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Sample records for adherent human polymorphonuclear

  1. Chemiluminescence by polymorphonuclear leukocytes adhering to surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, M.; Quie, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Stimulation of the plasma membranes of granulocytes results in an oxidative metabolic response. This response can be measured by measuring the reduction of oxidizable substrates, such as Nitro Blue Tetrazolium, as well as by measuring the energy released as light (chemiluminescence). While investigating the oxidative response of human granulocytes, we observed a marked variation in the chemiluminescence response when leukocytes were suspended in a balanced salt solution without gelatin or any...

  2. Mechanism Underlying Levofloxacin Uptake by Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Vazifeh, Doina; Bryskier, André; Labro, Marie-Thérèse

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of radiolabeled levofloxacin ([3H]levofloxacin) uptake by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was investigated by a classical velocity centrifugation technique. PMNs were incubated with levofloxacin for 5 to 180 min under various conditions before centrifugation through an oil cushion. Radioactivity was measured in the cell pellet to determine the amount of cell-associated drug. The uptake of levofloxacin was moderate with a cellular concentration/extracellular concentrat...

  3. Effects of microcystins on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujbida, Paula; Hatanaka, Elaine; Campa, Ana; Colepicolo, Pio; Pinto, Ernani

    2006-03-03

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptides produced by cyanobacteria present in water contaminated reservoirs. Reported toxic effects for microcystins are liver injury and tumour promotion. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two MCs, MC-LR and [Asp(3)]-MC-LR, on human neutrophil (PMN). We observed that even at concentrations lower than that recommended by World Health Organization for chronic exposure (0.1 nM), MCs affect human PMN. Both MCs have chemotactic activity, induce the production of reactive oxygen species, and increase phagocytosis of Candida albicans. MC-LR also increased C. albicans killing. The effect of MCs on PMN provides support for a damage process mediated by PMN and oxidative stress, and may explain liver injury and tumour promotion associated to long-term MCs exposures.

  4. Interaction between human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Streptococcus milleri group bacteria.

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    Wanahita, Anna; Goldsmith, Elizabeth A; Musher, Daniel M; Clarridge, Jill E; Rubio, Jose; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Trial, JoAnn

    2002-01-01

    Because Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) bacteria--Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus anginosus--exhibit a striking propensity to cause abscesses, the interaction of these organisms with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was examined. After incubation in pooled normal human serum, SMG stimulated less chemotaxis than did Staphylococcus aureus, in contrast to viridans streptococci, which caused greater chemotaxis than did S. aureus. PMNL ingested greater numbers of SMG and viridans streptococci than S. aureus but killed these organisms more slowly and less completely. Relative resistance to killing by PMNL is expected in organisms that cause abscesses, and inhibition of chemotaxis may contribute to pathogenicity, because delayed arrival of PMNL gives a head start to proliferating bacteria. This study helps explain the capacity of SMG to cause abscesses. It is unclear, however, why viridans streptococci, bacteria that rarely produce abscesses, share some of these same properties.

  5. Comparison of adherent and non-adherent staphylococci in the induction of polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, U; Espersen, F; Kharazmi, A

    1995-01-01

    The ability to consume complement and activate neutrophils was investigated for staphylococci adherent to silicone surfaces and non-adherent staphylococci. Staphylococcus epidermidis strain ATCC 14990 and Staphylococcus aureus strain E 2371 were used in this study. The bacteria were allowed...... to adhere to silicone catheter segments for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Complement consumption was measured by reduction in serum haemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. The induction of chemiluminescence was measured after opsonization of the staphylococci in 20% AB-positive human serum for 60 min...... with phagocytosis and elimination of S. epidermidis during the early establishment of a foreign body infection....

  6. Bactericidal activity of a granule extract from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes against Bacteroides species.

    OpenAIRE

    Pruul, H; Wetherall, B L; McDonald, P J

    1983-01-01

    The microbicidal activity of an acetate extract of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules was tested against Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. All strains tested were killed by the extract, and there were no significant differences between the different Bacteroides species.

  7. Diminished polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence and chemotaxis following protein-calorie malnutrition in newborn rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, M C; Douglas, S D; Lee, J C; Ziegler, M M; Gerdes, J S; Polin, R A

    1987-01-01

    .... These infants may be at greater risk for nosocomial infection than normally nourished hosts. We have compared neutrophil adherence and chemotactic responses in a newborn rat model of protein-calorie malnutrition...

  8. [Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on the motility of human polymorphonuclear granulocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisani, S; Vanzini, G; Traniello, S

    1978-11-15

    Polymorphonuclear leucocytes play an important role in the inflammatory process, and their functions are likely to be regulated by pharmacological agents. In this paper we report the "in vitro" effect of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on random and chemotactic motility of human leucocytes, and demonstrate that the two forms of movement, spontaneous and directional, are differently inhibited by low concentrations of these agents. Leucocytes of patients with recurrent inflammation are unaffected by these drugs.

  9. Enhancement of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in human mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes by snake venoms.

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    Stolc, V

    1984-08-01

    Snake venoms contain compound(s) that enhanced cyclic AMP content in human mononuclear leukocytes maximally after 5 min of incubation at 37 degrees C. The effect was time- and dose-dependent. The half-maximal stimulation of cyclic AMP production by black cobra venom was found at 0.45 micrograms of venom/ml and the value of the Hill coefficient was 0.7. The black cobra venom enhanced the cyclic AMP content in the cells at 4, 22, and 37 degrees C. Similar increase in the cyclic AMP content by six snake venoms was found in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The most active venom was from puff adder (Bitis arietans). The data suggest that one of the effects of the snake venoms may be rapid enhancement of cyclic AMP level in the affected cells.

  10. Effect of Legionella pneumophila sonicate on killing of Listeria monocytogenes by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechnitzer, C; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G H

    1993-01-01

    will be exposed to bacterial components, either expressed on the surface of the organisms or released in the environment upon cell lysis. In this study, we have investigated the effect of water-soluble bacterial components present in L. pneumophila sonicate on the phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of human...... polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes. Preincubation of neutrophils with L. pneumophila sonicate did not affect phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes, whereas Listeria killing was significantly inhibited at sonicate concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/ml. The phenol phase of a phenol-water extraction, containing most...... of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), had no inhibitory effect on the listericidal activity of neutrophils. Killing of Listeria by monocytes was inhibited in a similar manner. The inhibitory activity was mainly recovered in the sonicate fraction above 100 kDa, suggesting that components organized in larger molecular complexes...

  11. The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Marco; Luini, Alessandra; Bombelli, Raffaella; Corasaniti, Maria T; Bagetta, Giacinto; Marino, Franca

    2014-08-01

    Bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia) essential oil (BEO) is used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and anthelminthic and to facilitate wound healing. Evidence indicates that BEO has substantial antimicrobial activity; however its effects on immunity have never been examined. We studied the effects of BEO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the role of Ca(2+) in the functional responses evoked by BEO in these cells. Results show that BEO increased intracellular ROS production in human PMN, an effect that required the contribution of extracellular (and, to a lesser extent, of intracellular) Ca(2+) . Bergamot essential oil also significantly increased ROS production induced by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and reduced the response to the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. In conclusion, this is the first report showing the ability of BEO to increase ROS production in human PMN. This effect could both contribute to the activity of BEO in infections and in tissue healing as well as underlie an intrinsic proinflammatory potential. The relevance of these findings for the clinical uses of BEO needs careful consideration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effect of aspirin on the metabolism of exogenous arachidonic acid in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

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    Punnonen, K.; Uotila, P.

    1984-08-01

    When human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were incubated with exogenous /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (/sup 14/C-AA), both lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase metabolites were detected. The amount of the 5-lipoxygenase metabolites formed, including 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), was small. The amount of other mono-HETE's (migrating in the vicinity of 12-HETE) was greater, but this was obviously mainly due to the small amount of contaminating platelets. In the presence of calcium ionophore A23187 the rate of formation of 5-HETE was increased, but the formation of other metabolites remained unchanged. When PMNL were incubated with aspirin in the presence of A23187 the formation of the cyclo-oxygenase products was decreased but that of 5-HETE was unchanged. The present study indicates that the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates specifically the 5-lipoxygenase in human PMNL and that aspirin has no effect on the formation of the 5-lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid in human PMNL.

  13. Subcellular distribution of nitroblue tetrazolium reductase (NBT-R) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehner, R L

    1975-11-01

    Subcellular distribution study of cytoplasmic organelles was performed on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes after homogenization in 0.34 molar sucrose by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation of the homogenate. The whole homogenate and each fraction was assayed for nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-reductase with and without 1 mM potassium cyanide, and the distribution of this enzyme was compared to the distribution of lysozyme, peroxidase, beta-glucuronidase, and acid and alkaline phosphatase. Enzyme recovery was 97 per cent and ranged between 74 and 124 per cent. Latent activity of all enzymes except NBT-reductase, acid, and alkaline phosphatase was demonstrated by observing a four- to sixfold increase in activity after the addition of Triton-X 100. Maximal relative specific activity using either DPNH or without cyanide for NBT-reductase was found in the 100,000 x g differential centrifugation fraction and was concentrated in the less dense top fraction of the sucrose density gradient. The distribution pattern was similar to acid and alkaline phosphatase. In contrast, the maximal concentration of beta-glucuronidase and peroxidase was found in the heavier 7,200 x g granule fraction and in the more dense bottom fractions of the sucrose density gradient. Maximal lysozyme activity was concentrated in the 30,000 x g granule fraction and in the fractions located between the heaviest and lightest fractions of the sucrose density gradient. The lack of latent activity and the similarity of subcellular distribution of NBT-reductase to acid and alkaline phosphatase, two enzymes associated with microsomes and plasmalemal membranes in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), indicates that NBT-reductase is also a nonlysosomal enzyme located in microsomes or in plasmalemal membranes. These findings support the previously described histochemical observations that initial reduction of NBT to formazan occurs on the PMN plasmalemal surface membrane at

  14. Variable effects of human and canine polymorphonuclear leucocytes on vascular smooth muscle tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, J; Mehta, J L; Lawson, D L; Nichols, W W; Nicolini, F A

    1992-08-01

    Previous studies have shown variable effects of human and canine polymorphonuclear leucocytes (neutrophils) on vascular tone. The aim of this study was to identify whether these variations in neutrophil function are due to species differences. Canine and human arterial rings (with and without endothelium) were contracted with the thromboxane A2 analogue U46619, and then exposed to isolated neutrophils. Human neutrophils caused a significant relaxation of the human mammary arterial rings, and the relaxation was unaffected by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, enhanced by superoxide dismutase (SOD), and inhibited by oxyhaemoglobin. The relaxant effect of human neutrophils was also diminished upon pretreatment with NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA), indicating that the vasorelaxant material released by the neutrophils was nitric oxide (NO). Human neutrophils also relaxed canine femoral arterial rings, and the relaxant effect was potentiated by SOD and inhibited by pretreatment with oxyhaemoglobin or L-NMMA, confirming that the vasorelaxation was via release of NO. Canine neutrophils, on the other hand, caused an endothelium dependent contraction of autologous femoral arterial rings. This vasoconstriction was not affected by indomethacin, SOD, oxyhaemoglobin, or L-NMMA. However, treatment of canine neutrophils with the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor piriprost attenuated (p neutrophil generated 5-lipoxygenase products were probably responsible for smooth muscle contraction. Presence of the leukotriene C4 and D4 receptor antagonist FPL 55,712 totally blocked the contractile effects of canine neutrophils, indicating that femoral arterial ring contraction was mediated by peptido-leukotrienes. The endothelium dependent nature of the canine neutrophil induced contraction suggests that the 5-lipoxygenase product leukotriene A4 is taken up by endothelial cells for conversion to peptido-leukotrienes. Since SOD had no effect and FPL 55,712 totally blocked the vasoconstrictor

  15. Effect of complement and of the carbohydrate components of sputum on phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

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    Brogan, T. D.

    1964-01-01

    The phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leucocyte preparations, which were free from plasma, has been estimated by direct determination under phase contrast of the number of living cells containing test particles. Spores of Aspergillus fumigatus were phagocytosed in the absence of added serum but phagocytosis of paraffin wax particles occurred only in the presence of serum containing the heat-labile and C′4 components of complement. In view of the unreactive nature of the paraffin hydrocarbons, it was considered unlikely that natural antibody played any part in the phenomenon. Although no phagocytosis of wax particles occurred in the absence of serum, almost 100 per cent of cells were phagocytic in preparations containing adequate concentrations of serum. It was therefore possible to determine the serum concentration necessary for 50 per cent of the polymorphs to phagocytose wax particles. By this means it was demonstrated that the addition of the carbohydrate components of sputum had a small but significant inhibitory effect on phagocytosis and that dextran had no such effect. The sputum mucoprotein depressed the complement titre of serum and this might have accounted for the reduction in the ability of a serum to promote phagocytosis when this complex was added. The sputum mucopolysaccharide had no such effect on the complement titre of serum and must have exerted its inhibitory action in some other way. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:14239838

  16. Production of reactive oxygen species by man-made vitreous fibres in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, M; Hirvonen, M R; Luoto, K; Savolainen, K M

    1999-06-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) or erythrocytes, isolated from human blood, were exposed to graded doses of asbestos (chrysotile), quartz, or man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF), i.e. refractory ceramic fibres (RCF), glasswool, or rockwool fibres. None of the MMVF affected either the viability of PMNL, as measured by trypan blue exclusion test, or induced haemolysis, whereas the positive controls, quartz and chrysotile, dose-dependently induced haemolysis in PMNL. MMVF did not increase the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the PMNL, whereas the positive controls, chrysotile and quartz, induced a marked and dose-dependent release of LDH. When PMNL were exposed to MMVF, some of the fibre types slightly increased the levels of free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) within the cells in a manner similar to that induced by chrysotile or quartz. All MMVF induced a dose-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PMNL, with RCF-induced production of ROS being the most marked. Production of ROS by MMVF seemed to depend on the availability of extracellular calcium because it could be attenuated with a Ca2+ channel blocker, verapamil, or a Ca2+ chelating agent, EGTA. Production of ROS may be a common pathway through which PMNL respond to MMVF-induced cell activation, but alterations of levels of free intracellular Ca2+ do not seem to be an absolute prerequisite for this effect. Fibre length seemed not to be an important factor in affecting the ability of MMVF to induce ROS production in PMNL. However, the balance between different elements in the fibre seemed importantly to affect the biological activity of a fibre.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus primes human polymorphonuclear leucocytes for the biosynthesis of leukotriene B4.

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    Gosselin, J; Savard, M; Tardif, M; Flamand, L; Borgeat, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effect of the short-term incubation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) with infectious Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) biosynthesis. Pre-exposure of PMN to EBV led to an increased production of LTB(4) upon stimulation with either the ionophore A23187, the chemotactic peptide fMLP, or phagocytic particles (zymosan). Experiments performed with viral particles pretreated with a neutralizing antibody raised against the gp350 of the viral envelope revealed that a specific interaction between the PMN surface and the viral glycoprotein gp350 is required for the priming effect of EBV. Preincubation of PMN with EBV resulted in an increased release of arachidonic acid upon stimulation with a second agonist. Moreover, LTB(4) biosynthesis in EBV/A23187-treated PMN was greatly diminished in the presence of an inhibitor of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA(2)), suggesting that cPLA(2) plays a critical role in the priming effect of EBV. Accordingly, EBV by itself promoted Ser-505 phosphorylation of cPLA(2) and strongly enhanced fMLP-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, an enzyme known to phosphorylate cPLA(2) in human PMN. Furthermore, fMLP-induced translocation of cPLA(2) was strongly enhanced when PMN were previously exposed to EBV. These data indicate that binding of EBV to human PMN results in the activation of intracellular events involved in the release of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators.

  18. Effect of salivary agglutination on oral streptococcal clearance by human polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzek, A; Chen, Z; Merritt, J; Kreth, J

    2017-06-01

    Salivary agglutination is an important host defense mechanism to aggregate oral commensal bacteria as well as invading pathogens. Saliva flow and subsequent swallowing more easily clear aggregated bacteria compared with single cells. Phagocytic clearance of bacteria through polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes also seems to increase to a certain extent with the size of bacterial aggregates. To determine a connection between salivary agglutination and the host innate immune response by phagocytosis, an in vitro agglutination assay was developed reproducing the average size of salivary bacterial aggregates. Using the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii as a model organism, the effect of salivary agglutination on phagocytic clearance through polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes was investigated. Here we describe how salivary aggregates of S. gordonii are readily cleared through phagocytosis, whereas single bacterial cells showed a significant delay in being phagocytosed and killed. Furthermore, before phagocytosis the polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes were able to induce a specific de-aggregation, which was dependent on serine protease activity. The data presented suggest that salivary agglutination of bacterial cells leads to an ideal size for recognition by polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes. As a first line of defense, these phagocytic cells are able to recognize the aggregates and de-aggregate them via serine proteases to a more manageable size for efficient phagocytosis and subsequent killing in the phagolysosome. This observed mechanism not only prevents the rapid spreading of oral bacterial cells while entering the bloodstream but would also avoid degranulation of involved polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes, so preventing collateral damage to nearby tissue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Induction of oxidative burst response in human neutrophils by adherent staphylococci. Comparison between Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, U; Espersen, F; Skinhøj, P

    1993-01-01

    The ability of staphylococci adherent to silicone surfaces to induce superoxide anion (O2-) production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated and compared with the same activity induced by planktonic bacteria. The responses to Staphylococcus aureus strain E 2371 and Staphylococcus...... epidermidis strain ATCC 14990 were compared. The staphylococci were allowed to adhere to silicone catheters for 2 h at 37 degrees C. After opsonization of adherent bacteria in 30% human AB-positive serum, the induction of superoxide anion production by PMNs was measured in a cytochrome C reduction assay. Both...... bacterial strains, when adhered to the surfaces, were able to induce superoxide anion production by PMNs to about the same extent. Comparing adherent and planktonic bacteria with these two bacterial strains, it was found that planktonic S. epidermidis induced one to three times higher superoxide anion...

  20. Possible in vivo tolerance of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil to low-grade exercise-induced endotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To address the question of whether translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS into the blood could be involved in the process of exercise-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN activation, 12 healthy male subjects who took part in a sprint triathlon (1.5 km river swim, 40 km bicycle race, 10 km road race were studied. While there was no detectable amount of endotoxin in the blood samples drawn at rest, exercise was followed by the appearance of circulating endotoxin molecules at the end of competition in four subjects, and after one and 24 h recovery in three and seven athletes, respectively. The concentrations of plasma granulocyte myeloperoxidase ([MPO], were significantly higher immediately after exercise and one hour later than baseline values (P<0.001. This variable returned to pre-race levels the day after exercise, despite the presence of detectable amounts of LPS, at that time, in seven athletes. The absence of significant correlation (r=0.26;P=0.383 and temporal association between [MPO]and plasma endotoxin levels led us to conclude that endotoxaemia was not involved in the process of exercise-induced PMN degranulation observed in our subjects.

  1. Lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor-1 distinguishes population of human polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer patients.

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    Condamine, Thomas; Dominguez, George A; Youn, Je-In; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Mony, Sridevi; Alicea-Torres, Kevin; Tcyganov, Evgenii; Hashimoto, Ayumi; Nefedova, Yulia; Lin, Cindy; Partlova, Simona; Garfall, Alfred; Vogl, Dan T; Xu, Xiaowei; Knight, Stella C; Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui Han; Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Albelda, Steven M; Wang, Xianwei; Mehta, Jawahar L; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Rustgi, Anil; Hockstein, Neil; Witt, Robert; Masters, Gregory; Nam, Brian; Smirnov, Denis; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) are important regulators of immune responses in cancer and have been directly implicated in promotion of tumor progression. However, the heterogeneity of these cells and lack of distinct markers hampers the progress in understanding of the biology and clinical importance of these cells. Using partial enrichment of PMN-MDSC with gradient centrifugation we determined that low density PMN-MDSC and high density neutrophils from the same cancer patients had a distinct gene profile. Most prominent changes were observed in the expression of genes associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Surprisingly, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was one of the most increased regulators and its receptor oxidized LDL receptor 1 OLR1 was one of the most overexpressed genes in PMN-MDSC. Lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) encoded by OLR1 was practically undetectable in neutrophils in peripheral blood of healthy donors, whereas 5-15% of total neutrophils in cancer patients and 15-50% of neutrophils in tumor tissues were LOX-1+. In contrast to their LOX-1- counterparts, LOX-1+ neutrophils had gene signature, potent immune suppressive activity, up-regulation of ER stress, and other biochemical characteristics of PMN-MDSC. Moreover, induction of ER stress in neutrophils from healthy donors up-regulated LOX-1 expression and converted these cells to suppressive PMN-MDSC. Thus, we identified a specific marker of human PMN-MDSC associated with ER stress and lipid metabolism, which provides new insight to the biology and potential therapeutic targeting of these cells.

  2. Effects of interferon-γ and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on antifungal activity of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils against Candida albicans grown as biofilms or planktonic cells.

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    Katragkou, Alphaspasia; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Georgiadou, Elpiniki; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2011-09-01

    Candida albicans is a leading cause of biofilm-related infections. As Candida biofilms are recalcitrant to host defenses, we sought to determine the effects of interferon-γ and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, two pro-inflammatory cytokines, on the antifungal activities of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) against C. albicans biofilms, using an in vitro biofilm model. Priming of PMNs by these cytokines augmented fungal damage of planktonic cells; however, priming of PMNs did not have the same effect against Candida biofilms. Biofilm phenotype appears to play an important role in protecting C. albicans from the innate immune system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunosenescence of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available All immune cells are affected by aging, contributing to the high susceptibility to infections and increased mortality observed in the elderly. The effect of aging on cells of the adaptive immune system is well documented. In contrast, knowledge concerning age-related defects of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN is limited. During the past decade, it has become evident that in addition to their traditional role as phagocytes, neutrophils are able to secrete a wide array of immunomodulating molecules. Their importance is underlined by the finding that genetic defects that lead to neutropenia increase susceptibility to infections. Whereas there is consistence about the constant circulating number of PMN throughout aging, the abilities of tissue infiltration, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst of PMN from aged donors are discussed controversially. Furthermore, there are numerous discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro results, as well as between results for murine and human PMN. Most of the reported functional changes can be explained by defective signaling pathways, but further research is required to get a detailed insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms. This could form the basis for drug development in order to prevent or treat age-related diseases, and thus to unburden the public health systems.

  4. Simulating Human Carer with an Avatar to Improve Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kerry Y; Bjering, Heidi; Ginige, Athula

    2017-01-01

    Non-adherence to medication and treatment regimens is considered as a major issue in the healthcare industry as it can lead to negative consequences. Various strategies have been applied to improve adherence, however many of these strategies lack the interaction and personalisation-aspect which has been shown to be crucial to the patients. This paper discusses the importance of personalised interaction in improving patients' medication adherence, and the characteristics needed in an avatar to simulate such human-human interactions.

  5. Inhibition by soya isoflavones of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function: possible relevance for the beneficial effects of soya intake.

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    Rotondo, Serenella; Krauze-Brzósko, Katarzyna; Manarini, Stefano; Martelli, Nicola; Pecce, Romina; Evangelista, Virgilio; Benedetta Donati, Maria; Cerletti, Chiara

    2008-02-01

    Lower CVD incidence is reported in Asian populations consuming soya-containing food. As polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are involved in the risk of CVD, we investigated the modulatory effect of soya isoflavones on several PMN functions and their molecular mechanisms in vitro. PMN, isolated from blood from healthy subjects, were tested upon activation with 1 microm- n-formyl-methyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) for superoxide anion production (ferric cytochrome c reduction) and released elastase (chromogenic test). PMN homotypic aggregates stimulated by fMLP or P-selectin in dynamic conditions were detected by optical microscopy. PMN, mixed with thrombin-activated, washed platelets, formed cell aggregates, measured by flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of Pyk2, a focal adhesion kinase, was studied by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Genistein, daidzein and equol inhibited superoxide anion production (IC50 0.25 (sem 0.1), 21.0 (sem 4.2) and 13.0 (sem 2.8) microm, respectively); the release of elastase was prevented by genistein (IC50 63 (sem 17) microm). PMN homotypic aggregates, stimulated by fMLP, were significantly reduced (24 (sem 12) and 51 (sem 14) % of control) by 100 microm genistein and equol. P-selectin-induced aggregates were reduced to 19 (sem 6), 44 (sem 10) and 28 (sem 9) % of control by 100 microm genistein, daidzein and equol, respectively. Genistein, daidzein and equol also significantly reduced mixed platelet-PMN aggregates (IC50 4.0 (sem 0.9), 57 (sem 6) and 66 (sem 23) microm, respectively). In PMN challenged by fMLP or P-selectin, activation of Pyk2 was prevented by isoflavones. The cardioprotective effect of soya-containing food might be linked to reduction of PMN activation and PMN-platelet interaction, novel targets for the biological effects of soya isoflavones.

  6. New combined assay of phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Escherichia coli by polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.J.; Ford, J.M. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK))

    1982-03-12

    A new combined radiometric assay is described in which adherence, and phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) are simultaneously measured in the same sample. Pure monolayers of PMN in Petri dishes are allowed to ingest (/sup 14/C)phenylalanine labelled E. coli and excess bacteria are removed by washing. A period of incubation allows intracellular killing to occur while polymyxin-B is added to half the dishes to kill extracellular bacteria. The remaining viable bacteria in all dishes are labelled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. The number of ingested bacteria and the percentage of intracellular organisms killed is determined from the /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H counts by a simple subtraction technique. By performing protein assays on representative monolayers, the number of PMN adhered in the monolayers and hence the mean bacterial uptake per PMN is estimated. The assay detected killing efficiencies reduced below the normal range, in monolayers treated with sodium azide, phenylbutazone, in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, and in immature neutrophils from the promyelocytic leukaemic cell line, HL60. The assay was adapted to measure phagocytosis and killing by cells in suspension.

  7. Pharmacological activity of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip.): assessment by inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemiluminescence in-vitro.

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    Brown, A M; Edwards, C M; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    1997-05-01

    The bioactivity of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaf extracts has been analysed, by use of a human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) bioassay, to assess the relative contributions of solvent extraction and parthenolide content to the biological potency of the extract. Extracts prepared in acetone-ethanol (system 1) contained significantly more parthenolide (mean +/- s.d. 1.3 +/- 0.2% dry leaf weight) than extracts in chloroform-PBS (phosphate-buffered saline; system 2; 0.1 +/- 0.04% dry leaf weight) or PBS alone (system 3; 0.5 +/- 0.1% dry leaf weight). Extract bioactivity, measured as inhibition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced, 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione (luminol)-enhanced PMNL, chemiluminescence, followed a similar trend. Extracts inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst by amounts which, if solely attributable to parthenolide, indicated parthenolide concentrations for the respective solvent systems of 2.2 +/- 0.6%, 0.2 +/- 0.1% and 0.9 +/- 0.1% dry leaf weight. The mean ratio of parthenolide concentration to the parthenolide equivalent/PMNL-bioactivity value, for acetone-ethanol and PBS extracts were both 1:1.7. Parthenolide, although a key determinant of biological activity for T. parthenium leaf extracts based on the PMNL-bioassay, seems not to be the sole pharmacologically-active constituent. The identical and elevated bioactivity-parthenolide ratios for both organic and aqueons-phase leaf extracts suggest that a proportion of the other bioactive compounds have solubilities similar to that of parthenolide.

  8. Anti-Fc gamma receptor autoantibodies from patients with Sjögren's syndrome do not react with native receptor on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, A; Le Corre, R; Soubrane, C; Khayat, D; Youinou, P

    1996-04-01

    Sera from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) have been examined for the presence of cell-free Fc-gamma receptor (Fc gamma R) IIIb, which is expressed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and the production of related autoantibody. Sera from 66 patients with pSS were evaluated by an ELISA using recombinant human Fc gamma RIIIb as the substrate and by flow cytometry. Cell-free Fc gamma RIIIb was also detected by an ELISA. The fine specificity of autoantibodies was established by inhibition with a preparation of Fc gamma RI plus Fc gamma RII, and two ELISAs using Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RII as the substrates respectively. Anti-Fc gamma RIIIb activity was found in 30 patients (45%), but 25 of them did not react with autologous PMN, whereas they bound to Fc gamma RIIIb eluted from the same PMN in ELISA and Western blotting. Autoantibodies from one serum recognized the three receptors, six with Fc gamma RII in addition to Fc gamma RIII, and three sera were specific for the latter receptor. None of these reacted with Fc gamma RI- and Fc gamma RII-carrying cells. Cell-free Fc gamma RIIIb, but negligible amounts of Fc gamma RIIIa, were detectable in the patient sera. The membrane expression of CD15, an early activation marker, was diminished, while that of three PMN late activation markers was markedly enhanced. Taken together, these results suggest that autoantibodies are produced following the shedding of Fc gamma RIIIb upon PMN activation. A credible candidate for this activation is IgG-containing immune complexes.

  9. Isolation of human spontaneous killer lymphocytes by bacterial adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R; De Boer, K P; Teodorescu, M

    1980-01-01

    Human lymphocyte subpopulations (B, T1, T2, T3, and T4 our denomination) have been identified previously by bacterial adherence and differences between them in mitogen responses and specific cytotoxic activity have been found. In this study another aspect has been investigated in order to find functions associated with these subpopulations, namely the spontaneous killing (SK) ability. Freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were separated into adherent and non-adherent cells following centrifugation against various bact:rial monolayers. The PBL and the resulting subpopulations of PBL were tested alone or in combination as effector cells in a 4 hr cytotoxicity assay against human lymphoblastoid cel- lines of B or T cell origin. The T3 + T4 cells or T4 cells alone showed a significantly higher SK activity against both B and T target cell lines when compared with unseparated PBL, T1 + T2, or T3 cells alone. Whe Fc portion of IgG, contain the lymphocytes responsible for SK activity and that SK cells can be purified by negative selection using bacterial adherence. PMID:7389207

  10. Regulation of polymorphonuclear cell activation by thrombopoietin.

    OpenAIRE

    Brizzi, M F; Battaglia, E; Rosso, A; Strippoli, P; Montrucchio, G; Camussi, G; Pegoraro, L

    1997-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) regulates early and late stages of platelet formation as well as platelet activation. TPO exerts its effects by binding to the receptor, encoded by the protooncogene c-mpl, that is expressed in a large number of cells of hematopoietic origin. In this study, we evaluated the expression of c-Mpl and the effects of TPO on human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). We demonstrate that PMN express the TPO receptor c-Mpl and that TPO induces STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation and the for...

  11. Inhibition of C5a-induced actin polymerization, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils incubated in a glucose-based dialysis solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, G J; Andre, M; Böhler, J; Norgauer, J; Lubrich-Birkner, I; Steinhauer, H B; Schollmeyer, P J

    1993-01-01

    Chemotaxis and phagocytosis are important functions of phagocytic cells, which are closely related to cytoskeletal reorganization. These functions may be abnormal in phagocytes of uremic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In order to examine whether these abnormalities result from treatment, we studied actin polymerization (AP), as an index of cytoskeletal alterations, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of healthy subjects. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils were exposed to either a hepes buffer or a glucose-based dialysis solution (GBDS) of different pH's (5.2, 7.4) and different glucose concentrations (1.36%, 2.27%, 3.86%). After incubation for 0, 5, or 20 minutes, cells were activated with 10 nmol/L C5a-complement. AP was measured as filamentous (F) actin content by NBD phallacidin staining and FACS analysis. Chemotaxis of PMNs was measured in Boyden chambers. In addition, phagocytosis of zymosan particles was assessed. Prior exposure to GBDS pH 5.2 of each glucose concentration immediately and completely inhibited AP in response to 10 nmol/L C5a-complement, reduced chemotaxis (> 95%), and completely inhibited phagocytosis. The inhibition was pH-dependent, since GBDS pH 7.4 caused less inhibition of these functions. We conclude that glucose-based dialysis solutions are cytotoxic towards neutrophils and completely inhibit their ability to display responses requiring cytoskeletal reorganization.

  12. Alcohol use, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and preferences regarding an alcohol-focused adherence intervention in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekwaletswe CT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Connie T Kekwaletswe,1 Neo K Morojele1,21Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV clinics in Tshwane, South Africa.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients' alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument. Additionally, patients’ views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted.Results: About half of the male drinkers’ and three quarters of the female drinkers’ Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour’s duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an

  13. Characterization of Influenza Virus-Induced Leukocyte Adherence to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    with other viruses. HL-60 cell adherence to endothelial cell virus type A, which did not infect human venous or bovine monolayers was modulated by...LEUCOCYTE ADHERENC:E TO [NDOTIIELIL (FS1% A. B reawsd on parainfluenza virus-infected airway epithelial Poiy-iiysine Codled IPLC) Wells PLC.Wells cells...an antibody against ICAN1- I has no significant effect PLC Wells Virus on parainfluenza -induced neutrophil adherence (58). In 25 *HSV-intected HUVEC

  14. Human placenta-derived adherent cells induce tolerogenic immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Morschauser, Andrew; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Xiaohua; Gleason, Joseph; He, Shuyang; Chen, Hong-Jung; Jankovic, Vladimir; Ye, Qian; Labazzo, Kristen; Herzberg, Uri; Albert, Vivian R; Abbot, Stewart E; Liang, Bitao; Hariri, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDAC cells) are a culture expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population derived from full-term placental tissue, with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PDA-001 (cenplacel-L), an intravenous formulation of PDAC cells, is in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the immunoregulatory properties of PDAC cells, we investigated their effects on immune cell populations, including T cells and dendritic cells (DC) in vitro and in vivo. PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation in an OT-II T-cell adoptive transfer model, reduced the severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorated inflammation in a delayed type hypersensitivity response model. In vitro, PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation and inhibited Th1 and Th17 differentiation. Analysis of tissues derived from PDAC cell-treated animals revealed diminished CD86 expression on splenic DC, suggesting that they can also modulate DC populations. Furthermore, PDAC cells modulate the differentiation and maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DC. Similarly, human DC differentiated from CD14+ monocytes in the presence of PDAC cells acquired a tolerogenic phenotype. These tolerogenic DC failed to induce allogeneic T-cell proliferation and differentiation toward Th1, but skewed T-cell differentiation toward Th2. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity resulted in a significant, but not complete, abrogation of PDAC cells' effects on DC phenotype and function, implying a role for prostaglandin E2 in PDAC-mediated immunomodulation. This study identifies modulation of DC differentiation toward immune tolerance as a key mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory activities of PDAC cells. PMID:25505962

  15. Metabolism of phospholipids by polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsbach, P.; Berg, J.W.O. van den; Bosch, H. van den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1965-01-01

    By incubating homogenates of polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from rabbit-peritoneal exudates with various 32P-labeled phosphoglycerides the following reactions were identified: Lecithin → Lysolecithin and fatty acid (1) Lysolecithin → Glycerylphosphorylcholine and fatty acid (2) Lysolecithin →

  16. Enhanced adherence of Strontococcus pneumoniae to human epithelial cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hament, JM; Aerts, PC; Fleer, A; Van Dijk, H; Kimpen, JLL; Wolfs, TFW

    In the present study, we analyzed the effect of a preceding respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of human respiratory epithelial cells on the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae tested by means of a cytometric fluorescence assay. Adherence of clinically relevant pneumococcal serotypes 3, 9,

  17. Inhibition of pneumococcal adherence to human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells by anti-PsaA antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Pilishvili, Tamar; Sampson, Jacquelyn S; Johnson, Scott E; Stinson, Annie; Carlone, George M; Ades, Edwin W

    2003-03-01

    The role of pneumococcal (Pnc) surface adhesin A (PsaA) in the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) to host cells is not well defined. We examined the effect of anti-PsaA antibodies in an inhibition of adherence assay using Detroit 562 nasopharyngeal human epithelial cells. Rabbit polyclonal (Pab) anti-recombinant PsaA (rPsaA) sera, a purified mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) (MAb 6F62G8E12), and 22 healthy adult sera with known anti-PsaA IgG levels (obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit Pnc adherence to confluent monolayers (measured as percent reduction in CFU counts compared to those of uninhibited controls). Pnc adherence was dependent on capsular phenotype (no or low adherence for opaque strains). With an inoculum of 10(4) to 10(5) bacteria/well, the mean +/- standard deviation count in controls was 163 +/- 32 CFU/well for transparent strains. Low adherence was observed for a PsaA-minus mutant even at higher inoculum doses. Mean percent inhibitions of adherence with Pab and MAb were 54 and 50%, respectively. Adult sera showed inhibition in a dose-response fashion with a range of 98 to 8%, depending on the serum anti-PsaA antibody concentration. Absorption of Pab with rPsaA restored Pnc adherence to control levels. Absorption of sera with a PsaA-minus mutant did not result in a significant decrease (P >0.05) of inhibition of adherence activity. Additionally, nearly 100% of Pnc adherence was inhibited by lipidated rPsaA at 2.5 micro g/ml. Our data support the argument that PsaA is an adhesin that mediates Pnc adherence to human nasopharyngeal cells. This functional assay may be useful in evaluating antibodies elicited in response to PsaA vaccination.

  18. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene-induced mouse forestomach neoplasia and reduction of H2O2 concentration in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes by flavour components of Japanese-style fermented soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, S; Liu, W; Albright, K; Storkson, J; Pariza, M

    1997-05-01

    Previously it was reported that 4-hydroxy-2 (or 5)-ethyl-5 (or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), a characteristic flavour component of Japanese-style fermented soy sauce that exhibits antioxidant activity, inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach neoplasia in mice. The antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities of other structurally similar soy sauce flavour components are now reported. 4-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) were found to be antioxidants. In particular, HMF and HDMF (as well as HEMF) reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes stimulated by arachidonic acid or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. HMF and HDMF were administered individually in semipurified diet to female ICR mice previously treated with benzo[a]pyrene (1.5 mg/wk, orally for 4 wk) to initiate forestomach neoplasia. The mice were killed at 30 wk of age. Both furanones reduced forestomach neoplasms, with HDMF exhibiting more potency. The data indicate that HDMF and HMF, like HEMF, inhibit carcinogenesis in this system by acting at the post-initiation stage.

  19. Comparison of medication adherence in diabetes mellitus patients on human versus analogue insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Medina-Morales, Diego Alejandro; Echeverri-Cataño, Luis Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Objetive: This study evaluated the results of treatment adherence scales in two cohorts of patients with diabetes mellitus treated either with human or analogue insulins. A cohort study was conducted in diabetes mellitus patients older than 18 that were being treated with human or analogue insulins. Two instruments were applied to each patient [medication possession ratio, Morisky-Green test] to evaluate treatment adherence. A total of 238 patients, were included. The majority (69.4%) of the subjects had human insulin and 30.6% had insulin analogue prescriptions. Out of the total, 163 (68.5%) cases were classified as adherent to therapy, according to the type of insulin, as follows: 69.9% for conventional and 65.3% for analogues; without differences between the groups (CI95%:0.450-1.458). The adherence to treatment was more probable in patients with elementary-secondary education (OR:2.341; CI95%:1.199-4.568) and less probable for those in the age range of 31-45 years (OR:0.427; CI95%:0.187-0.971). The results of this study show that there are no significant statistical differences in adherence when comparing human with analogue insulin therapy. Strategies to improve treatment adherence are particularly important since they improve the clinical results.

  20. Hag Mediates Adherence of Moraxella catarrhalis to Ciliated Human Airway Cells▿ §

    OpenAIRE

    Balder, Rachel; Krunkosky, Thomas M; Nguyen, Chi Q.; Feezel, Lacey; Lafontaine, Eric R.

    2009-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human pathogen causing otitis media in infants and respiratory infections in adults, particularly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The surface protein Hag (also designated MID) has previously been shown to be a key adherence factor for several epithelial cell lines relevant to pathogenesis by M. catarrhalis, including NCIH292 lung cells, middle ear cells, and A549 type II pneumocytes. In this study, we demonstrate that Hag mediates adherence to a...

  1. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. *Corresponding author (Fax, 972-4-8542092; Email, erica@rambam.health.gov.il). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals.

  2. expression on polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reading 5

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the. mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  3. (TLR-4) expression on polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  4. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that ...

  5. International criminal tribunals and human rights law: Adherence and contextualization

    OpenAIRE

    Zeegers, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Given their mandate to prosecute persons responsible for the most atrocious of human rights violations, International Criminal Tribunals (ICTs) are generally hailed as welcome enforcers of international human rights law: a new instrument in the toolkit of human rights protectors. However, ICTs investigate, detain, prosecute and try individuals, which are all activities that necessarily entail the potential infringement of human rights. However, unlike States, ICTs are not party to human right...

  6. International criminal tribunals and human rights law: Adherence and contextualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Given their mandate to prosecute persons responsible for the most atrocious of human rights violations, International Criminal Tribunals (ICTs) are generally hailed as welcome enforcers of international human rights law: a new instrument in the toolkit of human rights protectors. However, ICTs

  7. Subtilisin Sub3 is involved in adherence of Microsporum canis to human and animal epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băguţ, Elena Tatiana; Baldo, Aline; Mathy, Anne; Cambier, Ludivine; Antoine, Nadine; Cozma, Vasile; Mignon, Bernard

    2012-12-07

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the secreted keratinolytic subtilisin-like protease Sub3 in adherence of Microsporum canis to epidermis from various susceptible species, in addition to cat for which this role was recently demonstrated. Firstly, we showed by immunostaining that Sub3 is not expressed in arthroconidia from an M. canis SUB3 RNA-silenced strain but is present on the surface of arthroconidia from a SUB3 non-silenced parental strain. Secondly, comparative adherence assays using arthroconidia from both M. canis strains and skin explants from humans, dogs, horses, rabbits, guinea pigs, mice and cats revealed that only 8-16% of arthroconidia from the SUB3 silenced strain adhered to different types of epidermis when compared to the control strain. Attempts to restore fungal adherence by the addition of recombinant Sub3 failed in the tested conditions. Overall results show for the first time that Sub3 is necessary for the adherence of M. canis arthroconidia to epidermis from humans and other animal species than cat, supporting the idea that Sub3 plays a central role in colonization of keratinized host structures by M. canis, whatever the host. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SadA-Expressing Staphylococci in the Human Gut Show Increased Cell Adherence and Internalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Luqman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs, are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA. SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora. Furthermore, sadA-expressing staphylococci showed increased adherence to HT-29 cells and 2- to 3-fold increased internalization. Internalization and adherence was also increased in a sadA mutant in the presence of tryptamine. The α2-adrenergic receptor is required for enhanced adherence and internalization. Thus, staphylococci in the gut might contribute to gut activity and intestinal colonization.

  9. Supportive accountability: a model for providing human support to enhance adherence to eHealth interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Cuijpers, Pim; Lehman, Kenneth

    2011-03-10

    The effectiveness of and adherence to eHealth interventions is enhanced by human support. However, human support has largely not been manualized and has usually not been guided by clear models. The objective of this paper is to develop a clear theoretical model, based on relevant empirical literature, that can guide research into human support components of eHealth interventions. A review of the literature revealed little relevant information from clinical sciences. Applicable literature was drawn primarily from organizational psychology, motivation theory, and computer-mediated communication (CMC) research. We have developed a model, referred to as "Supportive Accountability." We argue that human support increases adherence through accountability to a coach who is seen as trustworthy, benevolent, and having expertise. Accountability should involve clear, process-oriented expectations that the patient is involved in determining. Reciprocity in the relationship, through which the patient derives clear benefits, should be explicit. The effect of accountability may be moderated by patient motivation. The more intrinsically motivated patients are, the less support they likely require. The process of support is also mediated by the communications medium (eg, telephone, instant messaging, email). Different communications media each have their own potential benefits and disadvantages. We discuss the specific components of accountability, motivation, and CMC medium in detail. The proposed model is a first step toward understanding how human support enhances adherence to eHealth interventions. Each component of the proposed model is a testable hypothesis. As we develop viable human support models, these should be manualized to facilitate dissemination.

  10. Human hematopoietic stem cell adherence to cytokines and matrix molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M W; Briddell, R; Walter, A W; Bruno, E; Hoffman, R

    1992-07-01

    The hematopoietic microenvironment is a complex structure in which stem cells, progenitor cells, stromal cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules each interact to direct the coordinate regulation of blood cell development. While much is known concerning the individual components of this microenvironment, little is understood of the interactions among these various components or, in particular, the nature of those interactions responsible for the regional localization of specific developmental signals. We hypothesized that cytokines act together with ECM molecules to anchor stem cells within the microenvironment, thus modulating their function. In order to analyze matrix-cytokine-stem cell interactions, we developed an ECM model system in which purified stem cell populations and plastic-immobilized individual proteins are used to assess the role of various matrix molecules and/or cytokines in human hematopoietic cell development. Analysis of these interactions revealed that a single ECM protein, thrombospondin, in conjunction with a single cytokine (e.g., c-kit ligand), constitutes a developmental signal that synergistically modulates hematopoietic stem cell function.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. Infection with human coronavirus NL63 enhances streptococcal adherence to epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda, Anna; Malek, Natalia; Dudek, Bartosz; Zeglen, Slawomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Ochman, Marek; Kucewicz, Ewa; Zembala, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of augmented bacterial pathogenicity in post-viral infections is the first step in the development of an effective therapy. This study assessed the effect of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) on the adherence of bacterial pathogens associated with respiratory tract illnesses. It was shown that HCoV-NL63 infection resulted in an increased adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae to virus-infected cell lines and fully differentiated primary human airway epithelium cultures. The enhanced binding of bacteria correlated with an increased expression level of the platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R), but detailed evaluation of the bacterium–PAF-R interaction revealed a limited relevance of this process. PMID:21325482

  10. Effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the adherence of pathogenic bacteria to human epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faden, H.; Hong, J.J.; Ogra, P.L.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of RSV infection on the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to human epithelial cells was determined. RSV-infected Hep-2 cell cultures at different stages of expression of surface viral antigens and bacteria labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine were employed to examine the kinetics of bacterial adherence to virus-infected cells. RSV infection did not alter the magnitude of adherence of HI or SA to HEp-2 cells. However, adherence of SP to HEp-2 cells was significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced by prior RSV infection. The degree of adherence was directly related to the amount of viral antigen expressed on the cell surface. The adherence was temperature dependent, with maximal adherence observed at 37/sup 0/C. Heat-inactivation of SP did not alter adherence characteristics. These data suggest that RSV infection increases adherence of SP to the surface of epithelial cells in vitro. Since attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces is the first step in many infections, it is suggested that viral infections of epithelial cells render them more susceptible to bacterial adherence. Thus, RSV infection in vivo may predispose children to SP infections, such as in otitis media, by increasing colonization with SP.

  11. Effects of drospirenone on adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adherence in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumitake; Mori, Taisuke; Takaoka, Osamu; Tanaka, Yukiko; Koshiba, Akemi; Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Iwasa, Koichi; Kitawaki, Jo

    2016-06-01

    A major concern in hormone replacement therapy is the associated increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A progestogen without the unfavorable effects on cardiovascular disease should be explored. Monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is an important initial event in atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of the alternative progestogen drospirenone (DRSP) on monocyte adhesion in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were examined. In HUVECs treated with estrogens and progestogens, including DRSP and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the expression of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were examined by real-time PCR and using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A flow chamber system was used to investigate the effects of DRSP on U937 monocytoid cell adherence to HUVEC monolayers. All experimental data were compared using one-way Analysis of Variance. Upregulation of adhesion molecule mRNA or protein was not seen in HUVECs treated with DRSP alone or with 17β-estradiol+DRSP. DRSP alone, 17β-estradiol+DRSP or ethinylestradiol+DRSP did not increase the number of adherent monocytoid cells to HUVECs in the flow chamber system. However, MPA significantly enhanced the monocytoid cell adherence (Padhesion molecules or monocytoid cell adherence to endothelial cells, indicating that DRSP could reduce the risk of atherogenesis caused by MPA. These results suggest that DRSP may be an alternative to MPA in hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair eWalsham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC A/E lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  13. Hag mediates adherence of Moraxella catarrhalis to ciliated human airway cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balder, Rachel; Krunkosky, Thomas M; Nguyen, Chi Q; Feezel, Lacey; Lafontaine, Eric R

    2009-10-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human pathogen causing otitis media in infants and respiratory infections in adults, particularly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The surface protein Hag (also designated MID) has previously been shown to be a key adherence factor for several epithelial cell lines relevant to pathogenesis by M. catarrhalis, including NCIH292 lung cells, middle ear cells, and A549 type II pneumocytes. In this study, we demonstrate that Hag mediates adherence to air-liquid interface cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) exhibiting mucociliary activity. Immunofluorescent staining and laser scanning confocal microscopy experiments demonstrated that the M. catarrhalis wild-type isolates O35E, O12E, TTA37, V1171, and McGHS1 bind principally to ciliated NHBE cells and that their corresponding hag mutant strains no longer associate with cilia. The hag gene product of M. catarrhalis isolate O35E was expressed in the heterologous genetic background of a nonadherent Haemophilus influenzae strain, and quantitative assays revealed that the adherence of these recombinant bacteria to NHBE cultures was increased 27-fold. These experiments conclusively demonstrate that the hag gene product is responsible for the previously unidentified tropism of M. catarrhalis for ciliated NHBE cells.

  14. DMSO-Free Programmed Cryopreservation of Fully Dissociated and Adherent Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Igor I.; Kan, Natalia G.; Cimadamore, Flavio; Nelson, Brandon; Snyder, Evan Y.; Terskikh, Alexey V.

    2011-01-01

    Three modes for cryopreservation (CP) of human iPSC cells have been compared: STD: standard CP of small clumps with 10% of CPA in cryovials, ACC: dissociation of the cells with Accutase and freezing in cryovials, and PLT: programmed freezing of adherent cells in plastic multiwell dishes in a programmable freezer using one- and multistep cooling protocols. Four CPAs were tesetd: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY). The cells in ACC and PLT were frozen and recovered after thawing in the presence of a ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 (RI). EG was less toxic w/o CP cryopreservation than DMSO and allowed much better maintenance of pluripotency after CP than PG or GLY. The cells were cryopreserved very efficiently as adherent cultures (+RI) in plates (5-6-fold higher than STD) using EG and a 6-step freezing protocol. Recovery under these conditions is comparable or even higher than ACC+RI. Conclusions. Maintenance of cell-substratum adherence is a favorable environment that mitigates freezing and thawing stresses (ComfortFreeze® concept developed by CELLTRONIX). CP of cells directly in plates in ready-to-go after thawing format for HT/HC screening can be beneficial in many SC-related scientific and commercial applications such as drug discovery and toxicity tests. PMID:21716669

  15. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are able to adhere and invade human gingival fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlutti, F; Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Frioni, A; Natalizi, T; Valenti, P; Polimeni, A

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, the principal etiologic agents of caries decay of teeth, are generally acquired in oral cavity at the moment of tooth eruption. However, as S. mutans has been detected in oral cavity of predentate children, the eruption of teeth seems not to be a necessary prerequisite, suggesting that this species may be not confined to dental plaque. Here, we evaluate the ability of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in planktonic and biofilm lifestyle to adhere, invade and survive within human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells. Planktonic and biofilm streptococci adhered and invaded host cells to different extents, showing higher efficiencies of biofilm than planktonic counterparts. Moreover, planktonic and biofilm streptococci showed the same percentage of survival within host cells. Transmission electron and confocal microscopy observations confirmed intracellular localization of planktonic and biofilm bacteria. The adhesion, invasion and survival abilities within human oral cells may be considered S. mutans and S. sobrinus virulence mechanisms to colonize and persist in the oral cavity in the absence of tooth surface.

  16. Rapid Necrotic Killing of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Is Caused by Quorum-Sensing-Controlled Production of Rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. Ø.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2007-01-01

    a QS-regulated tolerance of biofilm bacteria to the antimicrobial properties of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The precise QS-regulated effect on the PMNs is, however, unknown. Incubation of human PMNs with supernatants from dense P. aeruginosa cultures showed that the QS-competent P. aeruginosa...

  17. Reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytotoxicity by saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, M; Kohl, S

    1990-06-15

    Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (BPMN) have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HSV-infected cells. Although HSV infections are frequently found in the oral cavity, the ADCC capacity of salivary PMN (SPMN) has not been studied, mainly because methods to isolate SPMN were not available. We have recently developed a method to isolate SPMN, and in this study have evaluated their ADCC activity against HSV-infected cells. SPMN were obtained by repeated washings of the oral cavity, and separated from epithelial cells by nylon mesh filtration. ADCC was quantitatively determined by 51Cr release from HSV-infected Chang liver cells. SPMN in the presence of antibody were able to destroy HSV-infected cells, but SPMN were much less effective in mediating ADCC than BPMN (3.4% vs 40.7%, p less than 0.0001). In the presence of antiviral antibody, SPMN were able to adhere to HSV-infected cells, but less so than BPMN (34% vs 67%), and specific antibody-induced adherence was significantly lower in SPMN (p less than 0.04). The spontaneous adherence to HSV-infected cells was higher for SPMN than BPMN. SPMN demonstrated up-regulation of the adhesion glycoprotein CD18, but down-regulation of the FcRIII receptor. Incubation with saliva decreased ADCC capacity of BPMN, up-regulated CD18 expression, and down-regulated FcRIII expression.

