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Sample records for adenosine monophosphate

  1. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph......Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine...... monophosphate concentrations decreased by 29% on average when theophylline was administered. The change in cyclic guanosine monophosphate was not correlated to the plasma concentration of theophylline in the range studied....

  2. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for monitoring adenosine 5'-monophosphate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Eric A

    2015-08-15

    A number of biologically important enzymes release adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) as a product, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterases, ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like ligases, DNA ligases, coenzyme A (CoA) ligases, polyA deadenylases, and ribonucleases. In contrast to the abundance of assays available for monitoring the conversion of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to ADP, there are relatively few assays for monitoring the conversion of ATP (or cAMP) to AMP. In this article, we describe a homogeneous assay that continuously monitors the production of AMP. Specifically, we have coupled the conversion of AMP to inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) (by AMP deaminase) to the oxidation of IMP (by IMP dehydrogenase). This results in the reduction of oxidized nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH), allowing AMP formation to be monitored by the change in the absorbance at 340 nm. Changes in AMP concentrations of 5 μM or more can be reliably detected. The ease of use and relatively low expense make the AMP assay suitable for both high-throughput screening and kinetic analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Nielsen, M K

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine...... monophosphate concentrations decreased by 29% on average when theophylline was administered. The change in cyclic guanosine monophosphate was not correlated to the plasma concentration of theophylline in the range studied....

  4. Adenosine Monophosphate-Based Detection of Bacterial Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roger G.; Chen, Fei; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Hattori, Nori; Suzuki, Shigeya

    2009-01-01

    A method of rapid detection of bacterial spores is based on the discovery that a heat shock consisting of exposure to a temperature of 100 C for 10 minutes causes the complete release of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) from the spores. This method could be an alternative to the method described in the immediately preceding article. Unlike that method and related prior methods, the present method does not involve germination and cultivation; this feature is an important advantage because in cases in which the spores are those of pathogens, delays involved in germination and cultivation could increase risks of infection. Also, in comparison with other prior methods that do not involve germination, the present method affords greater sensitivity. At present, the method is embodied in a laboratory procedure, though it would be desirable to implement the method by means of a miniaturized apparatus in order to make it convenient and economical enough to encourage widespread use.

  5. ALLERGEN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ADENOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS - EFFECT OF NEDOCROMIL SODIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFMAN, HF; GROEN, H; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1992-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) was studied after allergen challenge in allergic asthmatic patients. Measurements were made with and without nedocromil sodium pretreatment. Nedocromil sodium inhibited both the early and late asthmatic reactions (P <.01). After

  6. Serum uncouples elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentration from cyclic adenosine monophosphate dependent morphological changes exhibited by cultured pituicytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsell, K D; Cobbett, P

    1997-04-18

    Cultured pituicytes (neurohypophysial astrocytes) are normally flat amorphous cells when incubated (90 min) in a HEPES balanced salt solution (HBSS) but become stellate when incubated in HBSS supplemented with forskolin. This stellation process is attenuated by serum (0.5% vol/vol). The experiments described here were designed to determine whether serum attenuates stellation by modulation of the intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration or some other mechanism. It was observed that the effect of serum on forskolin-induced stellation was not affected by pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml) and that serum also inhibited stellation induced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; 100 microM). Further, serum inhibited stellation induced by the membrane permeable cAMP analog 8-bromo cAMP (150 microM). These results indicate that although an increase of intracellular cAMP concentration is necessary for pituicyte stellation, an increase of intracellular cAMP concentration may be decoupled from stellation.

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the parent anions of the nucleotides, adenosine-5'-monophosphate and 2'deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Sarah T.; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Jae Ko, Yeon; Bowen, Kit H.

    2008-01-01

    The parent anions of the nucleotides, adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMPH) and 2'deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate (dAMPH) were generated in a novel source and their photoelectron spectra recorded with 3.49eV photons. Vertical detachment energy (VDE) and the adiabatic electron affinity (EAa) values were extracted from each of the two spectra. Concurrently, Kobylecka et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044315 (2008)] conducted calculations which explored electron attachment to dAMPH. Based on the agreement between their calculated and our measured VDE and EAa values, we conclude that the dAMPH- anions studied in these experiments were formed by electron-induced, intramolecular, (barrier-free) proton-transfer as predicted by the calculations. Given the similarities between the photoelectron spectra of dAMPH- and AMPH-, it is likely that AMPH- can be described in the same manner.

  8. Gas-phase spectroscopy of protonated adenine, adenosine 5′-monophosphate and monohydrated ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.O.; Støchkel, K.; Byskov, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    in combination with a tuneable pulsed laser system. Experiments also included the protonated adenosine 5′-monophosphate nucleotide (AMPH+). In the case of bare AdeH+ ions, one-photon absorption leads to four dominant fragment ions corresponding to ammonium and ions formed after loss of either NH3, HCN, or NH2CN...

  9. Metformin augments doxorubicin cytotoxicity in mammary carcinoma through activation of adenosine monophosphate protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Naglaa F; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Abo Mansour, Hend E

    2017-05-01

    Since the incidence of breast cancer increases dramatically all over the world, the search for effective treatment is an urgent need. Metformin has demonstrated anti-tumorigenic effect both in vivo and in vitro in different cancer types. This work was designed to examine on molecular level the mode of action of metformin in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma and to evaluate the use of metformin in conjunction with doxorubicin as a combined therapy against solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were inoculated in 60 female mice as a model of breast cancer. The mice were divided into four equal groups: Control tumor, metformin, doxorubicin, and co-treatment. Metformin (15 mg/kg) and doxorubicin (4 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) for four cycles every 5 days starting on day 12 of inoculation. The anti-tumorigenic effect of metformin was mediated by enhancement of adenosine monophosphate protein kinase activity and elevation of P53 protein as well as the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B, DNA contents, and cyclin D1 gene expression. Metformin and doxorubicin mono-treatments exhibited opposing action regarding cyclin D1 gene expression, phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate protein kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B levels. Co-treatment markedly decreased tumor volume, increased survival rate, and improved other parameters compared to doxorubicin group. In parallel, the histopathological findings demonstrated enhanced apoptosis and absence of necrosis in tumor tissue of co-treatment group. Metformin proved chemotherapeutic effect which could be mediated by the activation of adenosine monophosphate protein kinase and related pathways. Combining metformin and doxorubicin, which exhibited different mechanisms of action, produced greater efficacy as anticancer therapeutic regimen.

  10. Utility of Adenosine Monophosphate Detection System for Monitoring the Activities of Diverse Enzyme Reactions.

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    Mondal, Subhanjan; Hsiao, Kevin; Goueli, Said A

    Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a key cellular metabolite regulating energy homeostasis and signal transduction. AMP is also a product of various enzymatic reactions, many of which are dysregulated during disease conditions. Thus, monitoring the activities of these enzymes is a primary goal for developing modulators for these enzymes. In this study, we demonstrate the versatility of an enzyme-coupled assay that quantifies the amount of AMP produced by any enzymatic reaction regardless of its substrates. We successfully implemented it to enzyme reactions that use adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a substrate (aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and DNA ligase) by an elaborate strategy of removing residual ATP and converting AMP produced into ATP; so it can be detected using luciferase/luciferin and generating light. We also tested this assay to measure the activities of AMP-generating enzymes that do not require ATP as substrate, including phosphodiesterases (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and Escherichia coli DNA ligases (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [NAD(+)]). In a further elaboration of the AMP-Glo platform, we coupled it to E. coli DNA ligase, enabling measurement of NAD(+) and enzymes that use NAD(+) like monoadenosine and polyadenosine diphosphate-ribosyltransferases. Sulfotransferases use 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate as the universal sulfo-group donor and phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP) is the universal product. PAP can be quantified by converting PAP to AMP by a Golgi-resident PAP-specific phosphatase, IMPAD1. By coupling IMPAD1 to the AMP-Glo system, we can measure the activities of sulfotransferases. Thus, by utilizing the combinations of biochemical enzymatic conversion of various cellular metabolites to AMP, we were able to demonstrate the versatility of the AMP-Glo assay.

  11. Dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophosphate effects on goldfish behavior and brain RNA metabolism.

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    Shashoua, V E

    1971-11-01

    Intraventricular administration of dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophosphate into goldfish brains produced hyperactive animals. A study of the effects of the drug (25-50 mg/kg) on the incorporation of [5-(3)H] orotic acid, as a precursor of labeled uridine and cytidine, into newly synthesized RNA showed the formation of an RNA with a uridine to cytidine ratio 20-50% higher than that of the control. In double-labeling experiments with uridine as the labeled precursor, the synthesis of a nuclear RNA fraction (not produced in the absence of drug) was demonstrated. Some of this RNA was found to migrate into the cytoplasmic fraction and to become associated with polysomes. The results suggest that cyclic AMP might function as a "metabolic demand signal" for eliciting new RNA synthesis in goldfish brain.

  12. Adenosine monophosphate affects competence development and plasmid DNA transformation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Wenhua; Wang, Liming; Shen, Ping; Xie, Zhixiong

    2013-11-01

    Artificial plasmid DNA transformation of Escherichia coli induced by calcium chloride is a routine technique in molecular biology and genetic engineering processes, but its mechanism has remained elusive. Because adenosine monophosphate (AMP) has been found to regulate natural transformation in Haemophilus influenza, we aimed to investigate the effects of AMP and its derivatives on E. coli transformation by treating competence with different concentrations of them. Analysis of the transformation efficiencies revealed that AMP inhibited the artificial plasmid DNA transformation of E. coli in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that AMP had no effect on the expression of the transformed gene but that the intracellular AMP level of the competent cells rose after a 6 h treatment. These results suggested that the intracellular AMP level had an important role in E. coli transformation. And these have useful implications for the further investigation of the mechanism of E. coli transformation.

  13. [Association of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein gene and major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-hua; Xu, Yi-feng; Cui, Dong-hong; Jiang, San-duo; Qian, Yi-ping; Yu, Shun-ying; Jiang, Kai-da

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein(CREB1) gene and major depressive disorder (MDD). We recruited 105 parent-offspring trios of Chinese descent, extracted whole blood genomic DNA, and genotyped the SNPs in rs10932201 and rs6740584 loci. Single-marker transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), pairwise SNP linkage disequilibrium(LD) and haplotype-based TDT were performed. No significant association with MDD was observed for SNPs rs10932201 and rs6740584 (P=0.1004 and P=0.4986). However, there was strong positive association between the rs10932201-rs6740584 haplotype and MDD (P=0.00003241), and both haplotypes of A-C and A-T were significantly associated with MDD (P=0.020 and P=0.00022). The rs10932201-rs6740584 haplotype of the CREB1 gene may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MDD.

  14. Adenosine monophosphate recognition by zinc-salophen complexes: IRMPD spectroscopy and quantum modeling study

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    Ciavardini, Alessandra; Dalla Cort, Antonella; Fornarini, Simonetta; Scuderi, Debora; Giardini, Anna; Forte, Gianpiero; Bodo, Enrico; Piccirillo, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    Zn-salophen complexes are a promising class of fluorescent chemosensors for nucleotides and nucleic acids. We have investigated, by means of IRMPD spectroscopy experiments and quantum chemical calculations, the structure of the host-guest complexes formed by two efficient Zn-salophen receptors and dihydrogen phosphate or adenosine 5‧-monophosphate (AMP) anions. In the host-guest complexes the phosphate group is bound with a Znsbnd O(phosphate) bond. In addition, a hydrogen bond can be formed between the POsbnd H group and one of the oxygen atoms of the salophen structure. The complexes with AMP anions are endowed with a hydrogen bonded coordination motif together with a weaker π⋯π interaction. It is thus confirmed that the marked changes of the spectroscopic emission properties of Zn-salophen when complexed with AMP can be associated with the existence of π⋯π stacking interactions between the salophen aromatic rings and those of the adenosine nucleobase.

  15. Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents

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    Teresa Röhrig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts (Arbutus unedo, Camellia sinensis, Cynara scolymus, Zingiber officinale with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Results: Strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo and tea (Camellia sinensis extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke (Cynara scolymus extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL as well as its flavone luteolin (IC50 = 41 ± 10 μM and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC50 > 1.0 mM. Additionally, the ginger (Zingiber officinale extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC50 > 1.7 mM, respectively. Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC50 = 455 ± 19 μg/mL. Conclusions: A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research.

  16. Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Teresa; Pacjuk, Olga; Hernández-Huguet, Silvia; Körner, Johanna; Scherer, Katharina; Richling, Elke

    2017-11-04

    Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts (Arbutus unedo, Camellia sinensis, Cynara scolymus, Zingiber officinale) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Results: Strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo) and tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke (Cynara scolymus) extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL) as well as its flavone luteolin (IC50 = 41 ± 10 μM) and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC50 > 1.0 mM). Additionally, the ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC50 > 1.7 mM, respectively). Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC50 = 455 ± 19 μg/mL). Conclusions: A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research.

  17. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein activation predicts an unfavorable prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yu L; Guo X; Zhang P; Qi R; Li Z; Zhang S

    2014-01-01

    Lingxiang Yu,* Xiaodong Guo,* Peirui Zhang, Ruizhao Qi, Zhiwei Li, Shaogeng Zhang Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 302 Military Hospital of China, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: To investigate the clinical significance of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Immunohistochemistry and Weste...

  18. Butterbur, a herbal remedy, attenuates adenosine monophosphate induced nasal responsiveness in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D K C; Carstairs, I J; Haggart, K; Jackson, C M; Currie, G P; Lipworth, B J

    2003-07-01

    Butterbur (BB) or Petasites hybridus, a herbal remedy, exhibits in vitro inhibition of cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. However, no placebo-controlled studies have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of BB on objective outcomes such as nasal provocation testing in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Twenty patients with grass-pollen-sensitized SAR were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over manner to receive for 2 weeks either BB 50 mg twice daily or placebo (PL) twice daily during the grass pollen season. Nasal adenosine monophosphate (AMP) challenge (the primary outcome) was administered as a single 400 mg/mL dose after each randomized treatment. Spontaneous recovery following AMP challenge (area under the response time profile curve as % x min+/-SEM) was significantly attenuated (P=0.028) with BB (584+/-289) compared to PL (1438+/-240); mean difference: 854 (95% CI 95-1614), and the maximum % peak nasal inspiratory flow reduction from baseline following AMP challenge was significantly blunted (P=0.036) with BB (30+/-4) compared to PL (43+/-5); mean difference: 13 (95% CI 1-25). BB exhibited protection against AMP-induced nasal responsiveness during the grass pollen season in sensitized patients. This is turn may explain its potential clinical efficacy in patients with SAR.

