水分有效扩散系数（Def ）以及干燥活化能（Ea），建立了干燥的数学模型。研究结果表明：聚烯烃织物背胶的整个干燥过程属于降速干燥，干燥温度和风速的升高都有利于缩短干燥时间；Page模型能较好描述聚烯烃织物背胶的干燥过程，并且Def为（2.46~4.15）×10-8 m2/s ，Ea为26.95 kJ/mol。%The drying curves,drying rate curves,moisture effective diffusivity(Def) and drying activation energy(Ea)of polyolefin fabric adhesive were investigated at different drying temperatures and air velocities. The drying mathematics model of the polyolefin fabric adhesive was established. The research results showed that the entire drying process of polyolefin fabric adhesive was falling rate drying. The drying time was shortened with increasing drying temperatures and air velocities. The Page model could preferably describe the drying process of the polyolefin fabric adhesive,and the Def and Ea were(2.46-4.15)×10-8 m2/s and 26.95 kJ/mol respectively.
Study on drying characteristics and drying model of polyolefin fabric adhesive%聚烯烃织物背胶干燥特性及干燥模型研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许利; 林珩; 易红玲; 贾丽洲; 郑柏存
2014-01-01
The drying curves,drying rate curves,moisture effective diffusivity(Def) and drying activation energy(Ea)of polyolefin fabric adhesive were investigated at different drying temperatures and air velocities. The drying mathematics model of the polyolefin fabric adhesive was established. The research results showed that the entire drying process of polyolefin fabric adhesive was falling rate drying. The drying time was shortened with increasing drying temperatures and air velocities. The Page model could preferably describe the drying process of the polyolefin fabric adhesive,and the Def and Ea were(2.46-4.15)×10-8 m2/s and 26.95 kJ/mol respectively.%研究了聚烯烃织物背胶在不同干燥温度和风速时的干燥曲线、干燥速率曲线、水分有效扩散系数（Def ）以及干燥活化能（Ea），建立了干燥的数学模型。研究结果表明：聚烯烃织物背胶的整个干燥过程属于降速干燥，干燥温度和风速的升高都有利于缩短干燥时间；Page模型能较好描述聚烯烃织物背胶的干燥过程，并且Def为（2.46~4.15）×10-8 m2/s ，Ea为26.95 kJ/mol。
Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures
Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.
2014-07-01
Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boorse, R.S.
1993-01-01
Methods of chemical synthesis and theoretical calculation was used to form new materials that have improved adhesion of a thin metal film to a ceramic. Two goals of this investigation were to develop new synthesis of metal-ceramic couples with improved adhesion between the two components and a fundamental understanding of the chemical factors that affect adhesion. Extended Hueckel calculations were performed on a series of Pt- and NiPt-NiO metal-ceramic couples to examine bonding. The calculations showed an 5 fold increase in adhesion energy in NiPt-NiO over Pt-NiO. Bonding across the interface is found to decrease with increased electron donation as interfacially antibonding orbitals are filled. The synthesis of (Al[sub 1[minus]x]Cr[sub x])[sub 2]O[sub 3] mixed metal oxide powders and coatings by sol-gel methodology utilizing three chromium precursors is reported. Thus, Al[Cr(CO)[sub 3]C[sub 5]H[sub 5
Yaqoob, M.A.; Rooij, de M.B.; Schipper, D.J.
2013-01-01
The adhesion force due to capillary interaction between two hydrophilic surfaces is strongly dependent on the partial pressure of water and is often calculated using the Kelvin equation. The validity of the Kelvin equation is questionable at low relative humidity (RH) of water, like in high vacuum a
Management of adhesive capsulitis
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Stupay KL
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive criteria for diagnosis make evaluating treatment modalities difficult. Many treatment methods have been reported, most with some success, but few have been proved to alter the natural course of this disease. Most afflicted patients will achieve acceptable shoulder function without surgery. Those who remain debilitated after 8–12 months are reasonable candidates for invasive treatments. Here, the various treatment methods and the data to support their use are reviewed. Keywords: frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, periarthritis, painful shoulder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Couchman, J R; Chen, L; Woods, A
2001-01-01
Now that transmembrane signaling through primary cell-matrix receptors, integrins, is being elucidated, attention is turning to how integrin-ligand interactions can be modulated. Syndecans are transmembrane proteoglycans implicated as coreceptors in a variety of physiological processes, including...... cell adhesion, migration, response to growth factors, development, and tumorigenesis. This review will describe this family of proteoglycans in terms of their structures and functions and their signaling in conjunction with integrins, and indicate areas for future research....