  18. The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils during HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mahmoud Mohammad; Abuharfeil, Nizar Mohammad; Yaseen, Mohammad Mahmoud; Shabsoug, Barakat Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    It is well-recognized that human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mainly targets CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Nonetheless, during the past three decades, a huge number of studies have reported that HIV-1 can directly or indirectly target other cellular components of the immune system including CD8+ T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), among others. PMNs are the most abundant leukocytes in the human circulation, and are known to play principal roles in the elimination of invading pathogens, regulating different immune responses, healing of injured tissues, and maintaining mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, little was known about the impact of HIV-1 infection on PMNs as well as the impact of PMNs on HIV-1 disease progression. This is because early studies focused on neutropenia and recurrent microbial infections, particularly, during advanced disease. However, recent studies have extended the investigation area to cover new aspects of the interactions between HIV-1 and PMNs. This review aims to summarize these advances and address the impact of HIV-1 infection on PMNs as well as the impact of PMNs on HIV-1 disease progression to better understand the pathophysiology of HIV-1 infection.

  19. Human Papillomavirus Testing by Veterans Administration Women's Health Providers: Are They Adhering to Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Laura D; Gerber, Megan R

    2017-09-08

    Evidence-based guidelines have been created by professional societies, including the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), for use of human papillomavirus (HPV) cotesting in cervical cancer screening. We investigated whether Veterans Health Administration (VA) providers at one VA medical center follow these guidelines. Retrospective chart review of women aged 21-65 who had an HPV test ordered with pap testing in fiscal year 2014 at one Veterans Administration (VA) medical center to evaluate concordance of HPV ordering with screening (USPSTF) and management (ASCCP) guidelines. We collected data on patient characteristics and gynecologic history and documented the reason, if given, for HPV testing. Of the 210 eligible HPV tests evaluated, 142 tests (68%) were determined to be guideline discordant. Of the 142 guideline-discordant tests, 90 had no documented reason for HPV testing in the chart. Site of care was not significant. This study demonstrates potential overuse of HPV testing among women's health providers at one VA medical center. This may indicate that VA providers lack an understanding of HPV cotesting guidelines. Further studies are needed to characterize VA provider adherence to HPV testing guidelines nationally. Implementation of educational interventions and decision aids may improve VA providers' adherence to guidelines.

  20. Human responses to Florida red tides: policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Scheller, Karen; Reich, Andrew; Hitchcock, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Ullmann, Steven; Hoagland, Porter

    2014-09-15

    To mitigate the damages of natural hazards, policy responses can be beneficial only if they are effective. Using a self-administered survey approach, this paper focuses on the adherence to local fertilizer ordinances (i.e., county or municipal rules regulating the application of fertilizer to private lawns or facilities such as golf courses) implemented in jurisdictions along the Southwest Florida coast in response to hazardous blooms of Florida red tides (Karenia brevis). These ordinances play a role in the context of evolving programs of water pollution control at federal, state, water basin, and local levels. With respect to policy effectiveness, while the strength of physical linkages is of critical importance, the extent to which humans affected are aware of and adhere to the relevant rules, is equally critical. We sought to understand the public's depth of understanding about the rationales for local fertilizer ordinances. Respondents in Sarasota, Florida, were asked about their fertilizer practices in an area that has experienced several major blooms of Florida red tides over the past two decades. A highly educated, older population of 305 residents and "snowbirds" reported relatively little knowledge about a local fertilizer ordinance, its purpose, or whether it would change the frequency, size, or duration of red tides. This finding held true even among subpopulations that were expected to have more interest in or to be more knowledgeable about harmful algal blooms. In the face of uncertain science and environmental outcomes, and with individual motivations at odds with evolving public policies, the effectiveness of local community efforts to decrease the impacts of red tides may be compromised. Targeted social-science research on human perceptions about the risks of Florida red tides and education about the rationales for potential policy responses are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Highly Efficient Neural Conversion of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Adherent and Animal-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Dunja; Diez Lloret, Andrea; Stojkovic, Petra; Rodríguez-Martínez, Daniel; Perez Arago, Maria Amparo; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Francisco Javier; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; López-Barneo, José; Sykova, Eva; Jendelova, Pavla; Kostic, Jelena; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Erceg, Slaven

    2017-04-01

    Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can produce a valuable and robust source of human neural cell subtypes, holding great promise for the study of neurogenesis and development, and for treating neurological diseases. However, current hESCs and hiPSCs neural differentiation protocols require either animal factors or embryoid body formation, which decreases efficiency and yield, and strongly limits medical applications. Here we develop a simple, animal-free protocol for neural conversion of both hESCs and hiPSCs in adherent culture conditions. A simple medium formula including insulin induces the direct conversion of >98% of hESCs and hiPSCs into expandable, transplantable, and functional neural progenitors with neural rosette characteristics. Further differentiation of neural progenitors into dopaminergic and spinal motoneurons as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes indicates that these neural progenitors retain responsiveness to instructive cues revealing the robust applicability of the protocol in the treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases. The fact that this protocol includes animal-free medium and human extracellular matrix components avoiding embryoid bodies makes this protocol suitable for the use in clinic. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1217-1226. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  2. Streptococcus sanguinis as an opportunistic bacteria in human oral cavity: Adherence, colonization, and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus sanguinis (formerly S. sanguis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe,  nonmotile , normal  inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and  a member of  the viridans group of streptococci. Among the streptococcus, S. sanguinis is a  primary colonizer in the human tooth surface or it is recognize as a ‘pioneer’ by forming dental plaque. The aim of this paper is to review the role of Streptococcus sanguinis  in the adherence to and  invasion of  human tissues.  S. sanguinis  has been reported  that it is associated  with healthy  tooth  surfaces  but not with caries. S. sanguinis  tend to involved in an interspecies interactions with Streptococcus mutans, which is known as  competition/coexistence within dental biofilm.  In their colonization, this bacteria used enzyme sortase A (SrtA to cleave  LPXTG-containing proteins sequence and  anchored  the  cell wall, while virulence factors  in infective endocarditis  involved housekeeping functions such as cell wall synthesis, amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis, and the ability to survive under anaerobic conditions.

  3. Adherence and acceptability of once daily Lamivudine and abacavir in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LePrevost, M.; Green, H.; Flynn, J.; Head, S.; Clapson, M.; Lyall, H.; Novelli, V.; Farrelly, L.; Walker, A.S.; Burger, D.M.; Gibb, D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on adherence to and acceptability of once daily lamivudine and abacavir are few. METHODS: Twenty-four U.K. human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected children 2-13 years of age participated in the Pediatric European Network for the Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) 13 single arm, open

  4. Comparative adherence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to human buccal epithelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rachael P C; Williams, David W; Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C; Sullivan, Derek J

    2014-04-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are very closely related pathogenic yeast species. Despite their close relationship, C. albicans is a far more successful colonizer and pathogen of humans. The purpose of this study was to determine if the disparity in the virulence of the two species is attributed to differences in their ability to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and/or extracellular matrix proteins. When grown overnight at 30°C in yeast extract peptone dextrose, genotype 1 C. dubliniensis isolates were found to be significantly more adherent to human BECs than C. albicans or C. dubliniensis genotypes 2-4 (P albicans to human BECs was observed, and C. dubliniensis genotype 1 and C. albicans adhered to BECs in significantly greater numbers than the other C. dubliniensis genotypes (P albicans to type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, and proline-rich peptides. These data suggest that C. albicans is not more adherent to epithelial cells or matrix proteins than C. dubliniensis and therefore other factors must contribute to the greater levels of virulence exhibited by C. albicans.

  5. Expression analysis of adherence-associated genes in pneumococcal clinical isolates during adherence to human respiratory epithelial cells (in vitro) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Navaratnam, Parasakthi; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2008-11-01

    Pneumococcal virulence determinants have been extensively studied but molecular evidence on virulence gene expression pattern is still lacking. We undertook this study to analyze the regulation pattern of adherence-associated genes; psaA, pspC, cbpG, including ply of serotypes 1, 7F, 19F and 23F clinical isolates during the bacterial adherence to human lung epithelial cells (in vitro), by real-time PCR. We were able to harvest the bacterial RNA (0.5-1 microg microL(-1)) from the infected host cell and analysis showed a consistent upregulation of psaA. Differential expressions were observed for pspC, cbpG and ply genes but the former was mostly upregulated whereas the later two frequently showed either no significant change or a downregulation. Partial nucleotide sequences of psaA, cbpG and ply were highly homologous among the isolates as well as against GenBank sequences (99%) whereas those for pspC were similar (98%) to allelic variants pspC-3 and pspC-5.

  6. Analysis of Endothelial Adherence of Bartonella henselae and Acinetobacter baumannii Using a Dynamic Human Ex Vivo Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidensdorfer, Marko; Chae, Ju Ik; Makobe, Celestine; Stahl, Julia; Averhoff, Beate; Müller, Volker; Schürmann, Christoph; Brandes, Ralf P.; Wilharm, Gottfried; Ballhorn, Wibke; Christ, Sara; Linke, Dirk; Fischer, Doris; Göttig, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adherence determines the virulence of many human-pathogenic bacteria. Experimental approaches elucidating this early infection event in greater detail have been performed using mainly methods of cellular microbiology. However, in vitro infections of cell monolayers reflect the in vivo situation only partially, and animal infection models are not available for many human-pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, ex vivo infection of human organs might represent an attractive method to overcome these limitations. We infected whole human umbilical cords ex vivo with Bartonella henselae or Acinetobacter baumannii under dynamic flow conditions mimicking the in vivo infection situation of human endothelium. For this purpose, methods for quantifying endothelium-adherent wild-type and trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA)-deficient bacteria were set up. Data revealed that (i) A. baumannii binds in a TAA-dependent manner to endothelial cells, (ii) this organ infection model led to highly reproducible adherence rates, and furthermore, (iii) this model allowed to dissect the biological function of TAAs in the natural course of human infections. These findings indicate that infection models using ex vivo human tissue samples (“organ microbiology”) might be a valuable tool in analyzing bacterial pathogenicity with the capacity to replace animal infection models at least partially. PMID:26712205

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  17. File list: NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 No description Blood Polymorphonuclear leukocytes... SRX1016682,SRX1016679,SRX1016680,SRX1016681 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 All antigens Blood Polymorphonuclear leukocytes... SRX1016682,SRX1016679,SRX1016681,SRX1016680 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  19. An enzyme immunoassay for polymorphonuclear leucocyte-mediated fibrinogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Leuven, C.J.M. van; Stolk, J.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Ronday, H.K.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.

    1997-01-01

    Upon stimulation, polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) release potent serine proteases, i.e. elastase, cathepsin C and proteinase 3, which contribute to the degradation of tissue and plasma components. Here, we describe the development of a plasma test to assess PMN-mediated fibrinogenolysis as a

  20. Angiogenic properties of human placenta-derived adherent cells and efficacy in hindlimb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francki, Aleksandar; Labazzo, Kristen; He, Shuyang; Baum, Ellen Z; Abbot, Stewart E; Herzberg, Uri; Hofgartner, Wolfgang; Hariri, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are a culture-expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population from full-term placental tissue and were previously shown to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. PDACs (formulated as PDA-002) are in clinical trials for peripheral arterial disease with diabetic foot ulcer. In the current study, we examined their angiogenic and tissue reparative properties. The effects of PDACs on survival and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were tested using conditioned media and noncontact coculture. Angiogenic effects were assessed in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Hindlimb ischemia (HLI) was induced in mice and rats by femoral artery transection, and blood flow and blood vessel density were monitored in vivo by laser Doppler and angiography in the ischemic and control limbs. Tissue damage and regeneration in HLI were examined in histologic sections of quadriceps muscle stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and newly synthesized blood vessels were detected by indoxyl-tetrazolium staining for alkaline phosphatase. PDACs enhanced the survival of serum-starved HUVECs and stimulated HUVEC tube formation, and in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, PDACs stimulated blood vessel formation. In HLI, intramuscular administration of PDACs resulted in improved blood flow and vascular density, and in quadriceps muscle, tissue regeneration and increased numbers of blood vessels were observed. PDACs exhibited various activities consistent with angiogenesis and tissue repair, supporting the continued investigation of this cell therapy as treatment for vascular disease-related indications. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sacha Inchi Oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.), effect on adherence of Staphylococus aureus to human skin explant and keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aspajo, German; Belkhelfa, Haouaria; Haddioui-Hbabi, Laïla; Bourdy, Geneviève; Deharo, Eric

    2015-08-02

    Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a domesticated vine distributed from the high-altitude Andean rain forest to the lowlands of the Peruvian Amazon. Oil from the cold-pressed seeds, sold under the commercial name of Sacha Inchi Oil (SIO) is actually much in favour because it contains a high percentage of omega 3 and omega 6, and is hence used as a dietary supplement. SIO is also used traditionally for skin care, in order to maintain skin softness, and for the treatment of wounds, insect bites and skin infections, in a tropical context where the skin is frequently damaged. This study was designed in order to verify whether the traditional use of SIO for skin care would have any impact on Staphylococcus aureus growth and skin adherence, as S. aureus is involved in many skin pathologies (impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles and subcutaneous abscesses) being one if the main pathogens that can be found on the skin. Therefore, our objective was to assess SIO bactericidal activity and interference with adherence to human skin explants and the keratinocyte cell line. Cytotoxicity on that cells was also determined. The activity of SIO was compared to coconut oil (CocO), which is widely used for skin care but has different unsaturated fatty acids contents. Laboratory testing with certified oil, determined antibacterial activity against radio labelled S. aureus. Cytotoxic effects were measured with XTT on keratinocyte cells and with neutral red on human skin explants; phenol was used as cytotoxic control. Adherence assays were carried out by mixing H3-labelled S. aureus bacteria with keratinocyte cells and human skin explants, incubated with oils 2h before (to determine the inhibition of adherence, assimilated to a preventive effect) or 2h after the contact of the biological material with S. aureus (to assess the detachment of the bacteria, assimilated to a curative effect). Residual radioactivity measured after washings made it possible to determine the adherence

  2. Adherence to Directly Observed Antiretroviral Therapy among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Prison Inmates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David A. Wohl; Becky L. Stephenson; Carol E. Golin; C. Nichole Kiziah; David Rosen; Bich Ngo; Honghu Liu; Andrew H. Kaplan

    2003-01-01

    ...; however, the efficacy of DOT for treating HIV infection has not been determined. We prospectively assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy regimens among 31 HIV-infected prison inmates who were receiving...

  3. Human placenta-derived adherent cells improve cardiac performance in mice with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Jung; Chen, Chien-Hsi; Chang, Ming-Yao; Tsai, Da-Ching; Baum, Ellen Z; Hariri, Robert; Herzberg, Uri; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2015-03-01

    Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are a culture-expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population derived from full-term placental tissue, with immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and neuroprotective properties. PDA-001 (cenplacel-L), an intravenous formulation of PDAC cells, is in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We tested the therapeutic effects of PDA-001 in mice with chronic heart failure (CHF). Three weeks after transaortic constriction surgery to induce CHF, the mice underwent direct intramyocardial (IM) or i.v. injection of PDA-001 at a high (0.5 × 10(6) cells per mouse), medium (0.5 × 10(5) cells per mouse), or low (0.5 × 10(4) cells per mouse) dose. The mice were sacrificed 4 weeks after treatment. Echocardiography and ventricular catheterization showed that IM injection of PDA-001 significantly improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function compared with injection of vehicle or i.v. injection of PDA-001. IM injection of PDA-001 also decreased cardiac fibrosis, shown by trichrome staining in the vicinity of the injection sites. Low-dose treatment showed the best improvement in cardiac performance compared with the medium- and high-dose groups. In another independent study to determine the mechanism of action with bromodeoxyuridine labeling, the proliferation rates of endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes were significantly increased by low or medium IM dose PDA-001. However, no surviving PDA-001 cells were detected in the heart 1 month after injection. In vivo real-time imaging consistently revealed that the PDA-001 cells were detectable only within 2 days after IM injection of luciferase-expressing PDA-001. Together, these results have demonstrated the cardiac therapeutic potential of PDA-001, likely through a paracrine effect. ©AlphaMed Press.

  4. Human cardiac-derived adherent proliferating cells reduce murine acute Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapka Miteva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Under conventional heart failure therapy, inflammatory cardiomyopathy typically has a progressive course, indicating a need for alternative therapeutic strategies to improve long-term outcomes. We recently isolated and identified novel cardiac-derived cells from human cardiac biopsies: cardiac-derived adherent proliferating cells (CAPs. They have similarities with mesenchymal stromal cells, which are known for their anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory properties. We explored whether CAPs application could be a novel strategy to improve acute Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3-induced myocarditis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the safety of our approach, we first analyzed the expression of the coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR and the co-receptor CD55 on CAPs, which are both required for effective CVB3 infectivity. We could demonstrate that CAPs only minimally express both receptors, which translates to minimal CVB3 copy numbers, and without viral particle release after CVB3 infection. Co-culture of CAPs with CVB3-infected HL-1 cardiomyocytes resulted in a reduction of CVB3-induced HL-1 apoptosis and viral progeny release. In addition, CAPs reduced CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation. All CAPs-mediated protective effects were nitric oxide- and interleukin-10-dependent and required interferon-γ. In an acute murine model of CVB3-induced myocarditis, application of CAPs led to a decrease of cardiac apoptosis, cardiac CVB3 viral load and improved left ventricular contractility parameters. This was associated with a decline in cardiac mononuclear cell activity, an increase in T regulatory cells and T cell apoptosis, and an increase in left ventricular interleukin-10 and interferon-γ mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CAPs are a unique type of cardiac-derived cells and promising tools to improve acute CVB3-induced myocarditis.

  5. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Fernandes Vianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells. Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics.

  6. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte cells and elastase in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, M; Sack, R A; Sathe, S; Holden, B; Beaton, A R

    1997-08-01

    To characterize the effects that mode of sampling and overnight eye closure have on the nature of caseinolytic activity recovered in tear fluid. Reflex, open and closed (R, O and C) eye tear fluids were collected by microcapillary tubes or from the inferior formix by Schirmer strip. Microcapillary collected samples were centrifuged and recovered cells cytochemically characterized and probed by immunofluorescence microscopy, or alternatively extracted in acidic PBS. Tear supernatants, pellets and Schirmer strip extracts were subjected to casein zymography or SDS-PAGE and immunoprobed for plasmin/plasminogen. To identify caseinolytic activity, samples were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to plasmin/plasminogen or to elastase, and the immunoprecipitated materials were subjected to zymographic analysis. Immunoblot assays revealed R and O samples contained low levels of plasminogen (approximately 1.1 micrograms/ml) and only trace levels of plasmin (leukocyte (PMN) cell elastase based on size and antigenicity. This is derived from PMNs recovered from the C pellet. Elastase could also be recovered from Schirmer strips from 90% of donors, provided that the strips were extracted in sample loading buffer. The activity was restricted to the portion of the strip that had been in contact with the ocular tissue. The main source of caseinolytic activity in C fluid is elastase. This arises from PMNs that undergo recruitment, activation and degranulation in the C environment. In contrast, the elastase recovered in Schirmer strip extracts is derived from intact PMNs that adhere to the strip during sample collection. This would suggest that PMN cells undergo a low level of recruitment into the open eye environment.

  7. Exploring ART intake scenes in a human rights-based intervention to improve adherence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Cáritas Relva; Helena, Ernani Tiaraju Santa; Caraciolo, Joselita Maria Magalhães; Paiva, Vera; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistela

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a psychosocial individual intervention to improve adherence to ART in a Brazilian reference-center, consenting PLHIV with viral load >50 copies/ml were selected. After 4 weeks of MEMS cap use, participants were randomized into an intervention group (IG) (n = 64) or control group (CG) (n = 57). CG received usual care only. The IG participated in a human rights-based intervention approach entailing four dialogical meetings focused on medication intake scenes. Comparison between IG and CG revealed no statistically significant difference in adherence measured at weeks 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24. Viral load (VL) decreased in both groups (p < 0.0001) with no significant difference between study groups. The lower number of eligible patients than expected underpowered the study. Ongoing qualitative analysis should provide deeper understanding of the trial results. NIH Clinical Trials: NCT00716040.

  8. [Phagocytosis and lysis of Candida albicans and Candida pseudotropicalis by polymorphonuclear neutrophils of Hansen's disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, E L; Comesaña, G; Carrara, R C; España, A

    1981-12-01

    The phagocytosis and lysis of Candida albicans and Candida pseudotropicalis by human neutrophils were examined in 43 hanseniasis patients (19 quiescent virchowians, 12 reactional virchowians and 12 tuberculoid patients) and 15 healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether neutrophils from hanseniasis patients were altered in their enzyme systems myeloperoxidase-dependent (tested by lysin of Candida albicans) and myeloperoxidase-independent (tested by lysin of Candida pseudotropicalis). The results indicate that polymorphonuclear neutrophils of hanseniasis patients had a similar candidacidal activity that human normal neutrophils (p greater than 0.2) in their myeloperoxidase-dependent and myeloperoxidase-independent systems. The enzymatic system activity is also similar in all clinical forms of hanseniasis (p greater than 0.3).

  9. Interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and transendothelial migration in vitro: the effect of apical versus basal monolayer stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzycki, W; Sadowska, J; Issekutz, A C

    1990-09-01

    The cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) enhance polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) adhesion to vascular endothelium by an endothelial cell dependent mechanism in vitro and induce PMNL infiltration in vivo In this study, we employed human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVE) cultured on microporous membrane filters to form a monolayer, a system in which PMNL adherence and PMNL transendothelial migration could be measured using 51Cr-labelled human PMNL. In this system, it was found that PMNL adhesion and migration were dependent on prior treatment of the HUVE monolayer with IL-1 or TNF alpha for at least 2 h and that cytokine could be removed prior to the addition of PMNL without any effect on the response. PMNL adherence to the HUVE was maximal by 30 min and was followed by progressive migration of PMNL across the monolayer and the membrane filter into the lower chamber. The effect of apical surface versus basal surface exposure of the HUVE monolayer to IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha on subsequent PMNL interaction with the HUVE monolayer in the absence of cytokine was examined. Apical or basal stimulation induced comparable PMNL adherence at 30 min following addition of PMNL (35.5% and 43.1%). However, basal (i.e., abluminal) exposure to IL-1 or TNF alpha of the HUVE induced significantly greater PMNL transendothelial migration (e.g., 27.8% vs. 15.4%; P less than 0.01). The expression of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 following apical versus basal stimulation was determined by ELISA on viable cells. These adhesion molecules were upregulated to a similar extent under both conditions. These observations suggest that spacial localization or orientation of adhesion molecules may be influenced by basal versus apical cytokine stimulation or that other mechanisms are responsible for the preferential PMNL migration with basal stimulation. These findings may have implications for the in vivo interactions of PMNL with

  10. Biochemical changes in polymorphonuclear leucocytes in diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawant J

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on the functional ability of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL indicates that the total lysosomal enzyme levels viz. Beta-glucuronidase, lysozyme, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were not altered in diabetics, compared to that in control subjects. However, the findings also reveal that the release of these lysosomal enzymes in response to a particulate stimulus is impaired in diabetics. This suggests that the bactericidal capacity of these cells, which are involved in phagocytosis, is impaired in diabetics, making them more vulnerable to infections.

  11. Human sepsis-associated Escherichia coli (SEPEC) is able to adhere to and invade kidney epithelial cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceição, R.A. [Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ludovico, M.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Andrade, C.G.T.J. [Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Yano, T. [Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-13

    The adhesins of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli are essential for mediating direct interactions between the microbes and the host cell surfaces that they infect. Using fluorescence microscopy and gentamycin protection assays, we observed that 49 sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC) strains isolated from human adults adhered to and invaded Vero cells in the presence of D-mannose (100%). In addition, bacteria concentrations of approximately 2 × 10{sup 7} CFU/mL were recovered from Vero cells following an invasion assay. Furthermore, PCR analysis of adhesin genes showed that 98.0% of these SEPEC strains tested positive for fimH, 69.4% for flu, 53.1% for csgA, 38.8% for mat, and 32.7% for iha. Analysis of the invasin genes showed that 16.3% of the SEPEC strains were positive for tia, 12.3% for gimB, and 10.2% for ibeA. Therefore, these data suggest that SEPEC adhesion to cell surfaces occurs through non-fimH mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of microcolonies on the Vero cell surface. SEPEC invasiveness was also confirmed by the presence of intracellular bacteria, and ultrastructural analysis using electron transmission microscopy revealed bacteria inside the Vero cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that these SEPEC strains had the ability to adhere to and invade Vero cells. Moreover, these data support the theory that renal cells may be the predominant pathway through which SEPEC enters human blood vessels.

  12. Adherence and viability of primary human keratinocytes and primary human dermal fibroblasts on acrylonitrile-based copolymers with different concentrations of positively charged functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trescher, Karoline; Scharnagl, Nico; Kratz, Karl; Roch, Toralf; Lendlein, Andreas; Jung, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    As shown in several studies, various properties of biomaterials such as stiffness, surface roughness, chemical composition or the amount of functional groups at the surface can influence adhesion, viability, proliferation and functionalities of cells. The aim of this work was to explore whether a cell-selective effect could be achieved for acrylonitrile-based copolymers containing different contents of positively charged functional groups, which were introduced by incorporation of methacrylic acid-2-aminoethylester hydrochloride (AEMA) units. The p(AN-co-AEMA) copolymers were synthesized by suspension polymerization in water and processed into disk shaped test specimen via a sintering process to ensure the absence of organic solvents in the copolymers. Copolymers with an AEMA content of 1.4, 1.6, and 4.4 mol-% were investigated according to their cell-selective capacity, which should support the adhesion, viability and proliferation of keratinocytes, while the adherence of fibroblasts should rather be disabled. The test samples were seeded with primary human keratinocytes and primary human dermal fibroblasts in mono- as well as in co-cultures. Tissue culture plate polystyrene (TCP) was used to control the physiologic growth of the cells. Density and viability of attached and non-adherent cells were analyzed by live/dead staining, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and flow cytometry with DAPI staining. For the assured discrimination of adherent cell types in coculture a keratin/vimentin-staining was performed. On copolymers with 4.4 mol-% AEMA adherent keratinocytes in monoculture and cocultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts showed a higher viability, a lower impairment of cell membranes and higher densities of viable cells compared to both other copolymers. For adherent fibroblasts these parameters did not differ between the copolymers and an increasing ratio of keratinocytes to fibroblasts in cocultures were found with increasing AEMA content. The results showed

  13. Adherence performances of pressure sensitive adhesives on a model viscoelastic synthetic film: a tool for the understanding of adhesion on the human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvoise, Julien; Burlot, Delphine; Marin, Gérard; Derail, Christophe

    2009-02-23

    This work deals with the rheological behavior and adherence properties of pressure sensitive adhesive formulations dedicated to medical applications. We have developed a specific viscoelastic substrate which mimics adhesion on human skin to measure the adherence properties of PSAs when they are stuck on the human skin. By comparing peeling results of PSAs, dedicated to medical applications, stuck on human skin and on this viscoelastic substrate we show that this substrate, based on a blend of natural proteins, presents a better representation of the interactions occurring at the skin/adhesive interface than conventional substrates used for peel test (i.e. glass and steel).

  14. Pregnancy enhances the sensitivity of glomerular ecto-adenosine triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase to products of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    To test the hypothesis that pregnancy enhances the sensitivity of glomerular ecto-adenosine triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase to products of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, cryostat-cut kidney sections of pregnant and cycling rats were exposed to activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes and

  15. Differential effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in intact polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R H; Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    The effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes was studied and compared with the activity in mixed peritoneal leucocytes from rats. While there was maximal decrease in the pump activity (25-30%) of leucocytes from both rat ...... of the influx of sodium across the plasma membrane, since in human leucocytes calcium had no effect on the pump activity if the cells were loaded with sodium.......The effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes was studied and compared with the activity in mixed peritoneal leucocytes from rats. While there was maximal decrease in the pump activity (25-30%) of leucocytes from both rat...... and human by calcium 0.6 mM, a concentration of 0.1 mM caused a substantial decrease indicating a high sensitivity for extracellular calcium. In contrast, calcium had no effect on the pump activity in erythrocytes. The effect of calcium on the pump activity in leucocytes may be due to regulation...

  16. Human sepsis-associated Escherichia coli (SEPEC is able to adhere to and invade kidney epithelial cells in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Conceição

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The adhesins of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli are essential for mediating direct interactions between the microbes and the host cell surfaces that they infect. Using fluorescence microscopy and gentamycin protection assays, we observed that 49 sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC strains isolated from human adults adhered to and invaded Vero cells in the presence of D-mannose (100%. In addition, bacteria concentrations of approximately 2 x 10(7 CFU/mL were recovered from Vero cells following an invasion assay. Furthermore, PCR analysis of adhesin genes showed that 98.0% of these SEPEC strains tested positive for fimH, 69.4% for flu, 53.1% for csgA, 38.8% for mat, and 32.7% for iha. Analysis of the invasin genes showed that 16.3% of the SEPEC strains were positive for tia, 12.3% for gimB, and 10.2% for ibeA. Therefore, these data suggest that SEPEC adhesion to cell surfaces occurs through non-fimH mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of microcolonies on the Vero cell surface. SEPEC invasiveness was also confirmed by the presence of intracellular bacteria, and ultrastructural analysis using electron transmission microscopy revealed bacteria inside the Vero cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that these SEPEC strains had the ability to adhere to and invade Vero cells. Moreover, these data support the theory that renal cells may be the predominant pathway through which SEPEC enters human blood vessels.

  17. Royal Jelly Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adherence and Reduces Excessive Inflammatory Responses in Human Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Susilowati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium and causes respiratory infection especially in elderly patients. Royal jelly has been used worldwide as a traditional remedy and as a nutrient; however, the effect against P. aeruginosa is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze antibacterial, antiadherent, and anti-inflammatory effects of royal jelly against P. aeruginosa. Wild-type strain PAO1 and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were used for antibacterial assay and antiadherent assay to abiotic surface and epithelial cells, which are pharynx (Detroit 562 and lung (NCI-H292 epithelial cells. In anti-inflammatory assay, epithelial cells were pretreated with royal jelly before bacterial exposure to investigate its inhibitory effect on interleukin (IL-8 and macrophage inflammatory protein-3α/CCL20 overproduction. Although royal jelly did not have antibacterial activity at concentration of 50% w/v, antiadherent activity was confirmed on the abiotic surface and epithelial cells under concentration of 25%. Pretreatment with royal jelly significantly inhibited overproduction of IL-8 and CCL20 from both cells. These results demonstrated that royal jelly inhibits P. aeruginosa adherence and protects epithelial cells from excessive inflammatory responses against P. aeruginosa infection. Our findings suggested that royal jelly may be a useful supplement as complementary and alternative medicine for preventing respiratory infection caused by P. aeruginosa.

  18. PHA-induced cytotoxicity of human lymphocytes against adherent hela-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huges-Law, G.; de Gast, G. C.; The, T. Hauw

    The conditions for a phytohaemagglutinin(PHA)-induced cytotoxicity test of human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. [3H]thymidine prelabelled HeLa cells were used as target cells. Stimulation with 10 μl PHA/ml during 24 h gave the best measure of lymphocyte cytotoxic capacity.

  19. Development of a Modular Automated System for Maintenance and Differentiation of Adherent Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Duncan E; Daniszewski, Maciej; Liang, Helena H; Kulkarni, Tejal; Li, Fan; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Conquest, Alison; Hernández, Damian; Hung, Sandy S; Gill, Katherine P; De Smit, Elisabeth; Kearns, Lisa S; Clarke, Linda; Sluch, Valentin M; Chamling, Xitiz; Zack, Donald J; Wong, Raymond C B; Hewitt, Alex W; Pébay, Alice

    2017-09-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have tremendous potential for development of regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug discovery. However, the processes of reprogramming, maintenance, and differentiation are labor intensive and subject to intertechnician variability. To address these issues, we established and optimized protocols to allow for the automated maintenance of reprogrammed somatic cells into iPSCs to enable the large-scale culture and passaging of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) using a customized TECAN Freedom EVO. Generation of iPSCs was performed offline by nucleofection followed by selection of TRA-1-60-positive cells using a Miltenyi MultiMACS24 Separator. Pluripotency markers were assessed to confirm pluripotency of the generated iPSCs. Passaging was performed using an enzyme-free dissociation method. Proof of concept of differentiation was obtained by differentiating human PSCs into cells of the retinal lineage. Key advantages of this automated approach are the ability to increase sample size, reduce variability during reprogramming or differentiation, and enable medium- to high-throughput analysis of human PSCs and derivatives. These techniques will become increasingly important with the emergence of clinical trials using stem cells.

  20. Nitric oxide production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in infected cystic fibrosis sputum consumes oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by persisting mucoid biofilms in hypoxic endobronchial mucus. These biofilms are surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), which consume a major part of present molecular oxygen (O(2)...

  1. Dysfunction of Circulating Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and Monocytes in Ambulatory Cirrhotics Predicts Patient Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sargenti, Konstantina; Johansson, Åsa; Bertilsson, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background Cirrhosis represents a state of functional immune paresis with increased infection risk. Aims To investigate polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte and monocyte function in ambulatory cirrhotics, and their potential relation with cirrhosis etiology or patient outcome. Methods Consecutive...

  2. The outer membrane protein OprQ and adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to human fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, Abraham; Boucher, Cliff

    2010-05-01

    Outer membrane proteins of the Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a significant role in membrane permeability, antibiotic resistance, nutrient uptake, and virulence in the infection site. In this study, we show that the P. aeruginosa outer membrane protein OprQ, a member of the OprD superfamily, is involved in the binding of human fibronectin (Fn). Some members of the OprD subfamily have been reported to be important in the uptake of nutrients from the environment. Comparison of wild-type and mutant strains of P. aeruginosa revealed that inactivation of the oprQ gene does not reduce the growth rate. Although it does not appear to be involved in nutrient uptake, an increased doubling time was reproducibly observed with the loss of OprQ in P. aeruginosa. Utilizing an oprQ-xylE transcriptional fusion, we determined that the PA2760 gene, encoding OprQ, was upregulated under conditions of decreased iron and magnesium. This upregulation appears to occur in early exponential phase. Insertional inactivation of PA2760 in the P. aeruginosa wild-type background did not produce a significant increase in resistance to any antibiotic tested, a phenotype that is typical of OprD family members. Interestingly, the in trans expression of OprQ in the DeltaoprQ PAO1 mutant resulted in increased sensitivity to certain antibiotics. These findings suggest that OprQ is under dual regulation with other P. aeruginosa genes. Intact P. aeruginosa cells are capable of binding human Fn. We found that loss of OprQ resulted in a reduction of binding to plasmatic Fn in vitro. Finally, we present a discussion of the possible role of the P. aeruginosa outer membrane protein OprQ in adhesion to epithelial cells, thereby increasing colonization and subsequently enhancing lung destruction by P. aeruginosa.

  3. Particulate matter adheres to human hair exposed to severe aerial pollution: consequences for certain hair surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliano, A; Ye, C; Su, F; Wang, C; Wang, Y; Liu, C; Wagle, A; Guerin, M; Flament, F; Steel, A

    2017-07-26

    The deposit and adherence of particulate matter (PM) from aerial pollution onto the surface of human hair is a poorly studied phenomenon. (i) To reproduce in vitro the deposit of known PM on standardized hair swatches in a closed box, (ii) to compare in vitro data with those obtained under 'real-life' conditions of severe aerial pollution and (iii) to assess the changes of the hair surface properties, potentially caused by the adherence of airborne PM onto the hair. In vitro: a PM was sprayed onto untreated or sebum-coated hair swatches. Real-life conditions: other swatches were exposed to a severely polluted environment, for 24 to 72 h, in Baoding (PR China). In both cases, swatches were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The shine, the frictional properties and the level of metals were measured and compared to those same properties for the unexposed swatches. This work clearly indicates that, under real-life conditions, a large number of PM of various sizes are deposited onto the hair surface. This phenomenon is increased by the presence of sebum and longer exposure times. The in vitro level of PM deposited onto the hair surface is comparable to the in vivo level. The presence of sebum seems to favour the deposit of larger PM. The shine of the exposed swatches is significantly decreased, whereas their respective friction coefficients are significantly increased. Both the presence of sebum and length of exposure time increased the amount of analysed metals present on the exposed hair surface (Al, Fe, Cu, Ba and Zn). This work indicates that a very high amount (e.g. billions) of PM can be deposited on a full head of hair for subjects living in a severely aerially polluted environment. This process can be reproduced in vitro. In real-life, pollution has a strong impact on hair surface properties, leading to a modification of the visual aspect (loss of shine) and the alteration of hair surface (increase in friction force). This work may be used to pave the

  4. Activation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte oxygen radical production during acute lung rejection in dogs: inhibition by an antiadhesion molecule monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, A R; Katzmann, J A; Tazelaar, H D; Miller, V M; McGregor, C G

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against leukocyte adhesion molecules reduce the severity of reperfusion injury and, in some cases, prevent acute allograft rejection. These effects are assumed to be due to prevention of leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. Experiments were designed to study activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes during acute rejection of canine single lung allografts and to test the ability of an anti-beta 2-integrin monoclonal antibody (R15.7/H4) to regulate leukocyte metabolism independent of leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. Peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation from unoperated control dogs (n = 10), from dogs with a single lung autotransplant (n = 4), and from dogs after single lung allotransplantation during unmodified rejection (n = 12). Oxygen radicals were measured with luminal-enhanced chemiluminescence of unstimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by opsonized-zymosan, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes incubated with anti-beta 2-integrin beta-chain (CD18) monoclonal antibodies before exposure to opsonized zymosan. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte viability was unaffected by the monoclonal antibodies. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes from unoperated and autotransplant dogs did not produce oxygen radicals unless stimulated by opsonized zymosan. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rejecting animals produced oxygen radicals in the absence of zymosan, and when stimulated, production of oxygen radicals was significantly greater than that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from unoperated and autotransplant dogs. Production of oxygen radicals was inhibited significantly by the monoclonal antibodies in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from all three groups. This study shows that rejection activates polymorphonuclear leukocytes and increases the potential to produce activated oxygen species. In addition to inhibiting leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, anti-beta 2-integrin

  5. The pathogenic potential of Helicobacter cinaedi isolated from non-human sources: adherence, invasion and translocation ability in polarized intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Takako; Yamazaki, Wataru; Saeki, Yuji; Takajo, Ichiro; Okayama, Akihiko; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Misawa, Naoaki

    2016-05-03

    Helicobacter cinaedi infection has been recognized as an increasingly important emerging disease in humans. Infection with H. cinaedi causes bacteremia, cellulitis and enteritis. H. cinaedi has been isolated from non-human sources, including dogs, cats and rodents; however, it remains unclear whether animal strains are pathogenic in humans and as zoonotic pathogens. In this study, H. cinaedi isolates were recovered from a dog and a hamster, and the ability of these isolates to adhere to, invade and translocate across polarized human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells was examined in vitro. To better understand the pathogenic potential of animal H. cinaedi isolates, these results were compared with those for a human strain that was isolated from a patient with bacteremia. The animal and human strains adhered to and invaded Caco-2 cells, but to a lesser degree than the C. jejuni 81-176 strain, which was used as a control. The integrity of tight junctions was monitored by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) with a membrane insert system. The TER values for all H. cinaedi strains did not change during the experimental periods compared with those of the controls; however, translocation of H. cinaedi from the apical side to the basolateral side was confirmed by cultivation and H. cinaedi-specific PCR, suggesting that the H. cinaedi strains translocated by transcellular route. This study demonstrated that H. cinaedi strains of animal origin might have a pathogenic potential in human epithelial cells as observed in a translocation assay in vitro with a human isolate.

  6. Competing causes of death and medical comorbidities among patients with human papillomavirus-positive vs human papillomavirus-negative oropharyngeal carcinoma and impact on adherence to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Clayton B; Rash, Dominique L; Daly, Megan E; Farwell, D Gregory; Bishop, John; Vaughan, Andrew T; Wilson, Machelle D; Chen, Allen M

    2014-04-01

    Survival of patients with head and neck cancer can be affected by competing causes of mortality, as well as comorbidities that result in radiation treatment interruptions. To discern how differences in preexisting medical and psychosocial comorbidities potentially influence adherence to radiation therapy according to human papillomavirus (HPV) status. Retrospective analysis at a comprehensive cancer center of 162 consecutive patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx treated with primary chemoradiation (n = 95) or primary surgery followed by adjuvant radiation (n = 67). Immunostaining for p16 was used to determine HPV status. Difference in alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use was compared between patients with HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors, as well as the prevalence of the following comorbidities: diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), anxiety disorder, and major depression. The number of total missed treatment days was analyzed as both a continuous and categorical variable. Rates of self-reported heavy alcohol use (47% vs 16%; P = .02) and any marijuana use (47% vs 23%; P = .003) were significantly higher among HPV-negative patients. Fifty-four percent of HPV-positive patients self-identified as never smokers, compared with only 12% of HPV-negative patients (P rate of at least 5 missed days (24% vs 10%; P = .04), and higher prevalences of COPD (12% vs 7%; P = .37) and anxiety disorder (12% vs 6%; P = .35). Pronounced differences exist in lifestyle habits between patients with HPV-negative and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer at diagnosis. These differences, as well as those of medical and psychosocial burden, may contribute to observed discrepancies in treatment adherence and need to be considered in outcomes reporting and clinical trial design.

  7. Anti-polymorphonuclear neutrophil antibodies in patients with leukopenia or neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, N E; Rosso Saltó, M; Galán, V; Canalejo, K; Khoury, M; Aixalá, M; Kantor, G L; Vermeulen, M; Bengió, R; De Bracco, M M E

    2010-02-01

    Immune humoral neutropenia (Np) could be the consequence of anti-polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) antibodies, circulating immune complexes (CIC) and/or antibodies against myeloid precursors. Granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and a leukoagglutination technique (LAGT) assays are recommended for its diagnosis. Fifty adult patients with secondary Np were screened for anti-PMN. GIFT by flow cytometry from viable PMN and LAGT were employed. In addition, CIC levels, low expression of CD16(b) (CD16 (b)(low)), PMN phenotype and sera tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were also evaluated. Direct IgG-PMN binding (dir-GIFT) was positive in 16% of the patients. Antibodies against autologous PMN were detected in 32% of the samples by indirect (ind)-GIFT and demonstrated in 70% of the sera by both ind-GIFT and/or LAGT. Predominance of human neutrophil alloantigen (HNA)-1b and HNA-2 expression was confirmed. CD16(b)(low) was detected in 16% of the patient's PMN and TNF-alpha in 68% of sera patients. Our results suggest that diagnosis of immune Np in the laboratory may be improved by focusing on patient's PMN together with the assessment of cellular markers.

  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae-Mediated Inhibition of Apoptotic Signalling in Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Adrienne; Seifert, H. Steven

    2011-01-01

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae recruits and interacts extensively with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) during infection. N. gonorrhoeae is able to survive the bactericidal activity of these innate immune cells and can actively modulate PMN functions in vitro. PMNs are short-lived cells which readily undergo apoptosis, and thus the effect of N. gonorrhoeae infection on PMN survival has implications for whether PMNs might serve as an important site of bacterial replication during infection. We developed and validated an HL-60 myeloid leukemia cell culture model for PMN infection and used both these cells and primary PMNs to show that N. gonorrhoeae infection alone does not induce apoptosis and furthermore that N. gonorrhoeae can inhibit both spontaneous apoptosis and apoptosis induced by the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis inducers staurosporine (STS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), respectively. N. gonorrhoeae infection also results in the activation of NF-κB signaling in neutrophils and induces secretion of an identical profile of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both HL-60 cells and primary PMNs. Our data show that the HL-60 cell line can be used to effectively model N. gonorrhoeae-PMN interactions and that N. gonorrhoeae actively inhibits apoptosis induced by multiple stimuli to prolong PMN survival and potentially facilitate bacterial survival, replication, and transmission. PMID:21844239

  9. Digestive vacuoles of Plasmodium falciparum are selectively phagocytosed by and impair killing function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Prasad; Reiss, Karina; Lingelbach, Klaus; Baumeister, Stefan; Lucius, Ralph; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Bhakdi, Sebastian Chakrit; Bhakdi, Sucharit

    2011-11-03

    Sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes and dysregulation of the coagulation and complement system are hallmarks of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A link between these events emerged through the discovery that the parasite digestive vacuole (DV), which is released together with infective merozoites into the bloodstream, dually activates the intrinsic clotting and alternative complement pathway. Complement attack occurs exclusively on the membrane of the DVs, and the question followed whether DVs might be marked for uptake by polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). We report that DVs are indeed rapidly phagocytosed by PMNs after schizont rupture in active human serum. Uptake of malaria pigment requires an intact DV membrane and does not occur when the pigment is extracted from the organelle. Merozoites are not opsonized and escape phagocytosis in nonimmune serum. Antimalarial Abs mediate some uptake of the parasites, but to an extent that is not sufficient to markedly reduce reinvasion rates. Phagocytosis of DVs induces a vigorous respiratory burst that drives the cells into a state of functional exhaustion, blunting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal activity upon challenge with bacterial pathogens. Systemic overloading of PMNs with DVs may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility of patients with severe malaria toward invasive bacterial infections.

  10. The role of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapA-1) in Neisseria meningitidis adherence to human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunio, Sarfraz A; Oldfield, Neil J; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A A; Wooldridge, Karl G; Turner, David P J

    2010-11-09

    demonstrates that meningococcal GapA-1 is a constitutively-expressed, highly-conserved surface-exposed protein which is antibody-accessible only in the absence of capsule. Mutation of GapA-1 does not affect the in vitro growth rate of N. meningitidis, but significantly affects the ability of the organism to adhere to human epithelial and endothelial cells in a capsule-independent process suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of meningococcal infection.

  11. The role of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapA-1 in Neisseria meningitidis adherence to human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooldridge Karl G

    2010-11-01

    isogenic siaD gapA-1 double mutant. Conclusions Our data demonstrates that meningococcal GapA-1 is a constitutively-expressed, highly-conserved surface-exposed protein which is antibody-accessible only in the absence of capsule. Mutation of GapA-1 does not affect the in vitro growth rate of N. meningitidis, but significantly affects the ability of the organism to adhere to human epithelial and endothelial cells in a capsule-independent process suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of meningococcal infection.

  12. Adherence and shear-resistance of primary human endothelial cells on smooth poly(ether imide) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christian; von Rüsten-Lange, Maik; Krüger, Anne; Lendlein, Andreas; Jung, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Occlusions of artificial small-diameter cardiovascular grafts are frequent events after implantation, often caused by clot formations. A main factor is the insufficient hemocompatibility of the inner artificial graft surface, which could be improved by endothelialization. Therefore, one challenge in cardiovascular graft engineering is the establishment of a shear-resistant endothelial cell layer to prevent cell detachment by shear forces after implantation. Recently, very smooth (Rq = 2.37 ± 1.40 nm) poly(ether imide) (PEI) films were introduced as a biocompatible candidate material for cardiovascular devices. In this study the stability of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer was investigated after long-term seeding (nine days) on PEI-films and subsequent exposure to a venous shear stress of 3 dyn/cm2 for up to six hours using the cone-and-plate shearing technique. Cell density, growth pattern and morphology of HUVEC were determined prior and after shearing compared to glass as control substrate. HUVEC adhering to the substrate after shear stress were counted and analyzed by fluorescent staining. Supernatants were collected and secretion profile analysis of vasoactive and inflammatory mediators was performed. The cell density on PEI-films compared to the controls was slightly higher after long-term seeding and exposure to shear stress (glass: 71,656 ± 8,830 cells/cm2 and 42,239 ± 5,607 cells/cm2; PEI-film: 64,056 ± 2,829 cells/cm2 and 45,422 ± 2,507 cells/cm2 before and after shear stress, respectively). Actin- and vinculin-staining revealed a scattered re-organization of the cytoskeleton as well as a formation of stress fibers and focal adhesion points. Secretion of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 was increased after application of shear stress, but no significant differences were detectable between cells growing on PEI-films or glass. Amounts of secreted inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in the supernatant were significantly

  13. Enhanced adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius sequence type 71 to canine and human corneocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latronico, Francesca; Moodley, Arshnee; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2014-01-01

    characterized with respect to genetic background and cell wall-anchored protein (CWAP) gene content. Seventy-seven strain-corneocyte combinations were tested using both exponential- and stationary-phase cultures. Negative binomial regression analysis of counts of bacterial cells adhering to corneocytes revealed...

  14. Inhibitory effect of O-glycosylation inhibition on human intestinal epithelial cells Mucin 2 expression and bacteria adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-li SONG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of O-glycosylation inhibition in intestinal epithelial cells on the expression of Mucin 2 (MUC2 and bacterial adherence. Methods Intestinal epithelial cells HT-29 and differentiated HT-29 cells (HT-29-Gal were treated with an inhibitor of O-glycosylation (benzyl-α-GalNAc, and then named as HT-29-OBN and HT-29-Gal-OBN, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression of MUC2 in HT-29, HT29-Gal, HT-29-OBN and HT-29-Gal-OBN were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Then the four kinds of above cells were incubated with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC or enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 (EHEC O157:H7. The bacteria were quantified by determining the colony forming unit (CFU following the plating of serial dilutions of the bacteria to evaluate the effect of benzyl-α-GalNAc on bacteria adherence. Results The results of real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of MUC2 in HT-29-OBN and HT-29-Gal-OBN cells were significantly lower than those in the untreated cells HT-29 and HT-29-Gal (P<0.05. The bacterial adherence assay showed that the adherence of EPEC and EHEC O157:H7 to HT-29-OBN and HT-29-Gal-OBN cells significantly decreased compared with that to HT-29 and HT-29-Gal cells (P<0.05. Conclusion Inhibition of O-glycosylation in intestinal epithelial cells may reduce the bacteria adherence and MUC2 expression. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.009

  15. CD44 ligation on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells induces interleukin-6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sconocchia, G; Campagnano, L; Adorno, D; Iacona, A; Cococcetta, N Y; Boffo, V; Amadori, S; Casciani, C U

    2001-06-01

    Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) contribute to the initiation and progression of the immune response by mediating cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion. Because CD44 serves as a cytotoxic-triggering molecule on PMNs, it was hypothesized that it could also trigger cytokine production. In this study, the effect of anti-CD44 antibodies on interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in human PMNs was assessed. By using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, it was shown that PMNs stimulated with a mouse monoclonal or a rabbit polyclonal F(ab)(2) anti-CD44 transcribe IL-6 messenger RNA. A similar effect was obtained when an anti-CD44 antibody was replaced with hyaluronic acid (HA). Kinetic studies showed that anti-CD44 and HA induced IL-6 gene transcription, initiated 3 hours after stimulation, peaked between 12 and 24 hours, and disappeared after 48 hours. Analogous results were achieved when secreted IL-6 protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the PMN culture supernatants. To characterize which metabolic pathways regulated CD44-dependent IL-6 production in PMNs, an RNA polymerase inhibitor, actinomycin D, and 2 protein kinase inhibitors, such as genistein and staurosporine, were tested. Actinomycin D and genistein blocked IL-6 production, whereas staurosporine did not, suggesting that CD44-dependent IL-6 production requires gene transcription and tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, the relationship between CD44 and cytokines that affect PMN function, including interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and IL-2, was investigated. Without CD44 cross-linking, IFNgamma did not trigger IL-6 production. However, on CD44 cross-linking, IFNgamma produced a strong synergistic effect on IL-6 syntheses in human PMNs. (Blood. 2001;97:3621-3627)

  16. Psychological factors, beliefs about medication, and adherence of youth with human immunodeficiency virus in a multisite directly observed therapy pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie, Patricia A; Flynn, Patricia M; Belzer, Marvin; Britto, Paula; Hu, Chengcheng; Graham, Bobbie; Neely, Michael; McSherry, George D; Spector, Stephen A; Gaur, Aditya H

    2011-06-01

    This study examined psychological functioning and beliefs about medicine in adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy in a community-based directly observed therapy (DOT) pilot feasibility study. Participants were youth with behaviorally acquired HIV (n = 20; 65% female; median age, 21 years) with adherence problems, who received once-daily DOT. Youth were assessed at baseline, week 12 (post-DOT), and week 24 (follow-up). At baseline, 55% of youth reported having clinical depressive symptoms compared to 27% at week 12 with sustained improvements at week 24. At baseline, substance use was reported within the borderline clinical range (T(score) = 68), with clinical but statistically nonsignificant improvement (T(score) = 61) at week 12. Hopelessness scores reflected optimism for the future. Coping strategies showed significantly decreased cognitive avoidance (p = .02), emotional discharge (p = .004), and acceptance/resignation ("nothing I can do," p = .004), whereas positive reappraisal and seeking support emerged. With the exception of depressive symptoms, week 12 improvements were not sustained at week 24. DOT adherence was predicted by higher baseline depression (p = .05), beliefs about medicine (p = .006) and perceived threat of illness scores (p = .03). Youth with behaviorally acquired HIV and adherence problems who participated in a community-based DOT intervention reported clinically improved depressive symptoms, and temporarily reduced substance use and negative coping strategies. Depressive symptoms, beliefs about medicine, and viewing HIV as a potential threat predicted better DOT adherence. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimizing adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Seema; Reddy, K Srikanth; Dhayarkar, Sampada

    2011-12-01

    HIV has now become a manageable chronic disease. However, the treatment outcomes may get hampered by suboptimal adherence to ART. Adherence optimization is a concrete reality in the wake of 'universal access' and it is imperative to learn lessons from various studies and programmes. This review examines current literature on ART scale up, treatment outcomes of the large scale programmes and the role of adherence therein. Social, behavioural, biological and programme related factors arise in the context of ART adherence optimization. While emphasis is laid on adherence, retention of patients under the care umbrella emerges as a major challenge. An in-depth understanding of patients' health seeking behaviour and health care delivery system may be useful in improving adherence and retention of patients in care continuum and programme. A theoretical framework to address the barriers and facilitators has been articulated to identify problematic areas in order to intervene with specific strategies. Empirically tested objective adherence measurement tools and approaches to assess adherence in clinical/ programme settings are required. Strengthening of ART programmes would include appropriate policies for manpower and task sharing, integrating traditional health sector, innovations in counselling and community support. Implications for the use of theoretical model to guide research, clinical practice, community involvement and policy as part of a human rights approach to HIV disease is suggested.