  19. Effects of adenosine 5’monophosphate-activated protein kinase on europrotection induced by ischemic preconditioning

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    Yuan-ru-hua TIAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and phosphated AMPK (pAMPK signals in ischemic preconditioning (IPC, and the effect of pharmacological intervention of AMPK on infarct size of the brain. Methods A brief (3min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was employed to induce IPC in male rat, and another 90-min MCAO was performed 4 or 72h later. The levels of AMPK and pAMPK were assessed after IPC. A pharmacological activator metformin, or inhibitor compound C of AMPK, was used to analyze the correlation of IPC to AMPK signaling in MCAO rats. Results The infarct size of total cerebral hemisphere and cortex was significantly decreased in MCAO animals by IPC for 72h (P0.05, n=6. The AMPK activator metformin can significantly reverse the protective effect of IPC (P<0.05, n=6. Conclusions The signals of AMPK and pAMPK play an important role in neuroprotective effect of IPC on cerebral ischemic injury. The neuroprotective effect of IPC may be associated with the down-regulation of pAMPK. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.05.07

  20. Preconditioning induces sustained neuroprotection by downregulation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

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    Venna, V R; Li, J; Benashski, S E; Tarabishy, S; McCullough, L D

    2012-01-10

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) induces endogenous neuroprotection from a subsequent ischemic injury. IPC involves downregulation of metabolic pathways. As adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical sensor of energy balance and plays a major role in cellular metabolism, its role in IPC was investigated. A brief 3-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was employed to induce IPC in male mice 72 h before 90-min MCAO. Levels of AMPK and phosphorylated AMPK (pAMPK), the active form of the kinase, were assessed after IPC. A pharmacological activator or inhibitor of AMPK was used to determine the dependence of IPC on AMPK signaling. Additionally, AMPK-α2 null mice were subjected to IPC, and subsequent infarct damage was assessed. IPC induced neuroprotection, enhanced heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), and improved behavioral outcomes. These beneficial effects occurred in parallel with a significant inhibition of pAMPK protein expression. Although both pharmacological inhibition of AMPK or IPC led to neuroprotection, IPC offered no additional protective effects when co-administered with an AMPK inhibitor. Moreover, pharmacological activation of AMPK with metformin abolished the neuroprotective effects of IPC. AMPK-α2 null mice that lack the catalytic isoform of AMPK failed to demonstrate a preconditioning response. Regulation of AMPK plays an important role in IPC-mediated neuroprotection. AMPK may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The clinical correlation of regulatory T cells and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in enterovirus 71 infection.

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    Shih-Min Wang

    Full Text Available Brainstem encephalitis (BE and pulmonary edema (PE are notable complications of enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection.This study investigated the immunoregulatory characterizations of EV71 neurological complications by disease severity and milrinone treatment.Patients <18 years with virologically confirmed EV71 infections were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: the hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD or BE group, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS dysregulation or PE group. Cytokine and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels, and the regulatory T cell (Tregs profiles of the patients were determined.Patients with ANS dysregulation or PE exhibited significantly low frequency of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3+ and CD4(+Foxp3(+ T cells compared with patients with HFMD or BE. The expression frequency of CD4-CD8- was also significantly decreased in patients with ANS dysregulation or PE. Among patients with ANS dysregulation or PE, the expression frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ increased markedly after milrinone treatment, and was associated with reduction of plasma levels IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Plasma concentrations of cAMP were significantly decreased in patients with ANS dysregulation or PE compared with patients with HFMD or BE; however, cAMP levels increased after milrinone treatment.These findings suggested decreased different regulatory T populations and cAMP expression correlate with increased EV71 disease severity. Improved outcome after milrinone treatment may associate with increased regulatory T populations, cAMP expression and modulation of cytokines levels.

  2. Renal vein plasma adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in renovascular hypertension.

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    Kuchel, O.; Messerli, F. H.; Tolis, G.; Hamet, P.; Fraysse, J.; Cartier, P.; Roy, P.; Boucher, R.; Genest, J.

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of plasma adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured concomitantly in blood from both renal veins and in arterial blood in 22 hypertensive patients. In the nine patients with true renovascular hypertension the concentration of plasma cyclic AMP was greater in the venous effluent of the kidney affected by the renal artery stenosis than in that of the unaffected or less affected kidney. The arteriovenous difference in cyclic AMP concentration was less on the affected side in all but one patient. The arteriovenous differences in PRA identified the affected kidney as the source of hyper-reninemia and showed that renin release from the other kidney was suppressed. In the 13 patients with hypertension associated with but unrelated to renal artery stenosis there were no consistent patterns of cyclic AMP concentration or PRA in the venous effluent of the kidneys or of their arteriovenous differences. In renovascular hypertension the venous effluent of the kidney affected by renal artery stenosis contains not only more renin but also more cyclic AMP, owing to either increased cyclic AMP production or decreased excretion or extraction of cyclic AMP by the affected kidney. This unilateral increase in cyclic AMP concentration may become a complementary diagnostic feature of true renovascular hypertension. PMID:192429

  3. Metabolite gene regulation: imidazole and imidazole derivatives which circumvent cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in induction of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon.

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    Kline, E L; Bankaitis, V A; Brown, C S; Montefiori, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Imidazole, histidine, histamine, histidinol phosphate, urocanic acid, or imidazolepropionic acid were shown to induce the L-arabinose operon in the absence of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Induction was quantitated by measuring the increased differential rate of synthesis of L-arabinose isomerase in Escherichia coli strains which carried a deletion of the adenyl cyclase gene. The crp gene product (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein) and the araC gene product (P2) we...

  4. Regulation of Maltodextrin Phosphorylase Synthesis in Escherichia coli by Cyclic Adenosine 3′, 5′-Monophosphate and Glucose1

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    Chao, Julie; Weathersbee, Carolyn J.

    1974-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (AMP) stimulates maltodextrin phosphorylase synthesis in Escherichia coli cells induced with maltose. A maximal effect occurs at 2 to 3 mM cyclic AMP. The action of cyclic AMP is specific, inasmuch as adenosine triphosphate, 3′-AMP, 5′-AMP, adenosine, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP are inactive. Glucose, α-methyl glucoside, 2-deoxyglucose, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate repress maltodextrin phosphorylase synthesis. This repression is reversed by cyclic AMP. The action of cyclic AMP appears to be at the transcriptional level, since cyclic AMP fails to stimulate phosphorylase production in induced cells in which messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis has been arrested by rifampin or by inducer removal. The two other enzymes involved in the metabolism of maltose, amylomaltase and maltose permease, are also induced in this strain of E. coli and affected by glucose and cyclic AMP in a manner similar to phosphorylase. PMID:4358043

  5. Phenol-containing saline solution as a diluent for adenosine 5'-monophosphate in bronchial challenge testing.

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    Prieto, Luis; Badiola, Carlos; Cortijo, Julio; Pérez-Francés, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lanuza, Amparo

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of dissolving adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) with phenol-containing saline solution on the stability and the bronchoconstrictive properties of this indirect agonist. Eleven subjects with asthma well controlled with short-acting inhaled beta2-agonists as required or with inhaled corticosteroids were studied. Bronchial challenge tests with AMP dissolved with either normal saline solution or saline solution containing 0.4% phenol were performed on separate days. Furthermore, to assess the potential influence of the phenol-containing saline solution on the stability of the bronchoconstrictor agent, AMP solutions in concentrations of 40 microg/mL and 400 microg/mL were prepared in saline solution and phenol-containing saline solution and, after 30 min, the AMP levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. The geometric mean AMP provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) was 13.49 mg/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.76 to 26.91) for the saline solution method, and AMP PC20 for the saline solution with phenol method was 8.91 mg/mL (95% CI, 3.39 to 23.44) [p = 0.18]. No significant differences were found between the concentrations of AMP made in saline solution compared to those made in phenol-containing saline solution measured by HPLC. These observations indicate that normal saline solution with or without phenol can be used as the diluent for AMP. However, since a potential risk with AMP of industrial sources is the bacterial contamination, adding a preservative such as phenol to a saline solution diluent might be recommended.

  6. A conjugate of decyltriphenylphosphonium with plastoquinone can carry cyclic adenosine monophosphate, but not cyclic guanosine monophosphate, across artificial and natural membranes.

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    Firsov, Alexander M; Rybalkina, Irina G; Kotova, Elena A; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Tashlitsky, Vadim N; Korshunova, Galina A; Rybalkin, Sergei D; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2017-10-13

    The present study demonstrated for the first time the interaction between adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), one of the most important signaling compounds in living organisms, and the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant plastoquinonyl-decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1). The data obtained on model liquid membranes and human platelets revealed the ability of SkQ1 to selectively transport cAMP, but not guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), across both artificial and natural membranes. In particular, SkQ1 elicited translocation of cAMP from the source to the receiving phase of a Pressman-type cell, while showing low activity with cGMP. Importantly, only conjugate with plastoquinone, but not dodecyl-triphenylphosphonium, was effective in carrying cAMP. In human platelets, SkQ1 also appeared to serve as a carrier of cAMP, but not cGMP, from outside to inside the cell, as measured by phosphorylation of the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein. The SkQ1-induced transfer of cAMP across the plasma membrane found here can be tentatively suggested to interfere with cAMP signaling pathways in living cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Metabolite gene regulation: imidazole and imidazole derivatives which circumvent cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in induction of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, E L; Bankaitis, V A; Brown, C S; Montefiori, D C

    1980-02-01

    Imidazole, histidine, histamine, histidinol phosphate, urocanic acid, or imidazolepropionic acid were shown to induce the L-arabinose operon in the absence of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Induction was quantitated by measuring the increased differential rate of synthesis of L-arabinose isomerase in Escherichia coli strains which carried a deletion of the adenyl cyclase gene. The crp gene product (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein) and the araC gene product (P2) were essential for induction of the L-arabinose operon by imidazole and its derivatives. These compounds were unable to circumvent the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the induction of the lactose or the maltose operons. The L-arabinose regulon was catabolite repressed upon the addition of glucose to a strain carrying an adenyl cyclase deletion growing in the presence of L-arabinose with imidazole. These results demonstrated that several imidazole derivatives may be involved in metabolite gene regulation (23).

  8. The effect of adenosine monophosphate deaminase overexpression on the accumulation of umami-related metabolites in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Bee Lynn; Fisk, Ian D; Fray, Rupert; Tucker, Gregory A; Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Ferguson, Alison; Xia, Wei; Seymour, Graham B

    2017-01-01

    This study highlights the changes in umami-related nucleotide and glutamate levels when the AMP deaminase gene was elevated in transgenic tomato. Taste is perceived as one of a combination of five sensations, sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. The umami taste is best known as a savoury sensation and plays a central role in food flavour, palatability, and eating satisfaction. Umami flavour can be imparted by the presence of glutamate and is greatly enhanced by the addition of ribonucleotides, such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP). The production of IMP is regulated by the enzyme adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase which functions to convert AMP into IMP. We have generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines over expressing AMP deaminase under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. The transgenic lines showed substantially enhanced levels of AMP deaminase expression in comparison to the wild-type control. Elevated AMP deaminase levels resulted in the reduced accumulation of glutamate and increased levels of the umami nucleotide GMP. AMP concentrations were unchanged. The effects on the levels of glutamate and GMP were unexpected and are discussed in relation to the metabolite flux within this pathway.

  9. Dibutyryl Adenosine Cyclic 3′:5′-Monophosphate Effects on Goldfish Behavior and Brain RNA Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashoua, Victor E.

    1971-01-01

    Intraventricular administration of dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3′:5′-monophosphate into goldfish brains produced hyperactive animals. A study of the effects of the drug (25-50 mg/kg) on the incorporation of [5-3H] orotic acid, as a precursor of labeled uridine and cytidine, into newly synthesized RNA showed the formation of an RNA with a uridine to cytidine ratio 20-50% higher than that of the control. In double-labeling experiments with uridine as the labeled precursor, the synthesis of a nuclear RNA fraction (not produced in the absence of drug) was demonstrated. Some of this RNA was found to migrate into the cytoplasmic fraction and to become associated with polysomes. The results suggest that cyclic AMP might function as a “metabolic demand signal” for eliciting new RNA synthesis in goldfish brain. PMID:4330944

  10. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in relation to inhibition of cervical smooth muscle activity in early pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, A; Bryman, I

    1991-08-01

    Contractile activity was registered in strips of cervical tissue obtained by needle biopsy from women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (5 x 10(-6) mol/l), isobutyryl methylxanthine (10(-4) mol/l), and forskolin (10(-5)-10(-4) mol/l), the latter two drugs known to increase the levels of endogenous cAMP, inhibited spontaneous muscle activity. The levels of tissue cAMP were determined in strips during relaxation induced by prostaglandin E2 or purified porcine relaxin and compared with cAMP levels in strips from the same women during contractile activity. Exposure to prostaglandin E2 but not to relaxin was followed by increased levels of cAMP. It is suggested that cAMP has a role as a second messenger in the prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation of cervical smooth muscle.

  11. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element-binding protein mediates the proangiogenic or proinflammatory activity of gremlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Michela; Moroni, Emanuela; Ravelli, Cosetta; Andrés, Germán; Grillo, Elisabetta; Ali, Imran H; Brazil, Derek P; Presta, Marco; Mitola, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis and inflammation are closely related processes. Gremlin is a novel noncanonical vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) ligand that induces a proangiogenic response in endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we investigated the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) in mediating the proinflammatory and proangiogenic responses of ECs to gremlin. Gremlin induces a proinflammatory response in ECs, leading to reactive oxygen species and cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and the upregulation of proinflammatory molecules involved in leukocyte extravasation, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (Ccl2) and Ccl7, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-1 (Cxcl1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Accordingly, gremlin induces the VEGFR2-dependent phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and transactivating activity of CREB in ECs. CREB activation mediates the early phases of the angiogenic response to gremlin, including stimulation of EC motility and permeability, and leads to monocyte/macrophage adhesion to ECs and their extravasation. All these effects are inhibited by EC transfection with a dominant-negative CREB mutant or with a CREB-binding protein-CREB interaction inhibitor that competes for CREB/CRE binding. Also, both recombinant gremlin and gremlin-expressing tumor cells induce proinflammatory/proangiogenic responses in vivo that are suppressed by the anti-inflammatory drug hydrocortisone. Similar effects were induced by the canonical VEGFR2 ligand VEGF-A165. Together, the results underline the tight cross-talk between angiogenesis and inflammation and demonstrate a crucial role of CREB activation in the modulation of the VEGFR2-mediated proinflammatory/proangiogenic response of ECs to gremlin.

  12. Convergence of major physiological stimuli for renin release on the Gs-alpha/cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Mi; Briggs, Josephine P.