Adhesive Wear Fractal Model for End Face of Mechanical Seals%机械密封端面黏着磨损分形模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
房桂芳; 滕文锐; 刘其和; 张鹏高; 魏龙
2013-01-01
According to archard wear theory, a adhesive wear fractal model of the end face of mechanical seals was established by introducing the fractal wear coefficient and solving the volume of plastic and elastic-plastic deformation asperities, on the basis of contact fractal model of the end face of mechanical seals. The relationship among the wear rate, the profile fractal parameter of the end face of the soft ring, the real contact area, the material performance parameters and the working parameters of mechanical seals were obtained. The wear rate of the end face of soft ring of B104a - 70 mechanical seal was calculated and analyzed. The results indicate that the wear rate of the end face increases with increase in the face pressure, the rotating speed and the characteristic length scale of the end face, and it decreases rapidly at first and then increases gradually with increase in the fractal dimension. There exists an optimum fractal dimension which make wear rate minimum.%在机械密封端面接触分形模型基础上,依据Archard磨损理论,通过引入分形磨损系数及求解塑性和弹塑性变形微凸体的体积,建立了机械密封端面黏着磨损分形模型.得到了机械密封软质环端面磨损率与端面轮廓分形参数、真实接触面积、材料性能参数以及工作参数之间的关系式.对B104a-70型机械密封软质环端面的磨损率进行了计算和分析.结果表明,端面磨损率随着端面比压、转速及端面特征尺度系数的增大而增大；随着端面分形维数的增大先迅速减小后逐渐增大,即存在一个使磨损率最小的最优分形维数.
Bauer, Christina T; Kroner, Elmar; Fleck, Norman A; Arzt, Eduard
2015-12-01
Nature uses hierarchical fibrillar structures to mediate temporary adhesion to arbitrary substrates. Such structures provide high compliance such that the flat fibril tips can be better positioned with respect to asperities of a wavy rough substrate. We investigated the buckling and adhesion of hierarchically structured adhesives in contact with flat smooth, flat rough and wavy rough substrates. A macroscopic model for the structural adhesive was fabricated by molding polydimethylsiloxane into pillars of diameter in the range of 0.3-4.8 mm, with up to three different hierarchy levels. Both flat-ended and mushroom-shaped hierarchical samples buckled at preloads one quarter that of the single level structures. We explain this behavior by a change in the buckling mode; buckling leads to a loss of contact and diminishes adhesion. Our results indicate that hierarchical structures can have a strong influence on the degree of adhesion on both flat and wavy substrates. Strategies are discussed that achieve highly compliant substrates which adhere to rough substrates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suheel Abdullah Malik
Full Text Available In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE. The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM, and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM, show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems.
Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems. PMID:25811858
Feng, Zhaosheng
Many physical phenomena can be described by nonlinear models. The last few decades have seen an enormous growth of the applicability of nonlinear models and of the development of related nonlinear concepts. This has been driven by modern computer power as well as by the discovery of new mathematical techniques, which include two contrasting themes: (i) the theory of dynamical systems, most popularly associated with the study of chaos, and (ii) the theory of integrable systems associated, among other things, with the study of solitons. In this dissertation, we study two nonlinear models. One is the 1-dimensional vibrating string satisfying wtt - wxx = 0 with van der Pol boundary conditions. We formulate the problem into an equivalent first order Hyperbolic system, and use the method of characteristics to derive a nonlinear reflection relation caused by the nonlinear boundary conditions. Thus, the problem is reduced to the discrete iteration problem of the type un+1 = F( un). Periodic solutions are investigated, an invariant interval for the Abel equation is studied, and numerical simulations and visualizations with different coefficients are illustrated. The other model is the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation. In this dissertation, we proposed two new approaches: One is what we currently call First Integral Method, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra. Applying the Hilbert-Nullstellensatz, we reduce the KdVB equation to a first-order integrable ordinary differential equation. The other approach is called the Coordinate Transformation Method, which involves a series of variable transformations. Some new results on the traveling wave solution are established by using these two methods, which not only are more general than the existing ones in the previous literature, but also indicate that some corresponding solutions presented in the literature contain errors. We clarify the errors and instead give a refined result.