  18. Adherence, enterotoxigenicity, invasiveness and serogroups in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains from adult humans with acute enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, G B; Cervantes, L E; Sjögren, E; Kaijser, B; Ruiz-Palacios, G M

    1990-02-01

    Two hundred Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains from the same number of adult Swedish patients with acute enterocolitis were tested regarding adherence to and invasiveness in HEp-2 cells and for enterotoxigenicity by the CHO-cell assay. The serogroup characteristics, heat-stable and heat-labile, for each strain were also investigated. Eighty-four percent of the strains were classified as C. jejuni and 16 percent as C. coli. All of the strains were adherent to HEp-2 cells, 39% were invasive and 31.5% enterotoxigenic. We found significantly more invasive strains in the non-enterotoxigenic group than in the enterotoxigenic one. There would seem to be no correlation between enterotoxigenicity or invasiveness and serogroup. The results of this study suggest the existence of multiple mechanisms for C. jejuni- and C. coli-induced diarrhoea and that the mechanisms may differ from one strain to another.

  19. Loss of capsule expression by Haemophilus influenzae type b results in enhanced adherence to and invasion of human cells.

    OpenAIRE

    St Geme, J W; Falkow, S

    1991-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b is a common cause of systemic bacterial disease in children, and the serotype b capsule is a major determinant of virulence. Nevertheless, as a consequence of the genetic configuration of the capb locus, type b strains become capsule deficient at a high frequency. To investigate the potential biological relevance of the predisposition to capsule loss, we compared the adherent and invasive abilities of several strains of H. influenzae type b and their isogenic cap...

  20. Oral polymorphonuclear neutrophil characteristics in relation to oral health: A cross-sectional, observational clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkschroeff, P.; Jansen, I.D.C.; Weijden, F.A. van der; Keijser, B.J.F.; Loos, B.G.; Nicu, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) have a major role in the innate immune system. However, little is known about PMN contribution in relation to oral health. The objective of this study was to investigate the numbers and functional characteristics of oral PMNs (oPMNs) compared with circulatory

  1. Interactions between polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on silicone implants in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gennip, Maria; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten

    2012-01-01

    intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with bacteria growing on hollow silicone tubes, as well as to examine the interaction between these bacteria and the host innate immune response. Wild-type P. aeruginosa developed biofilms within 1 day that trapped and caused visible cavities in polymorphonuclear leukocytes...

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa recognizes and responds aggressively to the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Bjarnsholt, T.; Jensen, P.O.

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) play a central role in innate immunity, where they dominate the response to infections, in particular in the cystic fibrosis lung. PMNs are phagocytic cells that produce a wide range of antimicrobial agents aimed at killing invading bacteria. However...

  3. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes restrict growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    in a mouse model. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa within CF lungs did not correlate with the dimensions of bacterial aggregates but showed an inverse correlation to the concentration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surrounding the bacteria. A growth-limiting effect on P. aeruginosa by PMNs was also...

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa tolerance to tobramycin, hydrogen peroxide and polymorphonuclear leukocytes is quorum-sensing dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Burmølle, Mette

    2005-01-01

    to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics and are protected from bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). P. aeruginosa controls the expression of many of its virulence factors by means of a cell-cell communication system termed quorum sensing (QS). In the present report it is demonstrated...

  5. Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Measuring Antiretroviral Adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Karina M.; Arnsten, Julia H.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate measurement of antiretroviral adherence is essential for targeting and rigorously evaluating interventions to improve adherence and prevent viral resistance. Across diseases, medication adherence is an individual, complex, and dynamic human behavior that presents unique measurement challenges. Measurement of medication adherence is further complicated by the diversity of available measures, which have different utility in clinical and research settings. Limited understanding of how t...

  6. Switching from Biphasic Human Insulin to Premix Insulin Analogs: A Review of the Evidence Regarding Quality of Life and Adherence to Medication in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Naggar, Nabil; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing public health concern. Effective use of therapies for this chronic disease is necessary to improve long-term prognosis, but treatment adherence can be difficult to promote in clinical practice, and insulin, in particular, can impact both positively and negatively on patients' quality of life (QoL). Currently, guidelines advocate for QoL as a treatment goal in its own right, with treatment decisions based on patient concerns regarding injection frequency and adverse events, as well as glycemic control. Successful insulin management ideally requires a regimen to replicate normal endogenous insulin release, and this was a key driver in the development of insulin analogs. These analogs have also been associated with lower hypoglycemia risk, lower levels of postprandial glucose excursions, better adherence, improved QoL, and higher patient satisfaction with treatment. Premixed insulin is prescribed for many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), as it combines both prandial and basal treatment, reducing the number of injections. Evidence suggests that premixed insulin analogs have advantages over conventional premixed human insulin for T2D treatment, but the objective of this review was to assess the evidence that switching from a biphasic human insulin to a biphasic insulin analog regimen improves patient QoL. Novo Nordisk.

  7. A Simple Method for Establishing Adherent Ex Vivo Explant Cultures from Human Eye Pathologies for Use in Subsequent Calcium Imaging and Inflammatory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veréb, Zoltán; Facskó, Andrea; Hawlina, Marko

    2014-01-01

    A novel, simple, and reproducible method for cultivating pathological tissues obtained from human eyes during surgery was developed using viscoelastic material as a tissue adherent to facilitate cell attachment and expansion and calcium imaging of cultured cells challenged by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation as well as inflammatory studies. Anterior lens capsule-lens epithelial cells (aLC-LECs) from cataract surgery and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) fibrovascular epiretinal membranes (fvERMs) from human eyes were used in the study. We hereby show calcium signaling in aLC-LECs by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation and indicate presence of ACh receptors in these cells. Furthermore, an ex vivo study model was established for measuring the inflammatory response in fvERMs and aLC-LECs upon TNFα treatment. PMID:25276840

  8. A Simple Method for Establishing Adherent Ex Vivo Explant Cultures from Human Eye Pathologies for Use in Subsequent Calcium Imaging and Inflammatory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Andjelic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, and reproducible method for cultivating pathological tissues obtained from human eyes during surgery was developed using viscoelastic material as a tissue adherent to facilitate cell attachment and expansion and calcium imaging of cultured cells challenged by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh stimulation as well as inflammatory studies. Anterior lens capsule-lens epithelial cells (aLC-LECs from cataract surgery and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR fibrovascular epiretinal membranes (fvERMs from human eyes were used in the study. We hereby show calcium signaling in aLC-LECs by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh stimulation and indicate presence of ACh receptors in these cells. Furthermore, an ex vivo study model was established for measuring the inflammatory response in fvERMs and aLC-LECs upon TNFα treatment.

  9. Generation of Storable Retinal Organoids and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium from Adherent Human iPS Cells in Xeno-Free and Feeder-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Sacha; Slembrouck, Amélie; Gagliardi, Giuliana; Chaffiol, Antoine; Terray, Angélique; Nanteau, Céline; Potey, Anais; Belle, Morgane; Rabesandratana, Oriane; Duebel, Jens; Orieux, Gael; Nandrot, Emeline F; Sahel, José-Alain; Goureau, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in regenerative therapies for retinal disease. For medical applications, therapeutic retinal cells, such as retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells or photoreceptor precursors, must be generated under completely defined conditions. To this purpose, we have developed a two-step xeno-free/feeder-free (XF/FF) culture system to efficiently differentiate hiPSCs into retinal cells. This simple method, relies only on adherent hiPSCs cultured in chemically defined media, bypassing embryoid body formation. In less than 1 month, adherent hiPSCs are able to generate self-forming neuroretinal-like structures containing retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). Floating cultures of isolated structures enabled the differentiation of RPCs into all types of retinal cells in a sequential overlapping order, with the generation of transplantation-compatible CD73 + photoreceptor precursors in less than 100 days. Our XF/FF culture conditions allow the maintenance of both mature cones and rods in retinal organoids until 280 days with specific photoreceptor ultrastructures. Moreover, both hiPSC-derived retinal organoids and dissociated retinal cells can be easily cryopreserved while retaining their phenotypic characteristics and the preservation of CD73 + photoreceptor precursors. Concomitantly to neural retina, this process allows the generation of RPE cells that can be effortlessly amplified, passaged, and frozen while retaining a proper RPE phenotype. These results demonstrate that simple and efficient retinal differentiation of adherent hiPSCs can be accomplished in XF/FF conditions. This new method is amenable to the development of an in vitro GMP-compliant retinal cell manufacturing protocol allowing large-scale production and banking of hiPSC-derived retinal cells and tissues. Stem Cells 2017;35:1176-1188. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Short-term garlic supplementation and highly active antiretroviral treatment adherence, CD4+ cell counts, and human immunodeficiency virus viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenglong; Wang, Cuiwei; Robison, Esther; Levine, Alexandra M; Gandhi, Monica; Schwartz, Rebecca; Weber, Kathleen M; Merenstein, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals frequently have consumed garlic, a popular complementary supplement. Researchers rarely have studied garlic's association with antiretroviral therapies, however, even though that association is very relevant clinically. To examine associations of supplemental use of garlic with highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) adherence level and HAART effectiveness (HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts) in HIV-infected women. The research team carried out a self-controlled, longitudinal study nested within the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The team used a paired study design that allowed participants to serve as their own controls. The team first identified all of the studies visits in which the participant self-reported the use of a garlic supplement since her last visit (index visit). Then for each index visit, the team identified a matching visit (a control visit) using the following criteria: (a) the visit must be one for the same participant in which that participant reported no garlic supplementation; (b) the visit must immediately precede the index visit (less than 1 year apart); and (c) at the time of the control visit, the participant must have been using antiretroviral therapy identical to that used at the time of the index visit. Participants were persons using garlic supplementation who already were participants in the WIHS. The research team used a logistic regression model to examine the association between garlic supplementation and HAART adherence level. The team used a mixed linear model to examine the association of garlic supplementation with HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. From October 1994 to April 2009, 390 HIV-infected women in the WIHS made 1112 visits at which they reported using garlic supplements. Seventy-seven HIV-infected women using HAART met the research teams selection criteria and contributed 99 pairs of visits for the study. Among the women who used garlic

  11. Short-term Garlic Supplementation and Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence, CD4+ Cell Counts, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenglong; Wang, Cuiwei; Robison, Esther; Levine, Alexandra M.; Gandhi, Monica; Schwartz, Rebecca; Weber, Kathleen M.; Merenstein, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Context Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals frequently have consumed garlic, a popular complementary supplement. Researchers rarely have studied garlic’s association with antiretroviral therapies, however, even though that association is very relevant clinically. Objective To examine associations of supplemental use of garlic with highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) adherence level and HAART effectiveness (HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts) in HIV-infected women. Design The research team carried out a self-controlled, longitudinal study nested within the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The team used a paired study design that allowed participants to serve as their own controls. The team first identified all of the study’s visits in which the participant self-reported the use of a garlic supplement since her last visit (index visit). Then for each index visit, the team identified a matching visit (a control visit) using the following criteria: (a) the visit must be one for the same participant in which that participant reported no garlic supplementation; (b) the visit must immediately precede the index visit (less than 1 year apart); and (c) at the time of the control visit, the participant must have been using antiretroviral therapy identical to that used at the time of the index visit. Participants Participants were persons using garlic supplementation who already were participants in the WIHS. Outcome Measures The research team used a logistic regression model to examine the association between garlic supplementation and HAART adherence level. The team used a mixed linear model to examine the association of garlic supplementation with HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. Results From October 1994 to April 2009, 390 HIV-infected women in the WIHS made 1112 visits at which they reported using garlic supplements. Seventy-seven HIV-infected women using HAART met the research team’s selection criteria and contributed 99

  12. Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Its Association with Virulence Genes Related to Adherence, Invasion, and Cytotoxicity in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Animals, Meat, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Gatica, María A; Riquelme, Víctor; Vergara, Constanza; Yañez, José Manuel; San Martín, Betty; Sáenz, Leonardo; Vidal, Maricel; Martínez, María Cristina; Araya, Pamela; Flores, Roberto; Duery, Oscar; Vidal, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. A high percentage of Campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specifically ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Moreover, we observed a wide distribution of virulence genes within the analyzed strains. C. jejuni strains were more susceptible to antimicrobials, and showed greater number of virulence genes than C. coli strains. Genes related to invasion capability, such as racR, ciaB, and pldA, were associated with antimicrobial-susceptible strains in both species. The genes cdtA and dnaJ, a citotoxin unit and an adherence-related gene, respectively, were associated with antimicrobial-resistant strains in both species. In conclusion, Campylobacter strains show a statistically significant association between antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of virulence genes.

  13. Group A streptococcal surface GAPDH, SDH, recognizes uPAR/CD87 as its receptor on the human pharyngeal cell and mediates bacterial adherence to host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Song, Youngmia P; Boel, Gregory; Kochar, Jaspreet; Pancholi, Vijay

    2005-07-01

    Streptococcal surface dehydrogenase (SDH) is a multifunctional, anchorless protein present on the surface of group A Streptococcus (GAS). It plays a regulatory role in GAS-mediated intracellular signaling events in human pharyngeal cells. Using ligand-binding assays, we have identified an approximately 55 kDa protein as an SDH-specific receptor protein on the surface of Detroit human pharyngeal cells. LC-MS/MS analyses identified this SDH-binding pharyngeal cell-surface-exposed membrane-bound protein as uPAR (urokinase plasminogen activator receptor)/CD87. Ligand-binding assays also revealed that only the N-terminal domain (D1) of uPAR bound to SDH. uPAR-D1 more specifically bound to the C-terminal alpha-helix and two immediate flanking regions of the S-loop of the SDH molecule. Site-directed mutagenesis in GAS resulting in SDH with altered C-terminal ends, and the removal of uPAR from pharyngeal cells by phosphatidylinositol-phopsholipase C treatment decreased GAS ability to adhere to pharyngeal cells. When compared to uninfected Detroit pharyngeal cells, GAS-infected pharyngeal cells showed a transient but a significant increase in the expression of uPAR-specific mRNA, and a prolonged recycling process of uPAR on the cell surface. Together, these results indicate that the specific streptococcal surface protein-pharyngeal cell receptor interaction mediated by SDH and uPAR is modulated during GAS infection of human pharyngeal cells. This interaction significantly contributes to bacterial adherence and thus may play a significant role in GAS pathogenesis by regulating intracellular signaling events in pharyngeal cells.

  14. Antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis and respiratory burst of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, Dagmar; Burvenich, Christian; Heyneman, Roger

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro effects of six doses (2 x 10(-3) to 2 x 10(-8) M) of antimicrobial drugs that are frequently used in udder infusions on the capacity of bovine blood polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes to generate reactive oxygen species were studied by the measurement of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. All drugs, except cloxacillin, significantly decreased chemiluminescence at the highest dose. Doxycyline induced the most severe i...

  15. Synergistic Interaction of the Triple Combination of Amphotericin B, Ciprofloxacin, and Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils against Aspergillus fumigatus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulou, Theodouli; Meletiadis, Joseph; Sein, Tin; Papaioannidou, Paraskevi; Walsh, Thomas J.; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus is damaged by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) by means of nonoxidative and oxidative mechanisms, which may be affected by antifungal and antibacterial agents that patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis often receive. The pharmacodynamic interactions among deoxycholate amphotericin B (AMB), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and human PMNs against Aspergillus fumigatus growth are unknown. We therefore studied the interactions between 0.032 to 2.0 μg/ml of AMB, 0.1 to 50 μg/ml of CIP at a fixed AMB/CIP ratio of 1:3.125, and PMNs from six donors at an effector-to-target (E:T) ratio of 400:1 against a clinical A. fumigatus isolate using an XTT metabolic assay and the Bliss independence pharmacodynamic-interaction model. CIP exhibited no antifungal activity alone or in combination with PMNs. Synergy was found between AMB and PMNs, with interaction indices (II) of 0.06 to 0.21; the highest interaction of 21% ± 3.6% was observed at 0.22 ± 0.09 μg/ml of AMB. The AMB and CIP (AMB+CIP) combination was synergistic (II = 0.39) at low AMB concentrations and antagonistic (II = 1.39) at high AMB concentrations, with a maximal synergistic interaction of 16% ± 3.7% observed at 0.16 ± 0.08 μg/ml of AMB. The triple combination AMB+CIP+PMNs was synergistic, with interaction indices of 0.05 to 0.20, and a maximal synergistic interaction of 24% ± 4% was observed at 0.20 ± 0.07 μg/ml of AMB. The increased percentage of Bliss synergy of the triple combination AMB+CIP+PMNs (24% ± 4%) was the product of those of the constituent double combinations AMB+PMNs (21% ± 3.6%) and AMB+CIP (16% ± 3.7%). Thus, the antifungal activity of AMB, at clinically relevant concentrations, was enhanced in combination with PMNs and CIP against A. fumigatus growth in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:21911564

  16. ADAM9 Is a Novel Product of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roychaudhuri, Robin; Hergrueter, Anja H; Polverino, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    is stored in the gelatinase and specific granules and the secretory vesicles of human PMNs. Unstimulated PMNs express minimal quantities of surface ADAM9, but activation of PMNs with degranulating agonists rapidly (within 15 min) increases PMN surface ADAM9 levels. Human PMNs produce small quantities...... of soluble forms of ADAM9. Surprisingly, ADAM9 degrades several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin, entactin, laminin, and insoluble elastin, as potently as matrix metalloproteinase-9. However, ADAM9 does not degrade types I, III, or IV collagen or denatured collagens in vitro...

  17. Rapid expansion of recycling stem cells in cultures of plastic-adherent cells from human bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colter, David C.; Class, Reiner; DiGirolamo, Carla M.; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of plastic-adherent cells from bone marrow have attracted interest because of their ability to support growth of hematopoietic stem cells, their multipotentiality for differentiation, and their possible use for cell and gene therapy. Here we found that the cells grew most rapidly when they were initially plated at low densities (1.5 or 3.0 cells/cm2) to generate single-cell derived colonies. The cultures displayed a lag phase of about 5 days, a log phase of rapid growth of about 5 days, and then a stationary phase. FACS analysis demonstrated that stationary cultures contained a major population of large and moderately granular cells and a minor population of small and agranular cells here referred to as recycling stem cells or RS-1 cells. During the lag phase, the RS-1 cells gave rise to a new population of small and densely granular cells (RS-2 cells). During the late log phase, the RS-2 cells decreased in number and regenerated the pool of RS-1 cells found in stationary cultures. In repeated passages in which the cells were plated at low density, they were amplified about 109-fold in 6 wk. The cells retained their ability to generate single-cell derived colonies and therefore apparently retained their multipotentiality for differentiation. PMID:10725391

  18. Expression of sialyltransferase activity on intact human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifat, Salahaldin; Kang, Tae Jin; Mann, Dean; Zhang, Lei; Puche, Adam C; Stamatos, Nicholas M; Goldblum, Simeon E; Brossmer, Reinhard; Cross, Alan S

    2008-10-01

    Endogenous polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-associated sialidase activity enhances PMN adhesion to and migration across the endothelium through the removal of sialylated cell-surface residues. We tested the hypothesis that PMNs also express sialyltransferase (ST) activity that restores sialyl residues to the PMN surface. We developed a highly sensitive fluorometric assay to demonstrate that intact human PMNs can mediate and accept sialyl residue transfer. This ST activity is inhibited by a ST inhibitor, CMP, which also inhibits the transendothelial migration of PMNs in response to IL-8 in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that intact PMNs express sialidase and ST activities that permit rapid modulation of their surface sialylation and their ability to adhere to and migrate across the endothelium.

  19. Temporal Expression of the Candida albicans Genes CHK1 and CSSK1, Adherence, and Morphogenesis in a Model of Reconstituted Human Esophageal Epithelial Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Bernhardt, Joern; Calderone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that genes encoding a putative two-component histidine kinase (CHK1) or a response regulator (CSSK1) are each required for virulence in a murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis and that strains with each gene deleted are also defective in morphogenesis under certain growth conditions. In the present study, the role of these two genes in the adherence to and colonization of reconstituted human esophageal tissue (RHE) is described. We compared strains of Candida albicans with deletions of chk1 (strain CHK21) and cssk1 (strain CSSK21) to wild-type cells (CAF2), as well as strains with CHK1 and CSSK1 reconstituted (strains CHK23 and CSSK23, respectively). Adherence and colonization of RHE were evaluated in periodic acid-Schiff-stained sections, as well as by SEM. We observed that both deletion-containing strains colonized the RHE to a lesser extent than did CAF2 and that the percent germination by both strains was reduced in comparison to that of control strains at 1 h postinfection. Expression of CHK1 or CSSK1 was quantitated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR from RHE tissues infected with wild-type C. albicans yeast cells. Expression of both CHK1 and CSSK1 increased over the 48-h period following infection of the tissue, although expression of CHK1 was greater than that of CSSK1. By RT-PCR, we have also shown that expression of CHK1 and CSSK1 in the strains with cssk1 and chk1 deleted, respectively, was similar to that of CAF2, indicating that CHK1 and CSSK1 do not regulate each other but probably encode signal proteins of different pathways. Our observations indicate that CHK1 and CSSK1 are each partially required for colonization and conversion to filamentous growth on RHE tissue. PMID:11854244

  20. 77 FR 20637 - Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence AGENCY: Department of Health... potential solutions associated with the public health problem of prescription medication non-adherence in..., health care providers, and industry and private organizations in efforts to improve medication adherence...

  1. Patient's adherence in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillisen, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Nonadherence in asthma treatment results in increasing mortality, morbidity, and it is associated with increasing treatment costs. In asthma, adherence rates are often below 50%. Understanding of the needs and behaviors of asthma patients as well as treatment barriers to comply with asthma guidelines is important in developing programs to promote adherence. This article presents information on common types of nonadherence in asthma patients, the causes, and it reviews the literature on interventions to overcome these factors to maximize adherence rates. Although several interventions are effective in improving medication adherence in asthma, only few significantly enhance adherence rates and clinical outcomes of these patients. An improvement in treatment adherence is a complex task, requiring asthma self-management, education programs coupled with educational reinforcements, simplifying treatment planes and applications forms. Good communications skills among clinicians and patient education are also central for improving adherence. Methods to overcoming physician barriers ensure consistency in implementing guideline recommendations in practice.

  2. Pathogenic Neisseria hitchhike on the uropod of human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Söderholm

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs are important components of the human innate immune system and are rapidly recruited at the site of bacterial infection. Despite the effective phagocytic activity of PMNs, Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are characterized by high survival within PMNs. We reveal a novel type IV pilus-mediated adherence of pathogenic Neisseria to the uropod (the rear of polarized PMNs. The direct pilus-uropod interaction was visualized by scanning electron microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy. We showed that N. meningitidis adhesion to the PMN uropod depended on both pilus-associated proteins PilC1 and PilC2, while N. gonorrhoeae adhesion did not. Bacterial adhesion elicited accumulation of the complement regulator CD46, but not I-domain-containing integrins, beneath the adherent bacterial microcolony. Electrographs and live-cell imaging of PMNs suggested that bacterial adherence to the uropod is followed by internalization into PMNs via the uropod. We also present data showing that pathogenic Neisseria can hitchhike on PMNs to hide from their phagocytic activity as well as to facilitate the spread of the pathogen through the epithelial cell layer.

  3. Characterization of a distinct population of circulating human non-adherent endothelial forming cells and their recruitment via intercellular adhesion molecule-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Appleby

    Full Text Available Circulating vascular progenitor cells contribute to the pathological vasculogenesis of cancer whilst on the other hand offer much promise in therapeutic revascularization in post-occlusion intervention in cardiovascular disease. However, their characterization has been hampered by the many variables to produce them as well as their described phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Herein we have isolated, enriched for and then characterized a human umbilical cord blood derived CD133(+ population of non-adherent endothelial forming cells (naEFCs which expressed the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers (CD133, CD34, CD117, CD90 and CD38 together with mature endothelial cell markers (VEGFR2, CD144 and CD31. These cells also expressed low levels of CD45 but did not express the lymphoid markers (CD3, CD4, CD8 or myeloid markers (CD11b and CD14 which distinguishes them from 'early' endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. Functional studies demonstrated that these naEFCs (i bound Ulex europaeus lectin, (ii demonstrated acetylated-low density lipoprotein uptake, (iii increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 surface expression in response to tumor necrosis factor and (iv in co-culture with mature endothelial cells increased the number of tubes, tubule branching and loops in a 3-dimensional in vitro matrix. More importantly, naEFCs placed in vivo generated new lumen containing vasculature lined by CD144 expressing human endothelial cells (ECs. Extensive genomic and proteomic analyses of the naEFCs showed that intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-3 is expressed on their cell surface but not on mature endothelial cells. Furthermore, functional analysis demonstrated that ICAM-3 mediated the rolling and adhesive events of the naEFCs under shear stress. We suggest that the distinct population of naEFCs identified and characterized here represents a new valuable therapeutic target to control aberrant vasculogenesis.

  4. Characterization of a Distinct Population of Circulating Human Non-Adherent Endothelial Forming Cells and Their Recruitment via Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Emma J.; Barrett, Jeffrey M.; Tooley, Katie; Sen, Shaundeep; Sun, Wai Yan; Grose, Randall; Nicholson, Ian; Levina, Vitalina; Cooke, Ira; Talbo, Gert; Lopez, Angel F.; Bonder, Claudine S.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating vascular progenitor cells contribute to the pathological vasculogenesis of cancer whilst on the other hand offer much promise in therapeutic revascularization in post-occlusion intervention in cardiovascular disease. However, their characterization has been hampered by the many variables to produce them as well as their described phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Herein we have isolated, enriched for and then characterized a human umbilical cord blood derived CD133+ population of non-adherent endothelial forming cells (naEFCs) which expressed the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers (CD133, CD34, CD117, CD90 and CD38) together with mature endothelial cell markers (VEGFR2, CD144 and CD31). These cells also expressed low levels of CD45 but did not express the lymphoid markers (CD3, CD4, CD8) or myeloid markers (CD11b and CD14) which distinguishes them from ‘early’ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional studies demonstrated that these naEFCs (i) bound Ulex europaeus lectin, (ii) demonstrated acetylated-low density lipoprotein uptake, (iii) increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) surface expression in response to tumor necrosis factor and (iv) in co-culture with mature endothelial cells increased the number of tubes, tubule branching and loops in a 3-dimensional in vitro matrix. More importantly, naEFCs placed in vivo generated new lumen containing vasculature lined by CD144 expressing human endothelial cells (ECs). Extensive genomic and proteomic analyses of the naEFCs showed that intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3 is expressed on their cell surface but not on mature endothelial cells. Furthermore, functional analysis demonstrated that ICAM-3 mediated the rolling and adhesive events of the naEFCs under shear stress. We suggest that the distinct population of naEFCs identified and characterized here represents a new valuable therapeutic target to control aberrant vasculogenesis. PMID:23144795

  5. Adherence to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Farinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While major depression is considered a frequent mental illness there are ongoing reports of high non-adherence to antidepressant medications which places suffers at high risk for relapse, recurrence, or greater impairment,. The World Health Organization (WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a person′s behavior (e.g. taking medications can align with the agreed recommendations of a health care provider. Unfortunately while patient may recognize the importance of adherence to antidepressant medications the majority of patients do not adhere to their prescribed antidepressants. Some of the factors that may contribute to or lead to non-adherence include knowingly or unknowingly missing doses, taking extra doses, delaying administration times, or taking drug holidays. Pharmacists have the unique ability to deter non-adherence through the performance of continuous assessment and monitoring of adherence in this population given these accessibility. Additionally, pharmacists are able to develop therapeutic alliances with patients that can help to increase the likelihood of achieving positive patient outcomes. Antidepressant non-adherence can be viewed as a significant public health concern so it is important for patients to be educated about the importance of adherence, and health care professionals should be aware of factors or patient characteristics that can serve as barriers to non-adherence.

  6. Plasmodium vivax adherence to placental glycosaminoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesinee Chotivanich

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax infections seldom kill directly but do cause indirect mortality by reducing birth weight and causing abortion. Cytoadherence and sequestration in the microvasculature are central to the pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the contribution of cytoadherence to pathology in other human malarias is less clear.The adherence properties of P. vivax infected red blood cells (PvIRBC were evaluated under static and flow conditions.P. vivax isolates from 33 patients were studied. None adhered to immobilized CD36, ICAM-1, or thrombospondin, putative ligands for P. falciparum vascular cytoadherence, or umbilical vein endothelial cells, but all adhered to immobilized chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and hyaluronic acid (HA, the receptors for adhesion of P. falciparum in the placenta. PvIRBC also adhered to fresh placental cells (N = 5. Pre-incubation with chondroitinase prevented PvIRBC adherence to CSA, and reduced binding to HA, whereas preincubation with hyaluronidase prevented adherence to HA, but did not reduce binding to CSA significantly. Pre-incubation of PvIRBC with soluble CSA and HA reduced binding to the immobilized receptors and prevented placental binding. PvIRBC adhesion was prevented by pre-incubation with trypsin, inhibited by heparin, and reduced by EGTA. Under laminar flow conditions the mean (SD shear stress reducing maximum attachment by 50% was 0.06 (0.02 Pa but, having adhered, the PvIRBC could then resist detachment by stresses up to 5 Pa. At 37 °C adherence began approximately 16 hours after red cell invasion with maximal adherence at 30 hours. At 39 °C adherence began earlier and peaked at 24 hours.Adherence of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes to glycosaminoglycans may contribute to the pathogenesis of vivax malaria and lead to intrauterine growth retardation.

  7. [Modulation by some fatty acids of protein kinase C-dependent NADPH oxidase in human adherent monocyte: mechanism of action, possible implication in atherogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, C L; Kadri-Hassani, N

    1995-01-01

    It is largely admitted nowadays that the early stage of the atherosclerotic lesion involves formation of oxidized (and minimally oxidized) low-density lipoprotein. Their properties are briefly reviewed. It is recalled that a lipolytic process also takes place both at the lumenal surface and in the subendothelial space of the vessels implying lipoprotein lipase (LpL) activity. Recent studies emphasize the role of LpL in accumulating LDL in the vascular tissue (Rutledge & Golberg, J. Lipid Res., 1994, 35, 1152-1160), but the role of LpL-generated unesterified fatty acids (UEFA) in these two locations and their possible implication in atherogenesis are largely neglected. Physiological and pathophysiological significance of UEFA in the human adherent monocyte modulation of the superoxide anion (O2.-) production has been examined by our group, leading to a possible mechanism of modulation of LDL oxidative modification. The O2.- production-modulating effect of a 30-min UEFA preincubation has been studied in intact human adherent monocytes (HAM) after stimulation by a direct effector of protein kinase C (PKC). It has been established that UEFA alone (in the absence of PKC effectors) were not able to modulate the O2.- production of HAM whereas they had such a capacity in the presence of PKC effectors, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or diacylglycerol (DAG). In this case inhibitors of PKC such as GF 109203 X suppressed the modulating effect. UEFA have also been shown to possess a bimodal action in the presence of PKC effectors: they depressed or enhanced O2.- production at micromolar or nanomolar concentrations, respectively. All these results contrasted with others obtained in neutrophils or nonadherent monocytes, suggesting an absolute requirement of PKC for the phagocyte-NADPH oxydase (PHOX) activation especially in the case of HAM. In HAM, the maximal enhancing effects were obtained with monomethyl ramified saturated (MMRS) and linear unsaturated (LU) FAs such as

  8. Inactivation of the rhlA gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevents rhamnolipid production, disabling the protection against polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten

    2009-01-01

    and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We have previously shown that rhamnolipids produced by P. aeruginosa cause necrotic death of PMNs in vitro. This raises the possibility that rhamnolipids may function as a 'biofilm shield' in vivo, which contributes significantly to the increased tolerance of P. aeruginosa...

  9. Ormocomp-modified glass increases collagen binding and promotes the adherence and maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käpylä, Elli; Sorkio, Anni; Teymouri, Shokoufeh; Lahtonen, Kimmo; Vuori, Leena; Valden, Mika; Skottman, Heli; Kellomäki, Minna; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati

    2014-12-09

    In in vitro live-cell imaging, it would be beneficial to grow and assess human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cells on thin, transparent, rigid surfaces such as cover glasses. In this study, we assessed how the silanization of glass with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MAPTMS), or polymer-ceramic material Ormocomp affects the surface properties, protein binding, and maturation of hESC-RPE cells. The surface properties were studied by contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and a protein binding assay. The cell adherence and proliferation were evaluated by culturing hESCRPE cells on collagen IV-coated untreated or silanized surfaces for 42 days. The Ormocomp treatment significantly increased the hydrophobicity and roughness of glass surfaces compared to the APTES and MAPTMS treatments. The XPS results indicated that the Ormocomp treatment changes the chemical composition of the glass surface by increasing the carbon content and the number of C-O/═O bonds. The protein-binding test confirmed that the Ormocomp-treated surfaces bound more collagen IV than did APTES- or MAPTMS-treated surfaces. All of the silane treatments increased the number of cells: after 42 days of culture, Ormocomp had 0.38, APTES had 0.16, MAPTMS had 0.19, and untreated glass had only 0.062, all presented as million cells cm(-2). There were no differences in cell numbers compared to smoother to rougher Ormocomp surfaces, suggesting that the surface chemistry and, more specifically, the collagen binding in combination with Ormocomp are beneficial to hESC-RPE cell culture. This study clearly demonstrates that Ormocomp treatment combined with collagen coating significantly increases hESC-RPE cell attachment compared to commonly used silanizing agents APTES and MAPTMS. Ormocomp silanization could thus enable the use of microscopic live cell imaging methods for h

  10. Interaction of Bovine Peripheral Blood Polymorphonuclear Cells and Leptospira Species; Innate Responses in the Natural Bovine Reservoir Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Frank, Ami T.; Hornsby, Richard L.; Olsen, Steven C.; Alt, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and Leptospira interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia, and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2) was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of Leptospira strains

  11. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  12. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes consume oxygen in sputum from chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Hansen, C. R.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most severe complication for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This infection is characterised by endobronchial mucoid biofilms surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). The mucoid phenotype offers protection...... against the PMNs, which are in general assumed to mount an active respiratory burst leading to lung tissue deterioration. An ongoing respiratory burst by the PMNs has, however, not been demonstrated previously in endobronchial secretions from chronically infected patients with CF. OBJECTIVE: Based...... on the accumulating evidence for depletion of molecular oxygen (O(2)) in the mucus in infected CF bronchi, it was hypothesised that the O(2) depletion in the mucus in infected CF bronchi may be accelerated by the respiratory burst of the PMNs due to the reduction of O(2) to the superoxide anion (O(-)(2...

  13. Mechanisms of lectin and antibody-dependent polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated cytolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunawaki, S; Ikenami, M; Mizuno, D; Yamazaki, M

    1983-04-01

    The mechanisms of tumor lysis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were investigated. In antibody-dependent PMN-mediated cytolysis (ADPC), sensitized tumor cells were specifically lysed via Fc receptors on PMNs. On the other hand, lectin-dependent PMN-mediated cytolysis (LDPC) caused nonspecific lysis of several murine tumors after recognition of carbohydrate moieties on the cell membrane of both PMNs and tumor cells. Both ADPC and LDPC depended on glycolysis, and cytotoxicity was mediated by reactive oxygen species; LDPC was dependent on superoxide and ADPC on the myeloperoxidase system. The participation of reactive oxygen species in PMN cytotoxicity was also demonstrated by pharmacological triggering with phorbol myristate acetate. These results indicate that reactive oxygen species have an important role In tumor killing by PMNs and that ADPC and LDPC have partly different cytolytic processes as well as different recognition steps.

  14. Effect of Phenylbutazone on Phagocytosis and Intracellular Killing by Guinea Pig Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Robert R.; Paul, Benoy B.; Sbarra, Anthony J.

    1968-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone has been found to inhibit both engulfment and intracellular killing of E. coli by guinea pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes. The bactericidal activity of leukocytic homogenates was also inhibited by the drug. Addition of the drug at various time intervals to a phagocytic reacting system caused an almost immediate cessation of bactericidal activity. Metabolic studies showed that the drug sharply curtailed glucose-l-14C and 14C-formate oxidation of both resting and phagocytizing PMN leukocytes. These data indicated an effect upon the hexose monophosphate shunt and H2O2 formation. Further investigation showed that the sites of inhibition were on glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. These inhibitions resulted in decreased H2O2 production. It is suggested that H2O2 activates lysosomes and subsequently complexes with the lysosomal enzyme, myeloperoxidase. This complex is a potent bactericidal agent in the phagocyte. PMID:4881700

  15. Adherence to ART in PLWHA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women were less adhering than men and adherence was related to depression among drug users (10). A study in. Brazil showed the cumulative incidence of non- adherence to be 36.9% (11). Adherence among patients in Soweto, South Africa was 88% (12). In Cape Town;. 63% of patients maintained adherence levels of ...

  16. 76 FR 12969 - Campaign To Improve Poor Medication Adherence (U18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Campaign To Improve Poor Medication Adherence (U18) AGENCY... ] importance of good medication adherence, a vital first step toward improved adherence behavior and better...' awareness of the importance of good medication adherence and provide tools to prescribers to help their...

  17. Complement regulator Factor H mediates a two-step uptake of Streptococcus pneumoniae by human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Asmat, Tauseef M; Luo, Shanshan; Jensch, Inga; Zipfel, Peter F; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2010-07-23

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a human pathogen, recruits complement regulator factor H to its bacterial cell surface. The bacterial PspC protein binds Factor H via short consensus repeats (SCR) 8-11 and SCR19-20. In this study, we define how bacterially bound Factor H promotes pneumococcal adherence to and uptake by epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) via a two-step process. First, pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells was significantly reduced by heparin and dermatan sulfate. However, none of the glycosaminoglycans affected binding of Factor H to pneumococci. Adherence of pneumococci to human epithelial cells was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies recognizing SCR19-20 of Factor H suggesting that the C-terminal glycosaminoglycan-binding region of Factor H mediates the contact between pneumococci and human cells. Blocking of the integrin CR3 receptor, i.e. CD11b and CD18, of PMNs or CR3-expressing epithelial cells reduced significantly the interaction of pneumococci with both cell types. Similarly, an additional CR3 ligand, Pra1, derived from Candida albicans, blocked the interaction of pneumococci with PMNs. Strikingly, Pra1 inhibited also pneumococcal uptake by lung epithelial cells but not adherence. In addition, invasion of Factor H-coated pneumococci required the dynamics of host-cell actin microfilaments and was affected by inhibitors of protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In conclusion, pneumococcal entry into host cells via Factor H is based on a two-step mechanism. The first and initial contact of Factor H-coated pneumococci is mediated by glycosaminoglycans expressed on the surface of human cells, and the second step, pneumococcal uptake, is integrin-mediated and depends on host signaling molecules such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

  18. Complement Regulator Factor H Mediates a Two-step Uptake of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Human Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Asmat, Tauseef M.; Luo, Shanshan; Jensch, Inga; Zipfel, Peter F.; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a human pathogen, recruits complement regulator factor H to its bacterial cell surface. The bacterial PspC protein binds Factor H via short consensus repeats (SCR) 8–11 and SCR19–20. In this study, we define how bacterially bound Factor H promotes pneumococcal adherence to and uptake by epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) via a two-step process. First, pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells was significantly reduced by heparin and dermatan sulfate. However, none of the glycosaminoglycans affected binding of Factor H to pneumococci. Adherence of pneumococci to human epithelial cells was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies recognizing SCR19–20 of Factor H suggesting that the C-terminal glycosaminoglycan-binding region of Factor H mediates the contact between pneumococci and human cells. Blocking of the integrin CR3 receptor, i.e. CD11b and CD18, of PMNs or CR3-expressing epithelial cells reduced significantly the interaction of pneumococci with both cell types. Similarly, an additional CR3 ligand, Pra1, derived from Candida albicans, blocked the interaction of pneumococci with PMNs. Strikingly, Pra1 inhibited also pneumococcal uptake by lung epithelial cells but not adherence. In addition, invasion of Factor H-coated pneumococci required the dynamics of host-cell actin microfilaments and was affected by inhibitors of protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In conclusion, pneumococcal entry into host cells via Factor H is based on a two-step mechanism. The first and initial contact of Factor H-coated pneumococci is mediated by glycosaminoglycans expressed on the surface of human cells, and the second step, pneumococcal uptake, is integrin-mediated and depends on host signaling molecules such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. PMID:20504767

  19. Practical and conceptual challenges in measuring antiretroviral adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Karina M; Arnsten, Julia H

    2006-12-01

    Accurate measurement of antiretroviral adherence is essential for targeting and rigorously evaluating interventions to improve adherence and prevent viral resistance. Across diseases, medication adherence is an individual, complex, and dynamic human behavior that presents unique measurement challenges. Measurement of medication adherence is further complicated by the diversity of available measures, which have different utility in clinical and research settings. Limited understanding of how to optimize existing adherence measures has hindered progress in adherence research in HIV and other diseases. Although self-report is the most widely used adherence measure and the most promising for use in clinical care and resource-limited settings, adherence researchers have yet to develop evidence-based standards for self-reported adherence. In addition, the use of objective measures, such as electronic drug monitoring or pill counts, is limited by poor understanding of the source and magnitude of error biasing these measures. To address these limitations, research is needed to evaluate methods of combining information from different measures. The goals of this review are to describe the state of the science of adherence measurement, to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of common adherence measurement methods, and to recommend directions for improving antiretroviral adherence measurement in research and clinical care.

  20. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François, E-mail: francois.marceau@crchul.ulaval.ca

    2013-07-15

    trapping. • Human peripheral blood leukocytes capture and concentrate quinacrine. • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes do so with higher apparent affinity. • Polymorphonuclear are also more competent than lymphocytes for pinocytosis.

  1. Factors for incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy including drug refill and clinic visits among older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus - cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Abbie; Ford, Nathan; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-03-01

    To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. PLHIV ≥50 years (n = 103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25-49 (OR 2.15; 95%CI 1.10-4.18). PLHIV ≥50 years with no or primary-level education were less likely to have missed a clinic visit during the last six months than PLHIV with secondary- or tertiary-level education in the same age category (OR 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-1.1), as were PLHIV who did not disclose their status (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0-1.1). There was no evidence of increased risk for non-adherence to ART pills and drug refill visits among older PLHIV. Missing a clinic visit was more common among older PLHIV who were more financially vulnerable. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and identify new risk factors associated with ART adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. SERUM INHIBITION OF THE OXIDATIVE BURST IN HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. (R827354C003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. SERUM INHIBITION OF THE OXIDATIVE BURST IN HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. (R826781)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Regulatory peptides modulate adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to bronchial epithelial cells through regulation of interleukins, ICAM-1 and NF-kappaB/IkappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Song; Tan, Yu-Rong; Xiang, Yang; Luo, Zi-Qiang; Qin, Xiao-Qun

    2006-02-01

    A complex network of regulatory neuropeptides controls airway inflammation reaction, in which airway epithelial cells adhering to and activating leukocytes is a critical step. To study the effect of intrapulmonary regulatory peptides on adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and its mechanism, several regulatory peptides including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), were investigated. The results demonstrated that VIP and EGF showed inhibitory effects both on the secretion of IL-1, IL-8 and the adhesion of PMNs to BECs, whereas ET-1 and CGRP had the opposite effect. Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) antibody could block the adhesion of PMNs to ozone-stressed BECs. Using immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), it was shown that VIP and EGF down-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 in BECs, while ET-1 and CGRP up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. NF-kappaB inhibitor MG132 blocked ICAM-1 expression induced by ET-1 and CGRP. Furthermore, in electric mobility shift assay (EMSA), VIP and EGF restrained the binding activity of NF-kappaB to the NF-kappaB binding site within the ICAM-1 promoter in ozone-stressed BECs, while CGRP and ET-1 promoted this binding activity. IkappaB degradation was consistent with NF-kappaB activation. These observations indicate that VIP and EGF inhibit inflammation, while ET-1 and CGRP enhance the inflammation reaction.

  5. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...

  6. THERE IS NO ACTIVATION OF O2- PRODUCTION BY ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES AND NEUTROPHIL POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES IN RAT LUNG TRANSPLANTS DURING THE REIMPLANTATION RESPONSE AND ACUTE REJECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERHOFF, Y; NOORDHOEK, JA; PETERSEN, AH; KAUFFMAN, HF; POSTMA, DS; PROP, J

    Activation of phagocytes (alveolar macrophages [AM] and neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN]) can cause tissue damage in inflammatory lung diseases. in this study we investigated whether phagocytes contribute to the development of tissue damage in lung grafts histologically observed during

  7. A large mobility of hydrophilic molecules at the outmost layer controls the protein adsorption and adhering behavior with the actin fiber orientation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Seo, Ji-Hun; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yui, Nobuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion behaviors of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are interestingly affected by the mobility of hydrophilic chains on the material surfaces. Surfaces with different molecular mobilities were prepared using ABA-type block copolymers consisting polyrotaxane (PRX) or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) central block (A block), and amphiphilic anchoring B blocks of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB). Two different molecular mobilities of the PRX chains were designed by using normal α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) or α-CD whose hydroxyl groups were converted to methoxy groups in a given ratio to improve its molecular mobility (PRX-PMB and OMe-PRX-PMB). The surface mobility of these materials was assessed as the mobility factor (Mf), which is measured by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring system. HUVECs adhered on OMe-PRX-PMB surface much more than PRX-PMB and PMB-block-PEG-block-PMB (PEG-PMB) surfaces. These different HUVEC adhesions were correlated with the density of cell-binding site of adsorbed fibronectin. In addition, the alignment of the actin cytoskeleton of adhered HUVECs was strongly suppressed on the PEG-PMB, PRX-PMB, and OMe-PRX-PMB in response to the increased Mf value. Remarkably, the HUVECs adhered on the OMe-PRX-PMB surface with much less actin organization. We concluded that not only the cell adhesion but also the cellular function are regulated by the molecular mobility of the outmost material surfaces.

  8. Impaired Whole-Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Migration as a Possible Predictive Marker for Infections in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glasner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Steroids, used in pretermpremature rupture of membranes (pPROM, to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality of the preterm neonate, impair the maternal polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN-based immune system. In spite of combination with antibiotics, prenatal and postnatal bacterial infections of mother and child are frequent. This pilot study focuses on the influence of steroids in pPROM on maternal PMN functional capacity and subsequent infections.

  9. Blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocyte and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Parapinski; Souza, Fernando Nogueira; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Batista, Camila Freitas; Bertagnon, Heloísa Godoi; Diniz, Soraia Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva

    2017-06-01

    The exact influence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocyte/macrophages of goats remains unclear. Thus, the present study sought to explore the blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally CAEV-infected goats. The present study used 18 healthy Saanen goats that were segregated according to sera test outcomes into serologically CAEV negative (n=8; 14 halves) and positive (n=10; 14 halves) groups. All milk samples from mammary halves with milk bacteriologically positive outcomes, somatic cell count ≥2×106cellsmL-1, and abnormal secretions in the strip cup test were excluded. We evaluated the percentage of blood and milk PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the viability of PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nonopsonized phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by flow cytometry. In the present study, a higher percentage of milk macrophages (CD14+) and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes undergoing late apoptosis or necrosis (Annexin-V+/Propidium iodide+) was observed in CAEV-infected goats; we did not find any further alterations in blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions. Thus, regarding our results, the goats naturally infected with CAEV did not reveal pronounced dysfunctions in blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of polyanions on NBT Reductions hexose monophosphate shunt activity, and ultrastructure of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnetzki, B M; Cowan, D H; Belcher, R W

    1975-07-01

    Heparin causes enhanced nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's). To determine the mechanism of this stimulation, samples of 1 to 3 x 10(7) PMN's were incubated with various concentrations of heparin, chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), and chondroitin sulfate B (CSB), with and without NBT. The effect of the polyanions (PA) on PMN hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) activity was determined by the production of 14CO2 from glucose-1-14C by the leukocytes. NBT reduction was evaluated histochemically and spectrophotometrically at 515 mmu. Samples of PMN's in heparin and heparin-NBT mixtures were examined by electron microscopy after various incubation periods. Increased NBT reductions by PMN's was found when leukocytes were incubated with heparin, CSA, and CSB, but these compounds had no effect on the HMPS activity of PMN's unless NBT was added. Electron microscopy of samples that contained heparin-NBT revealed an insoluble complex that was phagocytosed by the leukocytes. The stimulation of PMN oxidative metabolism and NBT reduction that follows incubation with PA-NBT appears to be directly related to ingestion of this particulate complex by the leukocytes.

  11. Thermodynamic determination of beta-hexosaminidase isoenzymes in mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocyte populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, J Antonio; Chabás, Amparo; Tutor, J Carlos

    2003-01-30

    Isoenzymes of beta-hexosaminidase (Hex) were determined in mononuclear (MN) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, with a thermodynamic method using the chromogenic substrate sodio-3,3'-dichlorophenolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide. Imprecision was very satisfactory, and the results are very much in agreement with those obtained using the fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide and 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide 6-sulfate. In 163 healthy individuals we found, for the proportion as a percentage of the Hex A isoenzyme, significantly higher values (P < 0.001) in PMN than in MN cells (71.56 +/- 0.30% vs. 54.28 +/- 0.24%), meaning that it would not appear advisable to use total leukocyte lysates for evaluating this variable. The method is fast, precise, and highly suitable for the biochemical diagnosis and heterozygote screening of GM2 gangliosidoses, and would be applicable in cases of thermolabile Hex B and for detecting the B1 variant. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Impaired bactericidal but not fungicidal activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Georgiadou, Sarah P; Wierda, William G; Wright, Susan; Albert, Nathaniel D; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael; Lewis, Russell E

    2013-08-01

    We examined the qualitative polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-associated immune impairment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by characterizing phagocytic killing of key non-opsonized bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus) pathogens. Neutrophils were collected from 47 non-neutropenic patients with CLL (PMN count > 1000/mm(3)) and age-matched and young healthy controls (five each). A subset of patients (13%) had prior or subsequent infections. We found that the patients with CLL had diminished PMN microbicidal response against bacteria but not against fungi compared with the controls. Compared to patients with effective PMN responses, we did not identify differences of basal PMN pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor gene expression, soluble pathogen-associated molecular pattern gene expression or inflammatory cytokine signatures in patients with impaired PMN responses when PMNs were analyzed in multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. However, differences in PMN microbicidal response against A. fumigatus in patients with CLL were associated with the degree of hypogammaglobulinemia.

  13. Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Van Osselaer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial cells is a prerequisite step followed by firm adhesion and extravasation into the inflamed tissue. This initial contact can be suppressed by sulphated polysaccharides. We have studied the effect of sulphated polysaccharides on the ultimate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN recruitment and plasma leakage in rabbit skin in response to intradermal injection of various inflammatory mediators. PMN infiltration evoked by various PMN chemoattractants (FMLP, C5a desArg, LTB4 and IL-8 was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of dextran sulphate (25 mg/kg, heparin (2 × 90 mg/kg or fucoidan (1 mg/kg. PMN-dependent plasma leakage was equally well reduced by the different sulphated polymers. Vascular permeability induced by histamine or thrombin acting via a PMN-independent mechanism was not reduced. Fucoidan was the only polysaccharide able to suppress IL-1-induced PMN infiltration for 60–70%. Local administration of dextran sulphate had no effect on PMN-dependent plasma leakage. Differential inhibition of PMN recruitment was determined after injection of dextran sulphate or fucoidan depending on the type of insult. Therefore, these results suggest that different adhesion pathways are utilized during PMN recruitment in vivo in response to chemoattractants and IL-1.

