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Sample records for adenylate cyclase glioma

  1. Adenyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppe, D; Steer, M L

    1978-02-01

    Certain hormones regulate the activity of their target cells by stimulating adenyl cyclase, which is an enzyme located within the target cell's plasma membrane. Adenyl cyclase catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP, which is released into the cell and modulates cell functions. In this communication the characteristics of adenyl cyclase are reviewed. The coupling between hormone receptors and this enzyme is discussed as is the ability of agents such as hormones, ATP, magnesium, calcium, guanine nucleotides and prostaglandins to alter cyclase activity. Several diseases that result from derangements of the adenyl cyclase system are known and the molecular bases for these diseases are discussed in this review.

  2. Regulation of brain adenylate cyclase by calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis examined the interaction between the Ca 2+ -binding protein, calmodulin (CaM), and the cAMP synthesizing enzyme, adenylate cyclase. The regulation of guanyl nucleotide-dependent adenylate cyclase by CaM was examined in a particulate fraction from bovine striatum. CaM stimulated basal adenylate cyclase activity and enhanced the stimulation of the enzyme by GTP and dopamine (DA). The potentiation of GTP- and DA-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities by CaM was more sensitive to the concentration of CaM than was the stimulation of basal activity. A photoreactive CaM derivative was developed in order to probe the interactions between CaM and the adenylate cyclase components of bovine brain. Iodo-[ 125 I]-CaM-diazopyruvamide ( 125 I-CAM-DAP) behaved like native CaM with respect to Ca 2+ -enhanced mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and Ca 2+ -dependent stimulation of adenylate cyclase. 125 I-CaM-DAP cross-linked to CaM-binding proteins in a Ca 2+ -dependent, concentration-dependent, and CaM-specific manner. Photolysis of 125 I-CaM-DAP and forskolin-agarose purified CaM-sensitive adenylate cyclase produced an adduct with a molecular weight of 140,000

  3. Lymphocyte adenylate cyclase activity in immunosuppressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Brodde, O. E.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine whether alterations of adenylate cyclase are involved in the immunosuppressive effect of glucocorticoid/cyclosporin treatment we measured basal, prostaglandin E1-, and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in lymphocyte membranes from kidney transplant patients undergoing

  4. The hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, D; Im, M J; Pfeuffer, T; Hekman, M; Helmreich, E J; Levitzki, A

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of adenylate cyclase by hormones and by GTP regulatory proteins was investigated in native membrane systems and in systems reconstituted from purified components. These studies can be summarized as follows. The stimulatory beta 1-adrenoceptor catalyses the activation of a complex between the GTP stimulatory protein GS and the catalytic unit C. The agonist-receptor complex can activate a few cyclase units in native membrane systems as well as in reconstituted systems. GS from turkey erythrocytes is functionally different from rabbit liver GS, the latter being more amenable to activation by guanyl nucleotides in the absence of hormone. The coupling between the beta 1-adrenoceptor GS and C is efficient when compared with the coupling obtained in native membrane systems. GTP/GDP exchange at the alpha S subunit requires the presence of the beta gamma subunits. A mechanism for the inhibition of adenylate cyclase by the inhibitory GTP regulatory protein Gi is suggested.

  5. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...... with moderate or severe migraine headache had elevated PACAP in the external jugular vein during headache (n = 15), that was reduced 1 h after treatment with sumatriptan 6 mg (n = 11), and further reduced interictally (n = 9). The data suggest PACAP, or its receptors, are a promising target for migraine...

  6. Receptors, adenylate cyclase, depression, and lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmaker, R H

    1981-04-01

    Although numerous studies have suggested that depression may be associated with a reduction in synaptic noradrenaline in the brain, direct beta-adrenergic receptor agonists have not been tested in the treatment of depression until recently. Moreover, newer theories of antidepressant action suggest that a reduction in beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity is a better correlate of antidepressant treatment than noradrenaline turnover changes. It is possible to evaluate the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex in the human periphery by measuring the plasma cyclic AMP rise after adrenergic agonists. A clinical trial of the beta-2 adrenergic agonist salbutamol in depression provided an opportunity to test whether adrenergic receptor subsensitivity does occur during clinical antidepressant treatment. Plasma cyclic AMP before treatment with salbutamol rose 26% in response to salbutamol 0.25 mg iv. After 1 and 3 weeks of oral salbutamol treatment, depression scores declined significantly in 11 depressed patients, while the plasma cyclic AMP response to iv salbutamol declined over 60%. The beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase remained subsensitive 4 days after cessation of salbutamol therapy. The results support the concept that receptor sensitivity changes occur during human antidepressant therapy. Data are presented that Li, too, markedly reduces activity of beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase in humans. The effect was evaluated by studying the effect of Li at therapeutic serum concentrations on the plasma cyclic AMP response to subcutaneous epinephrine. The Li effect is specific, since the plasma cyclic AMP response to glucagon is not inhibited. The plasma cyclic GMP response to subcutaneous epinephrine, suggested as a model for presynaptic alpha-noradrenergic mechanisms, is also partially inhibited by Li therapy. Since cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP may be viewed as balancing substances, their interaction may provide a mechanism for Li's dual clinical effects in mania

  7. Adenylate cyclases involvement in pathogenicity, a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Adriana; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP), one of the most important secondary messengers, is produced by adenylate cyclase (AC) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). AC is a widespread enzyme, being present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although they have the same enzymatic activity (ATP cyclization), the structure of these proteins varies, depending on their function and the producing organism. Some pathogenic bacteria utilize these enzymes as toxins which interact with calmodulin (or another eukaryote activator), causing intense cAMP synthesis and disruption of infected cell functions. In contrast, other pathogenic bacteria benefit of augmentation of AC activity for their own function. Based on sequence analysis ofAC catalytic domain from two pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus anthracis and Bordetellapertussis) with known three-dimensional structures, a possible secondary structure for 1-255 amino acid fragment from Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC (with 80TKGFSVKGKSS90 as the ATP binding site) is proposed.

  8. Monospecific antibody against Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase protects from Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faiz Kazi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acellular pertussis vaccines has been largely accepted world-wide however, there are reports about limitedantibody response against these vaccines suggesting that multiple antigens should be included in acellular vaccinesto attain full protection. The aim of present study was to evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase as aprotective antigen.Materials and methods: Highly mono-specific antibody against adenylate cyclase (AC was raised in rabbits usingnitrocellulose bound adenylate cyclase and the specificity was assessed by immuoblotting. B.pertussis 18-323, wasincubated with the mono-specific serum and without serum as a control. Mice were challenged intra-nasally and pathophysiolgicalresponses were recorded.Results: The production of B.pertussis adenylate cyclase monospecific antibody that successfully recognized on immunoblotand gave protection against fatality (p< 0.01 and lung consolidation (p <0.01. Mouse weight gain showedsignificant difference (p< 0.05.Conclusion: These preliminary results highlight the role of the B.pertussis adenylate cyclase as a potential pertussisvaccine candidate. B.pertussis AC exhibited significant protection against pertussis in murine model. J Microbiol InfectDis 2012; 2(2: 36-43Key words: Pertussis; monospecific; antibody; passive-protection

  9. Adenylate Cyclase-the More Membrane Associated, the Less Radiosensitive

    OpenAIRE

    ATTILA, TAKATS; VU HOA, BINH; KATALIN, OFFENMULLER; KATALIN, BODO; LORAND, BERTOK; GYORGY J., KOTELES; Frederic Joliot-Curie National Research Institute for Radiobiology; "Frederic Joliot-Curie" National Research Institute for Radiobiology; "Frederic Joliot-Curie" National Research Institute for Radiobiology; "Frederic Joliot-Curie" National Research Institute for Radiobiology; "Frederic Joliot-Curie" National Research Institute for Radiobiology; "Frederic Joliot-Curie" National Research Institute for Radiobiology

    1993-01-01

    A dose dependent but not parallel decreases were observed both in SH content and catalytic activity of "free" catalytic subunit after irradiation (0-3200 Gy), while SR groups of membrane-associated adenylate cyclase were insensitive (under 3200 Gy). An initial "radioactivation" of membrane-associated enzyme was found under 800 Gy, then an inhibition above 1600 Gy. The SH alkylating agent, N-ethylmaleimide resulted in a complete inactivation, both of membrane associated form of adenylate cycla...

  10. High skeletal muscle adenylate cyclase in malignant hyperthermia.

    OpenAIRE

    Willner, J H; Cerri, C G; Wood, D S

    1981-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia occurs in humans with several congenital myopathies, usually in response to general anesthesia. Commonly, individuals who develop this syndrome lack symptoms of muscle disease, and their muscle lacks specific pathological changes. A biochemical marker for this myopathy has not previously been available; we found activity of adenylate cyclase and content of cyclic AMP to be abnormally high in skeletal muscle. Secondary modification of protein phosphorylation could explai...

  11. Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim; Mašín, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2014), s. 1215-1227 ISSN 1476-0584 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14547S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR GAP302/12/0460 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * antigen delivery * Bordetella pertussis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.210, year: 2014

  12. Interactions of fluoride and guanine nucleotides with thyroid adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, A; Wolff, J

    1982-02-18

    The activation of bovine thyroid adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) by Gpp(NH)p has been studied using steady-state kinetic methods. This activation is complex and may be characterized by two Gpp(NH)p binding sites of different affinities with measured constants: Ka1 = 0.1 micro M and Ka2 = 2.9 micro M. GDP beta S does not completely inhibit the Gpp(NH)p activation: analysis of the data is consistent with a single GDP beta S inhibitory site which is competitive with the weaker Gpp(NH)p site. Guanine nucleotide effects upon F- activation of adenylate cyclase have been studied. When App(NH)p is the substrate, 10 micro M GTP along with 10 mM NaF gives higher activity than NaF alone, while GDP together with NaF inhibits the activity by 50% relative to NaF. These features are not observed when the complex is assayed with ATP in the presence of a nucleotide regenerating system or when analogs Gpp)NH)p or GDP beta S are used along with NaF. These effects were studied in three other membrane systems using App(NH)p as substrate: rat liver, rat ovary and turkey erythrocyte. No consistent pattern of guanine nucleotide effects upon fluoride activation could be observed in the different membrane preparations. Previous experiments showed that the size of soluble thyroid adenylate cyclase changed whether membranes were preincubated with Gpp(NH)p or NaF. This size change roughly corresponded to the molecular weight of the nucleotide regulatory protein. This finding, coupled with the present data, suggests that two guanine nucleotide binding sites may be involved in regulating thyroid cyclase and that these sites may be on different protein chains.

  13. Does treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in vivo alter human adenylate cyclase responsiveness in vitro?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Klüppel, M.; Philipp, T.; Brodde, O. E.

    1991-01-01

    1. Treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in vivo can alter adenylate cyclase responsiveness in the human heart. We have determined the effects of treatment with four different beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in vivo on the responsiveness of lymphocyte and platelet adenylate cyclase in vitro in

  14. Third Acivity of Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase (AC) Toxin-Hemolysin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišer, Radovan; Mašín, Jiří; Basler, Marek; Krůšek, Jan; Špuláková, V.; Konopásek, Ivo; Šebo, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 5 (2007), s. 2808-2820 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Grant - others:XE(XE) LSHB-CT-2003-503582; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 146/2005/B-BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : bordetella * adenylate cyclase toxin * enzymatic aktivity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.581, year: 2007

  15. The Escherichia coli adenylate cyclase complex. Stimulation by potassium and phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, E; Reddy, P; Gazdar, C; Peterkofsky, A

    1985-04-10

    In Escherichia coli, adenylate cyclase activity in toluene-treated cells can be inhibited by glucose while the activity in a broken cell preparation cannot. Adenylate cyclase activity in the permeabilized but not in broken cells is stimulated somewhat specifically and additively by potassium and phosphate. Kinetic studies show sigmoid substrate-velocity curves for the toluene-treated cells but hyperbolic curves for the broken cells. The stimulatory effects of potassium and phosphate on adenylate cyclase activity in tolulene-treated cells are associated with increases in the Vmax and Km for ATP. While the enzyme activity in toluene-treated cells shows a preference for magnesium over manganese, the reverse is observed in broken cells. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in toluene-treated cells requires the presence of the proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS proteins can be phosphorylated in a P-enolpyruvate-dependent reaction. The stimulatory effects of ions will not occur if the PTS proteins are not phosphorylated. Since potassium phosphate stimulates both adenylate cyclase and PTS activities in toluene-treated cells, it is proposed that the effect of potassium phosphate on adenylate cyclase activity is mediated through an effect on the PTS. A model for dual regulation by glucose of adenylate cyclase activity is proposed. This model involves regulation of both the condition of the PTS proteins as well as the cellular concentration of phosphate.

  16. Food restriction modulates β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat liver during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase activities were studied in rat liver during postmaturational aging of male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum or restricted to 60% of the ad libitum intake. Catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased by 200-300% between 6 and 24-27 mo of age in ad libitum-fed rats, whereas in food-restricted rats catecholamine response increased by only 58-84% between 6 and 30 mo. In ad libitum-fed rats, glucagon-stimulated enzyme activity also increased by 40% between 6 and 12 mo and in restricted rats a similar age-related increase was delayed until 18 mo. β-Adrenergic receptor density increased by 50% between 6 and 24 mo in livers from ad libitum-fed but not food-restricted rats and showed a highly significant correlation with maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity over the postmaturational life span. Age-related increases in unstimulated (basal) adenylate cyclase activity and nonreceptor-mediated enzyme activation were retarded by food restriction. The results demonstrate that food restriction diminishes a marked age-related increase in β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver. Alterations of adrenergic-responsive adenylate cyclase with age and the modulatory effects of food restriction appear to be mediated by changes in both receptor and nonreceptor components of adenylate cyclase

  17. Effects of PTH and Ca2+ on renal adenyl cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.T.; Neuman, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion on the adenylate cyclase system was studied in isolated, renal basal-lateral plasma membranes of the rat. Bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH) and a guanyl triphosphate analogue, Gpp(NH)p were used to stimulate cyclase activity. Under conditions of maximal stimulation, calcium ions inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation, the formation rate falling exponentially with the calcium concentration. Fifty percent inhibition of either bPTH- or Gpp(NH)p-stimulated activity was given by approximately 50 μM Ca 2+ . Also the Hill coefficient for the inhibition was close to unity in both cases. The concentration of bPTH giving half-maximal stimulation of cAMP formation (1.8 x 10 -8 M) was unchanged by the presence of calcium. These data suggest that calcium acts at some point other than the initial hormone-receptor interaction, presumably decreasing the catalytic efficiency of the enzymic moiety of the membrane complex

  18. Evidence that forskolin activates turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase through a noncatalytic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S A; Bilezikian, J P

    1983-02-01

    The diterpene forskolin has been reported to activate adenylate cyclase in a manner consistent with an interaction at the catalytic unit. However, some of its actions are more consistent with an interaction at the coupling unit that links the hormone receptor to the adenylate cyclase activity. This report adds support to the latter possibility. Under conditions that lead to stimulation of adenylate cyclase in turkey erythrocyte membranes by GTP, forskolin also becomes more active. Additional evidence to support an influence of forskolin upon adenylate cyclase via the GTP-coupling protein N includes the following: (i) forskolin, at submaximal concentrations, leads to enhanced sensitivity and responsiveness of isoproterenol-dependent adenylate cyclase activity in turkey erythrocyte membranes; (ii) under specified conditions, the nucleotide GDP, an inhibitor of the stimulating nucleotide GTP and its analog, guanyl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p), also markedly inhibits the action of forskolin; (iii) both Gpp(NH)p and forskolin are associated with a decrease in agonist affinity for the beta-adrenergic receptor. However, actions of forskolin in the turkey erythrocyte are not identical to those of GTP: (i) forskolin is never as potent as Gpp(NH)p in activating adenylate cyclase; (ii) the magnitude of synergism between isoproterenol and forskolin is not equal to that observed with isoproterenol and Gpp(NH)p; (iii) at high concentrations, forskolin inhibits antagonist binding to the beta-receptor. Forskolin appears to have several sites of action in the turkey erythrocyte membrane, including an influence upon the adenylate cyclase regulatory protein N.

  19. Structure of the turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T B; Lad, P M; Preston, M S; Kempner, E; Schlegel, W; Rodbell, M

    1981-02-01

    Target analysis of the turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] system showed that the molecular weight of the ground state enzyme increases from 92,000 with MnATP as substrate and no stimulatory ligands to 226,000 when activated by fluoride ion or by 5'-guanyl imidodiphosphate (p[NH]ppG) subsequent to clearance of previously bound GDP. The identical increment in size (130,000) suggests that the same regulatory unit is involved in the activation by both effectors. When assayed with isoproterenol and p[NH]ppG, the enzyme system displayed a further increment in size of 90,000 daltons. Based on binding of the antagonist 125I-labeled hydroxybenzylpindolol, the beta-adrenergic receptor is about 90,000 daltons or the same as that seen for activation of the enzyme by isoproterenol through the beta-adrenergic-receptor. Because single targets were seen for the ground state enzyme system under all conditions, it would appear that the various regulatory and catalytic components are structurally linked prior to activation by hormone, guanine nucleotides, and fluoride ion. Furthermore, based on reported subunit sizes of the nucleotide regulatory and receptor components are composed of multiple subunits, either homologous or heterologous in structure.

  20. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin promotes bacterial internalisation into non phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, César; Etxaniz, Asier; Uribe, Kepa B; Etxebarria, Aitor; González-Bullón, David; Arlucea, Jon; Goñi, Félix M; Aréchaga, Juan; Ostolaza, Helena

    2015-09-08

    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a respiratory infectious disease that is the fifth largest cause of vaccine-preventable death in infants. Though historically considered an extracellular pathogen, this bacterium has been detected both in vitro and in vivo inside phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. However the precise mechanism used by B. pertussis for cell entry, or the putative bacterial factors involved, are not fully elucidated. Here we find that adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), one of the important toxins of B. pertussis, is sufficient to promote bacterial internalisation into non-phagocytic cells. After characterization of the entry route we show that uptake of "toxin-coated bacteria" proceeds via a clathrin-independent, caveolae-dependent entry pathway, allowing the internalised bacteria to survive within the cells. Intracellular bacteria were found inside non-acidic endosomes with high sphingomyelin and cholesterol content, or "free" in the cytosol of the invaded cells, suggesting that the ACT-induced bacterial uptake may not proceed through formation of late endolysosomes. Activation of Tyr kinases and toxin-induced Ca(2+)-influx are essential for the entry process. We hypothesize that B. pertussis might use ACT to activate the endocytic machinery of non-phagocytic cells and gain entry into these cells, in this way evading the host immune system.

  1. Determination of the turn-off reaction for the hormone-activated adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, D; Eckstein, F; Lowe, M; Selinger, Z

    1979-10-10

    Previous work suggested that hormonal activation of adenylate cyclase involves the introduction of GTP to the regulatory site, and subsequent hydrolysis of the bound GTP terminates the activation. In many tissues the turn-off GTPase reaction cannot be readily measured because of a high background of nonspecific GTP hydrolysis. To circumvent this problem a general assay for the turn-off reaction has now been developed. The adenylate cyclase is first activated by hormone and GTP and the introduction of GTP is then stopped either by addition of an excess of guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) or by addition of a receptor blocking agent. The decay of adenylate cyclase activity brought on by these inhibitors is used to calculate the rate constant of the turn-off reaction. In turkey erythrocyte and rat parotid membranes the rate constant of the decay process as determined with GDP beta S is similar to that determined with the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol. The rate constants (min-1 at 30 degrees C) for various adenylate cyclase preparations are 10 for turkey erythrocyte, 7.5 for rat parotid, and 6.2 for the rat liver enzyme. The finding of similar rate constants in the various preparations indicates that GTP hydrolysis at the regulatory site is a general mechanism for terminating the activation of adenylate cyclase.

  2. Dynamics of adenylate cyclase regulation via heterotrimeric G-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde, Markus; Werthmann, Ruth C; von Hayn, Kathrin; Bünemann, Moritz

    2014-04-01

    A wide variety of G-protein-coupled receptors either activate or inhibit ACs (adenylate cyclases), thereby regulating cellular cAMP levels and consequently inducing proper physiological responses. Stimulatory and inhibitory G-proteins interact directly with ACs, whereas G(q)-coupled receptors exert their effects primarily via Ca2+. Using the FRET-based cAMP sensor Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1)-cAMPS (adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate), we studied cAMP levels in single living VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) or HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) with subsecond temporal resolution. Stimulation of purinergic (VSMCs) or thrombin (HUVECs) receptors rapidly decreased cAMP levels in the presence of the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline via a rise in Ca2+ and subsequent inhibition of AC5 and AC6. Specifically in HUVECs, we observed that, in the continuous presence of thrombin, cAMP levels climbed slowly after the initial decline with a delay of a little less than 1 min. The underlying mechanism includes phospholipase A2 activity and cyclo-oxygenase-mediated synthesis of prostaglandins. We studied further the dynamics of the inhibition of ACs via G(i)-proteins utilizing FRET imaging to resolve interactions between fluorescently labelled G(i)-proteins and AC5. FRET between Gα(i1) and AC5 developed at much lower concentration of agonist compared with the overall G(i)-protein activity. We found the dissociation of Gα(i1) subunits and AC5 to occur slower than the G(i)-protein deactivation. This led us to the conclusion that AC5, by binding active Gα(i1), interferes with G-protein deactivation and reassembly and thereby might sensitize its own regulation.

  3. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  4. Picomolar-affinity binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by melatonin in Syrian hamster hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niles, L.P.; Hashemi, F.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of melatonin on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was measured in homogenates of Syrian hamster hypothalamus. In addition, the saturation binding characteristics of the melatonin receptor ligand, [ 125 I]iodomelatonin, was examined using an incubation temperature (30 degree C) similar to that used in enzyme assays. 2. At concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1 nM, melatonin caused a significant decrease in stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a maximum inhibition of approximately 22%. 3. Binding experiments utilizing [ 125 I]iodomelatonin in a range of approximately 5-80 pM indicated a single class of high-affinity sites: Kd = 55 +/- 9 pM, Bmax = 1.1 +/- 0.3 fmol/mg protein. 4. The ability of picomolar concentrations of melatonin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity suggests that this affect is mediated by picomolar-affinity receptor binding sites for this hormone in the hypothalamus

  5. Enhanced adenylate cyclase activity of turkey erythrocytes following treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J R; Nambi, P; Sibley, D R; Lefkowitz, R J

    1984-12-15

    The turkey erythrocyte contains a beta 1-adrenergic receptor-linked adenylate cyclase system. We have examined the effects of pretreatment with receptor antagonists on adenylate cyclase activity and the individual components in the pathway of enzyme activation in this system. Isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is increased by 30% (P less than 0.01) over control in membranes derived from cells preincubated with the antagonist propranolol. The effect is stereospecific and dose-related with a EC50 of 100 nM for the (-) isomer. The time course of effect is rapid being complete by 90 min. Non-receptor mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by manganese ion, forskolin and NaF is similarly enhanced following propranolol pretreatment. Sensitization of adenylate cyclase activity also occurs following pretreatment with a number of antagonists but is not seen after preincubation with pindolol or practolol. Quantitation of beta-adrenergic receptor (R) density using [125I]cyanopindolol indicates no difference between membranes derived from control and antagonist pretreated cells. Coupling of R with the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N) as assessed by high affinity agonist binding is unchanged following pretreatment. The efficacy of 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate Gpp(NH)p in producing a shift of agonist binding curves associated with destabilization of high affinity H-R-N complexes, is also the same (EC50 = 0.2 microM) in membranes from control and antagonist treated cells. The isoproterenol stimulated rate of release of [3H]GDP from membranes preloaded with [3H]GTP as an index of formation of an active form of the N protein is similarly unaffected by antagonist preincubation. We conclude that the mechanism of the observed sensitization of turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase by beta-adrenergic antagonists is receptor mediated and likely involves facilitation of N interaction with the catalytic subunit of the enzyme.

  6. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, Jiří; Osička, Radim; Bumba, Ladislav; Šebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 8 (2015) ISSN 2049-632X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/0460; GA ČR GA15-09157S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11851S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * membrane penetration * pore-formation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.483, year: 2015

  7. Design and Synthesis of Fluorescent Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates as Potent Inhibitors of Bacterial Adenylate Cyclases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břehová, Petra; Šmídková, Markéta; Skácel, Jan; Dračínský, Martin; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Velasquez, M. P. S.; Watts, V. J.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 22 (2016), s. 2534-2546 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * anthranilic acid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.225, year: 2016

  8. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the β-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the β-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. β-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed β 1 - and β 2 -type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in β-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the β 1 -adrenergic subtype. This BAT β-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial β-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability

  9. Evidence for the existence of a sulfhydryl group in the adenylate cyclase active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, A V; Yurkova, M S; Baranova, L A; Gulyaev, N N; Bulargina, T V; Severin, E S

    1985-03-01

    6-Cloro-9-beta-d-ribofuranosylpurine 5'-triphosphate (CIRTP) and 6-mercapto-9-beta-d-ribofuranosylpurine 5'-triphosphate (SRTP) irreversibly inhibit adenylate cyclase from rat brain. Adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma -imido] triphosphate protects the enzyme against inactivation by CIRTP and SRTP and acts as a competitive inhibitor with respect to ATP with the Ki value 2 X 10(-4) M. Study of the pH-dependence of the rate of the enzyme inactivation by CIRTP showed that pK for the group modified by this compound is equal to 7.45. Inactivation is first order with respect to the enzyme; the saturation effect is observed at the increased concentration of CIRTP. The k2 and KI values for irreversible inhibition of brain adenylate cyclase by CIRTP were 0.25 min-1 and 1.9 X 10(-4) M, respectively. Adenylate cyclase inhibition by SRTP is also time-dependent. Partial protection against the enzyme inactivation was observed. Dithiothreitol restores the activity of SRTP-inactivated adenylate cyclase. The results obtained indicate the presence of an -SH group in the purine amino group binding area of the enzyme active site.

  10. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates renin secretion via activation of PAC1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautmann, Matthias; Friis, Ulla G; Desch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Besides of its functional role in the nervous system, the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Therefore, PACAP is a potent vasodilator in several vascular beds, including the renal vasculature. Because...

  11. Receptor binding and adenylate cyclase activities of glucagon analogues modified in the N-terminal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.L.; Pelton, J.T.; Trivedi, D.; Johnson, D.G.; Coy, D.H.; Sueiras-Diaz, J.; Hruby, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, we determined the ability of four N-terminally modified derivatives of glucagon, [3-Me-His1,Arg12]-, [Phe1,Arg12]-, [D-Ala4,Arg12]-, and [D-Phe4]glucagon, to compete with 125I-glucagon for binding sites specific for glucagon in hepatic plasma membranes and to activate the hepatic adenylate cyclase system, the second step involved in producing many of the physiological effects of glucagon. Relative to the native hormone, [3-Me-His1,Arg12]glucagon binds approximately twofold greater to hepatic plasma membranes but is fivefold less potent in the adenylate cyclase assay. [Phe1,Arg12]glucagon binds threefold weaker and is also approximately fivefold less potent in adenylate cyclase activity. In addition, both analogues are partial agonists with respect to adenylate cyclase. These results support the critical role of the N-terminal histidine residue in eliciting maximal transduction of the hormonal message. [D-Ala4,Arg12]glucagon and [D-Phe4]glucagon, analogues designed to examine the possible importance of a beta-bend conformation in the N-terminal region of glucagon for binding and biological activities, have binding potencies relative to glucagon of 31% and 69%, respectively. [D-Ala4,Arg12]glucagon is a partial agonist in the adenylate cyclase assay system having a fourfold reduction in potency, while the [D-Phe4] derivative is a full agonist essentially equipotent with the native hormone. These results do not necessarily support the role of an N-terminal beta-bend in glucagon receptor recognition. With respect to in vivo glycogenolysis activities, all of the analogues have previously been reported to be full agonists

  12. Vanadate stimulates adenylate cyclase via the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein by a mechanism differing from that of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawietz, W; Downs, R W; Spiegel, A M; Aurbach, G D

    1982-03-01

    Vanadate stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in turkey erythrocyte membranes. The maximal stimulation is 7-fold over basal at 3 mM vanadate; higher concentrations are inhibitory. A suboptimal concentration of fluoride (1 mM) together with vanadate (3 mM) activates adenylate cyclase in a non-additive manner; cyclase activation by optimal fluoride (10 mM) is inhibited by vanadate (3 mM). There is no stimulation by vanadate of adenylate cyclase activity (measured either with Mg2+ or Mn2+) in CYC- S49 lymphoma cell membranes. Vanadate (3 mM) shows no effect on binding of Beta-adrenergic agonists or antagonists to the [3H] (-)-dihydroalprenolol binding site in turkey erythrocyte membranes. These results suggest that the effect of vanadate on Adenylate cyclase is mediated through the nucleotide regulatory protein and may act by a mechanism similar to fluoride. However, in cholera toxic-treated membranes as well as in GDP-beta-S plus isoproterenol-treated membranes, fluoride-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is significantly reduced, but vanadate stimulation is not. Our results suggest that although the actions of vanadate and fluoride in adenylate cyclase may each involve the nucleotide regulatory unit, the exact mechanisms of activation by the two anions differ.

  13. Age-associated alterations in hepatic β-adrenergic receptor/adenylate cyclase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, S.M.; Herring, P.A.; Arinze, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of age on catecholamine regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis and on hepatic adenylate cyclase was studied in male rats up to 24 mo of age. Epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulated glycogenolysis in isolated hepatocytes at all age groups studied. Isoproterenol, however, stimulated glycogenolysis only at 24 mo. In isolated liver membranes, usual activators of adenylate cyclase increased the activity of the enzyme considerably more in membranes from 24-mo-old rats than in membranes from either 3- or 22-mo-old rats. The Mn 2+ -dependent activity of the cyclase was increased by 2.9-fold in 3-mo-old animals and ∼ 5.7-fold in 24-mo-old rats, indicating a substantial age-dependent increase in the intrinsic activity of the catalytic unit. The density of the β-adrenergic receptor, as measured by the binding of [ 125 I]-iodocyanopindolol to plasma membranes, was 5-8 fmol/mg protein in rats aged 3-12 mo but increased to 19 fmol/mg protein in 24-mo-old rats. Computer-aided analysis of isoproterenol competition of the binding indicated a small age-dependent increase in the proportion of β-receptors in the high-affinity state. These observations suggest that β-receptor-mediated hepatic glycogenolysis in the aged rat is predicated upon increases in the density of β-receptors as well as increased intrinsic activity of the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase

  14. The role of transcriptional regulation in maintaining the availability of mycobacterial adenylate cyclases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Casey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium species have a complex cAMP regulatory network indicated by the high number of adenylate cyclases annotated in their genomes. However the need for a high level of redundancy in adenylate cyclase genes remains unknown. We have used semiquantitiative RT-PCR to examine the expression of eight Mycobacterium smegmatis cyclases with orthologs in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where cAMP has recently been shown to be important for virulence. All eight cyclases were transcribed in all environments tested, and only four demonstrated environmental-mediated changes in transcription. M. smegmatis genes MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4279 were upregulated during starvation conditions while MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4924 were downregulated in H2O2 and MSMEG_3780 was downregulated in low pH and starvation. Promoter fusion constructs containing M. tuberculosis H37Rv promoters showed consistent regulation compared to their M. smegmatis orthologs. Overall our findings indicate that while low levels of transcriptional regulation occur, regulation at the mRNA level does not play a major role in controlling cellular cyclase availability in a given environment.

  15. Functional exchange of components between light-activated photoreceptor phosphodiesterase and hormone-activated adenylate cyclase systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.W.; Wheeler, M.A.; Rasenick, M.M.; Yamazaki, A.; Stein, P.J.; Halliday, K.R.; Wheeler, G.L.

    1982-06-01

    Previous studies have noted profound similarities between the regulation of light-activated (3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide 5'-nucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.17) in retinal rods and hormone-activated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) in a variety of tissues. We report ere the functional exchange of components isolated from the photoreceptor system, which displayed predicted functional characteristics when incubated with recipient adenylate cyclase systems from rat cerebral cortical and hypothalamic synaptic membranes and frog erythrocyte ghosts. We demonstrate functional exchange of photoreceptor components at each of three loci: the hormone receptor, the GTP-binding protein (GBP), and the catalytic moiety of adenylate cyclase. Illuminated (but not unilluminated) rhodopsin was found to mimic the hormone-receptor complex, causing GTP-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase. The photoreceptor GBP complexed with guanosine 5'-(..beta..,..gamma..)imidotriphosphate (p(NH)ppG) produced a marked activation of recipient adenylate cyclase systems. Much smaller activation was observed when GBP was not complexed with p(NH)ppG. A heat-stable photoreceptor phosphodiesterase inhibitor reduced both basal and Mn/sup 2 +/-activated adenylate cyclase activites and this inhibition was reversed by photoreceptor GBPp(NH)ppG. These data demonstrate a remarkable functional compatibility between subunits of both systems and furthermore imply that specialized peptide domains responsible for protein-protein interactions are highly conserved.

  16. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a swift saboteur of host defense

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtová, Jana; Kamanová, Jana; Šebo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2006), s. 1-7 ISSN 1369-5274 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cyaa * scanning electron microscopy * cyclase toxin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.445, year: 2006

  17. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands 3 H-N-methylscopolamine ( 3 H-NMS), 3 H-quinuclidinyl benzilate ( 3 H-QNB), and 3 H-pirenzepine. 3 H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, 3 H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by 3 H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for 3 H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure

  18. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-12-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine (/sup 3/H-NMS), /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and /sup 3/H-pirenzepine. /sup 3/H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, /sup 3/H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by /sup 3/H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for /sup 3/H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure.

  19. Quantification of potassium levels in cells treated with Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wald, Tomáš; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Fišer, Radovan; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter; Mašín, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 450, APR 2014 (2014), s. 57-62 ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR GA13-14547S; GA ČR GAP302/12/0460 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : Potassium * Adenylate cyclase toxin * RTX Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.219, year: 2014

  20. Interaction of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin with complement receptor 3 involves multivalent glycan binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasan, Shakir; Osičková, Adriana; Bumba, Ladislav; Novák, Petr; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 589, č. 3 (2015), s. 374-379 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09157S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11851S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Adenylate cyclase toxin * CD11b/CD18 * Complement receptor type 3 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.519, year: 2015

  1. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osička, Radim; Osičková, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Černý, Jiří; Šebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, DEC 9 (2015) ISSN 2050-084X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11851S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : E. coli * adenylate cyclase toxin * biochemistry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 8.282, year: 2015

  2. Different strictuctural requirements for adenylate cyclase toxin interactions with erythrocyte and liposome membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, Jiří; Konopásek, I.; Svobodová, J.; Šebo, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 1660, - (2004), s. 144-154 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA AV ČR IAA5020907 Grant - others:GA Howard Hughes Medical Institut(US) 55000334; GA(XE) QLK2-CT-1999-00556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : bordetella pertussis * adenylate cyclase toxin * membrane interaction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.441, year: 2004

  3. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Subverts Phagocyte Function by RhoA Inhibition and Unproductive Ruffling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamanová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Mašín, Jiří; Genth, H.; Vojtová, Jana; Linhartová, Irena; Benada, Oldřich; Just, I.; Šebo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 8 (2008), s. 5587-5597 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA MŠk 2B06161; GA ČR GA310/08/0447 Grant - others:XE(XE) LSHB-CT-2003-503582 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bordetella * adenylate cyclase toxin * rhoa Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.000, year: 2008

  4. Adenylate cyclase toxin promotes internalisation of integrins and raft components and decreases macrophage adhesion capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martín

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT that must be post-translationally palmitoylated in the bacterium cytosol to be active. The toxin targets phagocytes expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin receptor. It delivers a catalytic adenylate cyclase domain into the target cell cytosol producing a rapid increase of intracellular cAMP concentration that suppresses bactericidal functions of the phagocyte. ACT also induces calcium fluxes into target cells. Biochemical, biophysical and cell biology approaches have been applied here to show evidence that ACT and integrin molecules, along with other raft components, are rapidly internalized by the macrophages in a toxin-induced calcium rise-dependent process. The toxin-triggered internalisation events occur through two different routes of entry, chlorpromazine-sensitive receptor-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent internalisation, maybe acting in parallel. ACT locates into raft-like domains, and is internalised, also in cells devoid of receptor. Altogether our results suggest that adenylate cyclase toxin, and maybe other homologous pathogenic toxins from the RTX (Repeats in Toxin family to which ACT belongs, may be endowed with an intrinsic capacity to, directly and efficiently, insert into raft-like domains, promoting there its multiple activities. One direct consequence of the integrin removal from the cell surface of the macrophages is the hampering of their adhesion ability, a fundamental property in the immune response of the leukocytes that could be instrumental in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis.

  5. Adenylate cyclase toxin promotes internalisation of integrins and raft components and decreases macrophage adhesion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, César; Uribe, Kepa B; Gómez-Bilbao, Geraxane; Ostolaza, Helena

    2011-02-23

    Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) that must be post-translationally palmitoylated in the bacterium cytosol to be active. The toxin targets phagocytes expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin receptor. It delivers a catalytic adenylate cyclase domain into the target cell cytosol producing a rapid increase of intracellular cAMP concentration that suppresses bactericidal functions of the phagocyte. ACT also induces calcium fluxes into target cells. Biochemical, biophysical and cell biology approaches have been applied here to show evidence that ACT and integrin molecules, along with other raft components, are rapidly internalized by the macrophages in a toxin-induced calcium rise-dependent process. The toxin-triggered internalisation events occur through two different routes of entry, chlorpromazine-sensitive receptor-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent internalisation, maybe acting in parallel. ACT locates into raft-like domains, and is internalised, also in cells devoid of receptor. Altogether our results suggest that adenylate cyclase toxin, and maybe other homologous pathogenic toxins from the RTX (Repeats in Toxin) family to which ACT belongs, may be endowed with an intrinsic capacity to, directly and efficiently, insert into raft-like domains, promoting there its multiple activities. One direct consequence of the integrin removal from the cell surface of the macrophages is the hampering of their adhesion ability, a fundamental property in the immune response of the leukocytes that could be instrumental in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis.

  6. Identification of Adenyl Cyclase Activity in a Disease Resistance Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Hussein, Rana

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide, cAMP, is an important signaling molecule in animals and plants. However, in plants the enzymes that synthesize this second messenger, adenyl cyclases (ACs), remain elusive. Given the physiological importance of cAMP in signaling, particularly in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, it is thus important to identify and characterize ACs in higher plants. Using computational approaches, a disease resistance protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, At3g04220 was found to have an AC catalytic center motif. In an attempt to prove that this candidate has adenyl cyclases activity in vitro, the coding sequence of the putative AC catalytic domain of this protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. The nucleotide cyclase activity of the recombinant protein was examined using cyclic nucleotide enzyme immunoassays. In parallel, the expression of At3g04220 was measured in leaves under three different stress conditions in order to determine under which conditions the disease resistance protein could function. Results show that the purified recombinant protein has Mn2+ dependent AC activity in vitro, and the expression analysis supports a role for At3g04220 and cAMP in plant defense.

  7. Structure-Function Relationships Underlying the Capacity of Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin to Disarm Host Phagocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Jakub; Černý, Ondřej; Osičková, Adriana; Linhartová, Irena; Mašín, Jiří; Bumba, Ladislav; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-28, č. článku 300. E-ISSN 2072-6651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09157S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05919S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28126A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * Bordetella * cAMP Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.030, year: 2016

  8. Alteration in adenylate cyclase response to aminergic stimulation following neonatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronister, R.B.; Palmer, G.C.; Gerbrandt, L.

    1980-01-01

    X-irradiation of the rat neonatal hippocampus produces severe alterations in the architectonic features of the mature hippocampus. The most prominent alteration is a marked depletion of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, with a subsequent realignment of CA 4 cells. The present data also show that norepinephrine (NE), dopamine and histamine stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity is severely attenuated in the hippocampi of irradiated animals. This failure suggests that the NE fibers of irradiated subjects, although normal in content of NE, are not functional in some of their NE-effector actions

  9. Segments Crucial for Membrane Translocation and Pore-forming Activity of Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basler, Marek; Knapp, O.; Mašín, Jiří; Fišer, R.; Maier, E.; Benz, R.; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 17 (2007), s. 12419-12429 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Grant - others:XE(XE) European Union 6th FP contract LSHB-CT-2003-503582 THERAVAC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : bordetella * adenylate cyclase toxin * ac membrane translocation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.581, year: 2007

  10. Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro activities of adenylate cyclase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra(NCTC 7417)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padh, Harish; Venkitsubramanian, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    The incorporation of [ 14 C] adenine into the adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) fraction by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was taken as a measure of the in vivo activity of adenylate cyclase. The in vivo activity of adenylate cyclase was significantly inhibited by glucose, thus suggesting that the low level of cyclic AMP in the presence of glucose is due to the inhibited synthesis of cyclic AMP. In vitro activity of adenylate cyclase had optimum pH of 8.5 and Km of 1.33 mM for ATP. Glucose and other sugars did not show significant inhibition of in vitro activity. The results suggest that the adenylate cyclase activity becomes less sensitive to glucose when the bacterial cells are disrupted, an analogy with eukaryotic adenylate cyclase which loses sensitivity to hormones when the cells are disrupted. (auth.)

  11. Effects of sevoflurane on adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity in brain of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Changdong; Yang Jianping; Dai Tijun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of sevoflurane on c adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE) activity in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of rats, and to examine the role of cAMP in sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Fourty SD rats were delaminately designed and allocated randomly to 5 groups inhaling 1.5% sevoflurane i.e., no recovery (recovery group, n=8) and one hour after righting reflexrecovery (aware group, n=8). The brain tissues were rapidly dissected into cerebrocortex and hippocampus and brain stem.Then the adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity were assessed. Results: So far as the activity of AC is concerned, compared with the control group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem brain stem of induction group and anesthesia group, the cerebrocortex, and hippocampus in the recovery group were significantly increased; compared with those in the anesthesia group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of aware group were significantly decreased (P<0.05); For the activity of PDE, compared with the control group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem in the induction group and anesthesia group was significantly decreased, compared with that in anesthesia group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of recovery group and aware group was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: cAMP may play an important role in sevoflurane anesthesia. (authors)

  12. Effect of drugs on lipid methylation, receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling and cyclic AMP secretion in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waarde, Aren; Van Haastert, P.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Intercellular communication in Dictyostelium discoldeum takes place by means of cyclic AMP-induced cyclic AMP-synthesis and secretion. Since phospholipid methylation has been suggested to play a role in receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling, we examined the effects of transmethylation inhibitors on

  13. Mechanism of adenylate cyclase activation through the beta-adrenergic receptor: catecholamine-induced displacement of bound GDP by GTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, D; Selinger, Z

    1978-09-01

    The fate of the guanyl nucleotide bound to the regulatory site of adenylate cyclase was studied on a preparation of turkey erythrocyte membranes that was incubated with [3H]GTP plus isoproterenol and subsequently washed to remove hormone and free guanyl nucleotide. Further incubation of this preparation in the presence of beta-adrenergic agonists resulted in the release from the membrane of tritiated nucleotide, identified as [3H]GDP. The catecholamine-induced release of [3H]GDP was increased 2 to 3 times in the presence of the unlabeled guanyl nucleotides GTP, guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imino)triphosphate [gpp(NH)p], GDP, and GMP, whereas adenine nucleotides had little effect. In the presence of Gpp(NH)p, isoproterenol induced the release of [3H]GDP and the activation of adenylate cyclase, both effects following similar time courses. The findings indicate that the inactive adenylate cyclase possesses tightly bound (GDP, produced by the hydrolysis of GTP at the regulatory site. The hormone stimulates adenylate cyclase activity by inducing an "opening" of the guanyl nucleotide site, resulting in dissociation of the bound GDP and binding of the activating guanosine triphosphate.

  14. Amidate Prodrugs of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Ethyl]Adenine as Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídková, Markéta; Dvořáková, Alexandra; Tloušťová, Eva; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 664-671 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Grant - others:OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * adenylate cyclase toxin * ACT * inhibitors * PMEA * amidate prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2014

  15. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors: in fact, ({sup 125}I)pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level.

  16. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of β-adrenergic receptors: in fact, [ 125 I]pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level

  17. Distribution and protective function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP in the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya eNakamachi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, which is found in 27- or 38-amino acid forms, belongs to the VIP/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues, with PACAP known to exert a protective effect against several types of neural damage. The retina is considered to be part of the central nervous system, and retinopathy is a common cause of profound and intractable loss of vision. This review will examine the expression and morphological distribution of PACAP and its receptors in the retina, and will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the protective effect of PACAP against different kinds of retinal damage, such as that identified in association with diabetes, ultraviolet light, hypoxia, optic nerve transection, and toxins. This article will also address PACAP-mediated protective pathways involving retinal glial cells.

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required...... and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression....... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin...

  19. Radiation inactivation of multimeric enzymes: application to subunit interactions of adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkman, A.S.; Skorecki, K.L.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation inactivation has been applied extensively to determine the molecular weight of soluble enzyme and receptor systems from the slope of a linear ln (activity) vs. dose curve. Complex nonlinear inactivation curves are predicted for multimeric enzyme systems, composed of distinct subunits in equilibrium with multimeric complexes. For the system A1 + A2----A1A2, with an active A1A2 complex (associative model), the ln (activity) vs. dose curve is linear for high dissociation constant, K. If a monomer, A1, has all the enzyme activity (dissociative model), the ln (activity) vs. dose curve has an activation hump at low radiation dose if the inactive subunit, A2, has a higher molecular weight than A1 and has upward concavity when A2 is smaller than A1. In general, a radiation inactivation model for a multistep mechanism for enzyme activation fulfills the characteristics of an associative or dissociative model if the reaction step forming active enzyme is an associative or dissociative reaction. Target theory gives the molecular weight of the active enzyme subunit or complex from the limiting slope of the ln (activity) vs. dose curve at high radiation dose. If energy transfer occurs among subunits in the multimer, the ln (activity) vs. dose curve is linear for a single active component and is concave upward for two or more active components. The use of radiation inactivation as a method to determine enzyme size and multimeric subunit assembly is discussed with specific application to the hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. It is shown that the complex inactivation curves presented in the accompanying paper can be used select the best mechanism out of a series of seven proposed mechanisms for the activation of adenylate cyclase by hormone

  20. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2010-06-25

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Serotonin-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase in Neural Tissue and Its Similarity to the Serotonin Receptor: A Possible Site of Action of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, James A.; Greengard, Paul

    1974-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) that is activated specifically by low concentrations of serotonin has been identified in homogenates of the thoracic ganglia of an insect nervous system. The activation of this enzyme by serotonin was selectively inhibited by extremely low concentrations of D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 2-bromo-LSD, and cyproheptadine, agents which are known to block certain serotonin receptors in vivo. The inhibition was competitive with respect to serotonin, and the calculated inhibitory constant of LSD for this serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase was 5 nM. The data are consistent with a model in which the serotonin receptor of neural tissue is intimately associated with a serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase which mediates serotonergic neurotransmission. The results are also compatible with the possibility that some of the physiological effects of LSD may be mediated through interaction with serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase. PMID:4595572

  2. Heterosubtypic protection against influenza A induced by adenylate cyclase toxoids delivering conserved HA2 subunit of hemagglutinin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staneková, Z.; Adkins, Irena; Kosová, Martina; Janulíková, J.; Šebo, Peter; Varečková, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2013), s. 24-35 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA ČR GP310/09/P582 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid * Influenza A infection * Cross-protection Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.434, year: 2013

  3. Pore formation by the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin in lipid bilayer membranes: Role of voltage and pH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knapp, O.; Maier, E.; Mašín, Jiří; Šebo, Peter; Benz, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1778, č. 1 (2008), s. 260-269 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5020406 Grant - others:XE(XE) QLK2-CT-1999-00556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * act * voltage Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.180, year: 2008

  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the circulation after sumatriptan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Petersen, Jesper Troensegaard

    2013-01-01

    The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating...... peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be released from parasympathetic fibres and activate sensory nerve fibres during migraine attacks. Triptans are effective and well tolerated in acute migraine management but the exact mechanism of action is still debated. Triptans might...

  5. Characterization of a novel serotonin receptor coupled to adenylate cyclase in the hybrid neuroblastoma cell line NCB. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase in membrane preparation using over 40 serotonergic and non-serotonergic compounds demonstrated that the receptor mediating the response was distinct from previously described mammalian serotonin receptors. Agonist activity was only observed with tryptamine and ergoline derivatives. Potent antagonism was observed with several ergoline derivatives and with compounds such as mianserin and methiothepine. A comparison of the rank order of potency of a variety of compounds for the NCB.20 cell receptor with well characterized mammalian and non-mammalian serotonin receptors showed a pharmacological similarity, but not identity, with the mammalian 5-HT{sub 1C} receptor, which modulates phosphatidylinositol metabolism, and with serotonin receptors in the parasitic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni, which are coupled to adenylate cyclase. Equilibrium binding analysis utilizing ({sup 3}H)serotonin, ({sup 3}H)lysergic acid diethylamide or ({sup 3}H)dihydroergotamine demonstrated that there are no abundant high affinity serotonergic sites, which implies that the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase is mediated by receptors present in low abundance. Incubation of intact NCB.20 cells with serotinin resulted in a time and concentration dependent desensitization of the serotonin receptor.

  6. Characterization of a novel serotonin receptor coupled to adenylate cyclase in the hybrid neuroblastoma cell line NCB.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase in membrane preparation using over 40 serotonergic and non-serotonergic compounds demonstrated that the receptor mediating the response was distinct from previously described mammalian serotonin receptors. Agonist activity was only observed with tryptamine and ergoline derivatives. Potent antagonism was observed with several ergoline derivatives and with compounds such as mianserin and methiothepine. A comparison of the rank order of potency of a variety of compounds for the NCB.20 cell receptor with well characterized mammalian and non-mammalian serotonin receptors showed a pharmacological similarity, but not identity, with the mammalian 5-HT 1C receptor, which modulates phosphatidylinositol metabolism, and with serotonin receptors in the parasitic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni, which are coupled to adenylate cyclase. Equilibrium binding analysis utilizing [ 3 H]serotonin, [ 3 H]lysergic acid diethylamide or [ 3 H]dihydroergotamine demonstrated that there are no abundant high affinity serotonergic sites, which implies that the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase is mediated by receptors present in low abundance. Incubation of intact NCB.20 cells with serotinin resulted in a time and concentration dependent desensitization of the serotonin receptor

  7. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [ 3 H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [ 3 H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  8. Regulation of follitropin-sensitive adenylate cyclase by stimulatory and inhibitory forms of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in immature rat Sertoli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Studies have been designed to examine the role of guanine nucleotides in mediating FSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in Sertoli cell plasma membranes. Analysis of [ 3 H]GDP binding to plasma membranes suggested a single high affinity site with a K d = 0.24 uM. Competition studies indicated that GTP γ S was 7-fold more potent than GDP β S. Bound GDP could be released by FSH in the presence of GTP γ S, but not by FSH alone. Adenylate cyclase activity was enhanced 5-fold by FSH in the presence of GTP. Addition of GDP β S to the activated enzyme (FSH plus GTP) resulted in a time-dependent decay to basal activity within 20 sec. GDP β S competitively inhibited GTP γ S-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a K i = 0.18 uM. Adenylate cyclase activity was also demonstrated to be sensitive to the nucleotide bound state. In the presence of FSH, only the GTP γ S-bound form persisted even if GDP β S previously occupied all available binding sites. Two membrane proteins, M r = 43,000 and 48,000, were ADP·ribosylated using cholera toxin and labeling was enhanced 2 to 4-fold by GTP γ S but not by GDP β S. The M r = 43,000 and 48,000 proteins represented variant forms of G S . A single protein of M r = 40,000 (G i ) was ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin in vitro. GTP inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with an IC 50 = 0.1 uM. The adenosine analog, N 6 ·phenylisopropyl adenosine enhanced GTP inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by an additional 15%. GTP-dependent inhibition of forskolin-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity was abolished in membranes prepared from Sertoli cells treated in culture with pertussis toxin

  9. Adenylate Cyclase Type III Is Not a Ubiquitous Marker for All Primary Cilia during Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Antal

    Full Text Available Adenylate cyclase type III (AC3 is localized in plasma membrane of neuronal primary cilium and can be used as a marker of this cilium. AC3 has also been detected in some other primary cilia such as those of fibroblasts, synoviocytes or astrocytes. Despite the presence of a cilium in almost all cell types, we show that AC3 is not a common marker of all primary cilia of different human and mouse tissues during development. In peripheral organs, AC3 is present mainly in primary cilia in cells of the mesenchymal lineage (fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts-osteocytes, odontoblasts, muscle cells and endothelial cells. In epithelia, the apical cilium of renal and pancreatic tubules and of ductal plate in liver is AC3-negative whereas the cilium of basal cells of stratified epithelia is AC3-positive. Using fibroblasts cell culture, we show that AC3 appears at the plasma membrane of the primary cilium as soon as this organelle develops. The functional significance of AC3 localization at the cilium membrane in some cells but not others has to be investigated in relationship with cell physiology and expression at the cilium plasma membrane of specific upstream receptors.