Engineering bio-adhesive functions in an antimicrobial polymer multilayer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Functionalization of a biomaterial surface with adhesive ligands is an effective way to promote specific cell adhesion. Ideally, biomaterial for applications in biomedical implants should simultaneously promote host cell adhesion and inhibit bacterial adhesion. Currently, little attention has been paid to the design of antimicrobial biomaterial with selective adhesiveness towards only targeted cells or tissues. In this study, the role of two typical adhesive ligands on the bioadhesion functions of a model antimicrobial film was elucidated. First, an adhesive ligand including an RGD peptide or collagen (CL) was chemically coupled to an antimicrobial polymeric multilayer composed of dextran sulfate (DS) and chitosan (CS). It was demonstrated that the density of RGD and CL immobilized on the DS/CS multilayer ranges between 4 to 137 ng cm−2 and 100 to 1000 ng cm−2, respectively. Then the effect of immobilized RGD or CL on both bacterial and fibroblast adhesion was investigated. By determining the density and morphology of adherent fibroblast on a DS/CS multilayer with or without an adhesive ligand, it was shown that RGD or CL effectively promoted fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, the type of adhesive ligands imposed distinct effects in bacterial adhesion. Immobilized RGD did not enhance Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli adhesion on DS/CS multilayers under all concentrations. In contrast, CL triggered significant S. aureus adhesion on DS/CS multilayers even at low surface concentration and when fibroblast adhesion was absent. Moreover, the detachment forces of individual S. aureus on CL coated DS/CS multilayers probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was 3 times and 20 times higher than that on the control substrate and on unmodified DS/CS multilayers, respectively. Interestingly, the lowest detachment force of E. coli was found on the CL coated DS/CS multilayers. This study demonstrated the
Wall Climbing Robot Using Electrostatic Adhesion Force Generated by Flexible Interdigital Electrodes
Rong Liu; Rui Chen; Hua Shen; Rong Zhang
2013-01-01
Electrostatic adhesion technology has broad application prospects on wall climbing robots because of its unique characteristics compared with other types of adhesion technologies. A double tracked wall climbing robot based on electrostatic adhesion technology is presented including electrode panel design, mechanical structure design, power supply system design and control system design. A theoretical adhesion model was established and the electrostatic potential and field were expressed by se...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Csiszár, Gábor; Pantleon, Karen; Alimadadi, Hossein;
2012-01-01
Nanocrystalline Ni thin films have been produced by direct current electrodeposition with different additives and current density in order to obtain 〈100〉, 〈111〉 and 〈211〉 major fiber textures. The dislocation density, the Burgers vector population and the coherently scattering domain size...
Bolat, Elif; Kocamaz, Erdoğan; Kulahcilar, Zeki; Yilmaz, Ali; Topcu, Abdullah; Ozdemir, Mevci; Coskun, Mehmet Erdal
2013-01-01
Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose The aim of this study was to evalute the effects of mitomycin-C, sodium hyaluronate and human amniotic fluid on preventing spinal epidural fibrosis. Overview of Literature The role of scar tissue in pain formation is not exactly known, but it is reported that scar tissue causes adhesions between anatomic structures. Intensive fibrotic tissue compresses on anatomic structures and increases the sensitivity of the nerve root for recurrent herniation an...
[Adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms].
Gafiţanu, E; Matei, I; Mungiu, O C; Pavelescu, M; Mîndreci, I; Apostol, I; Ionescu, G
1989-01-01
The adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms aimed to local action release the drug substance in view of a dermatological, traumatological, antirheumatic, cosmetic action. Two such preparations were obtained and their stability, consistency and pH were determined. The "in vitro" tests of their bioavailability revealed the dynamics of calcium ions release according to the associations of each preparation. The bioavailability determined by evaluating the pharmacological response demonstrated the antiinflammatory action obtained by the association of calcium ions with the components extracted from poplar muds. The therapeutical efficiency of the studied preparations has proved in the treatment of some sport injuries.
Physiochemical properties of Caulobacter crescentus holdfast: a localized bacterial adhesive.
Berne, Cécile; Ma, Xiang; Licata, Nicholas A; Neves, Bernardo R A; Setayeshgar, Sima; Brun, Yves V; Dragnea, Bogdan
2013-09-12
To colonize surfaces, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus employs a polar polysaccharide, the holdfast, located at the end of a thin, long stalk protruding from the cell body. Unlike many other bacteria which adhere through an extended extracellular polymeric network, the holdfast footprint area is tens of thousands times smaller than that of the total bacterium cross-sectional surface, making for some very demanding adhesion requirements. At present, the mechanism of holdfast adhesion remains poorly understood. We explore it here along three lines of investigation: (a) the impact of environmental conditions on holdfast binding affinity, (b) adhesion kinetics by dynamic force spectroscopy, and (c) kinetic modeling of the attachment process to interpret the observed time-dependence of the adhesion force at short and long time scales. A picture emerged in which discrete molecular units called adhesins are responsible for initial holdfast adhesion, by acting in a cooperative manner.
Resolving fundamental limits of adhesive bonding in microfabrication.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Jessica S.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Emerson, John Allen; Adkins, Douglas Ray; Kent, Michael Stuart; Read, Douglas H.; Giunta, Rachel Knudsen; Lamppa, Kerry P.; Kawaguchi, Stacie; Holmes, Melissa A.
2004-04-01
As electronic and optical components reach the micro- and nanoscales, efficient assembly and packaging require the use of adhesive bonds. This work focuses on resolving several fundamental issues in the transition from macro- to micro- to nanobonding. A primary issue is that, as bondline thicknesses decrease, knowledge of the stability and dewetting dynamics of thin adhesive films is important to obtain robust, void-free adhesive bonds. While researchers have studied dewetting dynamics of thin films of model, non-polar polymers, little experimental work has been done regarding dewetting dynamics of thin adhesive films, which exhibit much more complex behaviors. In this work, the areas of dispensing small volumes of viscous materials, capillary fluid flow, surface energetics, and wetting have all been investigated. By resolving these adhesive-bonding issues, we are allowing significantly smaller devices to be designed and fabricated. Simultaneously, we are increasing the manufacturability and reliability of these devices.