  14. Feline polymorphonuclear neutrophils produce pro-inflammatory cytokines following exposure to Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Ludivine; Mathy, Anne; Baldo, Aline; Bagut, Elena Tatiana; Tabart, Jérémy; Antoine, Nadine; Mignon, Bernard

    2013-03-23

    The mechanisms involved in the establishment of the specific immune response against dermatophytes remain unknown. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are recruited early during the infection process and participate in the elimination of dermatophytes. They could therefore be involved in the induction of the immune response during dermatophytoses by producing specific cytokines. The aim of this work was to assess the in vitro cytokine production by feline PMNs exposed to living arthroconidia from the dermatophyte species Microsporum canis or stimulated with either a secreted or a structural component of M. canis, the latter consisting of heat-killed arthroconidia. The levels of specific cytokines produced by PMNs were determined by capture ELISA and/or quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that PMNs secrete TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8 following exposure to M. canis living arthroconidia and stimulation with both a secreted component and heat-killed arthroconidia. The level of IL-8 mRNA was also increased in PMNs stimulated with M. canis living arthroconidia. In conclusion, infective M. canis arthroconidia induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by feline PMNs that can be activated either by secreted or structural fungal components. Our results suggest that these granulocytes are involved in the initiation of the immune response against M. canis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MicroRNA-941 Expression in Polymorphonuclear Granulocytes Is Not Related to Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Brink; Baslund, Bo; Cramer, Elisabeth Præstekjær

    2016-01-01

    not result in reduction of the KDM6B mRNA level as shown previously in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. The amount of PR3 in PMNs from GPA patients and healthy controls was comparable. In conclusion, we found that PRTN3 mRNA, KDM6B mRNA, and miR-941 expression levels in PMNs do not differ between GPA......Jumonji Domain-Containing Protein 3 (JMJD3)/lysine demethylase 6B (KDM6B) is an epigenetic modulator that removes repressive histone marks on genes. Expression of KDM6B mRNA is elevated in leukocytes from patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and has been suggested to be the reason...... for higher proteinase 3 (PR3) mRNA expression in these cells due to derepression of PRTN3 gene transcription. MicroRNA-941 (miR-941) has been shown to target KDM6B mRNA and inhibit JMJD3 production. We therefore investigated whether polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) from patients suffering from...

  16. Different sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and diphtheria toxin to enzymes from polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, G; Müller, E

    1989-04-01

    We demonstrate that exotoxin A (ExoA) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than diphtheria toxin (DT) of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to lysosomal enzymes from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). It is especially sensitive to PMN elastase which inactivates its cell free enzymatic activity and its cytotoxicity as measured with the Chinese hamster ovary cell assay and the rabbit skin test. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed a rapid fragmentation of ExoA into small peptides at low PMN elastase concentrations, whereas DT remained largely uncleaved at PMN elastase concentrations 10 times higher. PMN elastase also removed the cell surface receptors for ExoA and DT on Chinese hamster ovary cells, suggesting that both toxins may be ineffective at local sites of severe inflammation. A comparison of fibroblasts from cystic fibrosis patients and normal healthy individuals revealed no differences in susceptibility to either DT or ExoA; this tends to exclude a genetic defect as an explanation for the absence of ExoA effects in cystic fibrosis patients.

  17. The immunoregulatory abilities of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the course of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ziaber

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN possess sufficient potential to affect both immune response and inflammation, however it has not been yet described in the course of multiple sclerosis (MS. We have studied binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC- stained TNF-α by PMN, the expression of CD11a, CD11b, and CD18 molecules of β 2-integrines and the expression of CD10 (neutral endopeptidaseNEP and of CD13 (aminopeptidase N; APN antigens on PMN in three different groups of MS patients. The control group included neurological patients (OND with noninflammatory diseases. The obtained results have proved that during MS exacerbation and in the course of chronic progressive MS, PMN reveal several forms of preactivation, including significantly higher stained-TNF-α binding, higher expression of CD11b and CD18, as well as CD10 and CD13 antigens, in comparison with MS remission or OND. We suggest that the increased expression of these molecules on PMN of MS patients in exacerbation of the disease and to a lower degree in the course of CP-MS is a result of PMN priming, and directly prove the PMN involvement in the disease pathogenesis.

  18. Antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis and respiratory burst of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeben, D; Burvenich, C; Heyneman, R

    1998-02-01

    The in vitro effects of six doses (2 x 10(-3) to 2 x 10(-8) M) of antimicrobial drugs that are frequently used in udder infusions on the capacity of bovine blood polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes to generate reactive oxygen species were studied by the measurement of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. All drugs, except cloxacillin, significantly decreased chemiluminescence at the highest dose. Doxycyline induced the most severe inhibition, followed by neomycin and dihydrostreptomycin. The effect of ampicillin was due to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and interactions with luminol. The inhibition observed with oleandomycin, neomycin, lincomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin was not due to direct effects on the production of oxidative metabolites but rather to interference with other components involved in the production of light, such as interference with the interaction between luminol and the myeloper-oxidase-H2O2-halide system. The deleterious effects of doxycycline can be explained by several factors: decreased production of superoxide, yellow color, the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and Ca2+ chelating effect. In conclusion, the results of this study show that antibiotics may affect neutrophil function at concentrations that are reached in the mammary gland after local and repeated administration.

  19. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects.

  20. Tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay values are associated with antimicrobial peptides expression in  polymorphonuclear cells during latent tuberculous infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E Castañeda-Delgado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that patients with progressive tuberculosis (TB express abundant amounts of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs cathelicidin (LL-37 and human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1 in circulating cells, whereas latent TB infected donors showed no differences when compared with purified protein derivative (PPD and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether LL-37 and HNP-1 production correlates with higher tuberculin skin test (TST and QFT values in TB household contacts. Twenty-six TB household contact individuals between 26-58 years old TST and QFT positive with at last two years of latent TB infection were recruited. AMPs production by polymorphonuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry and correlation between TST and QFT values was analysed. Our results showed that there is a positive correlation between levels of HNP-1 and LL-37 production with reactivity to TST and/or QFT levels. This preliminary study suggests the potential use of the expression levels of these peptides as biomarkers for progression in latent infected individuals.

  1. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and oxidative burst in polymorphonuclear neutrophils by caffeic acid and hispidin derivatives isolated from sword brake fern (Pteris ensiformis Burm.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsiu-An; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Tu, Yi-Chen; Hong, Jing-Ting; Kou, Mei-Chun; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2007-12-26

    Several antioxidant compounds have been previously identified from sword brake fern (Pteris ensiformis Burm.) by DPPH bleaching and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) analyses. Among the isolates, 7-O-caffeoylhydroxymaltol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and hispidin 4-O-beta- D-glucopyranoside [6-(3,4-dihydroxystyryl)-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-2-pyrone] were two new compounds. The aim of this study is to elucidate the possible effect of the aqueous extract of sword brake fern (SBF) and these two compounds in preventing atherosclerosis. The results demonstrated that SBF and these two compounds strongly inhibited Cu2+-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay (TBARS), conjugated diene production, and relative electrophoretic mobility. The commercial antioxidant dl-alpha-tocopherol showed lower antioxidant activity than these two compounds at the same molecular concentration. SBF and these two compounds also suppressed N-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). These findings indicate that sword brake fern may prevent atherosclerosis via inhibition of both LDL oxidation and ROS production.

  2. adherence to antiretroviral regimens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to macro- and microeconomic costs.' What soon became evident, however, was the vital importance of patient adherence with prescribed medication in order to garner the benefits that were so rapidly becoming available. As a result, much attention has recently been paid to this aspect of management. Both clinicians and ...

  3. Bovine Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Cast Neutrophil Extracellular Traps against the Abortive Parasite Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra-Blanco, Rodolfo; Silva, Liliana M. R.; Muñoz-Caro, Tamara; Yang, Zhengtao; Li, Jianhua; Gärtner, Ulrich; Taubert, Anja; Zhang, Xichen; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Neospora caninum represents a relevant apicomplexan parasite causing severe reproductive disorders in cattle worldwide. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) generation was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) acting against different parasites. In vitro interactions of bovine PMN with N. caninum were analyzed at different ratios and time spans. Extracellular DNA staining was used to illustrate the typical molecules of NETs [i.e., histones (H3), neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), pentraxin] via antibody-based immunofluorescence analyses. Functional inhibitor treatments were applied to reveal the role of several enzymes [NADPH oxidase (NOX), NE, MPO, PAD4], ATP-dependent P2Y2 receptor, store-operated Ca++entry (SOCE), CD11b receptor, ERK1/2- and p38 MAPK-mediated signaling pathway in tachyzoite-triggered NETosis. N. caninum tachyzoites triggered NETosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed NET structures being released by bovine PMN and entrapping tachyzoites. N. caninum-induced NET formation was found not to be NOX-, NE-, MPO-, PAD4-, ERK1/2-, and p38 MAP kinase-dependent process since inhibition of these enzymes led to a slight decrease of NET formation. CD11b was also identified as a neutrophil receptor being involved in NETosis. Furthermore, N. caninum-triggered NETosis depends on Ca++ influx as well as neutrophil metabolism since both the inhibition of SOCE and of P2Y2-mediated ATP uptake diminished NET formation. Host cell invasion assays indicated that PMN-derived NETosis hampered tachyzoites from active host cell invasion, thereby inhibiting further intracellular replication. NET formation represents an early and effective mechanism of response of the innate immune system, which might reduce initial infection rates during the acute phase of cattle neosporosis. PMID:28611772

  4. Young adult binge drinkers have immunophenotypic changes in peripheral polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Adolfo; Arroyo-Valerio, América Guadalupe; Zaldivar-Fujigaki, José Luis; Bustos-Esquivel, Mayra A; Gastelum-Strozzi, Alfonso; Padilla-Castañeda, Miguel A; Reding-Bernal, Arturo; Kershenobich, David; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselín

    2017-05-08

    High alcohol intake on weekends (binge drinking) is more frequent in young adults, who could undergo early liver damage. Alcohol-induced liver damage is characterized by polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) infiltration, which can be represented in the peripheral blood by altered trafficking and activation profiles. To evaluate the PMN trafficking and activation immunophenotypic profiles in people with a binge drinking pattern. People with binge drinking (n = 18, 8 females) or at low risk (n = 16, 13 females) based on their AUDIT and HEPCA scores were studied. Hematic biometry and liver enzyme tests were conducted. Peripheral blood leukocytes were stained for CCR5, CCR4, and CXCR4 (trafficking) and CD69 and CD127 (activation). PMNs and monocytes were analyzed by FACS. The data were analyzed using the T-test and Mann-Whitney's U-test for contrasts and principal component and Fuzzy C means analyses for clustering, with p < 0.05 considered significant. Compared to the low-risk group, the binge group showed higher CCR5 expression on PMNs, decreases in the CD69 percentage and positive PMNs per microliter, and decreased CXCR4 expression on monocytes. Six immunophenotypical clusters were identified, all of which were distributed following the CCR5 and CXCR4 main vectors. Young adult binge drinkers have differential PMN trafficking and activation immunophenotypes, which could be related to the initial onset of alcoholic liver disease and a systemic inflammatory state in response to their alcohol consumption pattern. These findings could lead to the future development of an early diagnostic tool.

  5. Nitric oxide production by polymorphonuclear leucocytes in infected cystic fibrosis sputum consumes oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpen, M; Bjarnsholt, T; Moser, C; Hansen, C R; Rickelt, L F; Kühl, M; Hempel, C; Pressler, T; Høiby, N; Jensen, P Ø

    2014-07-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by persisting mucoid biofilms in hypoxic endobronchial mucus. These biofilms are surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), which consume a major part of present molecular oxygen (O(2)) due to production of superoxide (O(2)(-)). In this study, we show that the PMNs also consume O(2) for production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in the infected endobronchial mucus. Fresh expectorated sputum samples (n = 28) from chronically infected CF patients (n = 22) were analysed by quantifying and visualizing the NO production. NO production was detected by optode measurements combined with fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and spectrophotometry. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) with N(G) -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) resulted in reduced O(2) consumption (P < 0·0008, n = 8) and a lower fraction of cells with fluorescence from the NO-indicator 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM) (P < 0·002, n = 8). PMNs stained with DAF-FM and the superoxide indicator hydroethidine (HE) and host cells with inducible NOS (iNOS) were identified in the sputum. In addition, the production of the stable end-products of NO in CF sputum was correlated with the concentration of PMNs; NO(3)(-) (P < 0·04, r = 0·66, n = 10) and NO(2)(-) (P< 0·006, r = 0·78, n = 11). The present study suggests that besides consumption of O(2) for production of reactive oxygen species, the PMNs in CF sputum also consume O(2) for production of NO. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Bovine Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Cast Neutrophil Extracellular Traps against the Abortive Parasite Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum represents a relevant apicomplexan parasite causing severe reproductive disorders in cattle worldwide. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET generation was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN acting against different parasites. In vitro interactions of bovine PMN with N. caninum were analyzed at different ratios and time spans. Extracellular DNA staining was used to illustrate the typical molecules of NETs [i.e., histones (H3, neutrophil elastase (NE, myeloperoxidase (MPO, pentraxin] via antibody-based immunofluorescence analyses. Functional inhibitor treatments were applied to reveal the role of several enzymes [NADPH oxidase (NOX, NE, MPO, PAD4], ATP-dependent P2Y2 receptor, store-operated Ca++entry (SOCE, CD11b receptor, ERK1/2- and p38 MAPK-mediated signaling pathway in tachyzoite-triggered NETosis. N. caninum tachyzoites triggered NETosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed NET structures being released by bovine PMN and entrapping tachyzoites. N. caninum-induced NET formation was found not to be NOX-, NE-, MPO-, PAD4-, ERK1/2-, and p38 MAP kinase-dependent process since inhibition of these enzymes led to a slight decrease of NET formation. CD11b was also identified as a neutrophil receptor being involved in NETosis. Furthermore, N. caninum-triggered NETosis depends on Ca++ influx as well as neutrophil metabolism since both the inhibition of SOCE and of P2Y2-mediated ATP uptake diminished NET formation. Host cell invasion assays indicated that PMN-derived NETosis hampered tachyzoites from active host cell invasion, thereby inhibiting further intracellular replication. NET formation represents an early and effective mechanism of response of the innate immune system, which might reduce initial infection rates during the acute phase of cattle neosporosis.

  7. Prepartal Energy Intake Alters Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transcriptome During the Peripartal Period in Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agrawal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the dairy industry, cow health and farmer profits depend on the balance between diet (ie, nutrient composition, daily intake and metabolism. This is especially true during the transition period, where dramatic physiological changes foster vulnerability to immunosuppression, negative energy balance, and clinical and subclinical disorders. Using an Agilent microarray platform, this study examined changes in the transcriptome of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs due to prepartal dietary intake. Holstein cows were fed a high-straw, control-energy diet (CON; NE L  = 1.34 Mcal/kg or overfed a moderate-energy diet (OVE; NE L  = 1.62 Mcal/kg during the dry period. Blood for PMNL isolation and metabolite analysis was collected at −14 and +7 days relative to parturition. At an analysis of variance false discovery rate <0.05, energy intake (OVE vs CON influenced 1806 genes. Dynamic Impact Approach bioinformatics analysis classified treatment effects on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, including activated oxidative phosphorylation and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and inhibited RNA polymerase, proteasome, and toll-like receptor signaling pathway. This analysis indicates that processes critical for energy metabolism and cellular and immune function were affected with mixed results. However, overall interpretation of the transcriptome data agreed in part with literature documenting a potentially detrimental, chronic activation of PMNL in response to overfeeding. The widespread, transcriptome-level changes captured here confirm the importance of dietary energy adjustments around calving on the immune system.

  8. In vivo ultrastructural analysis of the intimate relationship between polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Roger G; Whittimore, Judy; Bowlin, Anne K; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2011-08-01

    We utilized a recently developed model of intracervical infection with Chlamydia muridarum in the mouse to elicit a relatively synchronous infection during the initial developmental cycle in order to examine at the ultrastructural level the development of both the chlamydial inclusion and the onset of the inflammatory response. At 18 h after infection, only a few elementary bodies attached to cells were visible, as were an occasional intracellular intermediate body and reticulate body. By 24 h, inclusions had 2 to 5 reticulate bodies and were beginning to fuse. A few polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were already present in the epithelium in the vicinity of and directly adjacent to infected cells. By 30 h, the inclusions were larger and consisted solely of reticulate bodies, but by 36 to 42 h, they contained intermediate bodies and elementary bodies as well. Many PMNs were adjacent to or actually inside infected cells. Chlamydiae appeared to exit the cell either (i) through disintegration of the inclusion membrane and rupture of the cell, (ii) by dislodgement of the cell from the epithelium by PMNs, or (iii) by direct invasion of the infected cell by the PMNs. When PMNs were depleted, the number of released elementary bodies was significantly greater as determined both visually and by culture. Interestingly, depletion of PMNs revealed the presence of inclusions containing aberrant reticulate bodies, reminiscent of effects seen in vitro when chlamydiae are incubated with gamma interferon. In vivo evidence for the contact-dependent development hypothesis, a potential mechanism for triggering the conversion of reticulate bodies to elementary bodies, and for translocation of lipid droplets into the inclusion is also presented.

  9. Adherence of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis to Streptococcus sanguis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, M W; Safulko, K; Levine, M J

    1991-01-01

    Intergeneric bacterial adherence is responsible for the complexity of the microbiota in human dental plaque and is believed to enable some extraneous bacteria to initially colonize the human oral cavity. Some current evidence indicates that Streptococcus sanguis, an early colonizer of teeth, enhances subsequent colonization by Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis, a bacterium associated with advanced adult periodontitis. In this study, selected strains of P. gingivalis and S. sanguis were tested for their adherence activities in vitro. A differential filtration assay was devised in which one member of the test pair was radiolabeled. Heterogeneous aggregates that formed in mixed suspensions were collected on polycarbonate filters (8-microns pore size) and were washed free of individual bacteria and small homologous clumps. P. gingivalis 381, W50, JKG7, and 33277 adhered to S. sanguis G9B, M5, Challis 6, and 38. P. gingivalis A7A1-28 did not adhere well to S. sanguis under these conditions. More precise measurements of intergeneric adherence were obtained with an alternative assay with radiolabeled P. gingivalis and an artificial dental plaque composed of S. sanguis coupled to cyanogen bromide-activated agarose beads. CNBr-agarose was selected as the supporting matrix for the plaque because it was uniformly and permanently coated with S. sanguis and because P. gingivalis had negligible adherence activity for streptococcus-free beads. P. gingivalis W50 grown to the early stationary phase adhered to S. sanguis-coated beads in higher numbers than either midlogarithmic- or late-stationary-phase cells. Intergeneric adherence was not inhibited or reversed by the presence of lactose or other monosaccharides or disaccharides. Pretreatment of either bacterium with trypsin or proteinase K reduced subsequent adherence by 86 to 100%. Neuraminidase treatment of P. gingivalis caused 98% reduction of adherence, whereas similar treatment of S. sanguis caused only a 2% loss

  10. The Adherent/Invasive Escherichia coli Strain LF82 Invades and Persists in Human Prostate Cell Line RWPE-1, Activating a Strong Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Maria P; Aleandri, Marta; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Conte, Antonietta L; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Nicoletti, Mauro; Zagaglia, Carlo; Gambara, Guido; Palombi, Fioretta; De Cesaris, Paola; Ziparo, Elio; Palamara, Anna T; Riccioli, Anna; Longhi, Catia

    2016-11-01

    Adherent/invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains have recently been receiving increased attention because they are more prevalent and persistent in the intestine of Crohn's disease (CD) patients than in healthy subjects. Since AIEC strains show a high percentage of similarity to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), neonatal meningitis-associated E. coli (NMEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, here we compared AIEC strain LF82 with a UPEC isolate (strain EC73) to assess whether LF82 would be able to infect prostate cells as an extraintestinal target. The virulence phenotypes of both strains were determined by using the RWPE-1 prostate cell line. The results obtained indicated that LF82 and EC73 are able to adhere to, invade, and survive within prostate epithelial cells. Invasion was confirmed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Moreover, cytochalasin D and colchicine strongly inhibited bacterial uptake of both strains, indicating the involvement of actin microfilaments and microtubules in host cell invasion. Moreover, both strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are strong biofilm producers. In silico analysis reveals that LF82 shares with UPEC strains several virulence factors: namely, type 1 pili, the group II capsule, the vacuolating autotransporter toxin, four iron uptake systems, and the pathogenic island (PAI). Furthermore, compared to EC73, LF82 induces in RWPE-1 cells a marked increase of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and of NF-κB already by 5 min postinfection, thus inducing a strong inflammatory response. Our in vitro data support the hypothesis that AIEC strains might play a role in prostatitis, and, by exploiting host-cell signaling pathways controlling the innate immune response, likely facilitate bacterial multiplication and dissemination within the male genitourinary tract. Copyright © 2016 Conte et al.

  11. Humanized In Vivo Model for Streptococcal Impetigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzino, Dominick A.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Bessen, Debra E.

    2000-01-01

    An in vivo model for group A streptococcal (GAS) impetigo was developed, whereby human neonatal foreskin engrafted onto SCID mice was superficially damaged and bacteria were topically applied. Severe infection, indicated by a purulent exudate, could be induced with as few as 1,000 CFU of a virulent strain. Early findings (48 h) showed a loss of stratum corneum and adherence of short chains of gram-positive cocci to the external surface of granular keratinocytes. This was followed by an increasing infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) of mouse origin, until a thick layer of pus covered an intact epidermis, with massive clumps of cocci accumulated at the outer rim of the pus layer. By 7 days postinoculation, the epidermis was heavily eroded; in some instances, the dermis contained pockets (ulcers) filled with cocci, similar to that observed for ecthyma. Importantly, virulent GAS underwent reproduction, resulting in a net increase in CFU of 20- to 14,000-fold. The majority of emm pattern D strains had a higher gross pathology score than emm pattern A, B, or C (A–C) strains, consistent with epidemiological findings that pattern D strains have a strong tendency to cause impetigo, whereas pattern A–C strains are more likely to cause pharyngitis. PMID:10768985

  12. Patient adherence with COPD therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Rand

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there are very few published studies on adherence to treatment regimens in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the evidence that exists suggests that, as with asthma therapy, adherence is poor. Patient beliefs about COPD, as well as their motivation and expectations about the likelihood of success of medical interventions, can influence adherence rates. Other critical factors include the patient's understanding of their illness and therapy, and the complexity of the prescribed treatment regimen. Incorrect inhaler technique is also a common failing. When prescribing in primary or specialist care, healthcare professionals should address adherence as a vital part of the patient consultation. Improved patient education may also increase adherence rates.

  13. Oxygen radicals induce human endothelial cells to express GMP-140 and bind neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K D; Zimmerman, G A; Prescott, S M; McEver, R P; McIntyre, T M

    1991-02-01

    The initial step in extravasation of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) to the extravascular space is adherence to the endothelium. We examined the effect of oxidants on this process by treating human endothelial cells with H2O2, t-butylhydroperoxide, or menadione. This resulted in a surface adhesive for PMN between 1 and 4 h after exposure. The oxidants needed to be present only for a brief period at the initiation of the assay. Adhesion was an endothelial cell-dependent process that did not require an active response from the PMN. The adhesive molecule was not platelet-activating factor, which mediates PMN adherence when endothelial cells are briefly exposed to higher concentrations of H2O2 (Lewis, M. S., R. E. Whatley, P. Cain, T. M. McIntyre, S. M. Prescott, and G. A. Zimmerman. 1988. J. Clin. Invest. 82:2045-2055), nor was it ELAM-1, an adhesive glycoprotein induced by cytokines. Oxidant-induced adhesion did not require protein synthesis, was inhibited by antioxidants, and, when peroxides were the oxidants, was inhibited by intracellular iron chelators. Granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140) is a membrane-associated glycoprotein that can be translocated from its intracellular storage pool to the surface of endothelial cells where it acts as a ligand for PMN adhesion (Geng, J.-G., M. P. Bevilacqua, K. L. Moore, T. M. McIntyre, S. M. Prescott, J. M. Kim, G. A. Bliss, G. A. Zimmerman, and R. P. McEver. 1990. Nature (Lond). 343:757-760). We found that endothelial cells exposed to oxidants expressed GMP-140 on their surface, and that an mAb against GMP-140 or solubilized GMP-140 completely blocked PMN adherence to oxidant-treated endothelial cells. Thus, exposure of endothelial cells to oxygen radicals induces the prolonged expression of GMP-140 on the cell surface, which results in enhanced PMN adherence.

  14. Nano-layered magnesium fluoride reservoirs on biomaterial surfaces strengthen polymorphonuclear leukocyte resistance to bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Geyong; Zhou, Huaijuan; Wang, Qiaojie; Wang, Jiaxing; Tan, Jiaqi; Li, Jinhua; Jin, Ping; Shen, Hao

    2017-01-05

    Biomaterial-related bacterial infections cause patient suffering, mortality and extended periods of hospitalization, imposing a substantial burden on medical systems. In this context, understanding of nanomaterials-bacteria-cells interactions is of both fundamental and clinical significance. Herein, nano-MgF2 films were deposited on titanium substrate via magnetron sputtering. Using this platform, the antibacterial behavior and mechanism of the nano-MgF2 films were investigated in vitro and in vivo. It was found that, for S. aureus (CA-MRSA, USA300) and S. epidermidis (RP62A), the nano-MgF2 films possessed excellent anti-biofilm activity, but poor anti-planktonic bacteria activity in vitro. Nevertheless, both the traditional SD rat osteomyelitis model and the novel stably luminescent mouse infection model demonstrated that nano-MgF2 films exerted superior anti-infection effect in vivo, which cannot be completely explained by the antibacterial activity of the nanomaterial itself. Further, using polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the critical immune cells of innate immunity, a complementary investigation of MgF2-bacteria-PMNs co-culturing revealed that the nano-MgF2 films improved the antibacterial effect of PMNs through enhancing their phagocytosis and stability. To our knowledge, this is the first time of exploring the antimicrobial mechanism of nano-MgF2 from the perspective of innate immunity both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the research results, a plausible mechanism is put forward for the predominant antibacterial effect of nano-MgF2in vivo, which may originate from the indirect immune enhancement effect of nano-MgF2 films. In summary, this study of surface antibacterial design using MgF2 nanolayer is a meaningful attempt, which can promote the host innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. This may give us a new understanding towards the antibacterial behavior and mechanism of nano-MgF2 films and pave the way towards their clinical applications.

  15. Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative dental material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Lawaf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the colonization and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable information about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little information available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative material. Materials and methods. In this experimental study adherence of Candida albicans strains was studied with and without human whole saliva. First, glass ionomer fragments were prepared; then yeast cells were inoculated and incubated with different incubation times. After incubation, the fragments were removed from the wells and stained with 0.1% calcofluor white. Adhesion was quantified by counting the total number of cells at 40, 80 and 120 minutes. The analysis of variance and Student's test were used to assess the significance of differences between the means. Results. In the absence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans showed an increase, reaching a maximum at the end of the experiment (120 minutes. However, in the presence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer significantly decreased. Conclusion. The presence of human whole saliva is an important factor in the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer restorative material.

  16. Genetic factors in exercise adoption, adherence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, M P; Sailors, M H; Bray, M S

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise play critical roles in energy balance. While many interventions targeted at increasing physical activity have demonstrated efficacy in promoting weight loss or maintenance in the short term, long term adherence to such programmes is not frequently observed. Numerous factors have been examined for their ability to predict and/or influence physical activity and exercise adherence. Although physical activity has been demonstrated to have a strong genetic component in both animals and humans, few studies have examined the association between genetic variation and exercise adherence. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the non-genetic and genetic predictors of physical activity and adherence to exercise. In addition, we report the results of analysis of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms in six candidate genes examined for association to exercise adherence, duration, intensity and total exercise dose in young adults from the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study. Based on both animal and human research, neural signalling and pleasure/reward systems in the brain may drive in large part the propensity to be physically active and to adhere to an exercise programme. Adherence/compliance research in other fields may inform future investigation of the genetics of exercise adherence. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. The roles of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and type 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) in the regulation of the immune complex-elicited respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Antonsen, S; Matthiesen, S H

    1997-01-01

    The binding of immune complexes (IC) to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the consequent respiratory burst (RB) were investigated in whole blood cell preparations suspended in 75% human serum, using flow cytometry. Blockade of the complement receptor (CR)1 receptor sites for C3b on whole blood...... and inhibited the IC binding to PMN in a whole blood cell preparation, with or without mAb 3D9, by approximately 40% from 15-40 min while reducing their RB over 40 min to approximately one third. Blockade of CR1 on either erythrocytes (E) or leukocytes, before mixing the populations, revealed...... that the potentiation of the RB by mAb 3D9 was associated with abrogation of E-CR1 function, whereas blockade of leukocyte-CR1 had a diminishing effect. Exposure to IC at high concentrations induced release of both specific and azurophilic granule contents from PMN. The latter was CR3 dependent in that blockade...

  18. The assessment of serum-mediated phagocytosis of necrotic material by polymorphonuclear leukocytes to diagnose and predict the clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compagno, Michele; Gullstrand, Birgitta; Jacobsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum-mediated phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized necrotic cell material (NCM) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes can be quantified by using a flow cytometry-based assay. The phagocytosis of necrotic cell material (PNC) assay parallels the well-known lupus erythematosus...... with hypocomplementemia, PNC positivity preceded increased Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 score, glomerulonephritis, and alopecia. CONCLUSIONS: Serum-mediated PNC by polymorphonuclear leukocytes is commonly but not exclusively seen in patients with SLE. The PNC assay may be used in follow...

  19. To adhere or not to adhere: Rates and reasons of medication adherence in hematological cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alix E; Paul, Chris; Bryant, Jamie; Lynagh, Marita C; Rowlings, Philip; Enjeti, Anoop; Small, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a comprehensive review to examine among hematological cancer patients: (1) rates of adherence to self-administered cancer treatments; and (2) factors impacting on their adherence. Fifty two eligible publications were identified. The majority focused on Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) (n=40) and Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia (ALL) (n=11) patients. Adherence rates varied and depended on the definition and measures used. Patient understanding about their disease and treatment, and forgetting to take their medication impacted on patients' level of adherence; while the use of reminders reduced forgetfulness. There is a lack of valid and reliable information relating to medication adherence of hematological cancer patients. Based on the limited data available we provide a profile of CML and ALL patients at potential risk of medication non-adherence, as well as a proposed checklist that can be used by health care providers in assessing and supporting patients in adhering to their medication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adherence to oral antineoplastic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Olivera-Fernandez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral chemotherapy agents offer advantages including cost, patient comfort and potential improvement in quality of life versus intravenous drugs. However ensuring adherence and monitoring adverse effects is more difficult. The aim of this study was to examine the real adherence in patients with oral chemotherapy agents in our hospital, to assess the influence of patient and treatment characteristics, to identify reasons for non adherence, to identify pportunities for improvement pharmaceutical care and to assess the potential relation between adherence and treatment outcomes. Method: observational, prospective study for a period of four month, in the patients who were dispensing oral chemotherapy agents in outpatient setting. The medical prescriptions, medical history and patient interviews were used to collect data. Results: 141 patients were assessing. 72% were considered as fully adherent, while 28% reported some kind of non adherence. Adherence was influenced by time from diagnosis and adverse effects. No relationship between adherence and treatment outcomes was found. Conclusions: Adherence to oral chemotherapy was 72%, identifing opportunities for improvement pharmaceutical care to prevent adverse effects and to improve our patient adherence

  1. [Adherence of Acinetobacter baumannii to rat tracheal tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M; Bello, H; Sepúlveda, M; Domínguez, M; Martínez, M A; Pinto, M E; González, G; Mella, S; Zemelman, R

    1998-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen whose virulence factors have not been fully elucidated. To study the adherence and hemagglutinating capacity of several biotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii. Thirty nine strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from hospitalized patients were studied. The adherence of these strains to small pieces of rat tracheal tissue was studied. Additionally, their ability to hemagglutinate human erythrocytes and the effect of D-mannose and D-galactose on the adherence and hemagglutinating capacity was assessed. Transmission electron microscopy of strains was performed looking for the presence of fimbriae. All strains exhibited adherence to tissues. All strains had also D-mannose and D-galactose resistant hemagglutinating ability. Fimbriae were found in Acinetobacter baumannii and E coil cells. Adherence of Acinetobacter baumannii to rat tracheal tissue, apparently not related to the presence of fimbriae, may be a virulence mechanism of this bacterium.

  2. Pathogenesis of human diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): current insights and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Alain L

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as "silent pathogens" with the capacity to emerge as "pathobionts" for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  3. Pathogenesis of Human Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Expressing Afa/Dr Adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): Current Insights and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as “silent pathogens” with the capacity to emerge as “pathobionts” for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:25278576

  4. Kruppel-Like Factor 4 Overexpression Initiates a Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition and Redifferentiation of Human Pancreatic Cells following Expansion in Long Term Adherent Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Muir

    Full Text Available A replenishable source of insulin-producing cells has the potential to cure type 1 diabetes. Attempts to culture and expand pancreatic β-cells in vitro have resulted in their transition from insulin-producing epithelial cells to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs with high proliferative capacity but devoid of any hormone production. The aim of this study was to determine whether the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4, could induce a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET of the cultured cells. Islet-enriched pancreatic cells, allowed to dedifferentiate and expand in adherent cell culture, were transduced with an adenovirus containing KLF4 (Ad-Klf4. Cells were subsequently analysed for changes in cell morphology by light microscopy, and for the presence of epithelial and pancreatic markers by immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT/PCR. Infection with Ad-Klf4 resulted in morphological changes, down-regulation of mesenchymal markers, and re-expression of both epithelial and pancreatic cell markers including insulin and transcription factors specific to β-cells. This effect was further enhanced by culturing cells in suspension. However, the effects of Ad-KLf4 were transient and this was shown to be due to increased apoptosis in Klf4-expressing cells. Klf4 has been recently identified as a pioneer factor with the ability to modulate the structure of chromatin and enhance reprogramming/transdifferentiation. Our results show that Klf4 may have a role in the redifferentiation of expanded pancreatic cells in culture, but before this can be achieved the off-target effects that result in increased apoptosis would need to be overcome.

  5. Treatment Adherence in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite developments in treatment options there is no significant increase in treatment adherence ratios. Inadherence in psychiatric disorders is higher than the other diseases. Loss of insight, drugs' side effects, sociodemographic features, personality traits are major factors affecting the treatment adherence. Determining and overcoming these factors for each disorder will help to improve adherence and reduce the treatment costs and hospitalization. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 85-93

  6. Therapeutic Adherence in Smoking Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Salvador Manzano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic adherence is a complex and multidimensional concept. The percentage of adherence to treatments involving a change in lifestyle, such as quitting smoking, is lower than in other disorders, a fact which has relevant clinical, psychological and economic consequences. This paper aims to review the associated factors with adherence to therapy in smoking treatment. Strategies to enhance therapeutic adherence involve the adequate choice of treatment, to know the smoker´s characteristics, breaking down organizational barriers in health system and the training of health professionals in communication skills with patients.

  7. Leakage of protein into lungs of preterm ventilated rabbits is correlated with activation of clotting, complement, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, F; vanOeveren, W; Heikamp, A; Okken, A; Oetomo, SB

    We investigated whether leakage of protein in lungs of pre term ventilated rabbits of 28- and 29-d gestational age is correlated with activation of clotting, complement, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in plasma. We found signs of systemic activation of clotting, complement, and PMN in

  8. Combination of autoantibodies against different histone proteins influences complement-dependent phagocytosis of necrotic cell material by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullstrand, Birgitta; Lefort, Malin H; Tydén, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) with autoantibody-coated engulfed necrotic cell material (NC) are frequently seen in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We evaluated the roles of complement, different antihistone antibodies (anti-H ab), and oxidative burst in the phagocytosis of NC by PMN...

  9. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte dysfunction during short term metabolic changes from normo- to hyperglycemia in type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjersem, H; Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) ingestion of particles coated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli was compared to other PMN functions in seven patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) during short-term controlled metabolic changes from normo- to hyperglycemia...... without ketoacidosis. Factors known to interfere with PMN functions were excluded. PMN ingestion of particles coated with both LPS and bovine serum albumin became reduced from normo- to hyperglycemia. PMN motility was impaired in IDDM, but did not seem to be affected by short-term changes in metabolic...... control. PMN metabolism did not change from normo-to hyperglycemia. Particle-uptake by diabetic PMN is impaired after short term hyperglycemia in the range normally occurring in diabetics in every-day life....

  10. Microparticles from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus induce production of reactive oxygen species and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winberg, Line Kjær; Jacobsen, Søren; Nielsen, Claus H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The interaction of circulating microparticles (MPs) with immune cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is sparsely investigated. We examined the ability of MPs from SLE patients to induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes...... (PMNs). METHODS: Plasma MPs, leukocytes and sera isolated from 20 SLE patients and 10 healthy controls were mixed in different combinations, with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and incubated for 30 min. Dihydrorhodamine 123 was used to measure ROS production by flow cytometry. The ability......-induced ROS production and release of primary granules by PMNs, when added to samples of autologous leukocytes and serum. In a similar autologous setting, MPs from healthy controls enhanced LPS-induced ROS production by PMNs. When leukocytes from a healthy control were stimulated with autologous MPs...

  11. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn's disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn's disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn's disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn's disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn's disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn's disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn's disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn's disease patients in remission.

  12. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn’s disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn’s disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn’s disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn’s disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn’s disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn’s disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn’s disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn’s disease patients in remission. PMID:26140540

  13. Recommendations for improving ART adherence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the fi ndings of a study that aimed to explore experts' and patients' opinions and recommendations regarding adherence to antiretroviral medication. This study was prompted firstly by the lack of existing local research on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and secondly by the importance of ...

  14. [Treatment adherence: a key element].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Guillermo; Sánchez Montes, Cristina; Aguas, Mariam

    2011-12-01

    A substantial percentage of patients fail to follow health professionals' recommendations, which affects the management of chronic diseases, reducing the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions and increasing the costs of the disease. Lack of adherence is a multidimensional phenomenon and is influenced by numerous factors that should be identified. A multiplicity of measures is available to improve adherence, such as simplifying treatment administration, but none of these measures is effective when used alone. One way of tackling lack of adherence is by identifying patients' barriers to medication and involving them in decision making. Ulcerative colitis (UC) poses a risk for lack of treatment adherence. In this disease, poor adherence correlates with poor disease control (drug effectiveness) and with higher costs. As in other chronic diseases, the causes associated with poor adherence are multiple, including psychosocial factors, the physician-patient relationship and patients' prejudices toward medication. A single dose of aminosalycylates (5-ASA) should be recommended, as this dose is as safe and effective as other regimens. However, by itself, this recommendation does not seem to improve adherence. Identifying the scale of the problem and developing strategies to involve the patient in decision making is crucial to improve treatment adherence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. EAMJ May Adherence.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-05

    May 5, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to determine adherence levels among HIV/AIDS adult patients using timing of medications and keeping of clinic appointments for drug refills as key indicators of adherence. It also determined the association between the two indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study area and ...

  16. Pertussis Toxin Exploits Host Cell Signaling Pathways Induced by Meningitis-Causing E. coli K1-RS218 and Enhances Adherence of Monocytic THP-1 Cells to Human Cerebral Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starost, Laura Julia; Karassek, Sascha; Sano, Yasuteru; Kanda, Takashi; Kim, Kwang Sik; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, Marcus Alexander

    2016-10-13

    Pertussis toxin (PTx), the major virulence factor of the whooping cough-causing bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis , permeabilizes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro and in vivo. Breaking barriers might promote translocation of meningitis-causing bacteria across the BBB, thereby facilitating infection. PTx activates several host cell signaling pathways exploited by the neonatal meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1-RS218 for invasion and translocation across the BBB. Here, we investigated whether PTx and E. coli K1-RS218 exert similar effects on MAPK p38, NF-κB activation and transcription of downstream targets in human cerebral endothelial TY10 cells using qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in combination with specific inhibitors. PTx and E. coli K1-RS218 activate MAPK p38, but only E. coli K1-RS218 activates the NF-κB pathway. mRNA and protein levels of p38 and NF-κB downstream targets including IL-6, IL-8, CxCL-1, CxCL-2 and ICAM-1 were increased. The p38 specific inhibitor SB203590 blocked PTx-enhanced activity, whereas E. coli K1-RS218's effects were inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor Bay 11-7082. Further, we found that PTx enhances the adherence of human monocytic THP-1 cells to human cerebral endothelial TY10 cells, thereby contributing to enhanced translocation. These modulations of host cell signaling pathways by PTx and meningitis-causing E. coli support their contributions to pathogen and monocytic THP-1 cells translocation across the BBB.

  17. Phagocytosis of haemozoin (malarial pigment enhances metalloproteinase-9 activity in human adherent monocytes: Role of IL-1beta and 15-HETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giribaldi Giuliana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown previously that human monocytes fed with haemozoin (HZ or trophozoite-parasitized RBCs displayed increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 enzyme activity and protein/mRNA expression and increased TNF production, and showed higher matrix invasion ability. The present study utilized the same experimental model to analyse the effect of phagocytosis of: HZ, delipidized HZ, beta-haematin (lipid-free synthetic HZ and trophozoites on production of IL-1beta and MMP-9 activity and expression. The second aim was to find out which component of HZ was responsible for the effects. Methods Native HZ freshly isolated from Plasmodium falciparum (Palo Alto strain, Mycoplasma-free, delipidized HZ, beta-haematin (lipid-free synthetic HZ, trophozoites and control meals such as opsonized non-parasitized RBCs and inert latex particles, were fed to human monocytes. The production of IL-1beta by differently fed monocytes, in presence or absence of specific MMP-9 inhibitor or anti-hIL-1beta antibodies, was quantified in supernatants by ELISA. Expression of IL-1beta was analysed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. MMP-9 activity and protein expression were quantified by gelatin zymography and Western blotting. Results Monocytes fed with HZ or trophozoite-parasitized RBCs generated increased amounts of IL-1beta and enhanced enzyme activity (in cell supernatants and protein/mRNA expression (in cell lysates of monocyte MMP-9. The latter appears to be causally related to enhanced IL-1beta production, as enhancement of both expression and enzyme activity were abrogated by anti-hIL-1beta Abs. Upregulation of IL-1beta and MMP-9 were absent in monocytes fed with beta-haematin or delipidized HZ, indicating a role for HZ-attached or HZ-generated lipid components. 15-HETE (15(S,R-hydroxy-6,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid a potent lipoperoxidation derivative generated by HZ from arachidonic acid via haem-catalysis was identified as one mediator

  18. Adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to conformationally specific determinants in fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, J H; Hasty, D L; Simpson, W A

    1988-01-01

    The adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to specific receptors exposed or deposited at the site of endothelial damage may play an important role in the development of infective endocarditis. Adherence of the Challis strain of S. sanguis to gelatin (or collagen) and gelatin-binding components of plasma was examined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. S. sanguis adhered poorly to immobilized gelatin and to molecular or fibrillar collagen. However, in the presence of fresh human plasma, the adherence of S. sanguis to all three substrates increased as much as eightfold. Removal of gelatin-binding proteins eliminates the ability of plasma to enhance adherence of S. sanguis to the substrates. Addition of purified human plasma fibronectin (Fn) to the absorbed plasma restored the adherence-promoting ability in a dose-dependent manner. A similar dose-dependent increase in S. sanguis adherence was observed when increasing concentrations of Fn alone were added to the gelatin-coated assay wells. S. sanguis adherence to immobilized fibronectin could not be inhibited by preincubating either the bacteria or the gelatin-coated assay wells with Fn or by including excess soluble Fn in the assay mixture. Studies with peptides purified from trypsin digests of Fn indicated that the 160- to 180-kilodalton (kDa) fragments which retain both the gelatin-binding and the cell-binding regions of the intact molecule support adherence of S. sanguis to gelatin. The 160- to 180-kDa fragments inhibited the interaction of S. sanguis with immobilized Fn. In contrast, intact Fn and the 31-kDa amino-terminal fragment were unable to inhibit the adherence when used in equivalent or greater molar amounts. These in vitro results suggest that in the presence of whole plasma, S. sanguis binds to immobilized gelatin or collagen via Fn bound to the immobilized substrates. Our finding that adherence of S. sanguis to immobilized Fn can occur in the presence of large concentrations of Fn, whether in plasma

  19. Motivational interviewing for medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Marissa C; Cannon-Breland, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize pharmacists with motivational interviewing as a way to engage patients in discussions about medication adherence. Motivational interviewing is a collaborative, patient-centered communications skill set that can increase behavior change by stimulating a patient's own internal motivation for change. Pharmacists using motivational interviewing can explore factors associated with medication nonadherence, assess patient ambivalence and/or resistance, and educate a patient to promote medication-adherent behaviors. Pharmacists can use motivational interviewing to effectively engage patients in a conversation that addresses medication adherence.

  20. First step in using molecular data for microbial food safety risk assessment; hazard identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by coupling genomic data with in vitro adherence to human epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielaat, Annemarie; Boer, Martin P.; Wijnands, Lucas M.; van Hoek, Angela H.A.M.; Bouw, El; Barker, Gary C.; Teunis, Peter F.M.; Aarts, Henk J.M.; Franz, Eelco

    2015-01-01

    The potential for using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data in microbiological risk assessment (MRA) has been discussed on several occasions since the beginning of this century. Still, the proposed heuristic approaches have never been applied in a practical framework. This is due to the non-trivial problem of mapping microbial information consisting of thousands of loci onto a probabilistic scale for risks. The paradigm change for MRA involves translation of multidimensional microbial genotypic information to much reduced (integrated) phenotypic information and onwards to a single measure of human risk (i.e. probability of illness). In this paper a first approach in methodology development is described for the application of WGS data in MRA; this is supported by a practical example. That is, combining genetic data (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 with phenotypic data (in vitro adherence to epithelial cells as a proxy for virulence) leads to hazard identification in a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). This application revealed practical implications when using SNP data for MRA. These can be summarized by considering the following main issues: optimum sample size for valid inference on population level, correction for population structure, quantification and calibration of results, reproducibility of the analysis, links with epidemiological data, anchoring and integration of results into a systems biology approach for the translation of molecular studies to human health risk. Future developments in genetic data analysis for MRA should aim at resolving the mapping problem of processing genetic sequences to come to a quantitative description of risk. The development of a clustering scheme focusing on biologically relevant information of the microbe involved would be a useful approach in molecular data reduction for risk assessment. PMID:25910947

  1. Piracy of decay-accelerating factor (CD55) signal transduction by the diffusely adhering strain Escherichia coli C1845 promotes cytoskeletal F-actin rearrangements in cultured human intestinal INT407 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, I; Servin, A L; Bernet-Camard, M F

    1998-09-01

    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 (clinical isolate) harboring the fimbrial adhesin F1845 can infect cultured human differentiated intestinal epithelial cells; this process is followed by the disassembly of the actin network in the apical domain. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism by which DAEC C1845 promotes F-actin rearrangements. For this purpose, we used a human embryonic intestinal cell line (INT407) expressing the membrane-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) protein-anchored decay-accelerating factor (DAF), the receptor of the F1845 adhesin. We show here that infection of INT407 cells by DAEC C1845 can provoke dramatic F-actin rearrangements without cell entry. Clustering of phosphotyrosines was observed, revealing that the DAEC C1845-DAF interaction involves the recruitment of signal transduction molecules. A pharmacological approach with a subset of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules was used to identify the cascade of signal transduction molecules that are coupled to the DAF, that are activated upon infection, and that promote the F-actin rearrangements. DAEC C1845-induced F-actin rearrangements can be blocked dose dependently by protein tyrosine kinase, phospholipase Cgamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and Ca2+ inhibitors. F-actin rearrangements and blocking by inhibitors were observed after infection of the cells with two E. coli recombinants carrying the plasmids containing the fimbrial adhesin F1845 or the fimbrial hemagglutinin Dr, belonging to the same family of adhesins. These findings show that the DAEC Dr family of pathogens promotes alterations in the intestinal cell cytoskeleton by piracy of the DAF-GPI signal cascade without bacterial cell entry.

  2. First step in using molecular data for microbial food safety risk assessment; hazard identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by coupling genomic data with in vitro adherence to human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielaat, Annemarie; Boer, Martin P; Wijnands, Lucas M; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Bouw, El; Barker, Gary C; Teunis, Peter F M; Aarts, Henk J M; Franz, Eelco

    2015-11-20

    The potential for using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data in microbiological risk assessment (MRA) has been discussed on several occasions since the beginning of this century. Still, the proposed heuristic approaches have never been applied in a practical framework. This is due to the non-trivial problem of mapping microbial information consisting of thousands of loci onto a probabilistic scale for risks. The paradigm change for MRA involves translation of multidimensional microbial genotypic information to much reduced (integrated) phenotypic information and onwards to a single measure of human risk (i.e. probability of illness). In this paper a first approach in methodology development is described for the application of WGS data in MRA; this is supported by a practical example. That is, combining genetic data (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 with phenotypic data (in vitro adherence to epithelial cells as a proxy for virulence) leads to hazard identification in a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). This application revealed practical implications when using SNP data for MRA. These can be summarized by considering the following main issues: optimum sample size for valid inference on population level, correction for population structure, quantification and calibration of results, reproducibility of the analysis, links with epidemiological data, anchoring and integration of results into a systems biology approach for the translation of molecular studies to human health risk. Future developments in genetic data analysis for MRA should aim at resolving the mapping problem of processing genetic sequences to come to a quantitative description of risk. The development of a clustering scheme focusing on biologically relevant information of the microbe involved would be a useful approach in molecular data reduction for risk assessment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Adherence measures and their utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, J

    1984-12-01

    This article addresses the variety of adherence measures available to the researcher, with particular reference to the utility of markers. It is proposed that the generic nature of the research question will suggest both the adherence definition and the appropriate assessment methodology. Each measurement procedure offers somewhat different information and has unique advantages and disadvantages. It is suggested that markers are limited by the relatively short duration of the measurement period, the lack of quantitative data on adherence, and, with some, the potential for confounding influences on their specificity. The probable value of markers lies in validating the subject's recent self-report, determining recent medication ingestion, and estimating the probability of adherence over time.

  4. Oxytocin conditions trait-based rule adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-01

    Rules, whether in the form of norms, taboos or laws, regulate and coordinate human life. Some rules, however, are arbitrary and adhering to them can be personally costly. Rigidly sticking to such rules can be considered maladaptive. Here, we test whether, at the neurobiological level, (mal)adaptive rule adherence is reduced by oxytocin-a hypothalamic neuropeptide that biases the biobehavioural approach-avoidance system. Participants (N = 139) self-administered oxytocin or placebo intranasally, and reported their need for structure and approach-avoidance sensitivity. Next, participants made binary decisions and were given an arbitrary rule that demanded to forgo financial benefits. Under oxytocin, participants violated the rule more often, especially when they had high need for structure and high approach sensitivity. Possibly, oxytocin dampens the need for a highly structured environment and enables individuals to flexibly trade-off internal desires against external restrictions. Implications for the treatment of clinical disorders marked by maladaptive rule adherence are discussed. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Medication Adherence Measures: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Yin; Fresco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    WHO reported that adherence among patients with chronic diseases averages only 50% in developed countries. This is recognized as a significant public health issue, since medication nonadherence leads to poor health outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Improving medication adherence is, therefore, crucial and revealed on many studies, suggesting interventions can improve medication adherence. One significant aspect of the strategies to improve medication adherence is to understand its magnitude. However, there is a lack of general guidance for researchers and healthcare professionals to choose the appropriate tools that can explore the extent of medication adherence and the reasons behind this problem in order to orchestrate subsequent interventions. This paper reviews both subjective and objective medication adherence measures, including direct measures, those involving secondary database analysis, electronic medication packaging (EMP) devices, pill count, and clinician assessments and self-report. Subjective measures generally provide explanations for patient's nonadherence whereas objective measures contribute to a more precise record of patient's medication-taking behavior. While choosing a suitable approach, researchers and healthcare professionals should balance the reliability and practicality, especially cost effectiveness, for their purpose. Meanwhile, because a perfect measure does not exist, a multimeasure approach seems to be the best solution currently. PMID:26539470

  6. The development of the ProMAS: a Probabilistic Medication Adherence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleppe M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mieke Kleppe,1,2 Joyca Lacroix,2 Jaap Ham,1 Cees Midden1 1Human Technology Interaction, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 2Behavior, Cognition and Perception, Philips Research, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Abstract: Current self-report medication adherence measures often provide heavily skewed results with limited variance, suggesting that most participants are highly adherent. This contrasts with findings from objective adherence measures. We argue that one of the main limitations of these self-report measures is the limited range covered by the behaviors assessed. That is, the items do not match the adherence behaviors that people perform, resulting in a ceiling effect. In this paper, we present a new self-reported medication adherence scale based on the Rasch model approach (the ProMAS, which covers a wide range of adherence behaviors. The ProMAS was tested with 370 elderly receiving medication for chronic conditions. The results indicated that the ProMAS provided adherence scores with sufficient fit to the Rasch model. Furthermore, the ProMAS covered a wider range of adherence behaviors compared to the widely used Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS instrument, resulting in more variance and less skewness in adherence scores. We conclude that the ProMAS is more capable of discriminating between people with different adherence rates than the MARS. Keywords: questionnaire design, probabilistic models, methodology

  7. Determinants of adherence to diabetes treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Amy T; Hoffman, Christina; Stevens, Adrienne; Douglas, Andrew; Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2015-11-01

    Understanding and improving medication adherence is crucial in diabetes management. Adherence to a diabetes regimen can improve glucose control and limit the development of complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which a variety of factors influence diabetes medication adherence. A medication adherence survey was made available on WebMD, a medical information website for patients and/or consumers. Respondents were residents of the US, ≥18 years old, and diagnosed with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (self-reported). Behavioral adherence (self-reported doses missed per week) correlated with perceived adherence (patients' self-report of their overall impression of medication adherence, ranked 0-5; P Adherent patients (very few [0%-10%] issues with adherence) were more likely to report having received information from their physician. Mostly adherent patients (few [11%-26%] issues with adherence) were less likely to obtain information from their physician, but reported more medication self-titration. Somewhat non-adherent patients (some [27%-46%] adherence issues) reported more "self-consciousness factors" and hypoglycemia. Non-adherent patients (many [47%-88%] adherence issues) were more likely to report worries about medication side effects. Receiving information from a healthcare provider is associated with greater diabetes medication adherence, suggesting the importance of clinicians making time to provide patient education. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Physiology of polymorphonuclear neutrophils Fisiología de los polimorfonucleares neutrófilos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana García de Olarte

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Phagocytic cells. particularly neutrophils. are a fundamental part of the host response against aggression by infectious as well as non-infectious agents. and they are Involved In the generation of tissue damage during Inflammatory response. Cell responses of neutrophils depend on a series of closely related events like adherence to and diapedesis through endothelial cells. migration toward the sites of inflammation. phagocytósis and destruction of opsonized particles. All these actions are performed through the perfect integration between the systems of cellular activation and microbicidal mechanisms. Both oxygen-dependent and independent. A large portion of the biochemical. molecular and genetic mechanisms that lead to the physiologic response of neutrophils has been elucidated which permits the identification and understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders affecting these cells.