  10. Effects of forskolin on cerebral blood flow: implications for a role of adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysham, D.G.; Brotherton, A.F.; Heistad, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied cerebral vascular effects of forskolin, a drug which stimulates adenylate cyclase and potentiates dilator effects of adenosine in other vascular beds. Our goals were to determine whether forskolin is a cerebral vasodilator and whether it potentiates cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine. We measured cerebral blood flow with microspheres in anesthetized rabbits. Forskolin (10 micrograms/kg per min) increased blood flow (ml/min per 100 gm) from 39 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.) to 56 +/- 9 (p less than 0.05) in cerebrum, and increased flow to myocardium and kidney despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Forskolin did not alter cerebral oxygen consumption, which indicates that the increase in cerebral blood flow is a direct vasodilator effect and is not secondary to increased metabolism. We also examined effects of forskolin on the response to infusion of adenosine. Cerebral blood flow was measured during infusion of 1-5 microM/min adenosine into one internal carotid artery, under control conditions and during infusion of forskolin at 3 micrograms/kg per min i.v. Adenosine alone increased ipsilateral cerebral blood flow from 32 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 5 (p less than 0.05). Responses to adenosine were not augmented during infusion of forskolin. We conclude that forskolin is a direct cerebral vasodilator and forskolin does not potentiate cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine

  11. Site I Inactivation Impacts Calmodulin Calcium Binding and Activation of Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Christian W; Finley, Natosha L

    2017-11-30

    Site I inactivation of calmodulin (CaM) was used to examine the importance of aspartic acid 22 at position 3 in CaM calcium binding, protein folding, and activation of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin domain (CyaA-ACD). NMR calcium titration experiments showed that site I in the CaM mutant (D22A) remained largely unperturbed, while sites II, III, and IV exhibited calcium-induced conformational changes similar to wild-type CaM (CaMWt). Circular dichroism analyses revealed that D22A had comparable α -helical content to CaMWt, and only modest differences in α -helical composition were detected between CaMWt-CyaA-ACD and D22A-CyaA-ACD complexes. However, the thermal stability of the D22A-CyaA-ACD complex was reduced, as compared to the CaMWt-CyaA-ACD complex. Moreover, CaM-dependent activity of CyaA-ACD decreased 87% in the presence of D22A. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that D22A engages CyaA-ACD, likely through C -terminal mediated binding, and that site I inactivation exerts functional effects through the modification of stabilizing interactions that occur between N -terminal CaM and CyaA-ACD.

  12. Adenyl cyclase activator forskolin protects against Huntington's disease-like neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Mehan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term suppression of succinate dehydrogenase by selective inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid has been used in rodents to model Huntington's disease where mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damages are primary pathological hallmarks for neuronal damage. Improvements in learning and memory abilities, recovery of energy levels, and reduction of excitotoxicity damage can be achieved through activation of Adenyl cyclase enzyme by a specific phytochemical forskolin. In this study, intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg 3-nitropropionic acid for 15 days in rats notably reduced body weight, worsened motor cocordination (grip strength, beam crossing task, locomotor activity, resulted in learning and memory deficits, greatly increased acetylcholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite, and malondialdehyde levels, obviously decreased adenosine triphosphate, succinate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels in the striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Intragastric administration of forskolin at 10, 20, 30 mg/kg dose-dependently reversed these behavioral, biochemical and pathological changes caused by 3-nitropropionic acid. These results suggest that forskolin exhibits neuroprotective effects on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like neurodegeneration.

  13. How adenylate cyclase choreographs the pas de deux of the receptors heteromerization dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, A S; Jackson, S N

    2013-05-15

    Our work suggests that heteromer formation, mainly involves linear motifs (LMs) found in disordered regions of proteins. Local disorder imparts plasticity to LMs. Most molecular recognition of proteins occurs between short linear segments, known as LMs. Interaction of short continuous epitopes is not constrained by sequence and has the advantage of resulting in interactions with micromolar affinities which suit transient, reversible complexes such as receptor heteromers. Electrostatic interactions between epitopes of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) involved, are the key step in driving heteromer formation forward. The first step in heteromerization, involves phosphorylating Ser/Thr in an epitope containing a casein kinase 1/2-consensus site. Our data suggest that dopaminergic neurotransmission, through cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) slows down heteromerization. The negative charge, acquired by the phosphorylation of a Ser/Thr in a PKA consensus site in the Arg-rich epitope, affects the activity of the receptors involved in heteromerization by causing allosteric conformational changes, due to the repulsive effect generated by the negatively charged phosphate. In addition to modulating heteromerization, it affects the stability of the heteromers' interactions and their binding affinity. So here we have an instance where phosphorylation is not just an on/off switch, instead by weakening the noncovalent bond, heteromerization acts like a rheostat that controls the stability of the heteromer through activation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase by the neurotransmitter Dopamine depending on which Dopamine receptor it docks at. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Ligand requirements for the relaxation of adenylate cyclase from activated and inhibited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, P M; Reisinger, D M; Smiley, P A

    1983-06-21

    The turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase system binds tightly the inhibitory nucleotide GDP, and a pretreatment step with isoproterenol and GMP is required to restore activation. Under identical pretreatment conditions, the release of labeled nucleotide is complete within 1 min whereas the restoration of activation by Gpp(NH)p requires 15 min. A study of the ligand requirements of the slow step shows the following: (a) The role of GMP is that of an obligatory allosteric regulator. (b) Cholera toxin modification of the system abolishes the requirement for GMP with a considerable enhancement in the reaction rate. (c) GMP is without effect on the relaxation process with the activator Gpp(NH)p as the resident nucleotide. In sharp contrast, ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (without effect in a GDP-occupied complex) markedly potentiates alterations from the Gpp(NH)p-occupied state. (d) Formation of a GDP/guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) hybrid leads to the suppression of both F- and Gpp(NH)p activation. F- activation is restored by isoproterenol alone, while GMP is still required to restore Gpp(NH)p activation. The results suggest that covalent modification or nucleotide analogue occupancy of the regulatory complex can modify the allosteric role for GMP, with consequences for the rate of the slow step.

  15. D-1 dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic stimulation of adenylate cyclase in a clone derived from the human astrocytoma cell line G-CCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, A J; Ball, S G; Freshney, R I; Graham, D I; McNamee, H B; Vaughan, P F

    1986-09-01

    Clones have been isolated from the human astrocytoma cell line G-CCM. Homogenates of clone D384 contain an adenylate cyclase that is stimulated by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine), noradrenaline, and isoprenaline with Ka apparent values of 4, 56, and 2.7 microM, respectively. The Ka apparent value for dopamine was increased by the D-1 antagonist cis-flupenthixol, 25 and 100 nM, to 23 and 190 microM, respectively, but was unaffected by propranolol (1 microM). Noradrenaline stimulation of adenylate cyclase was only partially inhibited by either propranolol (10 microM) or cis-flupenthixol (1 microM). Propranolol (10 microM), but not cis-flupenthixol (1 microM), prevented stimulation by isoprenaline. The stimulation of adenylate cyclase by dopamine and noradrenaline remained unchanged in the presence of phentolamine (1 microM) and sulpiride (1 microM). These results suggest that clone D384 contains both D-1 dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic receptors coupled to adenylate cyclase. Dopamine stimulates D384 adenylate cyclase through D-1 receptors, isoprenaline via beta-receptors, and noradrenaline through both receptors.

  16. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase from pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Preincubation of the plasma membranes from pigeon erythrocytes with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase leads to desensitization of adenylate cyclase of the erythrocytes. The adenylate cyclase activity, measured in the presence of 10 μM isoproterenol and 50 μM GTP-γ-S, is decreased by 40% in 10 min of incubation, while the activity in the presence of 50 μM GTP-γ-S is decreased by 35% in 20 min. The decrease in the adenylate cyclase activity is due to an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of a GTP analog stable to hydrolysis and a decrease in the activity in the steady-state phase of activation. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase under the action of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is coupled with a decrease in the number of β-adrenoreceptors capable of passing into a state of high affinity for antagonists in the absence of guanylic nucleotides. The influence of the catalytic subunit on adenylate cyclase entirely models the process of desensitization of the enzyme absorbed in the influence of isoproterenol or cAMP on erythrocytes

  17. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H; Matsumoto, M; Murai, N; Nakamachi, T; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J; Hashimoto, H; Watanabe, H; Sueki, H; Honda, K; Miyazaki, A; Shioda, S

    2017-02-01

    Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human sweat glands. PACAP immunoreactivity was also localized in nerve fibres around eccrine sweat glands. PACAP significantly promoted sweat secretion at the injection site, and this could be blocked by the PAC1R-antagonist PACAP6-38. VIP, an agonist of VPAC1R and VPAC2R, failed to induce sweat secretion. This is the first report demonstrating that PACAP may play a crucial role in sweat secretion via its action on PAC1R located in eccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms underlying the role of PACAP in sweat secretion may provide new therapeutic options to combat sweating disorders. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Renoprotection by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in multiple myeloma and other kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Maderdrut, Jerome L; Lertora, Juan J L; Arimura, Akira; Batuman, Vecihi

    2008-01-10

    Renal involvement in patients with multiple myeloma complicates their treatment and shortens their life-span. The main renal lesion is a tubulointerstitial transformation with fibrosis, frequently associated with cast formation in the distal nephron that results from co-precipitation of pathological immunoglobulin light chains with Tamm-Horsfall proteins. The human renal proximal tubular reabsorption of excessive light chains by endocytosis causes cellular protein overload and activates the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). The activation of NFkappaB promotes the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and activates signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, Jun kinase, and p38 MAPK, thus promoting interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. We tested the concept that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the secretin/vasoactive intestinal peptide family, could prevent the development of cast nephropathies. PACAP38 inhibited myeloma light chain-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression with greater potency than dexamethasone, and attenuated the resulting cell damage in the renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. The results indicated that its effects are mediated through inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and nuclear translocation of the p50 subunit of NFkappaB via both the PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptors. PACAP was also shown to be efficacious in other common in vivo animal models for kidney hypertrophies, including streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy and gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thus, our studies suggest that PACAP38 could be used as a cytoprotective agent that would be effective in the treatment of renal tubule injury in multiple myeloma and other chronic kidney diseases.

  19. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide modulates catecholamine storage and exocytosis in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available A number of efforts have been made to understand how pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP functions as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor in Parkinson's disease (PD. Recently its effects on neurotransmission and underlying mechanisms have generated interest. In the present study, we investigate the effects of PACAP on catecholamine storage and secretion in PC12 cells with amperometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. PACAP increases quantal release induced by high K+ without significantly regulating the frequency of vesicle fusion events. TEM data indicate that the increased volume of the vesicle is mainly the result of enlargement of the fluidic space around the dense core. Moreover, the number of docked vesicles isn't modulated by PACAP. When cells are acutely treated with L-DOPA, the vesicular volume and quantal release both increase dramatically. It is likely that the characteristics of amperometric spikes from L-DOPA treated cells are associated with increased volume of individual vesicles rather than a direct effect on the mechanics of exocytosis. Treatment with PACAP versus L-DOPA results in different profiles of the dynamics of exocytosis. Release via the fusion pore prior to full exocytosis was observed with the same frequency following treatment with PACAP and L-DOPA. However, release events have a shorter duration and higher average current after PACAP treatment compared to L-DOPA. Furthermore, PACAP reduced the proportion of spikes having rapid decay time and shortened the decay time of both fast and slow spikes. In contrast, the distributions of the amperometric spike decay for both fast and slow spikes were shifted to longer time following L-DOPA treatment. Compared to L-DOPA, PACAP may produce multiple favorable effects on dopaminergic neurons, including protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurodegeneration and potentially regulating dopamine storage and release, making it a promising

  20. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Hurley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger and hedonic-related (palatability drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding; surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding. In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc, through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive.

  1. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko eHattori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1. Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J x 129SvEv for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased social interaction in Crawley’s three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on social interaction in a home cage. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze and the T-maze, while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the T-maze. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially

  2. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in fetal cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephen J; King, Jeffrey C; Brees, Carol K; Moore, Joseph P

    2014-09-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a centrally-acting peptide with highest concentration within the limbic area of the brain. PACAP is also expressed in and affects the functions of vascular and nervous tissues, endocrine glands, and the placenta. PACAP appears to be associated with the 'fight-or-flight' response to emergency partly through its effect on adrenal production of cortisol and catecholamines. We sought to explore the impact of labor as a stressor on the level of PACAP in the fetus, and hypothesized that PACAP levels would be increased when labor, abnormal fetal heart tracing, or fetal growth impairment was evident. Fetal cord venous blood samples were collected immediately after delivery from a random group of women undergoing either vaginal or Cesarean delivery. The blood was placed in chilled EDTA-aprotinin containing tubes, centrifuged, and stored at -80°C for PACAP immunoassay. Delivery data were abstracted for analysis. The level of PACAP in cord blood was similar in both males and females. There was a trend toward higher levels in the cord blood of fetuses delivered by Cesarean compared to those delivered vaginally. PACAP levels were unrelated to birth weight, Apgar scores, and the presence or absence of labor prior to delivery. While PACAP and its receptor are expressed in placenta, and PACAP protein is found in cord blood, no effect of labor stress on PACAP was found. Further research is needed to understand the role of PACAP in gestation and parturition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on beta adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase system on surfaces of peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A; Tian, Y; Jin, S

    2000-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the level of CAMP, the ratio of cAPM to cGMP, IL-2R expression and IL-2 production in vitro in lymphocytes immediate and 2 weeks after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were significantly lower than those before anesthetics in the patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. These findings suggested that CPB could cause serious damage to adrenergic beta receptor-adenylate cyclase system on circulating lymphocytes surfaces, which might be one of the mechanisms resulting in immunosuppression after open heart surgery with CPB.

  4. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, Tzvia I.; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh; Finley, Natosha L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates bi-lobal structure of CaM. • The structure and stability of the complex rely on intermolecular associations. • A novel mode of CaM-dependent activation of the adenylate cyclase toxin is proposed. - Abstract: Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (R h ) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken together

  5. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Tzvia I.; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh [Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Finley, Natosha L., E-mail: finleynl@miamioh.edu [Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Cell, Molecular, and Structural Biology Program, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates bi-lobal structure of CaM. • The structure and stability of the complex rely on intermolecular associations. • A novel mode of CaM-dependent activation of the adenylate cyclase toxin is proposed. - Abstract: Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (R{sub h}) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken

  6. The Arabidopsis thalianaK+-uptake permease 7 (AtKUP7) contains a functional cytosolic adenylate cyclase catalytic centre

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Younis, Inas

    2015-11-27

    Adenylate Cyclases (ACs) catalyze the formation of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP). Although cAMP is increasingly recognized as an important signaling molecule in higher plants, ACs have remained somewhat elusive. Here we used a search motif derived from experimentally tested guanylyl cyclases (GCs), substituted the residues essential for substrate specificity and identified the Arabidopsis thaliana K+-uptake permease 7 (AtKUP7) as one of several candidate ACs. Firstly, we show that a recombinant N-terminal, cytosolic domain of AtKUP71-100 is able to complement the AC-deficient mutant cyaA in Escherichia coli and thus restoring the fermentation of lactose, and secondly, we demonstrate with both enzyme immunoassays and mass spectrometry that a recombinant AtKUP71-100 generates cAMP in vitro.

  7. Brain histamine H1- and H2-receptors and histamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase: effects of antipsychotics and antidepressants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupet, J.; Szuches-Myers, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Several classes of psychoactive compounds have been investigated for their effects on histamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cell-free preparations from the guinea-pig cerebral cortex. Their inhibitory actions on this enzyme system have been compared with their abilities to displace [ 3 H]pyrilamine and [ 3 H]cimetidine from histamine H 1 - and H 2 -receptor sites, respectively. The results of these studies show that compounds which inhibited the histamine-sensitive cyclase were also displacers of either [ 3 H]pyrilamine or [ 3 H]cimetidine or both 3 H-ligands from their binding sites. In spite of the lack of a correlation between binding and cyclase antagonism it was observed that compounds that displace both ligands showed greater inhibition of the cyclase than those that have affinities for sites labeled by one or the other ligand. It was concluded that antihistamines, the antipsychotics and the antidepressants share a common property through their antagonism of H 1 -receptors and that may be responsible for their sedative side effect. (Auth.)

  8. Down-regulation of Cell Surface Cyclic AMP Receptors and Desensitization of Cyclic AMP-stimulated Adenylate Cyclase by Cyclic AMP in Dictyostelium discoideum. Kinetics and Concentration Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1987-01-01

    cAMP binds to Dictyostelium discoideum surface receptors and induces a transient activation of adenylate cyclase, which is followed by desensitization. cAMP also induces a loss of detectable surface receptors (down-regulation). Cells were incubated with constant cAMP concentrations, washed free of

  9. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, nitric oxide synthase, and their receptors in human and rat sphenopalatine ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csati, A; Tajti, J; Kuris, A

    2012-01-01

    for the demonstration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), VIP and PACAP common receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2), and PACAP receptor (PAC1). In addition, double labeling...

  10. Bisamidate Prodrugs of 2-Substituted 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA, adefovir) as Selective Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Jansa, Petr; Šmídková, Markéta; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Dračínský, Martin; Brust, T. F.; Pávek, P.; Trejtnar, F.; Watts, V. J.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), s. 1351-1364 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * bisamidates * Bordetella pertussis * nucleosides * phosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2015

  11. Invasion of Dendritic Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils by the Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: A Subversive Move to Fool Host Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Giorgio; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Adkins, Irena; Klimova, Nela; Sebo, Peter

    2017-09-21

    Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is released in the course of B. pertussis infection in the host's respiratory tract in order to suppress its early innate and subsequent adaptive immune defense. CD11b-expressing dendritic cells (DC), macrophages and neutrophils are professional phagocytes and key players of the innate immune system that provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Recent findings revealed the capacity of B. pertussis CyaA to intoxicate DC with high concentrations of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which ultimately skews the host immune response towards the expansion of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells. CyaA-induced cAMP signaling swiftly incapacitates opsonophagocytosis, oxidative burst and NO-mediated killing of bacteria by neutrophils and macrophages. The subversion of host immune responses by CyaA after delivery into DC, macrophages and neutrophils is the subject of this review.

  12. Invasion of Dendritic Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils by the Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: A Subversive Move to Fool Host Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fedele

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA is released in the course of B. pertussis infection in the host’s respiratory tract in order to suppress its early innate and subsequent adaptive immune defense. CD11b-expressing dendritic cells (DC, macrophages and neutrophils are professional phagocytes and key players of the innate immune system that provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Recent findings revealed the capacity of B. pertussis CyaA to intoxicate DC with high concentrations of 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, which ultimately skews the host immune response towards the expansion of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells. CyaA-induced cAMP signaling swiftly incapacitates opsonophagocytosis, oxidative burst and NO-mediated killing of bacteria by neutrophils and macrophages. The subversion of host immune responses by CyaA after delivery into DC, macrophages and neutrophils is the subject of this review.

  13. Calcium influx rescues adenylate cyclase-hemolysin from rapid cell membrane removal and enables phagocyte permeabilization by toxin pores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Fiser

    Full Text Available Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA penetrates the cytoplasmic membrane of phagocytes and employs two distinct conformers to exert its multiple activities. One conformer forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize phagocyte membrane for efflux of cytosolic potassium. The other conformer conducts extracellular calcium ions across cytoplasmic membrane of cells, relocates into lipid rafts, translocates the adenylate cyclase enzyme (AC domain into cells and converts cytosolic ATP to cAMP. We show that the calcium-conducting activity of CyaA controls the path and kinetics of endocytic removal of toxin pores from phagocyte membrane. The enzymatically inactive but calcium-conducting CyaA-AC⁻ toxoid was endocytosed via a clathrin-dependent pathway. In contrast, a doubly mutated (E570K+E581P toxoid, unable to conduct Ca²⁺ into cells, was rapidly internalized by membrane macropinocytosis, unless rescued by Ca²⁺ influx promoted in trans by ionomycin or intact toxoid. Moreover, a fully pore-forming CyaA-ΔAC hemolysin failed to permeabilize phagocytes, unless endocytic removal of its pores from cell membrane was decelerated through Ca²⁺ influx promoted by molecules locked in a Ca²⁺-conducting conformation by the 3D1 antibody. Inhibition of endocytosis also enabled the native B. pertussis-produced CyaA to induce lysis of J774A.1 macrophages at concentrations starting from 100 ng/ml. Hence, by mediating calcium influx into cells, the translocating conformer of CyaA controls the removal of bystander toxin pores from phagocyte membrane. This triggers a positive feedback loop of exacerbated cell permeabilization, where the efflux of cellular potassium yields further decreased toxin pore removal from cell membrane and this further enhances cell permeabilization and potassium efflux.

  14. A novel antithrombotic effect of sulforaphane via activation of platelet adenylate cyclase: ex vivo and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Chen, Wei-Fan; Lu, Wan-Jung; Chou, Duen-Suey; Hsiao, George; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, which can be found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. Sulforaphane was found to have very potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of sulforaphane on platelet activation and its relative issues. Activation of platelets caused by arterial thrombosis is relevant to a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the in vivo antithrombotic effects of sulforaphane and its possible mechanisms in platelet activation. Sulforaphane (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) was effective in reducing the mortality of ADP-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism in mice. Other in vivo studies also revealed that sulforaphane (0.25 mg/kg) significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. In addition, sulforaphane (15-75 μM) exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Sulforaphane inhibited platelet activation accompanied by inhibiting relative Ca(2+) mobilization; phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt; and hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation. Sulforaphane markedly increased cyclic (c)AMP, but not cyclic (c)GMP levels, and stimulated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, but not ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxal in-1-one), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, obviously reversed the sulforaphane-mediated effects on platelet aggregation; PKC activation, p38 MAPK, Akt and VASP phosphorylation; and OH(●) formation. Furthermore, a PI3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002) and a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) both significantly diminished PKC activation and p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation; in contrast, a PKC inhibitor (RO318220) did not diminish p38 MAPK or Akt phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. This

  15. Galanin can inhibit insulin release by a mechanism other than membrane hyperpolarization or inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G W; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y; Yada, T; Russo, L L; Bliss, C R; Cormont, M; Monge, L; Van Obberghen, E

    1989-05-05

    -dependent Ca2+ channels. One suggested mechanism for the action of galanin is inhibition of adenylate cyclase. However, it was found that galanin inhibits insulin release even in the presence of 8-Br-cAMP, an agent which effectively bypasses adenylate cyclase. Therefore, an additional mechanism for the inhibitory effect of galanin must be present. All of the effects of galanin were sensitive to pertussis toxin. These data suggest two G-protein-dependent actions of galanin, one to hyperpolarize the plasma membrane and one at a distal point in stimulus-secretion coupling, close to the exocytotic event.

  16. Kynurenic Acid Inhibits the Electrical Stimulation Induced Elevated Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Expression in the TNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Körtési

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMigraine is a primary headache of imprecisely known mechanism, but activation of the trigeminovascular system (TS appears to be essential during the attack. Intensive research has recently focused on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and the kynurenine systems as potential pathogenic factors.AimWe investigated the link between these important mediators and the effects of kynurenic acid (KYNA and its synthetic analog (KYNA-a on PACAP expression in the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC in a TS stimulation model related to migraine mechanisms.MethodsAdult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with KYNA, KYNA-a, the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, or saline (vehicle. Next, the trigeminal ganglion (TRG was electrically stimulated, the animals were transcardially perfused following 180 min, and the TNC was removed. In the TNC samples, 38 amino acid form of PACAP (PACAP1–38-like radioimmunoactivity was measured by radioimmunoassay, the relative optical density of preproPACAP was assessed by Western blot analysis, and PACAP1–38 mRNA was detected by real-time PCR.Results and conclusionElectrical TRG stimulation resulted in significant increases of PACAP1–38-LI, preproPACAP, and PACAP1–38 mRNA in the TNC. These increases were prevented by the pretreatments with KYNA, KYNA-a, and MK-801. This is the first study to provide evidence for a direct link between PACAP and the kynurenine system during TS activation.

  17. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp Chemosensory System Regulates Intracellular cAMP Levels by Modulating Adenylate Cyclase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Nanette B.; Holliday, Phillip M.; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signaling molecule adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems. PMID:20345659

  18. Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cockroach brain: evidence for a distinct dopamine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, G.L.; Gole, J.W.D.; Notman, H.J.; Downer, R.G.H.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine increases cyclic AMP production in crude membrane preparations of cockroach brain with plateaus in cyclic AMP production occurring between 1-10 ..mu..M and 10 mM. Maximal production of cyclic AMP is 2.25 fold greater than that of control values. Octopamine also increases cyclic AMP production with a Ka of 1.4 ..mu..M and maximal production 3.5 fold greater than that of control. 5-Hydroxytryptamine does not increase cyclic AMP production. The effects of octopamine and dopamine are fully additive. The vertebrate dopamine agonists ADTN and epinine stimulate the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) with Ka values of 4.5 and 0.6 ..mu..M respectively and with maximal effectiveness 1.7 fold greater than that of control. The selective D/sub 2/-dopamine agonist LY-171555 stimulates cyclic AMP production to a similar extent with a Ka of 50 ..mu..M. Other dopamine agonists have no stimulatory effects. With the exception of mianserin, /sup 3/H-piflutixol is displaced from brain membranes by dopamine antagonists with an order of potency similar to that observed for the inhibition of dopamine-sensitive AC. The results indicate that the octopamine- and dopamine-sensitive AC in cockroach brain can be distinguished pharmacologically and the dopamine receptors coupled to AC have pharmacological characteristics distinct from vertebrate D/sup 1/- and D/sup 2/-dopamine receptors. 33 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cockroach brain: evidence for a distinct dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, G.L.; Gole, J.W.D.; Notman, H.J.; Downer, R.G.H.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine increases cyclic AMP production in crude membrane preparations of cockroach brain with plateaus in cyclic AMP production occurring between 1-10 μM and 10 mM. Maximal production of cyclic AMP is 2.25 fold greater than that of control values. Octopamine also increases cyclic AMP production with a Ka of 1.4 μM and maximal production 3.5 fold greater than that of control. 5-Hydroxytryptamine does not increase cyclic AMP production. The effects of octopamine and dopamine are fully additive. The vertebrate dopamine agonists ADTN and epinine stimulate the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) with Ka values of 4.5 and 0.6 μM respectively and with maximal effectiveness 1.7 fold greater than that of control. The selective D 2 -dopamine agonist LY-171555 stimulates cyclic AMP production to a similar extent with a Ka of 50 μM. Other dopamine agonists have no stimulatory effects. With the exception of mianserin, 3 H-piflutixol is displaced from brain membranes by dopamine antagonists with an order of potency similar to that observed for the inhibition of dopamine-sensitive AC. The results indicate that the octopamine- and dopamine-sensitive AC in cockroach brain can be distinguished pharmacologically and the dopamine receptors coupled to AC have pharmacological characteristics distinct from vertebrate D 1 - and D 2 -dopamine receptors. 33 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  20. Mechanism of control of the turkey erythrocyte beta-adrenoceptor dependent adenylate cyclase by guanyl nucleotides: a minimum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Tolkovsky, A M; Levitzki, A

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of native turkey erythrocyte membranes with GMP and epinephrine produces a highly active but metastable form of adenylate cyclase which decays slowly to basal native state. The decay process is greatly facilitated by GTP and GDP beta S1, and is further enhanced by 1-epinephrine. This decay process is prevented reversibly by GMP. GppNHp, like GMP, prevents the decay process first reversibly, but with time stabilizes the highly active state in a persistently active state. The expression of the catalytic activity of the enzyme in the metastable state can also be inhibited reversibly by GTP, GDP beta S and GMP at all times during the decay process. The GppNHp stabilized form is not susceptible to nucleotide inhibition. Thus, two forms of the guanyl nucleotide unit are postulated to exist: an "open" and a "closed" form. In the presence of hormone and GTP, the enzyme shuttles between these two forms continuously. GMP and GppNHp favor the complete conversion to the "open" form in the presence of beta-agonist. Evidence is also presented for the existence of two GTP dependent processes which exhibit different apparent affinities towards the nucleotide: A high affinity GTP binding process is essential for the fruitful coupling between receptor and enzyme, and a low affinity GTPase site which is responsible for the termination of the hormonal signal.

  1. Kinetics of interaction between beta-receptors, GTP protein, and the catalytic unit of turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkovsky, A M; Braun, S; Levitzki, A

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of turkey erythrocyte membrane adenylate cyclase activation by beta-agonists and guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate is explored as a function of the concentration of the GTP regulatory protein and of the catalytic unit. It was found that the overall kinetics of activation is first order and is independent of the concentration of the GTP regulatory unit N, the catalytic unit C, and of hormone over a very wide concentration range. It was established that the rate-limiting step does not involve GDP dissociation from the inactive N unit or the association between activated N' and C. Also, it was found that guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate binding occurs in a random fashion and is not hormone dependent. These results enable us to exclude models of the sequential type in which N in its inactive form is bound to receptor R, is released in an active form N' upon hormone activation, and then binds to C, activating the latter. An acceptable model that accounts for all of the data conforms to the original formulation of "collision coupling" in which N is tightly associated to C at all times.

  2. The effects of isatin (indole-2, 3-dione on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-induced hyperthermia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Gábor

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that centrally administered natriuretic peptides and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38 have hyperthermic properties. Isatin (indole-2, 3-dione is an endogenous indole that has previously been found to inhibit hyperthermic effects of natriuretic peptides. In this study the aim was to investigate the effects of isatin on thermoregulatory actions of PACAP-38, in rats. Results One μg intracerebroventricular (icv. injection of PACAP-38 had hyperthermic effect in male, Wistar rats, with an onset of the effect at 2 h and a decline by the 6th h after administration. Intraperitoneal (ip. injection of different doses of isatin (25-50 mg/kg significantly decreased the hyperthermic effect of 1 μg PACAP-38 (icv., whereas 12.5 mg/kg isatin (ip. had no inhibiting effect. Isatin alone did not modify the body temperature of the animals. Conclusion The mechanisms that participate in the mediation of the PACAP-38-induced hyperthermia may be modified by isatin. The capability of isatin to antagonize the hyperthermia induced by all members of the natriuretic peptide family and by PACAP-38 makes it unlikely to be acting directly on receptors for natriuretic peptides or on those for PACAP in these hyperthermic processes.

  3. Comparison between dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase and 3H-SCH 23390 binding in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, P.H.; Groenvald, F.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring 3 H-SCH 23990 binding and dopamine (DA) stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) were established in identical tissue preparations and under similar experimental conditions. Pharmacological characterization revealed that both assays involved interaction with the D1 receptor or closely associated sites. In order to investigate whether the binding sites for 3 H-SCH 23390 and DA in fact are identical, the antagonistic effects of a variety of pharmacologically active compounds were examined. Surprisingly, the K/sub i/-values obtained from Schild-plot analysis of the antagonism of DA-stimulated AC, were 80-240 times higher than the K/sub i/-values obtained from competition curves of 3 H-SCH 23390 binding. Since both assays were performed under identical conditions, the differences in K/sub i/-values indicate the possibility of different binding sites for DA and 3 H-SCH 23390 or, that DA and 3 -SCH 23390 label different states of the same receptor. 19 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  4. Lack of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1): consequences on corticospinal tract development and on locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Taleb Ali, H; Morel, M P; Doulazmi, M; Scotto-Lomassese, S; Gaspar, P; Dusart, I; Bennis, M

    2014-02-26

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathways are involved in axonal growth and regeneration. The calcium-calmodulin- stimulated adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1), a regulator of cAMP levels, is strongly expressed in the corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) in cerebral cortex layer V during development, but its role in the development of the corticospinal tract (CST) is unknown. Here, we analyse the organization of the CST pathway using anterograde and retrograde tracers in the barrelless (brl) mouse that carries an inactivating mutation of the AC1 gene. We show that in brl mice the general organization of the CST is normal but there is an increase in the number of axons in the ipsilateral contingent in the dorsal and ventral medial funiculi of the cervical spinal cord. The density of CSMN in layer V of the motor cortex is increased in brl compared to wild-type mice. Thus, lack of AC1 likely perturbs late phases of CSMN and CST development. Next, we examine the motor recovery after a spinal cord injury (SCI). We find that brl mice show enhanced locomotor functions as assessed by the BMS (Basso mouse scale) as early as 6h and up to 6 weeks after SCI, indicating a smaller responsiveness of brl mice to SCI. It is therefore possible that developmental effects on motor systems might decrease the locomotor effects consecutive to a SCI. This point is particularly important with regards to the use of transgenic animals for testing SCI recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The circadian neuropeptide PDF signals preferentially through a specific adenylate cyclase isoform AC3 in M pacemakers of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Duvall

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF is essential for normal circadian function in Drosophila. It synchronizes the phases of M pacemakers, while in E pacemakers it decelerates their cycling and supports their amplitude. The PDF receptor (PDF-R is present in both M and subsets of E cells. Activation of PDF-R stimulates cAMP increases in vitro and in M cells in vivo. The present study asks: What is the identity of downstream signaling components that are associated with PDF receptor in specific circadian pacemaker neurons? Using live imaging of intact fly brains and transgenic RNAi, we show that adenylate cyclase AC3 underlies PDF signaling in M cells. Genetic disruptions of AC3 specifically disrupt PDF responses: they do not affect other Gs-coupled GPCR signaling in M cells, they can be rescued, and they do not represent developmental alterations. Knockdown of the Drosophila AKAP-like scaffolding protein Nervy also reduces PDF responses. Flies with AC3 alterations show behavioral syndromes consistent with known roles of M pacemakers as mediated by PDF. Surprisingly, disruption of AC3 does not alter PDF responses in E cells--the PDF-R(+ LNd. Within M pacemakers, PDF-R couples preferentially to a single AC, but PDF-R association with a different AC(s is needed to explain PDF signaling in the E pacemakers. Thus critical pathways of circadian synchronization are mediated by highly specific second messenger components. These findings support a hypothesis that PDF signaling components within target cells are sequestered into "circadian signalosomes," whose compositions differ between E and M pacemaker cell types.

  6. Effect of modulators of cytoskeletal function on desensitization and recovery of PGE2-responsive ovarian adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, U; Strulovici, B; Lamprecht, S A; Amsterdam, A; Oplatka, A; Lindner, H R

    1979-12-01

    Exposure of cultured Graafian follicles to PGE2 for 20 h resulted in a loss of the cyclic AMP response to fresh hormone. This desensitization was prevented by addition to the medium of D2O (25--50%) or Li+ (0.6--6 mM), agents believed to stabilize microtubules, as well as by phalloidin (1.0--10 microM), believed to stabilize the polymerized state of actin, in a dose-dependent manner. The spontaneous recovery of responsiveness to PGE2 upon incubation of refractory follicles for 6 h in hormone-free medium was prevented by addition to the medium of cytochalasin B (CB; 3 microgram/ml) or of the actin-binding myosin subfragment HMM S-1 (80 microgram/ml) or of anti-actin serum; viz. by agents likely to interfere with microfilament function. D2O (50%) caused morphological damage to the inner layer of the membrana granulosa and severe depression of protein synthesis. The other drugs used (phalloidin, LiCl and cytochalasin B) had no such effects. Resensitization of refractory follicles was also prevented by cycloheximide (10 micrograms/ml) and by actinomycin D (10 micrograms/ml). It is speculated that the recovery process may involve the insertion of a newly synthesized protein, such as PG-receptor, into the membrane by a mechanism dependent on microfilament action. These findings provide suggestive evidence for the hypothesis that cytoskeletal elements associated with the cell membrane take part in the modulation of the adenylate cyclase response to hormones.

  7. Stimulatory GTP regulatory unit Ns and the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase are tightly associated: mechanistic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, H; Rosenbusch, J P; Levitzki, A

    1984-11-01

    Turkey erythrocyte membranes were solubilized in the mild detergent octylpenta(oxyethylene) [CH3(CH2)7-(OCH2CH2)5OH], which possesses a high critical micelle concentration (approximately equal to 6 mM) and forms small, dynamic micelles. Both the native enzyme Ns(GDP) X C and the p[NH]ppG-preactivated species N's X p[NH]ppG X C' were found to possess the same molecular mass of 215,000 +/- 17,000 daltons. Both enzyme species migrate as a tight complex between Ns and C on both gel permeation columns and on DEAE-Sephacel columns in detergent. The two functional units, Ns and C, remain associated even in dilute detergent solutions and throughout a 300- to 400-fold purification in octylpoly(oxyethylene). These results strongly support the view that Ns and C do not come apart during the process of enzyme activation by the beta-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, these results strongly support our previous assertion that the beta-adrenergic receptor activation of adenylate cyclase is by a simple "collision coupling" between the receptor and NsC. These results are not compatible with shuttle mechanisms that postulate that Ns physically migrates from the receptor R to the catalytic unit C and back during the activation cycle, as suggested by Citri and Schramm [Citri, Y. & Schramm, M. (1980) Nature (London) 287, 297-300] and by De Lean et al. [De Lean, A., Stadel, J. M. & Lefkowitz, R. J. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 5108-5117].

  8. Receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of arachidonic acid release in 3T3 fibroblasts. Selective susceptibility to islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, T.; Ui, M.

    1985-01-01

    Thrombin exhibited diverse effects on mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. It (a) decreased cAMP in the cell suspension, (b) inhibited adenylate cyclase in the Lubrol-permeabilized cell suspension in a GTP-dependent manner, increased releases of (c) arachidonic acid and (d) inositol from the cell monolayer prelabeled with these labeled compounds, (e) increased 45 Ca 2+ uptake into the cell monolayer, and (f) increased 86 Rb + uptake into the cell monolayer in a ouabain-sensitive manner. Most of the effects were reproduced by bradykinin, platelet-activating factor, and angiotensin II. The receptors for these agonists are thus likely to be linked to three separate effector systems: the adenylate cyclase inhibition, the phosphoinositide breakdown leading to Ca 2+ mobilization and phospholipase A2 activation, and the Na,K-ATPase activation. Among the effects of these agonists, (a), (b), (c), and (e) were abolished, but (d) and (f) were not, by prior treatment of the cells with islet-activating protein (IAP), pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates the Mr = 41,000 protein, the alpha-subunit of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (Ni), thereby abolishing receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase. The effects (a), (c), (d), and (e) of thrombin, but not (b), were mimicked by A23187, a calcium ionophore. The effects of A23187, in contrast to those of receptor agonists, were not affected by the treatment of cells with IAP. Thus, the IAP substrate, the alpha-subunit of Ni, or the protein alike, may play an additional role in signal transduction arising from the Ca 2+ -mobilizing receptors, probably mediating process(es) distal to phosphoinositide breakdown and proximal to Ca 2+ gating

  9. Transmembrane segments of complement receptor 3 do not participate in cytotoxic activities but determine receptor structure required for action of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wald, Tomáš; Osičková, Adriana; Mašín, Jiří; Matyska Lišková, Petra; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Matoušek, Tomáš; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2016), flw008 ISSN 2049-632X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR GAP302/12/0460; GA ČR GA13-14547S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * ICP-MS * CD11b/CD18 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UIACH-O) Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2016

  10. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S. K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-09-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr-Tyr cross-linking (o,o‧-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  11. Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of photo-activated adenylate cyclase nano-clusters from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2012-01-02

    Graphical abstract: Protein color center emissions were observed in the wavelength range from 340 nm to 900 nm from nano-clusters of the photo-activated adenylate cyclase (nPAC) from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adenylyl cyclase nPAC in aqueous pH 7.5 buffer dissolved only to nano-clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-cluster size was determined by light attenuation (scattering) measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of the nano-clusters was growing by coalescing during observation period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In nPAC nano-clusters color centers were present in emission range of 360-900 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nPAC color center emission is compared with fluorescent protein emission. - Abstract: The spectroscopic characteristics of BLUF (BLUF = sensor of blue light using flavin) domain containing soluble adenylate cyclase (nPAC = Naegleria photo-activated cyclase) samples from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain is studied at room temperature. The absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic development in the dark was investigated over two weeks. Attenuation coefficient spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence excitation distributions were measured. Thawing of frozen nPAC samples gave solutions with varying protein nano-cluster size and varying flavin, tyrosine, tryptophan, and protein color-center emission. Protein color-center emission was observed in the wavelength range of 360-900 nm with narrow emission bands of small Stokes shift and broad emission bands of large Stokes shift. The emission spectra evolved in time with protein nano-cluster aging.

  12. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in Hashimoto's thyroiditis measured by radioreceptor assay and adenylate cyclase stimulation and their relationship to HLA-D alleles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliddal, H.; Bech, K.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Thomsen, M.; Ryder, L.P.; Hansen, J.M.; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K.; Friis, T.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins, measured by both radioreceptor assay and adenylate cyclase stimulation, and the HLA alleles was studied in 41 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TSH binding-inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII) were detected in 9 (22%) patients, and human thyroid adenylate cyclase-stimulating immunoglobulins (HTACS) were found in 21 (51%) patients. Only 2 patients were positive in both assays, and an inverse relationship was observed between TBII and HTACS. In the 21 HTACS-positive patients, HLA-Dw5 was found in 1 subject, compared to 8 of the 20 HTACS-negative patients (P < 0.01), while 4 of the 9 TBII-positive patients had HLA-Dw5 compared to 5 of the 32 TBII-negative subjects (P = 0.09).No significant relations were observed between the presence of HTACS or TBII and HLA-Dw3 or HLA-B8. It is concluded that TBII and HTACS are produced independently in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and that the production of these autoantibodies seems to be related to the HLA-D region in this disease

  13. Angiotensin II potentiates prostaglandin stimulation of cyclic AMP levels in intact bovine adrenal medulla cells but not adenylate cyclase in permeabilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarder, M R; Plevin, R; Marriott, D B

    1988-10-25

    The level of cyclic AMP in primary cultures of bovine adrenal medulla cells is elevated by prostaglandin E1. Angiotensin II is commonly reported to act on receptors linked to phosphoinositide metabolism or to inhibition of adenylate cyclase. We have investigated the effect of angiotensin II on prostaglandin E1-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in these primary cultures. Rather than reducing cyclic AMP levels, we have found that angiotensin II powerfully potentiates prostaglandin E1-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells, both in the presence and absence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The 50% maximal response was similar to that for stimulation of phosphoinositide breakdown by angiotensin II in these cultures. The potentiation of stimulated cyclic AMP levels was seen, although to a smaller maximum, with the protein kinase C (Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme) activating phorbol ester tetradecanoyl phorbolacetate and with the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol; pretreatment (24 h) with active phorbol ester, which would be expected to diminish protein kinase C levels, attenuated the angiotensin II potentiation of cyclic AMP. Using digitonin-permeabilized cells we showed that adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated by prostaglandin E1 with the same dose-response relationship as was cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells, but the permeabilized cells showed no response to angiotensin II. The results are discussed with respect to the hypothesis that the angiotensin II influence on cyclic AMP levels is mediated, in part, by diacylglycerol stimulation of protein kinase C.

  14. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation of phospholipase A2 and of adenylate cyclase in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells is mediated by different mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Halenda, S.P.; Bylund, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor activation on adenylate cyclase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor gene is biphasic. At lower concentrations of epinephrine forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is inhibited, but at higher concentrations the inhibition is reversed. Both of these effects are blocked by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine but not by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin attenuates inhibition at lower concentrations of epinephrine and greatly potentiates forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production at higher concentrations of epinephrine. alpha 2-Adrenergic receptor stimulation also causes arachidonic acid mobilization, presumably via phospholipase A2. This effect is blocked by yohimbine, quinacrine, removal of extracellular Ca2+, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. Quinacrine and removal of extracellular Ca2+, in contrast, have no effect on the enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production. Thus, it appears that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor in these cells can simultaneously activate distinct signal transduction systems; inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of phospholipase A2, both via G1, and potentiation of cyclic AMP production by a different (pertussis toxin-insensitive) mechanism

  15. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation of phospholipase A2 and of adenylate cyclase in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells is mediated by different mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.; Halenda, S.P.; Bylund, D.B. (Univ. of Missouri-Columbia (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The effect of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor activation on adenylate cyclase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor gene is biphasic. At lower concentrations of epinephrine forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is inhibited, but at higher concentrations the inhibition is reversed. Both of these effects are blocked by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine but not by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin attenuates inhibition at lower concentrations of epinephrine and greatly potentiates forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production at higher concentrations of epinephrine. alpha 2-Adrenergic receptor stimulation also causes arachidonic acid mobilization, presumably via phospholipase A2. This effect is blocked by yohimbine, quinacrine, removal of extracellular Ca2+, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. Quinacrine and removal of extracellular Ca2+, in contrast, have no effect on the enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production. Thus, it appears that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor in these cells can simultaneously activate distinct signal transduction systems; inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of phospholipase A2, both via G1, and potentiation of cyclic AMP production by a different (pertussis toxin-insensitive) mechanism.

  16. Multiple pertussis toxin substrates as candidates for regulatory G proteins of adenylate cyclase coupled to the somatostatin receptor in primary rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Seregi, A; Wurster, S; Schobert, A; Allgaier, C; Hertting, G

    1988-10-01

    The involvement of G proteins in receptor mediated astroglial cAMP formation was studied. Isoproterenol or prostaglandin E2 stimulated adenylate cyclase of primary astroglial cells was inhibited by somatostatin. Preincubation of cells with increasing concentrations of islet activating protein (IAP) diminished somatostatin inhibition of adenylate cyclase. At an IAP concentration of 50 ng/ml somatostatin inhibition was completely abolished. Studies on IAP catalyzed 32P-ADP-ribosylation of astroglial cell particulate material revealed an incorporation of radiolabel into three polypeptides in the molecular weight range of 41,000-39,000 Dalton. Pretreatment of intact cells with IAP reduced radiolabeling of this molecular species in a concentration dependent manner. No further radiolabeling above background level was detectable after pretreatment of cultures with 10 ng IAP/ml or more. At present, the occurrence of at least three IAP substrates (G proteins) does not permit an identification of the somatostatin receptor coupled G protein. Rather, the finding reveals that astrocytes are endowed with multiple variants of GTP binding proteins likely to be coupled to different receptors.

  17. Exposure to Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin affects integrin-mediated adhesion and mechanics in alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angely, Christelle; Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh; Andre Dias, Sofia; Planus, Emmanuelle; Pelle, Gabriel; Louis, Bruno; Filoche, Marcel; Chenal, Alexandre; Ladant, Daniel; Isabey, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    The adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin is a major virulent factor of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA toxin is able to invade eukaryotic cells where it produces high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) affecting cellular physiology. Whether CyaA toxin can modulate cell matrix adhesion and mechanics of infected cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we use a recently proposed multiple bond force spectroscopy (MFS) with an atomic force microscope to assess the early phase of cell adhesion (maximal detachment and local rupture forces) and cell rigidity (Young's modulus) in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) for toxin exposure 95%) at CyaA concentration of 0.5 nM, but a significant effect (≈81%) at 10 nM. MFS performed on A549 for three different concentrations (0.5, 5 and 10 nM) demonstrates that CyaA toxin significantly affects both cell adhesion (detachment forces are decreased) and cell mechanics (Young's modulus is increased). CyaA toxin (at 0.5 nM) assessed at three indentation/retraction speeds (2, 5 and 10 μm/s) significantly affects global detachment forces, local rupture events and Young modulus compared with control conditions, while an enzymatically inactive variant CyaAE5 has no effect. These results reveal the loading rate dependence of the multiple bonds newly formed between the cell and integrin-specific coated probe as well as the individual bond kinetics which are only slightly affected by the patho-physiological dose of CyaA toxin. Finally, theory of multiple bond force rupture enables us to deduce the bond number N which is reduced by a factor of 2 upon CyaA exposure (N ≈ 6 versus N ≈ 12 in control conditions). MFS measurements demonstrate that adhesion and mechanical properties of A549 are deeply affected by exposure to the CyaA toxin but not to an enzymatically inactive variant. This indicates that the alteration of cell mechanics triggered by CyaA is a consequence of the increase in

  18. Characterization of the adenosine receptor in cultured embryonic chick atrial myocytes: Coupling to modulation of contractility and adenylate cyclase activity and identification by direct radioligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Adenosine receptors in a spontaneously contracting atrial myocyte culture from 14-day chick embryos were characterized by radioligand binding studies and by examining the involvement of G-protein in coupling these receptors to a high-affinity state and to the adenylate cyclase and the myocyte contractility. Binding of the antagonist radioligand [3H]-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-diproylxanthine ([3H]CPX) was rapid, reversible and saturable and was to a homogeneous population of sites with a Kd value of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM and an apparent maximum binding of 26.2 +/- 3 fmol/mg of protein (n = 10, +/- S.E.). Guanyl-5-yl-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate had no effect on either the Kd or the maximum binding and CPX reversed the N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and contractility, indicating that [3H] CPX is an antagonist radioligand. Competition curves for [3H] CPX binding by a series of reference adenosine agonists were consistent with labeling of an A1 adenosine receptor and were better fit by a two-site model than by a one-site model. ADP-ribosylation of the G-protein by the endogenous NAD+ in the presence of pertussis toxin shifted the competition curves from bi to monophasic with Ki values similar to those of the KL observed in the absence of prior pertussis intoxication. The adenosine agonists were capable of inhibiting both the adenylate cyclase activity and myocyte contractility in either the absence or the presence of isoproterenol. The A1 adenosine receptor-selective antagonist CPX reversed these agonist effects. The order of ability of the reference adenosine receptor agonists in causing these inhibitory effects was similar to the order of potency of the same agonists in inhibiting the specific [3H]CPX binding (N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine greater than N6-S-phenyl-2-propyladenosine or N-ethyladenosine-5'-uronic acid)

  19. Cyclic AMP-Elevating Capacity of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin-Hemolysin Is Sufficient for Lung Infection but Not for Full Virulence of Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škopová, Karolína; Tomalová, Barbora; Kanchev, Ivan; Rossmann, Pavel; Švédová, Martina; Adkins, Irena; Bíbová, Ilona; Tomala, Jakub; Mašín, Jiří; Guiso, N.; Osička, Radim; Sedláček, Radislav; Kovář, Marek; Šebo, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-22, č. článku e00937-16. ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28126A; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S; GA ČR GA13-12885S; GA ČR GA15-09157S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/12/0460; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin * cAMP intoxication Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (UMG-J) OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Microbiology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 3.593, year: 2016

  20. Prostaglandin E2 Stimulates EP2, Adenylate Cyclase, Phospholipase C, and Intracellular Calcium Release to Mediate Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Production in Dental Pulp Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Szu-I; Lin, Li-Deh; Chan, Chiu-Po; Lee, Ming-Shu; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a crucial role in pulpal inflammation and repair. However, its induction of signal transduction pathways is not clear but is crucial for future control of pulpal inflammation. Primary dental pulp cells were exposed to PGE2 and 19R-OH PGE2 (EP2 agonist) or sulprostone (EP1/EP3 agonist) for 5 to 40 minutes. Cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In some experiments, cells were pretreated with SQ22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), dorsomorphin (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibitor), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), thapsigargin (inhibitor of intracellular calcium release), W7 (calmodulin antagonist), verapamil (L-type calcium channel blocker), and EGTA (extracellular calcium chelator) for 20 minutes before the addition of PGE2. PGE2 and 19R-OH PGE2 (EP2 agonist) stimulated cAMP production, whereas sulprostone (EP1/EP3 agonist) shows little effect. PGE2-induced cAMP production was attenuated by SQ22536 and U73122 but not H89 and dorsomorphin. Intriguingly, thapsigargin and W7 prevented PGE2-induced cAMP production, but verapamil and EGTA showed little effect. These results indicate that PGE2-induced cAMP production is associated with EP2 receptor and adenylate cyclase activation. These events are mediated by phospholipase C, intracellular calcium release, and calcium-calmodulin signaling. These results are helpful for understanding the role of PGE2 in pulpal inflammation and repair and possible future drug intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut für Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-23

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  2. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction

  3. Amidate prodrugs of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA) as inhibitors of adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídková, Markéta; Dvořáková, Alexandra; Tloušťová, Eva; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, Suppl S1 (2014), s. 729 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS EMBO 2014 Conference. 30.08.2014-04.09.2014, Paris] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302; GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * adenylyl cyclase toxin * inhibitors Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  4. Photo-dynamics of the BLUF domain containing soluble adenylate cyclase (nPAC) from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Kateriya, Suneel [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2011-08-25

    Graphical abstract: The photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (nPAC) from Naegleria gruberi was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and its photo-cycling dynamics was studied by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Highlights: {yields} Photo-activated adenylyl cyclase (nPAC) from Naegleria gruberi NEG-M was expressed. {yields} Photodynamics of BLUF domain in BLUF sensor - cyclase actuator protein was studied. {yields} Photo-excitation caused BLUF photo-cycling and permanent protein re-conformation. {yields} Re-conformed protein enabled photo-induced flavin reduction by proton transfer. {yields} Fluorescence of flavin in dark- and light-adapted state of nPAC was characterized. - Abstract: The amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M comprises a BLUF (blue light sensor using flavin) regulated adenylate cyclase (nPAC). The nPAC gene was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the photo-dynamics of the nPAC protein was studied by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Blue-light exposure of nPAC caused a typical BLUF-type photo-cycle behavior (spectral absorption red-shift, fluorescence quenching, absorption and fluorescence recovery in the dark). Additionally, time-delayed reversible photo-induced one-electron reduction of fully oxidized flavin (Fl{sub ox}) to semi-reduced flavin (FlH{sup {center_dot}}) occurred. Furthermore, photo-excitation of FlH{sup {center_dot}} caused irreversible electron transfer to fully reduced anionic flavin (FlH{sup -}). A photo-induced electron transfer from Tyr or Trp to flavin (Tyr{sup {center_dot}+}-Fl{sup {center_dot}-} or Trp{sup {center_dot}+}-Fl{sup {center_dot}-} radical ion-pair formation) is thought to cause H-bond restructuring responsible for BLUF-type photo-cycling and permanent protein re-conformation enabling photo-induced flavin reduction by proton transfer. Some photo-degradation of Fl{sub ox} to lumichrome was observed. A model of the photo-dynamics of nPAC is developed.

  5. Involvement of endogenous antioxidant systems in the protective activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damages in cultured rat astrocytes.

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    Douiri, Salma; Bahdoudi, Seyma; Hamdi, Yosra; Cubì, Roger; Basille, Magali; Fournier, Alain; Vaudry, Hubert; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Vaudry, David; Masmoudi-Kouki, Olfa

    2016-06-01

    Astroglial cells possess an array of cellular defense mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase antioxidant enzymes, to prevent damages caused by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, astroglial cell viability and functionality can be affected by significant oxidative stress. We have previously shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent glioprotective agent that prevents hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced apoptosis in cultured astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of PACAP against oxidative-generated alteration of astrocytic antioxidant systems. Incubation of cells with subnanomolar concentrations of PACAP inhibited H2 O2 -evoked reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial respiratory burst, and caspase-3 mRNA level increase. PACAP also stimulated SOD and catalase activities in a concentration-dependent manner, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2 O2 on the activity of these two antioxidant enzymes. The protective action of PACAP against H2 O2 -evoked inhibition of antioxidant systems in astrocytes was protein kinase A, PKC, and MAP-kinase dependent. In the presence of H2 O2 , the SOD blocker NaCN and the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole, both suppressed the protective effects of PACAP on SOD and catalase activities, mitochondrial function, and cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-apoptotic effect of PACAP on astroglial cells can account for the activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduction in respiration rate, thus preserving mitochondrial integrity and preventing caspase-3 expression provoked by oxidative stress. Considering its powerful anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties, the PACAPergic signaling system should thus be considered for the development of new therapeutical approaches to cure various pathologies involving oxidative neurodegeneration. We propose the following cascade for the

  6. Bordetella pertussis commits human dendritic cells to promote a Th1/Th17 response through the activity of adenylate cyclase toxin and MAPK-pathways.