Syndecan proteoglycans and cell adhesion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Woods, A; Oh, E S; Couchman, J R
1998-01-01
It is now becoming clear that a family of transmembrane proteoglycans, the syndecans, have important roles in cell adhesion. They participate through binding of matrix ligand to their glycosaminoglycan chains, clustering, and the induction of signaling cascades to modify the internal microfilament...... organization. Syndecans can modulate the type of adhesive responses induced by other matrix ligand-receptor interactions, such as those involving the integrins, and so contribute to the control of cell morphology, adhesion and migration....
Adhesion properties of gecko setae
Hill, Ginel; Peattie, Anne; Daniels, Roxanne; Full, Robert; Kenny, Thomas
2005-03-01
Millions of keratin hairs on gecko feet, called setae, act as a spectacular dry adhesive. Each seta branches into hundreds of smaller fibers that terminate in spatula-shaped ends. Morphological differences between the setae from different gecko species are suspected to affect both single-seta and whole-animal adhesion properties. Single-seta adhesive force measurements made using a MEMS piezoresistive cantilever capable of two-axis measurements are presented.
Puerperal endometritis and intrauterine adhesions.
Polishuk, W Z; Anteby, S O; Weinstein, D
1975-08-01
The role of puerperal endometritis in intrauterine adhesion formation was studied by hysterography in 171 women who had cesarean sections. Of 28 patients who developed significant endometritis, only one developed intracervical adhesions. In the control group of 143 cases, there was also only one such case. Endometritis alone apparently does not play a significant role in intrauterine and endocervical adhesion formation. The possible role of placental fibroblasts in preventing endometrial regeneration is discussed. PMID:1158622
Physics of cell elasticity, shape and adhesion
Safran, S. A.; Gov, N.; Nicolas, A.; Schwarz, U. S.; Tlusty, T.
2005-07-01
We review recent theoretical work that analyzes experimental measurements of the shape, fluctuations and adhesion properties of biological cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of the cytoskeleton and cell elasticity and we contrast the shape and adhesion of elastic cells with fluid-filled vesicles. In red blood cells (RBC), the cytoskeleton consists of a two-dimensional network of spectrin proteins. Our analysis of the wavevector and frequency dependence of the fluctuation spectrum of RBC indicates that the spectrin network acts as a confining potential that reduces the fluctuations of the lipid bilayer membrane. However, since the cytoskeleton is only sparsely connected to the bilayer, one cannot regard the composite cytoskeleton-membrane as a polymerized object with a shear modulus. The sensitivity of RBC fluctuations and shapes to ATP concentration may reflect topological defects induced in the cytoskeleton network by ATP. The shapes of cells that adhere to a substrate are strongly determined by the cytoskeletal elasticity that can be varied experimentally by drugs that depolymerize the cytoskeleton. This leads to a tension-driven retraction of the cell body and a pearling instability of the resulting ray-like protrusions. Recent experiments have shown that adhering cells exert polarized forces on substrates. The interactions of such “force dipoles” in either bulk gels or on surfaces can be used to predict the nature of self-assembly of cell aggregates and may be important in the formation of artificial tissues. Finally, we note that cell adhesion strongly depends on the forces exerted on the adhesion sites by the tension of the cytoskeleton. The size and shape of the adhesion regions are strongly modified as the tension is varied and we present an elastic model that relates this tension to deformations that induce the recruitment of new molecules to the adhesion region. In all these examples, cell shape and adhesion differ from vesicle shape and
The neural cell adhesion molecule
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berezin, V; Bock, E; Poulsen, F M
2000-01-01
During the past year, the understanding of the structure and function of neural cell adhesion has advanced considerably. The three-dimensional structures of several of the individual modules of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) have been determined, as well as the structure of the complex...... between two identical fragments of the NCAM. Also during the past year, a link between homophilic cell adhesion and several signal transduction pathways has been proposed, connecting the event of cell surface adhesion to cellular responses such as neurite outgrowth. Finally, the stimulation of neurite...
Analysis of the surface effects on adhesion in MEMS structures
Rusu, F.; Pustan, M.; Bîrleanu, C.; Müller, R.; Voicu, R.; Baracu, A.
2015-12-01
One of the main failure causes in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is stiction. Stiction is the adhesion of contacting surfaces due to surface forces. Adhesion force depends on the operating conditions and is influenced by the contact area. In this study, the adhesion force between MEMS materials and the AFM tips is analyzed using the spectroscopy in point mode of the AFM. The aim is to predict the stiction failure mode in MEMS. The investigated MEMS materials are silicon, polysilicon, platinum, aluminum, and gold. Three types of investigations were conducted. The first one aimed to determine the variation of the adhesion force with respect to the variation of the roughness. The roughness has a strong influence on the adhesion because the contact area between components increases if the roughness decreases. The second type of investigation aimed to determine the adhesion force in multiple points of each considered sample. The values obtained experimentally for the adhesion force were also validated using the JKR and DMT models. The third type of investigation was conducted with the purpose of determining the influence of the temperature on the adhesion force.
Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation on food processing surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, M.; Johansen, C.;
2001-01-01
Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended...
Bacterial adhesion to glass and metal-oxide surfaces.
Li, Baikun; Logan, Bruce E
2004-07-15
significantly (P < 10(-25)) correlated with total adhesion free energy (U) between the bacteria and surface (A = 2162e(-1.8U)). Although the correlation was significant, agreement between the model and data was poor for the low energy surfaces (R2 = 0.68), indicating that better models or additional methods to characterize bacteria and surfaces are still needed to more accurately describe initial bacterial adhesion to inorganic surfaces. PMID:15261011
Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel
2016-05-01
Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability. PMID:26990186
Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel
2016-05-01
Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosi Pereira Balbinotto
2010-02-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the frequency of postsurgical pelvic adhesion formation in an experimental animal model using videolaparoscopy. METHODS: Experimental study in a sample of 11 non-pregnant female rabbits, aged 5 to 7 months. After general anesthesia, access to the abdominal cavity was performed by an open puncture technique, with 10mm optics, placing two other 5 mm trochars under direct visualization, in the iliac fossae. Then a fragment of peritoneum was resected, followed by electrocauterization. In 21 days, the videolaparoscopy was repeated, and adhesion formation and score was looked at, with biopsies at the surgical site. RESULTS: 54 % of adhesion formation was observed, and the median score of adhesions was 6 (minimum of 3 and maximum of 10, all of them found in the bladder and the anterior abdominal wall. CONCLUSION: The method used presents a high frequency of intra-abdominal adhesion formation.OBJETIVO: Verificar a freqüência da formação de aderências pélvicas pós-cirúrgicas, em um modelo experimental animal, por videolaparoscopia. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental, em uma amostra de 11 coelhas, não prenhas, com idade entre cinco e sete meses. Após anestesia geral, o acesso da cavidade abdominal foi efetuado por técnica de punção aberta, com óptica de 10 mm, colocando-se outros dois trocateres de 5 mm, sob visão direta, nas fossas ilíacas. Realizou-se, então, ressecção de fragmento de peritônio, seguida de cauterização com eletrocautério. Em 21 dias, foi repetida a videolaparoscopia, verificando-se a formação e escore de aderências e realizando-se biópsias do local da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Observou-se 54,5% de formação de aderências, sendo o escore total mediano de aderências seis (mínimo de três e máximo de 10, todas encontradas na bexiga e na parede abdominal anterior. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento utilizado apresentou alta freqüência de formação de aderências intra-abdominais.
Pressure sensitive adhesives from renewable resources
Maaßen, Wiebke
2015-01-01
Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) represent an important segment of the adhesives market. In this work, novel insights into the adhesive performance of bio-based pressure sensitive adhesives are presented. Three different homopolymers based on fatty acids derived from native vegetable oils as renewable feedstock were characterized in terms of their mechanical and adhesive properties.
Improved Adhesion and Compliancy of Hierarchical Fibrillar Adhesives.
Li, Yasong; Gates, Byron D; Menon, Carlo
2015-08-01
The gecko relies on van der Waals forces to cling onto surfaces with a variety of topography and composition. The hierarchical fibrillar structures on their climbing feet, ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale, are hypothesized to be key elements for the animal to conquer both smooth and rough surfaces. An epoxy-based artificial hierarchical fibrillar adhesive was prepared to study the influence of the hierarchical structures on the properties of a dry adhesive. The presented experiments highlight the advantages of a hierarchical structure despite a reduction of overall density and aspect ratio of nanofibrils. In contrast to an adhesive containing only nanometer-size fibrils, the hierarchical fibrillar adhesives exhibited a higher adhesion force and better compliancy when tested on an identical substrate.
Improved Adhesion and Compliancy of Hierarchical Fibrillar Adhesives.
Li, Yasong; Gates, Byron D; Menon, Carlo
2015-08-01
The gecko relies on van der Waals forces to cling onto surfaces with a variety of topography and composition. The hierarchical fibrillar structures on their climbing feet, ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale, are hypothesized to be key elements for the animal to conquer both smooth and rough surfaces. An epoxy-based artificial hierarchical fibrillar adhesive was prepared to study the influence of the hierarchical structures on the properties of a dry adhesive. The presented experiments highlight the advantages of a hierarchical structure despite a reduction of overall density and aspect ratio of nanofibrils. In contrast to an adhesive containing only nanometer-size fibrils, the hierarchical fibrillar adhesives exhibited a higher adhesion force and better compliancy when tested on an identical substrate. PMID:26167951
Stretchable, adhesion-tunable dry adhesive by surface wrinkling.