    2012-01-01

    Control of the renin system by physiological mechanisms such as the baroreceptor or the macula densa (MD) is characterized by asymmetry in that the capacity for renin secretion and expression to increase is much larger than the magnitude of the inhibitory response. The large stimulatory reserve of the renin–angiotensin system may be one of the causes for the remarkable salt-conserving power of the mammalian kidney. Physiological stimulation of renin secretion and expression relies on the activation of regulatory pathways that converge on the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/ PKA) pathway. Mice with selective Gs-alpha (Gsα) deficiency in juxtaglomerular granular cells show a marked reduction of basal renin secretion, and an almost complete unresponsiveness of renin release to furosemide, hydralazine, or isoproterenol. Cyclooxygenase-2 generating prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in MD and thick ascending limb cells is one of the main effector systems utilizing Gsα-coupled receptors to stimulate the renin–angiotensin system. In addition, β-adrenergic receptors are critical for the expression of high basal levels of renin and for its release response to lowering blood pressure or MD sodium chloride concentration. Nitric oxide generated by nitric oxide synthases in the MD and in endothelial cells enhances cAMP-dependent signaling by stabilizing cAMP through cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3. The stimulation of renin secretion by drugs that inhibit angiotensin II formation or action results from the convergent activation of cAMP probably through indirect augmentation of the activity of PGE2 and PGI2 receptors, β-adrenergic receptors, and nitric oxide. PMID:22124804

  13. Involvement of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent signal in the diet-induced canalicular trafficking of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter g5/g8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Kenta; Hashizume, Takahiro; Suto, Arisa; Mori, Ayaka; Murata, Yuzuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Ikari, Akira; Sugatani, Junko

    2015-10-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 promote the secretion of neutral sterol into bile. Studies have demonstrated the diet-induced gene expression of these transporters, but the regulation of their trafficking when the nutritional status changes in the liver remains to be elucidated. Here, we generated a novel in vivo kinetic analysis that can monitor the intracellular trafficking of Abcg5/Abcg8 in living mouse liver by in vivo transfection of the genes of fluorescent protein-tagged transporters and investigated how hypernutrition affects the canalicular trafficking of these transporters. The kinetic analysis showed that lithogenic diet consumption accelerated the translocation of newly synthesized fluorescent-tagged transporters to intracellular pools in an endosomal compartment and enhanced the recruitment of these pooled gene products into the bile canalicular membrane in mouse liver. Because some ABC transporters are reported to be recruited from intracellular pools to the bile canaliculi by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, we next evaluated the involvement of this machinery in a diet-induced event. Administration of a protein kinase A inhibitor, N-(2-{[3-(4-bromophenyl)-2-propenyl]amino}ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, decreased the canalicular expression of native Abcg5/Abcg8 in lithogenic diet-fed mice, and injection of a cAMP analog, dibutyryl cAMP, transiently increased their levels in standard diet-fed mice, indicating the involvement of cAMP signaling. Indeed, canalicular trafficking of the fluorescent-tagged Abcg5/Abcg8 was enhanced by dibutyryl cAMP administration. These observations suggest that diet-induced lipid loading into liver accelerates the trafficking of Abcg5/Abcg8 to the bile canalicular membrane through cAMP signaling machinery. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein on renin expression in kidney via complex cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding-protein-binding protein/P300 recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Yuanfang; Liu, Ming; Xuan, Jin

    2015-11-01

    Renin synthesis and release is the rate-limiting step in the renin-angiotensin system, because cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has been identified as dominant pathway for renin gene expression, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is found in the human and mouse renin promoter. This study aimed to evaluate the role of CREB in expression of the renin gene. We created conditional deletion of CREB in mice with low-sodium diet, specifically in renin cells of the kidney. To assess the effect of CREB on renin expression, immunostaining of renin was used in samples from wild-type mice and mice with gene knock-down of CREB. Cyclic AMP response element-binding-protein-binding protein (CBP) and p300 were measured in cultured renin cells of the mice, and RNA detection was done with real-time polymerase chain reaction. With low-sodium diet, renin was expressed along the whole wall of the afferent glomerular arterioles in wild-type mice, while there was no increase or even decrease in renin expression in CREB-specific deletion mice; RNA level of renin in cultured cells decreased by 50% with single knock-down of CREB, CBP, or p300, and decreased 70% with triple knock-down of CREB, CBP, and p300. This study found that CREB was important for renin synthesis and the role of CREB can be achieved through the recruitment of co-activators CBP and p300.

  15. Selective Phosphonylation of 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate (5'-AMP) via Pyrophosphite [PPi(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Karl; Bryant, David E.; Marriott, Katie E. R.; Ohara, Shohei; Fishwick, Colin W. G.; Kee, Terence P.

    2016-11-01

    We describe here experiments which demonstrate the selective phospho-transfer from a plausibly prebiotic condensed phosphorus (P) salt, pyrophosphite [H2P2O5 2-; PPi(III)], to the phosphate group of 5'-adenosine mono phosphate (5'-AMP). We show further that this P-transfer process is accelerated both by divalent metal ions (M2+) and by organic co-factors such as acetate (AcO-). In this specific case of P-transfer from PPi(III) to 5'-AMP, we show a synergistic enhancement of transfer in the combined presence of M2+ & AcO-. Isotopic labelling studies demonstrate that hydrolysis of the phosphonylated 5'-AMP, [P(III)P(V)-5'-AMP], proceeds via nuceophilic attack of water at the Pi(III) terminus.

  16. Highly selective colorimetric detection of Ni2+ using silver nanoparticles cofunctionalized with adenosine monophosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiayu; Jin, Weiwei; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2017-09-01

    We report a dual-ligand strategy based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for highly selective detection of Ni2+ using colorimetric techniques. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) were both used as ligands to modify AgNPs. The presence of Ni2+ induces the aggregation of AgNPs through cooperative electrostatic interaction and metal-ligand interaction, resulting in a color change from bright yellow to orange. The cofunctionalized AgNPs showed obvious advantages over the ones functionalized only by AMP or SDS in terms of selectivity. Under the optimized conditions, this sensing platform for Ni2+ works in the concentration range of 4.0 to 60 μM and has a low detection limit of 0.60 μM. In addition, the colorimetric assay is very fast, and the whole analysis can be completed within a few minutes. Thus, it can be directly used in tap water and lake water samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation and suppression of inflammatory response by cell stretching in rabbit synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunanusornchai, Wanlop; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2016-12-01

    Joint mobilization is known to be beneficial in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stretching on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and its role in modulating inflammation in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretching of isolated rabbit synovial fibroblasts for ten min was performed. Stretching-induced AMPK activation, its underlying mechanism, and its anti-inflammatory effect were investigated using Western blot. Static stretching at 20 % of initial length resulted in AMPK activation characterized by expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-Co A carboxylase. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation peaked 1 h after stretching and declined toward resting activity. Using cell viability assays, static stretching did not appear to cause cellular damage. Activation of AMPK involves Ca(2+) influx via a mechanosensitive L-type Ca(2+) channel, which subsequently raises intracellular Ca(2+) and activates AMPK via Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ). Interestingly, stretching suppressed TNFα-induced expression of COX-2, iNOS, and phosphorylated NF-κB. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. These results suggest that mechanical stretching suppressed inflammatory responses in synovial fibroblasts via a L-type Ca(2+)-channel-CaMKKβ-AMPK-dependent pathway which may underlie joint mobilization's ability to alleviate OA symptoms.

  18. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein activation predicts an unfavorable prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxiang; Guo, Xiaodong; Zhang, Peirui; Qi, Ruizhao; Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shaogeng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses were performed to detect the expression and subcellular localizations of CREB and pCREB proteins in 130 pairs of HCC and adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues. Both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses showed that the expression levels of CREB and pCREB proteins in HCC tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues (both P<0.001). In addition, the combined upregulation of CREB and pCREB proteins (CREB-high/pCREB-high) was significantly associated with serum α-fetoprotein (P=0.02), tumor stage (P<0.001), and tumor grade (P=0.01). Moreover, HCC patients with CREB-high/pCREB-high expression showed shortest 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both P<0.001). Furthermore, the multivariate survival analysis found that the combined upregulation of CREB and pCREB proteins may be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for both 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both P=0.01) in HCC. Our data indicate for the first time that the activation of the CREB protein may be associated with tumor progression in HCC, and may serve as a valuable marker of prognosis for patients with this malignancy.

  19. A High-Throughput Flow Cytometry Assay for Identification of Inhibitors of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Dominique; Simons, Peter C; Smagley, Yelena; Sklar, Larry A; Chigaev, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Assays to identify small molecule inhibitors of cell transporters have long been used to develop potential therapies for reversing drug resistance in cancer cells. In flow cytometry, these approaches rely on the use of fluorescent substrates of transporters. Compounds which prevent the loss of cell fluorescence have typically been pursued as inhibitors of specific transporters, but further drug development has been largely unsuccessful. One possible reason for this low success rate could be a substantial overlap in substrate specificities and functions between transporters of different families. Additionally, the fluorescent substrates are often synthetic dyes that exhibit promiscuity among transporters as well. Here, we describe an assay in which a fluorescent analog of a natural metabolite, 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (F-cAMP), is actively effluxed by malignant leukemia cells. The F-cAMP is loaded into the cell cytoplasm using a procedure based on the osmotic lysis of pinocytic vesicles. The flow cytometric analysis of the fluorescence retained in F-cAMP-loaded cells incubated with various compounds can subsequently identify inhibitors of cyclic AMP efflux (ICE).

  20. Effects of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate on growth and PSA secretion of human prostate cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, V; Di Carlo, A; De Luca, C; Mariano, A

    2001-05-01

    Prolonged increase of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) level in the culture medium of a well differentiated human prostatic cancer cell (LNCaP) inhibits cellular growth and stimulates PSA secretion. The differentiation of the cells tested was documented by their responsiveness to androgens and the ability to synthesize cellular markers of differentiation (PSA). The raise in cAMP level was produced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) or by agents acting at distinct levels in the pathway of cAMP generation (forskolin) or degradation (IBMX). Each of these three agents in a range of concentrations between 10-4-10-6 M had an inhibitory effect on the growth which is dose and time-dependent. The inhibition was reversible as demonstrated by complete restoration of cell growth soon after the withdrawal of the substances from the culture medium. When cAMP levels in culture medium was raised, an increase in PSA content was observed. However, the effects of cAMP on PSA content was not due to increase in PSA synthesis, since simultaneous measurement of secreted and cellular PSA indicated that the principal effect of the cyclic nucleotide was to enhance the secretion of stored PSA. Furthermore the inhibition of cellular growth by cAMP suggests new approaches in prostatic carcinoma therapy.

  1. The expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator in rat sertoli cells following seminal extract administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal, Muslim; Siregar, Tongku Nizwan; Wahyuni, Sri; Hamny; Nasution, Mustafa Kamal; Indriati, Wiwik; Panjaitan, Budianto; Aliza, Dwinna

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of seminal vesicle extract on cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM) expression in rat Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: This study examined the expression of CREM on 20 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) at 4 months of age, weighing 250-300 g. The rats were divided into four groups: K0, KP1, KP2, and KP3. K0 group was injected with 0.2 ml normal saline; KP1 was injected with 25 mg cloprostenol (Prostavet C, Virbac S. A); KP2 and KP3 were injected with 0.2 and 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract, respectively. The treatments were conducted 5 times within 12-day interval. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation; then, the testicles were necropsied and processed for histology observation using immunohistochemistry staining. Results: CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells was not altered by the administration of either 0.2 or 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract. Conclusion: The administration of seminal vesicle extract is unable to increase CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells. PMID:27733803

  2. Methylene blue induces macroautophagy through 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway to protect neurons from serum deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luokun; Li, Wenjun; Winters, Ali; Yuan, Fang; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of macroautophagy after myocardial ischemia is protective. In the present study we demonstrated that methylene blue could protect HT22 hippocampal cell death induced by serum deprivation, companied by induction of macroautophagy. We also found that methylene blue-mediated neuroprotection was abolished by macroautophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, but not inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, was activated at 12 and 24 h after methylene blue treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Methylene blue-induced macroautophagy was blocked by AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with in vitro data, macroautophagy was induced in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains treated with methylene blue. Our findings suggest that methylene blue-induced neuroprotection is mediated, at least in part, by macroautophagy though activation of AMPK signaling. PMID:23653592

  3. Methylene blue induces macroautophagy through 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway to protect neurons from serum deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luokun; Li, Wenjun; Winters, Ali; Yuan, Fang; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of macroautophagy after myocardial ischemia is protective. In the present study we demonstrated that methylene blue could protect HT22 hippocampal cell death induced by serum deprivation, companied by induction of macroautophagy. We also found that methylene blue-mediated neuroprotection was abolished by macroautophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, but not inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, was activated at 12 and 24 h after methylene blue treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Methylene blue-induced macroautophagy was blocked by AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with in vitro data, macroautophagy was induced in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains treated with methylene blue. Our findings suggest that methylene blue-induced neuroprotection is mediated, at least in part, by macroautophagy though activation of AMPK signaling.

  4. Directed breeding of an Arthrobacter mutant for high-yield production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate by N + ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, He; Chen, Xiaochun; Cao, Jiaming; Fang, Ting; Bai, Jianxin; Xiong, Jian; Ying, Hanjie

    2010-08-01

    To obtain a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) high-yield production strain, Arthrobacter NG-1 was mutated by N + ion implantation with an energy level of 10 keV and dose of 7×10 15 ions/cm 2. Combined with directed screening methods, a xanthine-defective and 8-azaguanine (8-AG)-resistant mutant Arthrobacter A302 was selected. The concentration of cAMP produced by this mutant was 41.7% higher than that of the original strain and reached 9.78 g/L. Through ten-generation investigation, the capability of cAMP production of A302 was found to be stable. Compared with the original strain, the special activities of key enzymes in A302, which influenced the cAMP biosynthesis, was analyzed. IMP dehydrogenase activity was defective, whereas PRPP amidotransferase, sAMP synthetase and adenylate cyclase activities were increased by 61.5%, 147% and 21.7%, respecitively, which might explain the mutagenesis mechanism by N + ions implantation under the enzymatic level.