    Las células fagocíticas, en particular los neutrófilos son una pieza fundamental en la respuesta del huésped contra la agresión por diversos agentes, Infecciosos O no y están Involucradas en la generación de daño tisular durante la inflamación. Las respuestas celulares de los PMN dependen de una serie de hechos íntimamente relacionados, como la adherencia al endotelio vascular, la diapedesis a través de las células endoteliales, la migración hacia los sitios de Inflamación y la fagocitosis y ulterior destrucción de las partículas opsonizadas. Todo esto se logra mediante la integración perfecta entre los sistemas de activación celular y los mecanismos microbicidas, dependientes O no del oxígeno. Se ha esclarecido una gran parte de los mecanismos bioquímicos, moleculares y genéticos que llevan a la respuesta fisiológica de los neutrófilos lo cual ha permitido Identificar y entender la patogénesis de

  9. An antagonist of the platelet-activating factor receptor inhibits adherence of both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae to cultured human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla SD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shakti D Shukla,1,* Rory L Fairbairn,1,* David A Gell,1 Roger D Latham,1 Sukhwinder S Sohal,1,2 Eugene H Walters,1 Ronan F O’Toole11Breathe Well Centre, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: COPD is emerging as the third largest cause of human mortality worldwide after heart disease and stroke. Tobacco smoking, the primary risk factor for the development of COPD, induces increased expression of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr in the lung epithelium. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Streptococcus pneumoniae adhere to PAFr on the luminal surface of human respiratory tract epithelial cells.Objective: To investigate PAFr as a potential drug target for the prevention of infections caused by the main bacterial drivers of acute exacerbations in COPD patients, NTHi and S. pneumoniae.Methods: Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE. PAFr expression levels were determined using immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The epithelial cells were challenged with either NTHi or S. pneumoniae labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and bacterial adhesion was measured using immunofluorescence. The effect of a well-evaluated antagonist of PAFr, WEB-2086, on binding of the bacterial pathogens to BEAS-2B cells was then assessed. In silico studies of the tertiary structure of PAFr and the binding pocket for PAF and its antagonist WEB-2086 were undertaken.Results: PAFr expression by bronchial epithelial cells was upregulated by CSE, and significantly associated with increased bacterial adhesion. WEB-2086 reduced the epithelial adhesion by both NTHi and S. pneumoniae to levels observed for non-CSE-exposed cells. Furthermore, it was nontoxic toward the bronchial epithelial

  10. Selective Detection of NADPH Oxidase in Polymorphonuclear Cells by Means of NAD(PH-Based Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Niesner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase (NOX2 is a multisubunit membrane-bound enzyme complex that, upon assembly in activated cells, catalyses the reduction of free oxygen to its superoxide anion, which further leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS that are toxic to invading pathogens, for example, the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs employ both nonoxidative and oxidative mechanisms to clear this fungus from the lung. The oxidative mechanisms mainly depend on the proper assembly and function of NOX2. We identified for the first time the NAD(PH-dependent enzymes involved in such oxidative mechanisms by means of biexponential NAD(PH-fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM. A specific fluorescence lifetime of 3670±140 picoseconds as compared to 1870 picoseconds for NAD(PH bound to mitochondrial enzymes could be associated with NADPH bound to oxidative enzymes in activated PMNs. Due to its predominance in PMNs and due to the use of selective activators and inhibitors, we strongly believe that this specific lifetime mainly originates from NOX2. Our experiments also revealed the high site specificity of the NOX2 assembly and, thus, of the ROS production as well as the dynamic nature of these phenomena. On the example of NADPH oxidase, we demonstrate the potential of NAD(PH-based FLIM in selectively investigating enzymes during their cellular function.

  11. Role of the Yersinia pestis Ail protein in preventing a protective polymorphonuclear leukocyte response during bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Jarrett, Clayton O; Callison, Julie A; Gardner, Donald; Buchanan, Susan K; Plano, Gregory V

    2011-12-01

    The ability of Yersinia pestis to forestall the mammalian innate immune response is a fundamental aspect of plague pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of Ail, a 17-kDa outer membrane protein that protects Y. pestis against complement-mediated lysis, on bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats. The Y. pestis ail mutant was attenuated for virulence in both rodent models. The attenuation was greater in rats than in mice, which correlates with the ability of normal rat serum, but not mouse serum, to kill ail-negative Y. pestis in vitro. Intradermal infection with the ail mutant resulted in an atypical, subacute form of bubonic plague associated with extensive recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN or neutrophils) to the site of infection in the draining lymph node and the formation of large purulent abscesses that contained the bacteria. Systemic spread and mortality were greatly attenuated, however, and a productive adaptive immune response was generated after high-dose challenge, as evidenced by high serum antibody levels against Y. pestis F1 antigen. The Y. pestis Ail protein is an important bubonic plague virulence factor that inhibits the innate immune response, in particular the recruitment of a protective PMN response to the infected lymph node.

  12. Role of the Yersinia pestis Ail Protein in Preventing a Protective Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Response during Bubonic Plague▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Callison, Julie A.; Gardner, Donald; Buchanan, Susan K.; Plano, Gregory V.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Yersinia pestis to forestall the mammalian innate immune response is a fundamental aspect of plague pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of Ail, a 17-kDa outer membrane protein that protects Y. pestis against complement-mediated lysis, on bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats. The Y. pestis ail mutant was attenuated for virulence in both rodent models. The attenuation was greater in rats than in mice, which correlates with the ability of normal rat serum, but not mouse serum, to kill ail-negative Y. pestis in vitro. Intradermal infection with the ail mutant resulted in an atypical, subacute form of bubonic plague associated with extensive recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN or neutrophils) to the site of infection in the draining lymph node and the formation of large purulent abscesses that contained the bacteria. Systemic spread and mortality were greatly attenuated, however, and a productive adaptive immune response was generated after high-dose challenge, as evidenced by high serum antibody levels against Y. pestis F1 antigen. The Y. pestis Ail protein is an important bubonic plague virulence factor that inhibits the innate immune response, in particular the recruitment of a protective PMN response to the infected lymph node. PMID:21969002

  13. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  14. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Nouzilly (France))

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  15. Effects of methylprednisolone on exercise-induced increases of plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase and myeloperoxidase in man. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify whether a single oral dose of methylprednisolone could modulate the exercise-induced release of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN elastase and myeloperoxidase. Four healthy, male subjects were submitted to a 20 min downhill run (−20% at 60% VO2 max, 3 h after oral absorption of a placebo or a single dose of 32 mg methylprednisolone. A marked neutrophilia (+103% of basal PMN count; p < 0.02 was observed 3 h after methylprednisolone ingestion. During both exercise trials, placebo and methylprednisolone, PMN counts were increased by 46% and 19% (p < 0.05, respectively. The running test caused marked and significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma myeloperoxidase concentration (MPO. The magnitude of MPO changes was the same in the two trials (+110%. Exercise also resulted in significant changes in plasma elastase concentration (EL in both experimental conditions (placebo: +104%, p < 0.05; methylprednisolone: +338%, p < 0.005. Plasma elastase levels reached at the end of exercise on methylprednisolone were significantly higher than after placebo (p < 0.05. A significant relationship was found between EL and PMN in methylprednisolone trial only (r = 0.72; l0 < 0.005. These results showed that the transient exercise-induced release of elastase and myeloperoxidase were not decreased by methylprednisolone.

  16. The blockage of Notch signalling promoted the generation of polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells with lower immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Hong; Lu, Qing-Yang; Guo, Ya-Huan; Song, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Pei-Jun; Wang, Yao-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) mostly consisting of polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs and mononuclear MDSCs have been considered to play critical roles in immunosuppression, angiogenesis, invasion and metastases of various tumours. However, it is still unclear the regulated mechanisms underlying the generation and immunosuppression of two major MDSC subsets. Here, we report Notch signalling was inhibited significantly in tumour-bearing mouse MDSCs, in which PMN-MDSCs were the major population. MDSCs without recombination signal binding protein-Jк (RBP-J), the critical transcription factor mediating signalling from all four mammalian Notch receptors, reduced their ability of inhibiting the proliferation and activation of allogenic T cells. RBP-J-deficient MDSCs could not down-regulate the expression of co-stimulation molecules on dendritic cells (DCs). The antigen presentation capacity of DCs co-cultured with RBP-J-deficient MDSCs was not impaired in contrast to controls. Moreover, we show the blockage of Notch signalling could improve the generation of PMN-MDSCs but inhibit the production of mononuclear MDSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Stat3 pathway was suppressed in MDSCs blocked Notch signalling and Stat3 activation by IL-6 could reverse the phenotype and immunosuppression of Notch signalling-deficient MDSCs. Therefore, targeting Notch signalling may be an effective therapeutic strategy in tumour therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adherence with Preventive Medication in Childhood Asthma

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    Scott Burgess

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal adherence with preventive medication is common and often unrecognised as a cause of poor asthma control. A number of risk factors for nonadherence have emerged from well-conducted studies. Unfortunately, patient report a physician's estimation of adherence and knowledge of these risk factors may not assist in determining whether non-adherence is a significant factor. Electronic monitoring devices are likely to be more frequently used to remind patients to take medication, as a strategy to motivate patients to maintain adherence, and a tool to evaluate adherence in subjects with poor disease control. The aim of this paper is to review non-adherence with preventive medication in childhood asthma, its impact on asthma control, methods of evaluating non-adherence, risk factors for suboptimal adherence, and strategies to enhance adherence.

  18. Fimbria-mediated adherence and hemagglutination of Haemophilus influenzae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, S. M.; van Alphen, L.; Mooi, F. R.

    1992-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus influenzae expresses morphologically and functionally distinct types of fimbriae, of which the LKP fimbriae mediate hemagglutination and adherence to human epithelial cells but hamper mucosal invasion. Therefore, the both in vivo and in vitro observed fimbrial

  19. Factors Associated with Adherence to Follow-up Colposcopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Laura J.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Wordlaw-Stintson, Lashawn; Vidal, Adriana; Smith, Jennifer S.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the gaps in knowledge about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, transmission, and health consequences and factors associated with the knowledge gap is an essential first step for the development of interventions to improve adherence to follow-up among women with abnormal Pap smears. Purpose: To examine the relationship…

  20. Adherence to Scientific Method while Advancing Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Lioy was simultaneously a staunch adherent to the scientific method and an innovator of new ways to conduct science, particularly related to human exposure. Current challenges to science and the application of the scientific method are presented as they relate the approaches...

  1. Secreted subtilisins of Microsporum canis are involved in adherence of arthroconidia to feline corneocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Aline; Tabart, Jérémy; Vermout, Sandy; Mathy, Anne; Collard, Alfred; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

    2008-09-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis, mainly in cats and humans. The mechanisms involved in adherence of M. canis to epidermis have never been investigated. Here, a model was developed to study the adherence of M. canis to feline corneocytes through the use of a reconstructed interfollicular feline epidermis (RFE). In this model, adherence of arthroconidia to RFE was found to be time-dependent, starting at 2 h post-inoculation and still increasing at 6 h. Chymostatin, a serine protease inhibitor, inhibited M. canis adherence to RFE by 53%. Moreover, two mAbs against the keratinolytic protease subtilisin 3 (Sub3) inhibited M. canis adherence to RFE by 23%, suggesting that subtilisins, and Sub3 in particular, are involved in the adherence process.

  2. Antihypertensive Medications Adherence Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    way to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension.[1,2] Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular risk factor in Nigeria.[3] A large percentage of hypertensive subjects have poor blood pressure control due to many reasons.[2-4] One major reason is due to poor medication adherence. Treatment ...

  3. Parenteral administration of vitamins A, D and E on the oxidative metabolism and function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The weaning period of piglets is characterized by physiological alterations, such as decreased weight gain, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS and increased serum cortisol levels with possible effects on the immune response. The effect of parenteral administration of vitamins A, D and E on production performance, oxidative metabolism, and the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs was assessed in piglets during the weaning period. The sample was comprised of 20 male piglets that were given an injectable ADE vitamin combination (135,000 IU vitamin A, 40,000 IU vitamin D and 40mg vitamin E/ animal at 20 and 40 days of age. Weight gain, concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and the microbicidal and phagocytic activity of PMNLs were assessed. No difference was observed in the average piglet weight during the study; however, a greater percentage of weight gain was observed after weaning in the treated group. The concentrations of GSH and SOD did not differ between groups, although lipid peroxidation was greater in the control group at 60 days of age. The investigated variables of oxidative metabolism were correlated as follows: -0.41 for GSH and MDA, -0.54 for GSH and SOD and 0.34 for MDA and SOD. The intensity of intracellular ROS production, the percentage of ROS-producing PMNLs and the intensity of phagocytosis by PMNLs did not differ between treatment groups. Administration of the injectable ADE combination improved the percentage of weight gain between 20 and 40 days of age, decreased oxidative stress at 60 days of age and did not influence the function of PMNLs in piglets.

  4. Maneb and paraquat-induced modulation of toxicant responsive genes in the rat liver: comparison with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Israr; Shukla, Smriti; Kumar, Ashutosh; Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Singh, Chetna

    2010-12-05

    Experimental studies have shown that toxicant responsive genes, cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a critical role in pesticide-induced toxicity. CYPs play pro-oxidant role and GSTs offer protection in maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ)-induced brain and lung toxicities. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated exposures of MB and/or PQ on lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione content (GSH) and toxicant responsive genes, i.e., CYP1A1, 1A2, 2E1, GSTA4-4, GSTA1-1 and GSTA3-3 in the liver and to correlate the same with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). A significant augmentation in LPO and reduction in GSH content was observed in a time of exposure dependent manner in the liver and PMNs of MB and/or PQ treated animals. The expression and catalytic activity of CYP2E1 and GSTA4-4 were significantly increased following MB and/or PQ exposure both in the liver and PMNs. Although the expression of GSTA3-3 was increased, the expression of GSTA1-1 was unaltered after MB and/or PQ treatment in both the liver and PMNs. MB augmented the expression and catalytic activity of CYP1A1 in the liver, however, CYP1A2 was unaffected. PQ, on the other hand, significantly increased hepatic CYP1A2 expression and catalytic activity. MB and/or PQ did not produce any significant changes in CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in PMNs. The results of the study thus demonstrate that MB and PQ differentially regulate hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 while LPO, GSH, CYP2E1, GSTA4-4 and GSTA3-3 are modulated in the similar fashions both in the liver and PMNs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Overexpression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA in feline polymorphonuclear neutrophils exposed to Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Ludivine C; Heinen, Marie-Pierre A-L; Bagut, Elena T; Antoine, Nadine A; Mignon, Bernard R

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), along with macrophages, are the first leukocytes recruited to the site of infection in dermatophytoses and are responsible for the in fine elimination of the fungus. It has been demonstrated that feline PMNs produce pro-inflammatory cytokines after stimulation with Microsporum canis. The activation of these cells results from the recognition of specific PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns) from M. canis by PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) of PMNs. The C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the two main PRRs in phagocytic cells that recognize fungal components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 mRNA in feline PMNs exposed to different components from M. canis. Feline PMNs were stimulated for 2 h or 4 h with either live arthroconidia, heat-killed arthroconidia or secreted components from M. canis. The levels of TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 mRNA were assessed by RT-qPCR. Results showed an increase of TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA levels in feline PMNs stimulated with live and heat-killed arthroconidia, but not in those stimulated with the secreted components from M. canis. No significant variation in dectin-1 mRNA expression was observed in PMNs stimulated with the different fungal components. The overexpression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNAs in stimulated feline PMNs suggests that these receptors are involved in the host immune response through the recognition of M. canis PAMPs. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Enzymatic activities of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophils during intramammary inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prin-Mathieu, C; Le Roux, Y; Faure, G C; Laurent, F; Béné, M C; Moussaoui, F

    2002-07-01

    Leukocytes are recruited from peripheral blood into milk as part of the inflammatory response to mastitis. However, excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells alters the quality of milk and the proteases produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages may lead to mammary tissue damage. To investigate PMN recruitment and the kinetics of their intracytoplasmic enzymes in inflammation, we generated mastitis in six cows by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Clinical signs of acute mastitis were observed in all of the cows, and normal status was resumed by 316 h. Intracytoplasmic elastase, collagenase, and cathepsin activities were measured within live cells by flow cytometry in peripheral blood leukocytes and milk PMNs before and during the inflammatory process (at 10 time points between 4 and 316 h). The proportion of immature PMNs was appreciated by CD33 surface labeling measured in flow cytometry. Leukopenia was observed in the peripheral blood 4 h postinfusion, concomitant to an increase in somatic cell counts in milk. CD33(+) PMNs were preferentially recruited from the peripheral blood to milk. Enzymatic activities were detected in PMNs, lymphocytes, and monocytes at levels depending on the cell type, sample nature, and time of collection. Milk PMNs had lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This study showed that milk PMNs recruited during LPS-induced experimental mastitis have an immature phenotype and significantly lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This suggests that CD33, an adhesion molecule, may be involved in the egress from blood to milk and that the enzymatic contents of PMNs are partly used during this process.

  7. Enamel Matrix Derivative Promotes Superoxide Production and Chemotaxis, but Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 Expression by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karima, Mamdouh M.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) is the predominant innate immune cell type activated in acute inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on superoxide (O2−) generation, chemotaxis, and matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP 8) secretion by PMN in vitro to better understand the role of EMD in surgical wound healing. Methods PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers (N = 14). Superoxide generation was measured using a cytochrome-C reduction assay. Chemotaxis was measured in a modified Boyden chamber. MMP 8 secretion was analyzed by Western blotting. A relative density method was used to determine the percent of MMP 8 released from the PMN in relation to the total cellular MMP 8 content. Results O2− generation was significantly elevated when PMN were stimulated with EMD (200 μg/ml) (P<0.01). Secondary stimulation of PMN with 1 μM fMLP trigged earlier and more sustained O2− generation with EMD. EMD significantly increased PMN chemotactic activity (P<0.05). Combined stimulation with EMD plus formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) resulted in significantly higher chemotaxis compared to fMLP alone (P<0.05). Conversely, EMD did not induce MMP 8 secretion from PMN. MMP 8 secretion by PMN in response to fMLP or serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ) stimulation was significantly inhibited by EMD (P<0.05). Conclusion EMD has specific, differential actions on PMN that suggest potential for enhancement of wound healing; bacterial and tissue debris clearance (O2− generation and chemotaxis) and suppress tissue damage and degradation (MMP 8). Taken together, the data suggest that EMD enhances wound healing and reduces inflammation. PMID:22050547

  8. Enzymatic Activities of Bovine Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Milk Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils during Intramammary Inflammation Caused by Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prin-Mathieu, C.; Le Roux, Y.; Faure, G. C.; Laurent, F.; Béné, M. C.; Moussaoui, F.

    2002-01-01

    Leukocytes are recruited from peripheral blood into milk as part of the inflammatory response to mastitis. However, excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells alters the quality of milk and the proteases produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages may lead to mammary tissue damage. To investigate PMN recruitment and the kinetics of their intracytoplasmic enzymes in inflammation, we generated mastitis in six cows by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Clinical signs of acute mastitis were observed in all of the cows, and normal status was resumed by 316 h. Intracytoplasmic elastase, collagenase, and cathepsin activities were measured within live cells by flow cytometry in peripheral blood leukocytes and milk PMNs before and during the inflammatory process (at 10 time points between 4 and 316 h). The proportion of immature PMNs was appreciated by CD33 surface labeling measured in flow cytometry. Leukopenia was observed in the peripheral blood 4 h postinfusion, concomitant to an increase in somatic cell counts in milk. CD33+ PMNs were preferentially recruited from the peripheral blood to milk. Enzymatic activities were detected in PMNs, lymphocytes, and monocytes at levels depending on the cell type, sample nature, and time of collection. Milk PMNs had lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This study showed that milk PMNs recruited during LPS-induced experimental mastitis have an immature phenotype and significantly lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This suggests that CD33, an adhesion molecule, may be involved in the egress from blood to milk and that the enzymatic contents of PMNs are partly used during this process. PMID:12093678

  9. In Vivo Ultrastructural Analysis of the Intimate Relationship between Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and the Chlamydial Developmental Cycle ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Roger G.; Whittimore, Judy; Bowlin, Anne K.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2011-01-01

    We utilized a recently developed model of intracervical infection with Chlamydia muridarum in the mouse to elicit a relatively synchronous infection during the initial developmental cycle in order to examine at the ultrastructural level the development of both the chlamydial inclusion and the onset of the inflammatory response. At 18 h after infection, only a few elementary bodies attached to cells were visible, as were an occasional intracellular intermediate body and reticulate body. By 24 h, inclusions had 2 to 5 reticulate bodies and were beginning to fuse. A few polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were already present in the epithelium in the vicinity of and directly adjacent to infected cells. By 30 h, the inclusions were larger and consisted solely of reticulate bodies, but by 36 to 42 h, they contained intermediate bodies and elementary bodies as well. Many PMNs were adjacent to or actually inside infected cells. Chlamydiae appeared to exit the cell either (i) through disintegration of the inclusion membrane and rupture of the cell, (ii) by dislodgement of the cell from the epithelium by PMNs, or (iii) by direct invasion of the infected cell by the PMNs. When PMNs were depleted, the number of released elementary bodies was significantly greater as determined both visually and by culture. Interestingly, depletion of PMNs revealed the presence of inclusions containing aberrant reticulate bodies, reminiscent of effects seen in vitro when chlamydiae are incubated with gamma interferon. In vivo evidence for the contact-dependent development hypothesis, a potential mechanism for triggering the conversion of reticulate bodies to elementary bodies, and for translocation of lipid droplets into the inclusion is also presented. PMID:21576327

  10. Adherence of oral "Streptococcus milleri" cells to surfaces in broth cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifuku-Koreeda, H; Yakushiji, T; Kitada, K; Inoue, M

    1991-01-01

    Cells of representative strains of oral "Streptococcus milleri" firmly adhered to glass surfaces when grown in glucose broths as well as in fructose and sucrose broths. Cellular adherence occurred on saliva-coated glass surfaces as well as uncoated surfaces, but the cells of only a few (6 of 69) tested adherent strains agglutinated upon the addition of human whole-saliva supernatant. Thus, the firm adherence of growing "S. milleri" cells is independent of sucrose and salivary macromolecules. Two macroscopic forms of cell adherence were observed: one was a coarse-granule type and one was a tiny-granule type covered with a thin homogeneous membranous material. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that, in both types, a stringy substance interconnected the cells and connected the cells to glass surfaces, with amorphous flocklike materials present in the intercellular space. Of the 154 tested strains, 128 were adherent, of which 90 were firmly and extensively (+2 or +3) adherent. Most strains of the serovars f/F, g, h, i, j, g-, and gj- were extensively adherent. Generally, cells of the more strongly adherent strains were more hydrophobic and spontaneously aggregating. However, there also existed a few hydrophilic and nonaggregating but extensively adherent strains. The presence of trypsin or pronase completely inhibited the adherence of some strains (mostly nonaggregating) but did not at all inhibit that of others (mostly aggregating). The adhering groups did not significantly differ in their cell surface hydrophobicities. Therefore, at least two factors, one proteinaceous and one nonproteinaceous, appear to be principally involved in the firm surface adherence of "S. milleri." Images PMID:1937769

  11. Adherence to Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadomi, John M.; Vijan, Sandeep; Janz, Nancy K.; Fagerlin, Angela; Thomas, Jennifer P.; Lin, Yunghui V.; Muñoz, Roxana; Lau, Chim; Somsouk, Ma; El-Nachef, Najwa; Hayward, Rodney A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that several colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies can reduce CRC mortality, screening rates remain low. This study aimed to determine whether the approach by which screening is recommended influences adherence. Methods We used a cluster randomization design with clinic time block as the unit of randomization. Persons at average risk for development of CRC in a racially/ethnically diverse urban setting were randomized to receive recommendation for screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), colonoscopy, or their choice of FOBT or colonoscopy. The primary outcome was completion of CRC screening within 12 months after enrollment, defined as performance of colonoscopy, or 3 FOBT cards plus colonoscopy for any positive FOBT result. Secondary analyses evaluated sociodemographic factors associated with completion of screening. Results A total of 997 participants were enrolled; 58% completed the CRC screening strategy they were assigned or chose. However, participants who were recommended colonoscopy completed screening at a significantly lower rate (38%) than participants who were recommended FOBT (67%) (PChinese) completed screening more often than African Americans. Moreover, non-white participants adhered more often to FOBT, while white participants adhered more often to colonoscopy. Conclusions The common practice of universally recommending colonoscopy may reduce adherence to CRC screening, especially among racial/ethnic minorities. Significant variation in overall and strategy-specific adherence exists between racial/ethnic groups; however, this may be a proxy for health beliefs and/or language. These results suggest that patient preferences should be considered when making CRC screening recommendations. Trial Registration clinicals.gov Identifier: NCT00705731 PMID:22493463

  12. Adherence of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis to Streptococcus sanguis in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, M W; Safulko, K; LeVine, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Intergeneric bacterial adherence is responsible for the complexity of the microbiota in human dental plaque and is believed to enable some extraneous bacteria to initially colonize the human oral cavity. Some current evidence indicates that Streptococcus sanguis, an early colonizer of teeth, enhances subsequent colonization by Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis, a bacterium associated with advanced adult periodontitis. In this study, selected strains of P. gingivalis and S. sanguis were t...

  13. Adherence of Acinetobacter baumannii to rat bladder tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M; Ruiz, M; Bello, H; Dominguez, M; Martínez, M A; Pinto, M E; Gonzalez, G; Mella, S; Zemelman, R

    1998-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, an important nosocomial pathogen, causes severe infections in patients of intensive care units, but its pathogenic attributes are unknown. Previously, the adherence of A. baumannii to cell lines has been negative in the authors' laboratory. In this work, the adherence of strains of A. baumannii of various biotypes to small pieces of rat bladder tissue was investigated. Tissue pieces were submerged into cultures of A. baumannii and sessile cells were counted after removing planktonic bacteria. Fimbriae and sessile cells were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. In contrast to a uropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli, all cultures exhibited a mannose- and galactose-resistant agglutination of human group O red blood cells as well as mannose- and galactose-resistant adherence to the bladder tissue. Inhibition of exopolysaccharide synthesis did not modify adherence. Indeed, adherence, apparently unrelated to these fimbriae or to the exopolysaccharide, may be a factor contributing to the pathogenicity of A. baumannii in the urinary tract or in other tissues.

  14. Medication adherence : patient education, communication and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    De Brincat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Medication adherence usually refers to whether patients take their medications as prescribed, as well as whether they continue to take a prescribed medication. Medication non-adherence is a growing concern to pharmacists, healthcare systems, and other stakeholders (e.g. payers) because of mounting evidence that it is prevalent and associated with adverse outcomes and higher costs of care. To date, measurement of patient medication adherence and use of interventions to improve adherence are ra...

  15. Analytical Chemistry for Assessing Medication Adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Tanna, Sangeeta; Lawson, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The lack of adherence to medication is a growing public health problem worldwide and is costing many patients their chance to return to good health and healthcare systems billions of dollars. Analytical Chemistry for Assessing Medication Adherence introduces the concept of assessed medication adherence/compliance and reports international perspectives on medication adherence while highlighting its importance. It then describes the opportunities for analytical chemistry to assess medication ad...

  16. Adherence to Cooperative Principles among Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. This study assessed agricultural cooperatives' level of adherence to cooperative guiding principles in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select 126 respondents for the study. Data on group characteristics, level of awareness, adherence and constraints to adherence to cooperative ...

  17. Social Support, Treatment Adherence and Outcome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-02

    Jun 2, 2017 ... mulating evidences on causes of increasing prevalence of poor adherence among patients with chronic diseases including hypertension and diabetes, with a view to de- sign all-encompassing adherence-enhancing interven- tion to ensure full benefits of therapy.7,8. Myriads of factors affecting adherence ...

  18. Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral medication adherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medication adherence is a complex behaviour with multiple determinants. Understanding the barriers and facilitators of adherence is invaluable for programme improvement, which assists the foundation of adherence intervention strategies. A qualitative study was conducted in six selected hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2008, ...

  19. Adherence to Childhood Tuberculosis Treatment in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    López-Varela, Elisa; Sequera, Victor Guillermo; Alberto L. García-Basteiro; Augusto, Orvalho; Munguambe, Khatia; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alonso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited literature regarding adherence rates for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in children. We aimed to describe TB treatment outcomes and adherence as well as to evaluate associated factors to poor adherence in Mozambican children. METHODS: This is a sub-study of a community TB incidence study among children 3 weeks to treatment completion. RESULTS: Fif...

  20. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of adherence and non-adherence to health advice accompanying air quality warning systems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Donatella; Smith, Louise; Auyeung, Vivian; Weinman, John

    2017-09-22

    Although evidence shows that poor air quality can harm human health, we have a limited understanding about the behavioural impact of air quality forecasts. Our aim was to understand to what extent air quality warning systems influence protective behaviours in the general public, and to identify the demographic and psychosocial factors associated with adherence and non-adherence to the health advice accompanying these warnings. In August 2016 literature was systematically reviewed to find studies assessing intended or actual adherence to health advice accompanying air quality warning systems, and encouraging people to reduce exposure to air pollution. Predictors of adherence to the health advice and/or self-reported reasons for adherence or non-adherence were also systematically reviewed. Studies were included only if they involved participants who were using or were aware of these warning systems. Studies investigating only protective behaviours due to subjective perception of bad air quality alone were excluded. The results were narratively synthesised and discussed within the COM-B theoretical framework. Twenty-one studies were included in the review: seventeen investigated actual adherence; three investigated intended adherence; one assessed both. Actual adherence to the advice to reduce or reschedule outdoor activities during poor air quality episodes ranged from 9.7% to 57% (Median = 31%), whereas adherence to a wider range of protective behaviours (e.g. avoiding busy roads, taking preventative medication) ranged from 17.7% to 98.1% (Median = 46%). Demographic factors did not consistently predict adherence. However, several psychosocial facilitators of adherence were identified. These include knowledge on where to check air quality indices, beliefs that one's symptoms were due to air pollution, perceived severity of air pollution, and receiving advice from health care professionals. Barriers to adherence included: lack of understanding of the indices

  1. Adherence and health care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuga AO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost

  2. Affective temperaments and psychotropic adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Kimie; Terao, Takeshi; Katayama, Yosuke; Hoaki, Nobuhiko

    2013-09-25

    It is generally accepted that a range of factors affect adherence to psychotropic medications. In the present study, we focused on the influence of affective temperaments (i.e., depressive, hyperthymic, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperaments) on treatment adherence. Thirty-eight psychiatric consecutive inpatients were instructed to perform Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) for affective temperaments, Drug attitude inventory-10 (DAI-10) for concordance and persistence, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for compliance. VAS scores for dose compliance were significantly and negatively associated with irritable temperament scores whereas DAI-10 scores were significantly and positively associated with male gender, depressive temperament scores and hyperthymic temperament scores. The main limitations of the study were the relatively small number of subjects and the lack of objective method of adherence. These findings suggest that patients with irritable temperament may be poor in their compliance with treatment, and that more education may be required for patients with irritable temperament in order to maintain good compliance. In contrast, men and patients with depressive or hyperthymic temperament have a relatively positive attitude towards medication. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of early and terminal complement proteins associated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and in vivo after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvan Manuel D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complement system has been suggested to affect injury or disease of the central nervous system (CNS by regulating numerous physiological events and pathways. The activation of complement following traumatic CNS injury can also result in the formation and deposition of C5b-9 membrane attack complex (C5b-9/MAC, causing cell lysis or sublytic effects on vital CNS cells. Although complement proteins derived from serum/blood-brain barrier breakdown can contribute to injury or disease, infiltrating immune cells may represent an important local source of complement after injury. As the first immune cells to infiltrate the CNS within hours post-injury, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs may affect injury through mechanisms associated with complement-mediated events. However, the expression/association of both early and terminal complement proteins by PMNs has not been fully characterized in vitro, and has not observed previously in vivo after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. Method We investigated the expression of complement mRNAs using rt-PCR and the presence of complement proteins associated with PMNs using immunofluroescence and quantitative flow cytometry. Results Stimulated or unstimulated PMNs expressed mRNAs encoding for C1q, C3, and C4, but not C5, C6, C7 or C9 in culture. Complement protein C1q or C3 was also detected in less than 30% of cultured PMNs. In contrast, over 70% of PMNs that infiltrated the injured spinal cord were associated with C1q, C3, C7 and C5b-9/MAC 3 days post-SCI. The localization/association of C7 or C5b-9/MAC with infiltrating PMNs in the injured spinal cord suggests the incorporation or internalization of C7 or C5b-9/MAC bound cellular debris by infiltrating PMNs because C7 and C5b-9/MAC were mostly localized to granular vesicles within PMNs at the spinal cord epicenter region. Furthermore, PMN presence in the injured spinal cord was observed for many weeks post-SCI, suggesting that this

  4. Peptide permeases from Streptococcus pneumoniae affect adherence to eucaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundell, D R; Pearce, B J; Sandros, J; Naughton, A M; Masure, H R

    1995-07-01

    To gain access to tissues within the human host, Streptococcus pneumoniae initially colonizes the nasopharynx and then interacts with glycoconjugates on the surfaces of target cells at various sites of infection. Although pneumococcal adhesins are currently unknown, exported proteins on the bacterial surface are potential candidates. To identify bacterial elements involved in this process, mutants of S. pneumoniae with defects in exported proteins were screened for the inability to adhere to cells representative of three in vivo niches: (i) agglutination of bovine erythrocytes, which reflects adherence to cells which reside in the nasopharynx; (ii) human type II pneumocytes (lung cells [LC]), representing the alveolar site of infection; and (iii) human vascular endothelial cells (EC), representing the endovascular site. The capacity of the mutants to adhere during the course of pneumococcal disease was also assessed by using cytokine-activated LC and EC. All of the 30 mutants analyzed produced hemagglutination values comparable with those of the parent strain. Four independent mutants demonstrated a greater than 50% decrease in adherence to both LC and EC. Sequence analysis of the altered alleles from these strains showed that mutations had occurred in two previously identified loci, plpA and ami, which belong to the family of genes encoding protein-dependent peptide permeases. Mutations in the ami locus resulted in an inability to recognize the GalNAc beta 1-4Gal glycoconjugate receptor present on resting LC and EC, whereas mutations in plpA resulted in a failure to recognize a GalNAc beta 1-3Gal glycoconjugate receptor also present on resting cells. Mutations in neither allele affected recognition of GlcNAc receptors present on cytokine-activated LC and EC. These results suggest that peptide permeases modulate pneumococcal adherence to epithelial and endothelial cells either by acting directly as adhesins or by modulating the expression of adhesins on the

  5. Medication Adherence in People With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Young; Habermann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the United States. Because there is no cure for PD currently, pharmacological therapy is the mainstay of PD symptom management. Despite the importance of medication adherence in PD, several studies have reported medication nonadherence and/or suboptimal adherence. This literature review provides an overview of medication adherence issues in people with PD. Articles were identified for this study using computerized database searches and journal hand searches. Of the 72 medication adherence articles reviewed, the following articles were eligible for this review: (a) 10 articles measuring medication adherence in people with PD, (b) four medication adherence intervention articles, and (c) six studies of medication adherence in hospitalized settings. The importance of adherence assessment and strategies in improving medication adherence are discussed with the goal of improving symptom management and clinical outcomes in people with PD. Because medication taking is a complex and multifaceted phenomena, patient-centered, theory-driven interventions are needed to improve medication adherence and quality of care and life in people with PD.

  6. Morbidly adherent placenta treatments and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William A; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Leveno, Kenneth J; Iams, Jay D; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C

    2015-03-01

    To describe recent maternal and neonatal delivery outcomes among women with a morbidly adherent placenta in major centers across the United States. This study reviewed a cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011 from the Assessment of Perinatal EXcellence data set. All cases of morbidly adherent placenta were identified. Maternal demographics, procedures undertaken, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. There were 158 women with a morbidly adherent placenta (1/731 births, 95% confidence interval 1/632-866). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous and 37% had no prior cesarean delivery. Only 53% (84/158) were suspected to have a morbidly adherent placenta before delivery. Women with a prenatally suspected morbidly adherent placenta experienced large blood loss (33%), hysterectomy (92%), and intensive care unit admission (39%) compared with 19%, 45%, and 22%, respectively, in those not suspected prenatally to have a morbidly adherent placenta (P<.05 for all). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous. Half of the morbidly adherent placenta cases were suspected before delivery and outcomes were poorer in this group, probably because the more clinically significant morbidly adherent placentas are more likely to be suspected before delivery. : II.

  7. Magnesium enhances adherence and cartilage formation of synovial mesenchymal stem cells through integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimaya, M; Muneta, T; Ichinose, S; Tsuji, K; Sekiya, I

    2010-10-01

    We previously reported that more than 60% of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) placed on osteochondral defects adhered to the defect within 10 min and promoted cartilage regeneration. The efficiency of adherence is considered to depend on the interaction between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM), in which integrins may play some important roles. Divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and manganese may affect functions of integrins, and the integrins may be involved in differentiation of MSCs. Among divalent cations, magnesium is used in clinical practice as a therapeutic agent and increases the affinity of integrin to ECM. In this study, we investigated whether magnesium enhanced adherence and chondrogenesis of synovial MSC through integrins. We performed assays for adherence of human synovial MSCs to collagen-coated slides, in vitro chondrogenesis, ex vivo assays for adherence of human synovial MSCs to osteochondral defect, and in vivo assays for adherence and cartilage formation of synovial MSCs in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. Magnesium increased adhesion of human synovial MSCs to collagen, and this effect was inhibited by neutralizing antibodies for integrin α3 and β1. Magnesium also promoted synthesis of cartilage matrix during in vitro chondrogenesis of synovial MSCs, which was diminished by neutralizing antibodies for integrin β1 but not for integrin α3. Ex vivo analyses demonstrated that magnesium enhanced adherence of human synovial MSCs to osteochondral defects. In vivo studies in rabbits showed that magnesium promoted adherence at 1 day and cartilage formation of synovial MSCs at 2 weeks. Magnesium enhanced adherence of synovial MSCs through integrins, which promoted synthesis of cartilage matrix at an early phase. Copyright © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Nepal: a mixed-methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada P Wasti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART is a lifesaver for individual patients treated for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral drugs is essential for HIV infection management. This study aimed to understand the factors influencing adherence amongst ART-prescribed patients and care providers in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed-methods study surveying 330 ART-prescribed patients and 34 in-depth interviews with three different types of stakeholders: patients, care providers, and key people at policy level. Adherence was assessed through survey self-reporting and during the interviews. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with adherence, supplemented with a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. RESULTS: A total of 282 (85.5% respondents reported complete adherence, i.e. no missed doses in the four-weeks prior to interview. Major factors influencing adherence were: non-disclosure of HIV status (OR = 17.99, p = 0.014; alcohol use (OR = 12.89, p = 1 hour (OR = 2.84, p = 0.035. Similarly, lack of knowledge and negative perception towards ART medications also significantly affected non-adherence. Transport costs (for repeat prescription, followed by pills running out, not wanting others to notice, side-effects, and being busy were the most common reasons for non-adherence. The interviews also revealed religious or ritual obstacles, stigma and discrimination, ART-associated costs, transport problems, lack of support, and side-effects as contributing to non-adherence. CONCLUSION: Improving adherence requires a supportive environment; accessible treatment; clear instructions about regimens; and regimens tailored to individual patients' lifestyles. Healthcare workers should address some of the practical and cultural issues around ART medicine whilst policy-makers should develop

  9. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Krasniqi, Shaip; Jakupi, Arianit; Daci, Armond; Tigani, Bahri; Jupolli-Krasniqi, Nora; Pira, Mimoza; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Neziri, Burim

    2017-01-01

    Setting. The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients’ adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Desi...

  10. Improving hand hygiene adherence among nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne-Britner, Sarah; Allen, Marianne; Fowler, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored initial and sustained effects of educational and behavioral interventions on hand hygiene adherence and the relationships between hand hygiene adherence and health care-associated infections. Education paired with positive reinforcement behavioral interventions significantly improved hand hygiene adherence after the first month (χ² = 4.27; P = .039); however, the improvement was not sustained over 6 months. There were no significant differences in infection rates between the treatment and control groups.

  11. Predictors of Vitamin Adherence After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Supreet; Santiago, Vincent A; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Okrainec, Allan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin supplementation in bariatric aftercare is essential to prevent nutrient deficiencies; however, rates of vitamin adherence have been as low as 30 % 6 months post-surgery. Preliminary literature suggests non-adherence to prescribed treatments can be linked to demographic and psychological factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between these factors to vitamin adherence in post-bariatric surgery patients. A total of 92 bariatric patients were assessed 6 months post-surgery. Patients were administered a questionnaire collecting demographic information, psychological scores, and self-reported adherence. Nutrient deficiencies were analyzed through serum vitamin levels measured 3 and 6 months after surgery. Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Non-adherence was associated with male sex and full-time employment (p = 0.027, p = 0.015). There were no differences with respect to living situation, education level, or relationship type. Non-adherent patients did not have significantly higher scores for generalized anxiety, depressive symptoms, or avoidant behaviors. However, non-adherent patients displayed greater attachment anxiety than their adherent counterparts (p = 0.0186). Non-adherence was also associated with lower vitamin B12 levels 6 months post-surgery (p = 0.001). Male gender and full-time work have previously been shown to be associated with non-adherence. This is the first study to demonstrate that attachment anxiety is associated with poor multivitamin adherence in the post-surgical bariatric population. This result is concordant with recent literature that has demonstrated attachment anxiety is associated with poor adherence to dietary recommendations in bariatric patients 6 months postoperatively. Presurgical screening for attachment anxiety could facilitate early interventions to promote better bariatric aftercare in this group.

  12. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison Fiona; Manias, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Crawford, Kimberley

    2014-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease, the relative shortage of kidney donors and the economic- and health-related costs of kidney transplant rejection make the prevention of adverse outcomes following transplantation a healthcare imperative. Although strict adherence to immunosuppressant medicine regimens is key to preventing kidney rejection, evidence suggests that adherence is sub-optimal. Strategies need to be developed to help recipients of kidney transplants adhere to their prescribed medicines. This review has found that a number of factors contribute to poor adherence, for example, attitudes towards medicine taking and forgetfulness. Few investigations have been conducted, however, on strategies to enhance medicine adherence in kidney transplant recipients. Strategies that may improve adherence include pharmacist-led interventions (incorporating counselling, medicine reviews and nephrologist liaison) and nurse-led interventions (involving collaboratively working with recipients to understand their routines and offering solutions to improve adherence). Strategies that have shown to have limited effectiveness include supplying medicines free of charge and providing feedback on a participant's medicine adherence without any educational or behavioural interventions. Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for people with end-stage kidney disease. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation increases the risk of rejection, kidney loss and costly treatments. Interventions are needed to help the transplant recipient take all their medicines as prescribed to improve general well-being, medicine safety and reduce healthcare costs. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  13. Encouraging CPAP adherence: it is everyone's job

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bollig, Suzanne M

    2010-01-01

    .... Patient adherence to prescribed CPAP is variable, however, leaving the undertreated OSA patient at risk of development or worsening of comorbid medical conditions, including hypertension and cardiovascular disease...

  14. Medication adherence among adult patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence was assessed in 89 patients on hemodialysis (HD at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City using an Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MASS-8. The results of the study revealed that 31.46% and 40.45% of the participants showed low and medium adherence, respectively, while 28.09% showed high medication adherence. Accordingly, 71.91% of the patients visiting the dialysis unit were considered medication non-adherent. While being of older age (P = 0.012, being married (P = 0.012 increased the level of adherence, being of medium level of education (P = 0.024 decreased adherence levels. On the other hand, gender, presence of a care-giver, number of members in the household and employment status seems to have no effect on the level of medication adherence. These results call upon the practitioners in HD units to develop intervention programs that can increase the level of medication adherence.

  15. Visual Analog Scale of ART Adherence: Association With 3-Day Self-Report and Adherence Barriers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amico, K. Rivet; Fisher, William A; Cornman, Deborah H; Shuper, Paul A; Redding, Caroline G; Konkle-Parker, Deborah J; Barta, William; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2006-01-01

    .... METHODS:HIV-infected patients (N = 147) at a southeastern US clinic completed a computerized assessment including an antiretroviral therapy adherence VAS, a modified version of the AACTG, and a measure of adherence...

  16. Determinants of medication adherence to antihypertensive medications among a Chinese population using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle K Y Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Poor adherence to medications is one of the major public health challenges. Only one-third of the population reported successful control of blood pressure, mostly caused by poor drug adherence. However, there are relatively few reports studying the adherence levels and their associated factors among Chinese patients. This study aimed to study the adherence profiles and the factors associated with antihypertensive drug adherence among Chinese patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient clinic located in the New Territories Region of Hong Kong. Adult patients who were currently taking at least one antihypertensive drug were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire, consisting of basic socio-demographic profile, self-perceived health status, and self-reported medication adherence. The outcome measure was the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Good adherence was defined as MMAS scores greater than 6 points (out of a total score of 8 points. RESULTS: From 1114 patients, 725 (65.1% had good adherence to antihypertensive agents. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Younger age, shorter duration of antihypertensive agents used, job status being employed, and poor or very poor self-perceived health status were negatively associated with drug adherence. CONCLUSION: This study reported a high proportion of poor medication adherence among hypertensive subjects. Patients with factors associated with poor adherence should be more closely monitored to optimize their drug taking behavior.

  17. Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Are Necessary for the Recruitment of CD8+ T Cells in the Liver in a Pregnant Mouse Model of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci Serotype 1) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, Roberto Montes; Buendía, Antonio J.; Del Río, Laura; Sánchez, Joaquín; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the development of the specific immune response against Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection was studied in a pregnant mouse model involving treatment with RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody. PMN depletion significantly affected the immune response in the liver, in which the T-lymphocyte and F4/80+ cell populations decreased, particularly the CD8+ T-cell population. A Th1-like response, characterized by high levels of gamma interferon without detectable levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in serum, was observed in both depleted and nondepleted mice, although an increased production of IL-10 was detected in the depleted group. Our results suggest that PMNs play a very important role in the recruitment of other leukocyte populations to the inflammatory foci but have little influence in the polarization of the immune specific response toward a Th1-like response. PMID:10679002

  18. Adherence to cooperative principles among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural cooperatives in the area largely adhered to the cooperatives principles. However, capacity building on innovative financial sourcing and loan recovery mechanisms should be embarked upon by management to enhance the adherence. Keywords: Cooperatives principles, loan recovery, agricultural cooperatives ...

  19. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  20. Patient Adherence to Biologic Agents in Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Der Yi; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    treatment, and cause for treatment discontinuation] were obtained from the national database DERMBIO. Patients' attitudes and beliefs were measured using the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS). RESULTS: A total of 93.5% of all patients had an MPR ≥0.8, indicating very good adherence. MPR......BACKGROUND: Low adherence to therapies in psoriasis decreases treatment outcomes and increases the total health care costs. In spite of the wide use of biologic agents, patients' adherence to these drugs has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure adherence...... to the biologic drugs in a population of patients treated for psoriasis vulgaris using the medication possession ratio (MPR) index and to survey patients' attitudes to the treatment. METHODS: This is a single-center study on 247 patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with adalimumab (n = 113), etanercept (n...

  1. Claustrophobia and adherence to CPAP treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasens, Eileen R; Pack, Allan I; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F; Weaver, Terri E

    2005-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of claustrophobia, an abnormal dread or fear of closed spaces, on adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. The design was a secondary analysis of data from a prospective study of participants (N = 153) that completed 3 months of CPAP therapy from seven sleep disorders centers in the United States and Canada. A 15-item subscale adapted from the Fear and Avoidance Scale measured claustrophobic tendencies pre-CPAP treatment and again after 3 months. An overt monitor attached to the CPAP machines recorded mask-on CPAP adherence. There was a statistically significant difference in claustrophobia scores by adherence group ( or = 5 hours) and time period (pre-CPAP and after 3 months CPAP). Poor CPAP adherence (claustrophobia score > or = 25. Identification of persons with increased claustrophobia tendencies and targeted interventions may increase adherence.

  2. Asthma and Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of maintenance asthma therapy. However, in spite of this, adherence to ICS remains low. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge of adherence to ICS, effects of poor adherence, and means...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, ... prescribed fixed-combination therapy (ICS and long-acting β2 agonists). Good adherence was associated with higher FEV1, a lower percentage of eosinophils in sputum, reduction in hospitalizations, less use of oral corticosteroids, and lower mortality rate. Overall, 24% of exacerbations and 60% of asthma...

  3. The Surface Protein SdrF Mediates Staphylococcus epidermidis Adherence to Keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Sheetal; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Herman-Bausier, Philippe; Sullivan, Sean B; Sowash, Madeleine G; Flores, Elizabeth Y; Khan, Sabrina D; Dufrêne, Yves F; Lowy, Franklin D

    2017-06-15

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a major component of skin flora, is an opportunist, often causing prosthetic device infections. A family of structurally related proteins mediates staphylococcal attachment to host tissues, contributing to the success of S. epidermidis as a pathogen. We examined the ability of the surface protein SdrF to adhere to keratin, a major molecule expressed on the skin surface. A heterologous Lactococcus lactis expression system was used to express SdrF and its ligand-binding domains. Adherence to keratin types 1 and 10, human foreskin keratinocytes, and nasal epithelial cells was examined. SdrF bound human keratins 1 and 10 and adhered to keratinocytes and epithelial cells. Binding involved both the A and B domains. Anti-SdrF antibodies reduced adherence of S. epidermidis to keratin and keratinocytes. RNA interference reduced keratin synthesis in keratinocytes and, as a result, SdrF adherence. Direct force measurements using atomic force microscopy showed that SdrF mediates bacterial adhesion to keratin 10 through strong and weak bonds involving the A and B regions; strong adhesion was primarily mediated by the A region. These studies demonstrate that SdrF mediates adherence to human keratin and suggest that SdrF may facilitate S. epidermidis colonization of the skin.

  4. Improving adherence to PALS septic shock guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Raina; Melendez, Elliot; Stack, Anne; Capraro, Andrew; Monuteaux, Michael; Neuman, Mark I

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have demonstrated improvement in adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines for severe sepsis and septic shock. We sought to improve adherence to national guidelines for children with septic shock in a pediatric emergency department with poor guideline adherence. Prospective cohort study of children presenting to a tertiary care pediatric emergency department with septic shock. Quality improvement (QI) interventions, including repeated plan-do-study-act cycles, were used to improve adherence to a 5-component sepsis bundle, including timely (1) recognition of septic shock, (2) vascular access, (3) administration of intravenous (IV) fluid, (4) antibiotics, and (5) vasoactive agents. The intervention focused on IV fluid delivery as a key driver impacting bundle adherence, and adherence was measured using statistical process control methodology. Two-hundred forty-two patients were included: 126 subjects before the intervention (November 2009 to March 2011), and 116 patients during the QI intervention (October 2011 to May 2013). We achieved 100% adherence for all metrics, including (1) administration of 60 mL/kg IV fluid within 60 minutes (increased from baseline adherence rate of 37%), (2) administration of vasoactive agents within 60 minutes (baseline rate of 35%), and (3) 5-component bundle adherence (baseline rate of 19%). Improvement was sustained over 9 months. The number of septic shock cases between each death from this condition increased after implementation of the QI intervention. Using QI methodology, we have demonstrated improved adherence to national guidelines for severe sepsis and septic shock. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Expression of sialyltransferase activity on intact human neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Rifat, Salahaldin; Kang, Tae Jin; Mann, Dean; Zhang, Lei; Puche, Adam C.; Stamatos, Nicholas M.; Goldblum, Simeon E.; Brossmer, Reinhard; Cross, Alan S.

    2008-01-01

    Endogenous polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-associated sialidase activity enhances PMN adhesion to and migration across the endothelium through the removal of sialylated cell-surface residues. We tested the hypothesis that PMNs also express sialyltransferase (ST) activity that restores sialyl residues to the PMN surface. We developed a highly sensitive fluorometric assay to demonstrate that intact human PMNs can mediate and accept sialyl residue transfer. This ST activity is inhibited by a S...