Jeong, Hoon Eui; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Suh, Kahp Y
2010-02-16
We introduce a simple yet robust method of fabricating a stretchable, adhesion-tunable dry adhesive by combining replica molding and surface wrinkling. By utilizing a thin, wrinkled polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sheet with a thickness of 1 mm with built-in micropillars, active, dynamic control of normal and shear adhesion was achieved. Relatively strong normal (approximately 10.8 N/cm(2)) and shear adhesion (approximately 14.7 N/cm(2)) forces could be obtained for a fully extended (strained) PDMS sheet (prestrain of approximately 3%), whereas the forces could be rapidly reduced to nearly zero once the prestrain was released (prestrain of approximately 0.5%). Moreover, durability tests demonstrated that the adhesion strength in both the normal and shear directions was maintained over more than 100 cycles of attachment and detachment.
Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint
Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul
2013-12-01
The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.
Stretchable, Adhesion-Tunable Dry Adhesive by Surface Wrinkling
Jeong, Hoon Eui
2010-02-16
We introduce a simple yet robust method of fabricating a stretchable, adhesion-tunable dry adhesive by combining replica molding and surface wrinkling. By utilizing a thin, wrinkled polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sheet with a thickness of 1 mm with built-in micropillars, active, dynamic control of normal and shear adhesion was achieved. Relatively strong normal (∼10.8 N/cm2) and shear adhesion (∼14.7 N/cm2) forces could be obtained for a fully extended (strained) PDMS sheet (prestrain of∼3%), whereas the forces could be rapidly reduced to nearly zero once the prestrain was released (prestrain of ∼0.5%). Moreover, durability tests demonstrated that the adhesion strength in both the normal and shear directions was maintained over more than 100 cycles of attachment and detachment. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Zhong-Zhou; LIU Xi-Qiang; BAI Cheng-Lin
2006-01-01
Using the classical Lie method of infinitesimals, we first obtain the symmetry of the (2+1)-dimensional Burgers-Korteweg-de-Vries (3D-BKdV) equation. Then we reduce the 3D-BKdV equation using the symmetry and give some exact solutions of the 3D-BKdV equation. When using the direct method, we restrict a condition and get a relationship between the new solutions and the old ones. Given a solution of the 3D-BKdV equation, we can get a new one from the relationship. The relationship between the symmetry obtained by using the classical Lie method and that obtained by using the direct method is also mentioned. At last, we give the conservation laws of the 3D-BKdV equation.
Burda, Zdzislaw; Nowak, Maciej A; Tarnowski, Wojciech; Warchoł, Piotr
2015-01-01
Following our recent letter, we study in detail an entry-wise diffusion of non-hermitian complex matrices. We obtain an exact partial differential equation (valid for any matrix size $N$ and arbitrary initial conditions) for evolution of the averaged extended characteristic polynomial. The logarithm of this polynomial has an interpretation of a potential which generates a Burgers dynamics in quaternionic space. The dynamics of the ensemble in the large $N$ is completely determined by the coevolution of the spectral density and a certain eigenvector correlation function. This coevolution is best visible in an electrostatic potential of a quaternionic argument built of two complex variables, the first of which governs standard spectral properties while the second unravels the hidden dynamics of eigenvector correlation function. We obtain general large $N$ formulas for both spectral density and 1-point eigenvector correlation function valid for any initial conditions. We exemplify our studies by solving three ex...
Numerical study on multiphase flows induced by wall adhesion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myong, Hyon Kook [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-07-15
The present paper presents a numerical study on multiphase flows induced by wall adhesion. The continuum surface force (CSF) model with the wall adhesion boundary condition model is used for calculating the surface tension force; this model is implemented in an in house solution code (PowerCFD). The present method (code) employs an unstructured cell centered method based on a conservative pressure based finite volume method with a volume capturing method (CICSAM) in a volume of fluid (VOF) scheme for phase interface capturing. The effects of wall adhesion are then numerically simulated by using the present method for a shallow pool of water located at the bottom of a cylindrical tank with no external forces such as gravity. Two different cases are computed, one it which the water wets the wall and one in which the water does not wet the wall. It is found that the present method efficiently simulates the surface tension dominant multiphase flows induced by wall adhesion.
Cleaning properties of dry adhesives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.; P.; DíAZ; TéLLEZ; D.; SAMEOTO; C.; MENON
2010-01-01
In this paper we present a study into the cleaning properties of synthetic dry adhesives. We have manufactured the adhesive micro-fibres through a low-cost, high yield fabrication method using Sylgard 184 Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the structural material. We deliberately contaminated the adhesive samples with different sized particles in the micro and macro scales and tested different cleaning methods for their efficacy with respect to each particle size. We investigated different cleaning methods, which included the use of wax moulding, vibration and pressure sensitive adhesives. For adhesion testing we used a custom system with a linear stage and a force sensor indenting a hemispherical probe into the adhesive surface and measuring the pull-off force. To characterize the cleaning efficacy we visually inspected each sample in a microscope and weighed the samples with a microgram-accuracy analytical balance. Results showed that the moulding method induced adhesion recovery in a greater percentage than the other cleaning methods and even helped with the recovery of collapsed posts in some cases. On the other hand pressure sensitive adhesives seem to have the upper hand with regards to certain particle sizes that can potentially pose problems with the moulding method.