  5. Role of activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in gastric ulcer healing in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Azza M; Deif, Maha M

    2011-01-01

    The potential utility of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating agents, such as metformin, in inducing angiogenesis, could be a promising approach to promote healing of gastric ulcers complicated by diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a drug that activates AMPK, namely metformin, in gastric ulcer healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar albino rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal (i.p.) streptozotocin injection and 10 rats were injected i.p. by a single dose of physiological saline. Six weeks following streptozotocin or saline injection, gastric ulcers were induced by serosal application of acetic acid. Three days after acetic acid application, rats were divided into group 1 (nondiabetic control), group 2 (streptozotocin-injected rats), groups 3-5 (streptozotocin-injected rats treated with metformin or metformin and an inhibitor of AMPK, namely compound C or pioglitazone) for 7 days following acetic acid application. Administration of metformin, but not pioglitazone, resulted in a significant decrease in the gastric ulcer area, a significant increase in epithelial regeneration assessed histologically, a significant increase in the number of microvessels in the ulcer margin, a significant increase in gastric vascular endothelial growth factor concentration and gastric von Willebrand factor as well as a significant increase in gastric phospho-AMPK. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK, blocked metformin-induced changes in assessed parameters suggesting that the effect of metformin was mediated mainly through activation of AMPK. Our results suggest the feasibility of a novel treatment strategy, namely drugs activating AMPK, for patients in whom impairment of ulcer healing constitutes a secondary complication of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) responsiveness, and the presence and degree of atopy in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong I; Lee, Ju K; Kim, Chang K; Koh, Young Y

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), both key features of asthma, remains to be clarified. BHR is commonly evaluated by bronchial challenges using direct and indirect stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of BHR to methacholine (direct stimulus) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) (indirect stimulus) according to the presence and degree of atopy in children with asthma. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 120 children presenting with a diagnosis of asthma. These children were characterized by skin-prick tests (SPTs), spirometry and bronchial challenges with methacholine and AMP. Atopy was defined by at least one positive reaction to SPTs, and its degree was measured using serum total IgE levels, number of positive SPTs and atopic scores (sum of graded wheal size). A provocative concentration causing a 20% decline in FEV(1) (PC(20) ) was determined for each challenge. Patients with atopy(n=94) had a significantly lower AMP PC(20) than non-atopic patients (n=26), whereas methacholine PC(20) was not different between the two groups. Among the patients with atopy, there was no association between methacholine PC(20) and any atopy parameter. In contrast, a significant association was found between AMP PC(20) and the degree of atopy reflected in serum total IgE, number of positive SPTs and atopic scores (anova trend test, p=0.002, 0.001, 0.003, respectively). AMP responsiveness was associated with the presence and degree of atopy, whereas such a relationship was not observed for methacholine responsiveness. These findings suggest that atopic status may be better reflected by bronchial responsiveness assessed by AMP than by methacholine. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Difference in protective effects of GIP and GLP-1 on endothelial cells according to cyclic adenosine monophosphate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Mee; Park, Keun-Young; Hwang, Won-Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Byung-Joon

    2017-05-01

    Receptors for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are present in vascular endothelial cells. Previous studies investigating euglycemic status have demonstrated that GIP is directly involved in the physiology of blood vessels by controlling the blood flow rate of portal veins and that GLP-1 has a protective effect on blood vessels by acting on endothelial cells. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of GIP and GLP-1 on endothelial cells in patients with hyperglycemia remain unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated whether the effect of the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP differed with regards to the reversal of endothelial cell dysfunction caused by hyperglycemia. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was measured using the Griess reagent system kit and the expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the cell was measured at a wavelength of 405 nm with the ELISA reader using the cyclic AMP EIA kit. Exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to a high glucose concentration decreased NO and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels but increased inducible NOS (iNOS) levels. However, when HUVECs were pretreated with GLP-1, a reduction of iNOS expression was observed and the expression of eNOS and NO were increased, as opposed to pretreatment with GIP. The results differed according to the response of cAMP, the second messenger of incretin hormones: The GIP pretreatment group did not exhibit an increase in cAMP levels while the GLP-1 pretreatment group did. The results of the present study provide evidence that GLP-1, but not GIP, has a protective effect on endothelial function associated with cardiovascular disease, as it is associated with increased eNOS expression and the levels of NO. This effect may be due to an increase in the cAMP concentration during hyperglycemic events.

  8. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein activation predicts an unfavorable prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lingxiang Yu,* Xiaodong Guo,* Peirui Zhang, Ruizhao Qi, Zhiwei Li, Shaogeng Zhang Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 302 Military Hospital of China, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: To investigate the clinical significance of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding (CREB and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses were performed to detect the expression and subcellular localizations of CREB and pCREB proteins in 130 pairs of HCC and adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues. Results: Both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses showed that the expression levels of CREB and pCREB proteins in HCC tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues (both P<0.001. In addition, the combined upregulation of CREB and pCREB proteins (CREB-high/pCREB-high was significantly associated with serum α-fetoprotein (P=0.02, tumor stage (P<0.001, and tumor grade (P=0.01. Moreover, HCC patients with CREB-high/pCREB-high expression showed shortest 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both P<0.001. Furthermore, the multivariate survival analysis found that the combined upregulation of CREB and pCREB proteins may be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for both 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both P=0.01 in HCC. Conclusion: Our data indicate for the first time that the activation of the CREB protein may be associated with tumor progression in HCC, and may serve as a valuable marker of prognosis for patients with this malignancy. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, tumor progression, prognosis

  9. Ginsenoside Compound K suppresses the hepatic gluconeogenesis via activating adenosine-5'monophosphate kinase: A study in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Li, Wei; Yu, Yang; Yao, Fan; A, Lixiang; Lan, Xiaoxin; Guan, Fengying; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Li

    2015-10-15

    Compound K (CK) is a final intestinal metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside. We have reported that CK presented anti-diabetic effect via diminishing the expressions of hepatic gluconeogenesis key enzyme. Here, we further explore the possible mechanism of CK on suppression hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of adenosine-5'monophosphate kinase (AMPK) on type 2 diabetes mice in vivo and in HepG2 cells. Type 2 diabetes mice model was developed by high fat diet combined with STZ injection. 30mg/kg/d CK was orally administrated for 4weeks, the fasting blood glucose level and 2h OGTT were conducted, and the protein expression of AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were examined. The mechanism of Compound K on hepatic gluconeogenesis was further explored in HepG2 hepatocytes. Glucose production, the protein expression of AMPK, PEPCK, G6pase and PGC-1α, hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α) and forkhead transcription factor O1 (FOXO1) were determined after Compound K treatment at the presence of AMPK inhibitor Compound C. We observed that CK inhibited the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. Meanwhile, CK treatment remarkably increased the activation of AMPK, while decreasing the expressions of PGC-1α, HNF-4α and FOXO1. However, AMPK inhibitor Compound C could reverse these effects of CK on gluconeogenesis in part. The results indicated that the effect of CK on suppression hepatic gluconeogenesis might be via the activation the AMPK activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Application of graphene-ionic liquid-chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode for the sensitive determination of adenosine-5′-monophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fan [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Gong, Shixing; Xu, Li; Zhu, Huanhuan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Sun, Zhenfan [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a graphene (GR) ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode (CMWE) was fabricated by a drop-casting method and further applied to the sensitive electrochemical detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP). CMWE was prepared with diphenylacetylene (DPA) as the modifier and the binder. The properties of modified electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behaviors of AMP was carefully investigated with enhanced responses appeared, which was due to the presence of GR-IL composite on the electrode surface with excellent electrocatalytic ability. A well-defined oxidation peak of AMP appeared at 1.314 V and the electrochemical parameters were calculated by electrochemical methods. Under the selected conditions, the oxidation peak current of AMP was proportional to its concentration in the range from 0.01 μM to 80.0 μM with the detection limit as 3.42 nM (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method exhibited good selectivity and was applied to the detection of vidarabine monophosphate injection samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A graphene, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite were prepared. • Composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode was fabricated and characterized. • A sensitive electrochemical method for the detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate was established.

  11. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate, and the presence and degree of atopy in young children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, D I; Lee, J K; Kim, C K; Koh, Y Y

    2011-03-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a characteristic feature of asthma, and is usually measured by bronchial challenges using direct or indirect stimuli. The relationship between atopy and BHR remains to be clarified, particularly in a population selected for asthma. Furthermore, data for young children are limited, although asthma frequently occurs in early childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate methacholine (direct stimulus) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) (indirect stimulus) responsiveness according to the presence and degree of atopy in young children with asthma. A retrospective analysis of data from 122 preschool children (median age [range]: 5.3 years [4.0-6.8]) presenting with the diagnosis of asthma was performed. These children were characterized by skin-prick tests (SPTs) and bronchial challenges with methacholine and AMP, using a modified auscultation method. The end-point concentration, resulting in audible wheezing and/or oxygen desaturation, was determined for each challenge. Atopy was defined by at least one positive reaction to SPTs, and its degree was assessed using serum total IgE levels, number of positive SPTs, and atopic scores (sum of graded weal size). Atopic patients (n=97) had a significantly lower AMP end-point concentration than non-atopic patients (n=25), whereas the methacholine end-point concentration was not different between the two groups. Among the atopic patients, there was no association between the methacholine end-point concentration and any of the atopy parameters. By contrast, a significant association was found between the AMP end-point concentration and the degree of atopy reflected in serum total IgE and atopic scores (χ² test for trend, P=0.001, 0.003, respectively). Young children with atopic asthma had a significantly greater AMP responsiveness than those with non-atopic asthma, whereas methacholine responsiveness was not significantly different between the two groups. The degree of atopy

  12. Effect of diazepam on adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) plasma levels in anesthetized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, Maria D; Ribó, Antonio R; Dávalos, Ramón; Martinez, Teresa; Hernández, Jesús

    2004-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that diazepam inhibits the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 4 isozyme (PDE4). PDE enzymes mediate the hydrolysis of the nucleotide adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). The aim of this study was to determine whether IV administration of diazepam affects cAMP plasma levels in anesthetized patients. In this prospective study, patients scheduled to undergo elective myocardial revascularization surgery with anesthetization with etomidate (0.3 mg/kg), fentanyl (total dose 20-25 microg/kg), and cisatracurium (150 microg/kg), supplemented with sevoflurane (2% in an oxygen/air mixture), were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups to receive diazepam (0.28 mg/kg IV), diazepam vehicle (alcohol and propylene glycol IV), or saline. Before the start of the surgical procedure, at 5 and 10 minutes after administration of diazepam, vehicle, or saline, blood samples were obtained for determination of the diazepam, cAMP, and catecholamine levels. Ten patients received diazepam, 10 received vehicle, and 5 received saline. The mean (SEM) arterial serum concentrations of diazepam were 2.1 (0.2) microg/mL and 1.1 (0.4) microg/mL, respectively, at 5 and 10 minutes after administration. cAMP plasma levels increased from mean (SEM) baseline values of 30.0 (1.7) nmol/L to 35.5 (1.5) nmol/L (P < 0.05) and 43.1 (1.7) nmol/L (P < 0.05) at 5 and 10 minutes, respectively, after diazepam administration. No significant changes in cAMP plasma levels were observed compared with the mean (SEM) baseline value of 32.0 (1.7) nmol/L at 5 minutes (31.8 [1.3] nmol/L) and 10 minutes (30.9 [1.4] nmol/L) after vehicle administration. Epinephrine plasma concentration increased from a mean (SEM) baseline value of 0.13 (0.02) ng/mL to 0.22 (0.02) ng/mL (P < 0.05) at 10 minutes after administration of vehicle and 0.21 (0.02) ng/mL (P < 0.05) at 10 minutes after administration of diazepam. In this preliminary study, diazepam increased cAMP plasma levels in

  13. X-ray crystallographic visualization of drug-nucleic acid intercalative binding: structure of an ethidium-dinucleoside monophosphate crystalline complex, ethidium: 5-iodouridylyl(3'-5')adenosine (drug-nucleic acid interactions/intercalation/double helix unwinding)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.; Jain, S.C.; Sobell, H.M.

    1975-02-01

    The drug ethidium bromide has been cocrystallized with the dinucleoside monophosphate 5-iodouridylyl (3'-5')adenosine. The three-dimensional structure to atomic resolution by x-ray crystallography was solved. This has allowed the direct visualization of intercalative binding by this drug to a fragment of a nucleic acid double helix.

  14. Muscle A-Kinase Anchoring Protein-α is an Injury-Specific Signaling Scaffold Required for Neurotrophic- and Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Mediated Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophic factor and cAMP-dependent signaling promote the survival and neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs after injury. However, the mechanisms conferring neuroprotection and neuroregeneration downstream to these signals are unclear. We now reveal that the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein-α (mAKAPα is required for the survival and axon growth of cultured primary RGCs. Although genetic deletion of mAKAPα early in prenatal RGC development did not affect RGC survival into adulthood, nor promoted the death of RGCs in the uninjured adult retina, loss of mAKAPα in the adult increased RGC death after optic nerve crush. Importantly, mAKAPα was required for the neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP after injury. These results identify mAKAPα as a scaffold for signaling in the stressed neuron that is required for RGC neuroprotection after optic nerve injury.

  15. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study demonstrates, on the basis of several analyanalytical criteria, that the production and extracellular release of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is widespread among phytoplankton species. The production and release of CAMP varied markedly among different species grown under similar environmental conditions, and intraspecifically during the life cycle of a given algal species. This investigation marks the first time cAMP has been investigated in natural aquatic systems. An examination of epilimnetic lakewater samples from Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan, demonstrated that cAMP existed in both particulate-associated and dissolved forms in these systems.

  16. Application of graphene-ionic liquid-chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode for the sensitive determination of adenosine-5'-monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Gong, Shixing; Xu, Li; Zhu, Huanhuan; Sun, Zhenfan; Sun, Wei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a graphene (GR) ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode (CMWE) was fabricated by a drop-casting method and further applied to the sensitive electrochemical detection of adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP). CMWE was prepared with diphenylacetylene (DPA) as the modifier and the binder. The properties of modified electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behaviors of AMP was carefully investigated with enhanced responses appeared, which was due to the presence of GR-IL composite on the electrode surface with excellent electrocatalytic ability. A well-defined oxidation peak of AMP appeared at 1.314 V and the electrochemical parameters were calculated by electrochemical methods. Under the selected conditions, the oxidation peak current of AMP was proportional to its concentration in the range from 0.01 μM to 80.0 μM with the detection limit as 3.42 nM (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method exhibited good selectivity and was applied to the detection of vidarabine monophosphate injection samples with satisfactory results. © 2013.

  17. Stimulation of Release of Adrenal Catecholamine by Adenosine 3′:5′-Cyclic Monophosphate and Theophylline in the Absence of Extracellular Ca2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Michael J.