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    Giorgio Fedele

    Full Text Available The complex pathology of B. pertussis infection is due to multiple virulence factors having disparate effects on different cell types. We focused our investigation on the ability of B. pertussis to modulate host immunity, in particular on the role played by adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA, an important virulence factor of B. pertussis. As a tool, we used human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDC, an ex vivo model useful for the evaluation of the regulatory potential of DC on T cell immune responses. The work compared MDDC functions after encounter with wild-type B. pertussis (BpWT or a mutant lacking CyaA (BpCyaA-, or the BpCyaA- strain supplemented with either the fully functional CyaA or a derivative, CyaA*, lacking adenylate cyclase activity. As a first step, MDDC maturation, cytokine production, and modulation of T helper cell polarization were evaluated. As a second step, engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and TLR4 by B. pertussis and the signaling events connected to this were analyzed. These approaches allowed us to demonstrate that CyaA expressed by B. pertussis strongly interferes with DC functions, by reducing the expression of phenotypic markers and immunomodulatory cytokines, and blocking IL-12p70 production. B. pertussis-treated MDDC promoted a mixed Th1/Th17 polarization, and the activity of CyaA altered the Th1/Th17 balance, enhancing Th17 and limiting Th1 expansion. We also demonstrated that Th1 effectors are induced by B. pertussis-MDDC in the absence of IL-12p70 through an ERK1/2 dependent mechanism, and that p38 MAPK is essential for MDDC-driven Th17 expansion. The data suggest that CyaA mediates an escape strategy for the bacterium, since it reduces Th1 immunity and increases Th17 responses thought to be responsible, when the response is exacerbated, for enhanced lung inflammation and injury.

  7. On the role of adenylate cyclase, tyrosine kinase, and tyrosine phosphatase in the response of nerve and glial cells to photodynamic impact

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    Kolosov, Mikhail S.; Bragin, D. E.; Dergacheva, Olga Y.; Vanzha, O.; Oparina, L.; Uzdensky, Anatoly B.

    2004-08-01

    The role of different intercellular signaling pathways involving adenylate cyclase (AC), receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), tyrosine and serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PTP or PP, respectively) in the response of crayfish mechanoreceptor neuron (MRN) and surrounding glial cells to photodynamic effect of aluminum phthalocyanine Photosens have been studied. AC inhibition by MDL-12330A decreased neuron lifetime, whereas AC activation by forskolin increase it. Thus, increase in cAMP produced by activated AC protects SRN against photodynamic inactivation. Similarly, RTK inhibition by genistein decreased neuron lifetime, while inhibition of PTP or PP that remove phosphate groups from proteins, prolonged neuronal activity. AC inhibition reduced photoinduced damage of the plasma membrane, and, therefore, necrosis in neuronal and glial cells. RTK inhibition protected only neurons against PDT-induced membrane permeabilization while glial cells became lesser permeable under ortovanadate-mediated PTP inhibition. AC activation also prevented PDT-induced apoptosis in glial cells. PP inhibition enhanced apoptotic processes in photosensitized glial cells. Therefore, both intercellular signaling pathways involving AC and TRK are involved in the maintenance of neuronal activity, integrity of the neuronal and glial plasma membranes and in apoptotic processes in glia under photosensitization.

  8. Intravenous infusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in a patient with multiple myeloma and myeloma kidney: a case study.

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    Li, Min; Maderdrut, Jerome L; Lertora, Juan J L; Batuman, Vecihi

    2007-09-01

    We have recently shown significant renoprotective effects with the administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in models of myeloma kidney. PACAP markedly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines stimulated by immunoglobulin light chains in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells and in the kidneys of rats infused with myeloma light chains. PACAP was also shown to suppress the proliferation of human kappa and lambda light chain-secreting multiple myeloma-derived cells. In this case study, an 81-year-old male patient with active multiple myeloma and myeloma kidney was infused intravenously with synthetic human PACAP38 at a rate of 4 pmol/kg/min for 120 min. The continuous infusion increased the level of PACAP38 in blood, with a plateau at about 0.2 nM during the infusion. The level of PACAP in the blood rapidly declined after the cessation of administration with a half-life of about 5-10 min. The continuous infusion did not significantly alter the basal glucose level, blood gases or blood pressure. There was a large reduction in free lambda light chains in urine after the start of the treatment with PACAP. These studies show that PACAP can be safely used in humans and suggest that it could be used as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple myeloma and myeloma kidney.

  9. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) contributes to the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine bone marrow via PACAP-specific receptor.

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    Xu, Zhifang; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Jun; Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Murai, Norimitsu; Sasaki, Shun; Matsumoto, Minako; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hiraizumi, Yutaka; Numazawa, Satoshi; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-02-29

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, encoded by adcyap1) plays an important role in ectodermal development. However, the involvement of PACAP in the development of other germ layers is still unclear. This study assessed the expression of a PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1) gene and protein in mouse bone marrow (BM). Cells strongly expressing PAC1(+) were large in size, had oval nuclei, and merged with CD34(+) cells, suggesting that the former were hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Compared with wild-type mice, adcyap1(-/-) mice exhibited lower multiple potential progenitor cell populations and cell frequency in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Exogenous PACAP38 significantly increased the numbers of colony forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) with two peaks in semi-solid culture. PACAP also increased the expression of cyclinD1 and Ki67 mRNAs. These increases were completely and partially inhibited by the PACAP receptor antagonists, PACAP6-38 and VIP6-28, respectively. Little or no adcyap1 was expressed in BM and the number of CFU-GM colonies was similar in adcyap1(-/-) and wild-type mice. However, PACAP mRNA and protein were expressed in paravertebral sympathetic ganglia, which innervate tibial BM, and in the sympathetic fibers of BM cavity. These results suggested that sympathetic nerve innervation may be responsible for PACAP-regulated hematopoiesis in BM, mainly via PAC1.

  10. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

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    Tamás Juhász

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.

  11. [Differentially expressed genes identified in the main olfactory epithelium of mice with deficiency of adenylate cyclase 3 by using suppression subtractive hybridization approach].

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    Zhenlong, Cao; Jiangye, Hao; Yanfen, Zhou; Zhe, Zhang; Zhihua, Ni; Yuanxiang, Hu; Weili, Liu; Yongchao, Li; Daniel, R Storm; Runlin, Z Ma; Zhenshan, Wang

    2014-06-01

    Adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) is one of the major players in the olfactory signaling within the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice. However, we are not ascertained whether deficiency of AC3 will lead to the differential expression of related genes in the MOE. Forward and reverse subtractive libraries were constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach, with MOEs from AC3(-/-) and AC3(+/+) mice. These two libraries were primarily screened by Dot blot, differential expressed clones were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics, and differential expressed genes were verified by qRT-PCR. A total of 386 differentially expressed clones were picked out after Dot blot. The DNA sequences of 80 clones randomly selected were determined, and 62 clones were identified by blasting in GenBank. We found that 24 up-regulated clones were corresponded to genes of kcnk3, mapk7, megf11, and 38 down-regulated clones were corresponded to tmem88b, c-mip, skp1a, mlycd, etc. Their functions were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and found to be mainly focused on molecular binding, cell cycle, processes of biology and cells. Five genes (kcnk3, c-mip, mlycd, tmem88b and trappc5) were verified by qRT-PCR with individuals of AC3(+/+) and AC3(-/-) mice. The data indicate that kcnk3 gene is up-regulated significantly, increasing 1.27 folds compared to control mice, whereas c-mip, mlycd, tmem88b and trappc5 are down-regulated significantly, decreasing 20%, 7%, 32% and 29% compared to the AC3(+/+)mice. The functions of these genes are closely related with K(+) channels, cell differentiation, metabolism of fats, membrane transportation, and so on. It is tempting to speculate that these genes might work together with AC3 to orchestrate the olfactory transduction signaling in the MOE.

  12. Role of Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide and Tac1 gene derived tachykinins in sensory, motor and vascular functions under normal and neuropathic conditions.

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    Botz, Bálint; Imreh, András; Sándor, Katalin; Elekes, Krisztián; Szolcsányi, János; Reglődi, Dóra; Quinn, John P; Stewart, James; Zimmer, Andreas; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2013-05-01

    Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and Tac1 gene-encoded tachykinins (substance P: SP, neurokinin A: NKA) are expressed in capsaicin-sensitive nerves, but their role in nociception, inflammation and vasoregulation is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the function of these neuropeptides and the NK1 tachykinin receptor (from Tacr1 gene) in the partial sciatic nerve ligation-induced traumatic mononeuropathy model using gene deficient (PACAP(-/-), Tac1(-/-), and Tacr1(-/-)) mice. Mechanonociceptive threshold of the paw was measured with dynamic plantar aesthesiometry, motor coordination with Rota-Rod and cutaneous microcirculation with laser Doppler imaging. Neurogenic vasodilation was evoked by mustard oil stimulating sensory nerves. In wildtype mice 30-40% mechanical hyperalgesia developed one week after nerve ligation, which was not altered in Tac1(-/-) and Tacr1(-/-) mice, but was absent in PACAP(-/-) animals. Motor coordination of the PACAP(-/-) and Tac1(-/-) groups was significantly worse both before and after nerve ligation compared to their wildtypes, but it did not change in Tacr1(-/-) mice. Basal postoperative microcirculation on the plantar skin of PACAP(-/-) mice did not differ from the wildtypes, but was significantly lower in Tac1(-/-) and Tacr1(-/-) ones. In contrast, mustard oil-induced neurogenic vasodilation was significantly smaller in PACAP(-/-) mice, but not in Tacr1(-/-) and Tac1(-/-) animals. Both PACAP and SP/NKA, but not NK1 receptors participate in normal motor coordination. Tachykinins maintain basal cutaneous microcirculation. PACAP is a crucial mediator of neuropathic mechanical hyperalgesia and neurogenic vasodilation. Therefore identifying its target and developing selective, potent antagonists, might open promising new perspectives for the treatment of neuropathic pain and vascular complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bi-directional effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on fear-related behavior and c-Fos expression after fear conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Edward G; Venkataraman, Archana; Donahue, Rachel J; Carlezon, William A

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. PACAP has neuromodulatory actions on brain structures within the limbic system that could contribute to its acute and persistent effects in animal models of stress and anxiety-like behavior. Here, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula for infusion of PACAP-38 (0.5, 1, or 1.5 μg) or vehicle followed 30 min later by fear conditioning. Freezing was measured early (1, 4, and 7 days) or following a delay (7, 10, and 13 days) after conditioning. PACAP (1.5 μg) produced a bi-phasic response in freezing behavior across test days: relative to controls, PACAP-treated rats showed a reduction in freezing when tested 1 or 7 days after fear conditioning that evolved into a significant elevation in freezing by the third test session in the early, but not delayed, group. Corticosterone (CORT) levels were significantly elevated in PACAP-treated rats following fear conditioning, but not at the time of testing (Day 1). Brain c-Fos expression revealed PACAP-dependent alterations within, as well as outside of, areas typically implicated in fear conditioning. Our findings raise the possibility that PACAP disrupts fear memory consolidation by altering synaptic plasticity within neurocircuits normally responsible for encoding fear-related cues, producing a type of dissociation or peritraumatic amnesia often seen in people early after exposure to a traumatic event. However, fear memories are retained such that repeated testing and memory reactivation (e.g., re-experiencing) causes the freezing response to emerge and persist at elevated levels. PACAP systems may represent an axis on which stress and exposure to trauma converge to promote maladaptive behavioral responses characteristic of psychiatric illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the prefrontal cortex modulates cued fear learning, but not spatial working memory, in female rats.

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    Kirry, Adam J; Herbst, Matthew R; Poirier, Sarah E; Maskeri, Michelle M; Rothwell, Amy C; Twining, Robert C; Gilmartin, Marieke R

    2018-05-01

    A genetic polymorphism within the gene encoding the pituitary adenylate cyclase- activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type I (PAC1R) has recently been associated with hyper-reactivity to threat-related cues in women, but not men, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PACAP is a highly conserved peptide, whose role in mediating adaptive physiological stress responses is well established. Far less is understood about the contribution of PACAP signaling in emotional learning and memory, particularly the encoding of fear to discrete cues. Moreover, a neurobiological substrate that may account for the observed link between PAC1R and PTSD in women, but not men, has yet to be identified. Sex differences in PACAP signaling during emotional learning could provide novel targets for the treatment of PTSD. Here we investigated the contribution of PAC1R signaling within the prefrontal cortex to the acquisition of cued fear in female and male rats. We used a variant of fear conditioning called trace fear conditioning, which requires sustained attention to fear cues and depends on working-memory like neuronal activity within the prefrontal cortex. We found that cued fear learning, but not spatial working memory, was impaired by administration of a PAC1R antagonist directly into the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. This effect was specific to females. We also found that levels of mRNA for the PAC1R receptor in the prelimbic cortex were greater in females compared with males, and were highest during and immediately following the proestrus stage of the estrous cycle. Together, these results demonstrate a sex-specific role of PAC1R signaling in learning about threat-related cues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A membrane-associated adenylate cyclase modulates lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities required for bull sperm capacitation induced by hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Silvina; Córdoba, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid, as well as heparin, is a glycosaminoglycan present in the female genital tract of cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism and intracellular signals mediated by a membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (mAC), in sperm capacitation with hyaluronic acid and heparin, in cryopreserved bull sperm. The mAC inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, was used in the present study. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities and lactate concentration were determined spectrophotometrically in the incubation medium. Capacitation and acrosome reaction were evaluated by chlortetracycline technique, while plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were determined by trypan blue stain/differential interference contrast microscopy. Heparin capacitated samples had a significant decrease in LDH and CK activities, while in hyaluronic acid capacitated samples LDH and CK activities both increased compared to control samples, in heparin and hyaluronic acid capacitation conditions, respectively. A significant increase in lactate concentration in the incubation medium occurred in hyaluronic acid-treated sperm samples compared to heparin treatment, indicating this energetic metabolite is produced during capacitation. The LDH and CK enzyme activities and lactate concentrations in the incubation medium were decreased with 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine treatment in hyaluronic acid samples. The mAC inhibitor significantly inhibited heparin-induced capacitation of sperm cells, but did not completely inhibit hyaluronic acid capacitation. Therefore, hyaluronic acid and heparin are physiological glycosaminoglycans capable of inducing in vitro capacitation in cryopreserved bull sperm, stimulating different enzymatic pathways and intracellular signals modulated by a mAC. Hyaluronic acid induces sperm capacitation involving LDH and CK activities, thereby reducing oxidative metabolism, and this process is mediated by mAC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP has a neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration in rat and snail parkinsonian models

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    Gabor Maasz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP rescues dopaminergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improves motor changes induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA in rat parkinsonian models. Recently, we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in dopamine (DA-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinson's disease. Behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin, metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B and PARK7 protein concentrations were measured before and after PACAP treatment in both models. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails, which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA-induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. Monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In contrast, PACAP had no effect on the decreased serotonin (5HT levels. S-COMT metabolic enzyme was also reduced but a protective effect of PACAP was not observed in either of the models. Following toxin treatment, a significant increase in MB-COMT was observed in both models and was restored to normal levels by PACAP. A decrease in PARK7 was also observed in both toxin-induced models; however, PACAP had a beneficial effect only on 6-OHDA-treated animals. The neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different animal models of Parkinson's disease is thus well correlated with neurotransmitter, enzyme and protein levels. The models successfully mimic several, but not all etiological properties of the disease, allowing us to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration as well as testing new drugs. The rotenone and 6-OHDA rat and snail in vivo parkinsonian models offer an alternative method for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective agents, including PACAP.

  17. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present and biochemically active in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

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    Pirger, Zsolt; Laszlo, Zita; Hiripi, Laszlo; Hernadi, Laszlo; Toth, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kemenes, Gyorgy; Mark, Laszlo

    2010-11-01

    PACAP is a highly conserved adenylate cyclase (AC) activating polypeptide, which, along with its receptors (PAC1-R, VPAC1, and VPAC2), is expressed in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. In vertebrates, PACAP has been shown to be involved in associative learning, but it is not known if it plays a similar role in invertebrates. To prepare the way for a detailed investigation into the possible role of PACAP and its receptors in a suitable invertebrate model of learning and memory, here, we undertook a study of their expression and biochemical role in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Lymnaea is one of the best established invertebrate model systems to study the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, including the role of cyclic AMP-activated signaling mechanisms, which crucially depend on the learning-induced activation of AC. However, there was no information available on the expression of PACAP and its receptors in sensory structures and central ganglia of the Lymnaea nervous system known to be involved in associative learning or whether or not PACAP can actually activate AC in these ganglia. Here, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunohistochemistry, we established the presence of PACAP-like peptides in the cerebral ganglia and the lip region of Lymnaea. The MALDI-TOF data indicated an identity with mammalian PACAP-27 and the presence of a squid-like PACAP-38 highly homologous to vertebrate PACAP-38. We also showed that PACAP, VIP, and maxadilan stimulated the synthesis of cAMP in Lymnaea cerebral ganglion homogenates and that this effect was blocked by the appropriate general and selective PACAP receptor antagonists.

  18. Ex vivo and in vivo studies of CME-1, a novel polysaccharide purified from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis that inhibits human platelet activation by activating adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP.

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    Lu, Wan-Jung; Chang, Nen-Chung; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liao, Jiun-Cheng; Lin, Mei-Jiun; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Chou, Duen-Suey; Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-12-01

    CME-1, a novel water-soluble polysaccharide, was purified from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis, and its chemical structure was characterized to contain mannose and galactose in a ratio of 4:6 (27.6 kDa). CME-1 was originally observed to exert a potent inhibitory effect on tumor migration and a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress. Activation of platelets caused by arterial thrombosis is relevant to various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, no data are available concerning the effects of CME-1 on platelet activation. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the ex vivo and in vivo antithrombotic effects of CME-1 and its possible mechanisms in platelet activation. The aggregometry, immunoblotting, flow cytometric analysis and platelet functional analysis were used in this study. CME-1 (2.3-7.6 μM) exhibited highly potent activity in inhibiting human platelet aggregation when stimulated by collagen, thrombin, and arachidonic acid but not by U46619. CME-1 inhibited platelet activation accompanied by inhibiting Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation. However, CME-1 interrupted neither FITC-triflavin nor FITC-collagen binding to platelets. CME-1 markedly increased cyclic AMP levels, but not cyclic GMP levels, and stimulated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, but not ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, obviously reversed the CME-1-mediated effects on platelet aggregation and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), Akt, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and TxB2 formation. CME-1 substantially prolonged the closure time of whole blood and the occlusion time of platelet plug formation. This study demonstrates for the first time that CME-1 exhibits highly potent antiplatelet activity that may initially activate adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP and, subsequently, inhibit intracellular signals (such as Akt and

  19. Gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, M; Weller, M

    2016-01-01

    Key Features •Synthesizes widely dispersed information on the management of gliomas into one comprehensive resource •Chapters written by international authors who are preeminent researchers in the field •Fully explores the therapeutic options for patient care, from chemotherapy to radiotherapy to personalized approaches Description Researchers’ knowledge of gliomas continues to advance rapidly at both the basic and translational levels, and Gliomas provides a thorough overview ...

  20. Ca2+ influx and tyrosine kinases trigger Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT endocytosis. Cell physiology and expression of the CD11b/CD18 integrin major determinants of the entry route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepa B Uribe

    Full Text Available Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3, its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca(2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface.

  1. Ca2+ Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of the CD11b/CD18 Integrin Major Determinants of the Entry Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Aitor; González-Bullón, David; Gómez-Bilbao, Geraxane; Ostolaza, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3), its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface. PMID:24058533

  2. A Role for Calcium-Activated Adenylate Cyclase and Protein Kinase A in the Lens Src Family Kinase and Na,K-ATPase Response to Hyposmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2017-09-01

    Na,K-ATPase activity in lens epithelium is subject to control by Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs). Previously we showed hyposmotic solution causes an SFK-dependent increase in Na,K-ATPase activity in the epithelium. Here we explored the role of cAMP in the signaling mechanism responsible for the SFK and Na,K-ATPase response. Intact porcine lenses were exposed to hyposmotic Krebs solution (200 mOsm) then the epithelium was assayed for cAMP, SFK phosphorylation (activation) or Na,K-ATPase activity. An increase of cAMP was observed in the epithelium of lenses exposed to hyposmotic solution. In lenses exposed to hyposmotic solution SFK phosphorylation in the epithelium approximately doubled as did Na,K-ATPase activity and both responses were prevented by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. The magnitude of the SFK response to hyposmotic solution was reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 added to prevent TRPV4-mediated calcium entry, and by a cytoplasmic Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM. The Na,K-ATPase activity response in the epithelium of lenses exposed to hyposmotic solution was abolished by BAPTA-AM. As a direct test of cAMP-dependent SFK activation, intact lenses were exposed to 8-pCPT-cAMP, a cell-permeable cAMP analog. 8-pCPT-cAMP caused robust SFK activation. Using Western blot, two calcium-activated adenylyl cyclases, ADCY3 and ADCY8, were detected in lens epithelium. Calcium-activated adenylyl cyclases are expressed in the lens epithelium and SFK activation is linked to a rise of cAMP that occurs upon hyposmotic challenge. The findings point to cAMP as a link between TRPV4 channel-mediated calcium entry, SFK activation, and a subsequent increase of Na,K-ATPase activity.

  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of 45Ca2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel

  4. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Albany Medical College, NY (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel.

  5. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), stress, and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S Bradley; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2017-09-01

    Stressor exposure is associated with the onset and severity of many psychopathologies that are more common in women than men. Moreover, the maladaptive expression and function of stress-related hormones have been implicated in these disorders. Evidence suggests that PACAP has a critical role in the stress circuits mediating stress-responding, and PACAP may interact with sex hormones to contribute to sex differences in stress-related disease. In this review, we describe the role of the PACAP/PAC1 system in stress biology, focusing on the role of stress-induced alterations in PACAP expression and signaling in the development of stress-induced behavioral change. Additionally, we present more recent data suggesting potential interactions between stress, PACAP, and circulating estradiol in pathological states, including PTSD. These studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders.

  6. In Vitro Assessment of Guanylyl Cyclase Activity of Plant Receptor Kinases

    KAUST Repository

    Raji, Misjudeen

    2017-05-31

    Cyclic nucleotides such as 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are increasingly recognized as key signaling molecules in plants, and a growing number of plant mononucleotide cyclases, both adenylate cyclases (ACs) and guanylate cyclases (GCs), have been reported. Catalytically active cytosolic GC domains have been shown to be part of many plant receptor kinases and hence directly linked to plant signaling and downstream cellular responses. Here we detail, firstly, methods to identify and express essential functional GC domains of receptor kinases, and secondly, we describe mass spectrometric methods to quantify cGMP generated by recombinant GCs from receptor kinases in vitro.

  7. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2017-10-04

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

  8. Histologic classification of gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157872866

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic,

  9. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide stimulates neurite growth in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A; Kimball, B; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W

    1995-01-01

    The ability of PACAP-38 to stimulate morphological development was studied using rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. PACAP-38 produced concentration-dependent increases in percentage of cells exhibiting neurite extension. Similar increases were produced by forskolin (28 +/- 2% at 96 h) and 8-bromo cAMP (30 +/- 2%). Vasoactive intestinal peptide and alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide were without effect. PACAP-38 produced significant increases in PC12 cell cAMP content and inositol phosphate turnover. Intracellular [Ca2+] increased from 169 +/- 14 nM to 560 +/- 58 nM in response to 1 microM PACAP-38. PACAP-stimulated neurite outgrowth was abolished by RpcAMPS, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent kinases but was unaffected by the protein kinase C antagonist H7.

  10. Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Disrupts Functional Integrity of Bronchial Epithelial Layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasan, Shakir; Kulkarni, N.N.; Asbjarnarson, A.; Linhartová, Irena; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter; Gudmundsson, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2018), č. článku e00445-17. ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09157S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28126A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * airway epithelia * CyaA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.593, year: 2016

  11. Accelerated evolution of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor gene during human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yin-Qiu; Qian, Ya-Ping; Yang, Su

    2005-01-01

    is at least seven times faster than that in other mammal species resulting from strong Darwinian positive selection. Eleven human-specific amino acid changes were identified in the PACAP precursors, which are conserved from murine to African apes. Protein structural analysis suggested that a putative novel...

  12. A Gateway((R)) -compatible bacterial adenylate cyclase-based two-hybrid system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouellette, S. P.; Gauliard, E.; Antošová, Zuzana; Ladant, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2014), s. 259-267 ISSN 1758-2229 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : bacterial two-hybrid system * protein–protein interactions * cell division * Gateway((R))(GW) cloning system Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.293, year: 2014

  13. Phosphoproteomics of cAMP signaling of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin in mouse dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Jakub; Fabrik, I.; Linhartová, Irena; Link, M.; Černý, Ondřej; Stulík, J.; Šebo, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 24 (2017), č. článku 16298. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28126A; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : GTPASE-ACTIVATING-PROTEIN * SALT-INDUCIBLE KINASES * GENE ONTOLOGY Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  14. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide plays a role in olfactory memory formation in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, Rita; Hollósy, Tibor; Tamás, Andrea; Tóth, Gábor; Lengvári, István; Reglodi, Dóra

    2005-11-01

    PACAP plays an important role during development of the nervous system and is also involved in memory processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of PACAP in chicken embryonic olfactory memory formation by blocking PACAP at a sensitive period in ovo. Chicken were exposed daily to strawberry scent in ovo from embryonic day 15. Control eggs were treated only with saline, while other eggs received a single injection of the PACAP antagonist PACAP6-38 at day 15. The consumption of scented and unscented water was measured daily after hatching. Animals exposed to strawberry scent in ovo showed no preference. However, chickens exposed to PACAP6-38, showed a clear preference for plain water, similarly to unexposed chicken. Our present study points to PACAP's possible importance in embryonic olfactory memory formation.

  15. Channel formation in model membranes by the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis: Effect if Calcium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knapp, O.; Maier, E.; Polleichtner, G.; Mašín, Jiří; Šebo, Peter; Benz, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2003), s. 8077-8084 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : bordetella pertussis * calcium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.922, year: 2003

  16. Acylation of lysine 983 is sufficient for toxin activity of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basar, T.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Bezoušková, Silvia; Hackett, M.; Šebo, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 1 (2001), s. 348-354 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/98/0432; GA ČR GV310/96/K102; GA AV ČR IAA5020907; GA MŠk ME 167; GA MŠk VS96149 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.258, year: 2001

  17. Membrane Restructuring by Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin, a Member of the RTX Toxin Family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martín, C.; Requero, M. A.; Mašín, Jiří; Konopásek, Ivo; Goni, F. M.; Šebo, Peter; Ostolaza, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 12 (2004), s. 3760-3765 ISSN 0021-9193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020907 Grant - others:GA European Union contract(XX) QLK2-1999-0.0556 Keywords : atc * lipid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.146, year: 2004

  18. Internation of Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase with CD11b/CD18

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    El-Azami-El-Idrisi, M.; Bauche, C.; Loucká, Jiřina; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter; Ladant, D.; Leclerc, C.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 40 (2003), s. 38514-38521 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA ČR GA310/01/0934; GA AV ČR IAA5020907 Grant - others:GA by National Institutes of Health Grant(XX) 55000334; GA QLK2-CT-1999(XX) 00556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cyaa * rtx * cd11b Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.482, year: 2003

  19. Adenylate cyclase toxin translocates across target cell membrane without forming a pore

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osičková, Adriana; Mašín, Jiří; Fayolle, C.; Krůšek, Jan; Basler, Marek; Pospíšilová, Eva; Leclerc, C.; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 6 (2010), s. 1550-1562 ISSN 0950-382X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200914; GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA MŠk 1M0506; GA MŠk 2B06161 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ANTIGEN PRESENTATION PATHWAY * BORDETELLA- PERTUSSIS * INVASIVE ACTIVITY Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.819, year: 2010

  20. Delivery of multiple epitopes by recombinant detoxified adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis induces protective antiviral immunity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fayolle, C.; Osičková, Adriana; Osička, Radim; Henry, T.; Rojas, M. J.; Saron, M. F.; Šebo, Peter; Leclers, C.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 16 (2001), s. 7330-7338 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/98/0432; GA MŠk ME 167; GA MŠk VS96149 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : antiviral immunity * Bordetella pertusis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.622, year: 2001

  1. Inflammasome Activation by Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Directs Th17 Responses and Protection against Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dunne, A.; Ross, P. J.; Pospíšilová, Eva; Mašín, Jiří; Meaney, A.; Sutton, C. E.; Iwakura, Y.; Tschopp, J.; Šebo, Peter; Mills, K. H. G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 187, č. 3 (2010), s. 1711-1719 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA AV ČR IAA500200914 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ADAPTIVE IMMUNE-RESPONSES * IL-17-PRODUCING T-CELLS * HOST-DEFENSE Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.745, year: 2010

  2. Gustatory Habituation in "Drosophila" Relies on "Rutabaga" (Adenylate Cyclase)-Dependent Plasticity of GABAergic Inhibitory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Pushkar; Rodrigues, Veronica; VijayRaghavan, K.; Ramaswami, Mani

    2012-01-01

    In some situations, animals seem to ignore stimuli which in other contexts elicit a robust response. This attenuation in behavior, which enables animals to ignore a familiar, unreinforced stimulus, is called habituation. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, it is generally poorly understood in terms of the underlying neural circuitry. Hungry…

  3. Oligomerization is involved in pore formation by Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtová, Jana; Basler, Marek; Osička, Radim; Knapp, O.; Maier, E.; Černý, J.; Benada, Oldřich; Benz, R.; Šebo, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2009), s. 2831-2843 ISSN 0892-6638 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200914; GA MŠk 1M0506 Grant - others:-(XE) LSHB-CT-2003-503582 THERAVAC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : blue native electrophoresis * planar lipid bilayer membranes * pore-forming activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.401, year: 2009

  4. PET for gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Momose, Toshimitsu

    1999-01-01

    CT and MRI imaging, which essentially provide the physical status of tissue, give important information on the histopathology and extent of gliomas. On the contrary, PET is a biochemical and physiologic technology and is beginning to give more precise information about gliomas, which allows the distinction between gliomas and normal brains, the supply of histopathologic and prognostic information, and the assessment of the response to the therapy. To date, fluorine-18fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) and 11C-methionine (MET) are widely used PET tracers for gliomas. Recent studies have demonstrated that the degree of the increase in the glycolytic rate in gliomas, as measured with FDG, is correlated with the histologic grade and prognosis. However, MET is superior to FDG in delineation of the boundaries of gliomas, because MET sometimes shows the lesion invaded by gliomas, which is usually wider than that detected by CT or MRI imaging. Finally, we discussed about 11C-Choline PET, in which T/N ratio of gliomas was remarkably high, and residual tumors were easily distinguished from surrounding normal tissues after surgery. In conclusion, it is important to know the advantage of individual PET tracers and combine a couple of tracers to obtain accurate information about gliomas. (author)

  5. Chemotherapy in Glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Taal (Walter)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractGliomas are primary brain tumors and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligo-astrocytomas. Currently, treatment of newly diagnosed diffuse adult gliomas exists of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We were the first to show a high incidence of progressive MRI

  6. Adenylic dinucleotides produced by CD38 are negative endogenous modulators of platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Mirko; Basile, Giovanna; Bruzzese, Debora; Guida, Lucrezia; Signorello, Maria Grazia; Chothi, Madhu Parakkottil; Bruzzone, Santina; Millo, Enrico; Qi, Ai-Dong; Nicholas, Robert A; Kassack, Matthias U; Leoncini, Giuliana; Zocchi, Elena

    2008-09-05

    Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P2-diphosphate (Ap2A) is one of the adenylic dinucleotides stored in platelet granules. Along with proaggregant ADP, it is released upon platelet activation and is known to stimulate myocyte proliferation. We have previously demonstrated synthesis of Ap2A and of two isomers thereof, called P18 and P24, from their high pressure liquid chromatography retention time, by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 in mammalian cells. Here we show that Ap2A and its isomers are present in resting human platelets and are released during thrombin-induced platelet activation. The three adenylic dinucleotides were identified by high pressure liquid chromatography through a comparison with the retention times and the absorption spectra of purified standards. Ap2A, P18, and P24 had no direct effect on platelet aggregation, but they inhibited platelet aggregation induced by physiological agonists (thrombin, ADP, and collagen), with mean IC50 values ranging between 5 and 15 microm. Moreover, the three dinucleotides did not modify the intracellular calcium concentration in resting platelets, whereas they significantly reduced the thrombin-induced intracellular calcium increase. Through binding to the purinergic receptor P2Y11, exogenously applied Ap2A, P18, and P24 increased the intracellular cAMP concentration and stimulated platelet production of nitric oxide, the most important endogenous antiaggregant. The presence of Ap2A, P18, and P24 in resting platelets and their release during thrombin-induced platelet activation at concentrations equal to or higher than the respective IC50 value on platelet aggregation suggest a role of these dinucleotides as endogenous negative modulators of aggregation.

  7. Characterization of two unusual guanylyl cyclases from Dictyostelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Jeroen; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2002-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase A (GCA) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) encode GCs in Dictyostelium and have a topology similar to 12-transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase, respectively. We demonstrate that all detectable GC activity is lost in a cell line in which both genes have been inactivated. Cell

  8. Soluble adenylyl cyclase in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Andreas; Meili, Dimirela; Salathe, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP is integral for many physiological processes. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was recently identified as a widely expressed intracellular source of cAMP in mammalian cells. sAC is evolutionary, structurally, and biochemically distinct from the G-protein-responsive transmembranous adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). The structure of the catalytic unit of sAC is similar to tmAC, but sAC does not contain transmembranous domains, allowing localizations independent of the membranous...

  9. Molecular Neuropathology of Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Reifenberger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary human brain tumors. They comprise a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms that are histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of tumors of the nervous system. Over the past 20 years the cytogenetic and molecular genetic alterations associated with glioma formation and progression have been intensely studied and genetic profiles as additional aids to the definition of brain tumors have been incorporated in the WHO classification. In fact, first steps have been undertaken in supplementing classical histopathological diagnosis by the use of molecular tests, such as MGMT promoter hypermethylation in glioblastomas or detection of losses of chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors. The tremendous progress that has been made in the use of array-based profiling techniques will likely contribute to a further molecular refinement of glioma classification and lead to the identification of glioma core pathways that can be specifically targeted by more individualized glioma therapies.

  10. Temozolomide in malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, W K

    2000-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma are the most common primary central nervous system malignancies and are the major cause of morbidity/ mortality despite combined modality approaches. Temozolomide (TMZ), a novel, oral, second-generation alkylating agent, has demonstrated antitumor activity against a broad range of solid tumors and highly resistant malignancies, including high-grade glioma Temozolomide does not require hepatic metabolism for activation, rapidly penetrates the cerebrospinal fluid, and consistently demonstrates reproducible linear pharmacokinetics with approximately 100% oral bioavailability. In preliminary clinical studies, TMZ has demonstrated meaningful efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in the treatment of patients with malignant glioma. These results have been recently confirmed in three open-label, multi-institutional studies that evaluated the use of TMZ in 525 malignant glioma patients. These studies represent the largest evaluation of a single agent in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas and were rigorously controlled with strict, prospectively defined criteria for assessment of tumor response, central review of histology, and validated instruments to assess health-related quality of life. Temozolomide was effective in delaying disease progression and maintaining health-related quality of life. Temozolomide represents a promising new agent in the treatment of malignant glioma.

  11. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  12. Angiogenesis in gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Czykier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain gliomas are characterized by invasive growth and neovascularisation potential. Angiogenesis plays a major role in the progression of gliomas and its determination has a great prognostic value. The aim of the study was to assess the vascularisation of chosen brain gliomas and to estimate how it is correlated with tumour histological type, malignancy grade, location and size, and with age and sex of patients. Tumour vascularisation analysis was based on the determination of microvascular proliferation (MVP and microvessel density (MVD. Microvascular proliferation was measured with immunohistochemical methods using mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect cell proliferation antigens. The following antibodies were used Ki-67 and PCNA (DAKO. Identification of vessels was performed by CD31 antibody and anti-human von Willebrand factor (DAKO. The highest microvascular proliferation and microvascular density were observed in multiform glioblastomas and the lowest in oligodendrogliomas. Significant correlation was observed between the vascularisation and malignancy grade.

  13. Epidemiology of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh; Hansen, Steinbjorn; Laursen, Rene J.

    2017-01-01

    predominated in all grades. Focal deficits were the most frequent presenting symptom, but among patients with glioma, grade II epileptic seizures were the most frequent symptom. Headache was a rare mono-symptomatic onset symptom. At presentation, higher age, focal deficits and cognitive change for ... duration, and headache

  14. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Gliomas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Anni, H.; Dráber, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 216-227 ISSN 1071-9091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12050 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gliomas * mitochondrial dysfunction * microtubule proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2013

  15. Metabolic Reprogramming in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Stoll

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many cancers have long been thought to primarily metabolize glucose for energy production—a phenomenon known as the Warburg Effect, after the classic studies of Otto Warburg in the early twentieth century. Yet cancer cells also utilize other substrates, such as amino acids and fatty acids, to produce raw materials for cellular maintenance and energetic currency to accomplish cellular tasks. The contribution of these substrates is increasingly appreciated in the context of glioma, the most common form of malignant brain tumor. Multiple catabolic pathways are used for energy production within glioma cells, and are linked in many ways to anabolic pathways supporting cellular function. For example: glycolysis both supports energy production and provides carbon skeletons for the synthesis of nucleic acids; meanwhile fatty acids are used both as energetic substrates and as raw materials for lipid membranes. Furthermore, bio-energetic pathways are connected to pro-oncogenic signaling within glioma cells. For example: AMPK signaling links catabolism with cell cycle progression; mTOR signaling contributes to metabolic flexibility and cancer cell survival; the electron transport chain produces ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS which act as signaling molecules; Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs mediate interactions with cells and vasculature within the tumor environment. Mutations in the tumor suppressor p53, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 have been implicated in oncogenic signaling as well as establishing metabolic phenotypes in genetically-defined subsets of malignant glioma. These pathways critically contribute to tumor biology. The aim of this review is two-fold. Firstly, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the metabolic strategies employed by malignant glioma cells, including aerobic glycolysis; the pentose phosphate pathway; one-carbon metabolism; the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is

  16. Metabolic Reprogramming in Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Marie; Stoll, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Many cancers have long been thought to primarily metabolize glucose for energy production-a phenomenon known as the Warburg Effect, after the classic studies of Otto Warburg in the early twentieth century. Yet cancer cells also utilize other substrates, such as amino acids and fatty acids, to produce raw materials for cellular maintenance and energetic currency to accomplish cellular tasks. The contribution of these substrates is increasingly appreciated in the context of glioma, the most common form of malignant brain tumor. Multiple catabolic pathways are used for energy production within glioma cells, and are linked in many ways to anabolic pathways supporting cellular function. For example: glycolysis both supports energy production and provides carbon skeletons for the synthesis of nucleic acids; meanwhile fatty acids are used both as energetic substrates and as raw materials for lipid membranes. Furthermore, bio-energetic pathways are connected to pro-oncogenic signaling within glioma cells. For example: AMPK signaling links catabolism with cell cycle progression; mTOR signaling contributes to metabolic flexibility and cancer cell survival; the electron transport chain produces ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which act as signaling molecules; Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) mediate interactions with cells and vasculature within the tumor environment. Mutations in the tumor suppressor p53, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 have been implicated in oncogenic signaling as well as establishing metabolic phenotypes in genetically-defined subsets of malignant glioma. These pathways critically contribute to tumor biology. The aim of this review is two-fold. Firstly, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the metabolic strategies employed by malignant glioma cells, including aerobic glycolysis; the pentose phosphate pathway; one-carbon metabolism; the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is central to amino acid

  17. Microglia immunophenotyping in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annovazzi, Laura; Mellai, Marta; Bovio, Enrica; Mazzetti, Samanta; Pollo, Bianca; Schiffer, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Microglia, once assimilated to peripheral macrophages, in gliomas has long been discussed and currently it is hypothesized to play a pro-tumor role in tumor progression. Uncertain between M1 and M2 polarization, it exchanges signals with glioma cells to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment and stimulates cell proliferation and migration. Four antibodies are currently used for microglia/macrophage identification in tissues that exhibit different cell forms and cell localization. The aim of the present work was to describe the distribution of the different cell forms and to deduce their significance on the basis of what is known on their function from the literature. Normal resting microglia, reactive microglia, intermediate and bumpy forms and macrophage-like cells can be distinguished by Iba1, CD68, CD16 and CD163 and further categorized by CD11b, CD45, c-MAF and CD98. The number of microglia/macrophages strongly increased from normal cortex and white matter to infiltrating and solid tumors. The ramified microglia accumulated in infiltration areas of both high- and low-grade gliomas, when hypertrophy and hyperplasia occur. In solid tumors, intermediate and bumpy forms prevailed and there is a large increase of macrophage-like cells in glioblastoma. The total number of microglia cells did not vary among the three grades of malignancy, but macrophage-like cells definitely prevailed in high-grade gliomas and frequently expressed CD45 and c-MAF. CD98 + cells were present. Microglia favors tumor progression, but many aspects suggest that the phagocytosing function is maintained. CD98 + cells can be the product of fusion, but also of phagocytosis. Microglia correlated with poorer survival in glioblastoma, when considering CD163 + cells, whereas it did not change prognosis in isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant low grade gliomas.

  18. Properties of adenyl cyclase and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.

    1976-01-01

    Several spontaneous cya and crp mutants of Escherichia coli have been selected as clones simultaneously resistant to phage lambda and nalidixic acid and characterized. Both cya and crp mutants have been found to grow as cocci with increased doubling times. They have increased resistance to some mutagens (methylmethanesulfonate, ultraviolet light, gamma rays), antibiotics (nalidixic acid, ampicillin), phages (lambda, T6), sublethal heat and hypotonic shock, and decreased resistance to neutral detergents (sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium deoxycholate), a protein synthesis inhibitor (streptomycin), and a respiratory inhibitor (sodium azide). The nature of changes in cell parameters indicate fundamental alterations in the envelope structure of the cya and crp mutant cells. The new cya and crp mutants have been found to be multiply carbohydrate negative and nonmotile in conformity with similar previously isolated mutants. Studies of revertants and phi 80 cya + and phi 80 cya transductants indicated that the pleiotropic phenotype is related to a single mutational event at the cya or the crp locus in the mutants

  19. Efficient Ex Vivo Stimulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific T Cells by Genetically Detoxified Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Antigen Toxodids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilkinson, K. A.; Šimšová, Marcela; Schölvinck, E.; Šebo, Peter; Leclerc, C.; Voredermeier, H. M.; Dickson, S. J.; Brown, J. R.; Davidson, R. N.; Pasvol, G.; Levin, M.; Wilkinson, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2005), s. 2991-2998 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020311; GA ČR GA310/01/0934 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mycobacterium tuberculosis * t cell * CyaA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.933, year: 2005

  20. Investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine attacks induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2014-01-01

    samples (plasma PACAP38 and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and serum tryptase), and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory frequency, and end-tidal pressure of CO2) was recorded before and up to 5 h after infusion. Twenty-two patients [mean age 24 years (range 19-36)] completed the study...... on both days. Sixteen patients (73%) reported migraine-like attacks after PACAP38 and four after vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (18%) infusion (P = 0.002). Three of four patients, who reported migraine-like attacks after vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, also reported attacks after PACAP38. Both...... the start of PACAP38 infusion only in those patients who later reported migraine attacks. Blood levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and tryptase were unchanged after PACAP38 infusion. In conclusion, PACAP38-induced migraine was associated with sustained dilatation of extracranial arteries...

  1. Invasion of Dendritic Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils by the Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: A Subversive Move to Fool Host Immunity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedele, G.; Schiavoni, O.; Adkins, I.; Klímová, Nela; Šebo, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-15, č. článku 293. E-ISSN 2072-6651 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28126A; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : immune response * intracellular pathways * phagocytosis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Other biological topics Impact factor: 3.030, year: 2016

  2. Alternative Splicing of the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Receptor PAC1: Mechanisms of Fine Tuning of Brain Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna eBlechman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA encoding for the neuropeptide receptor PAC1/ADCYAP1R1 generates multiple protein products that exhibit pleiotropic activities. Recent studies in mammals and zebrafish have implicated some of these splice isoforms in control of both cellular and body homeostasis. Here, we review the regulation of PAC1 splice variants and their underlying signal transduction and physiological processes in the nervous system.

  3. Y1 receptors for neuropeptide Y are coupled to mobilization of intracellular calcium and inhibition of adenylate cyclase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerlund, L; Gether, U; Fuhlendorff, J

    1990-01-01

    Two types of binding sites have previously been described for neuropeptide Y (NPY), called Y1 and Y2 receptors. The intracellular events following Y1 receptor activation was studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. Both NPY and the specific Y1 receptor ligand, [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY, caused...

  4. Innervation of the rat pineal gland by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-immunoreactive nerve fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, J.

    1999-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y, colocalization, trigeminal ganglion, rat (Wistar)......Calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y, colocalization, trigeminal ganglion, rat (Wistar)...

  5. The conserved tyrosine residue 940 plays a key structural role in membrane interaction of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, Jiří; Roderová, Jana; Osičková, Adriana; Novák, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Fišer, Radovan; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 24 (2017), s. 1-14, č. článku 9330. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05919S; GA ČR GA15-09157S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11851S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15089; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : PERTUSSIS CYAA * BENZODIAZEPINE-RECEPTOR * ESCHERICHIA-COLI Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  6. The adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis - a novel promising vehicke fer antigen delivery to dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimšová, Marcela; Šebo, Peter; Leclerc, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 293, - (2004), s. 571-576 ISSN 1438-4221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0934; GA AV ČR IAA5020907 Grant - others:GA QLK2-CT-1999(XX) 00556 Keywords : cyaa * cellular immune response * antigen delivery Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.919, year: 2004

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis of recombinant adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis strain 18323/pHSP9+

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Vladimír; Higgins, L.; Chen, W.; Halada, Petr; Šebo, Peter; Sakamoto, H.; Hackett, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2001), s. 384-391 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020907; GA MŠk ME 167; GA MŠk VS96141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.685, year: 2001

  8. Pore-Forming and Enzymatic Activities of Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Synergize in Promoting Lysis of Monocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basler, Marek; Mašín, Jiří; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 5 (2006), s. 2207-2214 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bordetella pertussis * cyaa * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.004, year: 2006

  9. Pore-formation by adenylate cyclase toxoid activates dendritic cells to prime CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švédová, Martina; Mašín, Jiří; Fišer, Radovan; Černý, Ondřej; Tomala, Jakub; Freudenberg, M.; Tučková, Ludmila; Kovář, Marek; Dadaglio, G.; Adkins, Irena; Šebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2016), s. 322-333 ISSN 0818-9641 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/12/0460 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : N-TERMINAL KINASE * BORDETELLA- PERTUSSIS * MEMBRANE TRANSLOCATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.557, year: 2016

  10. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin induces a cascade of morphological changes of sheep erythrocytes and localizes into clusters in erythrocyte membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Šebo, Peter; Benada, Oldřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2006), s. 119-129 ISSN 1059-910X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cyaa * scanning electron microscopy * transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.680, year: 2006

  11. The central regulation of plant physiology by adenylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigenberger, Peter; Riewe, David; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2010-02-01

    There have been many recent developments concerning the metabolic, transport and signalling functions of adenylates in plants, suggesting new roles for these compounds as central regulators of plant physiology. For example, altering the expression levels of enzymes involved in the equilibration, salvaging, synthesis and transport of adenylates leads to perturbations in storage, growth and stress responses, implying a role for adenylates as important signals. Furthermore, sensing of the internal energy status involves SNF1-related kinases, which control the expression and phosphorylation of key metabolic enzymes. ATP also acts as an apoplastic signalling molecule to control cell growth and pathogen responses. These new results could shed light on the emerging question of whether energy homeostasis in plant cells differs from mechanisms found in microbes and mammals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Imaging of Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Jacobs

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common types of brain tumors. Although sophisticated regimens of conventional therapies are being carried out to treat patients with gliomas, the disease invariably leads to death over months or years. Before new and potentially more effective treatment strategies, such as gene- and cell-based therapies, can be effectively implemented in the clinical application, certain prerequisites have to be established. First of all, the exact localization, extent, and metabolic activity of the glioma must be determined to identify the biologically active target tissue for a biological treatment regimen; this is usually performed by imaging the expression of up-regulated endogenous genes coding for glucose or amino acid transporters and cellular hexokinase and thymidine kinase genes, respectively. Second, neuronal function and functional changes within the surrounding brain tissue have to be assessed in order to save this tissue from therapy-induced damage. Third, pathognomonic genetic changes leading to disease have to be explored on the molecular level to serve as specific targets for patient-tailored therapies. Last, a concerted noninvasive analysis of both endogenous and exogenous gene expression in animal models as well as the clinical setting is desirable to effectively translate new treatment strategies from experimental into clinical application. All of these issues can be addressed by multimodal radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging techniques and fall into the exciting and fast growing field of molecular and functional imaging. Noninvasive imaging of endogenous gene expression by means of positron emission tomography (PET may reveal insight into the molecular basis of pathogenesis and metabolic activity of the glioma and the extent of treatment response. When exogenous genes are introduced to serve for a therapeutic function, PET imaging may reveal the assessment of the “location,” “magnitude,” and

  13. Comparative analysis of plant lycopene cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Ibrahim; Filiz, Ertugrul; Tombuloglu, Huseyin

    2015-10-01

    Carotenoids are essential isoprenoid pigments produced by plants, algae, fungi and bacteria. Lycopene cyclase (LYC) commonly cyclize carotenoids, which is an important branching step in the carotenogenesis, at one or both end of the backbone. Plants have two types of LYC (β-LCY and ϵ-LCY). In this study, plant LYCs were analyzed. Based on domain analysis, all LYCs accommodate lycopene cyclase domain (Pf05834). Furthermore, motif analysis indicated that motifs were conserved among the plants. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs were classified in β and ϵ groups. Monocot and dicot plants separated from each other in the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, Oryza sativa Japonica Group and Zea mays of LYCs as monocot plants and Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum of LYCs as dicot plants were analyzed. According to nucleotide diversity analysis of β-LCY and ϵ-LCY genes, nucleotide diversities were found to be π: 0.30 and π: 0.25, respectively. The result highlighted β-LCY genes showed higher nucleotide diversity than ϵ-LCY genes. LYCs interacting genes and their co-expression partners were also predicted using String server. The obtained data suggested the importance of LYCs in carotenoid metabolism. 3D modeling revealed that depicted structures were similar in O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs. Likewise, the predicted binding sites were highly similar between O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera LCYs. Most importantly, analysis elucidated the V/IXGXGXXGXXXA motif for both type of LYC (β-LCY and ϵ-LCY). This motif related to Rossmann fold domain and probably provides a flat platform for binding of FAD in O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs with conserved structure. In addition to lycopene cyclase domain, the V/IXGXGXXGXXXA motif can be used for exploring LYCs proteins and to annotate the function of unknown proteins containing lycopene cyclase

  14. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Overexpression of functional human oxidosqualene cyclase in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kürten, Charlotte; Uhlén, Mathias; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    The generation of multicyclic scaffolds from linear oxidosqualene by enzymatic polycyclization catalysis constitutes a cornerstone in biology for the generation of bioactive compounds. Human oxidosqualene cyclase (hOSC) is a membrane-bound triterpene cyclase that catalyzes the formation of the te...

  16. Soluble variants of human recombinant glutaminyl cyclase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Castaldo

    Full Text Available Recombinant human Glutaminyl Cyclase expressed in E. coli is produced as inclusion bodies. Lack of glycosylation is the main origin of its accumulation in insoluble aggregates. Mutation of single isolated hydrophobic amino acids into negative amino acids was not able to circumvent inclusion bodies formation. On the contrary, substitution with carboxyl-terminal residues of two or three aromatic residues belonging to extended hydrophobic patches on the protein surface provided soluble but still active forms of the protein. These mutants could be expressed in isotopically enriched forms for NMR studies and the maximal attainable concentration was sufficient for the acquisition of (1H-(15N HSQC spectra that represent the starting point for future drug development projects targeting Alzheimer's disease.

  17. The effect of adenyl compounds on the rat heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnstock, G.; Meghji, P.

    1983-01-01

    1 The effects of adenyl compounds were examined on the rat atrium and ventricle. 2 Adenosine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and beta, gamma-methylene ATP (APPCP) produced negative inotropic effects on the rat atrium. These inhibitory effects were antagonized by 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT), a P1-purinoceptor antagonist, and potentiated by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA), an adenosine deaminase inhibitor, but were not affected...

  18. Substrate specificity determinants of class III nucleotidyl cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharambe, Nikhil G; Barathy, Deivanayaga V; Syed, Wajeed; Visweswariah, Sandhya S; Colaςo, Melwin; Misquith, Sandra; Suguna, Kaza

    2016-10-01

    The two second messengers in signalling, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, are produced by adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases respectively. Recognition and discrimination of the substrates ATP and GTP by the nucleotidyl cyclases are vital in these reactions. Various apo-, substrate- or inhibitor-bound forms of adenylyl cyclase (AC) structures from transmembrane and soluble ACs have revealed the catalytic mechanism of ATP cyclization reaction. Previously reported structures of guanylyl cyclases represent ligand-free forms and inactive open states of the enzymes and thus do not provide information regarding the exact mode of substrate binding. The structures we present here of the cyclase homology domain of a class III AC from Mycobacterium avium (Ma1120) and its mutant in complex with ATP and GTP in the presence of calcium ion, provide the structural basis for substrate selection by the nucleotidyl cyclases at the atomic level. Precise nature of the enzyme-substrate interactions, novel modes of substrate binding and the ability of the binding pocket to accommodate diverse conformations of the substrates have been revealed by the present crystallographic analysis. This is the first report to provide structures of both the nucleotide substrates bound to a nucleotidyl cyclase. Coordinates and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank with accession numbers: 5D15 (Ma1120 CHD +ATP.Ca 2+ ), 5D0E (Ma1120 CHD +GTP.Ca 2+ ), 5D0H (Ma1120 CHD (KDA→EGY)+ATP.Ca 2+ ), 5D0G (Ma1120 CHD (KDA→EGY)+GTP.Ca 2+ ). Adenylyl cyclase (EC number: 4.6.1.1). © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Use of statins and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Andersen, L; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory studies and a single case-control study have suggested a protective effect of statins on the risk of glioma. We wished to investigate the influence of statin use on the risk of glioma in a population-based setting.......Laboratory studies and a single case-control study have suggested a protective effect of statins on the risk of glioma. We wished to investigate the influence of statin use on the risk of glioma in a population-based setting....