  6. Treatment adherence in patients living with HIV/AIDS assisted at a specialized facility in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyada, Simone; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Gatto, Renata Colturato Joaquim; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2017-01-01

    In the 1990s, Brazil adopted a public policy that allowed for universal, free access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since then, treatment adherence has become a new challenge for administrators of sexually transmitted disease/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/AIDS) policies. This study quantified adherence to ART and verified whether there is an association between sociodemographic variables and clinical/laboratory data in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. This was a cross-sectional, exploratory study with a quantitative approach that was conducted over 8 months. The target population contained patients who were assisted at the ambulatory care facility specialized in STD/AIDS of a medium-size city located in Northwest São Paulo. In order to verify the level of adherence to ART, a validated CEAT-VIH (Assessment of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Questionnaire) questionnaire was used. Sociodemographic aspects and clinical/laboratory data were obtained from the medical records. The results were analyzed using the Student's t-test and Pearson's coefficient. Herein, 109 patients were interviewed, 56% of whom were male. The age of the population ranged 18-74 years (mean 45.67 years). Adherence to ART was classified as insufficient in 80.7% of cases. There was an association between ART adherence and presence of symptoms and/or opportunistic infection (p=0.008) and economic status (ptreatment adherence than those who needed to take more than 3 pills a day.

  7. Expert Involvement and Adherence to Medical Evidence in Medical Mobile Phone Apps: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, Yousif; Bube, Sarah Hjartbro; Rolskov Bojsen, Signe; Skou Thomsen, Ann Sofia; Konge, Lars

    2015-07-27

    Both clinicians and patients use medical mobile phone apps. Anyone can publish medical apps, which leads to contents with variable quality that may have a serious impact on human lives. We herein provide an overview of the prevalence of expert involvement in app development and whether or not app contents adhere to current medical evidence. To systematically review studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. We systematically searched 3 databases (PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and EMBASE), and included studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. Two authors performed data extraction independently. Qualitative analysis of the included studies was performed. Based on inclusion criteria, 52 studies were included in this review. These studies assessed a total of 6520 apps. Studies dealt with a variety of medical specialties and topics. As much as 28 studies assessed expert involvement, which was found in 9-67% of the assessed apps. Thirty studies (including 6 studies that also assessed expert involvement) assessed adherence of app content to current medical evidence. Thirteen studies found that 10-87% of the assessed apps adhered fully to the compared evidence (published studies, recommendations, and guidelines). Seventeen studies found that none of the assessed apps (n=2237) adhered fully to the compared evidence. Most medical mobile phone apps lack expert involvement and do not adhere to relevant medical evidence.

  8. Portrait of Candida albicans adherence regulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Finkel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell-substrate adherence is a fundamental property of microorganisms that enables them to exist in biofilms. Our study focuses on adherence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans to one substrate, silicone, that is relevant to device-associated infection. We conducted a mutant screen with a quantitative flow-cell assay to identify thirty transcription factors that are required for adherence. We then combined nanoString gene expression profiling with functional analysis to elucidate relationships among these transcription factors, with two major goals: to extend our understanding of transcription factors previously known to govern adherence or biofilm formation, and to gain insight into the many transcription factors we identified that were relatively uncharacterized, particularly in the context of adherence or cell surface biogenesis. With regard to the first goal, we have discovered a role for biofilm regulator Bcr1 in adherence, and found that biofilm regulator Ace2 is a major functional target of chromatin remodeling factor Snf5. In addition, Bcr1 and Ace2 share several target genes, pointing to a new connection between them. With regard to the second goal, our findings reveal existence of a large regulatory network that connects eleven adherence regulators, the zinc-response regulator Zap1, and approximately one quarter of the predicted cell surface protein genes in this organism. This limited yet sensitive glimpse of mutant gene expression changes had thus defined one of the broadest cell surface regulatory networks in C. albicans.

  9. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Behnood-Rod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88. About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6% showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6. There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r=-0.231, P<0.001 as well as diastolic BP (r=-0.280, P<0.001. In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B=-0.52, P=0.02, previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B=-0.79, P=0.001, and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B=-0.51, P=0.04 were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence.

  10. Mobile Applications to Improve Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Jamie; Farris, Karen B; Dorsch, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Background and Introduction: Mobile applications are useful tools to improve medication adherence. As developers continue to improve the features of existing mobile applications, pharmacists should be aware of the current features that are available to patients. There are limited studies available that discuss which applications have the most desirable features. The aim of this study was to compare available mobile applications and identify ideal application features used to improve medication adherence. As of September 5, 2014, the search terms "medication adherence" and "medication reminder" generated a total of 225 hits. Ideal application features were used to create an Application Score Card to identify applications with the highest number of ideal features. We identified 30 applications that were written in English, medication related, last updated in 2014, and did not meet any exclusion criteria. The top five applications RxNetwork, Mango Health, MyMeds, C3HealthLink, and HuCare are discussed in detail. There are numerous studies looking at medication adherence. However, current literature regarding mobile applications to improve medication adherence is lacking. This article will provide pharmacists with a brief overview of the available mobile applications and features that could be used to improve patient adherence to medications. Existing mobile applications to improve medication adherence have ideal features that could help patients take medication as prescribed. Once further research is performed to establish their efficacy, pharmacists could begin to recommend mobile applications to their patients.

  11. Encouraging CPAP adherence: it is everyone's job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Suzanne M

    2010-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease treated effectively with the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Patient adherence to prescribed CPAP is variable, however, leaving the undertreated OSA patient at risk of development or worsening of comorbid medical conditions, including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The severity of disease and the presence of daytime sleepiness appear to have some predictive quality for subsequent adherence, though a search for consistent predictive factors related to CPAP adherence has proven elusive. Other influences, such as sex, age, socioeconomic status, and personality traits are less robust predictors. The use of sophisticated therapy modalities such as auto-titration or bi-level PAP units has been shown to improve adherence in certain subsets of OSA patients. Adverse effects such as nasal congestion, dry mouth, or skin irritation occur in approximately 50% of CPAP users, and addressing these adverse effects may improve adherence in some patients. More encouraging, studies on the use of intensive patient education and behavioral interventions have shown more positive effects on adherence, leading to the conclusion that improvement in patient adherence to CPAP therapy requires a multi-layered approach, using combined technological, behavioral, and adverse-effect interventions.

  12. Monitoring adherence to Standard Precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K D; Beekmann, S E; Ferguson, K J; Vaughn, T E; Torner, J C; Woolson, R F; Doebbeling, B N

    2001-02-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) do not consistently follow Standard Precautions (SP). This is a serious problem because inadequate compliance is associated with increased blood exposure thus predisposing HCWs to bloodborne pathogen transmission. The primary goal of this study was to identify institutional factors associated with adequacy of HCW training to monitor coworkers' adherence to SP. Surveys were sent to all community hospital infection control practitioners (ICPs) in Iowa and Virginia. ICPs indicated on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree, their assessment of HCW training adequacy. Data from another statewide survey of HCWs in Iowa were assessed to validate this outcome measure. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to identify predictors of assessed training adequacy. Independent variables included methods of education, training, approaches to SP compliance assessment, provision of SP reinforcement by clinical leaders, and organizational data. A total of 149 institutions (62%) participated. Models of training program adequacy varied across occupations. Management commitment to SP training programs, leadership support, frequency of providing bloodborne pathogen information, and safety climate were important institutional predictors of assessed adequacy of training. The outcome was validated by demonstrating an association between the ICPs' assessment of HCW training and workers who reported having sufficient information to comply with SP (P based on modifiable factors identified by this study may reduce bloodborne pathogen exposure among HCWs.

  13. Medication adherence interventions that target subjects with adherence problems: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Ruppar, Todd M; Enriquez, Maithe; Cooper, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate medication adherence is a pervasive, under-recognized cause of poor health outcomes. Many intervention trials designed to improve medication adherence have targeted adults with adherence problems. No previous reviews have synthesized the effectiveness of medication adherence interventions focused on subjects with medication adherence difficulties. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized findings from medication adherence intervention studies conducted among adults with medication adherence difficulties. Primary research studies were eligible for inclusion if they tested an intervention designed to increase medication adherence among adults with documented adherence difficulties and reported medication adherence behavior outcomes. Comprehensive search strategies of 13 computerized databases, author and ancestry searches, and hand searches of 57 journals were used to locate eligible primary research. Participant demographics, intervention characteristics, and methodological features were reliably coded from reports along with medication adherence outcomes. Effect sizes for outcomes were calculated as standardized mean differences, and random effects models were used to estimate overall mean effects. Exploratory dichotomous and continuous variable moderator analyses were employed to examine potential associations between medication adherence effect size and sample, intervention, and methodological characteristics. Data were extracted from 53 reports of studies involving 8243 individual primary study participants. The overall standardized mean difference effect size for treatment vs. control subjects was 0.301. For treatment pre- vs. post-intervention comparisons, the overall effect size was 0.533. Significantly larger effect sizes were associated with interventions incorporating prompts to take medications than interventions lacking medication prompts (0.497 vs. 0.234). Larger effect sizes were also found for interventions that linked

  14. Medication Adherence Interventions That Target Subjects with Adherence Problems: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Enriquez, Maithe; Cooper, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Background Inadequate medication adherence is a pervasive, under-recognized cause of poor health outcomes. Many intervention trials designed to improve medication adherence have targeted adults with adherence problems. No previous reviews have synthesized the effectiveness of medication adherence interventions focused on subjects with medication adherence difficulties. Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized findings from medication adherence intervention studies conducted among adults with medication adherence difficulties. Methods Primary research studies were eligible for inclusion if they tested an intervention designed to increase medication adherence among adults with documented adherence difficulties and reported medication adherence behavior outcomes. Comprehensive search strategies of 13 computerized databases, author and ancestry searches, and hand searches of 57 journals were used to locate eligible primary research. Participant demographics, intervention characteristics, and methodological features were reliably coded from reports along with medication adherence outcomes. Effect sizes for outcomes were calculated as standardized mean differences, and random effects models were used to estimate overall mean effects. Exploratory dichotomous and continuous variable moderator analyses were employed to examine potential associations between medication adherence effect size and sample, intervention, and methodological characteristics. Results Data were extracted from 53 reports of studies involving 8,243 individual primary study participants. The overall standardized mean difference effect size for treatment vs. control subjects was 0.301. For treatment pre- vs. post-intervention comparisons, the overall effect size was 0.533. Significantly larger effect sizes were associated with interventions incorporating prompts to take medications than interventions lacking medication prompts (0.497 vs. 0.234). Larger effect sizes were also found

  15. Adherence to physical and mental activity interventions: Coping plans as a mediator and prior adherence as a moderator.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Klusmann, V.; Schwarzer, R.; Heuser, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Adherence to behavioural intervention programmes is a necessary condition for beneficial outcomes to be achieved. This study tested whether social cognitive variables and coping plans predict adherence. Design and methods. Adherence was examined in a randomized controlled trial with

  16. Assessing adherence and factors associated with adherence in young children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Scott W; Sly, Peter D; Morawska, Alina; Devadason, Sunalene G

    2008-06-01

    Adherence with preventive asthma medication by young children is an important factor when evaluating a suboptimal response to treatment. However, few data exist regarding the accuracy of subjective measures of adherence and factors associated with adherence in young children. Fifty-one asthmatic children aged 18 months to 7 years had their use of preventive asthma medication monitored using an electronic monitoring device (Smartinhaler) for 1 month. At a follow-up visit the child's parent was asked how often medication had been given and they also completed a confidential questionnaire that included questions about medication usage, barriers to optimal adherence and parenting. The treating physician made an estimate of the child's likely use of medication. The median use of medication as determined by the Smartinhaler was 70.5% (range 21.4-100%). The parents' verbal reports (85.1%) and questionnaire responses (84.2%) overestimated medication usage. The physician was not able to determine which parents correctly estimated their child's use of medication (P = 0.28). The child's age, level of parental education and annual family income did not influence adherence. Parents reported simply 'forgetting' or their child's 'reaction to being given medication' as the principal barriers to adherence. There was a significant association between how stressful the parent found parenting and adherence (P = 0.05). Adherence with preventive medication, even within the context of a research study, was generally low and highly variable. Subjective measures of adherence were found to overestimate adherence in young asthmatics.

  17. Antiretroviral medication adherence and persistence with respect to adherence tool usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrop, N J; Gill, M J

    2000-07-01

    Adherence to complex drug regimens over an extended period is a key factor in reaping the health benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Forgetting a dose is the most commonly stated reason for suboptimal adherence, indicating a potential benefit of reminder devices. We examined antiretroviral drug adherence and duration of therapy with respect to adherence tool usage. Adherence was monitored for 12 months in a cohort of patients, using pharmacy refill data. Seventy-eight subjects were administered a questionnaire with regard to tool use at least once at 6 and/or 12 months; patients who replied to the questionnaire were eligible for this study. Persistence of remaining on therapy was obtained from the subjects, charts. The tools included individualized schedules, dosettes and electronic reminder devices, which were offered free of charge to all patients. Of the 64 subjects who entered this study, 60.9% (n = 39) used at least one adherence tool. The median adherence in those using tools was 95%; three quarters showed greater than 91% adherence. Adherence rates with respect to individual tools did not differ significantly for schedules and dosettes, with medians of 95% (n = 31) and 94% (n = 13), respectively. Median adherence with electronic reminders was 76% (n = 5). Seventy-four percent of patients remained on therapy after 12 months of study. Taking into consideration previous antiretroviral treatment, actual persistence at 12 months was 87%. Employing and individualizing strategies, including adherence tools, to enhance patient adherence to complex regimens in addition to counseling and follow-up, has resulted in good adherence rates and persistence.

  18. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murin...

  19. The Patient's Perspective: Adherence or Non-adherence to Asthma Controller Therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Backer, V; Soes-Petersen, U

    2006-01-01

    )-guidelines' symptom severity classification, 85% should have been on ICS. Accidental and intentional non-adherence with ICS at least twice a week was reported by 27% and 24%, respectively. In case of deterioration, 60% of the patients preferred to take more reliever medication, instead of increasing the ICS dose....... Having a fixed daily routine with regard to medication and following the advice given by their doctor were the main reasons for adherence, whereas lack of perceived symptoms was the main reason for non-adherence. Non-adherence was associated with increasing disagreement with the statements......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Adherence with controller therapy poses a major challenge to the effective management of persistent asthma. The aim of this study was to explore the patient-related aspects of adherence among adult asthmatics. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: The participants (n = 509 adult asthmatics...

  20. Adherence to anti-depressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The study of medicine taking is controversial as it often reveals a discrepancy between healthcare professionals' advice and patients' actual behaviour. Qualitative researchers have examined depressed people's adherence to prescriptions of antidepressants by exploring the meaning they impute...

  1. Introducing the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2013-01-01

    resulting in reduced data quality and suboptimal treatment. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to introduce the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF) as a method for developing novel technology-based adherence strategies to assess and improve patient adherence levels in the unsupervised setting....... Methods: Key concepts related to self-care and adherence were defined, discussed, and implemented as part of the ASEF framework. ASEF was applied to seven self-care case studies, and the perceived usefulness and feasibility of ASEF was evaluated in a questionnaire study by the case study participants....... Finally, we reviewed the individual case studies usage of ASEF. Results: A range of central self-care concepts were defined and the ASEF methodological framework was introduced. ASEF was successfully used in seven case studies with a total of 25 participants. Of these, 16 provided answers...

  2. Adherence to Healthcare Waste Management Guidelines among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %). Knowledge on waste segregation, waste separation then disposal and means of transports were statistically significant in relation to adherence. The type of incinerator and burning status, protection maintenance and supply of adequate ...

  3. Medication non-adherence in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D

    2015-02-01

    There are numerous studies of medication adherence in a variety of chronic diseases including Parkinson's disease; however, there are no such studies in patients with essential tremor (ET). This study aimed to (1) present self-report data on medication adherence in ET cases, (2) examine the demographic and clinical factors that might be associated with lower medication adherence. 151 ET cases were enrolled in a clinical-epidemiological study at Columbia University. An 11-item medication adherence questionnaire, modeled after the Morisky medication adherence questionnaire, was administered. Seventy-three (48.3%) of 151 cases were taking daily medication for ET. One-third (24/73; 32.9%) of cases reported that they sometimes forgot to take their medication, and 1 in 5 (15/73; 20.5%) reported missed doses within the past week. Most striking was that nearly 1 in 4 (17/73; 23.3%) reported that there were whole days in the past two weeks in which they had not taken their medication. A factor analysis revealed four factors that captured different aspects of non-adherence. Higher non-adherence was associated with more depressive symptoms, younger age, and less severe tremor but was not associated with type or number of ET medications. Approximately one in four ET patients reported whole days in the past two weeks in which they had not taken their medication. It is possible that this relatively high rate of non-adherence could be a function of the poor therapeutic efficacy of the medications currently available to treat ET. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial adherence to cosmetic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Yin; Cho, Pauline; Boost, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether cosmetic contact lenses (CCL) with surface pigments affect microbial adherence. Fifteen brands of CCL were purchased from optical, non-optical retail outlets, and via the Internet. A standardized rub-off test was performed on each CCL (five lenses per brand) to confirm the location of the pigments. The rub-off test comprised gentle rubbing on the surfaces of each CCL with wetted cotton buds for a maximum of 20 rubs per surface. A new set of CCL (five lenses per brand) were incubated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa overnight. Viable counts of adhered bacteria were determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) on agar media on each lens. The adherence of P. aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens to three brands of CCL (A-C) (five lenses per brand) were also compared to their adherences on their clear counterparts. Only two of the 15 brands of CCL tested (brands B and C) had pigments that did not detach with the rub-off test. The remaining 13 brands of CCL all failed the rub-off test and these lenses showed higher P. aeruginosa adherence (8.7 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) CFU/lens). Brands B and C lenses showed at least six times less bacterial adhesion than the other 13 brands. Compared to their clear counterparts, bacterial adherence to brands B and C lenses did not differ significantly, whereas brand A lenses showed significantly higher adherence. Surface pigments on CCL resulted in significantly higher bacterial adherence. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Defining medication adherence in individual patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alan Morrison, Melissa E Stauffer, Anna S Kaufman ScribCo, Effort, PA, USA Background: The classification of patients as adherent or non-adherent to medications is typically based on an arbitrary threshold for the proportion of prescribed doses taken. Here, we define a patient as pharmacokinetically adherent if the serum drug levels resulting from his/her pattern of medication-taking behavior remained within the therapeutic range.Methods: We used pharmacokinetic modeling to calculate serum drug levels in patients whose patterns of dosing were recorded by a medication event monitoring system. Medication event monitoring system data were from a previously published study of seven psoriasis patients prescribed 40 mg subcutaneous adalimumab at 14-day intervals for 1 year. Daily serum concentrations of adalimumab were calculated and compared with a known therapeutic threshold.Results: None of the seven patients took adalimumab precisely every 14 days. Three patients who took adalimumab at intervals of 6–26 days could be classified as pharmacokinetically adherent, because their daily adalimumab serum concentration never fell below the therapeutic threshold. The four other patients, who took adalimumab at intervals of 7–93 days, could be classified as pharmacokinetically non-adherent, because their adalimumab serum concentration fell below the therapeutic threshold on 3.5%–71.3% of days.Conclusion: Patients with varying patterns of adalimumab dosing could be classified as pharmacokinetically adherent or non-adherent according to whether or not their serum drug concentrations remained within the therapeutic range. Keywords: pharmacokinetic adherence, drug therapy/utilization, drug administration schedule, patient compliance, adalimumab, pharmacokinetics

  6. Self-reported adherence to anticoagulation and its determinants using the Morisky medication adherence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Lana A; Shaw, Joseph; van der Salm, Katrien; Erkens, Petra; Le Gal, Gregoire; Petrcich, William; Carrier, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are used for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Given the shorter half-life and lack of laboratory monitoring compared to vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs), adequate adherence to DOACs is important. Reported anticoagulation adherence is unclear in clinical practice. To assess self-reported anticoagulation adherence in a tertiary center anticoagulation clinic. Cross-sectional study of patients on oral anticoagulants (VKAs, rivaroxaban, dabigatran and apixaban). Anticoagulation adherence was assessed using the 4-item Morisky score. Baseline characteristics were evaluated for association with adherence. Five hundred patients completed the survey; 74% were on VKAs and 26% on DOACs: rivaroxaban 102 (79%); dabigatran 26 (19%); apixaban 2 (2%). Main indications for anticoagulation were VTE (72%) and AF (18%). Self-reported anticoagulation adherence using the 4-item Morisky scale was 56.2% for patients on VKAs and 57.1% for patients on DOACs. Predictors of anticoagulation adherence were age (OR=1.02; 95% CI:1.01-1.03), female gender (OR=1.58; 95% CI:1.10-2.27), use of additional oral medications (OR=2.78; 95% CI:1.67-4.63), and retired employment status (OR=2.31; 95% CI:1.51-3.55). In backward selection multivariate analyses age, female gender and use of other oral medications remained significantly associated with anticoagulation adherence. Self-reported anticoagulation adherence was similar between VKAs and DOACs. Until laboratory assays are universally available to evaluate DOAC adherence, physicians should emphasize the importance of anticoagulation adherence at each patient encounter. The Morisky scale provides simple assessment of anticoagulation adherence; however it has not yet been validation for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight-loss intervention adherence and factors promoting adherence: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1 Yelena Bird,2 Chijioke Nwankwo,2 Marla Rogers,3 John Moraros2 1Alliance Wellness and Rehabilitation, Moose Jaw, 2School of Public Health, 3College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Adhering to weight loss interventions is difficult for many people. The majority of those who are overweight or obese and attempt to lose weight are simply not successful. The objectives of this study were 1 to quantify overall adherence rates for various weight loss interventions and 2 to provide pooled estimates for factors associated with improved adherence to weight loss interventions.Methods: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of all studies published between January 2004 and August 2015 that reviewed weight loss intervention adherence.Results: After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria and checking the methodological quality, 27 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall adherence rate was 60.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 53.6–67.2. The following three main variables were found to impact adherence: 1 supervised attendance programs had higher adherence rates than those with no supervision (rate ratio [RR] 1.65; 95% CI 1.54–1.77; 2 interventions that offered social support had higher adherence than those without social support (RR 1.29; 95% CI 1.24–1.34; and 3 dietary intervention alone had higher adherence than exercise programs alone (RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.19–1.35.Conclusion: A substantial proportion of people do not adhere to weight loss interventions. Programs supervising attendance, offering social support, and focusing on dietary modification have better adherence than interventions not supervising attendance, not offering social support, and focusing exclusively on exercise. Keywords: community based, obesity, social support, program adherence

  8. Antiretroviral therapy adherence and predictors to adherence in Albania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane D; Rashidi, Vania; Sarnquist, Clea; Banushi, Vilson H; Hole, Michael K; Barbhaiya, Namrata J; Gashi, Valbona H; Osterberg, Lars; Maldonado, Yvonne; Harxhi, Arjan

    2014-07-14

    The possibility of an HIV/AIDS epidemic in southeastern Europe (SEE) is not improbable. Thus, an understanding of the current issues surrounding HIV/AIDS care, specifically antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, in countries within SEE is critical. This study was conducted to determine the ART adherence characteristics of Albania's HIV-positive population. This cross-sectional study reports initial demographic and adherence characteristics of patients receiving HIV/AIDS treatment in Albania. Retrospective review of pharmacy medications dispensed supplemented reported adherence behavior. Further, an adherence index was utilized to explore adherence more thoroughly. Patient-reported adherence and pharmacy review showed adherence levels of 98.9±4.4% and 97.7±4.7%, respectively. Assessment by adherence index revealed an index level of 91.7±6.7. Factors associated with a score of < 95 on the adherence index were: being partnered (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.09 - 0.98), history of depression (OR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.08 - 0.76), increased number of barriers to care (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66 - 0.97), and increased number of current social and medical needs (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.58 - 0.91). Interventions aimed at reducing barriers to care, addressing current medical and social needs, and treating mental health issues may help improve adherence to ART in patients with HIV/AIDS in Albania. With little known about HIV/AIDS in SEE, this study provides guidance on how SEE countries can help prevent a possible rise in the prevalence of HIV given the close link of ART adherence and spread of HIV.

  9. Dirty Money: A Matter of Bacterial Survival, Adherence, and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesekoop, Frank; Chen, Jing; Oldaker, Jenna; Besnard, Flavien; Smith, Reece; Leversha, William; Smith-Arnold, Cheralee; Worrall, Julie; Rufray, Emily; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao; Scannell, Amalia; Russell, Cryn

    2016-11-23

    In this study we report the underlying reasons to why bacteria are present on banknotes and coins. Despite the use of credit cards, mobile phone apps, near-field-communication systems, and cryptocurrencies such as bitcoins which are replacing the use of hard currencies, cash exchanges still make up a significant means of exchange for a wide range of purchases. The literature is awash with data that highlights that both coins and banknotes are frequently identified as fomites for a wide range of microorganisms. However, most of these publications fail to provide any insight into the extent to which bacteria adhere and persist on money. We treated the various currencies used in this study as microcosms, and the bacterial loading from human hands as the corresponding microbiome. We show that the substrate from which banknotes are produced have a significant influence on both the survival and adherence of bacteria to banknotes. Smooth, polymer surfaces provide a poor means of adherence and survival, while coarser and more fibrous surfaces provide strong bacterial adherence and an environment to survive on. Coins were found to be strongly inhibitory to bacteria with a relatively rapid decline in survival on almost all coin surfaces tested. The inhibitory influence of coins was demonstrated through the use of antimicrobial disks made from coins. Despite the toxic effects of coins on many bacteria, bacteria do have the ability to adapt to the presence of coins in their environment which goes some way to explain the persistent presence of low levels of bacteria on coins in circulation.

  10. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodsong, Cynthia; MacQueen, Kathleen; Amico, K Rivet; Friedland, Barbara; Gafos, Mitzy; Mansoor, Leila; Tolley, Elizabether; McCormack, Sheena

    2013-04-08

    After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.

  11. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Woodsong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1 Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2 Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3 Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4 Partner influence on use, (5 Retention and continuation and (6 Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.

  12. Stealth monitoring of adherence to topical medication: adherence is very poor in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci-Manwaring, Jennifer; Tusa, Mark G; Carroll, Christie; Camacho, Fabian; Kaur, Mandeep; Carr, David; Fleischer, Alan B; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Feldman, Steven R

    2007-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common problem for which topical agents are the primary treatment. When topical medications fail, further therapy may include systemic agents with the potential for greater toxicity. Adherence to topical treatment of atopic dermatitis has not been well characterized. Poor adherence to topical medication could account for failure of topical therapy. To determine adherence to topical treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. Thirty-seven children were given 0.1% triamcinolone ointment and were counseled to use it twice daily. They were told to return in 4 weeks, at which time they were told to continue treatment for another 4 weeks. Electronic monitors were used to measure adherence over the entire 8 week study. Patients were not informed of the compliance monitoring until the end of the study. Twenty-six patients completed 8 weeks of treatment. Mean adherence from the baseline to the end of the study was 32%. Adherence was higher on or near office visit days and subsequently decreased rapidly. This study was limited by the large number of subjects who failed to return for follow-up appointments or withdrew from the study. Adherence to topical medications is very poor in a clinic population of children with atopic dermatitis. Office visits are one means to increase adherence. If adherence to topical treatment can be improved, exposure to more costly and potentially toxic systemic agents may be avoidable.

  13. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qiuling, E-mail: 924969007@qq.com [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293 (Japan); Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Mu, Jinjun [The Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Li, Yuanfei [The First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  14. The Respiratory Pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis Targets Collagen for Maximal Adherence to Host Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and is associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The first step in M. catarrhalis colonization is adherence to the mucosa, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of M. catarrhalis interactions with collagens from various angles. Clinical isolates (n = 43 were tested for collagen binding, followed by a detailed analysis of protein-protein interactions using recombinantly expressed proteins. M. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with collagen produced by human lung fibroblasts and tracheal tissues were studied by utilizing confocal immunohistochemistry and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. A mouse smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD model was used to estimate the adherence of M. catarrhalis in vivo. We found that all M. catarrhalis clinical isolates tested adhered to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III and network-forming collagens IV and VI. The trimeric autotransporter adhesins ubiquitous surface protein A2 (UspA2 and UspA2H were identified as major collagen-binding receptors. M. catarrhalis wild type adhered to human tracheal tissue and collagen-producing lung fibroblasts, whereas UspA2 and UspA2H deletion mutants did not. Moreover, in the COPD mouse model, bacteria devoid of UspA2 and UspA2H had a reduced level of adherence to the respiratory tract compared to the adherence of wild-type bacteria. Our data therefore suggest that the M. catarrhalis UspA2 and UspA2H-dependent interaction with collagens is highly critical for adherence in the host and, furthermore, may play an important role in the establishment of disease.

  15. Effects of adherence to antiretroviral therapy on body mass index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.A. Olowookere

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ure, development of drug resistance and subsequent virological and immunological failure.4,5. Although .... adherence during counseling sessions, although 95% adher- ence is sufficient to suppress viral load to .... evaluation and adherence measurement by self report. In conclusion, P95% adherence to ...

  16. Personal barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence: Case studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although good adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for successful treatment outcomes, some patients may have specific personal barriers to ART adherence. Objectives: To study specific personal barriers to ART adherence. Methods: Quantitative data on patients' health status, ART adherence ...

  17. Haemagglutinins and adherence properties to HeLa and intestine 407 cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, R; Heineken, P; Sonntag, H G

    1987-03-01

    The occurrence of haemagglutination (HA) and adherence properties were examined in 50 strains of K. pneumoniae and 17 K. oxytoca strains isolated from humans. All isolates except three exhibited HA activity. Mannose-sensitive haemagglutinins (MSHA) were expressed by the majority of K. pneumoniae strains, but only by one K. oxytoca isolate. Mannose-resistant haemagglutination (MRHA) to human or guinea pig erythrocytes could not be detected; haemagglutinins of the MR/K type were found in both species with similar frequencies. Adhesive properties could be demonstrated in K. pneumoniae as often as in K. oxytoca: About half of the strains adhered to two human cell lines: HeLa and Intestine 407. The incidence of HA activity was similar in adhering and nonadhering strains. A correlation between MSHA, MR/K-HA and adherence to tissue-cultured cells could not be detected.

  18. Comparative proteomics of uropathogenic Escherichia coli during growth in human urine identify UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae as an adherence factor involved in biofilm formation and binding to uroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurpel, Daniël J; Totsika, Makrina; Allsopp, Luke P; Webb, Richard I; Moriel, Danilo G; Schembri, Mark A

    2016-01-10

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in humans. For the successful colonisation of the human urinary tract, UPEC employ a diverse collection of secreted or surface-exposed virulence factors including toxins, iron acquisition systems and adhesins. In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was utilised to define the UPEC pan and core surface proteome following growth in pooled human urine. Identified proteins were investigated for subcellular origin, prevalence and homology to characterised virulence factors. Fourteen core surface proteins were identified, as well as eleven iron uptake receptor proteins and four distinct fimbrial types, including type 1, P, F1C/S and a previously uncharacterised fimbrial type, designated UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae in this study. These pathogenicity island (PAI)-associated fimbriae are related to UCA fimbriae of Proteus mirabilis, associated with UPEC and exclusively found in members of the E. coli B2 and D phylogroup. We further demonstrated that UCL fimbriae promote significant biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and mediate specific attachment to exfoliated human uroepithelial cells. Combined, this study has defined the surface proteomic profiles and core surface proteome of UPEC during growth in human urine and identified a new type of fimbriae that may contribute to UTI. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Advancing the Science and Practice of Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirratt, Michael J; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Danila, Maria I; Hansen, Richard; Miller, Michael J; Gakumo, C Ann

    2018-02-01

    Medication adherence remains a significant unmet challenge for optimizing patient outcomes. Recent advances in the conceptualization, measurement, and support of medication adherence offer fresh opportunities to make a meaningful impact on adherence-related behavior and outcomes. These advances emphasize the multifaceted and dynamic nature of medication adherence, provide novel methods for monitoring medication adherence in clinical care, and articulate a set of multilevel strategies to more effectively improve and sustain medication adherence. Here, we offer recommendations for how clinicians can better engage with, and benefit from, these innovations to improve patient medication adherence and associated treatment outcomes.

  20. Phenotypic and functional changes in blood monocytes following adherence to endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Tso

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood monocytes are known to express endothelial-like genes during co-culture with endothelium. In this study, the time-dependent change in the phenotype pattern of primary blood monocytes after adhering to endothelium is reported using a novel HLA-A2 mistyped co-culture model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Freshly isolated human PBMCs were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells or human coronary arterial endothelial cells of converse human leukocyte antigen A2 (HLA-A2 status. This allows the tracking of the PBMC-derived cells by HLA-A2 expression and assessment of their phenotype pattern over time. PBMCs that adhered to the endothelium at the start of the co-culture were predominantly CD11b+ blood monocytes. After 24 to 72 hours in co-culture, the endothelium-adherent monocytes acquired endothelial-like properties including the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, CD105, CD144 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. The expression of monocyte/macrophage lineage antigens CD14, CD11b and CD36 were down regulated concomitantly. The adherent monocytes did not express CD115 after 1 day of co-culture. By day 6, the monocyte-derived cells expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in response to tumour necrosis factor alpha. Up to 10% of the PBMCs adhered to the endothelium. These monocyte-derived cells contributed up to 30% of the co-cultured cell layer and this was dose-dependent on the PBMC seeding density. CONCLUSIONS: Human blood monocytes undergo rapid phenotype change to resemble endothelial cells after adhering to endothelium.

  1. Adherence to antiepileptic therapy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Chinnaiyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder affecting 70 million worldwide. The high incidence of relapse can be attributed to nonadherence, thus increasing the incidence of refractory epilepsy to 10%–20%. Aims: This study was planned to determine rate of adherence and factors affecting adherence using Antiepileptic Adherence Questionnaire and Baseline Adherence Questionnaire. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out at a rural hospital from May to September 2015. Patients of either gender aged 18–60 years, diagnosed with epilepsy were interviewed after they consented. Patient details, responses to questionnaires were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Among the participants, 67.8% were males and 32.2% were females with the mean age of 38.3 ± 13.9 years. The response rate was 75% (90/120. The majority were literate (64.4% and employed (58.9%. The duration of disease was <5 years in most individuals; 50% were highly, 21.1% moderately, and 28.9% nonadherent to treatment. Among the highly adherent, 66.7% never skipped medications because they had knowledge of the disease and treatment. More than 97% were satisfied with the social support, and 89% expressed that their family and friends reminded them to take medications. Patients who were nonadherent to treatment attributed it to the lack of knowledge of the disease (57% and treatment (96%. Reasons for nonadherence were patients assumed drug was harmful, felt cured of the disease, and wanted to avoid side effects. Conclusion: Nearly, 70% expressed the lack of satisfactory support from the social circle. We observed that nearly seventy percent epileptic patients were moderate-highly adherent. Nonadherence was attributed to patient feeling cured of disease and assuming medications to be harmful. Counseling of patients will help in adherence to treatment.

  2. Interventions to increase adherence to acne treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Tuchayi S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sara Moradi Tuchayi,1 Tiffany M Alexander,2 Anish Nadkarni,1 Steven R Feldman1,3,4 1Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 2Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, 3Department of Public Health Sciences, 4Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Background: Adherence to acne medication is poor and is a major reason why treatment plans are ineffective. Recognizing solutions to nonadherence is critical. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the hurdles associated with acne nonadherence and to provide mechanisms on how to ameliorate them. Methods: PubMed database was searched. Of the 419 search results, 29 articles were reviewed to identify hurdles to adherence and corresponding solutions. Results: Hurdles to primary nonadherence where the medication is not even started, include lack of knowledge, confusion about usage, weak physician–patient relationship, fear of adverse reactions, and cost. Secondary nonadherence hurdles where the medication is started but is not taken as directed include lack of results, complex regimens, side effects, busy lifestyle, forgetfulness, inconvenience, and psychiatric comorbidity. Solutions to these hurdles include treatment simplification, technology, and dynamic education. Limitations: Adherence is affected by numerous factors, but available literature analyzing acne adherence and interventions to improve adherence to treatment is limited. Conclusion: There are several hurdles in adhering to acne treatment. Recognition of these hurdles and finding appropriate solutions may be as important to treatment outcomes as choosing the right medication to prescribe. Keywords: acne vulgaris, adherence, pathogenesis, treatment, quality of life, prevalence, physician–patient relationship, lifestyle, clinic visit, disease severity

  3. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyekyung; Kim, Yeonhee; Rhie, Sandy Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL) associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160) aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants' FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0-15). The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient's degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P =0.022), sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P =0.000), education level (β=-0.153, P =0.045), health-related problems (β=-0.239, P =0.004), and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P =0.018). In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists should consider elderly patients' individual characteristics such as educational background and specific patient-related health problems, provide sufficient information and explanation of medication, and ensure patient satisfaction with the counseling.

  4. Photosensitizer Adhered to Cell Culture Microplates Induces Phototoxicity in Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Ziegler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments in plastic receptacles are the basis of characterization of new photosensitizers (PSs for the photodynamic therapy. We recently reported that lipophilic PSs adhere to cell culture microplates in a kinetic-like manner (Engelhardt et al., 2011. In the current study, we examined the interaction and phototoxic effects of the microplate-adhered PS in cancer cells. Therefore, we preloaded microplates with hypericin, Foscan, PVP-hypericin, or aluminum (III phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride (AlPCS4 for 24 hours and measured the PS distribution after addition of A431 human carcinoma cells: following another 24 hours up to 68% of hypericin were detected in the cell fraction. The hydrophilic PVP-hypericin and AlPCS4 also diffused into the cells, but the quantities of PS adherence were considerably lower. Microplate-adhered Foscan appeared not to be redistributed. In contrast to the hydrophilic PSs, the cellular phototoxicity of microplate-adhered lipophilic PS was high, independent of whether the PS (i was pre-loaded onto microplates or (ii added simultaneously with the cells or (iii one day after cell seeding. Based on these results, we suggest testing lipophilic PS dyes for their adherence to microplates. Furthermore, the ability of plastic materials to (reversibly store PSs might represent a new approach for the PS delivery or the development of antimicrobial coatings.

  5. Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence: Knowledge and Experiences among Adolescents and Young Adults in Soweto, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hornschuh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV management of adolescents and young adults (AYAs is particularly pertinent to sub-Saharan Africa, where the pediatric HIV burden is marked. Antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence is a major challenge for AYAs. This qualitative study explored knowledge and experiences of adherence amongst AYAs attending treatment at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit (PHRU, Soweto, South Africa. Four focus group discussions (FGDs and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs were conducted with HIV-infected 15–25-year-old ART recipients. Transcripts were coded thematically. Participants (n=26 were aged median 18.5 years, 59.1% female and 69.2% virally suppressed <400 cp/ml. Three main themes emerged during FGDs and IDIs: (i correct knowledge about how to be adherent, benefits, and nonadherence consequences, (ii social, personal, and medication-related barriers to adherence, and (iii reminder, concealment, and motivational strategies to optimize adherence. Interventions to improve AYA adherence could focus on practical strategies, including status disclosure and medication concealment.

  6. mTOR inhibitor rapamycin induce polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells mobilization and function in protecting against acute graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Wang, Binsheng; Shan, Wei; Tan, Yamin; Feng, Jingjing; Xu, Lin; Wang, Limengmeng; Han, Biqing; Zhang, Mingming; Yu, Jian; Yu, Xiaohong; Huang, He

    2017-11-10

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin (RAPA) has been shown to be an effective immunosuppressor in the management of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after bone marrow transplantation. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) also have a protective effect in aGVHD regulation. However, the relationship between RAPA and MDSCs in aGVHD models is unclear. Meanwhile, the effect of RAPA on different subgroups of MDSCs is also less well described. In this study, we demonstrate that in vivo administration of RAPA results in the expansion and functional enhancement of polymorphonuclear MDSCs (PMN-MDSCs) in a murine model of aGVHD. RAPA treatment can enhance the suppressive function of PMN-MDSCs via up-regulation of arginase1 (Arg1) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at later time points. Moreover, RAPA can also induce a strong immunosuppressive function in PMN-MDSCs from murine bone marrow in vitro, but has a contrary effect on monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs). We found that RAPA-treated PMN-MDSCs can restrain the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells and promote induction of regulatory T cells in in vitro studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are increased and exert immunosuppressive activity together with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesarina Giallongo

    Full Text Available Tumor immune tolerance can derive from the recruitment of suppressor cell population, including myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, able to inhibit T cells activity. We identified a significantly expanded MDSCs population in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients at diagnosis that decreased to normal levels after imatinib therapy. In addition, expression of arginase 1 (Arg1 that depletes microenvironment of arginine, an essential aminoacid for T cell function, resulted in an increase in patients at diagnosis. Purified CML CD11b+CD33+CD14-HLADR- cells markedly suppressed normal donor T cell proliferation in vitro. Comparing CML Gr-MDSCs to autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs we observed a higher Arg1 expression and activity in PMNs, together with an inhibitory effect on T cells in vitro. Our data indicate that CML cells create an immuno-tolerant environment associated to MDSCs expansion with immunosuppressive capacity mediated by Arg1. In addition, we demonstrated for the first time also an immunosuppressive activity of CML PMNs, suggesting a strong potential immune escape mechanism created by CML cells, which control the anti-tumor reactive T cells. MDSCs should be monitored in imatinib discontinuation trials to understand their importance in relapsing patients.

  8. Treatment adherence in patients with headache: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Rachelle R; Ryan, Jamie L; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W; Aylward, Brandon S; Hommel, Kevin A

    2014-05-01

    To review and critically evaluate the extant research literature pertaining to adherence in youth and adults with headache and to provide recommendations for future research. This article provides the first systematic review of pediatric headache adherence and updates a previous review of treatment adherence in adults with headache. Systematic review of empirical literature. A literature search with no date restriction was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles. Adherence rates in adults with headache range considerably from 25% to 94% across treatment, assessment method, and definition of adherence utilized. Methods to assess adherence included retrospective prescription claims data, paper or electronic diaries, follow-up appointment attendance, written and verbal self-report of general adherence, verbal self-report of adherence over a specific amount of time via in person interview or telephone, validated adherence measures, adherence questionnaires without validation, and counselor ratings of homework. Each methodology and assessment tool demonstrated strengths and weaknesses. No studies have systematically examined medication adherence in children with headache, and the few available studies examining adherence to behavioral treatment have documented adherence rates ranging from 52% to 86%. Adherence research in adults with headache is growing, but studies demonstrate a number of methodological shortcomings. Adherence research in children with headache, and adherence intervention research in both adults and children, is scant. Future research should use objective measures of adherence, consider over-the-counter medications and medication overuse, examine demographic, psychological, and behavioral correlates of adherence, assess adherence to botulinum toxin type A, and examine the efficacy of adherence interventions in individuals with headache. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  9. Treatment Adherence Intervention Studies in Dermatology and Guidance on How to Support Adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, S.R.; Vrijens, B.; Gieler, U.; Piaserico, S.; Puig, L.; Kerkhof, P. van de

    2017-01-01

    Adequate adherence to prescribed treatment regimens can help to break the cycle of treatment failure, disease progression and subsequent treatment escalation. Unfortunately, adherence in the treatment of skin disorders such as acne, atopic dermatitis/eczema and psoriasis is often inadequate. A

  10. Current strategies for improving access and adherence to antiretroviral therapies in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlon ML

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael L Scanlon,1,2 Rachel C Vreeman1,21Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2USAID, Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH Partnership, Eldoret, KenyaAbstract: The rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related morbidity and mortality, but good clinical outcomes depend on access and adherence to treatment. In resource-limited settings, where over 90% of the world’s HIV-infected population resides, data on barriers to treatment are emerging that contribute to low rates of uptake in HIV testing, linkage to and retention in HIV care systems, and suboptimal adherence rates to therapy. A review of the literature reveals limited evidence to inform strategies to improve access and adherence with the majority of studies from sub-Saharan Africa. Data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials support home-based, mobile and antenatal care HIV testing, task-shifting from doctor-based to nurse-based and lower level provider care, and adherence support through education, counseling and mobile phone messaging services. Strategies with more limited evidence include targeted HIV testing for couples and family members of ART patients, decentralization of HIV care, including through home- and community-based ART programs, and adherence promotion through peer health workers, treatment supporters, and directly observed therapy. There is little evidence for improving access and adherence among vulnerable groups such as women, children and adolescents, and other high-risk populations and for addressing major barriers. Overall, studies are few in number and suffer from methodological issues. Recommendations for further research include health information technology, social-level factors like HIV stigma, and new research directions in cost-effectiveness, operations, and implementation. Findings from this review make a

  11. The influence of cultural and religious orientations on social support and its potential impact on medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatah, Ernieda; Lim, Kien Ping; Ali, Adliah Mohd; Mohamed Shah, Noraida; Islahudin, Farida

    2015-01-01

    Social support can positively influence patients' health outcomes through a number of mechanisms, such as increases in patients' adherence to medication. Although there have been studies on the influence of social support on medication adherence, these studies were conducted in Western settings, not in Asian settings where cultural and religious orientations may be different. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of cultural orientation and religiosity on social support and its relation to patients' medication adherence. This was a cross-sectional study of patients with chronic diseases in two tertiary hospitals in Selangor, Malaysia. Patients who agreed to participate in the study were asked to answer questions in the following areas: 1) perceived group and higher authority cultural orientations; 2) religiosity: organizational and non-organizational religious activities, and intrinsic religiosity; 3) perceived social support; and 4) self-reported medication adherence. Patients' medication adherence was modeled using multiple logistic regressions, and only variables with a P-value of social support (r=0.181, P=0.003; r=0.230, Pinfluence patients' adherence to medications (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.05, P=0.002; OR 0.99, P=0.025; OR 1.19, P=0.038; and OR 9.08, Psocial support was not found to have significant influence on patients' medication adherence. Only age, duration of treatment, organizational religious activity, and disease type (human immunodeficiency virus) had significant influence on patients' adherence.

  12. Measuring adherence to a women's walking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, J; Chandler, P; Miller, A M

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the use of a self-report exercise log and a heart-rate monitor in the measurement of adherence to the dimensions of an exercise prescription and to propose an alternative way to define adherence to a 24-week home-based women's walking program, which reflects the dynamic process of behavior change. Adherence was measured with exercise logs, Polar Vantage XL Heart-Rate Monitors, and pre- to postintervention change in VO2 max. Of the dimensions of the exercise prescription, frequency of walks documented by both the heart-rate monitor and the exercise log had a higher correlation than duration and intensity of walking, with change in VO2 max suggesting that frequency was potentially the most predictive adherence measure. Examination of the total number of walks and the number and sequence of weeks without walks over the 24-week intervention revealed dynamic patterns of adherence suggesting variation in the degree of behavioral change.

  13. [Family adherence in serious mental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro

    2017-10-09

    Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving medication adherence in patients with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Ulla; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Pottegård, Anton

    2015-01-01

    medication adherence in hypertensive patients. Motivational interviewing was a key element of the intervention. METHODS: Patients (N=532) were recruited from 3 hospital outpatient clinics and randomized to usual care or a 6-month pharmacist intervention comprising collaborative care, medication review......BACKGROUND: and Purpose: In patients with hypertension, medication adherence is often suboptimal, thereby increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. In a randomized trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting to improve......, tailored adherence counselling including motivational interviewing and telephone follow-ups. The primary outcome was composite medication possession ratio (MPR) to antihypertensive and lipid-lowering agents, at one-year follow-up, assessed by analyzing pharmacy records. Secondary outcomes at 12 months...

  15. Adherence and invasion studies of Candida albicans strains, using in vitro models of esophageal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, J; Herman, D; Sheridan, M; Calderone, R

    2001-11-01

    The adherence of clinical and commensal isolates and reference collection strains of Candida albicans to a human esophageal cell monolayer (HET1-A) and reconstituted human esophageal tissue was compared. Isolates from patients with a severe form of esophageal candidiasis or candidemia adhered to HET1-A cells to a significantly greater extent than did isolates from patients with mild esophageal candidiasis or commensal and reference collection strains. In addition, C. albicans strain SSK21, which lacks the ssk1 response regulator gene of a 2-component signal transduction pathway, adhered less readily to the HET1-A cells than did parental cells or a gene-reconstituted strain. In a reconstituted esophageal tissue model, all clinical strains but not commensal or reference collection strains penetrated the epithelium, albeit at different rates. Hyphal formation following yeast cell adherence to the esophageal tissue was a requirement for invasion. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to confirm the colonization of the esophageal tissues by various strains. These studies indicate that both the HET1-A and the reconstituted esophageal tissue models can be used as in vitro targets to evaluate the adherence phenotype and invasiveness of C. albicans strains.

  16. Medication non-adherence and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Lau, Sofie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    . This applied to information from both mass media and from general practitioners. There was no clear pattern of information seeking and statin non-adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The article point to the impact of information-seeking on the decision to take cholesterol-lowering medication. This included contributions......BACKGROUND: Statins are widely prescribed to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, statin non-adherence is very high. PURPOSE: The aim of this paper was to investigate reasons for stopping statin treatment in the general population and to study how aspects of information...

  17. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  18. Community health workers adherence to referral guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    and symptoms. CHW treatment registers were reviewed to identify children eligible for referral according to training guidelines (temperature of ≥38.5 °C), to assess whether CHWs adhered to the guidelines and referred them. Factors associated with adherence were examined with logistic regression models. Results...... to the referral guideline. Methods A secondary analysis was undertaken of data collected during two cluster-randomized trials conducted between January 2010 and July 2011, one in a moderate-to-high malaria transmission setting and the other in a low malaria transmission setting. All CHWs were trained to prescribe...

  19. Adherence logger for a dry powder inhaler: a new device for medical adherence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Daniel; Apter, Andrea J

    2004-10-01

    Adherence to inhaled steroid regimens is frequently poor. Finding ways to improve adherence depends on the ability to measure time and date of inhaler use reliably and to detect deliberate dose dumping. There is no such monitor for the popular new dry powder inhalers. To develop and test an electronic monitor for a dry powder inhaler that will provide information on the time and date of use. An electronic adherence monitor for the Advair Diskus dry powder inhaler was developed and tested. In this device, inhaler use is determined by detecting and recording the motion of the drug delivery lever in the inhaler with a magnetic sensor. An additional electronic interface and software were also developed to allow the adherence data to be uploaded to a computer for display and analysis. System and reliability tests involving multiple-day and repeated-use tests of the adherence monitor demonstrate the overall performance and reliability of the device, and specifically its ability to record the time and date of dose delivery. In the repeated-use test, 300 successive actuations of the dose delivery lever were correctly sensed and recorded without error. The simple-to-use, low-cost, reusable adherence monitor accurately records time and date of inhaler use and thus allows clinical monitoring and adherence studies in patients using the Advair Diskus dry powder inhaler. The same technology should be adaptable to other dry powder inhalers, including the Pulmicort Tubuhaler and the Symbicort Tubuhaler.

  20. Cellular basis for tentacle adherence in the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, S M; Hessinger, D A

    1980-01-01

    The fishing tentacles of Physalia physalis (Portuguese man-of-war) adhere to prey and human victims by the penetration of a barbed tubule connected to an intracellular nematocyst. The nematocyst is surrounded by a fibrillar system of microtubules and microfilaments that terminate in hemidesmosomal processes which anchor the nematocyst to the acellular mesoglea of the tentacle.

  1. Negative Gauge Pressure Moisture Management and Secure Adherence Device for Prosthetic Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Lower extremity amputee, transtibial amputation , artificial limb, prosthesis, skin temperature, perspiration 16. SECURITY...and secure adherence device for lower limb amputees. A human subject experiment with transtibial amputees was performed to compare the performance of...being disseminated to program officials, clinicians, and amputees. Figure 1: Assembled test prosthesis worn by a transtibial amputee. W81XWH-11-2

  2. Adherence to infant-feeding choices by HIV-infected mothers at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study examined adherence to infant-feeding choices made by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers at a Nigerian tertiary hospital prior to implementation of the “rapid advice” guideline, i.e. the revised World Health Organisation principles and recommendations on infant feeding in the ...

  3. Patients with COPD have low adherence to inhaled medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Toettenborg, Sandra; Topp, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Medicine adherence in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has not been studied in Denmark. Studies from other countries, however, unequivocally report low prevalence of patients who follow their doctor's advice and have sufficient adherence to inhaled medicine. In this review we...... describe results of previous studies on prevalence of adherence to inhaled medicine in COPD, and define characteristics of the patients and treatment associated with degree of adherence. We conclude that health professionals should always consider non-adherence, strive to simplify regiments......, and that there is an urgent need of studies aiming at improving adherence in patients with COPD....