    1972-01-01

    Stimulation of catecholamine release was studied in the isolated adrenal of the cat during retrograde perfusion. Theophylline, adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP stimulated catecholamine release in adrenal chromaffin tissue; adenosine, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 5′-AMP were ineffective. Addition of theophylline for 5-15 min had no effect on catecholamine release induced by KCl or nicotine, but it significantly increased the responses to cyclic AMP and its dibutyryl derivative. Glands perfused with Ca2+-free Locke's solution for 30-180 min rapidly lost their responsiveness to KCl or nicotine. In contrast, exposure to Ca2+-free medium for 180 min had no effect on secretory responses to either the cyclic nucleotides, themselves, or to methylxanthine-induced potentiation of cyclic AMP responses. Thus, dibutyryl-cyclic AMP, cyclic AMP, and theophylline do not require extracellular Ca2+ to release adrenal catecholamines. They may act by translocating intracellular bound Ca2+ or by a mechanism independent of calcium. PMID:4337240

  18. Visualization of drug-nucleic acid interactions at atomic resolution. VII. Structure of an ethidium/dinucleoside monophosphate crystalline complex, ethidium: uridylyl(3'-5')adenosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, S.C.; Sobell, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ethidium forms a crystalline complex with the dinucleoside monophosphate, uridylyl (3'-5') adenosine (UpA). The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1/ with unit cell dimensions, a = 13.704 A, b = 31.674 A, c = 15.131 A, ..beta.. = 113.8/sup 0/. This light atom structure has been solved to atomic resolution and refined by full matrix least squares to a residual of 0.12, using 3034 observed reflections. The asymmetric unit consists of two ethidium molecules, two UpA molecules and 19 solvent molecules, a total of 145 non-hydrogen atoms. The two UPa molecules are hydrogen-bonded together by Watson-Crick base pairing. Base-pairs in this duplex are separated by 6.7 A; this reflects intercalative binding by one of the ethidium molecules. The other ethidium molecule stacks on either side of the intercalated base-paired dinucleoside monophosphate, being related by a unit cell translation along the a axis. The conformation of the sugar-phosphate backbone accompanying intercalation has been accurately determined in this analysis, and contains the mixed sugar-puckering pattern: C3' endo (3'-5') C2' endo. This same structural feature has been observed in the ethidium-iodoUpA and ethidium-iodoCpG complexes, and exists in two additional structures containing ethidium-CpG. Taken together, these studies confirm the authors earlier sugar-puckering assignments and demonstrate that iodine covalently bound to the C5 position on uridine or cytosine does not alter the basic sugar-phosphate geometry or the mode of ethidium intercalation in these model studies. The authors have proposed this stereochemistry to explain the intercalation of ethidium into both DNA and into double-helical RNA. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Developmental Competence of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes at the Germinal-Vesicle Stage is Improved by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Modulators during In Vitro Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ezoe

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos has provided numerous benefits in reproductive medicine. Although successful cryopreservation of germinal-vesicle stage (GV oocytes holds promise for further advances in reproductive biology and clinical embryology fields, reports regarding cryopreservation of immature oocytes are limited. Oocyte survival and maturation rates have improved since vitrification is being performed at the GV stage, but the subsequent developmental competence of GV oocytes is still low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP modulators on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV bovine oocytes. GV oocytes were vitrified-warmed and cultured to allow for oocyte maturation, and then parthenogenetically activated or fertilized in vitro. Our results indicate that addition of a cAMP modulator forskolin (FSK or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX to the maturation medium significantly improved the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes. We also demonstrated that vitrification of GV oocytes led to a decline in cAMP levels and maturation-promoting factor (MPF activity in the oocytes during the initial and final phases of maturation, respectively. Nevertheless, the addition of FSK or IBMX to the maturation medium significantly elevated cAMP levels and MPF activity during IVM. Taken together, our results suggest that the cryopreservation-associated meiotic and developmental abnormalities observed in GV oocytes may be ameliorated by an artificial increase in cAMP levels during maturation culture after warming.

  20. Developmental Competence of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes at the Germinal-Vesicle Stage is Improved by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Modulators during In Vitro Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kenji; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Tani, Tetsuya; Mori, Chiemi; Miki, Tetsuya; Takayama, Yuko; Beyhan, Zeki; Kato, Yoko; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kato, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos has provided numerous benefits in reproductive medicine. Although successful cryopreservation of germinal-vesicle stage (GV) oocytes holds promise for further advances in reproductive biology and clinical embryology fields, reports regarding cryopreservation of immature oocytes are limited. Oocyte survival and maturation rates have improved since vitrification is being performed at the GV stage, but the subsequent developmental competence of GV oocytes is still low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulators on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV bovine oocytes. GV oocytes were vitrified-warmed and cultured to allow for oocyte maturation, and then parthenogenetically activated or fertilized in vitro. Our results indicate that addition of a cAMP modulator forskolin (FSK) or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to the maturation medium significantly improved the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes. We also demonstrated that vitrification of GV oocytes led to a decline in cAMP levels and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity in the oocytes during the initial and final phases of maturation, respectively. Nevertheless, the addition of FSK or IBMX to the maturation medium significantly elevated cAMP levels and MPF activity during IVM. Taken together, our results suggest that the cryopreservation-associated meiotic and developmental abnormalities observed in GV oocytes may be ameliorated by an artificial increase in cAMP levels during maturation culture after warming. PMID:25965267

  1. Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in the anterior pituitary gland in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-08-16

    The cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was the first among the so-called "second messengers" to be described. It is conserved in most organisms and functions as a signal transducer by mediating the intracellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters. In this review, we first delineate how different members of the cAMP pathway ensure its correct compartmentalization and activity, mediate the terminal intracellular effects, and allow the crosstalk with other signaling pathways. We then focus on the pituitary gland, where cAMP exerts a crucial function by controlling the responsiveness of the cells to hypothalamic hormones, neurotransmitters and peripheral factors. We discuss the most relevant physiological functions mediated by cAMP in the different pituitary cell types, and summarize the defects affecting this pathway that have been reported in the literature. We finally discuss how a deregulated cAMP pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders and how it affects the response to therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Wheal-and-flare responses to intradermally injected adenosine 5'-monophosphate, hypertonic saline, and histamine: comparison of atopic and nonatopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukanovic, R; Finnerty, J P; Holgate, S T

    1989-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in increasing concentrations, and saline solutions of corresponding tonicity, were injected intradermally in seven atopic and seven normal subjects. Skin wheal-and-flare responses were elicited in a dose-dependent fashion in all subjects, and no difference was found between responses produced by AMP and responses produced by saline of corresponding tonicity. Also, no difference in response to AMP and saline was found between atopic and nonatopic subjects. We further investigated, in seven atopic subjects, whether the skin wheal-and-flare response to the single, highest dose of AMP, saline, and histamine could be inhibited by preadministration of 180 mg of terfenadine, a potent H1 antagonist. A significant inhibition of the wheal-and-flare response to histamine and no significant inhibition to AMP were found. There was a significant inhibition of the flare response caused by hypertonic saline but no inhibition of the wheal response. We interpret these findings as indicating that AMP does not specifically lead to mast cell degranulation in the skin and that there are functional differences between cutaneous and lung mast cells. The observation that terfenadine significantly inhibited the flare response to hypertonic saline suggests that this stimulus produced histamine release.

  3. [Qualitative analysis of bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate of Porphyromonas gingivalis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongmei, Tan; Xiaojun, Yang; Juan, Du; Wanghong, Zhao; Xiaodan, Chen; Jin, Hou

    2016-06-01

    To test whether Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) could produce bacterial signal molecule, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) and lay the foundation for explorations of its roles in life metabolism and periodontitis immunity of P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis standard strain ATCC33277 was used as the experimental strain to extract nucleic acids from the bacteria. Then, c-di-AMP was detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Subsequently, HPLC was used to validate the sample further. Based on the signal/noise (S/N) for 3 : 1, the limit of determination of HPLC-MS/MS for peak time of c-di-AMP standard substances was 7.49 min and nucleic acid extractions from P. gingivalis was 8.82 min (S/N > 3). Further confirmation of HPLC showed that nucleic acid extractions from both P. gingivalis and c-di-AMP standard substances pre- sented goal absorbent peaks at 15.7 min, with the same ultraviolet absorbent spectrum. The nucleic acid extrac- tions from P. gingivalis contained c-di-AMP, which shows that P. gingivalis could produce c-di-AMP.

  4. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the occurrence and potential functions of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP), a potent and ubiquitous metabolic regulatory molecule in heterotrophic organisms, in phytoplankton and in natural aquatic communities. Laboratory-cultured phytoplankton were grown under both optimal and suboptimal nutrient regimes under constant temperature and illumination regimes. Cellular and extracellular cAMP production, characterized by a number of biochemical techniques, was correlated with growth rate dynamics, chlorophyll a synthesis, /sup 14/C-bicarbonate uptake, alkaline phosphatase activity, and heterocyst formation. The blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae was used as a model system in the examination of these metabolic variables. Additionally, this alga was used to test the effects of perturbation of cAMP levels on the aforementioned metabolic variables. Investigations on the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of cAMP in aquatic systems were conducted on Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and on Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan. Putative cAMP from both systems was characterized by several biochemical techniques. Weekly sampling of particulate and dissolved cAMP in the epilimnia of both lakes was correlated with data on the rates of primary productivity, alkaline phosphatase activity, chlorophyll a synthesis and changes in phytoplankton community structure.

  5. Effects of octacosanol extracted from rice bran on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase in weaning piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Long

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of octacosanol to the body of animals and the effects of octacosanol on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK in liver and muscle tissue of weaning piglets. A total of 105 crossbred piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc with an initial BW of 5.70 ± 1.41 kg (21 d of age were used in a 6-wk trial to evaluate the effects of octacosanol and tiamulin supplementation on contents of triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, growth hormone (GH, glucagon (GU and adrenaline (AD in blood and gene expressions of GLUT-4 and AMPK in liver and muscle. Piglets were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments on the basis of BW and sex. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 5 piglets per pen. Treatments were as followed: control group, tiamulin group and octacosanol group. The results showed that compared with control group and tiamulin group, octacosanol greatly promoted the secretion of T3, GH, GU and AD (P  0.05. Results of the present study has confirmed that octacosanol affects energy metabolism of body by regulating secretion of blood hormones and related gene expression in tissue of weaning piglets, which can reduce stress response and has an impact on performance.

  6. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase involved in variations of muscle glycogen and breast meat quality between lean and fat chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibut, V; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Tesseraud, S; Godet, E; Bordeau, T; Cailleau-Audouin, E; Chartrin, P; Duclos, M J; Berri, C

    2008-11-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the molecular mechanisms associated with the differences in muscle glycogen content and breast meat quality between 2 experimental lines of chicken divergently selected on abdominal fatness. The glycogen at death (estimated through the glycolytic potential) of the pectoralis major muscle and the quality of the resulting meat were estimated in the 2 lines. The fat chickens exhibited greater glycolytic potential, and in turn lower ultimate pH than the lean chickens. Consequently, the breast meat of fat birds was paler and less colored (i.e., less red and yellow), and exhibited greater drip loss compared with that of lean birds. In relation to these variations, transcription and activation levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were investigated. The main difference observed between lines was a 3-fold greater level of AMPK activation, evaluated through phosphorylation of AMPKalpha-(Thr(172)), in the muscle of lean birds. At the transcriptional level, data indicated concomitant down- and upregulation for the gamma1 and gamma2 AMPK subunit isoforms, respectively, in the muscle of lean chickens. Transcriptional levels of enzymes directly involved in glycogen turnover were also investigated. Data showed greater gene expression for glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, and the gamma subunit of phosphorylase kinase in lean birds. Together, these data indicate that selection on body fatness in chicken alters the muscle glycogen turnover and content and consequently the quality traits of the resulting meat. Alterations of AMPK activity could play a key role in these changes.

  7. The effects of chronic candesartan treatment on cardiac and hepatic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in rats submitted to surgical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Marques, Mirna B; Vilas-Boas, Walkiria W; Guimarães, Jonas; Coimbra, Cândido C; Anjos, Allan P; Fóscolo, Rodrigo B; Santos, Robson; Thomas, Julia D; Igreja, Suzana M; Kola, Blerina; Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta

    2015-09-01

    adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a prominent role as a metabolic stress sensor, and it has recently been suggested that the renin-angiotensin system, in addition to its role in stress regulation, may play a significant role in regulating the AMPK system. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of candesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, on cardiac and hepatic AMPK activity basally as well as after surgical stress under general anesthesia. Male Wistar rats were treated with 5 mg/kg/day candesartan in their drinking water for two weeks. Levels of cardiac and hepatic AMPK activity were determined, using a kinase activity assay, basally and after surgical stress under general anesthesia. Chronic administration of candesartan increased hepatic AMPK activity approximately 4 times (pcandesartan decreased AMPK activity in both liver and heart after surgical stress under anesthesia (pcandesartan treatment may stimulate AMPK activity in certain organs such as the liver, when combined with surgical stress under anesthesia it inhibits pathways regulating AMPK activity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Evidence for organic cation transporter-mediated metformin transport and 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Rieko; Yamada, Mayumi; Kurogi, Eriko; Ogino, Yohei; Serizawa, Yasuhiro; Tsuda, Satoshi; Ma, Xiao; Egawa, Tatsuro; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2015-02-01

    5'-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key molecule of metabolic enhancement in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether metformin (MET) acts directly on skeletal muscle, is transported into skeletal muscle via organic cation transporters (OCTs), and activates AMPK. Isolated rat epitrochlearis and soleus muscles were incubated in vitro either in the absence or in the presence of MET. The activation status of AMPK, the intracellular energy status, and glucose and MET transport activity were then evaluated. The effect of cimetidine, which is an OCT inhibitor, on AMPK activation was also examined. MET (10 mmol/L, ≥60 min) increased the phosphorylation of Thr¹⁷² at the catalytic α subunit of AMPK in both muscles. AMPK activity assays showed that both AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 activity increased significantly. The AMPK activation was associated with energy deprivation, which was estimated from the ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr), and glycogen content, and with increased rates of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3MG) transport. MET did not change the basal phosphorylation status of insulin receptor signaling molecules. MET was transported into the cytoplasm in a time-dependent manner, and cimetidine suppressed MET-induced AMPK phosphorylation and 3MG transport. These results suggest that MET is acutely transported into skeletal muscle by OCTs, and stimulates AMPKα1 and α2 activity in both fast- and slow-twitch muscle types, at least in part by reducing the energy state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term treatment with the beta-3 adrenoceptor agonist, mirabegron ameliorates detrusor overactivity and restores cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmasini, Fabiano B; de Oliveira, Mariana G; Alexandre, Eduardo C; da Silva, Fábio H; da Silva, Carmem P V; Candido, Tuany Z; Antunes, Edson; Mónica, Fabíola Z