  20. Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Bela, E-mail: purohitbela@yahoo.co.in; Kamli, Ali A.; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •BSG are classified on MRI into diffuse low-grade, malignant, focal tectal and exophytic subtypes. •Their prognosis and treatment is variable and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. •This article illustrates the imaging of adult BSGs on MRI and FET-PET. •We also describe prognostic factors and the treatment options of these tumours. -- Abstract: Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other subtypes. The prognosis and treatment is variable for the different types and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. Radiotherapy (RT) with adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment of diffuse low-grade and malignant BSGs, whereas, surgical resection is limited to the exophytic subtypes. Review of previous literature shows that the detailed imaging of adult BSGs has not received significant attention. This review illustrates in detail the imaging features of adult BSGs using conventional and advanced MR techniques like diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), as well as {sup 18}F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FET/PET). We have discussed the pertinent differences between childhood and adult BSGs, imaging mimics, prognostic factors and briefly reviewed the treatment options of these tumours.

  1. Glutamate/glutamine metabolism coupling between astrocytes and glioma cells: neuroprotection and inhibition of glioma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Pei-Sen; Kang, De-Zhi; Lin, Ru-Ying; Ye, Bing; Wang, Wei; Ye, Zu-Cheng

    2014-07-18

    Glioma glutamate release has been shown to promote the growth of glioma cells and induce neuronal injuries from epilepsy to neuronal death. However, potential counteractions from normal astrocytes against glioma glutamate release have not been fully evaluated. In this study, we investigated the glutamate/glutamine cycling between glioma cells and astrocytes and their impact on neuronal function. Co-cultures of glioma cells with astrocytes (CGA) in direct contact were established under different mix ratio of astrocyte/glioma. Culture medium conditioned in these CGAs were sampled for HPLC measurement, for neuronal ratiometric calcium imaging, and for neuronal survival assay. We found: (1) High levels of glutaminase expression in glioma cells, but not in astrocytes, glutaminase enables glioma cells to release large amount of glutamate in the presence of glutamine. (2) Glutamate levels in CGAs were directly determined by the astrocyte/glioma ratios, indicating a balance between glioma glutamate release and astrocyte glutamate uptake. (3) Culture media from CGAs of higher glioma/astrocyte ratios induced stronger neuronal Ca(2+) response and more severe neuronal death. (4) Co-culturing with astrocytes significantly reduced the growth rate of glioma cells. These results indicate that normal astrocytes in the brain play pivotal roles in glioma growth inhibition and in reducing neuronal injuries from glioma glutamate release. However, as tumor growth, the protective role of astrocytes gradually succumb to glioma cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Mansouri

    Full Text Available Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia.

  3. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  4. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  5. Frequent Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jun [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Cai, Yu, E-mail: aihaozuqiu22@163.com [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Pin [Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Weiguo [Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2016-08-05

    Never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase 1 (Nek1) regulates cell cycle progression to mitosis. Its expression and potential functions in human gliomas have not been studied. Here, our immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay and Western blot assay results showed that Nek1 expression was significantly upregulated in fresh and paraffin-embedded human glioma tissues. Its level in normal brain tissues was low. Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas was correlated with the proliferation marker (Ki-67), tumor grade, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) and more importantly, patients’ poor survival. Further studies showed that Nek1 expression level was also increased in multiple human glioma cell lines (U251-MG, U87-MG, U118, H4 and U373). Significantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nek1 inhibited glioma cell (U87-MG/U251-MG) growth. Nek1 siRNA also sensitized U87-MG/U251-MG cells to temozolomide (TMZ), causing a profound apoptosis induction and growth inhibition. The current study indicates Nek1 might be a novel and valuable oncotarget of glioma, it is important for glioma cell growth and TMZ-resistance. - Highlights: • Nek1 is upregulated in multiple human glioma tissues and cell lines. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with glioma grades and patients’ KPS score. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with patients’ poor overall survival. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 inhibits glioma cell growth. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 sensitizes human glioma cells to temozolomide.

  6. Tricyclic Neovibsanin Scaffold Inhibits Glioma by Targeting Glioma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of tricyclic neovibsanin scaffold (TCNS) on cell viability, colony formation capacity and induction of apoptosis in glioma cells. Methods: 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphe¬nyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to analyze the effect of TCNS on cell proliferation. Light microscopic ...

  7. Computational identification of candidate nucleotide cyclases in higher plants

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2013-09-03

    In higher plants guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs) cannot be identified using BLAST homology searches based on annotated cyclic nucleotide cyclases (CNCs) of prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes, or animals. The reason is that CNCs are often part of complex multifunctional proteins with different domain organizations and biological functions that are not conserved in higher plants. For this reason, we have developed CNC search strategies based on functionally conserved amino acids in the catalytic center of annotated and/or experimentally confirmed CNCs. Here we detail this method which has led to the identification of >25 novel candidate CNCs in Arabidopsis thaliana, several of which have been experimentally confirmed in vitro and in vivo. We foresee that the application of this method can be used to identify many more members of the growing family of CNCs in higher plants. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  8. Activation of Adenylyl Cyclase Causes Stimulation of Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pleli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Signaling of Gs protein-coupled receptors (GsPCRs is accomplished by stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, causing an increase of the intracellular cAMP concentration, activation of the intracellular cAMP effectors protein kinase A (PKA and Epac, and an efflux of cAMP, the function of which is still unclear. Methods: Activation of adenylyl cyclase by GsPCR agonists or cholera toxin was monitored by measurement of the intracellular cAMP concentration by ELISA, anti-phospho-PKA substrate motif phosphorylation by immunoblotting, and an Epac-FRET assay in the presence and absence of adenosine receptor antagonists or ecto-nucleotide phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase2 (eNPP2 inhibitors. The production of AMP from cAMP by recombinant eNPP2 was measured by HPLC. Extracellular adenosine was determined by LC-MS/MS, extracellular ATP by luciferase and LC-MS/MS. The expression of eNPP isoenzymes 1-3 was examined by RT-PCR. The expression of multidrug resistance protein 4 was suppressed by siRNA. Results: Here we show that the activation of GsPCRs and the GsPCRs-independent activation of Gs proteins and adenylyl cyclase by cholera toxin induce stimulation of cell surface adenosine receptors (A2A or A2B adenosine receptors. In PC12 cells stimulation of adenylyl cyclase by GsPCR or cholera toxin caused activation of A2A adenosine receptors by an autocrine signaling pathway involving cAMP efflux through multidrug resistance protein 4 and hydrolysis of released cAMP to AMP by eNPP2. In contrast, in PC3 cells cholera toxin- and GsPCR-induced stimulation of adenylyl cyclase resulted in the activation of A2B adenosine receptors. Conclusion: Our findings show that stimulation of adenylyl cyclase causes a remarkable activation of cell surface adenosine receptors.

  9. Malignant glioma after bombshell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, D; Tulleken, C A

    1984-01-01

    A case of post-traumatic glioma is presented. The patient, wounded in the head in World War II by a bombshell, developed symptoms of an intracranial tumor in 1982. Histopathologically the tumor was an astrocytoma grade III. The tumor was in direct continuity with an old abscess membrane.

  10. Soluble guanylate cyclase : a potential therapeutic target for heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Marti, Catherine N.; Sabbah, Hani N.; Roessig, Lothar; Greene, Stephen J.; Boehm, Michael; Burnett, John C.; Campia, Umberto; Cleland, John G. F.; Collins, Sean P.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Levy, Phillip D.; Metra, Marco; Pitt, Bertram; Ponikowski, Piotr; Sato, Naoki; Voors, Adriaan A.; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Butler, Javed

    The number of annual hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) and the mortality rates among patients hospitalized for HF remains unacceptably high. The search continues for safe and effective agents that improve outcomes when added to standard therapy. The nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase

  11. Inhibitors of glutaminyl cyclases against Alzheimer´s disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolenko, Petr; Koch, B.; Schilling, S.; Rahfeld, J.-U.; Demuth, H.-U.; Stubbs, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 16 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /11./. 14.03.2013-16.03.2013, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : glutaminyl cyclases * Alzheimer ´s disease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  12. Improving vaccine efficacy against malignant glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Ladomersky, Erik; Genet, Matthew; Zhai, Lijie; Gritsina, Galina; Lauing, Kristen L.; Lulla, Rishi R.; Fangusaro, Jason; Lenzen, Alicia; Kumthekar, Priya; Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Binder, David C.; James, C. David; Wainwright, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    The effective treatment of adult and pediatric malignant glioma is a significant clinical challenge. In adults, glioblastoma (GBM) accounts for the majority of malignant glioma diagnoses with a median survival of 14.6��mo. In children, malignant glioma accounts for 20% of primary CNS tumors with a median survival of less than 1��y. Here, we discuss vaccine treatment for children diagnosed with malignant glioma, through targeting EphA2, IL-13R��2 and/or histone H3 K27M, while in adults, treatm...

  13. TLR9 expression in glioma tissues correlated to glioma progression and the prognosis of GBM patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Cao, Shouqiang; Yan, Ying; Ying, Qiao; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Ke; Wu, Anhua

    2010-01-01

    Our study aims to evaluate the expression of TLR9 in glioma tissues, examine the association between TLR9 expression, clinicopathological variables, and glioma patient outcome, we further characterized the direct effects of TLR9 agonist CpG ODN upon the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells in vitro. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence were used to determine the expression of TLR9 in glioma cell lines and clinical glioma samples. Tissue microarry and immunohistochemistry were applied to evaluated TLR9 expression in 292 newly diagnosed glioma and 13 non-neoplastic brain tissues. We further investigated the effect of CpG ODN on the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells in vitro with MTT assays and matrigel transwell assay respectively. RT-PCR showed that TLR9 expressed in all the glioma samples and glioma cell lines we examined. The tissue array analysis indicated that TLR9 expression is correlated with malignancy of glioma (p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that TLR9 expression is an independent prognostic factor for PFS of GBM patients(P = 0.026). TLR9 agonist CpG ODN has no significant effect on glioma proliferation, but matrigel transwell analysis showed that TLR9 agonist CpG ODN can significantly enhance glioma invasion in vitro. Our data indicated that TLR9 expression increases according to the histopathological grade of glioma, and the TLR9 expression level is related to the PFS of GBM patients. In addition, our findings warrant caution in the directly injection of TLR9 agonist CpG ODN into glioma tissues for the glioma immunotherapy

  14. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  15. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA–DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbale, Percy [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Williams, Jessica S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Schellenberg, Matthew J. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Kunkel, Thomas A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology and Lab. of Molecular Genetics; Williams, R. Scott [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology and Lab. Molecular Genetics

    2013-12-22

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5'-adenylated (5'-AMP) DNA lesions. Aprataxin (APTX) reverses DNA adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of APTX to RNase-H2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5' ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNase H2 incision. APTX efficiently repairs adenylated RNA–DNA, and acting in an RNA–DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure–function studies of human APTX–RNA–DNA–AMP–Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA–DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are affected by heritable APTX mutations in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1. Together, these results indicate that accumulation of adenylated RNA–DNA may contribute to neurological disease.

  16. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. For mitochondrial ATP synthase, we analyze here the provision of stable conditions for (i the supply of ADP and Mg2+, supported by adenylate kinase (AK equilibrium in the intermembrane space, (ii the supply of phosphate via membrane transporter in symport with H+, and (iii the conditions of outflow of ATP by adenylate transporter carrying out the exchange of free adenylates. We also show that, in chloroplasts, AK equilibrates adenylates and governs Mg2+ contents in the stroma, optimizing ATP synthase and Calvin cycle operation, and affecting the import of inorganic phosphate in exchange with triose phosphates. It is argued that chemiosmosis is not the sole component of ATP synthase performance, which also depends on AK-mediated equilibrium of adenylates and Mg2+, adenylate transport and phosphate release and supply.

  17. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA-DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbale, Percy; Williams, Jessica S.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions employed by ATP-dependent DNA ligases1,2. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5′-adenylated (5′-AMP) DNA lesions3–6 (Fig. 1a). Aprataxin (Aptx) reverses DNA-adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of Aptx to RNaseH2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5′-ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNaseH2 incision. Aptx efficiently repairs adenylated RNA-DNA, and acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure-function studies of human Aptx/RNA-DNA/AMP/Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA-DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA-binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are impacted by heritable APTX mutations in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 1 (AOA1). Together, these results suggest that accumulation of adenylated RNA-DNA may contribute to neurological disease. PMID:24362567

  18. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen......Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions....

  19. Dephosphorylation of sperm guanylate cyclase during sea urchin fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    When intact Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa are exposed to solubilized egg jelly, the electrophoretic mobility of an abundant sperm flagellar membrane protein changes from an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa to 150 kDa. A. punctulata spermatozoa can be labeled in vivo with /sup 32/P-labeled cells it was demonstrated that the mobility shift of the 160-kDa protein is due to dephosphorylation. The peptide resact (Cys-Val-Thr-Gly-Ala-Pro-Gly-Cys-Val-Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH/sub 2/) is the component of egg jelly which is responsible for inducing the dephosphorylation. The 160/150-kdal sperm membrane protein has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-agarose, and identified as sperm guanylate cyclase. The enzymatic activity of the guanylate cyclase is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation state. Resact has been shown to act as a potent chemoattractant for A. punctulata spermatozoa. The chemotactic response is concentration-dependent, is abolished by pretreatment of the spermatozoa with resact, and shows an absolute requirement for external calcium. This work represents the first demonstration of animal sperm chemotaxis in response to a precisely-defined molecule of egg origin. The results established a new, biologically meaningful function for resact, and may implicate sperm guanylate cyclase and cGMP in flagellar function and the chemotactic response.

  20. Adenylate kinase locus 1 polymorphism and feto-placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulvia, Gloria-Bottini; Antonio, Pietroiusti; Anna, Neri; Patrizia, Saccucci; Ada, Amante; Egidio, Bottini; Andrea, Magrini

    2011-12-01

    Recently our group has found that the correlation between birth weight and placental weight - an index of a balanced feto-placental unit development - is influenced by genetic factors. Since adenylate kinase locus 1 (AK₁) is a polymorphic enzyme that plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleotides required for many metabolic functions, we have investigated the possible role of its genetic variability in the correlation between birth weight and placental weight. 342 consecutive healthy newborn infants from the population of Rome (Italy) and 286 puerperae from another population from Central Italy were studied. The correlation coefficient between birth weight and placental weight is much higher in infants with low activity AK₁2-1 phenotype than in those with high activity AK₁1 phenotype. The difference between AK₁ and AK₁2-1 is well marked only in newborns with a gestational age greater than 38 weeks and it is not influenced by sex, maternal age and maternal smoking. A similar pattern is observed with maternal AK₁ phenotype. These results suggest that the difference in enzymatic activity between AK₁ phenotypes influencing the equilibrium among ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine could have an important role in a balanced development of feto-placental unit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. cAMP Signaling of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Blocks the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils through Epac-Mediated Inhibition of Phospholipase C Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Ondřej; Anderson, K.E.; Stephens, L.R.; Hawkins, P.T.; Šebo, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 3 (2017), s. 1285-1296 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : BORDETELLA-PERTUSSIS * NADPH OXIDASE * CYCLIC-AMP Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.856, year: 2016

  2. Enhanced Ex Vivo Stimulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific T Cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons via Antigen Delivery by the Bordetella pertusis Adenylate Cyclase Vector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Connell, T. G.; Shey, M. S.; Seldon, R.; Rangaka, M. X.; van Cutsem, G.; Šimšová, Marcela; Marčeková, Zuzana; Šebo, Peter; Curtis, N.; Diwakar, L.; Meintjes, G. A.; Leclerc, C.; Wilkinson, R. J.; Wilkinson, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 7 (2007), s. 847-854 ISSN 1556-6811 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06161 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mycobacterium tuberculosis * bordetella pertusis * human immunodeficiency virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.995, year: 2007

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and PAC1 receptor in the testis of cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata: A molecular and phylogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, Marisa; Valiante, Salvatore; Rosati, Luigi; Andreuccetti, Piero; Prisco, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The role of PACAP in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis has been largely investigated in last years in mammals; conversely, a few studies have been performed in non mammalian vertebrates. In this paper we investigated the sequence, expression and localization of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in the testis of the benthic elasmobranch Torpedo marmorata, the marbled electric ray. Cloning a partial PACAP cDNA, we demonstrated for the first time in elasmobranches that PACAP shows a highly conserved sequence, compared with the PACAP of other chordates (tunicates and vertebrates). Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that PACAP has been well preserved during evolution and that a negative selection acts on PACAP sequence, leading to the conservation of the coding sites. The phylogenetic consensus tree showed also that Torpedo PACAP is more related with the amphibian PACAP than with the teleost one. Finally, we demonstrated that in T. marmorata PACAP and its PAC1 receptor are synthesized directly in the testis, where they show a wider localization than mammals, suggesting that this neuropeptide is involved in the control of Torpedo spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. cAMP signalling of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin through the SHP-1 phosphatase activates the BimEL-Bax pro-apoptotic cascade in phagocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahmad, Jawid Nazir; Černý, Ondřej; Linhartová, Irena; Mašín, Jiří; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2016), s. 384-398 ISSN 1462-5814 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14547S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR GAP302/12/0460 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : FORKHEAD TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR * HUMAN T-CELLS * DENDRITIC CELLS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.554, year: 2016

  5. Negatively charged residues of the segment linking the enzyme and cytolysin moieties restrict the membrane-permeabilizing capacity of adenylate cyclase toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, Jiří; Osičková, Adriana; Suková, Anna; Fišer, Radovan; Halada, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Linhartová, Irena; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Septemeber 1 (2016), s. 29137 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05919S; GA ČR GA15-09157S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11851S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : BORDETELLA-PERTUSSIS CYAA * SECONDARY STRUCTURE PREDICTION * ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  6. Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Mobilizes Its beta(2) Integrin Receptor into Lipid Rafts to Accomplish Translocation across Target Cell Membrane in Two Steps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bumba, Ladislav; Mašín, Jiří; Fišer, R.; Šebo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2010), s. 1-15 ISSN 1553-7366 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP310/07/P115; GA MŠk 1M0506; GA AV ČR IAA500200914; GA MŠk 2B06161; GA ČR GA310/08/0447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : SHEEP ERYTHROCYTES * BACILLUS-ANTHRACIS * ESCHERICHIA-COLI Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.079, year: 2010

  7. Prime/boost immunotherapy of HPV16-induced tumors with E7 protein delivered by Bordetella adenylate cyclase and modified vaccinia virus Ankara

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, J.; Stasíková, J.; Kutinová, L.; Mašín, Jiří; Hainz, P.; Šimšová, Marcela; Gabriel, P.; Šebo, Peter; Němečková, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2006), s. 39-46 ISSN 0340-7004 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020311; GA ČR GA310/04/0004; GA MZd NR8004 Grant - others:GA MZd NC6570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : vaccine * hpv -e7 * vaccinia virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.313, year: 2006

  8. The cell invasive Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin: a model of protein penetration across cell membranes and a new tool for the immunologist

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osička, Radim; Osičková, Adriana; Basar, T.; Bezoušková, Silvia; Havlíček, Vladimír; Halada, Petr; Loucká, Jiřina; Vojtová, Jana; Kalhous, Miloš; Forman, Stanislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 8 (2000), s. 599-600 ISSN 0009-2770. [Biochemický sjezd /17./. 07.09.2000-10.09.2000, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/98/0432; GA AV ČR IAA5020907; GA MŠk VS96149; GA MŠk ME 167 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  9. Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Differentially Modulates Toll-Like Receptor-Stimulated Activation, Migration and T Cell Stimulatory Capacity of Dendritic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adkins, Irena; Kamanová, Jana; Kocourková, A.; Švédová, Martina; Tomala, Jakub; Janová, H.; Mašín, Jiří; Chládková, Barbara; Bumba, Ladislav; Kovář, Marek; Ross, P. J.; Tučková, Ludmila; Spíšek, R.; Mills, K. H. G.; Šebo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA ČR GP310/09/P582; GA ČR GAP301/11/0325; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : RESPIRATORY-INFECTION * INTERLEUKIN-10 PRODUCTION * PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  10. In vivo induction of CTL responses by recombinant adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis carrying multiple copies of a viral CD8+ T-cell epitope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebo, Peter; Moukrim, Z.; Kalhous, M.; Schaft, N.; Dadaglio, G.; Sheshko, V.; Fayolle, C.; Leclerc, C.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (1999), s. 167-173 ISSN 0928-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/98/0432; GA MŠk VS96149; GA MŠk ME 167 Grant - others:Barrande(FR) 97054 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology Impact factor: 1.329, year: 1999

  11. Induction of a polarized Th1 response by insertion of multiple copies of a viral T-cell epitope into adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dadaglio, G.; Moukrim, Z.; Lo-Man, R.; Sheshko, V.; Šebo, Peter; Leclerc, C.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2000), s. 3867-3872 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/98/0432; GA MŠk VS96149; GA MŠk ME 167 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.204, year: 2000

  12. Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Blocks Induction of Bactericidal Nitric Oxide in Macrophages through cAMP-Dependent Activation of the SHP-1 Phosphatase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Ondřej; Kamanová, Jana; Mašín, Jiří; Bíbová, Ilona; Škopová, Karolína; Šebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 10 (2015), s. 4901-4913 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/0460; GA ČR GA13-14547S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CYCLIC-AMP * MURINE MACROPHAGES * IFN-GAMMA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.985, year: 2015

  13. Acylation of Lysine 860 Allows Tight Binding and Cytotoxicity of Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase on CD1 1b-Expressing Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, Jiří; Basler, Marek; Knapp, O.; El-Azami-El-Idrissi, M.; Maier, E.; Konopásek, I.; Benz, R.; Leclerc, C.; Šebo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2005), s. 12766-12759 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : lysine 860 * bordetella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.848, year: 2005

  14. Complete protection against P. berghei malaria upon heterologous prime/boost immunization against circumsporozoite protein employing Salmonella type III secretion system and Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tartz, S.; Rüssmann, H.; Kamanová, Jana; Šebo, Peter; Sturm, A.; Heussler, V.; Fleischer, B.; Jacobs, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 47 (2008), s. 5935-5943 ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06161 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : circumsporozoite protein * vaccine * salmonella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.298, year: 2008

  15. A FRET-Based Method for Probing the Conformational Behavior of an Intrinsically Disordered Repeat Domain from Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-22

    inMaterials andMethods. (C)Rapid kinetics ofC-BR(L)-Y folding (9) andunfolding (b) at the indicated CaCl2 concentrations was measured using FRET as...described inMaterials andMethods. Error bars represent standard errors (Ng 3). Representative fluorescence time course traces are shown inFigure S1 of...aContour length (lc) between the chromophores of the FPs, calculated as described inMaterials andMethods. bAverage end-to-end distance of a theoretical

  16. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Terzic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7 are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network.

  17. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F. (Univ. of Rome La Sapienza (Italy))

    1991-01-15

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.

  18. Combined chemotherapy of malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellinger, K.; Volc, D.; Grisold, W.; Flament, H.; Vollmer, R.; Weiss, R. (Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien-Lainz (Austria). Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Neurobiologie)

    1983-01-01

    A controlled study of 226 age-matched patients with histologically proven grade 3 and 4 supratentorial gliomas with maximum feasible tumour resection, postoperative Karnofsky performance over 50 and minimum survival of 8 weeks compares the results of supportive care (45 cases), high-dose irradiation of 40 to 66 Gy (59 cases), COMP protocol (CCNU, procarbazine, vincristine, methotrexate, prednisone in 15 day cycles-42 cases) and simultaneous irradiation and COMP chemotherapy (80 cases including 30 survivors). Median recurrent-free intervals in the treatment groups (7 to 11.7 months) were significantly longer than after supportive care (4.4 months). Median survival with supportive care (6.7 months) was significantly shorter than after radiation or COMP treatment (11.7 and 12.3 months) and 14.9 to over 19.9 months with combined treatment, where the two-year survival rates were 33 and 67% (for survivors), and the 3-year survival rates 13 to 30%. Toxic side effects of multimodality treatment were more frequent than after chemotherapy. In addition to space-occupying intracranial cysts often simulating tumour recurrence (12%) and rare radiation necrosis, about 15% of long-term survivors developed progressive intellectual dysfunction with brain atrophy, in the absence of tumour regrowth. Despite some promising results of multimodality approaches towards the management of malignant supratentorial gliomas, the overall results are unsatisfactory and need further optimization.

  19. Adult high-grade malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fable Zustovich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS malignant gliomas are relatively rare diseases. Prognosis is poor but has improved over recent years due to the improvement in the multi-disciplinary treatment: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy...

  20. Improving vaccine efficacy against malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Genet, Matthew; Zhai, Lijie; Gritsina, Galina; Lauing, Kristen L; Lulla, Rishi R; Fangusaro, Jason; Lenzen, Alicia; Kumthekar, Priya; Raizer, Jeffrey J; Binder, David C; James, C David; Wainwright, Derek A

    2016-08-01

    The effective treatment of adult and pediatric malignant glioma is a significant clinical challenge. In adults, glioblastoma (GBM) accounts for the majority of malignant glioma diagnoses with a median survival of 14.6 mo. In children, malignant glioma accounts for 20% of primary CNS tumors with a median survival of less than 1 y. Here, we discuss vaccine treatment for children diagnosed with malignant glioma, through targeting EphA2, IL-13Rα2 and/or histone H3 K27M, while in adults, treatments with RINTEGA, Prophage Series G-100 and dendritic cells are explored. We conclude by proposing new strategies that are built on current vaccine technologies and improved upon with novel combinatorial approaches.

  1. The polymerization of amino acid adenylates on sodium-montmorillonite with preadsorbed polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paecht-Horowitz, Mella; Eirich, Frederick R.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous polymerization of amino acid adenylates on Na-montmorillonite in dilute, neutral suspension, after polypeptides were adsorbed on the clay, is studied. It is found that the degrees of polymerization of the oligopeptides and polypeptides obtained is dependent on the amounts of polypeptides that were preadsorbed. It is concluded that a catalytic activity may derive from c-spacings that offer adsorption sites for the reagent amino acid adenylate within the peripheral recesses of irregularly stacked clay platelets by bringing the anhydride bonds and neutral amino groups into favorable reaction distances.

  2. Neuronal Expression of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in the Mammalian Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jonathan; Martinez, Jennifer; Milner, Teresa A.; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic 3’, 5’-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical and ubiquitous second messenger involved in a multitude of signaling pathways. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a novel source of cAMP subject to unique localization and regulation. It was originally discovered in mammalian testis and found to be activated by bicarbonate and calcium. sAC has been implicated in diverse processes, including astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling and axonal outgrowth of neurons. However, despite these func...

  3. Long-term culture of organotypic multicellular glioma spheroids: a good culture model for studying gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaijk, P.; Troost, D.; Das, P. K.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Gliomas, as well as other solid tumours, contain tumour stroma composed of connective tissue, macrophages, capillaries and other non-cellular constituents. Therefore, a homogeneous culture of tumour cells alone, as is often used as a culture model for gliomas, is not ideal to study all aspects of

  4. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Teng, Lei; Pyko, Ilya V.; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies

  5. Molecular Diagnostics of Gliomas Using Next Generation Sequencing of a Glioma-Tailored Gene Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Angela; Kaulich, Kerstin; Stepanow, Stefanie; Wolter, Marietta; Köhrer, Karl; Felsberg, Jörg; Malzkorn, Bastian; Reifenberger, Guido

    2017-03-01

    Current classification of gliomas is based on histological criteria according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system. Over the past years, characteristic genetic profiles have been identified in various glioma types. These can refine tumor diagnostics and provide important prognostic and predictive information. We report on the establishment and validation of gene panel next generation sequencing (NGS) for the molecular diagnostics of gliomas. We designed a glioma-tailored gene panel covering 660 amplicons derived from 20 genes frequently aberrant in different glioma types. Sensitivity and specificity of glioma gene panel NGS for detection of DNA sequence variants and copy number changes were validated by single gene analyses. NGS-based mutation detection was optimized for application on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens including small stereotactic biopsy samples. NGS data obtained in a retrospective analysis of 121 gliomas allowed for their molecular classification into distinct biological groups, including (i) isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH) 1 or 2 mutant astrocytic gliomas with frequent α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene mutations, (ii) IDH mutant oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q codeletion, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation and frequent Drosophila homolog of capicua (CIC) gene mutation, as well as (iii) IDH wildtype glioblastomas with frequent TERT promoter mutation, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutation and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification. Oligoastrocytic gliomas were genetically assigned to either of these groups. Our findings implicate gene panel NGS as a promising diagnostic technique that may facilitate integrated histological and molecular glioma classification. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  6. Characteristics of gliomas in patients with somatic IDH mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Charlotte; Thomas, Laure; Psimaras, Dimitri; Bielle, Franck; Vauléon, Elodie; Loiseau, Hugues; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Dehais, Caroline; Honnorat, Jérôme; Sanson, Marc; Ducray, François

    2016-03-31

    IDH mutations are found in the majority of adult, diffuse, low-grade and anaplastic gliomas and are also frequently found in cartilaginous tumors. Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are two enchondromatosis syndromes characterized by the development of multiple benign cartilaginous tumors due to post-zygotic acquisition of IDH mutations. In addition to skeletal tumors, enchondromatosis patients sometimes develop gliomas. The aim of the present study was to determine whether gliomas in enchondromatosis patients might also result from somatic IDH mosaicism and whether their characteristics are similar to those of sporadic IDH-mutated gliomas. For this purpose, we analyzed the characteristics of 6 newly diagnosed and 32 previously reported cases of enchondromatosis patients who developed gliomas and compared them to those of a consecutive series of 159 patients with sporadic IDH-mutated gliomas. As was the case with sporadic IDH mutated gliomas, enchondromatosis gliomas were frequently located in the frontal lobe (54 %) and consisted of diffuse low-grade (73 %) or anaplastic gliomas (21 %). However, they were diagnosed at an earlier age (25.6 years versus 44 years, p IDH mutated gliomas (21 % versus 1 %, p IDH mutations and loss of ATRX expression. In two patients, the same IDH mutation was demonstrated in the glioma and in a cartilaginous tumor. In contrast to sporadic IDH mutated gliomas, no enchondromatosis glioma harbored a 1p/19q co-deletion (0/6 versus 59/123, p = 0.03). The characteristics of gliomas in patients with enchondromatosis suggest that these tumors, as cartilaginous tumors, result from somatic IDH mosaicism and that the timing of IDH mutation acquisition might affect the location and molecular characteristics of gliomas. Early acquisition of IDH mutations could shift gliomagenesis towards the brainstem thereby mimicking the regional preference of histone mutated gliomas.

  7. The progress of radiosensitive genes of human brain glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xi; Liu Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Human gliomas are one of the most aggressive tumors in brain which grow infiltrativly. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. But as the tumor could not be entirely cut off, it is easy to relapse. Radiotherapy plays an important role for patients with gliomas after surgery. The efficacy of radiotherapy is associated with radio sensitivity of human gliomas. This paper makes a summary of current situation and progress for radiosensitive genes of human brain gliomas. (authors)

  8. Crystallization of the class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Natasha; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Reddy, Prasad T.; Gallagher, D. Travis

    2006-01-01

    The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Y. pestis has been crystallized in an orthorhombic form suitable for structure determination. The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis has been cloned and crystallized in both a triclinic and an orthorhombic form. An amino-terminal His-tagged construct, from which the tag was removed by thrombin, crystallized in a triclinic form diffracting to 1.9 Å, with one dimer per asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 33.5, b = 35.5, c = 71.8 Å, α = 88.7, β = 82.5, γ = 65.5°. Several mutants of this construct crystallized but diffracted poorly. A non-His-tagged native construct (179 amino acids, MW = 20.5 kDa) was purified by conventional chromatography and crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 . These crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 56.8, b = 118.6, c = 144.5 Å, diffract to 3 Å and probably have two dimers per asymmetric unit and V M = 3.0 Å 3 Da −1 . Both crystal forms appear to require pH below 5, complicating attempts to incorporate nucleotide ligands into the structure. The native construct has been produced as a selenomethionine derivative and crystallized for phasing and structure determination

  9. Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functioning well. There are three types of normal glial cells that can produce tumors. An astrocyte will produce ... which it originates. Description Three types of normal glial cells can produce tumors—astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells. ...

  10. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, W.C.C. de; Oerlemans, F.T.J.J.; Wieringa, B.

    2004-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand

  11. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  12. New similarity search based glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegler, Katrin; Wiesmann, Martin; Böhm, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica; Schnell, Oliver; Brückmann, Hartmut; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Linn, Jennifer

    2012-08-01

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone.

  13. Olaparib in Treating Patients With Advanced Glioma, Cholangiocarcinoma, or Solid Tumors With IDH1 or IDH2 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Glioblastoma; Grade II Glioma; IDH1 Gene Mutation; IDH2 Gene Mutation; Recurrent Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Glioma; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; WHO Grade III Glioma

  14. Molecular Therapeutic Targets for Glioma Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Takano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent angiogenesis that occurs in malignant glioma, antiangiogenic therapy has been attempted. There have been several molecular targets that are specific to malignant gliomas, as well as more broadly in systemic cancers. In this review, I will focus on some topics related to molecular therapeutic targets for glioma angiogenesis. First, important angiogenic factors that could be considered molecular targets are VEGF, VEGF-induced proteins on endothelial cells, tissue factor, osteopontin, v3 integrin, and thymidine phosphorylase as well as endogenous inhibitors, soluble Flt1, and thrombospondin 1. Second, hypoxic areas are also decreased by metronomic CPT11 treatment as well as temozolomide. Third, glioma-derived endothelial cells that are genetically and functionally distinct from normal endothelial cells should be targeted, for example, with SDF-1 and CXCR7 chemokine. Fourth, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs likely contribute towards glioma angiogenesis in the brain and could be useful as a drug delivery tool. Finally, blockade of delta-like 4 (Dll4 results in a nonfunctioning vasculature and could be another important target distinct from VEGF.

  15. The importance of conserved amino acids in heme-based globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Wan

    Full Text Available Globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases contain globin, middle, and diguanylate cyclase domains that sense O2 to synthesize c-di-GMP and regulate bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. However, relatively few studies have extensively examined the roles of individual residues and domains of globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases, which can shed light on their signaling mechanisms and provide drug targets. Here, we report the critical residues of two globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases, EcGReg from Escherichia coli and BpeGReg from Bordetella pertussis, and show that their diguanylate cyclase activity requires an intact globin domain. In the distal heme pocket of the globin domain, residues Phe42, Tyr43, Ala68 (EcGReg/Ser68 (BpeGReg, and Met69 are required to maintain full diguanylate cyclase activity. The highly conserved amino acids His223/His225 and Lys224/Lys226 in the middle domain of EcGReg/BpeGReg are essential to diguanylate cyclase activity. We also identified sixteen important residues (Leu300, Arg306, Asp333, Phe337, Lys338, Asn341, Asp342, Asp350, Leu353, Asp368, Arg372, Gly374, Gly375, Asp376, Glu377, and Phe378 in the active site and inhibitory site of the diguanylate cyclase domain of EcGReg. Moreover, BpeGReg266 (residues 1-266 and BpeGReg296 (residues 1-296, which only contain the globin and middle domains, can inhibit bacterial motility. Our findings suggest that the distal residues of the globin domain affect diguanylate cyclase activity and that BpeGReg may interact with other c-di-GMP-metabolizing proteins to form mixed signaling teams.

  16. Inferring biological functions of guanylyl cyclases with computational methods

    KAUST Repository

    Alquraishi, May Majed

    2013-09-03

    A number of studies have shown that functionally related genes are often co-expressed and that computational based co-expression analysis can be used to accurately identify functional relationships between genes and by inference, their encoded proteins. Here we describe how a computational based co-expression analysis can be used to link the function of a specific gene of interest to a defined cellular response. Using a worked example we demonstrate how this methodology is used to link the function of the Arabidopsis Wall-Associated Kinase-Like 10 gene, which encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase, to host responses to pathogens. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  17. Molecular Alterations of KIT Oncogene in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117 immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179 of cases, namely in 25% (1/4 of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20 of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5 of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77 of glioblastomas and one third (3/9 of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35 of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0–22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24 of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK

  18. [Guidelines for the radiotherapy of gliomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuvret, L; Antoni, D; Biau, J; Truc, G; Noël, G; Mazeron, J-J

    2016-09-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumours. Treating these tumours is difficult because of the proximity of organs at risk, infiltrating nature, and radioresistance. Clinical prognostic factors such as age, Karnofsky performance status, tumour location, and treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have long been recognized in the management of patients with gliomas. Molecular biomarkers are increasingly evolving as additional factors that facilitate diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. These practice guidelines aim at helping in choosing the best treatment, in particular radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Contemporary management of high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hao-Wen; Morgan, Erin R; Mason, Warren P

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gliomas, including glioblastoma, are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Despite intensive efforts to develop new therapies for these diseases, treatment options remain limited and prognosis is poor. Recently, there have been important advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of glioma, leading to refinements in our diagnostic and management approach. There is new evidence to guide the treatment of elderly patients. A multitude of new agents have been investigated, including targeted therapies, immunotherapeutics and tumor-treating fields. This review summarizes the key findings from this research, and presents a perspective on future opportunities to advance the field.

  20. Revealing the potential pathogenesis of glioma by utilizing a glioma associated protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weiran; Li, Gang; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Miao, Jinming

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to explore the potential mechanism of glioma through bioinformatic approaches. The gene expression profile (GSE4290) of glioma tumor and non-tumor samples was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 180 samples were available, including 23 non-tumor and 157 tumor samples. Then the raw data were preprocessed using robust multiarray analysis, and 8,890 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by using t-test (false discovery rate What' more, for the top 10 sub-networks, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis (p value tissue-specific genes were calculated (p value = 1.0, 1.0, and 0.00014, respectively) and visualized by Venn Diagram package in R. About 61% of human tissue-specific genes were DEGs as well. This research shed new light on the pathogenesis of glioma based on DEGs and GAPN, and our findings might provide potential targets for clinical glioma treatment.

  1. The Association between Some Nutrients and Adult Gliomas: A Case-Control Study of Adult Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayanfar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abestract Background & aim: It has been estimated that about 30–40 percent of all cancers could be prevented by diet and lifestyle. In the present study, associations between food groups and some nutrients were studied in adult glioma. Methods: In the present hospital-based case-control study which took place in Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2012, socio-economic information, demographics, lifestyle factors, health and dietary intakes of 128 patients with glioma as cases, and 256 healthy controls, were collected through interviews and questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. SPSS version 19 was used for all statistical analyses. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, inverse associations between calcium intake and adult glioma and vitamin C were observed. (Highest tertile versus lowest: OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.87-0.46, P for trend = 0.001 and vitamin C (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15-0.76, P for trend = 0.002. In addition, we observed elevated ORs for highest vs. lowest tertile of cholesterol intake (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.29-5.99, P for trend = 0.061. We observed no significant associations with adult glioma for intakes of total fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin A, vitamin E and beta carotene. Conclusion: the results showed that intake of calcium and vitamin C may possibly prevent glioma in adults. Key words: Gliomas, Adult, Ca, Vitamin C

  2. Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Beatrice; Dahlin, Anna M; Andersson, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies...... and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain...... tumours (n = 104) and control subjects free of glioma at baseline, three of seven SNPs were associated with glioma risk: rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT), rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2A-CDKN2B) and rs6010620 (20q13.33, RTEL1). After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only one marker was statistically...

  3. The arsonomethyl analogue of adenosine 5'-phosphate. An uncoupler of adenylate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S R; Sparkes, M J; Dixon, H B

    1984-01-01

    Adenosine was converted into the arsonomethyl analogue of AMP. The reactions used provide a general route for converting an alcohol, R-CH2-OH, into the arsonomethyl analogue, R-CH2-CH2-AsO3H2, of its phosphate, R-CH2-O-PO3H2. The analogue of AMP proves to be a substrate for rabbit adenylate kinase, which shows a limiting velocity with it of 1/17 that with AMP, a Michaelis constant raised 70-fold to about 10 mM, and hence a specificity constant lowered about 1200-fold. The product of transfer of a phospho group from ATP to the analogue is, like all anhydrides of arsonic acids, unstable to hydrolysis, and so breaks down to yield orthophosphate and regenerate the analogue. Hence adenylate kinase is converted into an ATPase by the presence of the analogue. PMID:6089748

  4. Radiosurgery in gliomas (middle-line tumors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, O.O.; Rosler, R.

    1989-01-01

    The clinical experience is presented obtained from treatment with high-energy linac radiosurgery of 22 patients with stereotactically biopsed gliomas located in middle-line, from thalamus to brain stem and from infundibulum to pineo-tectal regions, during the period 1982-1987. (H.W.). 10 refs

  5. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma...

  6. Mean Diffusional Kurtosis in Patients with Glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietze, A.; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Østergaard, Leif

    2015-01-01

    , and the contralateral normal appearing white and grey matter of 34 patients (22 high-grade, 12 low-grade gliomas). MK’ and MD in different grades were compared using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and the area under the curve were calculated to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MK...

  7. Kynurenic acid synthesis by human glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzani, A; Gramsbergen, J B; Versari, P

    1990-01-01

    Biopsy material from human gliomas obtained during neurosurgery was used to investigate whether pathological human brain tissue is capable of producing kynurenic acid (KYNA), a natural brain metabolite which can act as an antagonist at excitatory amino acid receptors. Upon in vitro exposure to 40...

  8. Neuromyelitis Optica Lesion Mimicking Brainstem Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old girl who presented with weakness of the left extremities and right sided sixth cranial nerve palsy had neuromyelitis optica (NMO mistaken for brainstem glioma on MRI, in a report from Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine,Seoul, Republic of KoreaNeuromyelitis Optica, Optic-Spinal Syndrome, Spectroscopy.

  9. Glia to glioma: A wrathful journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glial cells, unlike neurons in the brain, can undergo cellular division to maintain their functional continuity. However, sometimes this divisional attribute gets uncontrolled, which breaches tissue organization and transforms tissues into neoplasm. The proliferative abnormality of neuroglia results in one of the most dreaded neoplasm amounting to 30% of all brain tumors—the glioma. The abnormal proliferation, high level of progression and invasive potential makes glioma one of the most lethal killers in its class. The pathological scenario becomes more moribund owing to poor prognosis and high mortality rate of the menace. Conventional onco-therapies yield dismal results compared to other soft tissue tumors. In time, with the advent of newer trends of prognosis and treatment modalities in the field of oncology, a hope for betterment is expected, but not yet achieved. These advancements would fetch some better results with proper and minute understanding of the biology of glioma, both at physiological as well as molecular level. In the present context, we have tried to document an insight to glioma biology that can serve as a primer to understand this lethal killer and its killing spree, with some approaches to combat its carnage.

  10. Evidence for positive selection acting on microcystin synthetase adenylation domains in three cyanobacterial genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhiainen Leo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria produce a wealth of secondary metabolites, including the group of small cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins that constitutes the microcystin family. The enzyme complex that directs the biosynthesis of microcystin is encoded in a single large gene cluster (mcy. mcy genes have a widespread distribution among cyanobacteria and are likely to have an ancient origin. The notable diversity within some of the Mcy modules is generated through various recombination events including horizontal gene transfer. Results A comparative analysis of the adenylation domains from the first module of McyB (McyB1 and McyC in the microcystin synthetase complex was performed on a large number of microcystin-producing strains from the Anabaena, Microcystis and Planktothrix genera. We found no decisive evidence for recombination between strains from different genera. However, we detected frequent recombination events in the mcyB and mcyC genes between strains within the same genus. Frequent interdomain recombination events were also observed between mcyB and mcyC sequences in Anabaena and Microcystis. Recombination and mutation rate ratios suggest that the diversification of mcyB and mcyC genes is driven by recombination events as well as point mutations in all three genera. Sequence analysis suggests that generally the adenylation domains of the first domain of McyB and McyC are under purifying selection. However, we found clear evidence for positive selection acting on a number of amino acid residues within these adenylation domains. These include residues important for active site selectivity of the adenylation domain, strongly suggesting selection for novel microcystin variants. Conclusion We provide the first clear evidence for positive selection acting on amino acid residues involved directly in the recognition and activation of amino acids incorporated into microcystin, indicating that the microcystin complement of a given strain may

  11. Bradykinin-activated transmembrane signals are coupled via N/sub o/ or N/sub i/ to production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, a second messenger in NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashida, H.; Streaty, R.A.; Klee, W.; Nirenberg, M.

    1986-01-01

    The addition of bradykinin to NG108-15 cells results in a transient hyperpolarization followed by prolonged cell depolarization. Injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm of NG108-15 cells also elicits cell hyperpolarization followed by depolarization. Tetraethylammonium ions inhibit the hyperpolarizing response of cells to bradykinin or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Thus, the hyperpolarizing phase of the cell response may be due to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent release of stored 45 Ca-labelled Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm, which activates Ca 2+ -dependent K + channels. The depolarizing phase of the cell response to bradykinin is due largely to inhibition of M channels, thereby decreasing the rate of K + efflux from cells and, to a lesser extent, to activation of Ca 2+ -dependent ion channels and Ca 2+ channels. In contrast, injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or Ca 2+ into the cytosol did not alter M channel activity. Incubation of NG108-15 cells with pertussis toxin inhibits bradykinin-dependent cell hyperpolarization and depolarization. Bradykinin stimulates low K/sub m/ GTPase activity and inhibits adenylate cyclase in NG108-15 membrane preparations but not in membranes prepared from cells treated with pertussis toxin. These results show that [bradykinin-receptor] complexes interact with N/sub o/ or N/sub i/ and suggest that N/sub o/ and/or N/sub i/ mediate the transduction of signals from bradykinin receptors to phospholipase C and adenylate cyclase

  12. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Soluble Rat Lung Guanylate Cyclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandwein, Harvey; Lewicki, John; Murad, Ferid

    1981-07-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies to rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing) EC 4.6.1.2] have been produced by fusing spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice with SP-2/0 myeloma cells. The antibodies were detected by their ability to bind immobilized guanylate cyclase and by immunoprecipitation of purified enzyme in the presence of second (rabbit anti-mouse) antibody. After subcloning by limiting dilution, hybridomas were injected intraperitoneally into mice to produce ascitic fluid containing 2-5 mg of antibody per ml. The four antibodies obtained had titers of between 1:1580 and 1:3160 but were detectable at dilutions greater than 1:20,000. Soluble guanylate cyclase from several rat tissues were crossreactive with the four monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that the soluble enzyme from different rat tissues is antigenically similar. The antibodies also recognized soluble lung enzyme from rat, beef, and pig, while enzyme from rabbit was not crossreactive and mouse enzyme was recognized by only one of the antibodies. Particulate guanylate cyclase from a number of tissues had only minimal crossreactivity with the antibodies. Immunoprecipitated guanylate cyclase retained catalytic activity, could be activated with sodium nitroprusside, and was inhibited by cystamine. None of the antibodies were inhibitory under the conditions examined. These antibodies will be useful probes for the study of guanylate cyclase regulation and function under a variety of physiological conditions.

  13. Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Trypanosoma cruzi Nuclear Adenylate Kinase Isoform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, María de los Milagros; Bouvier, León A.; Canepa, Gaspar E.; Miranda, Mariana R.; Pereira, Claudio A.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, is an early divergent eukaryote in which control of gene expression relies mainly in post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcription levels are globally up and down regulated during the transition between proliferating and non-proliferating life-cycle stages. In this work we characterized a nuclear adenylate kinase isoform (TcADKn) that is involved in ribosome biogenesis. Nuclear adenylate kinases have been recently described in a few organisms, being all related to RNA metabolism. Depending on active transcription and translation, TcADKn localizes in the nucleolus or the cytoplasm. A non-canonical nuclear localization signal was mapped towards the N-terminal of the protein, being the phosphate-binding loop essential for its localization. In addition, TcADKn nuclear exportation depends on the nuclear exportation adapter CRM1. TcADKn nuclear shuttling is governed by nutrient availability, oxidative stress and by the equivalent in T. cruzi of the mammalian TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway. One of the biological functions of TcADKn is ribosomal 18S RNA processing by direct interaction with ribosomal protein TcRps14. Finally, TcADKn expression is regulated by its 3′ UTR mRNA. Depending on extracellular conditions, cells modulate protein translation rates regulating ribosome biogenesis and nuclear adenylate kinases are probably key components in these processes. PMID:23409202

  14. Economics of Malignant Gliomas: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizer, Jeffrey J; Fitzner, Karen A; Jacobs, Daniel I; Bennett, Charles L; Liebling, Dustin B; Luu, Thanh Ha; Trifilio, Steven M; Grimm, Sean A; Fisher, Matthew J; Haleem, Meraaj S; Ray, Paul S; McKoy, Judith M; DeBoer, Rebecca; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E; Deeb, Mohammed; McKoy, June M

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 18,500 persons are diagnosed with malignant glioma in the United States annually. Few studies have investigated the comprehensive economic costs. We reviewed the literature to examine costs to patients with malignant glioma and their families, payers, and society. A total of 18 fully extracted studies were included. Data were collected on direct and indirect costs, and cost estimates were converted to US dollars using the conversion rate calculated from the study's publication date, and updated to 2011 values after adjustment for inflation. A standardized data abstraction form was used. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Before approval of effective chemotherapeutic agents for malignant gliomas, estimated total direct medical costs in the United States for surgery and radiation therapy per patient ranged from $50,600 to $92,700. The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) and bevacizumab to glioblastoma treatment regimens has resulted in increased overall costs for glioma care. Although health care costs are now less front-loaded, they have increased over the course of illness. Analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year suggests that the benefits of TMZ fall on the edge of acceptable therapies. Furthermore, indirect medical costs, such as productivity losses, are not trivial. With increased chemotherapy use for malignant glioma, the paradigm for treatment and associated out-of-pocket and total medical costs continue to evolve. Larger out-of-pocket costs may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, the economic implications of which should be evaluated prospectively. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. A comprehensive survey of 3′ animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3′ adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; de Hoon, Michiel J.L.; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Nishibu, Takahiro; Ukekawa, Ryo; Funakoshi, Taku; Kurokawa, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O.

    2010-01-01

    Animal microRNA sequences are subject to 3′ nucleotide addition. Through detailed analysis of deep-sequenced short RNA data sets, we show adenylation and uridylation of miRNA is globally present and conserved across Drosophila and vertebrates. To better understand 3′ adenylation function, we deep-sequenced RNA after knockdown of nucleotidyltransferase enzymes. The PAPD4 nucleotidyltransferase adenylates a wide range of miRNA loci, but adenylation does not appear to affect miRNA stability on a...

  16. Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young Bin; Oh, Seung Jae; Kang, Seok-Gu; Heo, Jung; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Yuna; Song, Seungri; Son, Hye Young; Kim, Se Hoon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Haam, Seung Joo; Huh, Yong Min; Chang, Jong Hee; Joo, Chulmin; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Gross total resection (GTR) of glioma is critical for improving the survival rate of glioma patients. One of the greatest challenges for achieving GTR is the difficulty in discriminating low grade tumor or peritumor regions that have an intact blood brain barrier (BBB) from normal brain tissues and delineating glioma margins during surgery. Here we present a highly sensitive, label-free terahertz reflectometry imaging (TRI) that overcomes current key limitations for intraoperative detection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), and grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas. We demonstrate that TRI provides tumor discrimination and delineation of tumor margins in brain tissues with high sensitivity on the basis of Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained image. TRI may help neurosurgeons to remove gliomas completely by providing visualization of tumor margins in WHO grade II, III, and IV gliomas without contrast agents, and hence, improve patient outcomes. PMID:27782153

  17. Selective uptake of boronophenylalanine by glioma stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhou, Youxin; Xie, Xueshun; Chen, Guilin; Li, Bin; Wei, Yongxin; Chen, Jinming; Huang, Qiang; Du, Ziwei

    2012-01-01

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the amount of boron in cells and the tumor/blood and tumor/(normal tissue) boron concentration ratios. For the first time, measurements of boron uptake in both stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells were performed along with measurements of boron biodistribution in suitable animal models. In glioma stem/progenitor cells, the selective accumulation of boronophenylalanine (BPA) was lower, and retention of boron after BPA removal was longer than in differentiated glioma cells in vitro. However, boron biodistribution was not statistically significantly different in mice with xenografts. - Highlights: ► Uptake of BPA was analyzed in stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells. ► Selective accumulation of BPA was lower in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Retention of boron after BPA removal was longer in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Boron biodistribution was not statistically different in mice with xenografts.

  18. Use of tricyclic antidepressants and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; García Rodríguez, Luis Alberto; Rasmussen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    glioma (cases) in Denmark between 2000 and 2012 and matched these 1 : 20 to population controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for glioma associated with long-term (⩾3 years) use of TCAs. Similar analyses were performed for selective serotonin reuptake...... inhibitors (SSRIs). RESULTS: We identified 3767 glioma cases and 75 340 population controls. Long-term use of TCAs was inversely associated with risk of glioma (OR 0.72, 95% CI: 0.41-1.25). Long-term SSRI use was not associated with glioma risk (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.75-1.16). CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated...... that long-term use of TCAs may be associated with a reduced risk of glioma, however, the statistical precision was limited. A similar pattern was not observed for use of SSRIs....