[Retention of adhesive bridges].
Raes, F; De Boever, J
1994-04-01
Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965
Hyaluronan-mediated cellular adhesion
Curtis, Jennifer
2005-03-01
Many cells surround themselves with a cushioning halo of polysaccharides that is further strengthened and organized by proteins. In fibroblasts and chrondrocytes, the primary component of this pericellular matrix is hyaluronan, a large linear polyanion. Hyaluronan production is linked to a variety of disease, developmental, and physiological processes. Cells manipulate the concentration of hyaluronan and hyaluronan receptors for numerous activities including modulation of cell adhesion, cell motility, and differentiation. Recent investigations by identify hyaluronan's role in mediating early-stage cell adhesion. An open question is how the cell removes the 0.5-10 micron thick pericellular matrix to allow for further mature adhesion events requiring nanometer scale separations. In this investigation, holographic optical tweezers are used to study the adhesion and viscoelastic properties of chondrocytes' pericellular matrix. Ultimately, we aim to shed further light on the spatial and temporal details of the dramatic transition from micron to nanometer gaps between the cell and its adhesive substrate.
Frictional adhesion: A new angle on gecko attachment.
Autumn, K; Dittmore, A; Santos, D; Spenko, M; Cutkosky, M
2006-09-01
Directional arrays of branched microscopic setae constitute a dry adhesive on the toes of pad-bearing geckos, nature's supreme climbers. Geckos are easily and rapidly able to detach their toes as they climb. There are two known mechanisms of detachment: (1) on the microscale, the seta detaches when the shaft reaches a critical angle with the substrate, and (2) on the macroscale, geckos hyperextend their toes, apparently peeling like tape. This raises the question of how geckos prevent detachment while inverted on the ceiling, where body weight should cause toes to peel and setal angles to increase. Geckos use opposing feet and toes while inverted, possibly to maintain shear forces that prevent detachment of setae or peeling of toes. If detachment occurs by macroscale peeling of toes, the peel angle should monotonically decrease with applied force. In contrast, if adhesive force is limited by microscale detachment of setae at a critical angle, the toe detachment angle should be independent of applied force. We tested the hypothesis that adhesion is increased by shear force in isolated setal arrays and live gecko toes. We also tested the corollary hypotheses that (1) adhesion in toes and arrays is limited as on the microscale by a critical angle, or (2) on the macroscale by adhesive strength as predicted for adhesive tapes. We found that adhesion depended directly on shear force, and was independent of detachment angle. Therefore we reject the hypothesis that gecko toes peel like tape. The linear relation between adhesion and shear force is consistent with a critical angle of release in live gecko toes and isolated setal arrays, and also with our prior observations of single setae. We introduced a new model, frictional adhesion, for gecko pad attachment and compared it to existing models of adhesive contacts. In an analysis of clinging stability of a gecko on an inclined plane each adhesive model predicted a different force control strategy. The frictional adhesion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Plotnikov
2012-01-01
Conclusions: Model of CVI of lower limb is accompanied by increased venous pressure and raised adhesion activity of leukocytes. Administration of AOC for 14 days reduces the adhesive activity of leukocytes.
Combined dry and wet adhesion between a particle and an elastic substrate.
Qian, Jin; Lin, Ji; Shi, Mingxing
2016-12-01
We theoretically model the combined dry and wet adhesion between a rigid sphere and an elastic substrate, where the dry contact area is surrounded by a liquid meniscus. The influence of the liquid on the interfacial adhesion is twofold: inducing the Laplace pressure around the dry contact area and altering the adhesion energy between solid surfaces. The behavior of such combined dry and wet adhesion shows a smooth transition between the JKR and DMT models for hydrophilic solids, governed by the prescribed liquid volume or environmental humidity. The JKR-DMT transition vanishes when the solids become hydrophobic. An inverse scaling law of adhesive strength indicates that size reduction helps to enhance the adhesive strength until a theoretical limit is reached. This study also demonstrates the jumping-on and jumping-off hysteresis between the combined dry-wet adhesion and pure liquid bridge in a complete separation and approach cycle. PMID:27567029
Combined dry and wet adhesion between a particle and an elastic substrate.
Qian, Jin; Lin, Ji; Shi, Mingxing
2016-12-01
We theoretically model the combined dry and wet adhesion between a rigid sphere and an elastic substrate, where the dry contact area is surrounded by a liquid meniscus. The influence of the liquid on the interfacial adhesion is twofold: inducing the Laplace pressure around the dry contact area and altering the adhesion energy between solid surfaces. The behavior of such combined dry and wet adhesion shows a smooth transition between the JKR and DMT models for hydrophilic solids, governed by the prescribed liquid volume or environmental humidity. The JKR-DMT transition vanishes when the solids become hydrophobic. An inverse scaling law of adhesive strength indicates that size reduction helps to enhance the adhesive strength until a theoretical limit is reached. This study also demonstrates the jumping-on and jumping-off hysteresis between the combined dry-wet adhesion and pure liquid bridge in a complete separation and approach cycle.