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the beta-3 adrenoceptor agonist, mirabegron in a mouse model of detrusor overactivity induced by obesity. C57BL/6 male mice were fed with standard chow or high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Lean and obese mice were treated orally with mirabegron (10 mg/kg/day) from the last 2 weeks of diet. Cystometric evaluations, functional assays, protein expression for phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) measurement were carried out. In obese mice the body weight, epididymal fat mass, fasting glucose, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were higher (P < 0.001) than in the lean mice. A reduction of 34% and 54% and an increase of 35% in the epididimal fat, LDL, and HDL levels (P < 0.05), respectively, were observed in the obese group treated with mirabegron, whereas no changes were seen in the lipid profile from lean mice. Obese group showed irregular micturition pattern, characterized by significant increases in frequency and non-void contractions. Carbachol, potassium chloride, and electrical-field stimulation induced detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractions, which were greater in bladders from obese mice than from lean mice. Two-week treatment with mirabegron restored all the contractile response alterations in the DSM. Basal intracellular levels of cAMP were reduced (68%), whereas PDE4 protein expression was increased (54%) in bladder from obese mice. Mirabegron restored the cAMP levels in obese bladder, without changing the PDE4 expression. Mirabegron was able to completely restore the urinary alterations seen in the bladder from obese mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Targeting of type I protein kinase A to lipid rafts is required for platelet inhibition by the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslan, Z; Magwenzi, S; Aburima, A; Taskén, K; Naseem, K M

    2015-09-01

    Platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor (VWF) is modulated by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling through protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of glycoprotein (GP)Ibβ. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are proposed to control the localization and substrate specificity of individual PKA isoforms. However, the role of PKA isoforms in regulating the phosphorylation of GPIbβ and platelet response to VWF is unknown. We wished to determine the role of PKA isoforms in the phosphorylation of GPIbβ and platelet activation by VWF as a model for exploring the selective partitioning of cAMP signaling in platelets. The two isoforms of PKA in platelets, type I (PKA-I) and type II (PKA-II), were differentially localized, with a small pool of PKA-I found in lipid rafts. Using a combination of Far Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay and cAMP pull-down we identified moesin as an AKAP that potentially localizes PKA-I to rafts. Introduction of cell-permeable anchoring disruptor peptide, RI anchoring disruptor (RIAD-Arg11 ), to block PKA-I/AKAP interactions, uncoupled PKA-RI from moesin, displaced PKA-RI from rafts and reduced kinase activity in rafts. Examination of GPIbβ demonstrated that it was phosphorylated in response to low concentrations of PGI2 in a PKA-dependent manner and occurred primarily in lipid raft fractions. RIAD-Arg11 caused a significant reduction in raft-localized phosphoGPIbβ and diminished the ability of PGI2 to regulate VWF-mediated aggregation and thrombus formation in vitro. We propose that PKA-I-specific AKAPs in platelets, including moesin, organize a selective localization of PKA-I required for phosphorylation of GPIbβ and contribute to inhibition of platelet VWF interactions. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Cows are not mice: the role of cyclic AMP, phosphodiesterases, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in the maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Meiotic maturation in mammalian oocytes is initiated during fetal development, and is then arrested at the dictyate stage - possibly for several years. Oocyte meiosis resumes in preovulatory follicles in response to the lutenizing hormone (LH) surge or spontaneously when competent oocytes are removed from follicles and cultured. The mechanisms involved in meiotic arrest and resumption in bovine oocytes are not fully understood, and several studies point to important differences between oocytes from rodent and livestock species. This paper reviews earlier and contemporary studies on the effects of cAMP-elevating agents and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme inhibitors on the maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes in vitro. Contrary to results obtained with mouse oocytes, bovine oocyte meiosis is inhibited by activators of the energy sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, mammalian gene PRKA), which is activated by AMP, the degradation product of cAMP. It is not clear whether or not the effects were due to AMPK activation, and they may depend on culture conditions. Evidence suggests that other signaling pathways (for example, the cGMP/nitric oxide pathway) are involved in bovine oocyte meiotic arrest, but further studies are needed to understand the interactions between the signaling pathways that lead to maturation promoting factor (MPF) being inactive or active. An improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the control of bovine oocyte meiosis will facilitate better control of the process in vitro, resulting in increased developmental competence and increased efficiency of in vitro embryo production procedures. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Testosterone reduces vascular relaxation by altering cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway and potassium channel activation in male Sprague Dawley rats fed a high-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyo, Ahmed K; Sofola, Olusoga A; Anigbogu, Chikodi N; Nair, Renuka R; Vijayakumar, Harikrishnan S; Fernandez, Adelaide C

    2013-04-01

    Male gender and high-salt diet are risk factors for hypertension. The effect of chronic exposure to testosterone is an increase in vascular tone but its influence upon responses induced by other vasoactive agents is not clear. We considered the possibility of interactions between testosterone and a high-salt diet in the mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. Therefore, we designed experiments to assess the involvement of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway and potassium channel activation on vascular relaxation elicited by testosterone deficiency that was induced by orchidectomy in Sprague Dawley rats on a normal or high-salt diet. Weanling male rats were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 6 each) that were either orchidectomized or sham operated with or without testosterone replacement (10 mg/kg body weight of Sustanon 250 intramuscularly, Organon, Holland) and were placed on a normal or high-salt (0.3% or 8% NaCl) diet, respectively, for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure was determined before and weekly throughout the experiment using the tail-cuff method. Relaxation responses to forskolin and diazoxide were studied in noradrenaline (0.1 µM) precontracted aortic rings. There was an increase in the systolic blood pressure of rats placed on a high-salt diet compared with control or orchidectomized rats. Orchidectomy elicited a reduction in the systolic blood pressure while testosterone replacement restored systolic blood pressure to values seen in intact rats. A high-salt diet reduced the relaxation response to forskolin and diazoxide but not in orchidectomized rats while testosterone replacement re-established the blunted relaxation response to forskolin and diazoxide. Inhibition of potassium channel or adenylyl cyclase activation appears to contribute to the mechanisms by which a high-salt diet increases vascular tone. These effects were counteracted by orchidectomy in male Sprague Dawley rats.

  13. Isotope partitioning in the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate dependent protein kinase reaction indicates a steady-state random kinetic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, C.T.; Cook, P.F.

    1988-06-28

    Isotope partitioning beginning with the binary E.MgATP and E.N-acetyl-Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser-Leu-Gly (Ser-peptide) complexes indicates that the kinetic mechanism for the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate dependent protein kinase is steady-state random. A total of 100% of the initial radioactive E.MgATP complex is trapped as phospho-Ser-peptide at infinite Ser-peptide concentration at both low and high concentration of uncomplexed Mg2+, suggesting that the off-rate of MgATP from the E.MgATP.Ser-peptide complex is slow relative to the catalytic steps. Km for Ser-peptide in the trapping reaction decreases from 17 microM at low Mg2+ to 2 microM at high Mg2+, indicating that Mg2+ decreases the off-rate for MgATP from the E.MgATP complex. A total of 100% of the radioactive E.Ser-peptide complex is trapped as phospho-Ser-peptide at low Mg2+, but only 40% is trapped at high Mg2+ in the presence of an infinite concentration of MgATP, suggesting that the off-rate for Ser-peptide from the central complex is much less than catalysis at low but not at high Mg2+. In support of this finding, the Ki for Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ala-Leu-Gly (Ala-peptide) increases from 0.27 mM at low Mg2+ to 2.4 mM at high Mg2+. No trapping was observed at either high or low Mg2+ for the E.MgADP complex up to a phospho-Ser-peptide concentration of 5 mM. Thus, it is likely that in the slow-reaction direction the kinetic mechanism is rapid equilibrium.

  14. Preparation, chromatographic evaluation and application of adenosine 5'-monophosphate modified ZrO2/SiO2 stationary phase in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Luo, Zhi-Yuan; Ye, Mao; Wang, Yu-Zhuo; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Lanying

    2015-02-27

    The zirconia-coated silica (ZrO2/SiO2) material was obtained by coupling layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method and sol-gel technology, to take dual advantages of the suitable porous structure of SiO2 and basic resistance of ZrO2. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP) was then self-assembled onto ZrO2/SiO2 via Lewis acid-base interaction, generating 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2. The chromatographic properties of 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 were systemically studied by evaluating the effect of acetonitrile content, pH and buffer concentration in the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that the 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 possessed hydrophilic interaction chromatographic (HILIC) property comprising hydrophilic, hydrogen-bonding, electrostatic and ion-exchange interactions. For basic analytes, the column efficiency of ZrO2/SiO2 and 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 was superior to the bare ZrO2, and different selectivity was obtained after the introduction of 5'-AMP. For acidic analytes, good resolution was obtained on 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 while the analysis failed on the bare ZrO2 column owing to strong adsorption. Hence, the proposed 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 had great potential in analyzing acidic compounds in HILIC mode. It was an extended application of ZrO2 based SP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase blocks cumulus cell expansion through inhibition of protein synthesis during in vitro maturation in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiquet, Nicolas; Sasseville, Maxime; Laforest, Martin; Guillemette, Christine; Gilchrist, Robert B; Richard, François J

    2014-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric protein known as a metabolic switch, is involved in oocyte nuclear maturation in mice, cattle, and swine. The present study analyzed AMPK activation in cumulus cell expansion during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) is a well-known activator of AMPK. It inhibited oocyte meiotic resumption in COC. Moreover, cumulus cell expansion did not occur in the presence of AICAR, demonstrating its marked impact on cumulus cells. Activation of AMPK was supported by AICAR-mediated phosphorylation of alpha AMPK subunits. Furthermore, the presence of AICAR increased glucose uptake, a classical response to activation of this metabolic switch in response to depleted cellular energy levels. Neither nuclear maturation nor cumulus expansion was reversed by glucosamine, an alternative substrate in hyaluronic acid synthesis, through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which ruled out possible depletion of substrates. Both increased gap junction communication and phosphodiesterase activity in COC are dependent on protein synthesis during the initial hours of IVM; however, both were inhibited in the presence of AICAR, which supports the finding that activation of AMPK by AICAR mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. Moreover, this protein synthesis inhibition was equivalent to that of the well-known protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, as observed on cumulus expansion and protein concentration. Finally, the phosphorylation level of selected kinases was investigated. The pattern of raptor phosphorylation is supportive of activation of AMPK-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. In conclusion, AICAR-mediated AMPK activation in porcine COC inhibited cumulus cell expansion and protein synthesis. These results bring new considerations to the importance of this kinase in ovarian

  16. Erythropoietin activates the phosporylated cAMP [adenosine 3'5' cyclic monophosphate] response element-binding protein pathway and attenuates delayed paraplegia after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Joshua M; Foley, Lisa S; Bell, Marshall T; Bennett, Daine T; Freeman, Kirsten A; Meng, Xianzhong; Weyant, Michael J; Cleveland, Joseph C; Fullerton, David A; Puskas, Ferenc; Reece, Thomas Brett

    2015-03-01

    Paraplegia remains a devastating complication of complex aortic surgery. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to prevent paraplegia after ischemia reperfusion, but the protective mechanism remains poorly described in the spinal cord. We hypothesized that EPO induces the CREB (cAMP [adenosine 3'5' cyclic monophosphate] response element-binding protein) pathway and neurotrophin production in the murine spinal cord, attenuating functional and cellular injury. Adult male mice were subjected to 4 minutes of spinal cord ischemia via an aortic and left subclavian cross-clamp. Experimental groups included EPO treatment 4 hours before incision (n = 7), ischemic control (n = 7), and shams (n = 4). Hind-limb function was assessed using the Basso motor score for 48 hours after reperfusion. Spinal cords were harvested and analyzed for neuronal viability using histology and staining with a fluorescein derivative. Expression of phosphorylated (p)AKT (a serine/threonine-specific kinase), pCREB, B-cell lymphoma 2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were determined using immunoblotting. By 36 hours of reperfusion, EPO significantly preserved hind-limb function after ischemia-reperfusion injury (P < .01). Histology demonstrated preserved cytoarchitecture in the EPO treatment group. Cords treated with EPO expressed significant increases in pAKT (P = .021) and pCREB (P = .038). Treatment with EPO induced expression of both of the neurotrophins, B-cell lymphoma 2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, beginning at 12 hours. Erythropoietin-mediated induction of the CREB pathway and production of neurotrophins is associated with improved neurologic function and increased neuronal viability following spinal cord ischemia reperfusion. Further elucidation of EPO-derived neuroprotection will allow for expansion of adjunct mechanisms for spinal cord protection in high-risk thoracoabdominal aortic intervention. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by

  17. The potent, indirect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator R419 attenuates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, inhibits nociceptor excitability, and reduces pain hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo L. Mejia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There is a great need for new therapeutics for the treatment of pain. A possible avenue to development of such therapeutics is to interfere with signaling pathways engaged in peripheral nociceptors that cause these neurons to become hyperexcitable. There is strong evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways are key modulators of nociceptor excitability in vitro and in vivo. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK can inhibit signaling in both of these pathways, and AMPK activators have been shown to inhibit nociceptor excitability and pain hypersensitivity in rodents. R419 is one of, if not the most potent AMPK activator described to date. We tested whether R419 activates AMPK in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and if this leads to decreased pain hypersensitivity in mice. We find that R419 activates AMPK in DRG neurons resulting in decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, decreased nascent protein synthesis, and enhanced P body formation. R419 attenuates nerve growth factor (NGF-induced changes in excitability in DRG neurons and blocks NGF-induced mechanical pain amplification in vivo. Moreover, locally applied R419 attenuates pain hypersensitivity in a model of postsurgical pain and blocks the development of hyperalgesic priming in response to both NGF and incision. We conclude that R419 is a promising lead candidate compound for the development of potent and specific AMPK activation to inhibit pain hypersensitivity as a result of injury.