  19. Structure of RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kevin K; Bingman, Craig A; Cheng, Chin L; Phillips, George N; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-10-01

    RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3'-phosphate to form a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3'-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3'-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3'-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P-N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to N(ε) of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3'-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3'-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme. © 2014 Desai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  20. Malignant clinical features of anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Ichiyo; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Shoji, Takuhiro; Kanamori, Masayuki; Saito, Ryuta; Inoue, Tomoo; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yoji; Watanabe, Takashi; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Mika; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas does not always correspond to its clinical outcome because of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene status. Anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation result in a poor prognosis, similar to grade IV glioblastomas. However, the malignant features of anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine anaplastic gliomas, in particular those without IDH mutation, with regard to their malignant features, recurrence patterns, and association with glioma stem cells. We retrospectively analyzed 86 cases of WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas. Data regarding patient characteristics, recurrence pattern, and prognosis were obtained from medical records. We examined molecular alterations such as IDH mutation, 1p19q loss, TP53 mutation, MGMT promoter methylation, Ki67 labeling index, and CD133, SOX2, and NESTIN expression. Of the 86 patients with anaplastic gliomas, 58 carried IDH mutation, and 40 experienced recurrence. The first recurrence was local in 25 patients and distant in 15. Patients without IDH mutation exhibited significantly higher CD133 and SOX2 expression (P = .025 and .020, respectively) and more frequent distant recurrence than those with IDH mutation (P = .022). Patients with anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation experienced distant recurrence and exhibited glioma stem cell markers, indicating that this subset may share some malignant characteristics with glioblastomas. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. IGFBP2 expression predicts IDH-mutant glioma patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin Eric; Cohen, Adam L; Colman, Howard; Jensen, Randy L; Fults, Daniel W; Couldwell, William T

    2017-01-03

    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes occur in ~80% of lower-grade (WHO grade II and grade III) gliomas. Mutant IDH produces (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate, which induces DNA hypermethylation and presumably drives tumorigenesis. Interestingly, IDH mutations are associated with improved survival in glioma patients, but the underlying mechanism for the difference in survival remains unclear. Through comparative analyses of 286 cases of IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant lower-grade glioma from a TCGA data set, we report that IDH-mutant gliomas have increased expression of tumor-suppressor genes (NF1, PTEN, and PIK3R1) and decreased expression of oncogenes(AKT2, ARAF, ERBB2, FGFR3, and PDGFRB) and glioma progression genes (FOXM1, IGFBP2, and WWTR1) compared with IDH-wildtype gliomas. Furthermore, each of these genes is prognostic in overall gliomas; however, within the IDH-mutant group, none remains prognostic except IGFBP2 (encodinginsulin-like growth factor binding protein 2). Through validation in an independent cohort, we show that patients with low IGFBP2 expressiondisplay a clear advantage in overall and disease-free survival, whereas those with high IGFBP2 expressionhave worse median survival than IDH-wildtype patients. These observations hold true across different histological and molecular subtypes of lower-grade glioma. We propose therefore that an unexpected biological consequence of IDH mutations in glioma is to ameliorate patient survival by promoting tumor-suppressor signaling while inhibiting that of oncogenes, particularly IGFBP2.

  2. Current status of cerebral glioma surgery in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-song; Zhang, Jie; Zhuang, Dong-xiao; Yao, Cheng-jun; Qiu, Tian-ming; Lu, Jun-feng; Zhu, Feng-ping; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2011-09-01

    The treatment of gliomas is highly individualized. Surgery for gliomas is essentially for histological diagnosis, to alleviate mass effect, and most importantly, to favor longer survival expectancy. During the past two decades, many surgical techniques and adjuvants have been applied to glioma surgery in China, which lead to a rapid development in the field of cerebral glioma surgery. This article broadly and critically reviewed the existing studies on cerebral glioma surgery and to portrait the current status of glioma surgery in China. A literature search was conducted covering major innovative surgical techniques and adjuvants for glioma surgery in China. The following databases were searched: the Pubmed (January 1995 to date); China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (January 1995 to date) and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (January 1995 to date). A selection criterion was established to exclude duplicates and irrelevant studies. The outcome measures were extracted from included studies. A total of 3307 articles were initially searched. After excluded by abstracts and full texts, 69 studies conducted in the mainland of China were included and went through further analysis. The philosophy of surgical strategies for cerebral gliomas in China is undergoing tremendous change. Nowadays Chinese neurosurgeons pay more attention to the postoperative neurofunctional status of the patients. The aim of the glioma surgery is not only the more extensive tumor resection but also the maximal safety of intervention. The well balance of longer overall survival and higher quality of life should be judged with respect to each individual patient.

  3. Intraoperative Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Evaluates the Grade of Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Gang Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate the value of intraoperative contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS for evaluating the grade of glioma and the correlation between microvessel density (MVD and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Methods. We performed intraoperative conventional ultrasound (CUS and CEUS on 88 patients with gliomas. All of the patients have undergone surgery and obtained the results of pathology. All patients have undergone intraoperative CUS and CEUS to compare the characteristics of different grade gliomas and the results of CUS and CEUS were compared with pathological results. Results. The time to start (TTS and time to peak (TTP of low grade glioma (LGG were similar to those of edema and normal brain surrounding glioma. The enhanced extent of LGG was higher than that of the normal brain and edema. The TTS and TTP of high grade glioma were earlier than those of the edema and normal brain surrounding glioma. The enhancement of HGG was higher than that of LGG. The absolute peak intensity (API was correlated with MVD and VEGF. Conclusion. Intraoperative CEUS could help in determining boundary of peritumoral brain edema of glioma. Intraoperative CEUS parameters in cerebral gliomas could indirectly reflect the information of MVD and VEGF.

  4. Bevacizumab and Irinotecan in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Ependymoma, or Low Grade Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma

  5. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-07-31

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.

  6. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-Cyclase from Macrophytic Red Alga Bangia fuscopurpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Jun Cao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene cyclases cyclize the open ends of acyclic lycopene (ψ,ψ-carotene into β- or ε-ionone rings in the crucial bifurcation step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Among all carotenoid constituents, β-carotene (β,β-carotene is found in all photosynthetic organisms, except for purple bacteria and heliobacteria, suggesting a ubiquitous distribution of lycopene β-cyclase activity in these organisms. In this work, we isolated a gene (BfLCYB encoding a lycopene β-cyclase from Bangia fuscopurpurea, a red alga that is considered to be one of the primitive multicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms and accumulates carotenoid constituents with both β- and ε-rings, including β-carotene, zeaxanthin, α-carotene (β,ε-carotene and lutein. Functional complementation in Escherichia coli demonstrated that BfLCYB is able to catalyze cyclization of lycopene into monocyclic γ-carotene (β,ψ-carotene and bicyclic β-carotene, and cyclization of the open end of monocyclic δ-carotene (ε,ψ-carotene to produce α-carotene. No ε-cyclization activity was identified for BfLCYB. Sequence comparison showed that BfLCYB shares conserved domains with other functionally characterized lycopene cyclases from different organisms and belongs to a group of ancient lycopene cyclases. Although B. fuscopurpurea also synthesizes α-carotene and lutein, its enzyme-catalyzing ε-cyclization is still unknown.

  7. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  8. Cloning and Characterization of Oxidosqualene Cyclases from Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Yeats, Trevor; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The first committed step in triterpenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of oxidosqualene to polycyclic alcohols or ketones C30H50O. It is catalyzed by single oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) enzymes that can carry out varying numbers of carbocation rearrangements and, thus, generate triterpenoids with diverse carbon skeletons. OSCs from diverse plant species have been cloned and characterized, the large majority of them catalyzing relatively few rearrangement steps. It was recently predicted that special OSCs must exist that can form friedelin, the pentacyclic triterpenoid whose formation involves the maximum possible number of rearrangement steps. The goal of the present study, therefore, was to clone a friedelin synthase from Kalanchoe daigremontiana, a plant species known to accumulate this triterpenoid in its leaf surface waxes. Five OSC cDNAs were isolated, encoding proteins with 761–779 amino acids and sharing between 57.4 and 94.3% nucleotide sequence identity. Heterologous expression in yeast and GC-MS analyses showed that one of the OSCs generated the steroid cycloartenol together with minor side products, whereas the other four enzymes produced mixtures of pentacyclic triterpenoids dominated by lupeol (93%), taraxerol (60%), glutinol (66%), and friedelin (71%), respectively. The cycloartenol synthase was found expressed in all leaf tissues, whereas the lupeol, taraxerol, glutinol, and friedelin synthases were expressed only in the epidermis layers lining the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf blade. It is concluded that the function of these enzymes is to form respective triterpenoid aglycones destined to coat the leaf exterior, probably as defense compounds against pathogens or herbivores. PMID:20610397

  9. Evolution-guided adaptation of an adenylation domain substrate specificity to an unusual amino acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Vobruba

    Full Text Available Adenylation domains CcbC and LmbC control the specific incorporation of amino acid precursors in the biosynthesis of lincosamide antibiotics celesticetin and lincomycin. Both proteins originate from a common L-proline-specific ancestor, but LmbC was evolutionary adapted to use an unusual substrate, (2S,4R-4-propyl-proline (PPL. Using site-directed mutagenesis of the LmbC substrate binding pocket and an ATP-[32P]PPi exchange assay, three residues, G308, A207 and L246, were identified as crucial for the PPL activation, presumably forming together a channel of a proper size, shape and hydrophobicity to accommodate the propyl side chain of PPL. Subsequently, we experimentally simulated the molecular evolution leading from L-proline-specific substrate binding pocket to the PPL-specific LmbC. The mere change of three amino acid residues in originally strictly L-proline-specific CcbC switched its substrate specificity to prefer PPL and even synthetic alkyl-L-proline derivatives with prolonged side chain. This is the first time that such a comparative study provided an evidence of the evolutionary relevant adaptation of the adenylation domain substrate binding pocket to a new sterically different substrate by a few point mutations. The herein experimentally simulated rearrangement of the substrate binding pocket seems to be the general principle of the de novo genesis of adenylation domains' unusual substrate specificities. However, to keep the overall natural catalytic efficiency of the enzyme, a more comprehensive rearrangement of the whole protein would probably be employed within natural evolution process.

  10. Glioma infiltration sign on high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in gliomas and its prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Shi, Feina; Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao; Zhang, Jianmin

    2018-03-01

    Glioma cells may infiltrate beyond the tumor margins revealed on conventional structural images. To investigate whether the presence of a glioma infiltration sign on high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of gliomas. Retrospective cohort. Fifty-two patients with gliomas (14 WHO grade II; 13 WHO grade III; 25 WHO grade IV). 3.0T, including a T 1 -weighted contrast-enhanced (T 1 w-CE) sequence, contrast-enhanced T 2 -flair sequence, and a DWI sequence. T 1 w-CE images and contrast-enhanced T 2 -flair images were used for identifying the tumor region for enhancing and nonenhancing gliomas, respectively. The glioma infiltration sign was defined as the presence of a peritumoral abnormal high signal region on DWI map, which was adjacent to the tumor region and had higher signal than surrounding areas. This sign was assessed on a high b-value DWI map with b = 3000 s/mm 2 . For patients with glioma infiltration sign, DWI3000 max , DWI1000 max , ADC3000 min , and ADC1000 min were measured by drawing a region of interest over the peritumoral abnormal high signal region. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. Glioma infiltration sign was observed in 28 (53.8%) patients. The occurrence rate of this sign was 92.0% in grade IV gliomas, 30.8% in grade III gliomas, and 7.1% in grade II gliomas. The glioma infiltration sign could independently predict both the progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.58 [3.19-23.03], P sign, DWI3000 max (P = 0.005) and ADC3000 min (P = 0.008) were both independent predictors of overall survival after adjustment, while DWI1000 max and ADC1000 min were not. The glioma infiltration sign on high b-value DWI is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in glioma patients. High b-value DWI might be a convenient method to detect glioma infiltration. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for

  11. ABCG2 is related with the grade of glioma and resistance to mitoxantone, a chemotherapeutic drug for glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yao; Bin, Zhang Quan; Qiang, Huang; Liang, Chu; Hua, Chen; Jun, Dong; Dong, Wang Ai; Qing, Lan

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore if ABCG2 is related to the grade of glioma and resistance to chemotherapeutic drug for glioma. The ABCG2 expression and distribution among glioma tissues of different grades and other samples were examined using tissue microarray technique. The enhancement of sensitivity of CD133+ glioma stem cells to chemotherapeutic agent, mitoxantone through addition of ABCG2 competitive inhibitor nicardipine was testified by MTT assay and FACS analysis. The positive immunostaining of ABCG2 was observed in less than 10% of low-grade gliomas (3/31 in grade I + II) and in more than 40% of high-grade gliomas (16/37 in grade III + IV), which was statistically different (chi (2) = 10.710, P = 0.0011). In samples consisting of glioma stem cells (CD133+), the positive-straining rate was 100% (4/4), while in CD133- fraction, no positive staining was observed. A simultaneous treatment of CD133+ tumor cells with concentration-dependent mitoxantone (10(-5)-1 microM) and 2.5/5.0 microM nicardipine resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity. The apoptotic rate of CD133+ cells treated with mitoxantone plus nicardipine was significantly higher than that treated with mitoxantone alone (58.54 +/- 7.06% vs. 30.7 +/- 3.79%, P level of ABCG2 is positively associated with the increasing pathological grade of glioma (poor cell differentiation). ABCG2 plays a key role in glioma cells resistance to mitoxantone, chemotherapeutic drug for glioma. Thus, inhibition of ABCG2 protein activity by nicardipine in glioma can sensitize it to mitoxantone, which may lead to better treatment strategies for cancers.

  12. Role of MbtH-like Proteins in the Adenylation of Tyrosine during Aminocoumarin and Vancomycin Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Björn; Taubitz, Tatjana; Heide, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    MbtH-like proteins consist of ∼70 amino acids and are encoded in the biosynthetic gene clusters of non-ribosomally formed peptides and other secondary metabolites derived from amino acids. Recently, several MbtH-like proteins have been shown to be required for the adenylation of amino acid in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. We now investigated the role of MbtH-like proteins in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin, clorobiocin, and simocyclinone D8 and of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. The tyrosine-adenylating enzymes CloH, SimH, and Pcza361.18, involved in the biosynthesis of clorobiocin, simocyclinone D8, and vancomycin, respectively, required the presence of MbtH-like proteins in a 1:1 molar ratio, forming heterotetrameric complexes. In contrast, NovH, involved in novobiocin biosynthesis, showed activity in the absence of MbtH-like proteins. Comparison of the active centers of CloH and NovH showed only one amino acid to be different, i.e. Leu-383 versus Met-383. Mutation of this amino acid in CloH (L383M) indeed led to MbtH-independent adenylating activity. All investigated tyrosine-adenylating enzymes exhibited remarkable promiscuity for MbtH-like proteins from different pathways and organisms. YbdZ, the MbtH-like protein from the expression host Escherichia coli, was found to bind to adenylating enzymes during expression and to influence their biochemical properties markedly. Therefore, the use of ybdZ-deficient expression hosts is important in biochemical studies of adenylating enzymes. PMID:21890635

  13. The functional role of Notch signaling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2010-01-01

    Gliomas are among the most devastating adult tumors for which there is currently no cure. The tumors are derived from brain glial tissue and comprise several diverse tumor forms and grades. Recent reports highlight the importance of cancer-initiating cells in the malignancy of gliomas. These cell...

  14. Glioma infiltration and extracellular matrix: key players and modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Moura Neto, Vivaldo; Mentlein, Rolf

    2018-02-21

    An outstanding characteristic of gliomas is their infiltration into brain parenchyma, a property that impairs complete surgical resection; consequently, these tumors might recur, resulting in a high mortality rate. Gliomas invade along preferential routes, such as those along white matter tracts and in the perineuronal and perivascular spaces. Brain extracellular components and their partners and modulators play a crucial role in glioma cell invasion. This review presents an extensive survey of the literature, showing how the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is modulated during the glioma infiltration process. We explore aspects of ECM interaction with glioma cells, reviewing the main glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. We discuss the roles of ECM-binding proteins, including CD44, RHAMM, integrins and axonal guidance molecules, and highlight the role of proteases and glycosidases in glioma infiltration; in binding and release chemokines, cytokines and growth factors; and in generating new bioactive ECM fragments. We also consider the roles of cytoskeletal signaling, angiogenesis, miRNAs and the glial-to-mesenchymal transition linked to glioma invasion. We closely discuss therapeutic approaches based on the modulation of the extracellular matrix, targeting the control of glioma infiltration, its relative failure in clinical trials, and potential means to overcome this difficulty. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. TWIST is Expressed in Human Gliomas, Promotes Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Elias

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available TWIST is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor that regulates mesodermal development, promotes tumor cell metastasis, and, in response to cytotoxic stress, enhances cell survival. Our screen for bHLH gene expression in rat C6 glioma revealed TWIST. To delineate a possible oncogenic role for TWIST in the human central nervous system (CNS, we analyzed TWIST message, protein expression in gliomas, normal brain. TWIST was detected in the large majority of human glioma-derived cell lines, human gliomas examined. Increased TWIST mRNA levels were associated with the highest grade gliomas, increased TWIST expression accompanied transition from low grade to high grade in vivo, suggesting a role for TWIST in promoting malignant progression. In accord, elevated TWIST mRNA abundance preceded the spontaneous malignant transformation of cultured mouse astrocytes hemizygous for p53. Overexpression of TWIST protein in a human glioma cell line significantly enhanced tumor cell invasion, a hallmark of high-grade gliomas. These findings support roles for TWIST both in early glial tumorigenesis, subsequent malignant progression. TWIST was also expressed in embryonic, fetal human brain, in neurons, but not glia, of mature brain, indicating that, in gliomas, TWIST may promote the functions also critical for CNS development or normal neuronal physiology.

  16. Epileptic seizures in patients with glioma: A single centrebased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To elucidate the outcomes of treatment and epidemiology of epilepsy related to glioma in a single center in Chinese patients. Methods: Prescription medicines usage and clinical data were collected from medical records of 119 patients with gliomas between August 2009 and September 2015. Fisher's exact and ...

  17. Laminin associated with BMP7 as potential secondary astrocytic glioma fiber differentiation targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, G-S; Yan, M; Ma, Z-Z; Sun, L-Z; Liu, Y

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the activation of the BMP7 and laminin pathway is associated with glioma cell proliferation and differentiation. We enrolled 65 patients with primary operable glioma. Laminin and BMP7 protein expression and its subcellular localization were studied by immunofluorescence. We detected a higher level of BMP7 expression in glioma tissue in patients with a lower grade of glioma who had a lower eosinophil count. Compared to patients with a higher grade of glioma, we observed a lower level of laminin expression in patients with a lower grade of glioma. Our data indicated a potential link between eosinophil counts and the expression levels of laminin and BMP7 in glioma differentiation.

  18. IDH1 and IDH2 Mutations in Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam; Holmen, Sheri; Colman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2, originally discovered in 2009, occur in the vast majority of low grade gliomas and secondary high grade gliomas. These mutations, which occur early in gliomagenesis, change the function of the enzymes, causing them to produce 2-hydroxyglutarate, a possible oncometabolite, and to not produce NADPH. IDH mutations are oncogenic, although whether the mechanism is through alterations in hydroxylases, redox potential, cellular metabolism, or gene expression is not clear. The mutations also drive increased methylation in gliomas. Gliomas with mutated IDH1 and IDH2 have improved prognosis compared to gliomas with wild-type IDH. Mutated IDH can now be detected by immunohistochemistry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. No drugs currently target mutated IDH, although this remains an area of active research. PMID:23532369

  19. Molecular and Genetic Determinants of Glioma Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Masui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A diffusely invasive nature is a major obstacle in treating a malignant brain tumor, “diffuse glioma”, which prevents neurooncologists from surgically removing the tumor cells even in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. Recently updated classification of diffuse gliomas based on distinct genetic and epigenetic features has culminated in a multilayered diagnostic approach to combine histologic phenotypes and molecular genotypes in an integrated diagnosis. However, it is still a work in progress to decipher how the genetic aberrations contribute to the aggressive nature of gliomas including their highly invasive capacity. Here we depict a set of recent discoveries involving molecular genetic determinants of the infiltrating nature of glioma cells, especially focusing on genetic mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase pathways and metabolic reprogramming downstream of common cancer mutations. The specific biology of glioma cell invasion provides an opportunity to explore the genotype-phenotype correlation in cancer and develop novel glioma-specific therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease.

  20. A Novel Mechanism for Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibition from the Crystal Structure of its Complex with Catechol Estrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steegborn,C.; Litvin, T.; Hess, K.; Capper, A.; Taussig, R.; Buck, J.; Levin, L.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Catechol estrogens are steroid metabolites that elicit physiological responses through binding to a variety of cellular targets. We show here that catechol estrogens directly inhibit soluble adenylyl cyclases and the abundant trans-membrane adenylyl cyclases. Catechol estrogen inhibition is non-competitive with respect to the substrate ATP, and we solved the crystal structure of a catechol estrogen bound to a soluble adenylyl cyclase from Spirulina platensis in complex with a substrate analog. The catechol estrogen is bound to a newly identified, conserved hydrophobic patch near the active center but distinct from the ATP-binding cleft. Inhibitor binding leads to a chelating interaction between the catechol estrogen hydroxyl groups and the catalytic magnesium ion, distorting the active site and trapping the enzyme substrate complex in a non-productive conformation. This novel inhibition mechanism likely applies to other adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, and the identified ligand-binding site has important implications for the development of specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

  1. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonatesensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Tresguerres, M; Barott, KL; Barron, ME; Roa, JN

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO 3 - , and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO 3 - sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition...

  2. Glioma Association and Balancing Selection of ZFPM2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Ying Tsang

    Full Text Available ZFPM2, encoding a zinc finger protein and abundantly expressed in the brain, uterus and smooth muscles, plays important roles in cardiac and gonadal development. Abnormal expression of ZFPM2 in ovarian tumors and neuroblastoma has been reported but hitherto its genetic association with cancer and effects on gliomas have not been studied. In the present study, the hexamer insertion-deletion polymorphism rs71305152, located within a large haplotype block spanning intron 1 to intron 3 of ZFPM2, was genotyped in Chinese cohorts of glioma (n = 350, non-glioma cancer (n = 354 and healthy control (n = 463 by direct sequencing and length polymorphism in gel electrophoresis, and ZFPM2 expression in glioma tissues (n = 69 of different grades was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, potential natural selection pressure acting on the gene was investigated. Disease-association analysis showed that the overall genotype of rs71305152 was significantly associated with gliomas (P = 0.016, and the heterozygous genotype compared to the combined homozygous genotypes was less frequent in gliomas than in controls (P = 0.005 or non-glioma cancers (P = 0.020. ZFPM2 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the grades of gliomas (P = 0.002, with higher expression levels in the low-grade gliomas. In the astrocytoma subtype, higher ZFPM2 expression was also correlated with the rs71305152 heterozygous genotype (P = 0.028. In addition, summary statistics tests gave highly positive values, demonstrating that the gene is under the influence of balancing selection. These findings suggest that ZFPM2 is a glioma susceptibility gene, its genotype and expression showing associations with incidence and severity, respectively. Moreover, the balancing selection acting on ZFPM2 may be related to the important roles it has to play in multiple organ development or associated disease etiology.

  3. Shikonin kills glioma cells through necroptosis mediated by RIP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjiang Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Shikonin was reported to induce necroptosis in leukemia cells, but apoptosis in glioma cell lines. Thus, it is needed to clarify whether shikonin could cause necroptosis in glioma cells and investigate its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Shikonin and rat C6 glioma cell line and Human U87 glioma cell line were used in this study. The cellular viability was assayed by MTT. Flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC and PI double staining was used to analyze cellular death modes. Morphological alterations in C6 glioma cells treated with shikoinin were evaluated by electronic transmission microscopy and fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33342 and PI double staining. The level of reactive oxygen species was assessed by using redox-sensitive dye DCFH-DA. The expressional level of necroptosis associated protein RIP-1 was analyzed by western blotting. RESULTS: Shikonin induced cell death in C6 and U87 glioma cells in a dose and time dependent manner. The cell death in C6 and U87 glioma cells could be inhibited by necroptosis inhibitor necrotatin-1, not by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Shikonin treated C6 glioma cells presented electron-lucent cytoplasm, loss of plasma membrane integrity and intact nuclear membrane in morphology. The increased ROS level caused by shikonin was attenuated by necrostatin-1 and blocking ROS by anti-oxidant NAC rescued shikonin-induced cell death in both C6 and U87 glioma cells. Moreover, the expressional level of RIP-1 was up-regulated by shikonin in a dose and time dependent manner as well, but NAC suppressed RIP-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the cell death caused by shikonin in C6 and U87 glioma cells was mainly via necroptosis. Moreover, not only RIP-1 pathway, but also oxidative stress participated in the activation of shikonin induced necroptosis.

  4. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  5. Optic gliomas - study of 26 cases; Gliomas opticos - estudo de 26 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenicis Junior, Osvaldo de; Florencio, Filipe Toledo; Haetinger, Rainer G.; Amaral, Lazaro Luis Faria do; Mendonca, Renato Adam; Lima, Sergio Santos [Hospital da Beneficiencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-07-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of 26 cases of patients with optic gliomas, studied between April, 1984, and October, 1993. Association with neurofibromatosis type I (Von Recklinghausen disease) was seen on 6 cases (23%). Magnetic resonance was more sensitive in detecting the pathology, specially to evaluate the retrochiasmatic involvement by the tumor. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Purification and assay of cell-invasive form of calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masure, H.R.; Donovan, M.G.; Storm, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    An invasive form of the CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis can be isolated from bacterial culture supernatants. This isolation is achieved through the use of QAE-Sephadex anion-exchange chromatography. It has been demonstrated that the addition of exogenous Ca 2+ to the anion-exchange gradient buffers will affect elution from the column and will thereby affect the isolation of invasive adenylyl cyclase. This is probably due to a Ca2(+)-dependent interaction of the catalytic subunit with another component in the culture supernatant. Two peaks of adenylyl cyclase activity are obtained. The Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation is able to cause significant increases in intracellular cAMP levels in animal cells. This increase occurs rapidly and in a dose-dependent manner in both N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells and human erythrocytes. The Pk2 adenylyl cyclase has catalytic activity but is not cell invasive. This material can serve, therefore, as a control to ensure that the cAMP which is measured is, indeed, intracellular. A second control is to add exogenous CaM to the Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation. The 45-kDa catalytic subunit-CaM complex is not cell invasive. Although the mechanism for membrane translocation of the adenylyl cyclase is unknown, there is evidence that the adenylyl cyclase enters animal cells by a mechanism distinct from receptor-mediated endocytosis. Calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity can be removed from preparations of the adenylyl cyclase that have been subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This property of the enzyme has enabled purification of the catalytic subunit to apparent homogeneity. The purified catalytic subunit from culture supernatants has a predicted molecular weight of 45,000. This polypeptide interacts directly with Ca 2+ and this interaction may be important for its invasion into animal cells

  7. Purification and assay of cell-invasive form of calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masure, H.R.; Donovan, M.G.; Storm, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    An invasive form of the CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis can be isolated from bacterial culture supernatants. This isolation is achieved through the use of QAE-Sephadex anion-exchange chromatography. It has been demonstrated that the addition of exogenous Ca{sup 2}{sup +} to the anion-exchange gradient buffers will affect elution from the column and will thereby affect the isolation of invasive adenylyl cyclase. This is probably due to a Ca2(+)-dependent interaction of the catalytic subunit with another component in the culture supernatant. Two peaks of adenylyl cyclase activity are obtained. The Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation is able to cause significant increases in intracellular cAMP levels in animal cells. This increase occurs rapidly and in a dose-dependent manner in both N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells and human erythrocytes. The Pk2 adenylyl cyclase has catalytic activity but is not cell invasive. This material can serve, therefore, as a control to ensure that the cAMP which is measured is, indeed, intracellular. A second control is to add exogenous CaM to the Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation. The 45-kDa catalytic subunit-CaM complex is not cell invasive. Although the mechanism for membrane translocation of the adenylyl cyclase is unknown, there is evidence that the adenylyl cyclase enters animal cells by a mechanism distinct from receptor-mediated endocytosis. Calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity can be removed from preparations of the adenylyl cyclase that have been subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This property of the enzyme has enabled purification of the catalytic subunit to apparent homogeneity. The purified catalytic subunit from culture supernatants has a predicted molecular weight of 45,000. This polypeptide interacts directly with Ca{sup 2}{sup +} and this interaction may be important for its invasion into animal cells.

  8. Multiple lineage specific expansions within the guanylyl cyclase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Halloran Damien M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanylyl cyclases (GCs are responsible for the production of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which plays important roles in a variety of physiological responses such as vision, olfaction, muscle contraction, homeostatic regulation, cardiovascular and nervous function. There are two types of GCs in animals, soluble (sGCs which are found ubiquitously in cell cytoplasm, and receptor (rGC forms which span cell membranes. The complete genomes of several vertebrate and invertebrate species are now available. These data provide a platform to investigate the evolution of GCs across a diverse range of animal phyla. Results In this analysis we located GC genes from a broad spectrum of vertebrate and invertebrate animals and reconstructed molecular phylogenies for both sGC and rGC proteins. The most notable features of the resulting phylogenies are the number of lineage specific rGC and sGC expansions that have occurred during metazoan evolution. Among these expansions is a large nematode specific rGC clade comprising 21 genes in C. elegans alone; a vertebrate specific expansion in the natriuretic receptors GC-A and GC-B; a vertebrate specific expansion in the guanylyl GC-C receptors, an echinoderm specific expansion in the sperm rGC genes and a nematode specific sGC clade. Our phylogenetic reconstruction also shows the existence of a basal group of nitric oxide (NO insensitive insect and nematode sGCs which are regulated by O2. This suggests that the primordial eukaryotes probably utilized sGC as an O2 sensor, with the ligand specificity of sGC later switching to NO which provides a very effective local cell-to-cell signalling system. Phylogenetic analysis of the sGC and bacterial heme nitric oxide/oxygen binding protein domain supports the hypothesis that this domain originated from a cyanobacterial source. Conclusion The most salient feature of our phylogenies is the number of lineage specific expansions

  9. PCR-Based Simple Subgrouping Is Validated for Classification of Gliomas and Defines Negative Prognostic Copy Number Aberrations in IDH Mutant Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Hikaru; Hayashi, Saeko; Hattori, Natsuki; Kumon, Masanobu; Nishiyama, Yuya; Adachi, Kazuhide; Nagahisa, Shinya; Hayashi, Takuro; Inamasu, Joji; Abe, Masato; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic subgrouping of gliomas has been emphasized recently, particularly after the finding of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations. In a previous study, we investigated whole-chromosome copy number aberrations (CNAs) of gliomas and have described genetic subgrouping based on CNAs and IDH1 mutations. Subsequently, we classified gliomas using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to improve the availability of genetic subgrouping. We selected IDH1/2 and TP53 as markers and analyzed 237 adult supratentorial gliomas using Sanger sequencing. Using these markers, we classified gliomas into three subgroups that were strongly associated with patient prognoses. These included IDH mutant gliomas without TP53 mutations, IDH mutant gliomas with TP53 mutations, and IDH wild-type gliomas. IDH mutant gliomas without TP53 mutations, which mostly corresponded to gliomas carrying 1p19q co-deletions, showed lower recurrence rates than the other 2 groups. In the other high-recurrence groups, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with IDH mutant gliomas with TP53 mutations were significantly longer than those of patients with IDH wild-type gliomas. Notably, most IDH mutant gliomas with TP53 mutations had at least one of the CNAs +7q, +8q, -9p, and -11p. Moreover, IDH mutant gliomas with at least one of these CNAs had a significantly worse prognosis than did other IDH mutant gliomas. PCR-based mutation analyses of IDH and TP53 were sufficient for simple genetic diagnosis of glioma that were strongly associated with prognosis of patients and enabled us to detect negative CNAs in IDH mutant gliomas.

  10. Mechanism of adenylate kinase: Site-directed mutagenesis versus x-ray and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Mingdaw; Yan, Honggao

    1991-01-01

    Controversy is an integral part of scientific research and is often a precursor to the truth. However, this lesson has been learned in a very hard way in the case of the structure-function relationship of adenylate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the interconversion between MgATP+AMP and MgADP+ADP. While this small kinase has been considered a model kinase and the enzyme-substrate interaction of AK was among the first investigated by X-ray crystallography and NMR the substrate binding sites deduced from the early studies by these two powerful techniques (termed the X-ray model and the NMR model, respectively) were dramatically different. Ironically, both models have had substantial impact on researchers in related fields. The problems have finally been dealt with since 1987 by the interplay between site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray, and NMR. The purpose of this review is not only to summarize the current knowledge in the structure-function relationship of adenylate kinase but also to accurately document and critically analyze historical developments in the hope that history will not be repeated

  11. Therapeutic options for recurrent malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Siefert, Axel; Schwarz, Silke Birgit; Ganswindt, Ute; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Despite the given advances in neuro-oncology most patients with high grade malignant glioma ultimately fail locally or locoregionally. In parallel with improvements of initial treatment options, several salvage strategies have been elucidated and already entered clinical practice. Aim of this article is to review the current status of salvage strategies in recurrent high grade glioma. Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms the pubmed database was searched: "Glioma", "Recurrence", "Neoplasm Recurrence, Local", "Radiosurgery", "Brachytherapy", "Neurosurgical Procedures" and "Drug Therapy". For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. In parallel, the abstracts of ASCO 2008-2009 were analyzed accordingly. Currently the following options for salvage entered clinical practice: re-resection, re-irradiation (stereotactic radiosurgery, (hypo-)fractionated (stereotactic) radiotherapy, interstitial brachytherapy) or single/poly-chemotherapy schedules including new dose-intensified or alternative treatment protocols employing targeted drugs. Re-operation is associated with high morbidity and mortality, however, is an option in a highly selected patient cohort. Since toxicity has been overestimated, re-irradiation is an increasingly used option with precise fractionated radiotherapy being the most optimal technique. On average, time to secondary progression is in the range of several months. Conventional chemotherapy regimens also improve time to secondary progression; however the efficacy is only modest and treatment-related toxicities like myelo-suppression occur very frequently. Molecular targeted agents/kinases are undergoing clinical testing; however no final recommendations can be made. Currently, several re-treatment options with only modest efficacy exist. The relative value of each approach compared to other options is unknown as well as it remains open which sequence of modalities should

  12. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  13. Emerging microtubule targets in glioma therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Reginato, M.J.; Baas, P.W.; D'Agostino, L.; Legido, A.; Tuszynski, J. A.; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 49-72 ISSN 1071-9091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12050; GA MZd NT14467 Grant - others:GA AV ČR M200521203PIPP; NIH(US) R01 NS028785; Philadelphia Health Education Corporation (PHEC)–St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children Reunified Endowment (C.D.K.)(US) 323256 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : glioma tumorigenesis * glioblastoma * tubulin * microtubules Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.303, year: 2015

  14. Preclinical evaluation of convection-enhanced delivery of liposomal doxorubicin to treat pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and thalamic high-grade glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sewing, A.C.; Lagerweij, T.; Vuurden, D.G. van; Meel, M.H.; Veringa, S.J.; Carcaboso, A.M.; Gaillard, P.J.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Wesseling, P.; Noske, D.; Kaspers, G.J.; Hulleman, E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are primary brain tumors with high mortality and morbidity. Because of their poor brain penetrance, systemic chemotherapy regimens have failed to deliver satisfactory results; however,

  15. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  16. Correlation of immune phenotype with IDH mutation in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Kiesel, Barbara; Widhalm, Georg; Wilhelm, Dorothee; Rajky, Orsolya; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Kresl, Philip; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Marosi, Christine; Hegi, Monika E; Preusser, Matthias

    2017-10-19

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are targets of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Forty-three World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas (39 IDH-mutant [mut], 4 IDH-wildtype [wt]) and 14 IDH-mut glioblastomas (GBM) were analyzed for TIL (CD3+; PD1+) infiltration and PD-L1 expression. Results were compared with the data of a previously published series of 117 IDH-wt glioblastomas. PD-L1 gene expression levels were evaluated in 677 diffuse gliomas grades II-IV from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. TIL and PD-L1 expression were observed in approximately half of WHO grade II/III gliomas. IDH-wt status was associated with significantly higher TIL infiltration and PD-L1 expression among all (grades II-IV) cases (n = 174, P IDH-wt compared with IDH-mut samples (LGG: N = 516; P = 1.933e-11, GBM: N = 161; P IDH-mut gliomas had higher PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels than IDH-wt gliomas (P IDH mutation status. IDH-wt gliomas display a more prominent TIL infiltration and higher PD-L1 expression than IDH-mut cases. Mechanistically this may be at least in part due to differential PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels. Our findings may be relevant for immune modulatory treatment strategies in glioma patients.

  17. The value of intraoperative sonography in low grade glioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Athanasios K; Anokhin, Maxim; Vavruska, Jan; Mahvash, Mehran; Scholz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    There is a number of different methods to localize a glioma intraoperatively. Neuronavigation, intraoperative MRI, 5-aminolevulinic acid, as well as intraoperative sonography. Every method has its advantages and disadvantages. Low grade gliomas do not show a specific signal with 5-aminolevulinic acid and are difficult to distinguish macroscopically from normal tissue. In the present study we stress out the importance of intraoperative diagnostic ultrasound for localization of low grade gliomas. We retrospectively evaluated the charts and MRIs of 34 patients with low grade gliomas operated in our department from 2011 until December 2014. The efficacy of ultrasound as an intraoperative navigational tool was assessed. In 15 patients ultrasound was used and in 19 not. Only histologically proven low grades gliomas (astrocytomas grade II) were evaluated. In none of the patients where ultrasound (combined with neuronavigation) was used (N=15) to find the tumors, the target was missed, whereas the exclusive use of neuronavigation missed the target in 5 of 19 cases of small subcortical low grade gliomas. Intraoperative ultrasound is an excellent tool in localizing low grade gliomas intraoperatively. It is an inexpensive, real time neuronavigational tool, which overcomes brain shift. Even when identifying the tumors with ultrasound is very reliable, the extend of resection and the decision to remove any residual tumor with the help of ultrasound is at the moment unreliable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of molecular pathways facilitating glioma cell invasion in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Nevo

    Full Text Available Gliomas are mostly incurable secondary to their diffuse infiltrative nature. Thus, specific therapeutic targeting of invasive glioma cells is an attractive concept. As cells exit the tumor mass and infiltrate brain parenchyma, they closely interact with a changing micro-environmental landscape that sustains tumor cell invasion. In this study, we used a unique microarray profiling approach on a human glioma stem cell (GSC xenograft model to explore gene expression changes in situ in Invading Glioma Cells (IGCs compared to tumor core, as well as changes in host cells residing within the infiltrated microenvironment relative to the unaffected cortex. IGCs were found to have reduced expression of genes within the extracellular matrix compartment, and genes involved in cell adhesion, cell polarity and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT processes. The infiltrated microenvironment showed activation of wound repair and tissue remodeling networks. We confirmed by protein analysis the downregulation of EMT and polarity related genes such as CD44 and PARD3 in IGCs, and EFNB3, a tissue-remodeling agent enriched at the infiltrated microenvironment. OLIG2, a proliferation regulator and glioma progenitor cell marker upregulated in IGCs was found to function in enhancing migration and stemness of GSCs. Overall, our results unveiled a more comprehensive picture of the complex and dynamic cell autonomous and tumor-host interactive pathways of glioma invasion than has been previously demonstrated. This suggests targeting of multiple pathways at the junction of invading tumor and microenvironment as a viable option for glioma therapy.

  19. Loss of heterozygosity of TRIM3 in malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, Jean-Louis; Stiefel, Urs; Taylor, Elisabeth; Dolder, Béatrice; Merlo, Adrian; Hirth, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are frequent primary brain tumors associated with poor prognosis and very limited response to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Besides sharing common growth features with other types of solid tumors, gliomas are highly invasive into adjacent brain tissue, which renders them particularly aggressive and their surgical resection inefficient. Therefore, insights into glioma formation are of fundamental interest in order to provide novel molecular targets for diagnostic purposes and potential anti-cancer drugs. Human Tripartite motif protein 3 (TRIM3) encodes a structural homolog of Drosophila brain tumor (brat) implicated in progenitor cell proliferation control and cancer stem cell suppression. TRIM3 is located within the loss of allelic heterozygosity (LOH) hotspot of chromosome segment 11p15.5, indicating a potential role in tumor suppression. ... Here we analyze 70 primary human gliomas of all types and grades and report somatic deletion mapping as well as single nucleotide polymorphism analysis together with quantitative real-time PCR of chromosome segment 11p15.5. Our analysis identifies LOH in 17 cases (24%) of primary human glioma which defines a common 130 kb-wide interval within the TRIM3 locus as a minimal area of loss. We further detect altered genomic dosage of TRIM3 in two glioma cases with LOH at 11p15.5, indicating homozygous deletions of TRIM3. Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome segment 11p15.5 in malignant gliomas suggests TRIM3 as a candidate brain tumor suppressor gene

  20. The potential for genetically altered microglia to influence glioma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Holsinger, R M D; Kruse, C A; Flügel, A; Graeber, M B

    2013-09-01

    Diffuse and unstoppable infiltration of brain and spinal cord tissue by neoplastic glial cells is the single most important therapeutic problem posed by the common glioma group of tumors: astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, their malignant variants and glioblastoma. These neoplasms account for more than two thirds of all malignant central nervous system tumors. However, most glioma research focuses on an examination of the tumor cells rather than on host-specific, tumor micro-environmental cells and factors. This can explain why existing diffuse glioma therapies fail and why these tumors have remained incurable. Thus, there is a great need for innovation. We describe a novel strategy for the development of a more effective treatment of diffuse glioma. Our approach centers on gaining control over the behavior of the microglia, the defense cells of the CNS, which are manipulated by malignant glioma and support its growth. Armoring microglia against the influences from glioma is one of our research goals. We further discuss how microglia precursors may be genetically enhanced to track down infiltrating glioma cells.

  1. Glioma epidemiology in the central Tunisian population: 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Saoussen; Brahim, Dorra H'mida-Ben; Ladib, Mohamed; Mama, Nadia; Harrabi, Imed; Tlili, Kalthoum; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Krifa, Hedi; Hmissa, Sihem; Saad, Ali; Mokni, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is a heterogeneous central nervous system (CNS) tumor group that encompasses different histological subtypes with high variability in prognosis. The lesions account for almost 80% of primary malignant brain tumors. The aim of this study is to extend our understanding of the glioma epidemiology in the central Tunisian region. We analyzed 393 gliomas recorded in cancer registry of central Tunisia from 1993 to 2012. Crude incidence rates (CR) and world age-standardized rates (ASR) were estimated using annual population data size and age structure. Statistic correlations were established using Chi-square and Kaplan-Meier test. Tunisian glioma patients were identified with a mean age at diagnosis of 48 years and 1.5 sex ratio (male/female). During the 19 years period of study the highest incidence value was observed in male group between 1998 and 2002 (CR: 0.28, ASR: 0.3). Incidence results underline increasing high grade glioma occurring in the adulthood in the last period (2007-2012). Median survival was 27 months, with 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates of 42%, 30% and 26%, respectively. Survival was greater in patients with younger age, lower tumor grade, infratentrial tumor location and undergoing a palliative treatment. This central Tunisia gliomas registry study provides important information that could improve glioma management and healthcare practice.

  2. The pimeloyl-CoA synthetase BioW defines a new fold for adenylate-forming enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Paola; Manandhar, Miglena; Dong, Shi-Hui; Deveryshetty, Jaigeeth; Agarwal, Vinayak; Cronan, John E.; Nair, Satish K.

    2017-04-17

    Reactions that activate carboxylates through acyl-adenylate intermediates are found throughout biology and include acyl- and aryl-CoA synthetases and tRNA synthetases. Here we describe the characterization of Aquifex aeolicus BioW, which represents a new protein fold within the superfamily of adenylating enzymes. Substrate-bound structures identified the enzyme active site and elucidated the mechanistic strategy for conjugating CoA to the seven-carbon α,ω-dicarboxylate pimelate, a biotin precursor. Proper position of reactive groups for the two half-reactions is achieved solely through movements of active site residues, as confirmed by site-directed mutational analysis. The ability of BioW to hydrolyze adenylates of noncognate substrates is reminiscent of pre-transfer proofreading observed in some tRNA synthetases, and we show that this activity can be abolished by mutation of a single residue. These studies illustrate how BioW can carry out three different biologically prevalent chemical reactions (adenylation, thioesterification, and proofreading) in the context of a new protein fold.

  3. Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling in the Developing Chick Heart: The Deranging Effect of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejnová, L.; Hahnová, K.; Kočková, Radka; Svatůňková, Jarmila; Sedmera, David; Novotný, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 2014 (2014), s. 463123 ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : embryonic heart * embryotoxicity * adenylyl cyclase * G protein * beta-blocking agents Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.579, year: 2014

  4. Agonist-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase in Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, M.F.; Tsao, J.; Pon, D.J.; Schimmer, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells (Y1DS) and Y1 mutants resistant to ACTH-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase (Y1DR) were transfected with a gene encoding the mouse beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2-AR). Transfectants expressed beta 2-ARs that were able to stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity and steroid biosynthesis. These transfectants were used to explore the basis for the DR mutation in Y1 cells. The authors demonstrate that beta-adrenergic agonists desensitize the adenylyl cyclase system in transfected Y1DS cells whereas transfected Y1DR cells are resistant to desensitization by beta-adrenergic agonists. The fate of the beta 2-ARs during desensitization was evaluated by photoaffinity labelling with [125I]iodocyanopindolol diazerine. Desensitization of Y1DS transfectants was accompanied by a modest loss in receptor density that was insufficient to account for the complete loss of responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonists. The extent of receptor loss induced by beta-adrenergic agonists in Y1DR transfectants exceeded that in the Y1DS transfectants indicating that the mutation which protects Y1DR cells from agonist-induced desensitization is prior to receptor down-regulation in the desensitization pathway. From these results we infer that ACTH and isoproterenol desensitize adenylyl cyclase by a common pathway and that receptor loss is not a major component of the desensitization process in these cells

  5. Soluble guanylyl cyclase is involved in PDT-induced injury of crayfish glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, V. D.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a potential tool for selective destruction of malignant brain tumors. However, not only malignant but also healthy neurons and glial cells may be damaged during PDT. Nitric oxide is an important modulator of cell viability and intercellular neuroglial communications. NO have been already shown to participate in PDT-induced injury of neurons and glial cells. As soluble guanylyl cyclase is the only known receptor for NO, we have studied the possible role of soluble guanylyl cyclase in the regulation of survival and death of neurons and surrounding glial cells under photo-oxidative stress induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT). The crayfish stretch receptor consisting of a single identified sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells is a simple but informative model object. It was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine photosens (10 nM) and irradiated with a laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2). Using inhibitory analysis we have shown that during PDT soluble guanylyl cyclase, probably, has proapoptotic and antinecrotic effect on the glial cells of the isolated crayfish stretch receptor. Proapoptotic effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase could be mediated by protein kinase G (PKG). Thus, the involvement of NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells was indirectly demonstrated.

  6. Activity Regulation by Heteromerization of Arabidopsis Allene Oxide Cyclase Family Members

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otto, M.; Naumann, Ch.; Brandt, W.; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 3. ISSN 2223-7747 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Activity regulation * Arabidopsis allene oxide cyclase isoforms * Heteromerization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Platelet adenylyl cyclase activity as a biochemical trait marker for predisposition to alcoholism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratsma, J.E.; Gunning, W.B.; Leurs, R.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a reduced G(s)-protein stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in the brain and blood cells of alcoholics. We investigated this phenomenon in platelets of children of alcoholics (COA), i.e., of children at high risk for the acquisition of alcoholism and (as yet) not

  8. Structure of glutaminyl cyclase from Drosophila melanogaster in space group I4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolenko, Petr; Koch, B.; Rahfeld, J.-U.; Schilling, S.; Demuth, H.-U.; Stubbs, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2013), s. 358-361 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : glutaminyl cyclases * Drosophila melanogaster * soaking Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2013

  9. Cryptic indole hydroxylation by a non-canonical terpenoid cyclase parallels bacterial xenobiotic detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Susann; Baunach, Martin; Baer, Philipp; Ishida-Ito, Mie; Sundaram, Srividhya; Xu, Zhongli; Groll, Michael; Hertweck, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Terpenoid natural products comprise a wide range of molecular architectures that typically result from C-C bond formations catalysed by classical type I/II terpene cyclases. However, the molecular diversity of biologically active terpenoids is substantially increased by fully unrelated, non-canonical terpenoid cyclases. Their evolutionary origin has remained enigmatic. Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of an unusual flavin-dependent bacterial indoloterpenoid cyclase, XiaF, together with a designated flavoenzyme-reductase (XiaP) that mediates a key step in xiamycin biosynthesis. The crystal structure of XiaF with bound FADH2 (at 2.4 Å resolution) and phylogenetic analyses reveal that XiaF is, surprisingly, most closely related to xenobiotic-degrading enzymes. Biotransformation assays show that XiaF is a designated indole hydroxylase that can be used for the production of indigo and indirubin. We unveil a cryptic hydroxylation step that sets the basis for terpenoid cyclization and suggest that the cyclase has evolved from xenobiotics detoxification enzymes.

  10. Activation of glioma cells generates immune tolerant NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bo; Wu, Wei; Wei, Xiaowei; Li, Yang; Ren, Gang; Fan, Wenhai

    2014-12-12

    Therapeutic outcomes of glioma are currently not encouraging. Tumor tolerance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glioma. It is reported that micro RNAs (miR) are associated with tumor development. This study aims to investigate the role of miR-92a in the development of tolerant natural killer T (NKT) cells. In this study, U87 cells (a human glioma cell line) and primary glioma cells were prepared. The assessment of miR-92a was performed by real time RT-PCR. The expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 in NKT cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results showed that abundant IL-6(+) IL-10(+) NKT cells were detected in glioma tissue. Cultures of glioma cells and NKT cells induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in NKT cells. Glioma cells expressed miR-92a; the latter played a critical role in the induction of IL-6 and IL-10 expression in NKT cells. The expression of the antitumor molecules, including perforin, Fas ligand, and interferon-γ, was significantly attenuated compared with control NKT cells. The IL-6(+) IL-10(+) NKT cells showed less capability in the induction of apoptosis in glioma cells, but showed the immune suppressor functions on CD8(+) T cell activities. We conclude that glioma-derived miR-92a induces IL-6(+) IL-10(+) NKT cells; this fraction of NKT cells can suppress cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Selective Targeting to Glioma with Nucleic Acid Aptamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Aptekar

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma is characterised by a rapid growth rate and high capacity for invasive infiltration to surrounding brain tissue; hence, diagnosis and treatment is difficult and patient survival is poor. Aptamers contribute a promising and unique technology for the in vitro imaging of live cells and tissues, with a potentially bright future in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics for malignant glioma. The binding selectivity, uptake capacity and binding target of two DNA aptamers, SA43 and SA44, were investigated in glioma cells and patient tissues. The binding assay showed that SA43 and SA44 bound with strong affinity (Kd, 21.56 ± 4.60 nM and Kd, 21.11 ± 3.30 nM respectively to the target U87MG cells. Quantitative analysis by flow cytometry showed that the aptamers were able to actively internalise in U87MG and 1321N1 glioma cells compared to the non-cancerous and non-glioma cell types. Confocal microscopy confirmed staining in the cytoplasm, and co-localisation studies with endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and lysosomal markers suggested internalisation and compartmentalisation within the endomembrane system. Both aptamers selectively bound to Ku 70 and Ku 80 DNA repair proteins as determined by aptoprecipitation (AP followed by mass spectrometry analysis and confirmation by Western blot. In addition, aptohistochemical (AHC staining on paraffin embedded, formalin fixed patient tissues revealed that the binding selectivity was significantly higher for SA43 aptamer in glioma tissues (grade I, II, III and IV compared to the non-cancerous tissues, whereas SA44 did not show selectivity towards glioma tissues. The results indicate that SA43 aptamer can differentiate between glioma and non-cancerous cells and tissues and therefore, shows promise for histological diagnosis of glioma.

  12. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy T. Efird

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive.