  4. Impact of a pharmaceutical care program on clinical evolution and antiretroviral treatment adherence: a 5-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Arroyo MJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available María Jesús Hernández Arroyo,1 Salvador Enrique Cabrera Figueroa,2 Rosa Sepúlveda Correa,3 María de la Paz Valverde Merino,1 Alicia Iglesias Gómez,4 Alfonso Domínguez-Gil Hurlé5 On behalf of the Tormes Team 1Pharmacy Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 2Pharmacy Institute, University Austral of Chile, Valdivia, Chile; 3Department of Statistics, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 4Infectious Disease Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 5Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain Background: Antiretroviral treatments (ART form the basis of adequate clinical control in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, and adherence plays a primary role in the grade and duration of the antiviral response. The objectives of this study are: (1 to determine the impact of the implementation of a pharmaceutical care program on improvement of ART adherence and on the immunovirological response of the patients; and (2 to detect possible correlations between different adherence evaluation measurements. Methods: A 60-month long retrospective study was conducted. Adherence measures used were: therapeutic drug monitoring, a simplified medication adherence questionnaire, and antiretroviral dispensation records (DR. The number of interviews and interventions related to adherence made for each patient in yearly periods was related to the changes in the adherence variable (measured with DR in these same yearly periods. The dates when the laboratory tests were drawn were grouped according to proximity with the study assessment periods (February–May, 2005–2010. Results: A total of 528 patients were included in the study. A significant relationship was observed between the simplified medication adherence questionnaire and DR over the 60-month study period (P < 0.01. Improvement was observed in the mean adherence level (P < 0.001, and there was a

  5. Adherence to Diabetes Medication in Individuals with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review of Rates and Determinants of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczynski, Paul; Patel, Hiren; Ganguli, Rohan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of medication adherence for the effective treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), little research has examined adherence with diabetes medication treatment in schizophrenia. The purpose of this systematic review was to: 1) evaluate rates of adherence and determinants of adherence with medication for T2DM in individuals with schizophrenia; and, where possible, 2) examine the relationship between medication adherence and glycemic control. Studies were included if they presented information on dosing regimens and adherence or compliance rates for T2DM and included samples where at least 50% of the participants were individuals with schizophrenia. Six studies were included in this review that predominantly examined men over the age of 50 years. Studies confirmed that many individuals with schizophrenia were not adhering to their diabetes medication as adherence rates ranged from 51-85%. Two studies that compared medication adherence in individuals with and without schizophrenia found those with the mental illness had higher rates of adherence. One study reported that blood glucose control levels were not statistically different between those who did and did not adhere to their medication, indicating more research is necessary in this area. Factors that improved adherence included disease and medical service and medication-related factors. Interventions to increase diabetes medication adherence in schizophrenia need to address disease and medical service and medication-related factors. Further research needs to examine diabetes medication adherence in women, younger individuals, and those recently diagnosed with diabetes as these individuals have been underrepresented in the literature.

  6. Mechanism for the inflammatory response in primate lungs. Demonstration and partial characterization of an alveolar macrophage-derived chemotactic factor with preferential activity for polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierowski, J A; Gallin, J I; Reynolds, H Y

    1977-02-01

    Approximately 4 h after an initial bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of a primate's lung, an appreciable number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were noted to accumulate in respiratory fluids when lavage was repeated. Whereas, alveolar macrophages (90%) and lymphocytes (7%) were the principal respiratory cells recovered initially from lavage fluid, later samples contained 45-90% PMNs To explain the observed ingress of PMNs into lung fluids, concentrated BAL fluid was tested for chemoattractant activity. Such fluid obtained 4 and 24 h after an initial lavage contained material that produced directed migration (chemotaxis) for PMNs and mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of normal donors. Gel filtration chromatography of BAL disclosed two peaks of chemotactic activity in the effluent fractions. Material from the column with an estimated molecular weight of 15,000 daltons was chemotactic for both PMNs and mononuclear cells. Because it was susceptible to inactivation with antiserum against the fifth component of complement, resistant to heating, and unaffected by antiserum against C3, this factor was considered analogous to the cleavage product of the fifth component of complement. C5a. In addition chemotactic activity for PMNs only was contained in an effluent peak having a molecular weight of about 5,000 daltons. This material was heat labile but unaffected by antisera to complement components. To locate the possible source of these factors in respiratory fluid, in vitro cultures of alveolar macrophages were established. These cells, whether stimulated by phagocytosis of opsonized bacteria or merely by attachment to a glass surface, produced chemotactic material which had physical characteristics similar to the small molecular weight material in BAL. Moreover, it induced preferential chemotaxis for PMNs. Thus, in primate lungs, at least two chemotactic substances may generate an inflammatory response; one which is a fragment of the complement component

  7. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Marques Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. Method: quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. Results: on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283 with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p < 0.0001, with greater adherence of women participating in the behavioral group (66.8%. Conclusion: the behavioral and educational interventions by phone were effective in the adherence of women to colpocytological examination, representing important strategies for permanent health education and promotion of care for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  8. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaip Krasniqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB. To our knowledge, the data about patients’ adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Design. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. Results. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109–0.188. Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. Conclusion. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker’s commitments need to be addressed for improvement.

  9. Adherence to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Eriksen, Stine A; Christensen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To study adherence to methotrexate (MTX) and factors of importance thereof in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of RA (ICD10 codes M05.X or M06.X) after January 1, 1997, and aged ≥18 years at the date of first diagnosis...

  10. Dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University. M.R. Moosa. MB ChB, FCP ... purpose of this paper was to determine the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in predicting dietary and fluid adherence among a sample of ... behaviour and the evaluations of these outcomes), the individual's perception of ...

  11. Hypertension guideline adherence of private practitioners and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension remains a healthcare problem in South Africa. When prescribing evidence-based, cost-effective anti-hypertensive treatment, guideline adherence is essential. The Joint National Committee's Sixth Report (JNC VI) built its evidence-based review on the outcome of clinical trials. The objective of this ...

  12. Factors Associated With Poor Medication Adherence In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 237 adult patients aged 18 and above with previous diagnosis of essential hypertension receiving out patient care in the University Teaching Hospital ... Multivariable analysis showed that; participants were more likely to be non-adherent by self-report if they had attained a primary level of education, had missed ...

  13. Treatment adherence following national antiretroviral rollout in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The national antiretroviral (ARV) programme in South Africa commenced in 2004. ARV drugs became readily available to all South Africans due to the concerted efforts of 'access to all' campaigns. This study investigates medication adherence among a sample of South Africans after the ARV rollout in order to gain insight ...

  14. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Shaip; Jakupi, Arianit; Daci, Armond; Tigani, Bahri; Jupolli-Krasniqi, Nora; Pira, Mimoza; Zhjeqi, Valbona

    2017-01-01

    Setting The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Design This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. Results The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109–0.188). Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. Conclusion The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker's commitments need to be addressed for improvement. PMID:29230326

  15. factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fineprint

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors ...

  16. Patient Medication Knowledge Governing Adherence to Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asthma is a chronic disease and often requires complex management. This study was undertaken in four pharmacies–V-Ninat Pharmacy, Videc Chemists, Tomabel Pharmacy and Josbet Chemists, all in Isolo, Lagos, to determine the level of adherence to the anti-asthmatic drugs by asthmatic patients who participated in the ...

  17. Patient Medication Knowledge Governing Adherence to Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic disease and often requires complex management. This study was undertaken in four pharmacies–V-Ninat Pharmacy, Videc Chemists, Tomabel Pharmacy and Josbet Chemists, all in Isolo, Lagos, to determine the level of adherence to the anti-asthmatic drugs by asthmatic patients who ...

  18. Psoriasis: improving adherence to topical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, S.R.; Horn, E.J.; Balkrishnan, R.; Basra, M.K.; Finlay, A.Y.; McCoy, D.; Menter, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2008-01-01

    Topical therapy has an important role in psoriasis treatment. It is efficacious and has a favorable safety profile as demonstrated in clinical trials. However, poor treatment outcomes from topical therapy regimens likely result from poor adherence and ineffective use of the medication. The

  19. Staff Knowledge, Adherence to Infection Control Recommendations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: We evaluated hemodialysis (HD) staff knowledge, adherence to infection control recommendations and seroconversion rates for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 13 centers that continuously provided HD services in Khartoum State between June 2009 and November 2010. Methods: The ...

  20. Sociodemographic factors influencing adherence to antenatal iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While univariate analysis revealed the percent distributions of all variables, bivariate analysis was used to examine the relationships between individual independent variables and adherence to iron supplementation. Chi-square tests of independence were conducted for categorical variables, with the significance level set ...

  1. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract CustOITlS traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been ... Results indicate that while SOITle traditional. custOITlS are still adhered to by most Indian ..... sertation, University of rbe Witwatersrand, 1976. 5. Cherry R. The changing family: a srudy of the Indian family in.

  2. Social Support, Treatment Adherence and Outcome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-02

    Jun 2, 2017 ... SUMMARY. Objectives: To evaluate available and desired sources and types of social-support among hypertensive and type-2- diabetes (T2D) patients. Associations of medication adherence and clinical outcome with access to most available social-support and medicine affordability were subsequently ...

  3. Determinants of patient's adherence to hypertension medications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: A cross‑sectional study was conducted in a rural area of the Ardabil city in 2013. This study was ... Respondents with regular physical activity and nonsmokers were more adherent to hypertension medication when compared to respondents with sedentary lifestyle and smoking (P < 0.01). Based on ...

  4. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...

  5. Dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective There has been considerable debate about the extent to which social cognitive models of health behaviour apply in developing countries. The purpose of this paper was to determine the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in predicting dietary and fluid adherence among a sample of ...

  6. Psychosocial influencers and mediators of treatment adherence in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Soo; Park, Ji Suk; Seo, Wha Sook

    2013-09-01

    This article is a report of the development and testing of the hypothetical model that illustrates relationships between treatment adherence and its psychosocial influencing factors and to elucidate the direct and indirect (mediating) effects of factors on treatment adherence. Poor adherence has been consistently reported in haemodialysis patients. Much research has showed various influencing factors of adherence, but these studies have failed to identify consistent influencing factors. This study was performed using a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. The study subjects were 150 end-stage renal failure patients on haemodialysis at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Data were collected over 10 months (June 2010-April 2011). The hypothetical model provided a good fit with data. Haemodialysis-related knowledge, perceived barrier to adherence, self-efficacy on adherence, and healthcare provider support had significant effects on adherence. Self-efficacy was found to mediate barrier-adherence and family support-adherence relationships. Self-efficacy in combination with barrier, family support, and healthcare provider support was found to mediate the depression-adherence relationship. Strategies aimed at the development of successful adherence interventions should focus on reducing perceived barriers and enhancing self-efficacy and knowledge. It can be suggested that efforts to improve the healthcare provider-patient relationship would enhance adherence. In depressive patients, strategies that promote self-efficacy and the support of family or healthcare providers could diminish the negative impact of depression on adherence. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremarch, C Perez-Jorge; Tanoira, R Perez; Arenas, M A; Matykina, E; Conde, A; De Damborenea, J J; Gomez Barrena, E; Esteban, J, E-mail: cperemarch@fjd.es

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  8. Adherence inhibition of Streptococcus mutans on dental enamel surface using silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Cristóbal, L.F. [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Martínez-Castañón, G.A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Téllez-Déctor, E.J. [Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Veracruzana campus Río Blanco, Mariano Abasolo S/N. Col. Centro. Río Blanco, Veracruz (Mexico); and others

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans after being exposed to three different sizes of silver nanoparticles on healthy human dental enamel. Three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (9.3, 21.3 and 98 nm) were prepared, characterized and an adherence testing was performed to evaluate their anti-adherence activity on a reference strain of S. mutans on healthy dental enamel surfaces. Colony-Forming Unit count was made for adherence test and light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare qualitative characteristics of S. mutans. 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups did not show differences between them but statistical differences were found when 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups were compared with 98 nm and negative control groups (p < 0.05). Microscopy analysis shows a better inhibition of S. mutans adherence in 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups than the 98 nm group when compared with control group. Silver nanoparticles showed an adherence inhibition on S. mutans and the anti-adherence capacity was better when silver nanoparticles were smaller. Highlights: ► We examined how SNP can affect cellular adhesion from S. mutans. ► Several techniques were applied to analyzed S. mutans biofilm on enamel. ► All SNP sizes had an adhesion inhibition of S. mutans. ► Smaller SNP showed a better adhesion inhibition than larger SNP. ► Inhibition effect of SNP could be related with adhesion inhibition from S. mutans.

  9. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino Idelson, P; Scalfi, L; Valerio, G

    2017-04-01

    A decreased adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) may be related to a rise in chronic non-communicable diseases from childhood onward. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available literature regarding MD adherence in children and adolescents, and focusing, more specifically, on the association of MD adherence with demographic and anthropometric variables, body composition, lifestyle, and diet adequacy. A search of scientific literature was carried out on PUBMED, SCOPUS, Clinical Trials Results, Google Scholar, and British Library Inside for studies published in the last 20 years. Fifty-eight papers were finally included according to the following criteria: MD adherence evaluated through a quantifying score or index, age 2-20 years, sample size >200 participants, observational or intervention studies regarding the general population. The KIDMED index was the most widely used scoring system. MD adherence widely varied within the Mediterranean countries for both children and adolescents, with also large differences among various European countries, while few data are available for non-Mediterranean countries. Most of the eligible studies showed that MD adherence was directly associated with physical activity (and possibly with diet adequacy) and inversely with sedentary behavior, while the results for gender, age, socioeconomic status and weight status were not consistent. Further validation of MD indexes in terms of reproducibility and consistency with the MD is needed. At the same time, more prospective cohort and intervention studies may better elucidate the relationships of MD adherence with behavioral and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.

  11. Insulin adherence and persistence among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He X

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoning He,1 Liming Chen,2 Ke Wang,3 Haiya Wu,3 Jing Wu1 1Department of Health Pharmacy and Administration, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 2Department of Metabolic Disease, Tianjin Medical University Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin, 3Medical Department, Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Objective: To assess adherence and persistence to insulin therapy and identify its associated factors among Chinese insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods: Tianjin Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance claims database was used (2008–2011. Adult patients with T2D who initiated insulin therapy during January 2009 through December 2010 and were continuously enrolled for 12 months pre-(baseline and 12 months post-initiation (follow-up were included. Patients who had a ≥80% medication possession ratio were deemed adherent, while patients who had no gaps of ≥90 days in insulin therapy were deemed persistent. Associated factors of insulin adherence and persistence were detected by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 24,192 patients were included; the patients had a mean age of 58.9 years, with 49.5% being female. About 51.9% of the patients had human insulin as initiation therapy, while 39.1% were initiated with insulin analog and 9.0% with animal-derived insulin. Premixed insulin (77.3% was prescribed most often in comparison with basal (11.8% and prandial (10.9% insulin. Only 30.9% of patients were adherent, and the mean (standard deviation medication possession ratio was 0.499 (0.361. About 53.0% of patients persisted insulin therapy during follow-up, and the mean time to nonpersistence was 230.3 (145.5 days. Patients initiated with analog were more likely to be adherent (adjusted odds ratio: 1.07, P=0.036 and persistent (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.88, P<0.001 compared with those initiated with human insulin. Patients

  12. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY Antibodies Induce Specific Bacterial Aggregation and Internalization in Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, K.; Christophersen, L.; Bjarnsholt, T.

    2015-01-01

    is attributed to IgY-facilitated formation of immobilized bacteria in aggregates, as visualized by fluorescence microscopy and the induction of increased bacterial hydrophobicity. Thus, the present study demonstrates that avian egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) targeting P. aeruginosa modify bacterial fitness...

  13. Treatment non-adherence among patients with poorly controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... as possible barriers to medication adherence include practical (145; 40.1%), ... approach as a reasonable strategy in resolving non-adherence ..... Eat moderate quantity of carbohydrate-containing food. 9 .... meta-analysis.

  14. Adherence to clusters of health behaviors and successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2012-12-01

    Analyses examine the extent to which adherence to recommendations regarding health behaviors cluster among older adults, whether people who adhere to multiple health behaviors are more likely to age successfully than those who adhere to fewer health behaviors, and whether some health behavior clusters are more closely associated with successful aging than others. Cross-sectional data were collected using structured telephone interviews from 5,688 persons aged 50 to 74 living in New Jersey. Prevalence odds ratio analyses indicated that differential cluster patterns exist. Logistic regression revealed that as the number of adherent behaviors increased so did the likelihood of aging successfully and that adherence to some health behavior clusters was more closely associated with successful aging than adherence to others. Although adherence to more health behaviors was associated with a greater likelihood of successful aging, it is possible to age successfully by adhering to specific clusters of health behaviors.

  15. Determinants of Adherence to Living on Dialysis for Mexican Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A. Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores perceptions that affect adherence behaviors among Mexican Americans living with dialysis. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 15 Mexican Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD living on dialysis, 15 family members, and 6 health care personnel who provided care to them. Four themes emerged: (a positive influences to adherence, (b obstacles to adherence, (c daily activity losses, and (d fears about living with dialysis. From the findings, the perceptions given for non-adherence with the dialysis regimen ranged from denial of the condition, lack of pre-education, to cultural factors. Those given for adherence included prolonged life, family, and hope of getting a transplant. Health care providers were the reminder to adhere. Several cultural factors influenced their adherence perceptions. Strategies to enhance adherence behaviors should focus on knowledge about dialysis, use of the collective efficacy of the family, and the inclusion of cultural values.

  16. Treatment non-adherence among patients with poorly controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    adherence among patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in am- bulatory .... diet and exercise (5; 3.0%). Patterns of medication non-adherence behavior among patients are shown in Table 2. African Health sciences Vol 14 No.

  17. Treatment adherence in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease: the collective impact of barriers to adherence and anxiety/depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Denson, Lee A; Baldassano, Robert N; Hommel, Kevin A

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of factors impacting adolescents' ability to adhere to their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) regimen is limited. The current study examines the collective impact of barriers to adherence and anxiety/depressive symptoms on adolescent adherence to the IBD regimen. Adolescents (n = 79) completed measures of barriers to adherence, adherence, and anxiety/depressive symptoms at one of two specialty pediatric IBD clinics. Most adolescents reported barriers to adherence and 1 in 8 reported borderline or clinically elevated levels of anxiety/depressive symptoms. Anxiety/depressive symptoms moderated the relationship between barriers to adherence and adherence. Post hoc probing revealed a significant, additive effect of higher anxiety/depressive symptoms in the barriers-adherence relationship, with adherence significantly lower among adolescents with higher barriers and higher anxiety/depressive symptoms. In order to optimize adherence in adolescents, interventions should target not only barriers to adherence but also any anxiety/depressive symptoms that may negatively impact efforts to adhere to recommended treatment.

  18. Percentage of adherence correlates with the risk of protease inhibitor (PI) treatment failure in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, J L; Sabido, R; Perez-Elías, M J; Antela, A; Oliva, J; Dronda, F; Mejía, B; Fortún, J

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effect of adherence on the rate of protease inhibitor (PI) treatment failure among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A prospective study of a cohort of 282 patients who initiated PI therapy from March 1996 to December 1997. Adherence was quantified as the percentage of prescribed doses reportedly taken and treatment failure was defined as HIV RNA levels above 200 copies/ml after 1 year on therapy. Overall, 190 patients (67%) missed prescribed doses. However, mean percentage of doses taken was 91% (range, 21-100%). Demographic, virological and immunological characteristics could not predict adherence outcomes. The causes of non-adherence included intolerance or side effects (35%), complexity of treatment (23%), or recurrence in active drug abuse (17%), whereas abandonment owing to HIV-related disease was uncommon (6%). A degree of adherence above 90% correlated significantly with viral suppression [relative risk (RR) 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.56; PHIV viral load (RR, 2.03; P=0.0001), prior antiretroviral therapy (RR, 2.5; P=0.01), and use of saquinavir-hard gel capsules (saquinavir-HGC) (RR, 1.77; P=0.03) were strongly associated with treatment failure. The percentage of adherence and initial HIV viral load are the most important determinants of virological response to PI therapy and non-adherence is related to treatment-related factors in the majority of cases.

  19. Optimization and inhibition of the adherent ability of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Smith

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the 1-2 million malaria associated deaths that occur each year are due to anemia and cerebral malaria (the attachment of erythrocytes containing mature forms of Plasmodium falciparum to the endothelial cells that line the vascular beds of the brain. A "model" system"for the study of cerebral malaria employs amelanotic melanoma cells as the "target"cells in an vitro cytoadherence assay. Using this model system we determined that the optimum pH for adherence is 6.6 to 6.8, that high concentrations of Ca²* (50mM result in increased levels of binding, and that the type of buffer used influences adherence (Bis Tris > MOPS > HEPES > PIPES. We also observed that the ability of infected erythrocytes to cytoadhere varied from (erythrocyte donor to donor. We have produced murine monoclonal antibodies against P. falciparum-infected red cells which recognized modified forms of human band 3; these inhibit the adherence of infected erythrocytes to melanoma cells in a doso responsive fashion. Antimalarials (chloroquine, quinacrine, mefloquine, artemisinin, on the other hand, affected adherence in an indirect fashion i.e. since cytoadherence is due, in part to the presence of knobs on the surface of the infected erythrocyte, and knob formation is dependent on intracellular parasite growth, when plasmodial development is inhibited so is knob production, and consequently adherence is ablated.

  20. Reduction of burn injury by inhibiting CD18-mediated leukocyte adherence in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucky, L P; Vedder, N B; Hong, H Z; Ehrlich, H P; Winn, R K; Harlan, J M; May, J W

    1994-06-01

    The progressive nature of dermal ischemia and subsequent tissue destruction within the "zone of stasis" is a central focus in burn research. To examine the role of neutrophils and neutrophil adherence within the zone of stasis, we utilized the monoclonal antibody (MAb) 60.3, directed to the human leukocyte adherence glycoprotein CD18 to block neutrophil adherence to endothelium and intravascular aggregation in a rabbit model of partial-thickness burn. Burns were created by applying an 80 degrees C brass template to the dorsal rabbit skin for 5 or 10 seconds. Animals treated with MAb 60.3 thirty minutes following a 5-second burn had less edema, thinner eschar, and earlier elevation of the eschar than control animals. Histologic analysis revealed an eightfold increase in live hair follicles (p neutrophils and increased neutrophil adherence play important roles in the progressive tissue destruction within the zone of stasis in burns. Furthermore, moderate burn injury may be significantly attenuated by blocking neutrophil adherence functions with a CD18 MAb.

  1. Improved assay for quantitating adherence of ruminal bacteria to cellulose.

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, M A; White, B A; Hespell, R B

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative technique suitable for the determination of adherence of ruminal bacteria to cellulose was developed. This technique employs adherence of cells to cellulose disks and alleviates the problem of nonspecific cell entrapment within cellulose particles. By using this technique, it was demonstrated that the adherence of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD1 to cellulose was inhibited by formaldehyde, methylcellulose, and carboxymethyl cellulose. Adherence was unaffected by acid hydrolysates ...

  2. Comprehensive efforts to increase adherence to statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vonbank, Alexander; Agewall, Stefan; Kjeldsen, Keld Per

    2017-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that statin therapy improves cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, statin adherence is far from optimal regarding initiation, execution and persistence of treatment over time.26 Poor adherence to statin therapy is associated with a significantly...... increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Evidence-based steps to improve adherence are available and should be taken in order to improve patient outcomes. Reinforcing statin adherence appears to have at least as strong beneficial effects as introducing a new drug....

  3. Factors associated with treatment adherence of Brazilian patients undergoing hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Renata Tamie; Gorayeb, Ricardo; da Costa, José Abrão Cardeal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate patients’ adherence to hemodialysis (HD) and its relationship to psychosocial variables. Methods: Participated in the study 64 adult patients undergoing HD, assessed in regard to depression, anxiety, social support, disease and treatment knowledge, and adherence. Results: It was found association between sex and adherence to HD, to diet and to medication, as well as between schooling and overall adherence. There is association between disease knowledge and depression, w...

  4. Adherence and intracellular parasitism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, S A; Monteiro da Silva, J L; Giannini, M J

    2000-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus known to produce invasive systemic disease in humans. The 43-kDa glycoprotein of P. brasiliensis is the major diagnostic antigen of paracoccidioidomycosis and may act as a virulence factor, since it is a receptor for laminin.Very little is known about early interactions between this fungus and the host cells, so we developed in vitro a model system employing cultured mammalian cells (Vero cells), in order to investigate the factors and virulence mechanisms of P.brasiliensis related to the adhesion and invasion process. We found that there is a permanent interaction after 30 min of contact between the fungus and the cells. The yeasts multiply in the cells for between 5 and 24 h. Different strains of P. brasiliensis were compared, and strain 18 (high virulence) was the most strongly adherent, followed by strain 113 (virulent), 265 (considered of low virulence) and 113M (mutant obtained by ultraviolet radiation, deficient in gp43). P. brasiliensis adhered to the epithelial cells by a narrow tube, while depressions were noticed in the cell surface, suggesting an active cavitation process. An inhibition assay was performed and it was verified that anti-gp43 serum and a pool of sera from individuals with paracoccidioidomycosis were able to inhibit the adhesion of P. brasiliensis to the Vero cells. Glycoprotein 43 (gp43) antiserum abolished 85% of the binding activity of P. brasiliensis. This fungus can also invade the Vero cells, and intraepithelial parasitism could be an escape mechanism in paracoccidioidomycosis.

  5. Medication Adherence in Psychopharmacologically Treated Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A.; Duran, Petra; Yovel, Iftah; Perlman, Carol A.; Sprich, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: One of the potential causes of residual symptoms of ADHD in adults can be difficulties with consistent adherence to medications. Method: This formative study examined self-reported medication adherence in adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms despite medication treatment. Results: Mean adherence for the two-week period…

  6. Evaluation of Adherence to Diabetic Treatment in Northern Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine medication adherence and predictors of suboptimal adherence in patients with diabetes type 2, and to address the factors that are associated with treatment non-adherence in Northern Region of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 200 type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

  7. Self-reported adherence to treatment: A study of socioeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Adherence to treatment is important and relevant in HIV treatment. Previous studies in sub Sahara Africa and south western Nigeria reported that psychiatric morbidity influence treatment adherence. The present study was to examine treatment adherence among the male and the female patients with HIV infection ...

  8. Non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non-adherence reduces the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. Knowledge of factors associated with non-adherence would assist clinicians and program planners to design and implement interventions to improve adherence and therefore treatment outcomes. Objective: To determine the prevalence and ...

  9. Comparing Adherence in Cardiac Clinic Versus General Outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear Sir,. We read the article titled “antihypertensive medications adherence among Nigerian hypertensive subjects in a specialist clinic compared to a general outpatient clinic.”[1]. The study discusses the role of special clinic on adherence to medication among hypertensive patients. Adherence to medication has impact ...

  10. HIV disclosure and other factors that impact on adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some authors argue that there are no predictors of adherence to medication, while others proffer indicators of likely adherence. These contextual factors are wide-ranging and may be interdependent. There are few studies of adherence in resource-poor settings. Of these, many were linked to particular trials whose ...

  11. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adherence to asthma treatment was rated using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for the identification of factors associated with adherence to asthma treatment. Results: Among the 201 asthma patients included, 133 (66.2%) were female. The mean age of ...

  12. A Matter of Trust: Patient Barriers to Primary Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, J. M.; Kesselheim, A. S.; Frolkis, J. P.; Wescott, P.; Allen-Coleman, C.; Fischer, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary medication adherence occurs when a patient properly fills the first prescription for a new medication. Primary adherence only occurs about three-quarters of the time for antihypertensive medications. We assessed patients' barriers to primary adherence and attributes of patient-provider discussions that might improve primary adherence…

  13. Perceived barriers to guideline adherence: a survey among general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, M.; Burgers, J.S.; Besters, C.F.; Han, D.; Westert, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite considerable efforts to promote and support guideline use, adherence is often suboptimal. Barriers to adherence vary not only across guidelines but also across recommendations within guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived barriers to guideline adherence

  14. Evaluation of patients\\' adherence to chemotherapy for breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to establish the common reasons for non-adherence to drug treatment among breast cancer patients at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria over a ten-year period (Jan 1993 - Dec 2002). Patients\\' adherence and reasons for non-adherence to chemotherapy were ...

  15. Patterns and obstacles to oral antidiabetic medications adherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data concerning adherence to drugs was assessed using measure treatment adherence scale (MTA). Results: a total of 372 (55.59 % males and 44.41% females) patients with type-2 diabetes fulfilled the inclusion criteria and included in the study. Among the participants, 26.1% were found to have good adherence, 47.9% ...

  16. Personal barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence: case studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Abstract. Background: Although good adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for successful treatment outcomes, some patients may have specific personal barriers to ART adherence. Objectives: To study specific personal barriers to ART adherence. Methods: Quantitative data on patients' health status, ART ...

  17. Adhesion Forces and Composition of Planktonic and Adhering Oral Microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Maitra, A.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Slomp, A. M.; Busscher, H. J.; van der Mei, H. C.

    The oral microbiome consists of a planktonic microbiome residing in saliva and an adhering microbiome (the biofilm adhering to oral hard and soft tissues). Here we hypothesized that possible differences in microbial composition of the planktonic and adhering oral microbiome on teeth can be related

  18. Antiretroviral drug adherence by HIV infected children attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recommended that caregivers of the HIV infected children should be educated on importance of strict adherence to prescribed doses of ARVs to the children. Future research should explore using multiple measures of adherence and reasons for non-adherence among HIV infecting children. Conclusion: The drug ...

  19. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  20. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study was to explore barriers to treatment adherence perceived by young CF patients and their parents and to identify what kind of support the young patients and their parents request from the CF center. Methods: A questionnaire survey of a cohort of young...... Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...... of time, forgetfulness and unwillingness to take medication in public. A significant, positive correlation was found between the number of barriers and the perceived treatment burden. Additionally, we found that almost half of the adolescents and half of the parents conveyed a desire for more information...

  1. An ingestible sensor for measuring medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezi, Hooman; Robertson, Timothy L; Moon, Greg D; Au-Yeung, Kit-Yee; Zdeblick, Mark J; Savage, George M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of the first integrated-circuit microsensor developed for daily ingestion by patients. The ingestible sensor is a device that allows patients, families, and physicians to measure medication ingestion and adherence patterns in real time, relate pharmaceutical compliance to important physiologic metrics, and take appropriate action in response to a patient's adherence pattern and specific health metrics. The design and theory of operation of the device are presented, along with key in-vitro and in-vivo performance results. The chemical, toxicological, mechanical, and electrical safety tests performed to establish the device's safety profile are described in detail. Finally, aggregate results from multiple clinical trials involving 412 patients and 5656 days of system usage are presented to demonstrate the device's reliability and performance as part of an overall digital health feedback system.

  2. Effect of medication adherence on blood pressure control and risk factors for antihypertensive medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhao; Bin, Wang; Weilin, Qi; Aifang, Yang

    2015-02-01

    We aim to investigate a range of risk factors associated with medication adherence among Chinese hypertensive patients. We also aim to investigate the association between medication adherence and blood pressure control. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Chinese hypertensive patients in a comprehensive teaching hospital in Shanghai, China, using a validated scale, a self-designed questionnaire and patients' medical records. Of the 232 eligible participants, 61 (26.3%), 51 (22.0%) and 120 (51.7%) showed low, medium and high adherence, respectively. Adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and patient-related factors, antihypertensive medication adherence was significantly associated with better systolic blood pressure control (P=0.001), whereas the association with diastolic blood pressure control was relatively weak (P=0.334). In the multivariate analysis, patients with longer duration of drug use [P=0.012, odds ratio (OR)=0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.84], combination of antiplatelet agents (0.002, 0.38, 0.20-0.71), less concerns of medical cost (0.001, 0.18, 0.02-0.51), more availability of professional guidance (0.002, 0.34, 0.17-0.66) and more availability of family support (0.036, 0.51, 0.27-0.96) were more likely to adhere to their drug regimens. The rate of suboptimal medication adherence among Chinese hypertensive patients is quite high. Interventions could focus upon the risk factors to improve antihypertensive medication adherence in clinical practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Can adherence to antihypertensive therapy be used to promote adherence to statin therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Chapman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard H Chapman1, Elise M Pelletier1, Paula J Smith1, Craig S Roberts21US Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Global Outcomes Research, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USAObjective: To compare adherence with statin therapy in patients switching to single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium with patients adding a separate statin to their amlodipine regimen.Methods: We identified hypertensive patients prescribed amlodipine who switched to amlodipine/atorvastatin (switch or added a statin to their amlodipine regimen (add-on from July 2004 to June 2007. Propensity score matching (1 switch:3 add-on was applied based on ‘nearest neighbor’ approach. The primary adherence measure was patients with proportion of days covered (PDC ≥0.80 at 180 days; secondary measures included mean PDC and persistence. A sensitivity analysis was performed, accounting for total statin/amlodipine exposure.Results: Among 4556 matched patients (n = 1139 switch; n = 3417 add-on, mean age was 53.9 years and 52.1% were male. After 180 days, adherence with statin therapy was higher for the switch vs add-on cohort (50.8% vs 44.3%; P < 0.001. After adjusting for pre-index amlodipine adherence, the switch cohort was more likely to be adherent than the add-on cohort (odds ratio: 1.64 [95% confidence interval: 1.42 to 1.89]. Persistence was higher in the switch than the add-on cohort (127.6 vs 117 days; P < 0.001.Conclusion: Hypertensive patients taking amlodipine who initiated statin therapy via single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin were more likely to remain adherent to their statin than patients adding a separate statin to their antihypertensive regimen.Keywords: adherence, amlodipine, atorvastatin, cardiovascular disease, persistence, single-pill

  4. What the newspapers say about medication adherence: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Nicola A; Almomani, Basima A; Hawwa, Ahmed F; McElnay, James C

    2013-10-02

    This study investigates the coverage of adherence to medicine by the UK and US newsprint media. Adherence to medicine is recognised as an important issue facing healthcare professionals and the newsprint media is a key source of health information, however, little is known about newspaper coverage of medication adherence. A search of the newspaper database Nexis®UK from 2004-2011 was performed. Content analysis of newspaper articles which referenced medication adherence from the twelve highest circulating UK and US daily newspapers and their Sunday equivalents was carried out. A second researcher coded a 15% sample of newspaper articles to establish the inter-rater reliability of coding. Searches of newspaper coverage of medication adherence in the UK and US yielded 181 relevant articles for each country. There was a large increase in the number of scientific articles on medication adherence in PubMed® over the study period, however, this was not reflected in the frequency of newspaper articles published on medication adherence. UK newspaper articles were significantly more likely to report the benefits of adherence (p = 0.005), whereas US newspaper articles were significantly more likely to report adherence issues in the elderly population (p = 0.004) and adherence associated with diseases of the central nervous system (p = 0.046). The most commonly reported barriers to adherence were patient factors e.g. poor memory, beliefs and age, whereas, the most commonly reported facilitators to adherence were medication factors including simplified regimens, shorter treatment duration and combination tablets. HIV/AIDS was the single most frequently cited disease (reported in 20% of newspaper articles). Poor quality reporting of medication adherence was identified in 62% of newspaper articles. Adherence is not well covered in the newspaper media despite a significant presence in the medical literature. The mass media have the potential to help educate and shape the public

  5. Effect of temperature on platelet adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, S; Fröhlich, G M; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2016-01-01

    Thrombogenicity is one of the main parameters tested in vitro to evaluate the hemocompatibility of artificial surfaces. While the influence of the temperature on platelet aggregation has been addressed by several studies, the temperature influence on the adherence of platelets to body foreign surfaces as an important aspect of biomedical device handling has not yet been explored. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of two typically applied incubation-temperatures (22°C and 37°C) on the adhesion of platelets to biomaterials. Thrombogenicity of three different polymers - medical grade poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) - were studied in an in vitro static test. Platelet adhesion was studied with stringently characterized blood from apparently healthy subjects. Collection of whole blood and preparation of platelet rich plasma (PRP) was carried out at room temperature (22°C). PRP was incubated with the polymers either at 22°C or 37°C. Surface adherent platelets were fixed, fluorescently labelled and assessed by an image-based approach. Differences in the density of adherent platelets after incubation at 22°C and 37°C occurred on PDMS and PET. Similar levels of adherent platelets were observed on the very thrombogenic PTFE. The covered surface areas per single platelet were analyzed to measure the state of platelet activation and revealed no differences between the two incubation temperatures for any of the analyzed polymers. Irrespective of the observed differences between the low and medium thrombogenic PDMS and PET and the higher variability at 22°C, the thrombogenicity of the three investigated polymers was evaluated being comparable at both incubation temperatures.

  6. Associations between patients' adherence and GPs' attitudes towards risk, statin therapy and management of non-adherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte L; Paulsen, Maja S; Christensen, Palle M

    2016-01-01

    : To estimate associations between GPs' attitudes towards risk, statin therapy and management of non-adherence and their patients' adherence, and to identify subgroups of GPs with poor patient adherence. METHODS: All Danish GPs were invited to participate in an online survey. We asked whether they regarded...

  7. Non-adherence to anti-hypertensive medication in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 92443 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J Ø; Shrestha, A D; Neupane, D; Kallestrup, P

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a rising global burden, and low- and middle-income countries account for 80% of deaths due to complications of hypertension. Hypertension can be controlled by adhering to anti-hypertensive medication. However, non-adherence is an increasing challenge. This review aims to systematically evaluate non-adherence to anti-hypertensive medication among adults in low- and middle-income countries and explore factors affecting non-adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. We performed a systematic search for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2015. A selection process was performed for data extraction with a combination of Medical Subject Headings terms: 'hypertension' and 'adherence'. Further search criteria were: language ('english'), species ('humans'), and low- and middle-income countries. A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled percentage of non-adherence when using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was 63.35% (confidence of interval (CI): 38.78-87.91) and 25.45% (CI:17.23-33.76) when using the 80 and 90% cut-off scales. The factors were classified into the five dimensions of adherence defined by the World Health Organization, and the majority of the studies reported factors from the dimension 'social and economic factors'. This systematic review demonstrated considerable variation of non-adherence to anti-hypertensive medication in low- and middle-income countries depending on the methods used to estimate non-adherence. The results showed a high non-adherence when the MMAS eight-item scale was used and low when the 80 and 90% cut-off scales were used. The majority of factors affecting non-adherence to anti-hypertensive medication fell within the World Health Organization defined dimension 'social and economic factors'.

  8. Assessment of adherence to tuberculosis drug regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili H.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Tuberculosis is curable if patients take sufficient uninterrupted therapy. Most experts acknowledge importance of patient adherence in efforts to control of the disease. This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the rate of compliance to anti-tuberculosis regimens by means of urine tests in newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients.Method: Investigation was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospitals, Tehran, IRAN. Fifty patients completed the study. The patients' urine samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 months of the study. Simple chemical methods were used to detect Isoniazid, Rifampin, and pyrazinamide, the three main drugs in tuberculosis treatment regimens. Urine tests at months of 0 and l of the study were considered as control tests.Results: After the first month, the patients' compliance was about 96%. At months of second, fourth and sixth, the whole adherence rates were 56 %, 76% and 81% respectively. Conclusion: About 30% of patients were non-compliant with treatment regimen which was more frequent than presumed; therefore detection of non-adherent patients is an essential subject in developing countries.

  9. Mediterranean diet adherence and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Guarnido, Olga; Álvarez-Cubero, María Jesus; Saiz, Maria; Lozano, David; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Pascual, Manrique; Cozar, Jose Manuel; Rivas, Ana

    2014-10-31

    Countries following the traditional Mediterranean Diet, particularly Southern European countries, have lower prostate cancer incidence and mortality compared to other European regions. The beneficial effect has been attributed to a specific eating pattern. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence to date on the effects of adherence to a Mediterranean Diet on prostate cancer risk; and to identify which elements of the Mediterranean diet are likely to protect against prostate cancer. The search for articles came from extensive research in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. We used the search terms "Mediterranean diet", "adherence", "fruit and vegetable", "olive oil", "fish" "legume", "cereal" "alcohol" "milk", "dairy product","prostate cancer", and combinations, such as "Mediterranean diet and prostate cancer" or "Olive oil and prostate cancer". There is strong evidence supporting associations between foods that are typical of a Mediterranean eating pattern and reduced prostate cancer risk. However, there are few studies that have assessed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on cancer prostate incidence. Recent data do not support associations to adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and risk of prostate cancer or disease progression. However, Mediterranean eating pattern after diagnosis of nonmetastatatic cancer was associated with lower overall mortality. Further large-scale studies are required to clarify the effect of Mediterranean diet on prostate health, in order to establish the role of this diet in the prevention of prostate cancer. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of the Escherichia coli capsule on complement fixation and on phagocytosis and killing by human phagocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, M A; Silverstein, S C

    1980-01-01

    To define mechanisms by which polysaccharide capsules confer enhanced virulence on gram-negative bacteria, we examined the effect of the Escherichia coli capsule on complement fixation to the bacterial surface and on phagocytosis and killing of these bacteria by mouse macrophages and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes. When E. coli were attached to mouse macrophages with concanavalin A, the macrophages readily phagocytosed unencapsulated but not encapsulated bacteria even ...

  11. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  12. Occurrence of bacteria and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in fetal compartments at parturition; relationships with foal and mare health in the peripartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberg, E; Einarsson, S; Kútvölgyi, G; Lundeheim, N; Bagge, E; Båverud, V; Jones, B; Morrell, J M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship of the health of the newborn foal and (1) number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) in the amniotic fluid, (2) bacteria present in the amniotic fluid and the venous umbilical blood, and (3) bacteria present in the uterus of the newly foaled mare. A further aim was to investigate relationships between the bacteriologic findings in the amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, and uterus postpartum. Samples were taken from 50 Standardbred trotter foaling mares from a well-managed stud in Sweden. Parturition was spontaneous in all cases. Length of pregnancy, parturition and postpartum complications, health status of the foal, the time between foaling and the expulsion of the placenta, and the number of postfoaling mares becoming pregnant after insemination were recorded. Amniotic fluid was collected when the amniotic vesicle was clearly visible; it was analyzed for bacteriology and occurrence of PMNLs. Umbilical blood was analyzed for the presence of bacteria and the concentration of serum amyloid A. The uterus of the mare was swabbed for bacteriology 6 to 17 hours postpartum. A blood sample was taken from the foal before administering plasma. The foals were divided into two groups: group 1 required up to 2 hours to rise after birth (≤2 hours; 31 foals) and group 2 required more than two hours (>2 hours; 19 foals). The length of gestation varied between 332 and 356 days; there was no significant difference in gestation length between the two foal groups. Partus and postpartum complications occurred in a significantly higher proportion of mares giving birth to group 2 foals than group 1 foals (P = 0.02), although uterine culture postpartum and the subsequent pregnancy rate per season were not different between the groups. Compromised health status was significantly higher among foals belonging to group 2 than group 1 (P = 0.001). Most of the amniotic samples contained 5% or less PMNLs. Only three samples contained more than 30

  13. Medication adherence and glycemic control among newly diagnosed diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lee-Kai; Sun, Yan; Heng, Bee Hoon; Chew, Daniel Ek Kwang; Chong, Phui-Nah

    2017-01-01

    Poor medication adherence can have negative consequences for the patients, the provider, the physician, and the sustainability of the healthcare system. To our knowledge, the association between medication adherence and glycemic control among newly diagnosed diabetes patients has not been studied. This study aims to bridge the gap. This is a retrospective cohort study of 2463 patients managed in the National Healthcare Group in Singapore with newly diagnosed diabetes. Patients were followed up for the first two years from their first medication dispensed for measuring medication adherence, proportion of days covered (PDC); and for another three years for investigating outcomes of glycemic control, emergency department visit, and hospitalization. Multivariable regressions were performed to study the association between medication adherence and the outcomes as well as the risk factors of poor adherence. The prevalence of medication adherence (PDC≥80%) was 65.0% (95% CI 63.1% to 66.9%) among newly diagnosed diabetes patients in Singapore. Male, Indian, or patients without hypertension or dyslipidemia were associated with poorer medication adherence. The HbA1c level of poor adherent patients (PDC adherent patients (PDC=100%). The medication adherence in the early stage of diabetes is important for maximizing the effectiveness of pharmaceutical therapy. Health policies or interventions targeting the improvement of medication adherence among newly diagnosed diabetes patients are in need.

  14. Evaluation of medication adherence in Lebanese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Mohammad; Al-Hajje, Amal; Awada, Sanaa; Rachidi, Samar; Zein, Salam; Bawab, Wafa; Bou Zeid, Mayssam; El Hajj, Maya; Salameh, Pascale

    2016-09-01

    Controlling hypertension is essential in cardiovascular diseases. Poor medication adherence is associated with poor disease outcomes, waste of healthcare resources, and contributes to reduced blood pressure control. This study evaluates treatment adherence to antihypertensive therapy in Lebanese hypertensive patients by estimating the proportion of adherent hypertensive patients using a validated tool and investigates what factors predict this behavior. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 210 hypertensive outpatients selected from clinics located in tertiary-care hospitals and from private cardiology clinics located in Beirut. Adherence level was measured using a validated 8-item Modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMMAS). Among 210 patients, 50.5% showed high adherence, 27.1% medium adherence, and 22.4% low adherence to medication. Mean MMMAS score was 6.59±2.0. In bivariate analyses, having controlled blood pressure (p=0.003) and taking a combination drug (p=0.023) were predictors of high adherence. Forgetfulness (padherence after multiple liner regression. Logistic regression results showed that calcium channel blockers (p=0.030) were associated with increased adherence levels. In conclusion, developing multidisciplinary intervention programs to address the factors identified, in addition to educational strategies targeting healthcare providers, are necessary to enhance patient adherence. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sharia Adherence Mosque Survey: Correlations between Sharia Adherence and Violent Dogma in U.S. Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordechai Kedar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A random survey of 100 representative mosques in the U.S. was conducted to measure the correlation between Sharia adherence and dogma calling for violence against non-believers.  Of the 100 mosques surveyed, 51% had texts on site rated as severely advocating violence; 30% had texts rated as moderately advocating violence; and 19% had no violent texts at all.  Mosques that presented as Sharia adherent were more likely to feature violence-positive texts on site than were their non-Sharia-adherent counterparts.  In 84.5% of the mosques, the imam recommended studying violence-positive texts.  The leadership at Sharia-adherent mosques was more likely to recommend that a worshipper study violence-positive texts than leadership at non-Sharia-adherent mosques.  Fifty-eight percent of the mosques invited guest imams known to promote violent jihad.  The leadership of mosques that featured violence-positive literature was more likely to invite guest imams who were known to promote violent jihad than was the leadership of mosques that did not feature violence-positive literature on mosque premises.  

  16. Pediatric psychologist use of adherence assessments and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Rohan, Jennifer M; Martin, Staci; Hommel, Kevin; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Loiselle, Kristin; Ambrosino, Jodie; Fredericks, Emily M

    2013-07-01

    To document current clinical practices for medical regimen adherence assessment and intervention in the field of pediatric psychology. 113 members of the Society of Pediatric Psychology completed an anonymous online survey that assessed use of adherence assessments and interventions in clinical practice, barriers and facilitators to their use, and preferred resources for obtaining information on adherence assessments and interventions. Respondents reported using a range of adherence assessment and intervention strategies, some of which are evidence-based. Barriers to implementing these clinical strategies included time constraints and lack of familiarity with available clinical tools. Respondents reported that education about effective clinical tools would facilitate their use of adherence assessments and interventions. Future research and clinical efforts in adherence should consider developing practical tools for clinical practice, making accessible resources to promote dissemination of these tools, and increase understanding of clinician implementation of adherence assessments and interventions.

  17. Adherence to inhaled therapy, mortality and hospital admission in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Anderson, J A; Calverley, P M A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about adherence to inhaled medication in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the impact on mortality and morbidity. METHODS: Data on drug adherence from a randomised double-blind trial comparing inhaled salmeterol 50 microg + fluticasone propionate 500...... as an ancillary study. RESULTS: Of the 4880 patients (79.8%) with good adherence defined as >80% use of study medication, 11.3% died compared with 26.4% of the 1232 patients (20.2%) with poor adherence. The annual rates of hospital admission for exacerbations were 0.15 and 0.27, respectively. The association...... was more pronounced in patients with good adherence than in those with poor adherence. CONCLUSION: Adherence to inhaled medication is significantly associated with reduced risk of death and admission to hospital due to exacerbations in COPD. Further research is needed to understand these strong...

  18. Pediatric Psychologist Use of Adherence Assessments and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Jennifer M.; Martin, Staci; Hommel, Kevin; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Loiselle, Kristin; Ambrosino, Jodie; Fredericks, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To document current clinical practices for medical regimen adherence assessment and intervention in the field of pediatric psychology. Methods 113 members of the Society of Pediatric Psychology completed an anonymous online survey that assessed use of adherence assessments and interventions in clinical practice, barriers and facilitators to their use, and preferred resources for obtaining information on adherence assessments and interventions. Results Respondents reported using a range of adherence assessment and intervention strategies, some of which are evidence-based. Barriers to implementing these clinical strategies included time constraints and lack of familiarity with available clinical tools. Respondents reported that education about effective clinical tools would facilitate their use of adherence assessments and interventions. Conclusions Future research and clinical efforts in adherence should consider developing practical tools for clinical practice, making accessible resources to promote dissemination of these tools, and increase understanding of clinician implementation of adherence assessments and interventions. PMID:23658375

  19. Imparting commercial antimicrobial dressings with low-adherence to burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Sogol; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Liu, Song

    2016-06-01

    The objective of our study was to decrease the wound adherence of commercial silver based wound dressings by depositing a non-adherent layer. Our hypothesis was that this non-adherent layer will lower the dressing's adherence to burn wounds without compromising the antimicrobial activity or increasing the cytotoxicity. A polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel layer was grafted on two commercial silver antimicrobial dressings (silver nanocrystal dressing (NC) and silver plated dressing (SP)) using a proprietary technique. The grafted PAM served as the non-adherent layer. Dressing adherence was measured with a previously published in vitro gelatin model using an Instron mechanical force testing instrument. The dressings were challenged with two clinically retrieved bacterial strains (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa) with both a disk diffusion test, and a suspension antibacterial test. The cytotoxicity of samples to human neonatal fibroblast cells was evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Both untreated dressings showed high peeling energy: 2070±453J/m(2) (NC) and 669±68J/m(2) (SP), that decreased to 158±119J/m(2) (NC) and 155±138J/m(2) (SP) with the PAM deposition. Addition of the PAM caused no significant difference in zone of inhibition (ZOI) (disk diffusion test) or antibacterial kinetics (suspension test) against both bacteria (p>0.05, n=6) in either dressing. Survival of fibroblasts was improved by the PAM grafting from 48±5% to 60±3% viable cells in the case of NC and from 55±8% to 61±4% viable cells in SP (pdressings in an in vitro gelatin model while preserving their antimicrobial efficacy, and reducing their cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Muscular fitness, adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinis-Sobrinho, C; Abreu, S; Moreira, C; Lopes, L; García-Hermoso, A; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Correa-Bautista, J E; Mota, J; Santos, R

    2017-08-01

    Muscular fitness and an adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEADiet) have been inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to assess the independent and combined associations of muscular fitness and adherence to the SEADiet on cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. A total of 467 Portuguese adolescents (275 girls) participated in this cross-sectional study. Sum of the Z-Scores of Curl-Up and Push-Up tests was used to create a muscular fitness score. Adherence to SEADiet was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. A cardiometabolic risk score was computed from sum of Z-score of triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, HOMA-IR and waist circumference. Adolescents with low muscular fitness and low adherence to the SEADiet had the poorest cardiovascular profile F(5, 452) = 5.074 (p cardiometabolic risk score (OR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.1-14) when compared to those with High muscular fitness/High adherence to the SEADiet after adjustments for age, sex, pubertal stage, socioeconomic status, total energy intake, low-energy reporter and cardiorespiratory fitness. Our findings seem suggest that improving muscular fitness as well as an adherence to the SEADiet could be an important strategy to reduce clustered cardiometabolic risk in youth. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Human hematopoietic stem cell adherence to cytokines and matrix molecules.

    OpenAIRE

    Long, M. W.; Briddell, R.; Walter, A W; Bruno, E; Hoffman, R.

    1992-01-01

    The hematopoietic microenvironment is a complex structure in which stem cells, progenitor cells, stromal cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules each interact to direct the coordinate regulation of blood cell development. While much is known concerning the individual components of this microenvironment, little is understood of the interactions among these various components or, in particular, the nature of those interactions responsible for the regional localization of...

  2. Pinpointing differences in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in adherent and non-adherent cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Holm, Jacob Bak; Poulsen, Kristian Arild

    2010-01-01

    Platinum compounds are used in the treatment of cancer. We demonstrate that cisplatin-induced (10 µM) apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) is pronounced within 18 hours in non-adherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC), whereas there is no increase in caspase-3 activity in the adherent Ehrlich Lettré...... to a significant increase in apoptosis in ELA following cisplatin exposure. We find that cytosolic accumulation of cisplatin is similar in EATC and ELA. However, the nuclear accumulation and DNA-binding of cisplatin is significant lower in ELA compared to EATC. We suggest three putative reasons for the observed...

  3. Persisting with prevention: The importance of adherence for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Richard J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only four out of 31 completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs of HIV prevention strategies against sexual transmission have shown significant efficacy. Poor adherence may have contributed to the lack of effect in some of these trials. In this paper we explore the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy within an RCT. Analysis We used simple quantitative methods to illustrate the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy by assuming a uniform population in terms of sexual behavior and the binomial model for the transmission probability per partnership. At 100% adherence the measured efficacy within an RCT is a reasonable approximation of the true biological efficacy. However, as adherence levels fall, the efficacy measured within a trial substantially under-estimates the true biological efficacy. For example, at 60% adherence, the measured efficacy can be less than half of the true biological efficacy. Conclusion Poor adherence during a trial can substantially reduce the power to detect an effect, and improved methods of achieving and maintaining high adherence within trials are needed. There are currently 12 ongoing HIV prevention trials, all but one of which require ongoing user-adherence. Attention must be given to methods of maximizing adherence when piloting and designing RCTs and HIV prevention programmes.