Abdulla, Tariq; Luna-Zurita, Luis; de la Pompa, José Luis; Schleich, Jean-Marc; Summers, Ron
2013-08-01
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process during development and disease, including development of the heart valves and tumour metastases. An extended cellular Potts model was implemented to represent the behaviour emerging from autonomous cell morphology, labile adhesion, junctional coupling and cell motility. Computer simulations normally focus on these functional changes independently whereas this model facilitates exploration of the interplay between cell shape changes, adhesion and migration. The simulation model is fitted to an in vitro model of endocardial EMT, and agrees with the finding that Notch signalling increases cell-matrix adhesion in addition to modulating cell-cell adhesion. PMID:23787029
Experimental and Numerical Failure Analysis of Adhesive Composite Joints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhad Asgari Mehrabadi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In the first section of this work, a suitable data reduction scheme is developed to measure the adhesive joints strain energy release rate under pure mode-I loading, and in the second section, three types of adhesive hybrid lap-joints, that is, Aluminum-GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic, GFRP-GFRP, and Steel-GFRP were employed in the determination of adhesive hybrid joints strengths and failures that occur at these assemblies under tension loading. To achieve the aims, Double Cantilever Beam (DCB was used to evaluate the fracture state under the mode-I loading (opening mode and also hybrid lap-joint was employed to investigate the failure load and strength of bonded joints. The finite-element study was carried out to understand the stress intensity factors in DCB test to account fracture toughness using J-integral method as a useful tool for predicting crack failures. In the case of hybrid lap-joint tests, a numerical modeling was also performed to determine the adhesive stress distribution and stress concentrations in the side of lap-joint. Results are discussed in terms of their relationship with adhesively bonded joints and thus can be used to develop appropriate approaches aimed at using adhesive bonding and extending the lives of adhesively bonded repairs for aerospace structures.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Adhesion at Epoxy Interfaces
Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Clancy, Thomas C.; Hinkley, J. A.; Gates. T. S.
2008-01-01
The effect of moisture on adhesives used in aerospace applications can be modeled with chemically specific techniques such as molecular dynamics simulation. In the present study, the surface energy and work of adhesion are calculated for epoxy surfaces and interfaces, respectively, by using molecular dynamics simulation. Modifications are made to current theory to calculate the work of adhesion at the epoxy-epoxy interface with and without water. Quantitative agreement with experimental values is obtained for the surface energy and work of adhesion at the interface without water. The work of adhesion agrees qualitatively with the experimental values for the interface with water: the magnitude is reduced 15% with respect to the value for the interface without water. A variation of 26% in the magnitude is observed depending on the water configuration at a concentration of 1.6 wt%. The methods and modifications to the method that are employed to obtain these values are expected to be applicable for other epoxy adhesives to determine the effects of moisture uptake on their work of adhesion.
Effect of Hypericum perforatum on intraperitoneal adhesion formation in rats
Hızlı, Deniz; Hızlı, Fatih; Köşüş, Aydın; Yılmaz, Saynur; KÖŞÜŞ, NERMIN; HALTAŞ, Hacer; Dede, Hülya; Kafalı, Hasan
2013-01-01
Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum for prevention of adhesion formation in rats. Material and methods Twenty-four female wistar rats underwent left uterine horn adhesion model. Rats were randomised into 4 groups. Group 1 (Control): Closure of abdominal incision without any agent administration. Group 2: Closure of incision after administration of intraperitoneal (i.p.) Ringer's lactate solution. Group 3: Closure of incision after administra...
Focal Adhesion Kinases in Adhesion Structures and Disease
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pierre P. Eleniste
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM is essential for cell migration, proliferation, and embryonic development. Cells can contact the ECM through a wide range of matrix contact structures such as focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia. Although they are different in structural design and basic function, they share common remodeling proteins such as integrins, talin, paxillin, and the tyrosine kinases FAK, Pyk2, and Src. In this paper, we compare and contrast the basic organization and role of focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia in different cells. In addition, we discuss the role of the tyrosine kinases, FAK, Pyk2, and Src, which are critical for the function of the different adhesion structures. Finally, we discuss the essential role of these tyrosine kinases from the perspective of human diseases.
Focal adhesion kinases in adhesion structures and disease.
Eleniste, Pierre P; Bruzzaniti, Angela
2012-01-01
Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, and embryonic development. Cells can contact the ECM through a wide range of matrix contact structures such as focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia. Although they are different in structural design and basic function, they share common remodeling proteins such as integrins, talin, paxillin, and the tyrosine kinases FAK, Pyk2, and Src. In this paper, we compare and contrast the basic organization and role of focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia in different cells. In addition, we discuss the role of the tyrosine kinases, FAK, Pyk2, and Src, which are critical for the function of the different adhesion structures. Finally, we discuss the essential role of these tyrosine kinases from the perspective of human diseases. PMID:22888421
Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter
Xavier, Grace
2013-10-08
Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.