  13. Comprehensive, Integrative Genomic Analysis of Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Daniel J; Verhaak, Roel G W; Aldape, Kenneth D; Yung, W K Alfred; Salama, Sofie R; Cooper, Lee A D; Rheinbay, Esther; Miller, C Ryan; Vitucci, Mark; Morozova, Olena; Robertson, A Gordon; Noushmehr, Houtan; Laird, Peter W; Cherniack, Andrew D; Akbani, Rehan; Huse, Jason T; Ciriello, Giovanni; Poisson, Laila M; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Berger, Mitchel S; Brennan, Cameron; Colen, Rivka R; Colman, Howard; Flanders, Adam E; Giannini, Caterina; Grifford, Mia; Iavarone, Antonio; Jain, Rajan; Joseph, Isaac; Kim, Jaegil; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mikkelsen, Tom; Murray, Bradley A; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Pachter, Lior; Parsons, Donald W; Sougnez, Carrie; Sulman, Erik P; Vandenberg, Scott R; Van Meir, Erwin G; von Deimling, Andreas; Zhang, Hailei; Crain, Daniel; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Yena, Peggy; Black, Aaron; Bowen, Jay; Dicostanzo, Katie; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Leraas, Kristen M; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Pierson, Christopher R; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Taylor, Cynthia; Weaver, Stephanie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin L; Hutter, Carolyn M; Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Ozenberger, Bradley A; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Jensen, Mark A; Liu, Jia; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Auman, J Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bootwalla, Moiz S; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott; Chin, Lynda; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Clarke, Amanda; Coetzee, Simon G; Dhalla, Noreen; Fennell, Tim; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Gibbs, Richard; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Hayes, D Neil; Hinoue, Toshinori; Hoadley, Katherine; Holt, Robert A; Hoyle, Alan P; Jefferys, Stuart R; Jones, Steven; Jones, Corbin D; Kucherlapati, Raju; Lai, Phillip H; Lander, Eric; Lee, Semin; Lichtenstein, Lee; Ma, Yussanne; Maglinte, Dennis T; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S; Marra, Marco A; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew L; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Moore, Richard A; Mose, Lisle E; Mungall, Andrew J; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J; Parker, Joel S; Perou, Charles M; Protopopov, Alexei; Ren, Xiaojia; Roach, Jeffrey; Sabedot, Thaís S; Schein, Jacqueline; Schumacher, Steven E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seth, Sahil; Shen, Hui; Simons, Janae V; Sipahimalani, Payal; Soloway, Matthew G; Song, Xingzhi; Sun, Huandong; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Thiessen, Nina; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Waring, Scot; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I; Zhang, Jianhua; Aksoy, B Arman; Arachchi, Harindra; Benz, Chris; Bernard, Brady; Carlin, Daniel; Cho, Juok; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fuller, Gregory N; Gao, JianJiong; Gehlenborg, Nils; Haussler, David; Heiman, David I; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Ju, Zhenlin; Katzman, Sol; Kim, Hoon; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kreisberg, Richard Bailey; Lawrence, Michael S; Lee, William; Leinonen, Kalle; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Yuexin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Ng, Sam; Noble, Michael S; Paull, Evan; Rao, Arvind; Reynolds, Sheila; Saksena, Gordon; Sanborn, Zack; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Shen, Ronglai; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sinha, Rileen; Stuart, Josh; Sumer, S Onur; Sun, Yichao; Tasman, Natalie; Taylor, Barry S; Voet, Doug; Weinhold, Nils; Weinstein, John N; Yang, Da; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Zheng, Siyuan; Zhang, Wei; Zou, Lihua; Abel, Ty; Sadeghi, Sara; Cohen, Mark L; Eschbacher, Jenny; Hattab, Eyas M; Raghunathan, Aditya; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Aziz, Dina; Barnett, Gene; Barrett, Wendi; Bigner, Darell D; Boice, Lori; Brewer, Cathy; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Campos, Benito; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Chan, Timothy A; Cuppini, Lucia; Curley, Erin; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; Devine, Karen; DiMeco, Francesco; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J Bradley; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Fulop, Jordonna; Gardner, Johanna; Hermes, Beth; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christine; Kendler, Ady; Lehman, Norman L; Lipp, Eric; Liu, Ouida; Mandt, Randy; McGraw, Mary; Mclendon, Roger; McPherson, Christopher; Neder, Luciano; Nguyen, Phuong; Noss, Ardene; Nunziata, Raffaele; Ostrom, Quinn T; Palmer, Cheryl; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Potapov, Alexander; Potapova, Olga; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Rotin, Daniil; Scarpace, Lisa; Schilero, Cathy; Senecal, Kelly; Shimmel, Kristen; Shurkhay, Vsevolod; Sifri, Suzanne; Singh, Rosy; Sloan, Andrew E; Smolenski, Kathy; Staugaitis, Susan M; Steele, Ruth; Thorne, Leigh; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Unterberg, Andreas; Vallurupalli, Mahitha; Wang, Yun; Warnick, Ronald; Williams, Felicia; Wolinsky, Yingli; Bell, Sue; Rosenberg, Mara; Stewart, Chip; Huang, Franklin; Grimsby, Jonna L; Radenbaugh, Amie J; Zhang, Jianan

    2015-06-25

    Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas. We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes. Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma. The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most

  14. Photodynamic therapy of recurrent cerebral glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Gan; Wu, Si-En; Chen, Zong-Qian; Sun, Wei

    1993-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed on 11 cases of recurrent cerebral glioma, including 3 cases of recurrent glioblastoma, 7 of recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma, and 1 recurrent ependymoma. Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) was administered intravenously at a dose of 4 - 7 mg/kg 5 - 24 hours before the operation. All patients underwent a craniotomy with a nearly radical excision of the tumor following which the tumor bed was irradiated with 630 nm laser light emitting either an argon pumped dye laser or frequency double YAG pumped dye laser for 30 to 80 minutes with a total dose of 50 J/cm2 (n equals 1), 100 J/cm2 (n equals 2), 200 J/cm2 (n equals 7), and 300 J/cm2 (n equals 1). The temperature was kept below 37 degree(s)C by irrigation. Two patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy. There was no evidence of increased cerebral edema, and no other toxicity by the therapy. All patients were discharged from the hospital within 15 days after surgery. We conclude that PDT using 4 - 7 mg/kg of HPD and 630 nm light with a dose of up to 300 J/cm2 can be used as an adjuvant therapy with no additional complications. Adjuvant PDT in the treatment of recurrent glioma is better than simple surgery.

  15. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: poised for progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are amongst the most challenging tumors to treat. Surgery is not an option, the effects of radiation therapy are temporary, and no chemotherapeutic agent has demonstrated significant efficacy. Numerous clinical trials of new agents and novel therapeutic approaches have been performed over the course of several decades in efforts to improve the outcome of children with DIPG, yet without success. The diagnosis of DIPG is based on radiographic findings in the setting of a typical clinical presentation, and tissue is not routinely obtained as the standard of care. The paradigm for treating children with these tumors has been based on that for supratentorial high-grade gliomas in adults as the biology of these lesions were presumed to be similar. However, recent pivotal studies demonstrate that DIPGs appear to be their own entity. Simply identifying this fact releases a number of constraints and opens opportunities for biologic investigation of these lesions, setting the stage to move forward in identifying DIPG-specific treatments. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge of DIPG, discuss obstacles to therapy, and summarize results of recent biologic studies.

  16. Cerebral Connectivity and High-grade Gliomas: Evolving Concepts of Eloquent Brain in Surgery for Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Konakondla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in imaging the human brain help us map and understand the intricacies of cerebral connectivity. Current techniques and specific imaging sequences, however, do come with limitations. Image resolution, variability of techniques and interpretation of images across institutions are just a few concerns. In the setting of high-grade gliomas, understanding how these pathways are affected during tumor growth, surgical resection, and in the brain plasticity presents an even greater challenge. Clinical symptoms, tumor growth, and intraoperative electrical stimulation are important peri-operative considerations to assist in determining neuronal re-wiring and establish a basis of anatomic and functional correlation. The application of functional mapping coupled with the understanding of the natural history of gliomas and implications of neural plasticity, is critical in achieving the goals of maximal tumor resection while minimizing post operative deficits and improving quality of life.

  17. Energetics and Structural Characterization of the large-scale Functional Motion of Adenylate Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Elena; Limongelli, Vittorio; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Adenylate Kinase (AK) is a signal transducing protein that regulates cellular energy homeostasis balancing between different conformations. An alteration of its activity can lead to severe pathologies such as heart failure, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A comprehensive elucidation of the large-scale conformational motions that rule the functional mechanism of this enzyme is of great value to guide rationally the development of new medications. Here using a metadynamics-based computational protocol we elucidate the thermodynamics and structural properties underlying the AK functional transitions. The free energy estimation of the conformational motions of the enzyme allows characterizing the sequence of events that regulate its action. We reveal the atomistic details of the most relevant enzyme states, identifying residues such as Arg119 and Lys13, which play a key role during the conformational transitions and represent druggable spots to design enzyme inhibitors. Our study offers tools that open new areas of investigation on large-scale motion in proteins.

  18. Immunotherapy Approaches for Malignant Glioma From 2007 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a deadly disease for which there have been few therapeutic advances over the past century. Although previous treatments were largely unsuccessful, glioma may be an ideal target for immune-based therapy. Recently, translational research led to several clinical trials based on tumor immunotherapy to treat patients with malignant glioma. Here we review 17 recent glioma immunotherapy clinical trials, published over the past 3 years. Various approaches were used, including passive transfer of naked and radiolabeled antibodies, tumor antigen-specific peptide immunization, and the use of patient tumor cells with or without dendritic cells as vaccines. We compare and discuss the current state of the art of clinical immunotherapy treatment, as well as its limited successes, pitfalls, and future potential. PMID:20424975

  19. Cognitive rehabilitation in patients with gliomas : a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Karin; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Gundy, Chad M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Klein, Martin; Postma, Tjeerd J; van den Bent, Martin J; Beute, Guus N; Enting, Roelien H.; Kappelle, Arnoud C; Boogerd, Willem; Veninga, Theo; Twijnstra, Albert; Boerman, Dolf H; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with gliomas often experience cognitive deficits, including problems with attention and memory. This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the effects of a multifaceted cognitive rehabilitation program (CRP) on cognitive functioning and selected quality-of-life domains in patients

  20. Glioma-Associated Antigen HEATR1 Induces Functional Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Patients with Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Bao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A2B5+ glioblastoma (GBM cells have glioma stem-like cell (GSC properties that are crucial to chemotherapy resistance and GBM relapse. T-cell-based antigens derived from A2B5+ GBM cells provide important information for immunotherapy. Here, we show that HEAT repeat containing 1 (HEATR1 expression in GBM tissues was significantly higher than that in control brain tissues. Furthermore, HEATR1 expression in A2B5+ U87 cells was higher than that in A2B5−U87 cells (P=0.016. Six peptides of HEATR1 presented by HLA-A*02 were selected for testing of their ability to induce T-cell responses in patients with GBM. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors (n=6 and patients with glioma (n=33 were stimulated with the peptide mixture, eight patients with malignant gliomas had positive reactivity with a significantly increased number of responding T-cells. The peptides HEATR1682–690, HEATR11126–1134, and HEATR1757–765 had high affinity for binding to HLA-A*02:01 and a strong capacity to induce CTL response. CTLs against HEATR1 peptides were capable of recognizing and lysing GBM cells and GSCs. These data are the first to demonstrate that HEATR1 could induce specific CTL responses targeting both GBM cells and GSCs, implicating that HEATR1 peptide-based immunotherapy could be a novel promising strategy for treating patients with GBM.

  1. Selective splitting of 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates by specific enzymes degrading dinucleoside polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Sillero, Antonio; Günther Sillero, María Antonia

    2003-01-01

    Several 3'-[(32)P]adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates (Np(n)N'p*As) were synthesized by the use of poly(A) polymerase (Sillero MAG et al., 2001, Eur J Biochem.; 268: 3605-11) and three of them, ApppA[(32)P]A or ApppAp*A, AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A, were tested as potential substrates of different dinucleoside polyphosphate degrading enzymes. Human (asymmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17) acted almost randomly on both AppppAp*A, yielding approximately equal amounts of pppA + pAp*A and pA + pppAp*A, and GppppGp*, yielding pppG + pGp*A and pG + pppGp*A. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) tetraphosphatase acted preferentially on the dinucleotide unmodified end of both AppppAp*A (yielding 90% of pppA + pAp*A and 10 % of pA + pppAp*A) and GppppGp*A (yielding 89% pppG + pGp*A and 11% of pG + pppGp*A). (Symmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.41) from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A producing equal amounts of ppA + ppAp*A and ppG + ppGp*A, respectively, and, to a lesser extent, ApppAp*A producing pA + ppAp*A. Two dinucleoside triphosphatases (EC 3.6.1.29) (the human Fhit protein and the enzyme from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)) and dinucleoside tetraphosphate phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.53) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not degrade the three 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates tested.

  2. Podoplanin increases migration and angiogenesis in malignant glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Stefan J; Trillsch, Fabian; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Goldbrunner, Roland H; Noessner, Elfriede; Nelson, Peter J; von Luettichau, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Expression of podoplanin in glial brain tumors is grade dependent. While serving as a marker for tumor progression and modulating invasion in various neoplasms, little is known about podoplanin function in gliomas. Therefore we stably transfected two human glioma cell lines (U373MG and U87MG) with expression plasmids encoding podoplanin. The efficacy of transfection was confirmed by FACS analysis, PCR and immunocytochemistry. Cells were then sorted for highly podoplanin expressing cells (U373...

  3. Molecular Subtyping of Tumors from Patients with Familial Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vanessa Y; Praska, Corinne E; Armstrong, Georgina; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; Yamada, Seiji; Decker, Paul A; Kosel, Matthew L; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Consortium, The Gliogene; Lachance, Daniel H; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L; Jenkins, Robert B

    2017-10-10

    Single-gene mutation syndromes account for some familial glioma (FG); however, they make up only a small fraction of glioma families. Gliomas can be classified into 3 major molecular subtypes based on IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. We hypothesized that the prevalence of molecular subtypes might differ in familial versus sporadic gliomas, and that tumors in the same family should have the same molecular subtype. Participants in the FG study (Gliogene) provided samples for germline DNA analysis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor was obtained for a subset of FG cases, and DNA was extracted. We analyzed tissue from 75 families, including 10 families containing a second affected family member. Copy number variation (CNV) data was obtained using a first-generation Affymetrix molecular inversion probe (MIP) array. Samples from 62 of 75 (83%) FG cases could be classified into the 3 subtypes. The prevalence of the molecular subtypes was: 30 (48%) IDH-wild type, 21 (34%) IDH-mutant non-codeleted, and 11 (19%) IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted. This distribution of molecular subtypes was not statistically different from that of sporadic gliomas (p=0.54). Of 10 paired FG samples, molecular subtypes were concordant for 7 (κ=0.59): 3 IDH-mutant non-codeleted, 2 IDH-wild type, and 2 IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas. Our data suggest that within individual families, patients develop gliomas of the same molecular subtype. However, we did not observe differences in the prevalence of the molecular subtypes in FG compared with sporadic gliomas. These observations provide further insight about the distribution of molecular subtypes in FG. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Multiple Daily Fractionated RT for Malignant Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kang Mo; Chang, Hye Sook; Ahn, Seoung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    Since Jan. 1992, authors have conducted a pilot study to treat malignant glioma with multiple daily fractionated (MDF) radiation therapy and this paper presents the outcome compared MDF to conventional fractionated (CF) radiation therapy. Between Sep. 1989 and Jan. 1993, forty-three patients with high grade glioma of brain except brain stem glioma were treated: nineteen patients were treated with CF radiation therapy and 24 patients were treated with MDF radiation therapy. In CF radiation therapy, total dose was 6300cHy/35fx in 7 weeks, which 5040cGy was delivered to the initial target volume and 1260cGy to reduced target volume. And in MDF radiation therapy, total dose was 6400cGy/40fx in 4 weeks, which 3200cGy was delivered to the initial target volume as 160cGy 2 times daily 6hr apart. All patients had histologically confirmed anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) of glioblastoma multiforme(GBM) with stereotactic biopsy or craniotomy for subtotal or gross tumor resection. The rage of follow-up was 7 months to 4 years with a median follow-up of 9 months. The Median survival from surgery was 9 months for all patients. The median survival was 9 months and 10 months for MDF group and CF group and 10 months and 9.5 months for glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma, respectively. In 36 patients with follow-up CT scan or MRI scan, disease status was evaluated according to treatment group. Four patients (GBM:3, AA:1) of 21 patients in MDF group, were alive with no evidence of disease, while none of patient was alive with no evidence of disease in CF group. The progression of disease had occurred in 20 patients, 11 patients and 9 patients in MDF group and CF group, respectively. All of these patients showed in-field progression of disease. Four of 11 patients (27%) in MDF group showed the new lesion outside of the treatment field, while 5 of 9 patients(56%) in CF group. In our study the prognosis was not influenced by age, KPS, grade, extent of surgery and different

  5. Extra-Neural Metastases of Malignant Gliomas: Myth or Reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchesne, Patrick [Neuro-Oncology, CHU de NANCY, Hôpital Central, CO n°34, 54035 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2011-01-27

    Malignant gliomas account for approximately 60% of all primary brain tumors in adults. Prognosis for these patients has not significantly changed in recent years— despite debulking surgery, radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy—with a median survival of 9–12 months. Virtually no patients are cured of their illness. Malignant gliomas are usually locally invasive tumors, though extra-neural metastases can sometimes occur late in the course of the disease (median of two years). They generally appear after craniotomy although spontaneous metastases have also been reported. The incidence of these metastases from primary intra-cranial malignant gliomas is low; it is estimated at less than 2% of all cases. Extra-neural metastases from gliomas frequently occur late in the course of the disease (median of two years), and generally appear after craniotomy, but spontaneous metastases have also been reported. Malignant glioma metastases usually involve the regional lymph nodes, lungs and pleural cavity, and occasionally the bone and liver. In this review, we present three cases of extra-neural metastasis of malignant gliomas from our department, summarize the main reported cases in literature, and try to understand the mechanisms underlying these systemic metastases.

  6. C-MET overexpression and amplification in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonjin; Kim, Seong-Ik; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Lee, Soon-Tae; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    We investigated c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification in gliomas to determine their incidence and prognostic significance. c-Met immunohistochemistry and MET gene fluorescence in situ hybridization were carried out on tissue microarrays from 250 patients with gliomas (137 grade IV GBMs and 113 grade II and III diffuse gliomas). Clinicopathological features of these cases were reviewed. c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification were detected in 13.1% and 5.1% of the GBMs, respectively. All the MET-amplified cases showed c-Met overexpression, but MET amplification was not always concordant with c-Met overexpression. None of grade II and III gliomas demonstrated c-Met overexpression or MET gene amplification. Mean survival of the GBM patients with MET amplification was not significantly different from patients without MET amplification (P=0.155). However, GBM patients with c-Met overexpression survived longer than patients without c-Met overexpression (P=0.035). Although MET amplification was not related to poor GBM prognosis, it is partially associated with the aggressiveness of gliomas, as MET amplification was found only in grade IV, not in grade II and III gliomas. We suggest that MET inhibitor therapy may be beneficial in about 5% GBMs, which was the incidence of MET gene amplification found in the patients included in this study.

  7. Regulation of hormone-receptor coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Effects of GTP and GDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, R; Abramowitz, J; Bordelon-Riser, M; Blume, A J; Birnbaumer, L

    1980-11-10

    GDP and GTP regulation of receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclases in membranes of S49 murine lymphoma cells (S49), NS-20 murine neuroblastoma cells (NS-20), rabbit corpora lutea (CL), and turkey erythrocytes were studied under assay conditions which minimized conversion of added GTP to GDP and of added GDP to GTP. Hormonal stimulation in all systems required guanine nucleotide addition. In the presence of GTP, adenylyl cyclase activity in S49, NS-20, and CL was stimulated respectively by isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), by PGE1 and the adenosine analog, phenylisopropyladenosine, and by PGE1 and isoproterenol, with the first of the listed stimulants eliciting higher activities than the second. Activity in turkey erythrocyte membranes was stimulated by isoproterenol. GDP was partially effective in promoting hormonal stimulation, being able to sustain stimulation by isoproterenol and PGE1 in S49 cell membranes and by PGE1 in CL membranes. In NS-20 membranes, both GDP and guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) were inhibitory on basal activity, yet promoted limited but significant stimulation by PGE1. In turkey erythrocytes, stimulation by isoproterenol could not be elicited with GDP or GDP beta S. Thus, although less effective than GTP in promoting hormonal stimulation of several adenylyl cyclase systems, GDP was clearly not inactive. Concentration effect curves for active hormone in the presence of GDP had higher apparent Ka values than in the presence of GTP. In spite of differences between the effects of GTP and GDP on hormonal stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activities, GTP and GDP affected equally well isoproterenol binding, regardless of whether or not its receptor could be shown to stimulate adenylyl cyclase in the presence of GDP. Determination of transphosphorylation of GDP to GTP showed that at saturating concentrations, the proportion of GDP converted to GTP is negligible and unaffected by hormonal stimulation. Concentrations

  8. Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase promotes the growth of human glioma cells by activating Notch-Akt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Shang-Hang; Yu, Ning; Liu, Xi-Yao; Tan, Guo-Wei; Wang, Zhan-Xiang, E-mail: md_wzx7189@163.com

    2016-03-18

    Glioma as an aggressive type tumor is rapidly growing and has become one of the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) has been shown as a diagnostic marker in various cancers. To reveal whether there is a correlation between GGCT and human glioma, GGCT expression in human glioma tissues and cell lines was first determined. We found that GGCT expression was up-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. Further, we demonstrate that GGCT knockdown inhibits glioma cell T98G and U251 proliferation and colony formation, whereas GGCT overexpression leads to oppose effects. GGCT overexpression promotes the expression of Notch receptors and activates Akt signaling in glioma cells, and Notch-Akt signaling is activated in glioma tissues with high expression of GGCT. Finally, we show that inhibition of Notch-Akt signaling with Notch inhibitor MK-0752 blocks the effects of GGCT on glioma proliferation and colony formation. In conclusion, GGCT plays a critical role in glioma cell proliferation and may be a potential cancer therapeutic target. - Highlights: • GGCT expression is up-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. • GGCT promotes glioma cell growth and colony formation. • GGCT promotes the activation of Notch-Akt signaling in glioma cells and tissues. • Notch inhibition blocks the role of GGCT in human glioma cells.

  9. Identification of the chlE gene encoding oxygen-independent Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Kaori; Minamizaki, Kei; Fujita, Yuichi

    2015-08-07

    The fifth ring (E-ring) of chlorophyll (Chl) a is produced by Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) cyclase. There are two evolutionarily unrelated MPE cyclases: oxygen-independent (BchE) and oxygen-dependent (ChlA/AcsF) MPE cyclases. Although ChlA is the sole MPE cyclase in Synechocystis PCC 6803, it is yet unclear whether BchE exists in cyanobacteria. A BLAST search suggests that only few cyanobacteria possess bchE. Here, we report that two bchE candidate genes from Cyanothece strains PCC 7425 and PCC 7822 restore the photosynthetic growth and bacteriochlorophyll production in a bchE-lacking mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus. We termed these cyanobacterial bchE orthologs "chlE." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A cost-effective method for Illumina small RNA-Seq library preparation using T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun-Ru

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for novel small RNA discovery. Illumina small RNA sequencing library preparation requires a pre-adenylated 3’ end adapter containing a 5’,5’-adenyl pyrophosphoryl moiety. In the absence of ATP, this adapter can be ligated to the 3’ hydroxyl group of small RNA, while RNA self-ligation and concatenation are repressed. Pre-adenylated adapters are one of the most essential and costly components required for library preparation, and few are commercially available. Results We demonstrate that DNA oligo with 5’ phosphate and 3’ amine groups can be enzymatically adenylated by T4 RNA ligase 1 to generate customized pre-adenylated adapters. We have constructed and sequenced a small RNA library for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum using the T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapter. Conclusion We provide an efficient and low-cost method for small RNA sequencing library preparation, which takes two days to complete and costs around $20 per library. This protocol has been tested in several plant species for small RNA sequencing including sweet potato, pepper, watermelon, and cowpea, and could be readily applied to any RNA samples.

  11. Immunotherapy of diffuse gliomas: biological background, current status and future developments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauer, O.M.; Wesseling, P.; Adema, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite aggressive multimodal treatment approaches, the prognosis for patients with diffuse gliomas remains disappointing. Glioma cells often extensively infiltrate in the surrounding brain parenchyma, a phenomenon that helps them to escape surgical removal, radiation exposure and chemotherapy.

  12. Structure of glutaminyl cyclase from Drosophila melanogaster in space group I4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenko, Petr; Koch, Birgit; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Stubbs, Milton T.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ligand-free glutaminyl cyclase from D. melanogaster has been determined in a novel crystal form belonging to space group I4. The structure of ligand-free glutaminyl cyclase (QC) from Drosophila melanogaster (DmQC) has been determined in a novel crystal form. The protein crystallized in space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 122.3, c = 72.7 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2 Å at the home source. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and was refined to an R factor of 0.169. DmQC exhibits a typical α/β-hydrolase fold. The electron density of three monosaccharides could be localized. The accessibility of the active site will facilitate structural studies of novel inhibitor-binding modes

  13. Spatial resolution of cAMP signaling by soluble adenylyl cyclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldieri, Giusi

    2016-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptor signaling starts at the plasma membrane and continues at endosomal stations. In this issue, Inda et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201512075) show that different forms of adenylyl cyclase are activated at the plasma membrane versus endosomes, providing a rationale for the spatial encoding of cAMP signaling. PMID:27402955

  14. Characterization of the Human ?1?1 Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Marro, Mart?n L.; Peir?, Concepci?n; Panayiotou, Catherine M.; Baliga, Reshma S.; Meurer, Sabine; Schmidt, Harald H. H. W.; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2008-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the principal receptor for NO and plays a ubiquitous role in regulating cellular function. This is exemplified in the cardiovascular system where sGC governs smooth muscle tone and growth, vascular permeability, leukocyte flux, and platelet aggregation. As a consequence, aberrant NO-sGC signaling has been linked to diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Despite these key (patho)physiological roles, little is known about the expressional...

  15. Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase defines a nuclear cAMP microdomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippin, Jonathan H.; Farrell, Jeanne; Huron, David; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Hess, Kenneth C.; Fischman, Donald A.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase resides, in part, inside the mammalian cell nucleus where it stimulates the activity of nuclear protein kinase A to phosphorylate the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The existence of this complete and functional, nuclear-localized cAMP pathway establishes that cAMP signals in intracellular microdomains and identifies an alternate pathway leading to CREB activation. PMID:14769862

  16. Antiarrhythmic effect of prolonged morphine exposure is accompanied by altered myocardial adenylyl cyclase signaling in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škrabalová, J.; Neckář, Jan; Hejnová, L.; Bartoňová, I.; Kolář, František; Novotný, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2012), s. 351-359 ISSN 1734-1140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA501110901 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 429511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat myocardium * morphine * adenylyl cyclase * G-proteins * arrhythmias Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.965, year: 2012

  17. Chemical shift assignments of polyketide cyclase_like protein CGL2373 from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunjie; Hu, Rui; Ramelot, Theresa A; Kennedy, Michael A; Li, Xuegang; Yang, Yunhuang; Zhu, Jiang; Liu, Maili

    2017-10-01

    Protein CGL2373 from Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is 155 amino acids long and 17.7 kDa, is a member of the polyketide_cyc2 family. As a potential polyketide cyclase, it may play an important role in the biosynthesis of aromatic polyketides that are the source of many bioactive molecules. Here we report the complete 1 H, 13 C and 15 N chemical shift assignments of CGL2373, which lays a foundation for further structural and functional research.

  18. Transgenic rescue of defective Cd36 enhances myocardial adenylyl cyclase signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klevstig, M.; Manakov, D.; Kašparová, D.; Brabcová, I.; Papoušek, František; Žurmanová, J.; Zídek, Václav; Šilhavý, Jan; Neckář, Jan; Pravenec, Michal; Kolář, František; Nováková, O.; Novotný, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 465, č. 10 (2013), s. 1477-1486 ISSN 0031-6768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX01110901; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0505 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : SHR rats * Cd36 * heart * beta-Adrenergic receptors * Adenylyl cyclase * Protein kinase A Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.073, year: 2013

  19. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood brain stem glioma presents as a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG; a fast-growing tumor that is difficult to treat and has a poor prognosis) or a focal glioma (grows more slowly, is easier to treat, and has a better prognosis). Learn about the diagnosis, cellular classification, staging, treatment, and clinical trials for pediatric brain stem glioma in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarkan, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie [CNRS-UMR 8525, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 477, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Belrhali, Hassan [EMBL Grenoble Outstation, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Baeyens-Volant, Danielle [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Looze, Yvan [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale, Institut de Pharmacie-ULB CP206/04, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Villeret, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.villeret@ibl.fr [CNRS-UMR 8525, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 477, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Wintjens, René, E-mail: vincent.villeret@ibl.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale, Institut de Pharmacie-ULB CP206/04, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å.

  1. Identification of photoactivated adenylyl cyclases in Naegleria australiensis and BLUF-containing protein in Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Hiro; Sato, Aya; Kita, Ayaka; Kodaira, Ken-Ichi; Iseki, Mineo; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Shibusawa, Mami; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Yagita, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Complete genome sequencing of Naegleria gruberi has revealed that the organism encodes polypeptides similar to photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs). Screening in the N. australiensis genome showed that the organism also encodes polypeptides similar to PACs. Each of the Naegleria proteins consists of a "sensors of blue-light using FAD" domain (BLUF domain) and an adenylyl cyclase domain (AC domain). PAC activity of the Naegleria proteins was assayed by comparing sensitivities of Escherichia coli cells heterologously expressing the proteins to antibiotics in a dark condition and a blue light-irradiated condition. Antibiotics used in the assays were fosfomycin and fosmidomycin. E. coli cells expressing the Naegleria proteins showed increased fosfomycin sensitivity and fosmidomycin sensitivity when incubated under blue light, indicating that the proteins functioned as PACs in the bacterial cells. Analysis of the N. fowleri genome revealed that the organism encodes a protein bearing an amino acid sequence similar to that of BLUF. A plasmid expressing a chimeric protein consisting of the BLUF-like sequence found in N. fowleri and the adenylyl cyclase domain of N. gruberi PAC was constructed to determine whether the BLUF-like sequence functioned as a sensor of blue light. E. coli cells expressing a chimeric protein showed increased fosfomycin sensitivity and fosmidomycin sensitivity when incubated under blue light. These experimental results indicated that the sequence similar to the BLUF domain found in N. fowleri functioned as a sensor of blue light.

  2. Elevation of Urinary 2-Hydroxyglutarate in IDH-Mutant Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Amir T; Nahed, Brian V; Wander, Seth A; Iafrate, A John; Borger, Darrell R; Hu, Ranliang; Thabet, Ashraf; Cahill, Daniel P; Perry, Ashley M; Joseph, Christelle P; Muzikansky, Alona; Chi, Andrew S

    2016-02-01

    Recurrent mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 genes, which are frequent in gliomas, result in marked accumulation of the metabolic by-product 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) within tumors. In other malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia, presence of IDH mutation is associated with elevated 2-HG levels in serum or urine compartments. Circulating 2-HG in patients with glial malignancies has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we analyzed 2-HG levels in the serum and urine of a large set of patients with IDH-mutant and IDH-wild-type glioma, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a subset of this cohort. We found that 2-HG was elevated in the urine of patients with IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild-type glioma, although no significant differences in 2-HG levels were observed in the serum or the small set of CSF samples obtained. Among patients with IDH-mutant glioma, 2-HG levels did not differ based on the histopathologic grade, genetic subtype (TP53 mutant or 1p/19q codeleted), presence of a canonical (IDH1 R132H) or noncanonical (any other IDH variant) mutation, or treatment type. Our finding suggests that urinary 2-HG is increased among patients with IDH-mutant gliomas, and may represent a future surrogate, noninvasive biomarker to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Patients with glioma who harbor mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase genes showed selective elevation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate in the urine. Similar elevations were not identified in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid. 2-Hydroxyglutarate may serve as a useful, noninvasive biomarker to stratify patients newly diagnosed with glioma with regard to prognosis and management. ©AlphaMed Press.

  3. The role of drebrin in glioma migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terakawa, Yuzo [The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Agnihotri, Sameer; Golbourn, Brian; Nadi, Mustafa; Sabha, Nesrin; Smith, Christian A. [The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Croul, Sidney E. [The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Division of Neuropathology, University Health Network, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (Canada); Rutka, James T., E-mail: james.rutka@sickkids.ca [The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-02-15

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current advances in therapy consisting of surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation, the overall survival rate still remains poor. Therapeutic failures are partly attributable to the highly infiltrative nature of tumor adjacent to normal brain parenchyma. Recently, evidence is mounting to suggest that actin cytoskeleton dynamics are critical components of the cell invasion process. Drebrin is an actin-binding protein involved in the regulation of actin filament organization, and plays a significant role in cell motility; however, the role of drebrin in glioma cell invasiveness has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study was aimed to clarify the role of drebrin in glioma cell morphology and cell motility. Here we show that drebrin is expressed in glioma cell lines and in operative specimens of GBM. We demonstrate that stable overexpression of drebrin in U87 cells leads to alterations in cell morphology, and induces increased invasiveness in vitro while knockdown of drebrin in U87 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases invasion and migration. In addition, we show that depletion of drebrin by siRNA alters glioma cell morphology in A172 GBM cell line. Our results suggest that drebrin contributes to the maintenance of cell shape, and may play an important role in glioma cell motility. - Highlights: ► Drebrin is an actin-binding protein aberrantly expressed in several cancers. ► Role of drebrin in glioma cell morphology and motility is previously unknown. ► We demonstrate that drebrin is expressed in 40% of glioblastoma specimens. ► Drebrin plays a significant role in modulating glioma cell migration and invasion.

  4. Early life exposures and the risk of adult glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, Gabriella M; Madden, Melissa H; Sincich, Kelly; Thompson, Reid C; Nabors, L Burton; Olson, Jeffrey J; LaRocca, Renato V; Browning, James E; Pan, Edward; Egan, Kathleen M

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to common infections in early life may stimulate immune development and reduce the risk for developing cancer. Birth order and family size are proxies for the timing of exposure to childhood infections with several studies showing a reduced risk of glioma associated with a higher order of birth (and presumed younger age at infection). The aim of this study was to examine whether birth order, family size, and other early life exposures are associated with the risk of glioma in adults using data collected in a large clinic-based US case-control study including 889 glioma cases and 903 community controls. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on family structure, childhood exposures and other potential risk factors. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between early life factors and glioma risk. Persons having any siblings were at significantly lower risk for glioma when compared to those reporting no siblings (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.44-0.93; p=0.020). Compared to first-borns, individuals with older siblings had a significantly lower risk (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.91; p=0.004). Birth weight, having been breast fed in infancy, and season of birth were not associated with glioma risk. The current findings lend further support to a growing body of evidence that early exposure to childhood infections reduces the risk of glioma onset in children and adults.

  5. Treating malignant glioma in Chinese patients: update on temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Liang Chang,1 Jun Su,1 Xiuzhi Jia,2,3 Huan Ren2,3 1Department of Neurosurgery, The Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 2Department of Immunology, Harbin Medical University, 3Key Lab Infection and Immunity, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, People's Republic of China Abstract: Malignant glioma, ie, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma, is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor in the People's Republic of China, and is particularly aggressive. The median survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is only 12–14 months despite advanced therapeutic strategies. Treatment of malignant glioma consists mainly of surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ, a second-generation oral alkylating agent, is playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Since the publication of a study by Stupp et al in 2005, which used a protocol of conventional fractionated irradiation with concomitant TMZ followed by standard TMZ for six cycles, many clinical studies in the People's Republic of China have demonstrated that such a treatment strategy has significantly improved efficacy with limited side effects for newly diagnosed glioblastoma after surgery as compared with strategies that do not contain TMZ. However, as a relatively new agent, the history and development of TMZ for malignant glioma is not well documented in Chinese patients. Multicenter, randomized controlled trials including appropriately sized patient populations investigating multiple aspects of TMZ therapy and related combination therapies are warranted in patients with malignant glioma. This review provides an update on the efficacy, mechanism of action, adverse reactions, and clinical role of TMZ in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Keywords: malignant glioma, chemotherapy, temozolomide, efficacy, side effect, People's Republic of China

  6. Loss of heterozygosity of TRIM3 in malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolder Béatrice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas are frequent primary brain tumors associated with poor prognosis and very limited response to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Besides sharing common growth features with other types of solid tumors, gliomas are highly invasive into adjacent brain tissue, which renders them particularly aggressive and their surgical resection inefficient. Therefore, insights into glioma formation are of fundamental interest in order to provide novel molecular targets for diagnostic purposes and potential anti-cancer drugs. Human Tripartite motif protein 3 (TRIM3 encodes a structural homolog of Drosophila brain tumor (brat implicated in progenitor cell proliferation control and cancer stem cell suppression. TRIM3 is located within the loss of allelic heterozygosity (LOH hotspot of chromosome segment 11p15.5, indicating a potential role in tumor suppression. ... Methods Here we analyze 70 primary human gliomas of all types and grades and report somatic deletion mapping as well as single nucleotide polymorphism analysis together with quantitative real-time PCR of chromosome segment 11p15.5. Results Our analysis identifies LOH in 17 cases (24% of primary human glioma which defines a common 130 kb-wide interval within the TRIM3 locus as a minimal area of loss. We further detect altered genomic dosage of TRIM3 in two glioma cases with LOH at 11p15.5, indicating homozygous deletions of TRIM3. Conclusion Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome segment 11p15.5 in malignant gliomas suggests TRIM3 as a candidate brain tumor suppressor gene.

  7. [18F]-fluoro-l-thymidine PET and advanced MRI for preoperative grading of gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Collet

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Whereas advanced MRI parameters give indications for the grading of gliomas, the addition of [18F]-FLT-PET could be of interest for the accurate preoperative classification of diffuse gliomas, particularly for identification of doubtful grade III and IV gliomas.

  8. Description of selected characteristics of familial glioma patients – Results from the Gliogene Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Bruchim, Revital; Oberman, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    While certain inherited syndromes (e.g. Neurofibromatosis or Li-Fraumeni) are associated with an increased risk of glioma, most familial gliomas are non-syndromic. This study describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of the largest series of non-syndromic glioma families ascertained...

  9. Extracellular diffusion quantified by magnetic resonance imaging during rat C6 glioma cell progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Song

    Full Text Available Solution reflux and edema hamper the convection-enhanced delivery of the standard treatment for glioma. Therefore, a real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI method was developed to monitor the dosing process, but a quantitative analysis of local diffusion and clearance parameters has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to compare diffusion into the extracellular space (ECS at different stages of rat C6 gliomas, and analyze the effects of the extracellular matrix (ECM on the diffusion process. At 10 and 20 days, after successful glioma modeling, gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA was introduced into the ECS of rat C6 gliomas. Diffusion parameters and half-life of the reagent were then detected using MRI, and quantified according to the mathematical model of diffusion. The main ECM components [chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs, collagen IV, and tenascin C] were detected by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. In 20-day gliomas, Gd-DTPA diffused more slowly and derived higher tortuosity, with lower clearance rate and longer half-life compared to 10-day gliomas. The increased glioma ECM was associated with different diffusion and clearance parameters in 20-day rat gliomas compared to 10-day gliomas. ECS parameters were altered with C6 glioma progression from increased ECM content. Our study might help better understand the glioma microenvironment and provide benefits for interstitial drug delivery to treat brain gliomas.

  10. Tye7 regulates yeast Ty1 retrotransposon sense and antisense transcription in response to adenylic nucleotides stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine; Pinson, Benoit; Tchalikian-Cosson, Aurélie; Coulpier, Fanny; Lemoine, Sophie; Pennetier, Carole; Bridier-Nahmias, Antoine; Todeschini, Anne Laure; Fayol, Hélène; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Lesage, Pascale

    2012-07-01

    Transposable elements play a fundamental role in genome evolution. It is proposed that their mobility, activated under stress, induces mutations that could confer advantages to the host organism. Transcription of the Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated in response to a severe deficiency in adenylic nucleotides. Here, we show that Ty2 and Ty3 are also stimulated under these stress conditions, revealing the simultaneous activation of three active Ty retrotransposon families. We demonstrate that Ty1 activation in response to adenylic nucleotide depletion requires the DNA-binding transcription factor Tye7. Ty1 is transcribed in both sense and antisense directions. We identify three Tye7 potential binding sites in the region of Ty1 DNA sequence where antisense transcription starts. We show that Tye7 binds to Ty1 DNA and regulates Ty1 antisense transcription. Altogether, our data suggest that, in response to adenylic nucleotide reduction, TYE7 is induced and activates Ty1 mRNA transcription, possibly by controlling Ty1 antisense transcription. We also provide the first evidence that Ty1 antisense transcription can be regulated by environmental stress conditions, pointing to a new level of control of Ty1 activity by stress, as Ty1 antisense RNAs play an important role in regulating Ty1 mobility at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages.

  11. Spontaneous immune responses against glioma-associated antigens in a long term survivor with malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Mitsugu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with high grade glioma, little is known regarding existence of naturally occurring adaptive T cell reactivity against glioma-associated antigens (GAAs. In this report, we characterized GAA-specific CD8+ T cells and innate immune cells in a patient who has survived with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA for over 12 years without recurrence. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from the long term survivor with AA were evaluated for the frequency, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity and differentiation status of CD8+ cells recognizing GAA-derived epitopes as well as relative numbers of other immune cell subsets. This patient's AA tissue was evaluated for expression of two GAAs EphA2 and interleukin-13 receptor α2 subunit (IL-13Rα2 by immunohistochemistry. Results The patient's tumor expressed both EphA2 and IL-13Rα2, and in vitro stimulated PBMC demonstrated superior EphA2883–891 and IL-13Rα2345–353-specific CTL reactivity compared to PBMC samples from two other patients with progressing malignant glioma. Unstimulated EphA2883–891-reactive CD8+ T cells contained high numbers of CD45RA-/CCR7- late effector and CD45RA-/CCR7+ central memory cells. Among other leukocyte subsets, elevated numbers of NK-T cells were found. Conclusion To our knowledge, the current study is one of the first demonstrating the presence of antigen-experienced, GAA-reactive CD8+ T cells in a patient who has survived with AA for over 12 years without recurrence. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the status of GAA-reactive CD8+ T cells dictates survival of patients and/or response to therapeutic vaccines.

  12. Possible novel therapy for malignant gliomas with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsup Jeong

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite intensive clinical investigation and many novel therapeutic approaches, average survival for the patients with malignant gliomas is only about 1 year. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL has shown potent and cancer-selective killing activity and drawn considerable attention as a promising therapy for cancers, but concerns over delivery and toxicity have limited progress. We have developed a secretable trimeric TRAIL (stTRAIL and here evaluated the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy in brain tumors. An adenovirus (Ad-stTRAIL delivering stTRAIL was injected into intra-cranial human glioma tumors established in nude mice and tumor growth monitored using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy showed potent tumor suppressor activity with no toxic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. When compared with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a conventional therapy for malignant gliomas, Ad-stTRAIL suppressed tumor growth more potently. The combination of Ad-stTRAIL and BCNU significantly increased survival compared to the control mice or mice receiving Ad-stTRAIL alone. Our data indicate that Ad-stTRAIL, either alone or combined with BCNU, has promise as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.

  13. Expression of microRNA-184 in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Ben; Yang, Wei; Fan, Gang; Lin, Wan-Run; Liu, Fang; Lu, Zhi-Ming

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-184 in gliomas with different pathological grades, and its effect on survival prognosis. For the present study, 40 participants were selected with different pathological grades of glioma tissues with grade I (n=10), grade II (n=8), grade III (n=16), and grade IV (n=6). In addition, 10 cases of normal brain tissue (obtained by decompression because of traumatic brain injury) were selected. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect the expression level and intensity of miRNA-184 in different grades of glioma tissues. The length of survival of miRNA-184-positive patients was analyzed. miRNA-184 mRNA expression was found in normal tissues and tumor tissues, and the expression in tumor tissues was significant (P184 expression were observed among different grades (P184 expression increased with the increase of grade level. The differences in expression across grade levels was statistically significant (P184-positive expression was significantly shorter than that of the negative expression group (P184 is highly expressed in gliomas, which is positively correlated with pathological grade, and is not correlated with pathological type, and negatively correlated with survival time. Thus, miRNA-184 is a potentially important molecular marker for glioma.

  14. Clinical Relevance of Prognostic and Predictive Molecular Markers in Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    Sorting and grading of glial tumors by the WHO classification provide clinicians with guidance as to the predicted course of the disease and choice of treatment. Nonetheless, histologically identical tumors may have very different outcome and response to treatment. Molecular markers that carry both diagnostic and prognostic information add useful tools to traditional classification by redefining tumor subtypes within each WHO category. Therefore, molecular markers have become an integral part of tumor assessment in modern neuro-oncology and biomarker status now guides clinical decisions in some subtypes of gliomas. The routine assessment of IDH status improves histological diagnostic accuracy by differentiating diffuse glioma from reactive gliosis. It carries a favorable prognostic implication for all glial tumors and it is predictive for chemotherapeutic response in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with codeletion of 1p/19q chromosomes. Glial tumors that contain chromosomal codeletion of 1p/19q are defined as tumors of oligodendroglial lineage and have favorable prognosis. MGMT promoter methylation is a favorable prognostic marker in astrocytic high-grade gliomas and it is predictive for chemotherapeutic response in anaplastic gliomas with wild-type IDH1/2 and in glioblastoma of the elderly. The clinical implication of other molecular markers of gliomas like mutations of EGFR and ATRX genes and BRAF fusion or point mutation is highlighted. The potential of molecular biomarker-based classification to guide future therapeutic approach is discussed and accentuated.

  15. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabova, A. I., E-mail: ranigor@mail.ru; Novikov, V. A.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Bober, E. E.; Frolova, I. G. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Choinzonov, E. L. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gribova, O. V. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Baranova, A. V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: complete regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

  16. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabova, A. I.; Novikov, V. A.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Bober, E. E.; Frolova, I. G.; Baranova, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: complete regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

  17. Carotenoid analysis of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas and functional identification of its lycopene β- and ε-cyclase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair; Takemura, Miho; Maoka, Takashi; Otani, Motoyasu; Misawa, Norihiko

    2016-09-01

    Sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas is known as a hexaploid species. Here, we analyzed carotenoids contained in the leaves and tubers of sweetpotato cultivars 'White Star' (WS) and W71. These cultivars were found to contain several carotenoids unique to sweetpotato tubers such as β-carotene-5,6,5',8'-diepoxide and β-carotene-5,8-epoxide. Next, we isolated two kinds of carotene cyclase genes that encode lycopene β- and ε-cyclases from the WS and W71 leaves, by RT-PCR and subsequent RACE. Two and three lycopene β-cyclase gene sequences were, respectively, isolated from WS, named IbLCYb1, 2, and from W71, IbLCYb3, 4, 5. Meanwhile, only a single lycopene ε-cyclase gene sequence, designated IbLCYe, was isolated from both WS and W71. These genes were separately introduced into a lycopene-synthesizing Escherichia coli transformed with the Pantoea ananatis crtE, crtB and crtI genes, followed by HPLC analysis. β-Carotene was detected in E. coli cells that carried IbLCYb1-4, indicating that the IbLCYb1-4 genes encode lycopene β-cyclase. Meanwhile, the introduction of IbLCYe into the lycopene-synthesizing E. coli led to efficient production of δ-carotene with a monocyclic ε-ring, providing evidence that the IbLCYe gene codes for lycopene ε-(mono)cyclase. Expression of the β- and ε-cyclase genes was analyzed as well.

  18. Combinatorial effects of genistein and sex-steroids on the level of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP in the cervix of ovariectomised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Naguib; Ismail, Nurain; Muniandy, Sekaran; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC. Our results indicate that levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of rats receiving genistein plus E were higher than E-only treatment (pcervix of E and E+(E+P)-treated rats by genistein could affect the cervical secretory function which could influence the female reproductive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunization with a Circumsporozoite Epitope Fused to Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase in Conjunction with Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 Blockade Confers Protection against Plasmodium berghei Liver-Stage Malaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tartz, S.; Kamanová, Jana; Šimšová, Marcela; Šebo, Peter; Bolte, S.; Heussler, V.; Fleischer, B.; Jacobs, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 4 (2006), s. 2277-2285 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : plasmodium berghei * immunity * malaria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.004, year: 2006

  20. Delivery of a MalE CD4+-T-Cell Epitope into the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Antigen Presentation Pathway by Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase ral NPKSupply

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loucká, Jiřina; Schlecht, G.; Vojtová, Jana; Leclerc, C.; Šebo, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2002), s. 1002-1005 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0934; GA AV ČR IAA5020907; GA MŠk ME 167 Grant - others:QLK2-CT(US) 00556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : delivery * epitope * complex Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2002

  1. Delivery of CD8+ T-cell epitopes into major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation pathway by Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase:delineation of cell invasive structures and permissive insertion sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osička, Radim; Osičková, Adriana; Basar, T.; Guermonprez, P.; Rojas, M.; Leclerc, C.; Šebo, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2000), s. 247-256 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/98/0432; GA AV ČR IAA5020907; GA MŠk VS96149; GA MŠk ME 167 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.204, year: 2000

  2. The rise and fall of "biopsy and radiate": a history of surgical nihilism in glioma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunggu J; Sughrue, Michael E

    2012-04-01

    Many neurosurgeons take a nihilistic approach to surgical treatment of gliomas, stating the inability to achieve a cure. Where this idea comes from is somewhat nebulous to most neurosurgeons. A review of the scientific studies supporting the commonly held beliefs about gliomas shows that these ideas regarding the surgical treatment of gliomas are based on overgeneralizations of data from older studies. One should avoid the temptation to apply them to the greater concept of what gliomas are, how they behave, and what should be done, but rather we should continue to scientifically evaluate the role of surgical resection in glioma treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recombinant adenylate kinase 3 from liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis for histochemical analysis and serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Bin; Kim, Paul; Woo, Hae Sun; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Ju Yeong; Lee, Hye Min; Jang, Yun Soo; Kim, Eun-Min; Yong, Tai-Soon; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-03-27

    Due to the lack of an effective prophylactic intervention and diagnosis, human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis continues to afflict a large human population, causing a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. With an aim to identify target antigens for sensitive serodiagnosis, adenylate kinase 3 of C. sinensis (CsAK3) was successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli by fusion to an RNA-interacting domain derived from human Lys-tRNA synthetase and purified by Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Anti-CsAK3 serum was raised by immunization of mice, and Western blotting confirmed that CsAK3 was expressed in adult-stage C. sinensis. Histochemical analysis showed that CsAK3 was localized to the subtegumental tissue of C. sinensis and was excreted into the bile duct of the host. When tested against sera from various parasite-infected patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the recombinant CsAK3 elicited a specific response to C. sinensis-infected sera. The results suggest that CsAK3, either alone or in combination with other antigens, could be used for improving the clinical diagnosis of clonorchiasis.

  4. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  5. [Effect of Qishen Yiqi droplet on adenylate contents in myocardium of cor pulmonale rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shi-Han; Shan, Qiu-Yue; Xu, Meng-Xi; Zhang, Yi-Dan; Song, Li-Li; Hou, Ning; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Mi-Xia; Zhuang, Peng-Wei; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Cor pulmonale rat models were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline(MCT), and the sham group received a single intraperitioneal injection of normal saline. After the model rats received intragastric administration of Qishen Yiqi droplet(QS) for 6 weeks, the contents of adenylate(ATP, ADP and AMP) in right myocardial tissues were measured by HPLC, and then the metabolism changes in myocardium of cor pulmonale rats with QS were investigated. The results showed that ATP, ADP, and AMP were well separated, with a good linearity within a certain range of concentration; and the recovery rates were within the range of 90%-108%. As compared with model group, the level of ATP was significantly elevated in high-dose treatment group; ADP contents showed an increasing trend and AMP contents showed a decreasing trend, indicating that QS could significantly improve energy metabolism system in myocardium. By using the HPLC, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method was given for the determination of ATP, ADP and AMP contents in myocardium, providing a method for energy metabolism measurement in biological samples. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Deciphering hierarchical features in the energy landscape of adenylate kinase folding/unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Nicholas; Pirchi, Menahem; Haran, Gilad; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical features of the energy landscape of the folding/unfolding behavior of adenylate kinase, including its dependence on denaturant concentration, are elucidated in terms of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements in which the proteins are encapsulated in a lipid vesicle. The core in constructing the energy landscape from single-molecule time-series across different denaturant concentrations is the application of rate-distortion theory (RDT), which naturally considers the effects of measurement noise and sampling error, in combination with change-point detection and the quantification of the FRET efficiency-dependent photobleaching behavior. Energy landscapes are constructed as a function of observation time scale, revealing multiple partially folded conformations at small time scales that are situated in a superbasin. As the time scale increases, these denatured states merge into a single basin, demonstrating the coarse-graining of the energy landscape as observation time increases. Because the photobleaching time scale is dependent on the conformational state of the protein, possible nonequilibrium features are discussed, and a statistical test for violation of the detailed balance condition is developed based on the state sequences arising from the RDT framework.

  7. Insights From Molecular Profiling of Adult Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, Phedias; Aldape, Kenneth D

    2017-07-20

    The comprehensive molecular profiling of cancer has resulted in new insights into the biology and classification of numerous tumor types. In the case of primary brain tumors that commonly affect adults, an emerging set of disease-defining biomarker sets is reshaping existing diagnostic entities that had previously been defined on the basis of their microscopic appearance. Substantial progress has been made in this regard for common primary brain tumors in adults, especially diffuse gliomas, where large-scale profiling efforts have led to the incorporation of highly prevalent molecular alterations that promote a biologically based classification as an adjunct to the traditional histopathologic approach. The growing awareness that histologically indistinguishable tumors can be divided into more precise and biologically relevant subgroups has demanded a more global routine approach to biomarker assessment. These considerations have begun to intersect with the decreasing costs and availability of genome-wide analysis tools and, thus, incorporation into routine practice. We review how molecular profiling already has led to an evolution in the classification of brain tumors. In addition, we discuss the likely trajectory of incorporation of global molecular profiling platforms into the routine clinical classification of adult brain tumors.

  8. Current standard treatment for pediatric glioma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Saito, Ryuta; Kanamori, Masayuki; Yamashita, Yoji; Tominaga, Teiji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we selected three representative disorders among pediatric gliomas and reviewed standard treatments for these diseases. The formation of this rare disease is involved with BRAF mutation as well as cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma. Radical resection is not recommended as initial therapy due to high morbidity. Despite its good tumor control, radiotherapy is not a standard therapy due to neuroendocrine and neurocognitive dysfunction. Several papers have reported the effectiveness of platinum-based chemotherapy, which is a useful for induction therapy. Recent progress in molecular analyses has suggested that some markers might be used for staging ependymoma. While total resection is considered to be strongly correlated with patients' survival, the majority of recurrence occurs in the primary site. Despite many clinical trials, chemotherapeutic agents were not found to be effective for this disease. Since whole brain radiation cannot prevent dissemination, local radiation is recommended for adjuvant therapy. The prognosis of this disease is still dismal, and median survival time is within 1 year. Although clinical trials have been conducted to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy prior to, concomitantly with, or after radiotherapy, an effective regimen has not yet been established. Therefore, only conventional local radiotherapy is the standard regimen for this disease. A new therapeutic approach, such as convection-enhanced drug delivery, would be required for improved outcomes in patients with this disease. (author)

  9. Postoperative radiotherapy of supratentorial anaplastic gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, T.G.; Bacherler, B.; Baumer, K.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1983, 149 patients with high grade anaplastic supratentorial gliomas received a postoperative irradiation during primary treatment. 118 out of these patients had an anaplastic astrocytoma, 18 an anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and 13 an anaplastic ependymoma. Most of these patients were treated by irradiation of a great volume with 50 Gy within five weeks, the others by irradiation of the total brain with 50 Gy within five weeks and saturation with 10 Gy within one week. The one-year survival of the total group was 35.5% and the two-year survival 10.6%. Patients at an age of less than 40 years show a significantly longer survival than older patients (one-year survival rates 40% and 30.7%, respectively). Patients suffering from anaplastic tumors with astrocytic and oligodendrocytic differentiation have a comparable prognosis. Patients suffering from anaplastic tumors with ependymal differentiation, however, have prolonged survival times. The therapy results of different treatment methods are discussed using the communications of literature. (orig.) [de

  10. Treatment of brain gliomas in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, H.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Some neurologists and pediatricians regard the great majority of children with brain tumours as being incurable and suspect that in any long-term survivors the quality of remaining life following treatment will inevitably be greatly impaired. This general pessimism is not supported by the current results of modern treatment and past opinions may need to be revised. In fact, the survival outlook for children with intracranial gliomas is considerably better than that for adults, and this applies to tumours of both low-grade and high-grade malignancy. At the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) between 1952 and 1976 a total of 461 children under age 16 years with primary intracranial tumours were referred for radiotherapy. The actuarial survival rate for all cases at 5 years was 48%, at 10 years 41% and at 20 years 38%. Of the 415 children who completed a radical course of irradiation, given either post-operatively or as the sole treatment, 53% were still alive at 5 years, 45% at 10 years and 41% at 20 years. Overall survival was influenced by age, the best results being seen in children aged 10-15 years and the worst in children under 3 years

  11. Management of Patients with High-Grade Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Yukse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific basis for the surgical management of patients with glioma is rapidly evolving. The infiltrative nature of these cancers precludes a surgical cure, but despite this, cytoreductive surgery remains central to high-quality patient’s care. In addition to tissue sampling for accurate histopathological diagnosis and molecular genetic characterisation, clinical benefit from decompression of space-occupying lesions and microsurgical cytoreduction has been reported in patients with different grades of glioma. By integrating advanced surgical techniques with molecular genetic characterisation of the disease and targeted radiotherapy and chemotherapy, it is possible to construct a programme of personalised surgical therapy throughout the patient’s journey. The goal of therapeutic packages tailored to each patient is to optimise patient safety and clinical outcome, and must be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting. Here we review the current concepts that underlie surgical management of patients with high-grade glioma.