  18. Effects of milrinone on contractility and cyclic adenosine monophosphate production induced by beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor activation in human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, Mafía D; Fuentes, Teodomiro; Aroca, Vicente; Lopez, Jesús; Hernández, Jesús

    2007-08-01

    Because milrinone is a widely used phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE3) inhibitor, it would be of interest to know whether it interacts with beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists in human myocardium. This in vitro study was conducted to test whether milrinone differentially regulates cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) production and to examine the effect of milrinone on the positive inotropic responses and cAMP production induced by activation of the beta1-AR with norepinephrine (NE) and activation of the beta2-AR with epinephrine (EPI) in human atrial myocardium. Right atrial trabeculae were obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery for valve repair. Concentration-response curves for inotropic responses mediated through the beta1-AR (NE in the presence of the beta2-blocker ICI 118, 551) and the beta2-AR (EPI in the presence of the beta1-blocker CGP 20712A) were obtained in the absence and presence of milrinone 1 micromol/L. This concentration of milrinone was chosen because it corresponded to its 50% inhibitory concentration as a PDE3 inhibitor and its therapeutic plasma concentration. The production of cAMP induced by exposure to selective beta1- and beta2-AR stimulation was also measured in the absence and presence of milrinone. Right atrial tissue samples were obtained from 12 white patients (7 women, 5 men; mean [SE] age, 64.6 [6.3] years) undergoing cardiac surgery for valve repair (8 mitral, 4 aortic). The presence of milrinone was associated with leftward shifts in the concentration-response curves for both NE and EPI. cAMP production in myocardial tissue samples in the presence of milrinone was increased only with NE induction (mean [SEM], 745.0 [136.7] pmol/g in the absence of milrinone vs 1620.5 [372.3] pmol/g in the presence of milrinone; P < 0.05). In this preliminary study in human atrial myocardium, milrinone potentiated the contractile responses to both NE and EPI. However, only the effect of NE on tissue levels of cAMP was

  19. Extracellular 2,3-cyclic adenosine monophosphate is a potent inhibitor of preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cell and mesangial cell growth [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Edwin K; Ren, Jin; Gillespie, Delbert G; Dubey, Raghvendra K

    2010-07-01

    Recently we discovered that intact kidneys release into the extracellular compartment 2',3'-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP with unknown pharmacology) and metabolize 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and adenosine. Because adenosine inhibits growth of vascular smooth muscle cells and mesangial cells, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular 2',3'-cAMP attenuates growth of preglomerular vascular smooth muscle and mesangial cells via production of adenosine. For comparison, all of the experiments were performed with both 2',3'-cAMP and 3',5'-cAMP. In study 1, 2',3'-cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP, 5'-AMP, 3'-AMP, or 2'-AMP was incubated with cells and purines measured in the medium by mass spectrometry. Both preglomerular vascular smooth muscle and mesangial cells metabolized 3',5'-cAMP to 5'-AMP and adenosine; 5'-AMP to adenosine; 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and adenosine; and 2'-AMP and 3'-AMP to adenosine. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) and 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (ecto-phosphodiesterase inhibitor) blocked conversion of 3',5'-cAMP to 5'-AMP and adenosine, and alpha,beta-methylene-adenosine-5'-diphosphate (CD73 inhibitor) blocked conversion of 5'-AMP to adenosine. These enzyme inhibitors had little effect on metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP, 2'-AMP, or 3'-AMP. For study 2, 2',3'-cAMP and 3',5'-cAMP profoundly inhibited proliferation (thymidine incorporation and cell number) of both cell types, with 2',3'-cAMP more potent than 3',5'-cAMP. Antagonism of A(2B) receptors (MRS-1724), but not A(1) (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine), A(2A) (SCH-58261), or A(3) (VUF-5574) receptors, attenuated the growth inhibitory effects of 2',3'-cAMP and 3',5'-cAMP. Extracellular 2',3'-cAMP inhibits growth of preglomerular vascular smooth muscle and mesangial cells more profoundly than does 3',5'-cAMP. Although both cAMPs inhibit growth in part via conversion to adenosine followed by A(2B) receptor activation, their metabolism is mediated by different enzymes.

  20. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5′-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1–adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R cryst = 0.1207 (R free = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data. PMID:22869114

  1. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5'-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1-adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R(cryst) = 0.1207 (R(free) = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data.

  2. The effect of certain N-tritylated phenylalanine conjugates of amino-adenosine-3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate on Moloney murine leukaemia virus reverse transcriptase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur O. Hawtrey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Moloney murine leukaemia virus (M-MuLV is a member of the retrovirus family. Its cloned reverse transcriptase (RT, similarly to HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT, exhibits DNA-polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNase H activities capable of converting the single-stranded retroviral RNA genome into double-stranded DNA. The latter is then integrated into the host chromosome during viral infection. M-MuLV RT is, therefore, an attractive enzyme to help understand mutations in HIV-1 RT and its use in inhibition studies can help facilitate new drug designs. In this study, conjugates consisting of N-trityl derivatives of p-fluoro, p-nitro and p-iodo-DL-phenylalanine were coupled to 8-(6-aminohexyl amino-adenosine-3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate and examined for their effect on DNA synthesis by M-MuLV RT. Synthesis was studied in a system containing poly (rA.oligo d(pT15 as a template-primer with [3H] dTTP. The iodo-derivative, N-trityl-p-iodo-DL-phenylalanine-8-(6-aminohexyl amino-adenosine-3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate was found to be a very active inhibitor of the RT enzyme (IC50 = 1 µM, while the p-nitro (IC50 = 45 µM and p-fluoro (IC50 = 65 µM were weak inhibitors. Further work will be aimed at determining the mode of binding of the N-tritylated conjugates and also of various substituted amino acids and short peptides to M-MuLV RT to elucidate the mechanisms of inhibition.

  3. New Insights into the Cyclic Di-adenosine Monophosphate (c-di-AMP) Degradation Pathway and the Requirement of the Cyclic Dinucleotide for Acid Stress Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Lisa; Zeden, Merve S.; Kaever, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide signaling networks are key to facilitate alterations in gene expression, protein function, and enzyme activity in response to diverse stimuli. Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is an important secondary messenger molecule produced by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and is involved in regulating a number of physiological processes including potassium transport. S. aureus must ensure tight control over its cellular levels as both high levels of the dinucleotide and its absence result in a number of detrimental phenotypes. Here we show that in addition to the membrane-bound Asp-His-His and Asp-His-His-associated (DHH/DHHA1) domain-containing phosphodiesterase (PDE) GdpP, S. aureus produces a second cytoplasmic DHH/DHHA1 PDE Pde2. Although capable of hydrolyzing c-di-AMP, Pde2 preferentially converts linear 5′-phosphadenylyl-adenosine (pApA) to AMP. Using a pde2 mutant strain, pApA was detected for the first time in S. aureus, leading us to speculate that this dinucleotide may have a regulatory role under certain conditions. Moreover, pApA is involved in a feedback inhibition loop that limits GdpP-dependent c-di-AMP hydrolysis. Another protein linked to the regulation of c-di-AMP levels in bacteria is the predicted regulator protein YbbR. Here, it is shown that a ybbR mutant S. aureus strain has increased acid sensitivity that can be bypassed by the acquisition of mutations in a number of genes, including the gene coding for the diadenylate cyclase DacA. We further show that c-di-AMP levels are slightly elevated in the ybbR suppressor strains tested as compared with the wild-type strain. With this, we not only identified a new role for YbbR in acid stress resistance in S. aureus but also provide further insight into how c-di-AMP levels impact acid tolerance in this organism. PMID:27834680

  4. New Insights into the Cyclic Di-adenosine Monophosphate (c-di-AMP) Degradation Pathway and the Requirement of the Cyclic Dinucleotide for Acid Stress Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Lisa; Zeden, Merve S; Schuster, Christopher F; Kaever, Volkhard; Gründling, Angelika

    2016-12-30

    Nucleotide signaling networks are key to facilitate alterations in gene expression, protein function, and enzyme activity in response to diverse stimuli. Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is an important secondary messenger molecule produced by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and is involved in regulating a number of physiological processes including potassium transport. S. aureus must ensure tight control over its cellular levels as both high levels of the dinucleotide and its absence result in a number of detrimental phenotypes. Here we show that in addition to the membrane-bound Asp-His-His and Asp-His-His-associated (DHH/DHHA1) domain-containing phosphodiesterase (PDE) GdpP, S. aureus produces a second cytoplasmic DHH/DHHA1 PDE Pde2. Although capable of hydrolyzing c-di-AMP, Pde2 preferentially converts linear 5'-phosphadenylyl-adenosine (pApA) to AMP. Using a pde2 mutant strain, pApA was detected for the first time in S. aureus, leading us to speculate that this dinucleotide may have a regulatory role under certain conditions. Moreover, pApA is involved in a feedback inhibition loop that limits GdpP-dependent c-di-AMP hydrolysis. Another protein linked to the regulation of c-di-AMP levels in bacteria is the predicted regulator protein YbbR. Here, it is shown that a ybbR mutant S. aureus strain has increased acid sensitivity that can be bypassed by the acquisition of mutations in a number of genes, including the gene coding for the diadenylate cyclase DacA. We further show that c-di-AMP levels are slightly elevated in the ybbR suppressor strains tested as compared with the wild-type strain. With this, we not only identified a new role for YbbR in acid stress resistance in S. aureus but also provide further insight into how c-di-AMP levels impact acid tolerance in this organism. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. 6-Gingerol modulates proinflammatory responses in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated Caco-2 cells and experimental colitis in mice through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Wen; Kuo, Cheng-Yi

    2015-10-01

    6-gingerol has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in different experimental settings. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of 6-gingerol on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced barrier impairment and inflammation in vitro and in vivo. a differentiated Caco-2 monolayer was exposed to DSS and treated with different concentrations of 6-gingerol (0, 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 μM). Changes in intestinal barrier function were determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). The anti-inflammatory activity of 6-gingerol was examined as changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokine using quantitative real-time PCR. Western blotting was employed to determine the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mice with DSS-induced colitis were given different oral dosages of 6-gingerol daily for 14 days. Body weight and colon inflammation were evaluated, and level of proinflammatory cytokines in colon tissues was measured. 6-gingerol treatment was shown to restore impaired intestinal barrier function and to suppress proinflammatory responses in DSS-treated Caco-2 monolayers. We found that AMPK was activated on 6-gingerol treatment in vitro. In animal studies, 6-gingerol significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by restoration of body weight loss, reduction in intestinal bleeding, and prevention of colon length shortening. In addition, 6-gingerol suppressed DSS-elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-12). our findings highlight the protective effects of 6-gingerol against DSS-induced colitis. We concluded that 6-gingerol exerts anti-inflammatory effects through AMPK activation. It is suggested that 6-gingerol has a promising role in treatment of IBD.

  6. Visualization of drug-nucleic acid interactions at atomic resolution. I. Structure of an ethidium/dinucleoside monophosphate crystalline complex, ethidium:5-iodouridylyl(3'5')adenosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.; Jain, S.C.; Sobell, H.M.

    1977-01-01

    Ethidium forms a crystalline complex with the dinucleoside monophosphate 5-iodouridyly(3'-5')adenosine (iodoUpA). These crystals are monoclinic, space group C2, with unit cell dimensions, a = 28.45 A, b = 13.54 A, c = 34.13 A, ..beta.. = 98.6/sup 0/. The structure has been solved to atomic resolution by Patterson and Fourier methods, and refined by full matrix least-squares to a residual of 0.20 on 2017 observed reflections. The asymmetric unit contains two ethidium molecules, two iodoUpA molecules and 27 water molecules, a total of 155 atoms excluding hydrogens. The two iodoUpA molecules are held together by adenine.uracil Watson--Crick-type base-pairing. Adjacent base-pairs within this paired iodoUpA structure and between neighboring iodoUpA molecules in adjoining unit cells are separated by about 6.7 A; this separation results from intercalative binding by one ethidium molecule and stacking by the other ethidium molecule above and below the base-pairs. Non-crystallographic 2-fold symmetry is utilized in this model drug--nucleic acid interaction, the intercalated ethidium molecule being oriented such that its phenyl and ethyl groups lie in the narrow groove of the miniature nucleic acid double-helix. Base-pairs within the paired nucleotide units are related by a twist of 8/sup 0/. The magnitude of this angular twist is related to conformational changes in the sugar--phosphate chains that accompany drug intercalation. These changes partly reflect the differences in ribose sugar ring puckering that are observed. Additional small but systematic changes occur in torsional angles that involve the phosphodiester linkages and the C4'--C5' bond. Solution studies have indicated a marked sequence-specific binding preference in ethidium--dinucleotide interactions, and a probable structural explanation for this is provided by this study.

  7. Adenosine and its Related Nucleotides may Modulate Gastric Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on lumen-perfused rat isolated stomachs showed that adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) inhibited histamine-induced gastric acid secretion. The inhibitions and the calcium levels of the serosal solution exhibited inverse relationship. Adenosine ...

  8. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... ... far lower than optima, the low expression of SpAMPK mRNA could reduce the energy expenditure and thus induce the crabs into cold anesthesia. The results of SpAMPK in this study might contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of acclimation to cold hardiness in S. paramamosain.

  9. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-01

    generating catabolic pathways, such as oxidations of amino acid, fatty acid and glycolysis are. Keywords. SpAMPK gene; cold stress; mRNA transcripts; Scylla paramamosain. Journal of Genetics, DOI 10.1007/s12041-016-0717-z, ...

  10. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHENCUI HUANG

    In this study, the roles of this gene under cold stress in a warm-water mud crab, Scylla paramamosain was investigated. The full-length cDNA ... such as growth, development and reproduction (Aguilar-. Alberola and Mesquita-Joanes ...... Effects of different temperature and salinity on the expression of adenine nucleotide ...

  11. Adenosine A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallon, Volker; Schroth, Jana; Satriano, Joseph; Blantz, Roland C; Thomson, Scott C; Rieg, Timo

    2009-01-01

    ...'). Here, experiments were performed in adenosine A receptor knockout mice (A R-/-), which lack an immediate TGF response, to determine whether A Rs are essential for early diabetic hyperfiltration and the salt paradox. Methods...

  12. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2017-10-04

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

  13. Adenosine dry powder inhalation for bronchial challenge testing, part 1 : Inhaler and formulation development and in vitro performance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, Anne J.; Hagedoorn, Paul; Van Der Wiel, Erica; Hacken, ten Nicolaas; Frijlink, Henderik W.; De Boer, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    Dry powder administration of adenosine by use of an effective inhaler may be an interesting alternative to nebulisation of adenosine 5 '-monophosphate in bronchial challenge testing, because of a shorter administration time and more consistent delivered fine particle dose over the entire dose range.

  14. Transcriptional control of adenosine signaling by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors during ischemic or inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Jens M; Brodsky, Kelley; Ehrentraut, Heidi; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K

    2013-02-01

    Inflammatory lesions, ischemic tissues, or solid tumors are characterized by the occurrence of severe tissue hypoxia within the diseased tissue. Subsequent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors-particularly of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A)--results in significant alterations of gene expression of resident cells or inflammatory cells that have been recruited into such lesions. Interestingly, studies of hypoxia-induced changes of gene expression identified a transcriptional program that promotes extracellular adenosine signaling. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that functions through the activation of four distinct adenosine receptors--the ADORA1, ADORA2A, ADORA2B, and ADORA3 receptors. Extracellular adenosine is predominantly derived from the phosphohydrolysis of precursor nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate or adenosine monophosphate. HIF1A-elicited alterations in gene expression enhance the enzymatic capacity within inflamed tissues to produce extracellular adenosine. Moreover, hypoxia-elicited induction of adenosine receptors--particularly of ADORA2B--results in increased signal transduction. Functional studies in genetic models for HIF1A or adenosine receptors implicate this pathway in an endogenous feedback loop that dampens excessive inflammation and promotes injury resolution, while at the same time enhancing ischemia tolerance. Therefore, pharmacological strategies to enhance HIF-elicited adenosine production or to promote adenosine signaling through adenosine receptors are being investigated for the treatment of acute inflammatory or ischemic diseases characterized by tissue hypoxia.