  4. Aging, neurocognition, and medication adherence in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenhofer, Mark L; Hinkin, Charles H; Castellon, Steven A; Durvasula, Ramani; Ullman, Jodi; Lam, Mona; Myers, Hector; Wright, Matthew J; Foley, Jessica

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) would be more strongly related to cognitive impairment among older than among younger HIV-seropositive adults. A volunteer sample of 431 HIV-infected adult patients prescribed self-administered HAART was recruited from community agencies and university-affiliated infectious disease clinics in the Los Angeles area. Neurocognitive measures included tests of attention, information processing speed, learning/memory, verbal fluency, motor functioning, and executive functioning. Medication adherence was measured using microchip-embedded pill bottle caps (Medication Event Monitoring System) and self-report. Latent/structural analysis techniques were used to evaluate factor models of cognition and adherence. Mean adherence rates were higher among older (>or=50 years) than younger (<50 years) HIV-positive adults. However, latent/structural modeling demonstrated that neurocognitive impairment was associated with poorer medication adherence among older participants only. When cognitive subdomains were examined individually, executive functioning, motor functioning, and processing speed were most strongly related to adherence in this age group. CD4 count and drug problems were also more strongly associated with adherence among older than younger adults. Older HIV-positive individuals with neurocognitive impairment or drug problems are at increased risk of suboptimal adherence to medication. Likewise, older adults may be especially vulnerable to immunological and neurocognitive dysfunction under conditions of suboptimal HAART adherence. These findings highlight the importance of optimizing medication adherence rates and evaluating neurocognition in the growing population of older HIV-infected patients.

  5. Patient adherence to medical treatment: a review of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heerdink Rob

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' non-adherence to medical treatment remains a persistent problem. Many interventions to improve patient adherence are unsuccessful and sound theoretical foundations are lacking. Innovations in theory and practice are badly needed. A new and promising way could be to review the existing reviews of adherence to interventions and identify the underlying theories for effective interventions. That is the aim of our study. Methods The study is a review of 38 systematic reviews of the effectiveness of adherence interventions published between 1990 and 2005. Electronic literature searches were conducted in Medline, Psychinfo, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The scope of the study is patient adherence to medical treatment in the cure and care sector. Results Significant differences in the effectiveness of adherence interventions were found in 23 of the 38 systematic reviews. Effective interventions were found in each of four theoretical approaches to adherence interventions: technical, behavioural, educational and multi-faceted or complex interventions. Technical solutions, such as a simplification of the regimen, were often found to be effective, although that does not count for every therapeutic regimen. Overall, our results show that, firstly, there are effective adherence interventions without an explicit theoretical explanation of the operating mechanisms, for example technical solutions. Secondly, there are effective adherence interventions, which clearly stem from the behavioural theories, for example incentives and reminders. Thirdly, there are other theoretical models that seem plausible for explaining non-adherence, but not very effective in improving adherence behaviour. Fourthly, effective components within promising theories could not be identified because of the complexity of many adherence interventions and the lack of studies that explicitly compare

  6. Objective Assessment Method for RNAV STAR Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael; Matthews, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). Specifically, optimized profile descents (OPDs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design specifications. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying 4D radar track data onto RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed frequencies of aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions. Full-lateral adherence was always greater than Full-lateral/ full- vertical, as it is a subset, but the difference between the rates was not consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0% in KDEN (Denver) to 21% in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0% to nearly 100% for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1,000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  7. Development and Application of the Lincoln Adherence Instrument Record for Assessing Client Adherence to Advice in Dog Behavior Consultations and Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanna Lamb

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to the advice of medical practitioners is critical to successful treatment outcomes and has been much researched in human health, but is less well studied in the veterinary and clinical animal behavior fields. Given that the management of behavior problems often requires substantial change in established client behavior, it is likely that adherence is a substantive issue affecting success. However, little is known about the relationships between relevant factors, and there is no established way of assessing these. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an instrument for coding factors likely to impinge on pet owner adherence to behavior advice and validate its utility through the identification of the factors appearing to relate most closely to a successful treatment outcome in a sample population from our clinic. Potential factors affecting adherence were identified from human health and animal behavior studies, and a survey instrument developed with items matched to these factors. Forty-two dog owners who had attended the University of Lincoln Animal Behavior Clinic over a 2-year period provided data used in the analysis. The assessment of treatment outcome success by clients and clinicians was correlated, but clinicians tended to overestimate success by half a point on a 5-point scale. Eleven items relating to adherence were found to correlate with client ratings of treatment success in a univariate analysis, with three of these remaining in an ordinal logistic regression model. These three related to trust in the advice given by the clinician, concern over distress caused to the pet in the longer term and the perceived recommendation of treatment measures that had failed. By further examining the relationship between all of these factors in a hierarchical cluster analysis, we were able to postulate ways in which we might be able to improve client adherence and thus treatment success. This provides a model for the

  8. [E-health and treatment adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbets, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    The medico-economic implications of poor drug compliance are such that improving the adherence could have a considerable impact in terms of public health. Technological tools from the digital revolution are now at the service of health: the connected health. There are already numerous, more or less sophisticated, and many more are under development. Data from the literature suggest that these tools could provide real benefits including improving patient compliance. The digital revolution has changed our daily lives. It will certainly revolutionize the practice of medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving adherence and outcomes in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Renu Joshi, Disha Joshi, Pramil Cheriyath Department of Endocrinology, Pinnacle Health Hospitals, Harrisburg, PA, USA Objective: Nonadherence in diabetes is a problem leading to wasted resources and preventable deaths each year. Remedies for diminishing nonadherence are many but marginally effective, and outcomes remain suboptimal. Aim: The aim of this study was to test a new iOS “app”, PatientPartner. Derived from complexity theory, this novel technology has been extensively used in other fields; this is the first trial in a patient population. Methods: Physicians referred patients who were “severely non-adherent” with HbA1c levels >8. After consent and random assignment (n=107, subjects in the intervention group were immersed in the 12-min PatientPartner game, which assesses and trains subjects on parameters of thinking that are critical for good decision making in health care: information management, stress coping, and health strategies. The control group did not play PatientPartner. All subjects were called each week for 3 weeks and self-reported on their medication adherence, diet, and exercise. Baseline and 3-month post-intervention HbA1c levels were recorded for the intervention group.Results: Although the control group showed no difference on any measures at 3 weeks, the intervention group reported significant mean percentage improvements on all measures: medication adherence (57%, standard deviation [SD] 18%–96%, SD 9, diet (50%, SD 33%–75%, SD 28, and exercise (29%, SD 31%–43%, SD 33. At 3 months, the mean HbA1c levels in the intervention group were significantly lower (9.6 than baseline (10.7. Conclusion: Many programs to improve adherence have been proved to be expensive and marginally effective. Therefore, improvements from the single use of a 12-min-long “app” are noteworthy. This is the first ever randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate that an “app” can impact the gold standard biological marker, HbA1c

  10. Influence of Spirituality and Religion on Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Adult HIV/AIDS Patients in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agam Ebaji Ayuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a chronic medical illness such as Human Immune Deficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS may be the time when people turn to the Sacred through spirituality and religion. HIV is a chronic illness that requires strict adherence to medication regimens that may be influenced by spirituality/religion. This study was aimed at finding the association between spirituality/religion and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in adult HIV/AIDS patients. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 370 patients. Adherence was measured using an adapted adult AIDS clinical trial group (AACTG and visual analogue scale (VAS tools. Spirituality was assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spirituality Expanded (FACIT-Sp-Ex scale, religiosity with Duke University Religion index (DUREL, and religious coping with Brief Religious Coping (RCOPE scale. Adherence rates were 86.2 and 43.8% using AACTG and VAS tools, respectively. Statistical significant correlation was found between spirituality and adherence to HAART (r = 0.265; p = 0.00. Also, significant correlation was found between positive religious coping and adherence (r = 0.15, p = 0.003. Odds ratio indicated that female respondents were 1.6 times more likely to be adherent, compared with males. Similarly, every unit rise in spirituality score yielded a 1.3 times increased likelihood of adherence to HAART on multiple logistic regression of adherence to HAART with relevant predictors. Both spirituality and positive religious coping have positive influence on optimal adherence. Therefore, the training of health care personnel to assess and provide spiritual care and involvement of chaplains/religious leaders is advocated for improved adherence.

  11. Increased neurocognitive intra-individual variability is associated with declines in medication adherence in HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thames, April D; Castellon, Steven A; Hinkin, Charlie H

    2015-11-01

    There is cross-sectional evidence that neurocognitive intra-individual variability (IIV), or dispersion, is elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and is associated with declines in activities of daily living, including medication adherence. This longitudinal study extends this literature by examining whether increased neurocognitive IIV in HIV-positive persons over time predicts declines in medication adherence above and beyond changes in mean level of performance over a 6-month observation. After controlling for drug use, declines in mean performance, and changes in depressive symptoms, results confirmed that increases in IIV were associated with overall poorer antiretroviral medication adherence. HIV-positive individuals with the greatest increases in dispersion demonstrated marked reductions in adherence by the third month that exceeded what was observed in less variable individuals. Our results indicate that increases in dispersion are associated with poorer declines in medication adherence in HIV disease, which may have implications for the early detection and remediation of suboptimal antiretroviral adherence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. High throughput RNAi assay optimization using adherent cell cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Leena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background siRNA technology is a promising tool for gene therapy of vascular disease. Due to the multitude of reagents and cell types, RNAi experiment optimization can be time-consuming. In this study adherent cell cytometry was used to rapidly optimize siRNA transfection in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (AoSMC. Methods AoSMC were seeded at a density of 3000-8000 cells/well of a 96well plate. 24 hours later AoSMC were transfected with either non-targeting unlabeled siRNA (50 nM, or non-targeting labeled siRNA, siGLO Red (5 or 50 nM using no transfection reagent, HiPerfect or Lipofectamine RNAiMax. For counting cells, Hoechst nuclei stain or Cell Tracker green were used. For data analysis an adherent cell cytometer, Celigo® was used. Data was normalized to the transfection reagent alone group and expressed as red pixel count/cell. Results After 24 hours, none of the transfection conditions led to cell loss. Red fluorescence counts were normalized to the AoSMC count. RNAiMax was more potent compared to HiPerfect or no transfection reagent at 5 nM siGLO Red (4.12 +/-1.04 vs. 0.70 +/-0.26 vs. 0.15 +/-0.13 red pixel/cell and 50 nM siGLO Red (6.49 +/-1.81 vs. 2.52 +/-0.67 vs. 0.34 +/-0.19. Fluorescence expression results supported gene knockdown achieved by using MARCKS targeting siRNA in AoSMCs. Conclusion This study underscores that RNAi delivery depends heavily on the choice of delivery method. Adherent cell cytometry can be used as a high throughput-screening tool for the optimization of RNAi assays. This technology can accelerate in vitro cell assays and thus save costs.

  13. Accurate reporting of adherence to inhaled therapies in adults with cystic fibrosis: methods to calculate normative adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo ZH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Hui Hoo,1,2 Rachael Curley,1,2 Michael J Campbell,1 Stephen J Walters,1 Daniel Hind,3 Martin J Wildman1,2 1School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, 3Sheffield Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis will only be effective in maintaining lung health if used appropriately. An accurate adherence index should therefore reflect treatment effectiveness, but the standard method of reporting adherence, that is, as a percentage of the agreed regimen between clinicians and people with cystic fibrosis, does not account for the appropriateness of the treatment regimen. We describe two different indices of inhaled therapy adherence for adults with cystic fibrosis which take into account effectiveness, that is, “simple” and “sophisticated” normative adherence. Methods to calculate normative adherence: Denominator adjustment involves fixing a minimum appropriate value based on the recommended therapy given a person’s characteristics. For simple normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status. For sophisticated normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status and history of pulmonary exacerbations over the previous year. Numerator adjustment involves capping the daily maximum inhaled therapy use at 100% so that medication overuse does not artificially inflate the adherence level. Three illustrative cases: Case A is an example of inhaled therapy under prescription based on Pseudomonas status resulting in lower simple normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence. Case B is an example of inhaled therapy under-prescription based on previous exacerbation history resulting in lower sophisticated normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence and simple normative adherence

  14. Influence of psychosocial work environment on adherence to workplace exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L

    2011-02-01

    Physical exercise can reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, but adherence to exercise is challenging for many employees. This study determines prognostic factors for adherence to workplace exercise. In Copenhagen, 132 office workers with neck/shoulder pain were randomized to 2 or 12 minutes of exercise five days a week. Low, medium, and high adherence was defined as performing less than 10, 10-30, or more than 30 exercise sessions during the subsequent 10 weeks. Odds ratios (OR) for adherence were modeled by logistic regression. Lower adherence to the 10-week exercise program was predicted by poorer psychosocial work environment and lower exercise self-efficacy. A longer exercise program was not associated with lower adherence. Concurrent strategies to improve psychosocial work environment and individual exercise beliefs should be considered when implementing exercise at the workplace.

  15. Adherence to internet-based mobile-supported stress management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarski, A C; Lehr, D.; Berking, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonadherence to treatment is a prevalent issue in Internet interventions. Guidance from health care professionals has been found to increase treatment adherence rates in Internet interventions for a range of physical and mental disorders. Evaluating different guidance formats of varying...... of this study was to investigate the influence of different guidance formats (content-focused guidance, adherence-focused guidance, and administrative guidance) on adherence and to identify predictors of nonadherence in an Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention (ie, GET.ON Stress...... (content-focused guidance vs waitlist control, adherence-focused guidance vs waitlist control, administrative guidance vs waitlist control). Adherence was defined by the number of completed treatment modules (0-7). An ANOVA was performed to compare the adherence rates from the different guidance formats...

  16. Poison control center communication and impact on patient adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lee; Matwin, Sonia; Jasti, Srichand; Williamson, Jacquee; Crouch, Barbara; Caravati, Martin; Dudley, William

    2008-02-01

    This project explored the communication processes associated with poison control center calls. In this preliminary study, we adapted the Roter Interaction Analysis System to capture staff-caller dialogue. This involved case selection, wherein adherence and non-adherence cases were selected; call linkage to medical records, where case records were linked with voice recordings; and application of Roter Interaction Analysis System to calls. Results indicate that communications are predominantly provider-driven. Patient age and percentage of staff partnership statements were significantly associated with adherence at the 0.05 level. Increases in age were associated with decreases in adherence to recommendations (p < 0.001). Increases in percentage of staff partnership statements (over all staff talk) were associated with increases in adherence (p = 0.013). This line of research could lead to evidence-based guidelines for effective staff-caller communication, increased adherence rates, and improved health outcomes.

  17. Gamification of Medication Adherence in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Izzat; Thomas, Rhys Huw

    2017-11-01

    Adherence to medication regimens is a crucial factor in seizure-freedom and well-being for people with epilepsy. In contrast, taking medication inconsistently increases the risk of not only seizures and their adverse effects, but drug side-effects and unnecessary modifications to treatment plans. Epilepsy is prevalent across all age groups and we have been slow to utilise both the technologies and psychologies derived from computer gaming. Gaming has broken through to the mainstream and is no longer the preserve of younger males, mirroring the adoption of smart-phones. 'Gamification' motivates users into engaging in an activity with a higher intensity and duration. Introducing gaming elements into a non-gaming context has the potential to transform routine tasks into more enjoyable and motivating experiences. This has been exploited by marketing executives, but also has clear uses in a healthcare setting too. We discuss how previously published frameworks could be employed to help people with epilepsy adhere to medication regimens to create a patient-focussed, modifiable and fun experience. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Proteins in Adherence and Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleastro, Mónica; Ménard, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most successful human pathogens, which colonizes the mucus layer of the gastric epithelium of more than 50% of the world’s population. This curved, microaerophilic, Gram-negative bacterium induces a chronic active gastritis, often asymptomatic, in all infected individuals. In some cases, this gastritis evolves to more severe diseases such as peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori has developed a unique set of factors, actively supporting its successful survival and persistence in its natural hostile ecological niche, the human stomach, throughout the individual’s life, unless treated. In the human stomach, the vast majority of H. pylori cells are motile in the mucus layer lining, but a small percentage adheres to the epithelial cell surfaces. Adherence to the gastric epithelium is important for the ability of H. pylori to cause disease because this intimate attachment facilitates: (1) colonization and persistence, by preventing the bacteria from being eliminated from the stomach, by mucus turnover and gastric peristalsis; (2) evasion from the human immune system and (3) efficient delivery of proteins into the gastric cell, such as the CagA oncoprotein. Therefore, bacteria with better adherence properties colonize the host at higher densities. H. pylori is one of the most genetically diverse bacterial species known and is equipped with an extraordinarily large set of outer membrane proteins, whose role in the infection and persistence process will be discussed in this review, as well as the different receptor structures that have been so far described for mucosal adherence. PMID:24833057

  19. In vitro adherence of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Mousavi; Manoochehr Makvandi; Ali Teimoori; Angila Ataei; Shokouh Ghafari; Mahin Najafian; Ziba Ourang; Alireza Samarbaf-Zadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The lactobacilli are a part of the bacterial flora of the human vagina. Detection of normal Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in different geographical locations, and evaluation of their specific properties, can aid in the selection of the best species for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in the future. This study was performed to isolate and identify the Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women and to evaluate the adherence of these lactob...

  20. Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium abscessus in household plumbing

    OpenAIRE

    Mullis, Summer

    2012-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and found in drinking water distribution systems and household plumbing. They are opportunistic pathogens of humans, causing lung disease. Their ability to adhere and form biofilm is attributed to a waxy, lipid-rich, cell envelope. This highly hydrophobic envelope also contributes to the characteristic antibiotic-, chlorine-, and disinfectant- resistance of NTM. NTM in household plumbing reside primarily in biofilms and t...

  1. Blocking of fimbria-mediated adherence of Haemophilus influenzae by sialyl gangliosides.

    OpenAIRE

    van Alphen, L; Geelen-van den Broek, L; Blaas, L; van Ham, M; Dankert, J

    1991-01-01

    The structure of the receptor for the fimbriae of Haemophilus influenzae on human oropharyngeal epithelial cells and erythrocytes was determined in inhibition experiments with various sugars, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. Of 30 monosaccharides and disaccharides at a concentration of 0.1 M and of 3 polysaccharides at a concentration of 1 mg/ml, none inhibited fimbria-specific adherence and hemagglutination. Inhibition was obtained with gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, and GD1a in nanomolar concen...

  2. Sensitivity of K1-Encapsulated Escherichia coli to Killing by the Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein of Rabbit and Human Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Jerrold; Victor, Michael; Cross, Alan S; Elsbach, Peter

    1982-01-01

    The presence of K1 capsular polysaccharides increases the resistance of Escherichia coli to killing by serum and phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). To determine whether K1 capsule impedes the action of intracellular bactericidal systems of PMNs, we compared the sensitivity of several K1-encapsulated and non-encapsulated strains of E. coli to killing by the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) isolated from rabbit and human PMNs. BPI appears to be the principal ...

  3. Alexithymia, Assertiveness and Psychosocial Functioning in HIV: Implications for Medication Adherence and Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Ironson, Gail; Antoni, Michael; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Psychosocial function and adherence to antiretroviral regimen are key factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease management. Alexithymia (AL) is a trait deficit in the ability to identify and describe feelings, emotions and bodily sensations. A structural equation model was used to test whether high levels of AL indirectly relate to greater non-adherent behavior and HIV disease severity via psychosocial dysfunction. Blood draws for HIV-1 viral load and CD4 T-lymphocyte, along with psychosocial surveys were collected from 439 HIV positive adults aged 18-73 years. The structural model supports significant paths from: (1) AL to non-active patient involvement, psychological distress, and lower social support, (2) psychological distress and non-active involvement to non-adherent behavior, and (3) non-adherence to greater HIV disease severity (CFI = .97, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). A second model confirmed the intermediary effect of greater patient assertiveness on the path from AL to social support and non-active patient involvement (CFI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). Altogether, AL is indirectly linked with HIV disease management through it's association with poor psychosocial function, however greater patient assertiveness buffers the negative impact of AL on relationship quality with healthcare providers and members of one's social support network.

  4. Distinct mechanical behavior of HEK293 cells in adherent and suspended states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ali Haghparast

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical features of individual animal cells have been regarded as indicators of cell type and state. Previously, we investigated the surface mechanics of cancer and normal stromal cells in adherent and suspended states using atomic force microscopy. Cancer cells possessed specific mechanical and actin cytoskeleton features that were distinct from normal stromal cells in adherent and suspended states. In this paper, we report the unique mechanical and actin cytoskeletal features of human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Unlike normal stromal and cancer cells, the surface stiffness of adherent HEK293 cells was very low, but increased after cell detachment from the culture surface. Induced actin filament depolymerization revealed that the actin cytoskeleton was the underlying source of the stiffness in suspended HEK293 cells. The exclusive mechanical response of HEK293 cells to perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton resembled that of adherent cancer cells and suspended normal stromal cells. Thus, with respect to their special cell-surface mechanical features, HEK293 cells could be categorized into a new class distinct from normal stromal and cancer cells.

  5. In vitro modulation of the behavior of adhering macrophages by medications is biomaterial-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utomo, Lizette; Boersema, Geesien S A; Bayon, Yves; Lange, Johan F; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M

    2017-03-07

    After implantation of a biomaterial, an inflammatory response involving macrophages is induced. The behavior of macrophages depends on their phenotype, and by directing macrophage polarization unwanted effects may be avoided. In this study, the possibility to modulate the behavior of macrophages activated by biomaterials was assessed in an in vitro model. Primary human monocytes were seeded on polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene and polylactic acid yarns, and treated with medications frequently used by patients: rapamycin, dexamethasone, celecoxib or pravastatin. Modulation of the adhering macrophages with rapamycin resulted in a generally pro-inflammatory effect. Dexamethasone caused an overall anti-inflammatory effect on the macrophages cultured on either material, while celecoxib only affected macrophages adhering to polyethylene terephthalate and polylactic acid. Pravastatin increased the pro-inflammatory genes of macrophages cultured on polypropylene and polylactic acid. Pairwise comparison revealed that macrophages adhering to polylactic acid seemed to be more susceptible to phenotype modulation than when adhering to polypropylene or polyethylene terephthalate. The data show that macrophages activated by the biomaterials can be modulated, yet the degree of the modulatory capacity depends on the type of material. Combined, this model provides insights into the possibility of using a medication in combination with a biomaterial to direct macrophage behavior and thereby possibly avoid unwanted effects after implantation.

  6. Concern between medication non-adherence and diabetes associated depression

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary; Porchelvan Swaminathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the health disorders that acquire mankind immensely. An ominous twin of diabetes mellitus is diabetes associated depression which is often unrecognised in routine diabetic care. The objective of this study was to find the prevalence and correlation between medication adherence and diabetes associated depression. Methods: It is a conducted as cross sectional study using Morisky medication adherence scale to evaluate treatment adherence of type II diab...

  7. Treatment adherence in bipolar I and schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, A; Pacchiarotti, I; Amann, B L; Nivoli, A M A; Vieta, E; Colom, F

    2013-12-01

    Poor adherence rates in Bipolar Disorder type I (BDI) and Schizoaffective Disorder, bipolar type (SAD) may be high This study was aimed at comparing the clinical correlates of adherence to treatment and the course of illness in BDI and SAD patients. 75 SAD and 150 BDI DSM-IV outpatients were included. Adherence was assessed on the basis of patients' and care-givers' reports and serum levels, when available. Socio-demographic, clinical and treatment variables were collected and compared between diagnostic subsamples and then between goodly and poorly adherent patients. Multiple logistic regressions were performed, controlling for diagnostic subsample differences, to identify correlates of adherence in BDI and SAD groups. Poor adherence was highly prevalent both in BDI (32%) and in SAD patients (44%), with no significant differences between diagnostic categories. Presence of psychotic symptoms (p=0.029), higher number of manic relapses (pdisorders (p=0.002), and lithium therapy (p=0.003) were associated with poor adherence to treatment. Diagnostic subgroup analyses showed different predictive models, with the BDI poorly adherent subsample being more likely to include comorbid personality and manic recurrences and the SAD poorly adherent subsample being less clinically predictable. The cross-sectional nature of the study limits de capacity to ascertain the direction of the relationship between certain variables. Rates of poor adherence to oral treatments are similar in SAD and BDI. BDI patients with comorbid personality and substance use disorders are likely to be poorly adherent. Treatment adherence may be more difficult to predict in SAD patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Games - Modern Tools for Enhancing Patient Adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Bhaskar GOKHALE; Madhura Sameer GOKHALE

    2015-01-01

    Low patient adherence remains a major public health challenge globally and imposes a considerable economic burden on healthcare systems. It is critical to develop an effective intervention to improve patient adherence. Factors such as physician-patient relation, patient's health literacy, attitude, cultural variations, and patient’s involvement in decision making are responsible for improving adherence. Information technology has revolutionized almost all industries including healthcare but i...

  9. Neuropsychological functioning, age, and medication adherence in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raust, Aurélie; Etain, Bruno; Guillot, Romain; Job, Sophie; Loftus, Joséphine; Médecin, Isabelle; Bougerol, Thierry; Polosan, Mircea; Fredembach, Benjamin; Gard, Sébastien; M’Bailara, Katia; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Roux, Paul; Homassel, Anne-Sophie; Carminati, Mathilde; Matos, Lucile; Olié, Emilie; Bellivier, Frank; Courtet, Philippe; Henry, Chantal; Leboyer, Marion; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Belzeaux, Raoul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Poor adherence to medication is frequent in bipolar disorder (BD) and has been associated with several factors. To date, the relationship between low adherence and neuropsychological functioning in BD is still unclear. As age and neuropsychological functioning might have opposing influences on adherence, our aim was to investigate this link with a particular focus on the effect of age. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we included 353 patients divided into two age-groups (16–46; 47–71) from a French cohort diagnosed with BD (type I, II, NOS) and strictly euthymic. All patients had a standardized clinical and neuropsychological assessment and were categorized as high (n = 186) or low (n = 167) adherent based on their score from the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Clinical information was collected based on a standardized interview and clinical validated scales. Neuropsychological performances were evaluated with an established standardized neuropsychological battery for bipolar disorder patients. After univariate analysis, neuropsychological and clinical predictors of low adherence were included in two age-specific stepwise multiple logistic regressions. Results A smaller number of hospitalizations (OR = 0.846, p = 0.012), a shorter illness duration (OR = 0.937, p = 0.003) and higher adverse effects (OR = 1.082, p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of low adherence in the younger patients. In the older patients, low adherence was also predicted by a smaller number of hospitalizations (OR = 0.727, p = 0.008) and higher adverse effects (OR = 1.124, p = 0.005). Interestingly poor inhibition performance was also a significant predictor of low adherence in older patients (OR = 0.924, p = 0.030). Conclusions We found an age-specific relationship between cognitive functioning and adherence in patients with BD. Poor inhibition performances predicted low adherence in older patients only. Our results highlight the need to provide age

  10. Learning and adherence to baby massage after two teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure, adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure, adherence to treatment guidelines, and mortality of patients with acute heart failure: Experience at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

  12. Adherence to prophylactic asthma medication: habit strength and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, Catherine; Arwert, Titia G; Völlink, Trijntje

    2011-01-01

    To explain adherence to prophylactic asthma medication (PAM, inhaled corticosteroids) by the attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy (ASE) model added with the concept of habit strength and to study whether habit moderates or mediates relationships between ASE factors and adherence. A mail-out survey was conducted among 139 asthmatic adults. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, with self-reported adherence as the outcome and ASE factors and habit as the independent variables. Simple slope analyses and bootstrapping mediation analyses were also conducted. Having more severe asthma, taking PAM habitually, and perceiving few negative consequences of taking PAM were associated with better adherence. Self-efficacy influenced adherence indirectly through habit. The relationship between social norms and adherence was moderated by habit: In the case of weak habits, a supportive norm in a patient's environment toward taking PAM was positively related to PAM adherence; in the case of strong habits, a supportive norm led to less adherence. Interventions to increase adherence should enhance the formation of habits by stimulating patients to perform the behavior frequently in similar situations by increasing self-efficacy and providing environmental cues, such as reminder devices and pill organizers. In addition, the disadvantages of PAM use should be negated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nurses' perceptions about Botswana patients' anti-retroviral therapy adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs are supplied free of charge in Botswana. Lifelong adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART is vital to improve the patient’s state of well-being and to prevent the development of strains of the human immunodef ciency virus (HIV that are resistant to ART. Persons with ART-resistant strains of HIV can spread these to other people, requiring more expensive ART with more severe side-effects and poorer health outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was to determine nurses’ perspectives on Botswana patients’ anti-retroviral therapy (ART adherence, and to identify factors which could promote or hinder ART adherence. Four ART sites were randomly selected and all 16 nurses providing ART services at these sites participated in semi-structured interviews. These nurses indicated that patients’ ART adherence was inf uenced by service-related and patient-related factors. Service-related factors included the inaccessibility of ART clinics, limited clinic hours, health workers’ inability to communicate in patients’ local languages, long waiting times at clinics and delays in being informed about their CD4 and viral load results. Nurses could not trace defaulters nor contact them by phone, and also had to work night shifts, disrupting nurse-patient relationships. Patient-related factors included patients’ lack of education, inability to understand the significance of CD4 and viral load results, financial hardships, non-disclosure and non-acceptance of their HIV positive status, alcohol abuse, the utilisation of traditional medicines and side effects of ART. The challenges of lifelong ART adherence are multifaceted involving both patient-related and service-related factors. Supplying free ARVs does not ensure high levels of ART adherence.

    Opsomming

    Anti-retrovirale middels (ARMs word gratis verskaf in Botswana. Lewenslange getroue nakoming van ARM voorskrifte is

  14. Behavioral and Pharmacological Adherence in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease: Parent-Child Agreement and Family Factors Associated With Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Page H; Carmody, Julia K; Belkin, Mary H; Janicke, David M

    2017-04-21

    This study aimed to evaluate agreement between children and parents on a measure of behavioral and pharmacological adherence in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), and the associations among family factors (i.e., problem-solving skills, routines, communication) and adherence behaviors. In all, 85 children (aged 8-18 years) with SCD and their parents completed questionnaires assessing individual and family factors. Overall parent-child agreement on an adherence measure was poor, particularly for boys and older children. Greater use of child routines was associated with better overall child-reported adherence. Open family communication was associated with higher overall parent-reported adherence. While further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn, results suggest the need to assess child adherence behaviors via both child and parent reports. Findings also suggest that more daily family routines and open family communication may be protective factors for better disease management.

  15. Tuberculosis treatment adherence and fatality in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Rafael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adherence to long tuberculosis (TB treatment is a key factor in TB control programs. Always some patients abandon the treatment or die. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with defaulting from or dying during antituberculosis treatment. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of TB cases diagnosed during 2006-2007 by 61 members of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR. Predictive factors of completion outcome (cured plus completed treatment vs. defaulters plus lost to follow-up and fatality (died vs. the rest of patients were based on logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Of the 1490 patients included, 29.7% were foreign-born. The treatment outcomes were: cured 792 (53.2%, completed treatment 540 (36.2%, failure 2 (0.1%, transfer-out 33 (2.2%, default 27 (1.8%, death 27 (1.8%, lost to follow-up 65 (4.4%, other 4 (0.3%. Completion outcome reached 93.5% and poor adherence was associated with: being an immigrant (OR = 2.03; CI:1.06-3.88, living alone (OR = 2.35; CI:1.05-5.26, residents of confined institutions (OR = 4.79; CI:1.74-13.14, previous treatment (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98, being an injecting drug user (IDU (OR = 9.51; CI:2.70-33.47 and treatment comprehension difficulties (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98. Case fatality was 1.8% and it was associated with the following variables: age 50 or over (OR = 10.88; CI:1.12-105.01, retired (OR = 12.26;CI:1.74-86.04, HIV-infected (OR = 9.93; CI:1.48-66.34, comprehension difficulties (OR = 4.07; CI:1.24-13.29, IDU (OR = 23.59; CI:2.46-225.99 and Directly Observed Therapy (DOT (OR = 3.54; CI:1.07-11.77. Conclusion Immigrants, those living alone, residents of confined institutions, patients treated previously, those with treatment comprehension difficulties, and IDU patients have poor adherence and should be targeted for DOT. To reduce fatality rates, stricter monitoring is required

  16. Radiotherapy-induced plasticity of prostate cancer mobilizes stem-like non-adherent, Erk signaling-dependent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyjacova, L; Hubackova, S; Krejcikova, K; Strauss, R; Hanzlikova, H; Dzijak, R; Imrichova, T; Simova, J; Reinis, M; Bartek, J; Hodny, Z

    2015-06-01

    Fractionated ionizing radiation combined with surgery or hormone therapy represents the first-choice treatment for medium to high-risk localized prostate carcinoma. One of the main reasons for the failure of radiotherapy in prostate cancer is radioresistance and further dissemination of surviving cells. In this study, exposure of four metastasis-derived human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC-3, LNCaP and 22RV1) to clinically relevant daily fractions of ionizing radiation (35 doses of 2 Gy) resulted in generation of two radiation-surviving populations: adherent senescent-like cells expressing common senescence-associated markers and non-adherent anoikis-resistant stem cell-like cells with active Notch signaling and expression of stem cell markers CD133, Oct-4, Sox2 and Nanog. While a subset of the radiation-surviving adherent cells resumed proliferation shortly after completion of the irradiation regimen, the non-adherent cells started to proliferate only on their reattachment several weeks after the radiation-induced loss of adhesion. Like the parental non-irradiated cells, radiation-surviving re-adherent DU145 cells were tumorigenic in immunocompromised mice. The radiation-induced loss of adhesion was dependent on expression of Snail, as siRNA/shRNA-mediated knockdown of Snail prevented cell detachment. On the other hand, survival of the non-adherent cells required active Erk signaling, as chemical inhibition of Erk1/2 by a MEK-selective inhibitor or Erk1/2 knockdown resulted in anoikis-mediated death in the non-adherent cell fraction. Notably, whereas combined inhibition of Erk and PI3K-Akt signaling triggered cell death in the non-adherent cell fraction and blocked proliferation of the adherent population of the prostate cancer cells, such combined treatment had only marginal if any impact on growth of control normal human diploid cells. These results contribute to better understanding of radiation-induced stress response and heterogeneity of human

  17. Social Support and the Mediating Roles of Alcohol Use and Adherence Self-Efficacy on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Adherence Among ART Recipients in Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Jordaan, Esmé; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Morojele, Neo K

    2017-07-01

    We sought to (a) replicate and (b) extend (via the addition of alcohol use) Cha et al.'s cross-sectional multi-component model of ART adherence on the relationship between social support, depression, self-efficacy beliefs, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, among HIV patients in Tshwane, South Africa. Using purposive sampling, 304 male and female ART recipients were recruited. ART adherence was assessed using three manifest indicators: total adherence ratio, the CASE adherence index and 1-month adherence measure. Data were analysed using structural equation modeling. In our replicated model, social support had both direct and indirect relationships with ART adherence, and inclusion of alcohol use improved prediction of ART adherence. Direct and indirect effects of alcohol use on ART adherence emerged: adherence self-efficacy beliefs partially mediated the latter path. Findings highlight the importance of integrating into ART promotion interventions, the reduction of alcohol use, provision of social support, and enhancement of adherence self-efficacy beliefs.

  18. Reframing HIV adherence as part of the experience of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Sarit A; Indyk, Debbie; Wainberg, Milton L

    2006-01-01

    Understanding and enhancing adherence to HIV medications has been identified as a major challenge. The purpose of this study was to explore patterns and determinants of non-adherence among individuals receiving HIV care in a medical clinic. Seven focus groups were conducted with 42 HIV+ patients, and verbatim transcripts of focus group sessions were analyzed through a combination of ethnographic and content analysis. Of the participants currently on combination therapy, 68% reported at least one recent instance of non-adherence. The most commonly cited reasons for non-adherent behavior were grouped into four categories: (1) problems with side effects; (2) conflicts with daily life activities; (3) feelings of aversion toward the medications themselves; and (4) deliberate alterations to the prescribed regimen. Findings based on structured analysis of patient responses in each category differ from past research which defines adherence as a treatment problem and emphasizes logistical characteristics of the treatment regimen itself and patients' ability or willingness to follow specific instructions. In contrast, our focus group data suggest an alternative frame for understanding barriers to adherence which focuses on: (1) the meaning that adherence/pill-taking behavior has for individuals experiencing chronic illness; and (2) the impact that this behavior has on their identity. Because adherence behavior is integral to patients' experience of their disease, non-adherence is no longer a treatment problem, but is an illness problem. Framing adherence as an illness problem rather than a treatment problem is a critical shift that can be applied to the creation of assessments and interventions designed to support patient adherence; this article ends with a series of specific recommendations for programs, policy, and research.

  19. Medication adherence in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Silveira Adriano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacological treatment adherence of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, attended in an outpatient pharmacy at a tertiary hospital in northeastern Brazil. Methods: The analysis of adherence was performed along with caregivers, through a structured questionnaire based on Morisky, Green and Levine, which enabled the categorization of adherence in “highest”, “moderate” or “low” grades, and through evaluating medication dispensing registers, which classified the act of getting medications at the pharmacy as “regular” or “irregular”. Drug Related Problems (DRP were identified through the narrative of caregivers and classified according to the Second Granada Consensus. Then, a pharmaceutical orientation chart with information about the therapeutic regimen was applied, in order to function as a guide for issues that influenced adherence. Results: A total of 43 patients was included, with a mean age of 11.12 years, and 65.1% (n = 28 were female. Applying the questionnaire, it was found “highest” adherence in 46.5% (n = 20 patients, “moderate” adherence in 48.8% (n = 21, and “low” adherence in 4.7% (n = 2. Through an analysis of the medication dispensing registers, a lower level of adherence was observed: only 25.6% (n = 11 of the participants received “regularly” the medications. Twenty-six DRP was identified, and 84.6% (n = 22 were classified as real. There were no significant associations between socio-demographic variables and adherence, although some caregivers have reported difficulty in accessing the medicines and in understanding the treatment. Conclusion: Our findings showed problems in the adherence process related to inattention, forgetfulness and irregularity in getting medicines, reinforcing the need for the development of strategies to facilitate a better understanding of treatment and to ensure adherence.

  20. Adherence to treatment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados-Moreno, Sebastián; Sabio, José Mario; Pérez-Mármol, José Manuel; Navarrete-Navarrete, Nuria; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2018-01-12

    Non-adherence to treatment is usually a clinical problem in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Increasing the knowledge of predictors of treatment adherence can be meaningful in the clinical setting. The main objective of the present study was to analyse the influence of sociodemographic, clinical and psychological variables on the degree of treatment adherence in a sample of Spanish women with SLE. This is an observational-transversal study. All participants were evaluated for the degree of treatment adherence, their clinical status, psychopathological manifestations, the level of perceived stress and self-efficacy. The sample was divided into two groups (adherent vs non-adherent). The factors associated with a lack of adherence in this sample were analysed by means of logistic regression. This study comprises 72 women with SLE (average age=36.72±12.2 years). Almost 64% of patients with SLE were non-adherent to treatment. The results showed that a low educational level, being unemployed, living with a partner and alcohol abuse were associated with low treatment adherence. There were significant mean differences between groups in psychopathological subscales of somatisation, obsession-compulsion and general psychopathological indices. There were also mean differences between groups for the level of perceived stress. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, suffering arthrosis and scoring higher in dimensions of psychopathology were significant predictors of treatment adherence, explaining between 35% and 47% of its variability. Including the clinical and psychopathological manifestations as important aspects in the clinical reasoning of health professionals could improve the adherence to treatment of patients with SLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Adherence and systemic reaction rates to allergy immunotherapy among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenburg, Joseph T; Lieberman, Jay A; Pattanaik, Debendra

    2016-01-01

    Although allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is effective and safe, nonadherence is common. Limited data exist regarding adherence to AIT, factors that affect adherence, and systemic reactions associated with AIT among veteran populations. To evaluate adherence to AIT and the prevalence of reactions secondary to AIT among patients at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Memphis, Tennessee. A retrospective chart review was performed of veterans who received AIT at a single Veterans Affairs facility. Age, race, sex, the total number of shots, travel distance, a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the number of severe adverse reactions were compared between the veterans who were adherent and veterans who were nonadherent. The overall adherence rate was 60.9%. Factors associated with adherence were a chart diagnosis of PTSD (29.3% [adherent group] versus 13.6% [nonadherent group]; p = 0.03) and home residence being a further distance from the facility (21.9 miles / 35.2 kilometers [adherent group] versus 18.0 miles / 28.9 kilometers [nonadherent group]; p = 0.03). Patients who were adherent received an average of more total injections compared with patients who were nonadherent. Age, sex, race, and history of systemic reactions during AIT displayed no statistically significant differences between the groups. There were a total of 20 systemic reactions, and the systemic reaction rate was 0.2% per AIT encounter and 0.1% per injection. AIT adherence and systemic reaction rates among veterans at our facility was comparable with similar studies. Adherence was associated with a chart diagnosis of PTSD and home residence that was further away from the clinic.

  2. Adherence to gout management recommendations of Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Feng; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Bingqing; Sha, Yue; Zeng, Xuejun

    2017-11-01

    Though efficacious and affordable treatments for gout are widely available, gout is still not well controlled in many countries of the world including China.To investigate patient adherence to gout management recommendations and potential barriers in Chinese male gout patients, a survey was carried out by telephone interview in male patients registered in the gout clinic at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Adherence to dietary and medication recommendations was measured by a food frequency questionnaire and proportion of cumulative time adherent to chemical urate-lowering therapy (ULT), respectively. Dietary adherence was defined as consumption of alcohol, seafood and animal organs less than once per month, and reduced red meat after dietary counseling. Medication adherence was defined as ULT ≥80% of time in the past 12 months for patients with indications. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient characteristics associated with management adherence. Reasons for nonadherence were also sought by open-end questions.Dietary and medication adherence were 44.2% and 21.9%, respectively. Older age (odds ratio [OR] 7.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.49-25.04 for age ≥60), higher serum uric acid (sUA) levels (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.42-8.75 for the highest quartile), and tophi (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12-4.77) were associated with dietary adherence independently, while tophi (OR 14.05, 95% CI 2.67-74.08) and chronic kidney disease (OR 16.66, 95% CI 2.63-105.37) were associated with medication adherence independently. Reasons that patients reported for nonadherence to medication included remission after treatment (35.3%), concerns for potential side effects (22.7%), insufficient patient education (8.7%), and adverse events (8.2%).Patient adherence to gout management recommendations is poor in China. Older age, increased disease burden, and specific comorbidities were associated with management adherence.

  3. Adherence to COPD guidelines in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Sørensen, Tina Brandt; Højmark, Torben Brunse

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The general practitioner (GP) is often the first healthcare contact for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AIMS: To determine whether participating in a standardised educational programme delivered in the GP's own practice is associated with adherence to COPD...... guidelines. METHODS: A nationwide register-based observational before and after study was undertaken with a control group of propensity-matched practices (follow-up period 6 months). COPD was defined as age 40+ years and at least two prescriptions for inhaled medication. The educational programme consisted...... were used to compare the rate of spirometry testing, preventive consultations, and influenza vaccinations provided to COPD patients and the rate of spirometry testing in non-COPD individuals, assumed to reflect diagnostic activity. RESULTS: Data for 102 participating GP practices were analysed...

  4. Modelling imperfect adherence to HIV induction therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith? Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induction-maintenance therapy is a treatment regime where patients are prescribed an intense course of treatment for a short period of time (the induction phase, followed by a simplified long-term regimen (maintenance. Since induction therapy has a significantly higher chance of pill fatigue than maintenance therapy, patients might take drug holidays during this period. Without guidance, patients who choose to stop therapy will each be making individual decisions, with no scientific basis. Methods We use mathematical modelling to investigate the effect of imperfect adherence during the inductive phase. We address the following research questions: 1. Can we theoretically determine the maximal length of a possible drug holiday and the minimal number of doses that must subsequently be taken while still avoiding resistance? 2. How many drug holidays can be taken during the induction phase? Results For a 180 day therapeutic program, a patient can take several drug holidays, but then has to follow each drug holiday with a strict, but fairly straightforward, drug-taking regimen. Since the results are dependent upon the drug regimen, we calculated the length and number of drug holidays for all fifteen protease-sparing triple-drug cocktails that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Conclusions Induction therapy with partial adherence is tolerable, but the outcome depends on the drug cocktail. Our theoretical predictions are in line with recent results from pilot studies of short-cycle treatment interruption strategies and may be useful in guiding the design of future clinical trials.

  5. Influence of Spirituality and Religion on Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Adult HIV/AIDS Patients in Calabar, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agam Ebaji Ayuk; Ndifreke Udonwa; Abraham Gyuse

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of a chronic medical illness such as Human Immune Deficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) may be the time when people turn to the Sacred through spirituality and religion. HIV is a chronic illness that requires strict adherence to medication regimens that may be influenced by spirituality/religion. This study was aimed at finding the association between spirituality/religion and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in adult HIV/AID...

  6. The impact of using musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging and other influencing factors on medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kanta Kumar,1,2 Karim Raza,3,4 Paramjit Gill,1 Sheila Greenfield1 1Primary Care Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, 3Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, 4Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK Background: Medication can ease symptoms and limit disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Despite this, nonadherence to medication is common in RA. We explored the determinants of high and low adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs in patients with RA and provide suggestions on approaches to improving adherence to DMARDs.Methods: Patients with RA were identified from those who had previously participated in a questionnaire measuring levels of medication adherence. Twenty patients participated (ten high and ten low adherers, as determined by responses to the Medication Adherence Report Scale. In-depth individual semistructured interviews were undertaken until data saturation was reached. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a constant comparative method.Results: Four main themes related to adherence were identified: 1 symptom severity; 2 illness perception; 3 perceived benefits and risks of DMARDs; and 4 the quality and quantity of information about RA and DMARDs. In addition, patients’ suggestions about strategies to optimize adherence to DMARDs were captured and they fell within the following themes: 1 musculoskeletal ultrasound to explain the disease process and to provide objective feedback about the extent to which their disease activity is being effectively controlled; 2 better explanations of the consequences of poorly controlled RA; and 3 a good relationship with the health professional.Conclusion: Patients’ beliefs about medicines, perceptions about RA, and level of satisfaction with information about DMARDs influenced their adherence to DMARDs. The use

  7. Treatment adherence with the easypod™ growth hormone electronic auto-injector and patient acceptance: survey results from 824 children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larroque Sylvain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurately monitoring adherence to treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH enables appropriate intervention in cases of poor adherence. The electronic r-hGH auto-injector, easypod™, automatically records the patient's adherence to treatment. This study evaluated adherence to treatment of children who started using the auto-injector and assessed opinions about the device. Methods A multicentre, multinational, observational 3-month survey in which children received r-hGH as part of their normal care. Physicians reviewed the recorded dose history and children (with or without parental assistance completed a questionnaire-based survey. Children missing ≤2 injections per month (92% of injections given were considered adherent to treatment. Adherence was compared between GH treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced children. Results Of 834 recruited participants, 824 were evaluated. The median (range age was 11 (1-18 years. From the recorded dose history, 87.5% of children were adherent to treatment over the 3-month period. Recorded adherence was higher in treatment-naïve (89.7%, n = 445/496 than in treatment-experienced children (81.7%, n = 152/186 [Fisher's exact test FI(X = 7.577; p = 0.0062]. According to self-reported data, 90.2% (607/673 of children were adherent over 3 months; 51.5% (421/817 missed ≥1 injection over this period (mainly due to forgetfulness. Concordance between reported and recorded adherence was 84.3%, with a trend towards self-reported adherence being higher than recorded adherence. Most children liked the auto-injector: over 80% gave the top two responses from five options for ease of use (720/779, speed (684/805 and comfort (716/804. Although 38.5% (300/780 of children reported pain on injection, over half of children (210/363 considered the pain to be less or much less than expected. Given the choice, 91.8% (732/797 of children/parents would continue using the device. Conclusions

  8. Accountability: a missing construct in models of adherence behavior and in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussedik E

    2017-07-01

    as the testing and refinement of adherence interventions that make use of this critical determinant of human behavior. Keywords: autonomous accountability, controlled accountability, duress, health promotion, Self-Determination Theory, shame, Social Cognitive Theory, volition 

  9. Illness perceptions and medication adherence in adolescents with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some previous researches in the West and Europe have indicated how illness perceptions relate to medication adherence in adolescents with various chronic diseases. There is however a gap in the literature on how the various illness perception dimensions are associated with medication adherence in Ghana among ...

  10. Medication adherence communications in community pharmacies: A naturalistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickles, Nathaniel M; Young, Gary J; Hall, Judith A; Noland, Carey; Kim, Ayoung; Peterson, Conner; Hong, Mina; Hale, John

    2016-03-01

    To describe the extent of pharmacy detection and monitoring of medication non-adherence, and solutions offered to improve adherence. Participants were 60 residents of the Boston area who had a generic chronic medication with 30 day supplies from their usual pharmacy. Participants received a duplicate prescription which they filled at a different pharmacy. For 5 months, participants alternated between the two pharmacies, creating gaps in their refill records at both pharmacies but no gaps in their medication adherence. Participants followed a scripted protocol and after each pharmacy visit reported their own and the pharmacy staff's behavior. Across 78 unique community pharmacies and 260 pharmacy visits, pharmacies were inconsistent and inadequate in asking if participants had questions, discussing the importance of adherence, providing adequate consultations with new medication, and detecting and intervening on non-adherence. Insurers rarely contacted the participants about adherence concerns. There is a need for more structured intervention systems to ensure pharmacists are consistently and adequately educating patients and detecting/managing potential medication non-adherence. The present study calls for more attention to building infrastructure in pharmacy practice that helps pharmacists more consistently identify, monitor, and intervene on medication adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...

  12. Substance abuse and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, logistic regression revealed that only alcohol abuse (B = -1.383, df = 1, p = .002) predicted non adherence to ART. We recommend the screening of patients on ART for substance abuse and a multi-disciplinary approach to the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Keywords: HIV, substance abuse, medication adherence ...

  13. Adherence-monitoring practices by private healthcare sector doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... non-adherence, thereby providing an opportunity for early intervention.1 In addition, in a study done in Uganda with self-paying patients who were followed for 90 days after the initiation of ART, mean adherence measured through 3-day self-reports, 30-day self-reports, unannounced pill counts and MEMS ...

  14. The Therapeutic Relationship and Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCabe, Rosemarie; Bullenkamp, Jens; Hansson, Lars; Lauber, Christoph; Martinez-Leal, Rafael; Roessler, Wulf; Salize, Hans Joachim; Svensson, Bengt; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; van den Brink, Rob; Wiersma, Durk; Priebe, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has shown that a better therapeutic relationship (TR) predicts more positive attitudes towards antipsychotic medication, but did not address whether it is also linked with actual adherence. This study investigated whether the TR is associated with adherence to

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for HIV Medication Adherence and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…

  16. Factors contributing to non-adherence to diabetes treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For improving adherence, availability of information with patients' perspectives about patients' expectations, needs and experiences in taking medication and about what might help them to become and remain adherent should be maintained. Keywords: - Diabetes; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; Medication; Non- ...

  17. Self-efficacy, imagery use, and adherence during injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesch, N; Hall, C; Prapavessis, H; Maddison, R; Bassett, S; Foley, L; Brooks, S; Forwell, L

    2012-10-01

    Previous observational studies examining imagery, self-efficacy, and adherence during injury rehabilitation have been cross-sectional and thus have not provided a clear representation of what occurs over the course of the rehabilitation period. The objectives of this research were (1) to examine the temporal patterns of imagery, self-efficacy, and rehabilitation adherence during an 8-week rehabilitation program and (2) to identify the time-order relationships between imagery, self-efficacy, and adherence. The design of the study was prospective and observational. 90 injured people (n=57 males; n=33 females) aged 18-78 years attending an injury rehabilitation clinic participated. The main outcome measures were imagery (cognitive, motivational, and healing), self-efficacy (task and coping), and rehabilitation adherence (duration, quality, and frequency). Results indicated that task efficacy, imagery use, and adherence levels remained stable, while coping efficacy declined over time. During the course of rehabilitation, moderate to strong reciprocal relationships existed between self-efficacy and adherence to rehabilitation. Weak to moderate relationships were found between imagery use and rehabilitation adherence. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of interventions steeped in self-efficacy and imagery aimed at improving rehabilitation adherence and treatment outcome. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Adherence-monitoring practices by private healthcare sector doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the use of patient self-reports and 18.3% reporting the use of pill counts. A total of 68.7% of the doctors indicated that their adherence monitoring was reliable, whilst 19.7% indicated that they did not test the reliability of their monitoring tools .The most common strategy used to improve adherence by their patients was ...

  19. Unravelling adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia : A patients' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, L. H.; Kars, M. C.; Beijlevelt-van der Zande, M.; Peters, M.; Schuurmans, M. J.; Fischer, K.

    Given the lifelong therapy in haemophilia patients, insight in non-adherence behaviour from a patient perspective is important to understand patients' difficulties with the following treatment recommendations. The aim of this study was to clarify the process underlying adherence (behaviour) to

  20. Adherence of Sudanese Coronary Artery Disease Patients to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD), worldwide, is the most common type of heart disease. Adherence to the evidence-based medications for secondary prevention is associated with further improvement in the outcomes. Objectives: To identify level of adherence towards secondary prevention medications among ...