  12. Ketamine suppresses the proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hidetomo; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Seya, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine, on the growth of gliomas. To analyze the effects of ketamine treatment, rat C6 glioma cells arising from astrocytes, and RNB cells representing non-malignant astrocytes, were examined. In ketamine-treated C6 cells, the gene expression changes associated with cell proliferation following ketamine treatment were evaluated using a cDNA microarray. A cell proliferation assay was performed to analyze the dose-dependent proliferation of C6 glioma and RNB cells following culture (72 h) with ketamine treatment (0-100 µM). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed following cell incubation with/without ketamine, to confirm if the ketamine-induced cell death of C6 glioma and RNB cells were due to apoptosis. In addition, cell proliferation and TUNEL assays were performed following cell incubations with a selective NMDAR antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-AP5). Analysis of the cDNA microarray indicated that the growth of C6 glioma cells were suppressed by the effects of ketamine. Furthermore, results of the proliferation assay confirmed that ketamine treatment inhibited C6 cell proliferation, most notably at a dose of 30 µM (n=7, 66.4%; Pcells, with a significant effect on the rate of death observed at all tested concentrations (3, 10, 30 and 100 µM). Results of the aforementioned proliferation and TUNEL assay experiments were reproduced when ketamine was replaced with a selective NMDAR antagonist, D-AP5. However, the NMDARantagonist-induced effects were not observed in RNB cell cultures. Although it would be premature to apply the results from the present study to human cases, these results indicated that ketamine is an anesthetic candidate providing potential benefit for glioma resection.

  13. Molecular subtypes of glioblastoma are relevant to lower grade glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Guan

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with great heterogeneity in histopathology and clinical course. The intent was to evaluate the relevance of known glioblastoma (GBM expression and methylation based subtypes to grade II and III gliomas (ie. lower grade gliomas.Gene expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and clinical data were obtained for 228 GBMs and 176 grade II/II gliomas (GII/III from the publically available Rembrandt dataset. Two additional datasets with IDH1 mutation status were utilized as validation datasets (one publicly available dataset and one newly generated dataset from MD Anderson. Unsupervised clustering was performed and compared to gene expression subtypes assigned using the Verhaak et al 840-gene classifier. The glioma-CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP was assigned using prediction models by Fine et al.Unsupervised clustering by gene expression aligned with the Verhaak 840-gene subtype group assignments. GII/IIIs were preferentially assigned to the proneural subtype with IDH1 mutation and G-CIMP. GBMs were evenly distributed among the four subtypes. Proneural, IDH1 mutant, G-CIMP GII/III s had significantly better survival than other molecular subtypes. Only 6% of GBMs were proneural and had either IDH1 mutation or G-CIMP but these tumors had significantly better survival than other GBMs. Copy number changes in chromosomes 1p and 19q were associated with GII/IIIs, while these changes in CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR were more commonly associated with GBMs.GBM gene-expression and methylation based subtypes are relevant for GII/III s and associate with overall survival differences. A better understanding of the association between these subtypes and GII/IIIs could further knowledge regarding prognosis and mechanisms of glioma progression.

  14. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Cheng-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Yu-Hsiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri [Division of Urology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Cheng [Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Financial and Computational Mathematics, Providence University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Pan, Pin-Ho [Department of Pediatrics, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung 435, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Ying [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsuan-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Jung, E-mail: cjchen@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Nursing, HungKuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-10

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and genetic silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK.

  15. Anatomic mapping of molecular subtypes in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Lian, Yuxi; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang

    2017-09-15

    Tumor location served as an important prognostic factor in glioma patients was considered to postulate molecular features according to cell origin theory. However, anatomic distribution of unique molecular subtypes was not widely investigated. The relationship between molecular phenotype and histological subgroup were also vague based on tumor location. Our group focuses on the study of glioma anatomic location of distinctive molecular subgroups and histology subtypes, and explores the possibility of their consistency based on clinical background. We retrospectively reviewed 143 cases with both molecular information (IDH1/TERT/1p19q) and MRI images diagnosed as cerebral diffuse gliomas. The anatomic distribution was analyzed between distinctive molecular subgroups and its relationship with histological subtypes. The influence of tumor location, molecular stratification and histology diagnosis on survival outcome was investigated as well. Anatomic locations of cerebral diffuse glioma indicate varied clinical outcome. Based on that, it can be stratified into five principal molecular subgroups according to IDH1/TERT/1p19q status. Triple-positive (IDH1 and TERT mutation with 1p19q codeletion) glioma tended to be oligodendroglioma present with much better clinical outcome compared to TERT mutation only group who is glioblastoma inclined (median overall survival 39 months VS 18 months). Five molecular subgroups were demonstrated with distinctive locational distribution. This kind of anatomic feature is consistent with its corresponding histological subtypes. Each molecular subgroup in glioma has unique anatomic location which indicates distinctive clinical outcome. Molecular diagnosis can be served as perfect complementary tool for the precise diagnosis. Integration of histomolecular diagnosis will be much more helpful in routine clinical practice in the future.

  16. Radiation effects on human glia and glioma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.

    1983-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of human glia and glioma cells has been studied in vitro, and a new cloning method has been developed to overcome the difficulties due to the very low cloning efficiency of these cells. The cells were confined to small palladium areas surrounded by agarose, which increased the cell density, but kept the clones separated. Using this method, the glia cells were found to be very sensitive to gamma irradiation (D 0 =1.0-1.5 Gy and n=1) in comparision with the glioma cells (D 0 =1.5-2.5 Gy and n=3.5). The induction and repair of DNA strand breaks were studied with two DNA unwinding techniques. No differences between the two cell-lines were detected when induction and fast repair were studied with the single-labelling method, while the glioma cells showed less unrepaired DNA strand breaks than the glia cells after 1, 2 and 3 hours, when the double-labelling method was used. Detachment, attachment and growth kinetics were studied using the palladium-agarose cloning method. All of the glioma cell-lines studied, detached and attached themselves at rates higher than the normal diploid glia cell-lines. All of the cell-lines contained clones with different properties. Some clones were rapidly growing, others maintained a nearly constant number of cells or even decreased. The effects of chronic hypoxia were tested in a few experiments. Low oxygen tension in the culture medium reduced the rate of growth and the DNA synthesis of the glioma cells. The present study indicates that cultured human glioma cells are less radiosensitive than cultured glia cells. The palladium-agarose technique, enable studying growth kinetics detachment, attachment and radiosensitivity in a quantitative manner for cells with low cloning efficiency. (author)

  17. Corpus callosum involvement and postoperative outcomes of patients with gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ko-Ting; Wu, Tai-Wei Erich; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Hsu, Peng-Wei; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Chang, Chen-Nen; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Pai, Ping-Ching; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Pin-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Corpus callosum involvement is associated with poorer survival in high grade glioma (HGG), but the prognostic value in low grade glioma (LGG) is unclear. To determine the prognostic impact of corpus callosum involvement on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in HGG and LGG, the records of 233 glioma patients treated from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to identify corpus callosum involvement. Age, sex, preoperative Karnofsky performance scale, postoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score and extent of resection (EOR) were evaluated with respect to PFS and OS. The incidence of corpus callosum involvement was similar among HGG (14 %) and LGG (14.5 %). Univariate analysis revealed that PFS and OS were significantly shorter in both WHO grade II and grade IV glioma with corpus callosum involvement (both, p corpus callosum involvement have shorter PFS (p = 0.03), while EOR, instead of corpus callosum involvement (p = 0.16), was an independent factor associated with PFS in grade IV glioma (p Corpus callosum involvement was no longer significantly associated with OS after adjusting age, gender, EOR, preoperative and postoperative performance status (p = 0.16, 0.17 and 0.56 in grade II, III and IV gliomas, respectively). Corpus callosum involvement happened in both LGG and HGG, and is associated with lower EOR and higher postoperative ECOG score both in LGG and HGG. Corpus callosum involvement tends to be an independent prognostic factor for PFS in LGG, but not for OS in LGG or in HGG.

  18. The functional role of Notch signaling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2010-01-01

    Gliomas are among the most devastating adult tumors for which there is currently no cure. The tumors are derived from brain glial tissue and comprise several diverse tumor forms and grades. Recent reports highlight the importance of cancer-initiating cells in the malignancy of gliomas. These cells...... have been referred to as brain cancer stem cells (bCSC), as they share similarities to normal neural stem cells in the brain. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in cell fate decisions throughout normal development and in stem cell proliferation and maintenance. The role of Notch in cancer is now...

  19. A comprehensive survey of 3' animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3' adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Nishibu, Takahiro; Ukekawa, Ryo; Funakoshi, Taku; Kurokawa, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O

    2010-10-01

    Animal microRNA sequences are subject to 3' nucleotide addition. Through detailed analysis of deep-sequenced short RNA data sets, we show adenylation and uridylation of miRNA is globally present and conserved across Drosophila and vertebrates. To better understand 3' adenylation function, we deep-sequenced RNA after knockdown of nucleotidyltransferase enzymes. The PAPD4 nucleotidyltransferase adenylates a wide range of miRNA loci, but adenylation does not appear to affect miRNA stability on a genome-wide scale. Adenine addition appears to reduce effectiveness of miRNA targeting of mRNA transcripts while deep-sequencing of RNA bound to immunoprecipitated Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins EIF2C1-EIF2C3 revealed substantial reduction of adenine addition in miRNA associated with EIF2C2 and EIF2C3. Our findings show 3' addition events are widespread and conserved across animals, PAPD4 is a primary miRNA adenylating enzyme, and suggest a role for 3' adenine addition in modulating miRNA effectiveness, possibly through interfering with incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a regulatory role that would complement the role of miRNA uridylation in blocking DICER1 uptake.

  20. A comprehensive survey of 3′ animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3′ adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; de Hoon, Michiel J.L.; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Nishibu, Takahiro; Ukekawa, Ryo; Funakoshi, Taku; Kurokawa, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O.

    2010-01-01

    Animal microRNA sequences are subject to 3′ nucleotide addition. Through detailed analysis of deep-sequenced short RNA data sets, we show adenylation and uridylation of miRNA is globally present and conserved across Drosophila and vertebrates. To better understand 3′ adenylation function, we deep-sequenced RNA after knockdown of nucleotidyltransferase enzymes. The PAPD4 nucleotidyltransferase adenylates a wide range of miRNA loci, but adenylation does not appear to affect miRNA stability on a genome-wide scale. Adenine addition appears to reduce effectiveness of miRNA targeting of mRNA transcripts while deep-sequencing of RNA bound to immunoprecipitated Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins EIF2C1–EIF2C3 revealed substantial reduction of adenine addition in miRNA associated with EIF2C2 and EIF2C3. Our findings show 3′ addition events are widespread and conserved across animals, PAPD4 is a primary miRNA adenylating enzyme, and suggest a role for 3′ adenine addition in modulating miRNA effectiveness, possibly through interfering with incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a regulatory role that would complement the role of miRNA uridylation in blocking DICER1 uptake. PMID:20719920

  1. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-07-26

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways.

  2. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller-Klieser Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. Methods To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. Results The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2, 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1 and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1 were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. Conclusion In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic

  3. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways

  4. cAMP Signaling Compartmentation: Adenylyl Cyclases as Anchors of Dynamic Signaling Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Timothy B; Agarwal, Shailesh R; Harvey, Robert D; Ostrom, Rennolds S

    2018-04-01

    It is widely accepted that cAMP signaling is compartmentalized within cells. However, our knowledge of how receptors, cAMP signaling enzymes, effectors, and other key proteins form specific signaling complexes to regulate specific cell responses is limited. The multicomponent nature of these systems and the spatiotemporal dynamics involved as proteins interact and move within a cell make cAMP responses highly complex. Adenylyl cyclases, the enzymatic source of cAMP production, are key starting points for understanding cAMP compartments and defining the functional signaling complexes. Three basic elements are required to form a signaling compartment. First, a localized signal is generated by a G protein-coupled receptor paired to one or more of the nine different transmembrane adenylyl cyclase isoforms that generate the cAMP signal in the cytosol. The diffusion of cAMP is subsequently limited by several factors, including expression of any number of phosphodiesterases (of which there are 24 genes plus spice variants). Finally, signal response elements are differentially localized to respond to cAMP produced within each locale. A-kinase-anchoring proteins, of which there are 43 different isoforms, facilitate this by targeting protein kinase A to specific substrates. Thousands of potential combinations of these three elements are possible in any given cell type, making the characterization of cAMP signaling compartments daunting. This review will focus on what is known about how cells organize cAMP signaling components as well as identify the unknowns. We make an argument for adenylyl cyclases being central to the formation and maintenance of these signaling complexes. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misono, K. S.; Philo, J. S.; Arakawa, T.; Ogata, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Young, H. S. (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Nevada); (Alliance Protein Labs.)

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the homologous B-type natriuretic peptide are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here, we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation and signaling mechanism of NPRA and other receptor GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacterium GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain, consisting of a C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by binding of G{sub s}{alpha} to C2 and the ensuing 7{sup o} rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer to adopt a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity.

  6. 31P NMR Spectroscopy Revealed Adenylate kinase-like Activity and Phosphotransferase-like Activity from F1-ATPase of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Won

    2011-01-01

    Adenylate kinase-like activity and phosphotransferase-like activity from F 1 -ATPase of Escherichia coli was revealed by 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Incubation of F 1 -ATPase with ADP in the presence of Mg 2+ shows the appearance of 31 P resonances from AMP and Pi, suggesting generation of AMP and ATP by adenylate kinase-like activity and the subsequent hydrolysis to Pi. Incubation of F1-ATPase with ADP in the presence of methanol shows additional peak from methyl phosphate, suggesting phosphotransferase-like activity of F 1 -ATPase. Both adenylate kinase-like activity and phosphotransferase-like activity has not been reported from F 1 -ATPase of Escherichia coli. 31 P NMR could be a valuable tool for the investigation of phosphorous related enzyme

  7. Phosphorolytic activity of Escherichia coli glycyl-tRNA synthetase towards its cognate aminoacyl adenylate detected by 31P-NMR spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Led, Jens Jørgen; Switon, Werner K.; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1983-01-01

    , and Mg2+ ions, catalyzes the synthesis of ADP from three different substrates which all lead to enzyme-bound glycyl adenylate, that is, ATP, adenosine 5'-[ß,¿-methylene]triphosphate and Ap4A. It was furthermore demonstrated that the only pathway by which a synthetase-catalyzed degradation of Ap4A can...... of adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')adenosine (Ap4A) and adenosine(5')triphospho(5')adenosine (Ap3A), also catalyzes the formation of ADP from inorganic phosphate and the enzyme-bound glycyl adenylate. Accordingly it was shown that E. coli glycyl-tRNA synthetase, in the presence of inorganic phosphate, glycine...... of the applied enzyme, the study also showed that the preparation catalyzes a glycine-independent transfer of the ¿-phosphate group from ATP to nucleoside 5'-diphosphates. The importance of the observed reaction between inorganic phosphate and enzyme-bound aminoacyl adenylate in relation to the remaining...

  8. An analysis of 170 glioma patients and systematic review to investigate the association between IDH-1 mutations and preoperative glioma-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Mao, Qing; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Yanhui; Mao, Yunhe; Zhou, Qiao; Luo, Jiewen

    2016-09-01

    Seizure is a common presenting symptom of glioma, and many biomarkers have been suggested to be associated with preoperative seizure; however, the relationships between IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase) mutations and glioma-related epilepsy only recently been studied. The authors aimed to examine the correlations between IDH mutations in glioma patients with preoperative seizures and tumor location. A series of 170 glioma samples were analyzed for IDH1 R132H mutations (amino acid change from arginine to histidine at codon 132) with immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and for IDH mutations with direct DNA sequencing when the IHC results were negative. If either the IHC or direct DNA sequencing result was positive, the IDH status was defined as mutated. The results of the IDH mutation examinations were used to analyze the relationship between mutations and glioma-related epilepsy. The study population consisted of 64 (37.6%) World Health Organization (WHO) grade II gliomas, 58 (34.1%) grade III, and 48 (28.3%) grade IV gliomas. A total of 84 samples with IDH1 mutations were observed in our study, and 54 of these presented with seizures as the initial symptoms, whereas 28 of the patients with wild-type IDH status presented with seizures (p=0.043 for the WHO grade II gliomas, p=0.002 for the grade III gliomas and p=0.942 for the grade IV gliomas, chi-squared tests). Among the WHO grade II and III gliomas, IDH1 mutations were significantly associated with preoperative seizures, but no significant relationship between IDH mutations and preoperative seizures was found with glioblastoma multiforme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Approaching a Scientific Consensus on the Association between Allergies and Glioma Risk: A Report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, E Susan; Zhou, Renke; Wrensch, Margaret R; Olson, Sara H; Scheurer, Michael E; Il'yasova, Dora; Lachance, Daniel; Armstrong, Georgina N; McCoy, Lucie S; Lau, Ching C; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S; Jenkins, Robert B; Bernstein, Jonine L; Merrell, Ryan T; Davis, Faith G; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L

    2016-02-01

    Several previous studies have found inverse associations between glioma susceptibility and a history of allergies or other atopic conditions. Some evidence indicates that respiratory allergies are likely to be particularly relevant with regard to glioma risk. Using data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), we examined the effects of respiratory allergies and other atopic conditions on glioma risk. The GICC contains detailed information on history of atopic conditions for 4,533 cases and 4,171 controls, recruited from 14 study sites across five countries. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling to calculate meta-analysis ORs, we examined the associations between glioma and allergy status, respiratory allergy status, asthma, and eczema. Having a history of respiratory allergies was associated with an approximately 30% lower glioma risk, compared with not having respiratory allergies (mOR, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.90). This association was similar when restricting to high-grade glioma cases. Asthma and eczema were also significantly protective against glioma. A substantial amount of data on the inverse association between atopic conditions and glioma has accumulated, and findings from the GICC study further strengthen the existing evidence that the relationship between atopy and glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. As the literature approaches a consensus on the impact of allergies in glioma risk, future research can begin to shift focus to what the underlying biologic mechanism behind this association may be, which could, in turn, yield new opportunities for immunotherapy or cancer prevention. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavahan, William A; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B; Gillespie, Shawn M; Venteicher, Andrew S; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Suvà, Mario L; Bernstein, Bradley E

    2016-01-07

    Gain-of-function IDH mutations are initiating events that define major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas. Mutant IDH protein produces a new onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate, which interferes with iron-dependent hydroxylases, including the TET family of 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylases. TET enzymes catalyse a key step in the removal of DNA methylation. IDH mutant gliomas thus manifest a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), although the functional importance of this altered epigenetic state remains unclear. Here we show that human IDH mutant gliomas exhibit hypermethylation at cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites, compromising binding of this methylation-sensitive insulator protein. Reduced CTCF binding is associated with loss of insulation between topological domains and aberrant gene activation. We specifically demonstrate that loss of CTCF at a domain boundary permits a constitutive enhancer to interact aberrantly with the receptor tyrosine kinase gene PDGFRA, a prominent glioma oncogene. Treatment of IDH mutant gliomaspheres with a demethylating agent partially restores insulator function and downregulates PDGFRA. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated disruption of the CTCF motif in IDH wild-type gliomaspheres upregulates PDGFRA and increases proliferation. Our study suggests that IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology and allowing aberrant regulatory interactions that induce oncogene expression.

  11. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) inhibitors decrease glioma progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikari, Vijaya Pooja; Kota, Rajesh; Chen, Kevin; Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Jhaveri, Niyati; Groshen, Susan L.; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z.; Chen, Thomas C.; Hofman, Florence M.; Shih, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor which is currently treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Tumors usually become resistant to TMZ and recur; no effective therapy is then available. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAO A) oxidizes monoamine neurotransmitters resulting in reactive oxygen species which cause cancer. This study shows that MAO A expression is increased in human glioma tissues and cell lines. MAO A inhibitors, clorgyline or the near-infrared-dye MHI-148 conjugated to clorgyline (NMI), were cytotoxic for glioma and decreased invasion in vitro. Using the intracranial TMZ-resistant glioma model, clorgyline or NMI alone or in combination with low-dose TMZ reduced tumor growth and increased animal survival. NMI was localized specifically to the tumor. Immunocytochemistry studies showed that the MAO A inhibitor reduced proliferation, microvessel density and invasion, and increased macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, we have identified MAO A inhibitors as potential novel stand-alone drugs or as combination therapy with low dose TMZ for drug-resistant gliomas. NMI can also be used as a non-invasive imaging tool. Thus has a dual function for both therapy and diagnosis. PMID:26871599

  12. Interrelationship between differentiation and malignancy-associated properties in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, M C; Freshney, R I; Vaughan, P F; Graham, D I; Shaw, R

    1984-03-01

    The phenotypic expression of cells derived from human anaplastic astrocytomas, rat glioma, normal human adult and foetal brain tissue have been examined for differentiated and malignancy-associated properties. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), high affinity glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) uptake and glutamine synthetase were used as indicators of astroglial differentiation. Plasminogen activator and tumour angiogenesis factor were the malignancy-associated markers. The normal adult brain-derived lines showed some differentiated astroglial features and expressed low levels of the malignancy-associated properties. The foetal cultures contained highly differentiated astroglia while the glioma lines showed considerable phenotypic heterogeneity from highly differentiated to undifferentiated. The least differentiated glioma cells exhibited the highest plasminogen activator activities. The density-dependent control of phenotypic expression was also investigated. High affinity GABA uptake, and GFAP in rat C6 glioma cultures, increased with increasing monolayer cell density, events probably mediated by an increase in the formation of cell-cell contacts at confluence. Plasminogen activator activity decreased with increasing cell density.

  13. Human pontine glioma cells can induce murine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caretti, Viola; Sewing, A. Charlotte P.; Lagerweij, Tonny; Schellen, Pepijn; Bugiani, Marianna; Jansen, Marc H. A.; van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Navis, Anna C.; Horsman, Ilona; Vandertop, W. Peter; Noske, David P.; Wesseling, Pieter; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Nazarian, Javad; Vogel, Hannes; Hulleman, Esther; Monje, Michelle; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), with a median survival of only 9 months, is the leading cause of pediatric brain cancer mortality. Dearth of tumor tissue for research has limited progress in this disease until recently. New experimental models for DIPG research are now emerging. To develop

  14. Targeted therapies for malignant gliomas: novel agents, same barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, F.

    2013-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are common and devastating brain malignancies. Despite this extensive treatment the mean overall survival is still only 14.6 months and more effective treatments are urgently needed. Targeted therapy holds the promise for the new generation of chemotherapy due to the selectively

  15. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedo, A.; Mali, R.; Drbal, Karel; Lisa, V.; Vlasicova, K.; Mareš, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2001), s. 57-63 ISSN 1121-760X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Keywords : protease * glioma * dipeptidyl peptidase IV Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2001

  16. Surgical oncology for gliomas: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanai, Nader; Berger, Mitchel S

    2018-02-01

    Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with glioma of any grade. Maximal resection of the tumour is central to achieving long-term disease control; however, the relationship between the extent of glioma resection and actual clinical benefit for the patient is predicated on the balance between cytoreduction and neurological morbidity. For the neurosurgical oncologist, the clinical rationale for undertaking increasingly extensive resections has gained traction. In parallel, novel surgical techniques and technologies have been developed that help improve patient outcomes. During the past decade, neurosurgeons have leveraged advanced intraoperative imaging methods, fluorescence-based tumour biomarkers, and real-time mutational analyses to maximize the extent of tumour resection. In addition, approaches to minimizing the risk of perioperative morbidity continue to be improved through the combined use of stimulation-mapping techniques, corticospinal tract imaging, and stereotactic thermal ablation. Taken together, these modern principles of neurosurgical oncology bear little resemblance to historical therapeutic strategies for patients with glioma and have dramatically altered the approach to the treatment of patients with these brain tumours. Herein, we outline the state of the art in surgical oncology for gliomas.

  17. Gliomas and the vascular fragility of the blood brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo eDubois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes, members of the glial family, interact through the exchange of soluble factors or by directly contacting neurons and other brain cells, such as microglia and endothelial cells. Astrocytic projections interact with vessels and act as additional elements of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB. By mechanisms not fully understood, astrocytes can undergo oncogenic transformation and give rise to gliomas. The tumors take advantage of the BBB to ensure survival and continuous growth. A glioma can develop into a very aggressive tumor, the glioblastoma (GBM, characterized by a highly heterogeneous cell population (including tumor stem cells, extensive proliferation and migration. Nevertheless, gliomas can also give rise to slow growing tumors and in both cases, the afflux of blood, via BBB is crucial. Glioma cells migrate to different regions of the brain guided by the extension of blood vessels, colonizing the healthy adjacent tissue. In the clinical context, GBM can lead to tumor-derived seizures, which represent a challenge to patients and clinicians, since drugs used for its treatment must be able to cross the BBB. Uncontrolled and fast growth also leads to the disruption of the chimeric and fragile vessels in the tumor mass resulting in peritumoral edema. Although hormonal therapy is currently used to control the edema, it is not always efficient. In this review we comment the points cited above, considering the importance of the blood brain barrier and the concerns that arise when this barrier is affected.

  18. An unusual cystic appearance of disseminated low-grade gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.; Zimmerman, R.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Perilongo, G. [Dipt. di Pediatria, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Kaufman, B.A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, St Louis Children' s Hospital, St Louis, MO (United States); Holden, K.R. [Division of Pediatric Neurology, Room 511, Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425-2232 (United States); Carollo, C. [Division of Neuroradiology, Regione Veneto, Azienda Ospedalieri di Padova, Universita di Padova, Via Giustiniani 3, 35 128 Padua (Italy); Kling Chong, W.K. [Dept. of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    We report five cases of pediatric disseminated low-grade gliomas of the brainstem or spinal cord that exhibited an unusual, cystic pattern. Leptomeningeal disease was present in three of these at diagnosis, and was detected shortly afterwards in the other two. Four patients are alive up to 5 years later, following minimal to no intervention, while one is dead. (orig.)

  19. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Rie [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nakano, Ichiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1824 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Seimiya, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hseimiya@jfcr.or.jp [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.

  20. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Rie; Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.

  1. Glioma surgery in eloquent areas: can we preserve cognition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D. Satoer (Djaina); E.G. Visch-Brink (Evy); C.M.F. Dirven (Clemens); A. Vincent (Audrey)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Cognitive preservation is crucial in glioma surgery, as it is an important aspect of daily life functioning. Several studies claimed that surgery in eloquent areas is possible without causing severe cognitive damage. However, this conclusion was relatively ungrounded

  2. Glioma surgery in eloquent areas : can we preserve cognition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satoer, Djaina; Visch-Brink, Evy; Dirven, Clemens; Vincent, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive preservation is crucial in glioma surgery, as it is an important aspect of daily life functioning. Several studies claimed that surgery in eloquent areas is possible without causing severe cognitive damage. However, this conclusion was relatively ungrounded due to the lack of

  3. Growth hormone and cancer: GH production and action in glioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert W; Dawson, Timothy; Martinez-Moreno, Carlos G; El-Abry, Nasra; Harvey, Steve

    2015-09-01

    The hypersecretion of pituitary growth hormone (GH) is associated with an increased risk of cancer, while reducing pituitary GH signaling reduces this risk. Roles for pituitary GH in cancer are therefore well established. The expression of the GH gene is, however, not confined to the pituitary gland and it is now known to occur in many extrapituitary tissues, in which it has local autocrine or paracrine actions, rather than endocrine function. It is, for instance, expressed in cancers of the prostate, lung, skin, endometrium and colon. The oncogenicity of autocrine GH may also be greater than that induced by endocrine or exogenous GH, as higher concentrations of GHR antagonists are required to inhibit its actions. This may reflect the fact that autocrine GH is thought to act at intracellular receptors directly after synthesis, in compartments not readily accessible to endocrine (or exogenous) GH. The roles and actions of extrapituitary GH in cancer may therefore differ from those of pituitary GH. The possibility that GH may be expressed and act in glioma tumors was therefore examined by immunohistochemistry. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of abundant GH- and GH receptor (GHR-) immunoreactivity in glioma, in which they were co-localized in cytoplasmic but not nuclear compartments. These results demonstrate that glioma differs from most cancers in lacking nuclear GHRs, but GH is nevertheless likely to have autocrine or paracrine actions in the induction and progression of glioma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cryopreservation of organotypic multicellular spheroids from human gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaijk, P.; van den Berg, F.; van Amstel, P.; Troost, D.

    1996-01-01

    Fresh human glioma tissue can be cultured on agarose to form organotypic multicellular spheroids (OMS). The major advantage of OMS is the preservation of the cellular heterogeneity and the tumour architecture, which is lost in conventional monolayer cultures. The present study was undertaken to

  5. SNAI2/Slug promotes growth and invasion in human gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong Wei; Menon, Lata G; Black, Peter M; Carroll, Rona S; Johnson, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Numerous factors that contribute to malignant glioma invasion have been identified, but the upstream genes coordinating this process are poorly known. To identify genes controlling glioma invasion, we used genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of primary human glioblastomas to develop an expression-based rank ordering of 30 transcription factors that have previously been implicated in the regulation of invasion and metastasis in cancer. Using this approach, we identified the oncogenic transcriptional repressor, SNAI2/Slug, among the upper tenth percentile of invasion-related transcription factors overexpressed in glioblastomas. SNAI2 mRNA expression correlated with histologic grade and invasive phenotype in primary human glioma specimens, and was induced by EGF receptor activation in human glioblastoma cells. Overexpression of SNAI2/Slug increased glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and promoted angiogenesis and glioblastoma growth in vivo. Importantly, knockdown of endogenous SNAI2/Slug in glioblastoma cells decreased invasion and increased survival in a mouse intracranial human glioblastoma transplantation model. This genome-scale approach has thus identified SNAI2/Slug as a regulator of growth and invasion in human gliomas

  6. Pediatric glioma stem cells: biologic strategies for oncolytic HSV virotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K Friedman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available While glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common adult malignant brain tumor, GBMs in childhood represent less than 10% of pediatric malignant brain tumors and are phenotypically and molecularly distinct from adult GBMs. Similar to adult patients, outcomes for children with high-grade gliomas (HGGs remain poor. Furthermore, the significant morbidity and mortality yielded by pediatric GBM is compounded by neurotoxicity for the developing brain caused by current therapies. Poor outcomes have been attributed to a subpopulation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant cells, termed ‘glioma stem cells’ (GSCs, ‘glioma progenitor cells’, or ‘glioma-initiating cells', which have the ability to initiate and maintain the tumor and to repopulate the recurring tumor after conventional therapy. Future innovative therapies for pediatric HGGs must be able to eradicate these therapy-resistant GSCs. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses, genetically engineered to be safe for normal cells and to express diverse foreign anti-tumor therapeutic genes, have been demonstrated in preclinical studies to infect and kill GSCs and tumor cells equally while sparing normal brain cells. In this review, we discuss the unique aspects of pediatric GSCs, including markers to identify them, the microenvironment they reside in, signaling pathways that regulate them, mechanisms of cellular resistance, and approaches to target GSCs, with a focus on the promising therapeutic, genetically engineered oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV.

  7. An unusual cystic appearance of disseminated low-grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Perilongo, G.; Kaufman, B.A.; Holden, K.R.; Carollo, C.; Kling Chong, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    We report five cases of pediatric disseminated low-grade gliomas of the brainstem or spinal cord that exhibited an unusual, cystic pattern. Leptomeningeal disease was present in three of these at diagnosis, and was detected shortly afterwards in the other two. Four patients are alive up to 5 years later, following minimal to no intervention, while one is dead. (orig.)

  8. Levetiracetam improves verbal memory in high-grade glioma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marjolein; Douw, Linda; Sizoo, Eefje M; Bosma, Ingeborg; Froklage, Femke E; Heimans, Jan J; Postma, Tjeerd J; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has met with various side effects, such as cognitive deterioration. The cognitive effects of both older and newer AEDs in HGG patients are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of

  9. Diffusion kurtosis imaging can efficiently assess the glioma grade and cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rifeng; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lingyun; Zhang, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Shun; Yao, Yihao; Yang, Shiqi; Shi, Jingjing; Shen, Nanxi; Su, Changliang; Zhang, Ju; Zhu, Wenzhen

    2015-12-08

    Conventional diffusion imaging techniques are not sufficiently accurate for evaluating glioma grade and cellular proliferation, which are critical for guiding glioma treatment. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an advanced non-Gaussian diffusion imaging technique, has shown potential in grading glioma; however, its applications in this tumor have not been fully elucidated. In this study, DKI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were performed on 74 consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma. The kurtosis and conventional diffusion metric values of the tumor were semi-automatically obtained. The relationships of these metrics with the glioma grade and Ki-67 expression were evaluated. The diagnostic efficiency of these metrics in grading was further compared. It was demonstrated that compared with the conventional diffusion metrics, the kurtosis metrics were more promising imaging markers in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas and distinguishing among grade II, III and IV gliomas; the kurtosis metrics also showed great potential in the prediction of Ki-67 expression. To our best knowledge, we are the first to reveal the ability of DKI to assess the cellular proliferation of gliomas, and to employ the semi-automatic method for the accurate measurement of gliomas. These results could have a significant impact on the diagnosis and subsequent therapy of glioma.

  10. An integrated transcriptomic and computational analysis for biomarker identification in human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wenli; Zeng, Chun

    2016-06-01

    Malignant glioma is one of the most common primary brain tumors and is among the deadliest of human cancers. The molecular mechanism for human glioma is poorly understood. Early prognosis of this disease and early treatment are vital. Thus, it is crucial to target the key genes controlling pathogenesis in the early stage of glioma. In this study, differentially expressed genes in human glioma and paired peritumoral tissues were detected by transcriptome microarray analysis. Following gene microarray analysis, the gene expression profile in the differential grade glioma was further validated by bioinformatic analyses, co-expression network construction. Microarray analysis revealed that 1725 genes were differentially expressed and classified into different glioma stage. The analysis revealed 14 genes that were significantly associated with survival with a false discovery rate. Among these genes, macrophage capping protein (CAPG), a member of the actin-regulatory protein, was the key gene in a 20-gene network that modulates cell motility by interacting with the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the prognostic impact of CAPG was validated by use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry on human glioma tissue. CAPG protein was significantly upregulated in clinical high-grade glioblastoma as compared with normal brain tissues. Overexpression of CAPG levels also predict shorter overall survival of glioma patients. These data demonstrated CAPG protein expression in human glioma was associated with tumorigenesis and may be a biomarker for identification of the pathological grade of glioma.

  11. Astrocytes protect glioma cells from chemotherapy and upregulate survival genes via gap junctional communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingtang; Liu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Xu, Geng

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor. Using current standard treatment regimens, the prognosis of patients with gliomas remains poor, which is predominantly due to the resistance of glioma cells to chemotherapy. The organ microenvironment has been implicated in the pathogenesis and survival of tumor cells. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that astrocytes (the housekeeping cells of the brain microenvironment) may protect glioma cells from chemotherapy and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Immunofluorescent and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that glioma cells were surrounded and infiltrated by activated astrocytes. In vitro co-culture of glioma cells with astrocytes significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects on glioma cells caused by various chemotherapeutic agents, as demonstrated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-propidium iodide flow cytometry. Transwell experiments indicated that this protective effect was dependent on physical contact and the gap junctional communication (GJC) between astrocytes and glioma cells. Microarray expression profiling further revealed that astrocytes upregulated the expression levels of various critical survival genes in the glioma cells via GJC. The results of the present study indicated that the organ microenvironment may affect the biological behavior of tumor cells and suggest a novel mechanism of resistance in glioma cells, which may be of therapeutic relevance clinically.

  12. UPA-sensitive ACPP-conjugated nanoparticles for multi-targeting therapy of brain glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yujie; Liao, Ziwei; Jiang, Ting; Zhao, Jingjing; Tuo, Yanyan; She, Xiaojian; Shen, Shun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Now it is well evidenced that tumor growth is a comprehensive result of multiple pathways, and glioma parenchyma cells and stroma cells are closely associated and mutually compensatory. Therefore, drug delivery strategies targeting both of them simultaneously might obtain more promising therapeutic benefits. In the present study, we developed a multi-targeting drug delivery system modified with uPA-activated cell-penetrating peptide (ACPP) for the treatment of brain glioma (ANP). In vitro experiments demonstrated nanoparticles (NP) decorated with cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) or ACPP could significantly improve nanoparticles uptake by C6 glioma cells and nanoparticles penetration into glioma spheroids as compared with traditional NP and thus enhanced the therapeutic effects of its payload when paclitaxel (PTX) was loaded. In vivo imaging experiment revealed that ANP accumulated more specifically in brain glioma site than NP decorated with or without CPP. Brain slides further showed that ACPP contributed to more nanoparticles accumulation in glioma site, and ANP could co-localize not only with glioma parenchyma cells, but also with stroma cells including neo-vascular cells and tumor associated macrophages. The pharmacodynamics results demonstrated ACPP could significantly improve the therapeutic benefits of nanoparticles by significantly prolonging the survival time of glioma bearing mice. In conclusion, the results suggested that nanoparticles modified with uPA-sensitive ACPP could reach multiple types of cells in glioma tissues and provide a novel strategy for glioma targeted therapy.

  13. Upregulation of B23 promotes tumor cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis in glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianguo [Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 1055 Sanxiang Road, Suzhou, 215004, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Jie; Yang, Liu; Yan, Yaohua; Shi, Wei; Shi, Jinlong; Huang, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian [Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Lan, Qing, E-mail: lanqingsj@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 1055 Sanxiang Road, Suzhou, 215004, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-10-09

    B23 (also known as Nucleophosmin, NPM, numatrin or NO38) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein belonging to the nucleoplasmin family of chaperones. In this study we intended to investigate the clinical significance of B23 expression in human glioma and its biological function in glioma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that B23 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. In addition, the expression level of B23 was positively correlated with glioma pathological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that a higher B23 expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. In vitro, after the release of glioma cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of B23 was upregulated, as well as PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) and cyclin A. In addition, knockdown of B23 by small interfering RNA transfection diminished the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and arrested cell growth at G1 phase. Taken together, our results implied that B23 could be a candidate prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutical target of glioma. - Highlights: • B23 expression increased as the malignant degree of glioma increased, which was consistent with Ki-67 expression. • High expression of B23 could be a strong determinant of poor prognosis in glioma. • B23 may be involved in the proliferation of glioma in a cell-cycle-dependent pathway. • Knockdown of B23 expression by siRNA could affect the progression of glioma. • B23 may be a potential prognosis biomarker and a possible therapeutic target for glioma.

  14. Kinetic and structural characterization of bacterial glutaminyl cyclases from Zymomonas mobilis and Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, David Ruiz; Parthier, Christoph; Jänckel, Nadine; Grandke, Julia; Stelter, Marco; Schilling, Stephan; Boehme, Mathias; Neumann, Piotr; Wolf, Raik; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Stubbs, Milton T; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    Although enzymes responsible for the cyclization of amino-terminal glutamine residues are present in both plant and mammal species, none have yet been characterized in bacteria. Based on low sequence homologies to plant glutaminyl cyclases (QCs), we cloned the coding sequences of putative microbial QCs from Zymomonas mobilis (ZmQC) and Myxococcus xanthus (MxQC). The two recombinant enzymes exhibited distinct QC activity, with specificity constants k(cat)/K(m) of 1.47±0.33 mm⁻¹ s⁻¹ (ZmQC) and 142±32.7 mm⁻¹ s⁻¹ (MxQC) towards the fluorescent substrate glutamine-7-amino-4-methyl-coumarine. The measured pH-rate profile of the second order rate constant displayed an interesting deviation towards the acidic limb of the pH chart in the case of ZmQC, whereas MxQC showed maximum activity in the mild alkaline pH range. Analysis of the enzyme variants ZmQCGlu⁴⁶Gln and MxQCGln⁴⁶Glu show that the exchanged residues play a significant role in the pH behaviour of the respective enzymes. In addition, we determined the three dimensional crystal structures of both enzymes. The tertiary structure is defined by a five-bladed β-propeller anchored by a core cation. The structures corroborate the putative location of the active site and confirm the proposed relation between bacterial and plant glutaminyl cyclases.

  15. Lactate dehydrogenase A silencing in IDH mutant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnelong, Charles; Chaumeil, Myriam M; Blough, Michael D; Al-Najjar, Mohammad; Stechishin, Owen D; Chan, Jennifer A; Pieper, Russell O; Ronen, Sabrina M; Weiss, Samuel; Luchman, H Artee; Cairncross, J Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 gene (IDH1/2) were initially thought to enhance cancer cell survival and proliferation by promoting the Warburg effect. However, recent experimental data have shown that production of 2-hydroxyglutarate by IDH mutant cells promotes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α degradation and, by doing so, may have unexpected metabolic effects. We used human glioma tissues and derived brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) to study the expression of HIF1α target genes in IDH mutant ((mt)) and IDH wild-type ((wt)) tumors. Focusing thereafter on the major glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), we used standard molecular methods and pyrosequencing-based DNA methylation analysis to identify mechanisms by which LDHA expression was regulated in human gliomas. We found that HIF1α-responsive genes, including many essential for glycolysis (SLC2A1, PDK1, LDHA, SLC16A3), were underexpressed in IDH(mt) gliomas and/or derived BTSCs. We then demonstrated that LDHA was silenced in IDH(mt) derived BTSCs, including those that did not retain the mutant IDH1 allele (mIDH(wt)), matched BTSC xenografts, and parental glioma tissues. Silencing of LDHA was associated with increased methylation of the LDHA promoter, as was ectopic expression of mutant IDH1 in immortalized human astrocytes. Furthermore, in a search of The Cancer Genome Atlas, we found low expression and high methylation of LDHA in IDH(mt) glioblastomas. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of downregulation of LDHA in cancer. Although unexpected findings, silencing of LDHA and downregulation of several other glycolysis essential genes raise the intriguing possibility that IDH(mt) gliomas have limited glycolytic capacity, which may contribute to their slow growth and better prognosis.

  16. Innate immune functions of microglia isolated from human glioma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innate immunity is considered the first line of host defense and microglia presumably play a critical role in mediating potent innate immune responses to traumatic and infectious challenges in the human brain. Fundamental impairments of the adaptive immune system in glioma patients have been investigated; however, it is unknown whether microglia are capable of innate immunity and subsequent adaptive anti-tumor immune responses within the immunosuppressive tumor micro-environment of human glioma patients. We therefore undertook a novel characterization of the innate immune phenotype and function of freshly isolated human glioma-infiltrating microglia (GIM. Methods GIM were isolated by sequential Percoll purification from patient tumors immediately after surgical resection. Flow cytometry, phagocytosis and tumor cytotoxicity assays were used to analyze the phenotype and function of these cells. Results GIM expressed significant levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, however they do not secrete any of the cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α critical in developing effective innate immune responses. Similar to innate macrophage functions, GIM can mediate phagocytosis and non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity. However, they were statistically less able to mediate tumor cytotoxicity compared to microglia isolated from normal brain. In addition, the expression of Fas ligand (FasL was low to absent, indicating that apoptosis of the incoming lymphocyte population may not be a predominant mode of immunosuppression by microglia. Conclusion We show for the first time that despite the immunosuppressive environment of human gliomas, GIM are capable of innate immune responses such as phagocytosis, cytotoxicity and TLR expression but yet are not competent in secreting key cytokines. Further understanding of these innate immune functions could play a critical role in understanding and developing effective immunotherapies to malignant human gliomas.

  17. ECHOGRAPHIC PICTURE OF OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA IN NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kuzmanović

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Authors want to present echographic picture of orbital part of low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma involving the optic nerve and/or chiasm and optic tract (optic pathway glioma or visual pathway glioma.Methods. 4 children with neurofibromatosis type-1 complicated with optic pathway glioma diagnosed earlier with magnetic resonance were examined by ultrasound. Standardised A-scan technique was used for optic nerve width measurement. The 30° test and B-scan (axial, transverse and longitudinal sections of both eyes and orbits were performed as well.Results. The optic nerve diameter in our cases ranged from 4.48 to 8.5 mm. Two children had the left side optic pathway glioma, one boy had the right side optic pathway glioma and in one tumour was bilateral. The transversal section of the nerve revealed dark oval and in more perpendicular sections round void of the nerve. As the beam is swept towards the orbital apex void becomes more fusiform. The nerve and its sheaths are markedly widened. An abnormal increase in reflectivity and irregularity of the spike’s pattern is exhibited as well. No calcification along the sheaths is noticed. The transverse section of the tumour demonstrated an »inverse doughnut« sign. The outer whiter outline of the widened sheaths surrounds an inner darker circle. The longitudinal section revealed the optic nerve head continuing into the widened optic nerve. The 30° test was negative. The differential diagnosis of meningeoma, optic neuritis and orbital cysticercosis should be considered.Conclusions. Ultrasound as a cheap, safe, easily repeatable imaging method should become a method of choice for screening optic nerve tumours in neurofibromatosis type-1, especially in children, as well as for follow-up after treatment.

  18. In vitro drug response and efflux transporters associated with drug resistance in pediatric high grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veringa, S.J.; Biesmans, D.; Vuurden, D.G. van; Jansen, M.H.; Wedekind, L.E.; Horsman, I.; Wesseling, P.; Vandertop, W.P.; Noske, D.P.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Hulleman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG), including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG), are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. While it is clear that surgery (if possible), and radiotherapy are beneficial for treatment, the role of chemotherapy for these tumors is still unclear.

  19. Discrimination between glioma grades II and III in suspected low-grade gliomas using dynamic contrast-enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Anna; Fahlström, Markus; Rostrup, Egill

    2014-01-01

    that could best discriminate between grade II and III gliomas. METHODS: MRI (3 T) including morphological ((T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted (T1W)+Gd)) and perfusion (DCE and DSC) sequences was performed in 39 patients with newly diagnosed suspected low-grade glioma after...... written informed consent in this review board-approved study. Regions of interests (ROIs) in tumour area were delineated on FLAIR images co-registered to DCE and DSC, respectively, in 25 patients with histopathological grade II (n = 18) and III (n = 7) gliomas. Statistical analysis of differences between...... grade II and grade III gliomas in histogram perfusion parameters was performed, and the areas under the curves (AUC) from the ROC analyses were evaluated. RESULTS: In DCE, the skewness of transfer constant (k(trans)) was found superior for differentiating grade II from grade III in all gliomas (AUC 0...

  20. Efficacy of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG in human glioma cell lines and tumorigenic glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Claire Marie-Elisabeth; Weatherbee, Jessica Leigh; Kesari, Santosh; Winters, Susan Elizabeth; Barnes, Jessica; Dellagatta, Jamie; Ramakrishna, Naren Raj; Stiles, Charles Dean; Kung, Andrew Li-Jen; Kieran, Mark W; Wen, Patrick Yung Chih

    2009-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) arises from genetic and signaling abnormalities in components of signal transduction pathways involved in proliferation, survival, and the cell cycle axis. Studies to date with single-agent targeted molecular therapy have revealed only modest effects in attenuating the growth of these tumors, suggesting that targeting multiple aberrant pathways may be more beneficial. Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the conformational maturation of a defined group of client proteins, many of which are deregulated in GBM. 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is a well-characterized HSP90 inhibitor that should be able to target many of the aberrant signal transduction pathways in GBM. We assessed the ability of 17-AAG to inhibit the growth of glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells both in vitro and in vivo and assessed its ability to synergize with radiation and/or temozolomide, the standard therapies for GBM. Our results reveal that 17-AAG is able to inhibit the growth of both human glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells in vitro and is able to target the appropriate proteins within these cells. In addition, 17-AAG can inhibit the growth of intracranial tumors and can synergize with radiation both in tissue culture and in intracranial tumors. This compound was not found to synergize with temozolomide in any of our models of gliomas. Our results suggest that HSP90 inhibitors like 17-AAG may have therapeutic potential in GBM, either as a single agent or in combination with radiation.

  1. The value of 201thallium-SPECT imaging in childhood brainstem gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadvi, S S; Ebrahim, F S; Corr, P

    1998-08-01

    To compare 201thallium (T1) uptake and SPECT with MRI in children with brainstem gliomas. Ten children with brainstem gliomas were prospectively evaluated by 201Tl-SPECT and MRI. Histological verification was obtained in eight children - two died prior to surgery. Quantitative thallium uptake index (UI) was obtainable in five cases and was compared to tumour grade. In addition, two patients with known benign brainstem lesions (neurofibromatosis and tuberculoma) were similarly prospectively evaluated. All children with brainstem glioma accumulated thallium. (Mean U1 3.23, 100% sensitivity). The single patient with brainstem tuberculoma also accumulated thallium (UI 2.80, 91.7% specificity). There was no correlation between thallium uptake and tumour grade. Uptake could not be conclusively correlated with the following MR features: gadolinium enhancement, exophytic or intrinsic gliomas, necrosis and location of glioma within the brainstem. 201T1-SPECT is a promising imaging adjunct in the assessment of childhood brainstem gliomas.

  2. Characterisation of the ArmA adenylation domain implies a more diverse secondary metabolism in the genus Armillaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiek, Mathias; Braesel, Jana; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    The armA-gene, encoding a tridomain enzyme reminiscent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases, was identified in the genome of the basidiomycete Armillaria mellea. Heterologously expressed enzyme and the ATP-pyrophosphate exchange assay were used for the in vitro biochemical characterisation of the ArmA adenylation domain. l-leucine was the preferred substrate, while l-threonine, l-valine, l-alanine, and l-isoleucine were turned over at lower rates (83 %, 62 %, 56 %, and 44 %, respectively). Other proteinogenic amino acids, 2-oxo acids, and benzoic acid derivatives were not accepted. As the substrate range of ArmA is incompatible with the secondary metabolites known from the genus Armillaria, our results imply greater natural product diversity in this genus. This is the first biochemical characterisation of a basidiomycete amino acid-adenylating domain, and our results may help refine computer algorithms to predict substrate specificities for basidiomycete nonribosomal peptide synthetases whose genes are discovered through genome sequencing. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diffusion kurtosis imaging can efficiently assess the glioma grade and cellular proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Rifeng; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lingyun; Zhang, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Shun; Yao, Yihao; Yang, Shiqi; Shi, Jingjing; Shen, Nanxi; Su, Changliang; Zhang, Ju; Zhu, Wenzhen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional diffusion imaging techniques are not sufficiently accurate for evaluating glioma grade and cellular proliferation, which are critical for guiding glioma treatment. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an advanced non-Gaussian diffusion imaging technique, has shown potential in grading glioma; however, its applications in this tumor have not been fully elucidated. In this study, DKI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were performed on 74 consecutive patients with histopathologicall...

  4. K27M-mutant histone-3 as a novel target for glioma immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Bunse, Theresa; Sahm, Felix; Bunse, Lukas; Deumelandt, Katrin; Sonner, Jana K.; Keil, Melanie; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutation-specific vaccines have become increasingly important in glioma immunotherapy; however, shared neoepitopes are rare. For diffuse gliomas, a driver mutation in the gene for isocitrate dehydrogenase type-1 has been shown to produce an immunogenic epitope currently targeted in clinical trials. For highly aggressive midline gliomas, a recurrent point mutation in the histone-3 gene (H3F3A) causes an amino acid change from lysine to methionine at position 27 (K27M). Here, we demons...

  5. Uptake of iodine-123-α-methyl tyrosine by gliomas and non-neoplastic brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwert, T.; Morgenroth, C.; Woesler, B.; Matheja, P.; Palkovic, S.; Vollet, B.; Samnick, S.; Maasjosthusmann, U.; Lerch, H.; Gildehaus, F.J.; Wassmann, H.; Schober, O.

    1996-01-01

    Using single-photon emission tomography (SPET), the radiopharmaceutical L-3-iodine-123-α-methyl tyrosine (IMT) has been applied to the imaging of amino acid transport into brain tumours. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether IMT SPET is capable of differentiating between high-grade gliomas, low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic brain lesions. To this end, IMT uptake was determined in 53 patients using the triple-headed SPET camera MULTISPECT 3. Twenty-eight of these subjects suffered from high-grade gliomas (WHO grade III or IV), 12 from low-grade gliomas (WHO grade II), and 13 from non-neoplastic brain lesions, including lesions after effective therapy of a glioma (five cases), infarctions (four cases), inflammatory lesions (three cases), infarctions (four cases), inflammatory lesions (three cases) and traumatic haematoma (one case). IMT uptake was significantly higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic lesions. IMT uptake by low-grade gliomas was not significantly different from that by non-neoplastic lesions. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 83% for differentiating high-grade from low-grade gliomas, 82% and 100% for distinguishing high-grade gliomas from non-neoplastic lesions, and 50% and 100% for discriminating low-grade gliomas from non-neoplastic lesions. Analogously to positron emission tomography with radioactively labelled amino acids and fluorine-18 deoxyglucose, IMT SPET may aid in differentiating higc-grade gliomas from histologically benign brain tumours and non-neoplastic brain lesions; it is of only limited value in differentiating between non-neoplastic lesions and histologically benign brain tumours. (orig.)

  6. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

  7. Dependence of electrical activity and calcium influx-controlled prolactin release on adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway in pituitary lactotrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzalez-Iglesias, A. E.; Jiang, Y.; Tomič, M.; Kretschmannová, K.; Andric, S. A.; Zemková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2006), s. 2231-2246 ISSN 0888-8809 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adenylyl cyclase * intracellular calcium concentration * lactotrophs Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.967, year: 2006

  8. Role of the bicarbonate-responsive soluble adenylyl cyclase in pH sensing and metabolic regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Jung-Chin; Oude-Elferink, Ronald P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, adcy10) was recently identified as a unique source of cAMP in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Its activity is regulated by bicarbonate and fine tuned by calcium. As such, and in conjunction with carbonic an hydrase ( CA), sAC constitutes an

  9. Retinoids in the treatment of glioma: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawson AR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony R MawsonDepartment of Health Policy and Management, School of Health Sciences, College of Public Service, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Primary brain tumors are among the top ten causes of cancer-related deaths in the US. Malignant gliomas account for approximately 70% of the 22,500 new cases of malignant primary brain tumors diagnosed in adults each year and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite optimal treatment, the prognosis for patients with gliomas remains poor. The use of retinoids (vitamin A and its congeners in the treatment of certain tumors was originally based on the assumption that these conditions were associated with an underlying deficiency of vitamin A and that supplementation with pharmacological doses would correct the deficiency. Yet the results of retinoid treatment have been only modestly beneficial and usually short-lived. Studies also indicate that vitamin A excess and supplementation have pro-oxidant effects and are associated with increased risks of mortality from cancer and other diseases. The therapeutic role of vitamin A in cancer thus remains uncertain and a new perspective on the facts is needed. The modest and temporary benefits of retinoid treatment could result from a process of feedback inhibition, whereby exogenous retinoid temporarily inhibits the endogenous synthesis of these compounds. In fact, repeated and/or excessive exposure of the tissues to endogenous retinoic acid may contribute to carcinogenesis. Gliomas, in particular, may result from an imbalance in retinoid receptor expression initiated by environmental factors that increase the endogenous production of retinoic acid in glia. At the receptor level, it is proposed that this imbalance is characterized by excessive expression of retinoic acid receptor-α(RARα and reduced expression of retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ. This suggests a potential new treatment strategy for gliomas, possibly even at a

  10. Tumor localization of boronated porphyrins in an intracerebral model of glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.S.; Kaye, A.H.; Gonzales, M.F.; Stylli, S.S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kahl, S.B.; Vardaxis, N.J.; Johnson, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of the most common cerebral tumor, cerebral glioma, is unsatisfactory as the tumor recurs due to inadequate local control. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) offer some promise as adjuvant treatments for cerebral glioma. Several clinical trials have been reported utilizing PDT and BNCT to treat the high grade glioma, glioblastoma multiforme. The authors have investigated the pharmacokinetic tissue distribution of the photosensitizer Haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), the nido carboranyl porphyrin, boron tetraphenyl porphine (BTPP) and the closo carboranyl monomeric protoporphyrin (BOPP) in CBA mice bearing the intracerebral C6 glioma xenograft

  11. Histamine-stimulated expression of insulin-like growth factors in human glioma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Ven, L. T.; Van Buul-Offers, S. C.; Gloudemans, T.; Roholl, P. J.; Sussenbach, J. S.; Den Otter, W.

    1997-01-01

    Glioma tumour growth is associated with the expression of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) and of both type I and type II IGF receptors. It has also been shown that IGFs can stimulate proliferation of cultured glioma cells. We previously reported that histamine too can stimulate the growth of glioma cells in vitro. In this report, we study whether the histamine-induced growth of G47 glioma cells is mediated by the IGFs. We found that histamine stimulates the expression of both IGF-...

  12. Forkhead Box A2 (FOXA2) Inhibits Invasion and Tumorigenesis in Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bingqian; Liang, Huimin; Gao, Ming; Li, Zhenjiang; Xu, Chenyang; Fan, Shaokang; Chang, Na

    2017-05-24

    The forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) is the key transcriptional factor that plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, until now the expression pattern and role of FOXA2 in glioma have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of FOXA2 in glioma and investigate its role in glioma cells. Our data showed that FOXA2 was significantly downregulated in human glioma cell lines. Forced expression of FOXA2 suppressed the ability of glioma cells to proliferate, migrate, and invade and influenced the expression level of EMT-associated proteins. In addition, forced expression of FOXA2 attenuated tumor growth of glioma in a nude mouse xenograft model. Mechanistically, we disclosed that forced expression of FOXA2 greatly downregulated the expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc in glioma cells. Taken together, these results show that FOXA2 may play an important role in proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in glioma cells. Thus, FOXA2 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma.

  13. Risk assessment in paediatric glioma-Time to move on from the binary classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgshun, A J; Hansford, J R; Sullivan, M J

    2017-03-01

    Paediatric glioma encompasses a wide range of entities with highly variable prognoses. Gliomas are grouped by histopathological features into high- and low-grade glioma but this classification until recently has not taken into account many emerging risk factors in this disease. A comprehensive risk classification has not been published for paediatric glioma despite many risk factors being established in this disease. A comprehensive literature review was carried out identifying risk factors for paediatric low-grade and high-grade glioma. The most consistently described risk factors in high-grade glioma included midline location and extent of surgical resection. For patients with progressive unresectable low-grade glioma, age under 1, neurofibromatosis type I status and location were the most consistently prognostic. Molecular classification shows promise in accurately reassigning diagnosis for some gliomas. Risk profiling in paediatric glioma will require a focused multinational effort but will result in a more accurate and nuanced assessment of prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased Expression of microRNA-17 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkui Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the clinical significance of microRNA-17 (miR-17 expression in human gliomas. Methods. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis was used to characterize the expression patterns of miR-17 in 108 glioma and 20 normal brain tissues. The associations of miR-17 expression with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of glioma patients were also statistically analyzed. Results. Compared with normal brain tissues, miR-17 expression was significantly higher in glioma tissues (P<0.001. In addition, the increased expression of miR-17 in glioma was significantly associated with advanced pathological grade (P=0.006 and low Karnofsky performance score (KPS, P=0.01. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses showed that miR-17 overexpression (P=0.008 and advanced pathological grade (P=0.02 were independent factors predicting poor prognosis for gliomas. Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that miR-17 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival in glioma patients with high pathological grades (for grade III~IV: P<0.001. Conclusions. Our data offer the convinced evidence that the increased expression of miR-17 may have potential value for predicting poor prognosis in glioma patients with high pathological grades, indicating that miR-17 may contribute to glioma progression and be a candidate therapeutic target for this disease.

  15. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels predict clinical outcomes of patients with high-grade gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Kaijia; Xu, Li; Chen, Baoshi; Li, Guilin; Qiu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Wei; Song, Sonya W.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) is a malignancy-associated protein measurable in tumors and blood. Increased IGFBP-2 is associated with shortened survival of advanced glioma patients. Thus, we examined plasma IGFBP-2 levels in glioma patients and healthy controls to evaluate its value as a plasma bio-marker for glioma. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels in 196 patients with newly diagnosed glioma and 55 healthy controls were analyzed using an IGFBP-2 ELISA kit. Blood was collected b...

  16. Overexpression of NIMA-related kinase 2 is associated with poor prognoses in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajie; Liu, Bin; Hou, Xianzeng; Pang, Bo; Guo, Pengbo; Jiang, Wanli; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Xin, Tao; Guo, Hua; Xu, Shangchen; Pang, Qi

    2017-05-01

    Eleated expression of NIMA-related kinase 2 (NEK2) was frequently observed in a variety of malignant cancers, and it appears to be involved in the initiation, maintenance, progression, metastasis of cancer and is positively associated with poor prognosis. We sought to investigate NEK2 expression and its predictive roles in malignant gliomas, and study the correlation of NEK2 protein expression with proliferation, clinical parameters, overall survival and some other parameters. We investigate NEK2 protein expression in 99 samples of malignant gliomas, including 35 WHO grade II, 22 grade III, and 42 grade IV gliomas, by immunohistochemistry and western blot (n = 50). We then made correlative analysis of protein overexpression using the Kaplan-Meier method, Log rank test, and Cox proportional-hazards model analysis. NEK2 protein was overexpressed in malignant gliomas, but not in normal brain tissues. Overexpression of NEK2 correlated with malignancy, proliferation and adverse overall survival in gliomas. Moreover, chemotherapy, resection extent and WHO grade also correlate with overall survival in gliomas. However, within WHO grade II glioma subgroup, NEK2 overexpression showed no impact on overall survival. The present study firstly reveals that NEK2 protein is widely overexpressed in gliomas. NEK2 overexpression correlates significantly with malignancy (WHO grades), proliferation (Ki-67) and prognosis in malignant gliomas. NEK2 is a potential gene therapy target and prognostic indicator.

  17. Comparative analysis of oligonucleotide primers for high-throughput screening of genes encoding adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in actinomycetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakal, Tomáš; Goo, K.-S.; Najmanová, Lucie; Plháčková, Kamila; Kadlčík, Stanislav; Ulanová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 5 (2015), s. 1267-1274 ISSN 0003-6072 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Nonribosomal peptide synthetase * Adenylation domain * Actinomycetes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.944, year: 2015

  18. Crystal structures at 2.5 Angstrom resolution of seryl-tRNA synthetase complexed with two analogs of seryl adenylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belrhali, H.; Yaremchuk, A.; Tukalo, M.

    1994-01-01

    in the crystal from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and serine hydroxamate, and the second is with a synthetic analog of seryl adenylate (5'-O-[N-(L-seryl)-sulfamoyl]adenosine), which is a strong inhibitor of the enzyme. Both molecules are bound in a similar fashion by a network of hydrogen bond interactions...

  19. Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling in the Developing Chick Heart: The Deranging Effect of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hejnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adenylyl cyclase (AC signaling system plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiac contractility. Here we analyzed the key components of myocardial AC signaling in the developing chick embryo and assessed the impact of selected β-blocking agents on this system. Application of metoprolol and carvedilol, two commonly used β-blockers, at embryonic day (ED 8 significantly downregulated (by about 40% expression levels of AC5, the dominant cardiac AC isoform, and the amount of Gsα protein at ED9. Activity of AC stimulated by forskolin was also significantly reduced under these conditions. Interestingly, when administered at ED4, these drugs did not produce such profound changes in the myocardial AC signaling system, except for markedly increased expression of Giα protein. These data indicate that β-blocking agents can strongly derange AC signaling during the first half of embryonic heart development.

  20. Moonlighting kinases with guanylate cyclase activity can tune regulatory signal networks

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.

    2012-02-01

    Guanylate cyclase (GC) catalyzes the formation of cGMP and it is only recently that such enzymes have been characterized in plants. One family of plant GCs contains the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain of leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases such as the phytosulfokine and brassinosteroid receptors. In vitro studies show that both the kinase and GC domain have catalytic activity indicating that these kinase-GCs are examples of moonlighting proteins with dual catalytic function. The natural ligands for both receptors increase intracellular cGMP levels in isolated mesophyll protoplast assays suggesting that the GC activity is functionally relevant. cGMP production may have an autoregulatory role on receptor kinase activity and/or contribute to downstream cell expansion responses. We postulate that the receptors are members of a novel class of receptor kinases that contain functional moonlighting GC domains essential for complex signaling roles.

  1. Endothelial CD99 signals through soluble adenylyl cyclase and PKA to regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard L.; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.; Winger, Ryan C.; Wang, Jing; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    CD99 is a critical regulator of leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM). How CD99 signals during this process remains unknown. We show that during TEM, endothelial cell (EC) CD99 activates protein kinase A (PKA) via a signaling complex formed with the lysine-rich juxtamembrane cytoplasmic tail of CD99, the A-kinase anchoring protein ezrin, and soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). PKA then stimulates membrane trafficking from the lateral border recycling compartment to sites of TEM, facilitating the passage of leukocytes across the endothelium. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of EC sAC or PKA, like CD99 blockade, arrests neutrophils and monocytes partway through EC junctions, in vitro and in vivo, without affecting leukocyte adhesion or the expression of relevant cellular adhesion molecules. This is the first description of the CD99 signaling pathway in TEM as well as the first demonstration of a role for sAC in leukocyte TEM. PMID:26101266

  2. Multiple diguanylate cyclase-coordinated regulation of pyoverdine synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yicai; Yuan, Mingjun; Mohanty, Anee

    2015-01-01

    intrinsic feature of c-di-GMP signalling is the abundance of DGCs and PDEs encoded by many bacterial species. It is unclear whether the different DGCs or PDEs coordinately establish the c-di-GMP regulation or function independently of each other. Here, we provide evidence that multiple DGCs are involved......The nucleotide signalling molecule bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays an essential role in regulating microbial virulence and biofilm formation. C-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and degraded by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. One...... in regulation of c-di-GMP on synthesis of the major iron siderophore pyoverdine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Constitutive expression of the WspG or YedQ DGC in P.aeruginosa is able to induce its pyoverdine synthesis. Induction of pyoverdine synthesis by high intracellular c-di-GMP depends on the synthesis...

  3. pH sensing via bicarbonate-regulated ‘soluble’ adenylyl cyclase (sAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawreen eRahman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC is a source of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP. sAC is directly regulated by bicarbonate (HCO3- ions. In living cells, HCO3- ions are in nearly instantaneous equilibrium with carbon dioxide (CO2 and pH due to the ubiquitous presence of carbonic anhydrases. Numerous biological processes are regulated by CO2, HCO3-, and/or pH, and in a number of these, sAC has been shown to function as a physiological CO2/HCO3/pH sensor. In this review, we detail the known pH sensing functions of sAC, and we discuss two highly-studied, pH-dependent pathways in which sAC might play a role.

  4. Patterns of diagnostic marker assessment in adult diffuse glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woehrer, Adelheid; Kristensen, Bjarne W.; Vital, Anne

    2017-01-01

    markers to routine diagnostic use. Adult diffuse glioma is a prototypic example for a group of tumors that underwent substantial regrouping, and it represents a major workload for surgical neuropathologists. Hence, we conducted a survey among members of the European Confederation of Neuropathological......The 2016 update of the WHO classification has introduced an integrated diagnostic approach that incorporates both tumor morphology and molecular information. This conceptual change has far-reaching implications, especially for neuropathologists who are in the forefront of translating molecular...... Societies (Euro-CNS) in order to assess 1) the extent to which molecular markers have already been incorporated in glioma diagnoses, 2) which molecular techniques are in daily use, and 3) to set a baseline for future surveys in this field. Based on 130 responses from participants across 40 nations...

  5. Radioimmunoimaging of experimental gliomas using radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaessner, H.

    1986-01-01

    The biodistribution and tumour uptake of radiolabelled (131 I) glioma-seeking monoclonal antibodies (14 AC1) and their F(ab') 2 fragments were investigated in nude mice having received glioma transplants. Radioimmunoimaging by external scintigraphy at 48 and 96 hours pointed to a superior tumour localisation by the fragments that was clearly related to the dose. Wholebody determinations of the biokinetic behaviour led to the following results: Faster clearance anc more ready elimination from the blood pool for the fragments, preferential uptake in the tumour; intact antibodies; binding in the liver, spleen and lungs. The study confirmed the value of fragments of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of tumours and pointed to the possibility of using intact monoclonal antibodies as carriers of radioisotopes and cytotoxic drugs within the scope of therapeutic programmes. (TRV) [de

  6. Fenofibrate dose not protect glioma cells from irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Jae Lim; Kim, Won Dong; Park, Woo Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Fenofibrate(FF) is a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and used clinically as a hypolipidemic drug. FF has been reported to have a radioprotective effect of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus 1) and inhibit radiation-induced microglial pro-inflammatory response 2). However, if FF also protect tumor cells, it can not be used clinically during radiotherapy. Thus, we're interested in whether FF has an radioprotective effect of brain tumor cells or not Although the radiosensitive G0/G1 phase cells were increased, radiosensitization by FF was not observed in three human glioma cells. This may be due to counterbalance of radiosensitizing and radioprotecting proteins increased by FF. Taken together, FF neither radiosensitize nor radioprotect glioma cells, so it can be used to protect normal neural cells from radiation damage

  7. Ultrasonography-guided cobalt-60 brachytherapy for malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Noboru; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Ueda, Tatsuya

    1989-01-01

    Brachytherapy with cobalt-60 source is reported. In this method it is characterized that the source is inserted interstitially with remote control system by after-loading method via outer catheter (using tandem tube), which was established in the center of residual tumor, using ultrasonography guide with trepanation, or intraoperatively put within the dead space after tumor resection. Six cases of deep-seated and recurrent malignant glioma, were treated with this method. A total dose of 20 to 45 Gy (10 to 15 Gy/day for 2 to 3 days) was delivered to the target. Additionally conventional external irradiation was followed. The effect of cobalt-60 brachytherapy on such tumors were favorable especially for well-circumscribed glioma less than 3 cm on CT scan. (author)

  8. Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of glioma among younger women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Oral contraceptive use influences the risk for certain cancers. However, few studies have examined any link with risk of central nervous system tumours. We investigated the association between hormonal contraceptive use and glioma risk among premenopausal women in a population-based setting...... risk set sampling. Based on prescription data, exposure until 2 years prior to the index date was categorized according to hormonal contraceptive type, i.e. combined oestrogen-progestagen or progestagen only, and duration of use (... to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for glioma associated with hormonal contraceptive use, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We identified 317 cases and 2126 controls. Ever use of hormonal contraceptive was associated with an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 2...

  9. Molecular pathology in adult gliomas: diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jansen, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been an increasing use of molecular markers in the assessment and management of adult malignant gliomas. Some molecular signatures are used diagnostically to help pathologists classify tumours, whereas others are used to estimate prognosis for patients. Most crucial, however, are those markers that are used to predict response to certain therapies, thereby directing clinicians to a particular treatment while avoiding other potentially deleterious therapies. Recently, large-scale genome-wide surveys have been used to identify new biomarkers that have been rapidly developed as diagnostic and prognostic tools. Given these developments, the pace of discovery of new molecular assays will quicken to facilitate personalised medicine in the setting of malignant glioma.

  10. The Effect of Molecular Diagnostics on the Treatment of Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nancy Ann Oberheim; Butowski, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the use of molecular diagnostics in glioma and its effect on the development of novel therapeutics and management decisions. Genomic and proteomic profiling of brain tumors has provided significant expansion of our understanding of oncogenesis, characterization, and prognostication of brain tumors. Molecular markers such as MGMT, EGFR, IDH, 1p19q, ATRX, TERT, FGFR-TACC, and BRAF are now being used to classify brain tumors as well as influence management decisions. Several of these markers are also being used as therapeutic targets. We review the use of several molecular diagnostics in gliomas and discuss their impact on drug development and clinical trial design. In the future, molecular characterization based on a specific genomic, proteomic as well as transcriptomes for bioformatics analysis will provide clinicians the ability to rationally select drugs with actionable targets for each patient.

  11. SVM-based glioma grading. Optimization by feature reduction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, Frank G.; Schad, Lothar R.; Emblem, Kyrre E.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Oslo Univ. Hospital

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the predictive power of feature reduction analysis approaches in support vector machine (SVM)-based classification of glioma grade. In 101 untreated glioma patients, three analytic approaches were evaluated to derive an optimal reduction in features; (i) Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), (ii) principal component analysis (PCA) and (iii) independent component analysis (ICA). Tumor grading was performed using a previously reported SVM approach including whole-tumor cerebral blood volume (CBV) histograms and patient age. Best classification accuracy was found using PCA at 85% (sensitivity = 89%, specificity = 84%) when reducing the feature vector from 101 (100-bins rCBV histogram + age) to 3 principal components. In comparison, classification accuracy by PCC was 82% (89%, 77%, 2 dimensions) and 79% by ICA (87%, 75%, 9 dimensions). For improved speed (up to 30%) and simplicity, feature reduction by all three methods provided similar classification accuracy to literature values (∝87%) while reducing the number of features by up to 98%. (orig.)

  12. In vitro drug response and efflux transporters associated with drug resistance in pediatric high grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna J E Veringa

    Full Text Available Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG, including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG, are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. While it is clear that surgery (if possible, and radiotherapy are beneficial for treatment, the role of chemotherapy for these tumors is still unclear. Therefore, we performed an in vitro drug screen on primary glioma cells, including three DIPG cultures, to determine drug sensitivity of these tumours, without the possible confounding effect of insufficient drug delivery. This screen revealed a high in vitro cytotoxicity for melphalan, doxorubicine, mitoxantrone, and BCNU, and for the novel, targeted agents vandetanib and bortezomib in pHGG and DIPG cells. We subsequently determined the expression of the drug efflux transporters P-gp, BCRP1, and MRP1 in glioma cultures and their corresponding tumor tissues. Results indicate the presence of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP1 in the tumor vasculature, and expression of MRP1 in the glioma cells themselves. Our results show that pediatric glioma and DIPG tumors per se are not resistant to chemotherapy. Treatment failure observed in clinical trials, may rather be contributed to the presence of drug efflux transporters that constitute a first line of drug resistance located at the blood-brain barrier or other resistance mechanism. As such, we suggest that alternative ways of drug delivery may offer new possibilities for the treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma patients, and DIPG in particular.

  13. Mechanisms of Glioma Formation: Iterative Perivascular Glioma Growth and Invasion Leads to Tumor Progression, VEGF-Independent Vascularization, and Resistance to Antiangiogenic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Baker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As glioma cells infiltrate the brain they become associated with various microanatomic brain structures such as blood vessels, white matter tracts, and brain parenchyma. How these distinct invasion patterns coordinate tumor growth and influence clinical outcomes remain poorly understood. We have investigated how perivascular growth affects glioma growth patterning and response to antiangiogenic therapy within the highly vascularized brain. Orthotopically implanted rodent and human glioma cells are shown to commonly invade and proliferate within brain perivascular space. This form of brain tumor growth and invasion is also shown to characterize de novo generated endogenous mouse brain tumors, biopsies of primary human glioblastoma (GBM, and peripheral cancer metastasis to the human brain. Perivascularly invading brain tumors become vascularized by normal brain microvessels as individual glioma cells use perivascular space as a conduit for tumor invasion. Agent-based computational modeling recapitulated biological perivascular glioma growth without the need for neoangiogenesis. We tested the requirement for neoangiogenesis in perivascular glioma by treating animals with angiogenesis inhibitors bevacizumab and DC101. These inhibitors induced the expected vessel normalization, yet failed to reduce tumor growth or improve survival of mice bearing orthotopic or endogenous gliomas while exacerbating brain tumor invasion. Our results provide compelling experimental evidence in support of the recently described failure of clinically used antiangiogenics to extend the overall survival of human GBM patients.

  14. Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Complexes Shape the Photoresponses of Retinal Rods and Cones

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    Xiao-Hong eWen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrate rods and cones, photon capture by rhodopsin leads to the destruction of cyclic GMP (cGMP and the subsequent closure of cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG ion channels in the outer segment plasma membrane. Replenishment of cGMP and reopening of the channels limit the growth of the photon response and are requisite for its recovery. In different vertebrate retinas, there may be as many as four types of membrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs for cGMP synthesis. Ten neuronal Ca2+ sensor proteins could potentially modulate their activities. The mouse is proving to be an effective model for characterizing the roles of individual components because its relative simplicity can be reduced further by genetic engineering. There are two types of guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs and two types of GCs in mouse rods, whereas cones express one type of GCAP and one type of GC. Mutant mouse rods and cones bereft of both GCAPs have large, long lasting photon responses. Thus, GCAPs normally mediate negative feedback tied to the light-induced decline in intracellular Ca2+ that accelerates GC activity to curtail the growth and duration of the photon response. Rods from other mutant mice that express a single GCAP type reveal how the two GCAPs normally work together as a team. Because of its lower Ca2+ affinity, GCAP1 is the first responder that senses the initial decrease in Ca2+ following photon absorption and acts to limit response amplitude. GCAP2, with a higher Ca2+ affinity, is recruited later during the course of the photon response as Ca2+ levels continue to decline further. The main role of GCAP2 is to provide for a timely response recovery and it is particularly important after exposure to very bright light. The multiplicity of GC isozymes and GCAP homologs in the retinas of other vertebrates confers greater flexibility in shaping the photon responses in order to tune visual sensitivity, dynamic range and frequency response.

  15. Synergism between soluble guanylate cyclase signaling and neuropeptides extends lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Abergel, Rachel; Livshits, Leonid; Shaked, Maayan; Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Gross, Einav

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen (O 2 ) homeostasis is important for all aerobic animals. However, the manner by which O 2 sensing and homeostasis contribute to lifespan regulation is poorly understood. Here, we use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to address this question. We demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1 and a deletion mutation in the atypical soluble guanylate cyclase gcy-35 O 2 sensor interact synergistically to extend worm lifespan. The function of npr-1 and gcy-35 in the O 2 -sensing neurons AQR, PQR, and URX shortens the lifespan of the worm. By contrast, the activity of the atypical soluble guanylate cyclase O 2 sensor gcy-33 in these neurons is crucial for lifespan extension. In addition to AQR, PQR, and URX, we show that the O 2 -sensing neuron BAG and the interneuron RIA are also important for the lifespan lengthening. Neuropeptide processing by the proprotein convertase EGL-3 is essential for lifespan extension, suggesting that the synergistic effect of joint loss of function of gcy-35 and npr-1 is mediated through neuropeptide signal transduction. The extended lifespan is regulated by hypoxia and insulin signaling pathways, mediated by the transcription factors HIF-1 and DAF-16. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to play an important function in lifespan lengthening. As HIF-1 and DAF-16 activities are modulated by ROS, we speculate that joint loss of function of gcy-35 and npr-1 extends lifespan through ROS signaling. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. G protein-coupled receptors form stable complexes with inwardly rectifying potassium channels and adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Natalie; Ethier, Nathalie; Oak, James N; Pei, Lin; Liu, Fang; Trieu, Phan; Rebois, R Victor; Bouvier, Michel; Hebert, Terence E; Van Tol, Hubert H M

    2002-11-29

    A large number of studies have demonstrated co-purification or co-immunoprecipitation of receptors with G proteins. We have begun to look for the presence of effector molecules in these receptor complexes. Co-expression of different channel and receptor permutations in COS-7 and HEK 293 cells in combination with co-immunoprecipitation experiments established that the dopamine D(2) and D(4), and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (beta(2)-AR) form stable complexes with Kir3 channels. The D(4)/Kir3 and D(2) receptor/Kir3 interaction does not occur when the channel and receptor are expressed separately and mixed prior to immunoprecipitation, indicating that the interaction is not an artifact of the experimental protocol and reflects a biosynthetic event. The observed complexes are stable in that they are not disrupted by receptor activation or modulation of G protein alpha subunit function. However, using a peptide that binds Gbetagamma (betaARKct), we show that Gbetagamma is critical for dopamine receptor-Kir3 complex formation, but not for maintenance of the complex. We also provide evidence that Kir3 channels and another effector, adenylyl cyclase, are stably associated with the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor and can be co-immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antibodies. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we have shown that in living cells under physiological conditions, beta(2)AR interacts directly with Kir3.1/3.4 and Kir3.1/3.2c heterotetramers as well as with adenylyl cyclase. All of these interactions are stable in the presence of receptor agonists, suggesting that these signaling complexes persist during signal transduction. In addition, we provide evidence that the receptor-effector complexes are also found in vivo. The observation that several G protein-coupled receptors form stable complexes with their effectors suggests that this arrangement might be a general feature of G protein-coupled signal transduction.

  17. Multimodal imaging in cerebral gliomas and its neuropathological correlation

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    Gempt, Jens, E-mail: jens.gempt@lrz.tum.de [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Soehngen, Eric [Abteilung für Neuroradiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Abteilung für Neuropathologie des Instituts für Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Förster, Stefan [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Ryang, Yu-Mi [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Schlegel, Jürgen [Abteilung für Neuropathologie des Instituts für Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); and others

    2014-05-15

    Introduction: Concerning the preoperative clinical diagnostic work-up of glioma patients, tumor heterogeneity challenges the oncological therapy. The current study assesses the performance of a multimodal imaging approach to differentiate between areas in malignant gliomas and to investigate the extent to which such a combinatorial imaging approach might predict the underlying histology. Methods: Prior to surgical resection, patients harboring intracranial gliomas underwent MRIs (MR-S, PWI) and {sup 18}F-FET-PETs. Intratumoral and peritumoral biopsy targets were defined, by MRI only, by FET-PET only, and by MRI and FET-PET combined, and biopsied prior to surgical resection and which then received separate histopathological examinations. Results: In total, 38 tissue samples were acquired (seven glioblastomas, one anaplastic astrocytoma, one anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, one diffuse astrocytoma, and one oligoastrocytoma) and underwent histopathological analysis. The highest mean values of Mib1 and CD31 were found in the target point “T’ defined by MRI and FET-PET combined. A significant correlation between NAA/Cr and PET tracer uptake (−0.845, p < 0.05) as well as Cho/Cr ratio and cell density (0.742, p < 0.05) and NAA/Cr ratio and MIB-1 (−0761, p < 0.05) was disclosed for this target point, though not for target points defined by MRI and FET-PET alone. Conclusion: Multimodal-imaging-guided stereotactic biopsy correlated more with histological malignancy indices, such as cell density and MIB-1 labeling, than targets that were based solely on the highest amino acid uptake or contrast enhancement on MRI. The results of our study indicate that a combined PET-MR multimodal imaging approach bears potential benefits in detecting glioma heterogeneity.

  18. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedo, A.; Malík, Radek; Drbal, K.; Lisá, Věra; Vlašicová, K.; Mareš, Vladislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2000), s. 57-63 ISSN 1121-760X Grant - others:GA UK(XC) 58/1999/C; GA UK(XC) 206019-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : dipeptidyl peptidase IV * glioma cell lines * cell proliferation and differentiation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2000

  19. Differential Signature of the Centrosomal MARK4 Isoforms in Glioma

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    Ivana Magnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4 is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. Methods: We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the MARK4L and MARK4S expression profile in 21 glioma cell lines and 36 tissues of different malignancy grades, glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells (GBM CSCs and mouse neural stem cells (NSCs by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the sub-cellular localisation of MARK4 isoforms in glioma and normal cell lines by immunofluorescence. Results: Mutation analysis rules out sequence variations as the cause of the altered MARK4 expression in glioma. Expression profiling confirms that MARK4L is the predominant isoform, whereas MARK4S levels are significantly decreased in comparison and show an inverse correlation with tumour grade. A high MARK4L/MARK4S ratio also characterizes undifferentiated cells, such as GBM CSCs and NSCs. Accordingly, only MARK4L is expressed in brain neurogenic regions. Moreover, while both MARK4 isoforms are localised to the centrosome and midbody in glioma and normal cells, the L isoform exhibits an additional nucleolar localisation in tumour cells. Conclusions: The observed switch towards MARK4L suggests that the balance between the MARK4 isoforms is carefully guarded during neural differentiation but may be subverted in gliomagenesis. Moreover, the MARK4L nucleolar localisation in tumour cells features this MARK4 isoform as a nucleolus-associated tumour marker.

  20. Treatment Resistance Mechanisms of Malignant Glioma Tumor Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, Philip G.R.; Shen, Michael J.; Park, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly lethal because of their resistance to conventional treatments. Recent evidence suggests that a minor subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties reside within these tumors. These tumor stem cells are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapies than their counterpart differentiated tumor cells and may underlie the persistence and recurrence of tumors following treatment. The various mechanisms by which tumor stem cells avoid or repair the damaging effects of cancer therapies are discussed

  1. Efficacy and toxicity of postoperative temozolomide radiochemotherapy in malignant glioma

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    Kocher, M.; Kunze, S.; Eich, H.T.; Semrau, R.; Mueller, R.P. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of daily temozolomide concurrent with postoperative radiotherapy in malignant glioma. Patients and methods: from 11/1999 to 03/2003, n = 81 patients aged 15-72 years (median 52 years, karnofsky score 80-100% in 83%) suffering from primary glioblastoma (n = 47), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 6), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 16), and recurrent glioma (n = 12) were treated. Patients with primary gliomas received a combination of postoperative radiotherapy (60 Gy/1.8- to 2.0-Gy fractions) and daily oral temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) at all irradiation days (30-33 doses), while recurrent tumors were treated with 45-60 Gy and temozolomide. Initially, 6/81 patients had daily temozolomide doses of 50 mg/m{sup 2}. Results: in total, 70/81 patients (86%) completed both radio- and chemotherapy. Grade 1 nausea/vomiting was seen in 28%, grade 2 in 11%, grade 3 in 1%. Antiemetics were applied in 41%. Hematologic toxicities were observed as follows: leukopenia grade 3/4 1%, lymphopenia grade 3/4 46%, thrombopenia grade 3/4 1%. Two patients under dexamethasone suffered herpes encephalitis after one and 16 doses of temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}). Median survival was 15 months for glioblastoma. In oligodendroglioma patients, a 4-year survival rate of 78% was observed. Conclusion: postoperative radiochemotherapy with 30-33 daily doses of temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) is safe in patients with malignant glioma. The combined schedule is effective in oligodendroglioma patients and may prolong survival in glioblastoma. Effort should be taken to minimize corticosteroid doses, since both steroids and temozolomide lead to immunosuppression. (orig.)

  2. Involvement of the kynurenine pathway in human glioma pathophysiology.

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    Seray Adams

    Full Text Available The kynurenine pathway (KP is the principal route of L-tryptophan (TRP catabolism leading to the production of kynurenine (KYN, the neuroprotectants, kynurenic acid (KYNA and picolinic acid (PIC, the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QUIN and the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+. The enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO-2 and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO-2 initiate the first step of the KP. IDO-1 and TDO-2 induction in tumors are crucial mechanisms implicated to play pivotal roles in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Here, we report the first comprehensive characterisation of the KP in 1 cultured human glioma cells and 2 plasma from patients with glioblastoma (GBM. Our data revealed that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ stimulation significantly potentiated the expression of the KP enzymes, IDO-1 IDO-2, kynureninase (KYNU, kynurenine hydroxylase (KMO and significantly down-regulated 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD and kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I expression in cultured human glioma cells. This significantly increased KP activity but significantly lowered the KYNA/KYN neuroprotective ratio in human cultured glioma cells. KP activation (KYN/TRP was significantly higher, whereas the concentrations of the neuroreactive KP metabolites TRP, KYNA, QUIN and PIC and the KYNA/KYN ratio were significantly lower in GBM patient plasma (n = 18 compared to controls. These results provide further evidence for the involvement of the KP in glioma pathophysiology and highlight a potential role of KP products as novel and highly attractive therapeutic targets to evaluate for the treatment of brain tumors, aimed at restoring anti-tumor immunity and reducing the capacity for malignant cells to produce NAD(+, which is necessary for energy production and DNA repair.

  3. The Tropism of Pleiotrophin: Orchestrating Glioma Brain Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, David H

    2017-08-24

    The lateral ventricle (LV) is a preferential location for brain tumor spread; however, the instructive cues responsible for this unique tropism were previously unknown. In this issue, Qin et al. elucidate the underlying mechanism, demonstrating that LV-neural progenitors secrete a pleiotrophin (PTN)-containing complex, which attracts glioma cells through ROCK/Rho activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro

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    Guo You-feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P P = 0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P = 0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

  5. Cortical and Subcortical Structural Plasticity Associated with the Glioma Volumes in Patients with Cerebral Gliomas Revealed by Surface-Based Morphometry

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    Jinping Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postlesional plasticity has been identified in patients with cerebral gliomas by inducing a large functional reshaping of brain networks. Although numerous non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this functional redistribution in patients with cerebral gliomas, little effort has been made to investigate the structural plasticity of cortical and subcortical structures associated with the glioma volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the contralateral cortical and subcortical structures are able to actively reorganize by themselves in these patients. The compensation mechanism following contralateral cortical and subcortical structural plasticity is considered. We adopted the surface-based morphometry to investigate the difference of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM volumes in a cohort of 14 healthy controls and 13 patients with left-hemisphere cerebral gliomas [including 1 patients with World Health Organization (WHO I, 8 WHO II, and 4 WHO III]. The glioma volume ranges from 5.1633 to 208.165 cm2. Compared to healthy controls, we found significantly increased GM volume of the right cuneus and the left thalamus, as well as a trend toward enlargement in the right globus pallidus in patients with cerebral gliomas. Moreover, the GM volumes of these regions were positively correlated with the glioma volumes of the patients. These results provide evidence of cortical and subcortical enlargement, suggesting the usefulness of surface-based morphometry to investigate the structural plasticity. Moreover, the structural plasticity might be acted as the compensation mechanism to better fulfill its functions in patients with cerebral gliomas as the gliomas get larger.

  6. PI3 kinase mutations and mutational load as poor prognostic markers in diffuse glioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draaisma, Kaspar; Wijnenga, Maarten M J; Weenink, Bas; Gao, Ya; Smid, Marcel; Robe, P; van den Bent, Martin J; French, Pim J

    2015-12-23

    Recent advances in molecular diagnostics allow diffuse gliomas to be classified based on their genetic changes into distinct prognostic subtypes. However, a systematic analysis of all molecular markers has thus far not been performed; most classification schemes use a predefined and select set of genes/molecular markers. Here, we have analysed the TCGA dataset (combined glioblastoma (GBM) and lower grade glioma (LGG) datasets) to identify all prognostic genetic markers in diffuse gliomas in order to generate a comprehensive classification scheme. Of the molecular markers investigated (all genes mutated at a population frequency >1.7 % and frequent chromosomal imbalances) in the entire glioma dataset, 57 were significantly associated with overall survival. Of these, IDH1 or IDH2 mutations are associated with lowest hazard ratio, which confirms IDH as the most important prognostic marker in diffuse gliomas. Subsequent subgroup analysis largely confirms many of the currently used molecular classification schemes for diffuse gliomas (ATRX or TP53 mutations, 1p19q codeletion). Our analysis also identified PI3-kinase mutations as markers of poor prognosis in IDH-mutated + ATRX/TP53 mutated diffuse gliomas, median survival 3.7 v. 6.3 years (P = 0.02, Hazard rate (HR) 2.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.16 - 7.38). PI3-kinase mutations were also prognostic in two independent datasets. In our analysis, no additional molecular markers were identified that further refine the molecular classification of diffuse gliomas. Interestingly, these molecular classifiers do not fully explain the variability in survival observed for diffuse glioma patients. We demonstrate that tumor grade remains an important prognostic factor for overall survival in diffuse gliomas, even within molecular glioma subtypes. Tumor grade was correlated with the mutational load (the number of non-silent mutations) of the tumor: grade II diffuse gliomas harbour fewer genetic changes than grade

  7. Glioma Groups Based on 1p/19q, IDH, and TERT Promoter Mutations in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Lachance, Daniel H; Molinaro, Annette M; Walsh, Kyle M; Decker, Paul A; Sicotte, Hugues; Pekmezci, Melike; Rice, Terri; Kosel, Matt L; Smirnov, Ivan V; Sarkar, Gobinda; Caron, Alissa A; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; Praska, Corinne E; Chada, Anisha R; Halder, Chandralekha; Hansen, Helen M; McCoy, Lucie S; Bracci, Paige M; Marshall, Roxanne; Zheng, Shichun; Reis, Gerald F; Pico, Alexander R; O'Neill, Brian P; Buckner, Jan C; Giannini, Caterina; Huse, Jason T; Perry, Arie; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchell S; Chang, Susan M; Prados, Michael D; Wiemels, Joseph; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret R; Jenkins, Robert B

    2015-06-25

    The prediction of clinical behavior, response to therapy, and outcome of infiltrative glioma is challenging. On the basis of previous studies of tumor biology, we defined five glioma molecular groups with the use of three alterations: mutations in the TERT promoter, mutations in IDH, and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion). We tested the hypothesis that within groups based on these features, tumors would have similar clinical variables, acquired somatic alterations, and germline variants. We scored tumors as negative or positive for each of these markers in 1087 gliomas and compared acquired alterations and patient characteristics among the five primary molecular groups. Using 11,590 controls, we assessed associations between these groups and known glioma germline variants. Among 615 grade II or III gliomas, 29% had all three alterations (i.e., were triple-positive), 5% had TERT and IDH mutations, 45% had only IDH mutations, 7% were triple-negative, and 10% had only TERT mutations; 5% had other combinations. Among 472 grade IV gliomas, less than 1% were triple-positive, 2% had TERT and IDH mutations, 7% had only IDH mutations, 17% were triple-negative, and 74% had only TERT mutations. The mean age at diagnosis was lowest (37 years) among patients who had gliomas with only IDH mutations and was highest (59 years) among patients who had gliomas with only TERT mutations. The molecular groups were independently associated with overall survival among patients with grade II or III gliomas but not among patients with grade IV gliomas. The molecular groups were associated with specific germline variants. Gliomas were classified into five principal groups on the basis of three tumor markers. The groups had different ages at onset, overall survival, and associations with germline variants, which implies that they are characterized by distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  8. Glioma cell fate decisions mediated by Dll1-Jag1-Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Ruiqi

    2017-09-21

    The Notch family of proteins plays a vital role in determining cell fates, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been shown that Notch1 and its ligands, Dll1 and Jag1, are overexpressed in many glioma cell lines and primary human gliomas. The roles of Notch1 in some cancers have been firmly established, and recent data implicate that it plays important roles in glioma cell fate decisions. This paper focuses on devising a specific theoretical framework that incorporates Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway to explore their functional roles of these proteins in glioma cells in the tumorigenesis and progression of human gliomas, and to study how glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells. Based on the bifurcation analysis of the model, we show that how the glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition mediated by the Fringe protein, providing insight into the design and control principles of the Notch signaling system and the gliomas. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells based on intertwined dynamics with cis-inhibition and trans-activation involving the proteins Notch1, Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe. The results show that how the glioma cell fate transitions are performed by the Notch1 signaling. Transition from grade III ∼ IV with significantly high Notch1 to grade I ∼ II with high Notch1, and then to normal cells by repressing the Fringe levels or decreasing the strength of enhancement induced by Fringe.

  9. Differential expression of centrosomal proteins at different stages of human glioma

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    Lin Fang-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-grade gliomas have poor prognosis, requiring aggressive treatment. The aim of this study is to explore mitotic and centrosomal dysregulation in gliomas, which may provide novel targets for treatment. Methods A case-control study was performed using 34 resected gliomas, which were separated into low- and high-grade groups. Normal human brain tissue was used as a control. Using immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescent microscopy, and RT-PCR, detection of centrins 1 and 2, γ-tubulin, hNinein, Aurora A, and Aurora B, expression was performed. Analysis of the GBM8401 glioma cell line was also undertaken to complement the in vivo studies. Results In high-grade gliomas, the cells had greater than two very brightly staining centrioles within large, atypical nuclei, and moderate-to-strong Aurora A staining. Comparing with normal human brain tissue, most of the mRNAs expression in gliomas for centrosomal structural proteins, including centrin 3, γ-tubulin, and hNinein isoforms 1, 2, 5 and 6, Aurora A and Aurora B were elevated. The significant different expression was observed between high- and low-grade glioma in both γ-tubulin and Aurora A mRNA s. In the high-grade glioma group, 78.6% of the samples had higher than normal expression of γ-tubulin mRNA, which was significantly higher than in the low-grade glioma group (18.2%, p Conclusions Markers for mitotic dysregulation, such as supernumerary centrosomes and altered expression of centrosome-related mRNA and proteins were more frequently detected in higher grade gliomas. Therefore, these results are clinically useful for glioma staging as well as the development of novel treatments strategies.

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

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    A Sedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-IV, EC 3.4.14.5] takes part in the metabolism of biologically active peptides participating in the regulation of growth and transformation of glial cells. However, the knowledge on the DPP-IV expression in human glial and glioma cells is still very limited. In this study, using histochemical and biochemical techniques, the DPP-IV activity was demonstrated in two commercially available human glioma cell lines of different transformation degree, as represented by U373 astrocytoma (Grade III and U87 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV lines. Higher total activity of the enzyme, as well as its preferential localisation in the plasma membrane, was observed in U87 cells. Compared to U373 population, U87 cells were morphologically more pleiomorphic, they were cycling at lower rate and expressing less Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. The data revealed positive correlation between the degree of transformation of cells and activity of DPP-IV. Great difference in expression of this enzyme, together with the phenotypic differences of cells, makes these lines a suitable standard model for further 57 studies of function of this enzyme in human glioma cells.

  11. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Eric C; Scheck, Adrienne C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of glioma biology has led to an increase in targeted therapies in preclinical and clinical trials; however, cellular heterogeneity often precludes the targeted molecules from being found on all glioma cells, thus reducing the efficacy of these treatments. In contrast, one trait shared by virtually all tumor cells is altered (dysregulated) metabolism. Tumor cells have an increased reliance on glucose, suggesting that treatments affecting cellular metabolism may be an effective method to improve current therapies. Indeed, metabolism has been a focus of cancer research in the last few years, as many pathways long associated with tumor growth have been found to intersect metabolic pathways in the cell. The ketogenic diet (high fat, low carbohydrate and protein), caloric restriction, and fasting all cause a metabolic change, specifically, a reduction in blood glucose and an increase in blood ketones. We, and others, have demonstrated that these metabolic changes improve survival in animal models of malignant gliomas and can potentiate the anti-tumor effect of chemotherapies and radiation treatment. In this review we discuss the use of metabolic alteration for the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Progress on Antiangiogenic Therapy for Patients with Malignant Glioma

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    Manmeet S. Ahluwalia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor occurring in America. Despite recent advances in therapeutics, the prognosis for patients with newly diagnosed GBM remains dismal. As these tumors characteristically show evidence of angiogenesis (neovascularization there has been great interest in developing anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with this disease and some anti-angiogenic agents have now been used for the treatment of patients with malignant glioma tumors. Although the results of these clinical trials are promising in that they indicate an initial therapeutic response, the anti-angiogenic therapies tested to date have not changed the overall survival of patients with malignant glioma tumors. This is due, in large part, to the development of resistance to these therapies. Ongoing research into key features of the neovasculature in malignant glioma tumors, as well as the general angiogenesis process, is suggesting additional molecules that may be targeted and an improved response when both the neovasculature and the tumor cells are targeted. Prevention of the development of resistance may require the development of anti-angiogenic strategies that induce apoptosis or cell death of the neovasculature, as well as an improved understanding of the potential roles of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and vascular co-option by tumor cells, in the development of resistance.

  13. Role of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Mediators in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Conti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors of the central nervous system. Despite relevant progress in conventional treatments, the prognosis of such tumors remains almost invariably dismal. The genesis of gliomas is a complex, multistep process that includes cellular neoplastic transformation, resistance to apoptosis, loss of control of the cell cycle, angiogenesis, and the acquisition of invasive properties. Among a number of different biomolecular events, the existence of molecular connections between inflammation and oxidative stress pathways and the development of this cancer has been demonstrated. In particular, the tumor microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory molecules, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, promoting proliferation, survival and migration of such tumors. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma, as well as chemokines and prostaglandins, are synthesized by resident brain cells and lymphocytes invading the affected brain tissue. Key mediators of cancer progression include nuclear factor-kappaB, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and specific microRNAs. The collective activity of these mediators is largely responsible for a pro-tumorigenic response through changes in cell proliferation, cell death, cellular senescence, DNA mutation rates, DNA methylation and angiogenesis. We provide a general overview of the connection between specific inflammation and oxidative stress pathway molecules and gliomas. The elucidation of specific effects and interactions of these factors may provide the opportunity for the identification of new target molecules leading to improved diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Evidence-based standard care of malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Jun; Yano, Hirohito; Sakai, Noboru

    2004-01-01

    The amount of scientific evidence regarding therapy for primary cases of glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma is small compared with that for malignant tumors in other organs, and recommended therapeutic strategies derived from this evidence are not diverse. Evidence-based standard care of these tumors is very limited. At this moment, the benchmark treatment for these malignant gliomas is gross resection of the tumor bulk followed by local external beam radiotherapy (50-60 Gy) in combination with nitrosourea-based chemotherapy. Additional stereotactic radiosurgery or other strategies for localized therapeutic boosting have also been recommended. However, the clinical outcomes obtained through these standard treatments are unfortunately not always satisfactory. Novel therapeutic strategies for malignant gliomas are expected to develop and we hope that some scientific evidence would emerge from clinical trials using these novel strategies. New scientific evidence for practical and novel treatments appropriate for patients with malignant gliomas may come to be available as the evaluation of patients' quality of life is used as an end point for the analysis of clinical results, in addition to the commonly used survival analysis. (author)

  15. Predicting patterns of glioma recurrence using diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Stephen J.; Pickard, John D.; Jena, Rajesh; Burnet, Neil G.; Carpenter, T.A.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2007-01-01

    Although multimodality therapy for high-grade gliomas is making some improvement in outcome, most patients will still die from their disease within a short time. We need tools that allow treatments to be tailored to an individual. In this study we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a technique sensitive to subtle disruption of white-matter tracts due to tumour infiltration, to see if it can be used to predict patterns of glioma recurrence. In this study we imaged 26 patients with gliomas using DTI. Patients were imaged after 2 years or on symptomatic tumour recurrence. The diffusion tensor was split into its isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components, and these were plotted on T 2 -weighted images to show the pattern of DTI abnormality. This was compared to the pattern of recurrence. Three DTI patterns could be identified: (a) a diffuse pattern of abnormality where p exceeded q in all directions and was associated with diffuse increase in tumour size; (b) a localised pattern of abnormality where the tumour recurred in one particular direction; and (c) a pattern of minimal abnormality seen in some patients with or without evidence of recurrence. Diffusion tensor imaging is able to predict patterns of tumour recurrence and may allow better individualisation of tumour management and stratification for randomised controlled trials. (orig.)

  16. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for previously untreated malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is one of the methods used to deliver a large single dose to the tumor tissue while reducing the exposure of normal surrounding tissue. However, the usefulness of intraoperative electron therapy for malignant gliomas has not been established. During the period from 1987 to 1997, 32 patients with malignant gliomas were treated with IORT. The histological diagnoses were anaplastic astrocytoma in 11 patients and glioblastoma in 21 patients. Therapy consisted of surgical resection and intraoperative electron therapy using a dose of 12–15 Gy (median, 15 Gy). The patients later underwent postoperative external radiation therapy (EXRT) with a median total dose of 60 Gy. Each of the 32 patients treated with IORT was randomly matched with patients who had been treated with postoperative EXRT alone (control). Patients were matched according to histological grade, age, extent of tumor removal, and tumor location. In the anaplastic astrocytoma group, the one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 81%, 51% and 15%, respectively in the IORT patients and 54%, 43% and 21%, respectively in the control patients. In the glioblastoma group, one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 63%, 26% and 0%, respectively in the IORT patients and 70%, 18% and 6%, respectively in the control patients. There was no significant difference between survival rates in the IORT patients and control patients in either the anaplastic astrocytoma group or glioblastoma group. IORT dose not improve survival of patients with malignant gliomas compared to that of patients who have received EXRT alone

  17. Radiotherapeutic management of optic nerve gliomas in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.F.; Kramer, S.; Thompson, N.

    1980-01-01

    Optic nerve gliomas represent one to five percent of all intracranial tumors in children. The management of these tumors remains controversial. From 1956 to 1977, 18 children with optic nerve gliomas were treated at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital using external beam radiotherapy. All children presented with decreased visual acuity and five of eighteen were blind in one eye. No patient was found to have involvement of a single optic nerve. in eight patients, the chiasm was involved, in ten patients, tumor had extended to the frontal lobes and/or hypothalamus. Initial surgical management included biopsy only in seven patients, inspection of tumor in two patients and partial excision in seven patients. Two patients were treated with radiotherapy based on radiological findings. A tumor dose of 5000 to 6000 rad was given in 5.5 to 6.5 weeks. Stabilization of visual impairment or improvement in vision was noted in 78 percent of patients who were evaluable. The ten year survival was 73 percent. Radiological evidence of tumor regression will be presented. It is our impression that radiotherapy is indicated in the treatment of children with optic nerve gliomas who have poor prognostic signs

  18. Interaction between 5 genetic variants and allergy in glioma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoemaker, Minouk J; Robertson, Lindsay; Wigertz, Annette

    2010-01-01

    .047), and between "any allergy" and rs6010620 (greater protective effect; interaction OR = 0.70, P = 0.017). Case-only analyses provided further support for atopy interactions for rs4977756 and rs498872. This study provides evidence for possible gene-environment interactions in glioma development......., CDKN2A-CDKN2B), 11q23.3 (rs498872, PHLDB1), and 20q13.33 (rs6010620, RTEL1) as determinants of glioma risk. The authors investigated whether there is interaction between the effects of allergy and these 5 variants on glioma risk. Data from 5 case-control studies carried out in Denmark, Finland, Sweden......, and the United Kingdom (2000-2004) were used, totaling 1,029 cases and 1,668 controls. Risk was inversely associated with asthma, hay fever, eczema, and "any allergy," significantly for each factor except asthma, and was significantly positively associated with number of risk alleles for each of the 5 single...

  19. Second Surgery in Insular Low-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given the technical difficulties, a limited number of works have been published on insular gliomas surgery and risk factors for tumor recurrence (TR are poorly documented. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine TR in adult patients with initial diagnosis of insular Low-Grade Gliomas (LGGs that subsequently underwent second surgery. Methods. A consecutive series of 53 patients with insular LGGs was retrospectively reviewed; 23 patients had two operations for TR. Results. At the time of second surgery, almost half of the patients had experienced progression into high-grade gliomas (HGGs. Univariate analysis showed that TR is influenced by the following: extent of resection (EOR (P<0.002, ΔVT2T1 value (P<0.001, histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (P=0.017, and mutation of IDH1 (P=0.022. The multivariate analysis showed that EOR at first surgery was the independent predictor for TR (P<0.001. Conclusions. In patients with insular LGG the EOR at first surgery represents the major predictive factor for TR. At time of TR, more than 50% of cases had progressed in HGG, raising the question of the oncological management after the first surgery.

  20. Targeted therapy in the treatment of malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas V Lukas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Rimas V Lukas1, Adrienne Boire2, M Kelly Nicholas1,2 1Department of Neurology; 2Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas are invasive tumors with the potential to progress through current available therapies. These tumors are characterized by a number of abnormalities in molecular signaling that play roles in tumorigenesis, spread, and survival. These pathways are being actively investigated in both the pre-clinical and clinical settings as potential targets in the treatment of malignant gliomas. We will review many of the therapies that target the cancer cell, including the epidermal growth factor receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin, histone deacetylase, and farnesyl transferase. In addition, we will discuss strategies that target the extracellular matrix in which these cells reside as well as angiogenesis, a process emerging as central to tumor development and growth. Finally, we will briefly touch on the role of neural stem cells as both potential targets as well as delivery vectors for other therapies. Interdependence between these varied pathways, both in maintaining health and in causing disease, is clear. Thus, attempts to easily classify some targeted therapies are problematic.Keywords: glioma, EGFR, mTOR, HDAC, Ras, angiogenesis