  15. Capillary electrophoresis of adenosine phosphates using boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, B. D.; Ivandini, T. A.; Gunlazuardi, J.

    2017-04-01

    A capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemical detection using boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for simultaneous detection of adenosine phosphates, i.e. adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In phosphate buffer solution pH 7, these three adenosine phosphates have similar oxidation potentials at around +0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which indicated that the oxidation occurred at the same moiety. Capillary electrophoresis, which was then performed using fused silica capillary (dia. 0.05 mm) at an applied potential of 10 KV can separate ATP, ADP and AMP with the retention times of 848 s, 1202 s, and 1439 s, respectively. Linear calibration curves with the limits of detection of 0.59 μM, 0.56 μM and 1.78 μM, respectively, can be achieved, suggested that capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detector is promising for simultaneous detection of adenosine phosphates.

  16. Adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular levels of the brain’s endogenous anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant adenosine largely depend on an astrocyte-based adenosine cycle, comprised of ATP release, rapid degradation of ATP into adenosine, and metabolic reuptake of adenosine through equilibrative nucleoside transporters and phosphorylation by adenosine kinase (ADK). Changes in ADK expression and activity therefore rapidly translate into changes of extracellular adenosine, which exerts its potent anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects by activation of pre- and postsynaptic adenosine A1 receptors. Increases in ADK increase neuronal excitability, whereas decreases in ADK render the brain resistant to seizures and injury. Importantly, ADK was found to be overexpressed and associated with astrogliosis and spontaneous seizures in rodent models of epilepsy, as well as in human specimen resected from patients with hippocampal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. Several lines of evidence indicate that overexpression of astroglial ADK and adenosine deficiency are pathological hallmarks of the epileptic brain. Consequently, adenosine augmentation therapies constitute a powerful approach for seizure prevention, which is effective in models of epilepsy that are resistant to conventional antiepileptic drugs. The adenosine kinase hypothesis of epileptogenesis suggests that adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy undergoes a biphasic response: An acute surge of adenosine that can be triggered by any type of injury might contribute to the development of astrogliosis via adenosine receptor –dependent and –independent mechanisms. Astrogliosis in turn is associated with overexpression of ADK, which was shown to be sufficient to trigger spontaneous recurrent electrographic seizures. Thus, ADK emerges as a promising target for the prediction and prevention of epilepsy. PMID:22700220

  17. Adenosine and dialysis hypotension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, CMF

    In this issue, Imai et al. report the results of a double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effect of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, FK352, on the incidence of dialysis hypotension in hypotension-prone patients. This Commentary discusses the use of selective adenosine A1 receptor

  18. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in human mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes by snake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, V

    1984-08-01

    Snake venoms contain compound(s) that enhanced cyclic AMP content in human mononuclear leukocytes maximally after 5 min of incubation at 37 degrees C. The effect was time- and dose-dependent. The half-maximal stimulation of cyclic AMP production by black cobra venom was found at 0.45 micrograms of venom/ml and the value of the Hill coefficient was 0.7. The black cobra venom enhanced the cyclic AMP content in the cells at 4, 22, and 37 degrees C. Similar increase in the cyclic AMP content by six snake venoms was found in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The most active venom was from puff adder (Bitis arietans). The data suggest that one of the effects of the snake venoms may be rapid enhancement of cyclic AMP level in the affected cells.

  20. The ABCD's of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidling, Ian; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2016-07-01

    This Editorial highlights a study by Singh and coworkers in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors present additional evidence that AMPKα1 is reduced in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). They make a case for increasing AMPKα1 activity for therapeutic purposes in this disease, and indicate how this goal may be achieved. Read the highlighted article 'Metformin-induced mitochondrial function and ABCD2 up regulation in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy involves AMP activated protein kinase' on page 86. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Regulation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate deaminase in the freeze tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Kenneth B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is one of a few vertebrate species that have developed natural freeze tolerance, surviving days or weeks with 65–70% of its total body water frozen in extracellular ice masses. Frozen frogs exhibit no vital signs and their organs must endure multiple stresses, particularly long term anoxia and ischemia. Maintenance of cellular energy supply is critical to viability in the frozen state and in skeletal muscle, AMP deaminase (AMPD plays a key role in stabilizing cellular energetics. The present study investigated AMPD control in wood frog muscle. Results Wood frog AMPD was subject to multiple regulatory controls: binding to subcellular structures, protein phosphorylation, and effects of allosteric effectors, cryoprotectants and temperature. The percentage of bound AMPD activity increased from 20 to 35% with the transition to the frozen state. Bound AMPD showed altered kinetic parameters compared with the free enzyme (S0.5 AMP was reduced, Hill coefficient fell to ~1.0 and the transition to the frozen state led to a 3-fold increase in S0.5 AMP of the bound enzyme. AMPD was a target of protein phosphorylation. Bound AMPD from control frogs proved to be a low phosphate form with a low S0.5 AMP and was phosphorylated in incubations that stimulated PKA, PKC, CaMK, or AMPK. Bound AMPD from frozen frogs was a high phosphate form with a high S0.5 AMP that was reduced under incubation conditions that stimulated protein phosphatases. Frog muscle AMPD was activated by Mg·ATP and Mg·ADP and inhibited by Mg·GTP, KCl, NaCl and NH4Cl. The enzyme product, IMP, uniquely inhibited only the bound (phosphorylated enzyme from muscle of frozen frogs. Activators and inhibitors differentially affected the free versus bound enzyme. S0.5 AMP of bound AMPD was also differentially affected by high versus low assay temperature (25 vs 5°C and by the presence/absence of the natural cryoprotectant (250 mM glucose that accumulates during freezing. Conclusion Maintenance of long term viability under the ischemic conditions in frozen muscle requires attention to the control of cellular energetics. Differential regulatory controls on AMPD by mechanisms including binding to muscle proteins, actions allosteric effectors, glucose and temperature effects and reversible phosphorylation adjust enzyme function for an optimal role in controlling cellular adenylate levels in ischemic frozen muscle. Stable modification of AMPD properties via freeze-responsive phosphorylation may contribute both to AMPD control and to coordinating AMPD function with other enzymes of energy metabolism in cold ischemic muscle.

  2. Characteristics of the release of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate from micropipets by microiontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W J; Balentine, L T; Siggins, G R; Hoffer, B J; Henriksen, S J; Bloom, F E

    1975-01-01

    The transfer number for radio-labelled cyclic AMP released from microiontophoretic pipets into brain pieces was determined for a large number of samples by radioassay. Release of cyclic AMP was linearly related to both iontophoretic current intensity and time as predicted by Faraday's Law. The results revealed that cyclic AMP has a rather low transfer number. In addition, an unusually large amount of variation of release, both within and among pipets was found under a variety of times and currents. The cause of the variation is not known but could be due to the unusual structure of the cyclic AMP molecule and the fact that it must be iontophoresed as a negative ion. These characteristics of cyclic AMP release may contribute to the difficulty in obtaining positive responses from appropriate neuronal target cells in vivo.

  3. Endogenous Production of Extracellular Adenosine by Trabecular Meshwork Cells: Potential Role in Outflow Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Li, Guorong; Luna, Coralia; Spasojevic, Ivan; Epstein, David L.; Gonzalez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the mechanisms for endogenous production of extracellular adenosine in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and evaluate its physiological relevance to the regulation of aqueous humor outflow facility. Methods. Extra-cellular levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine in porcine trabecular meshwork (PTM) cells treated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP), AMP, cAMP or forskolin with or without specific inhibitors of phosphodiesterases (IBMX) and CD73 (AMPCP) were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography fluorometry. Extracellular adenosine was also evaluated in cell cultures subjected to cyclic mechanical stress (CMS) (20% stretching; 1 Hz) and after disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Expression of CD39 and CD73 in porcine TM cells and tissue were examined by Q-PCR and Western blot. The effect of inhibition of CD73 on outflow facility was evaluated in perfused living mouse eyes. Results. PTM cells generated extracellular adenosine from extracellular ATP and AMP but not from extracellular cAMP. Increased intracellular cAMP mediated by forskolin led to a significant increase in extracellular adenosine production that was not prevented by IBMX. Inhibition of CD73 resulted, in all cases, in a significant decrease in extracellular adenosine. CMS induced a significant activation of extracellular adenosine production. Inhibition of CD73 activity with AMPCP in living mouse eyes resulted in a significant decrease in outflow facility. Conclusions. These results support the concept that the extracellular adenosine pathway might play an important role in the homeostatic regulation of outflow resistance in the TM, and suggest a novel mechanism by which pathologic alteration of the TM, such as increased tissue rigidity, could lead to abnormal elevation of IOP in glaucoma. PMID:22997289

  4. A modelling-experimental approach reveals insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-dependent regulation of adenosine monosphosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK) by insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonntag, Annika G; Dalle Pezze, Piero; Shanley, Daryl P; Thedieck, Kathrin

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase responds to growth factors, nutrients and cellular energy status and is a central controller of cellular growth. mTOR exists in two multiprotein complexes that are embedded into a complex signalling network. Adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK)

  5. Role of CNPase in the Oligodendrocytic Extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP-Adenosine Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Travis C.; Gillespie, Delbert G.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Bansal, Rashmi; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (3′,5′-cAMP) is an endogenous source of localized adenosine production in many organs. Recent studies suggest that extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP (positional isomer of 3′,5′-cAMP) is also a source of adenosine, particularly in the brain in vivo post-injury. Moreover, in vitro studies show that both microglia and astrocytes can convert extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP to adenosine. Here we examined the ability of primary mouse oligodendrocytes and neurons to metabolize extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP and their respective adenosine monophosphates (2′-AMP and 3′-AMP). Cells were also isolated from mice deficient in 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Oligodendrocytes metabolized 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP with 10-fold greater efficiency than did neurons (and also more than previously examined microglia and astrocytes); whereas, the production of 3′-AMP was minimal in both oligodendrocytes and neurons. The production of 2′-AMP from 2′,3′-cAMP was reduced by 65% in CNPase -/- versus CNPase +/+ oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes also converted 2′-AMP to adenosine, and this was also attenuated in CNPase -/- oligodendrocytes. Inhibition of classic 3′,5′-cAMP-3′-phosphodiesterases with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine did not block metabolism of 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and inhibition of classic ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) with α,β-methylene-adenosine-5′-diphosphate did not attenuate the conversion of 2′-AMP to adenosine. These studies demonstrate that oligodendrocytes express the extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2′,3′-cAMP → 2′-AMP → adenosine). This pathway is more robustly expressed in oligodendrocytes than in all other CNS cell types because CNPase is the predominant enzyme that metabolizes 2′,3′-cAMP to 2-AMP in CNS cells. By reducing levels of 2′,3′-cAMP (a mitochondrial toxin) and increasing levels of adenosine (a neuroprotectant

  6. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris, semiaquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens and terrestrial (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna eBarjau Perez-Milicua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens can hold their breath for about 30 sec. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia and reduced blood supply (ischemia to tissues. Production of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa, are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal (n=11, semiaquatic (neotropical river otter (n=4 and terrestrial (domestic pig (n=11. Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX, inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP, adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP, ATP, guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP, guanosine 5’-triphosphate (GTP, and xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise, aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  7. Rat cardiac myocyte adenosine transport and metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, D.A.; Rovetto, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the importance of myocardial adenosine and adenine nucleotide metabolism, the adenosine salvage pathway in ventricular myocytes was studied. Accurate estimates of transport rates, separate from metabolic fllux, were determined. Adenosine influx was constant between 3 and 60 s. Adenosine metabolism maintained intracellular adenosine concentrations < 10% of the extracellular adenosine concentrations and thus unidirectional influx could be measured. Myocytes transported adenosine via saturable and nonsaturable processes. A minimum estimate of the V/sub max/ of myocytic adenosine kinase indicated the saturable component of adenosine influx was independent of adenosine kinase activity. Saturable transport was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine and verapamil. Extracellular adenosine taken up myocytes was rapidly phosphorylated to adenine taken up by myocytes was rapidly phosphorylated to adenine nucleotides. Not all extracellular adenosine, though, was phosphorylated on entering myocytes, since free, as opposed to protein-bound, intracellular adenosine was detected after digitonin extraction of cells in the presence of 1 mM ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency Adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) deficiency is a disorder characterized ...

  9. Inositol monophosphate phosphatase genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Tanya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacteria use inositol in phosphatidylinositol, for anchoring lipoarabinomannan (LAM, lipomannan (LM and phosphatidylinosotol mannosides (PIMs in the cell envelope, and for the production of mycothiol, which maintains the redox balance of the cell. Inositol is synthesized by conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-1-phosphate, followed by dephosphorylation by inositol monophosphate phosphatases (IMPases to form myo-inositol. To gain insight into how Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesises inositol we carried out genetic analysis of the four IMPase homologues that are present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Results Mutants lacking either impA (Rv1604 or suhB (Rv2701c were isolated in the absence of exogenous inositol, and no differences in levels of PIMs, LM, LAM or mycothiol were observed. Mutagenesis of cysQ (Rv2131c was initially unsuccessful, but was possible when a porin-like gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis was expressed, and also by gene switching in the merodiploid strain. In contrast, we could only obtain mutations in impC (Rv3137 when a second functional copy was provided in trans, even when exogenous inositol was provided. Experiments to obtain a mutant in the presence of a second copy of impC containing an active-site mutation, in the presence of porin-like gene of M. smegmatis, or in the absence of inositol 1-phosphate synthase activity, were also unsuccessful. We showed that all four genes are expressed, although at different levels, and levels of inositol phosphatase activity did not fall significantly in any of the mutants obtained. Conclusions We have shown that neither impA, suhB nor cysQ is solely responsible for inositol synthesis. In contrast, we show that impC is essential for mycobacterial growth under the conditions we used, and suggest it may be required in the early stages of mycothiol synthesis.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-ethynyl-adenosine-5'-triphosphate as a chemical reporter for protein AMPylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Christa; Kanaujia, Mukul; Causey, Corey P

    2015-08-21

    Protein AMPylation is a posttranslational modification (PTM) defined as the transfer of an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a hydroxyl side-chain of a protein substrate. One recently reported AMPylator enzyme, Vibrio outer protein S (VopS), plays a role in pathogenesis by AMPylation of Rho GTPases, which disrupts crucial signaling pathways, leading to eventual cell death. Given the resurgent interest in this modification, there is a critical need for chemical tools that better facilitate the study of AMPylation and the enzymes responsible for this modification. Herein we report the synthesis of 2-ethynyl-adenosine-5'-triphosphate () and its utilization as a non-radioactive chemical reporter for protein AMPylation.

  11. Adenosine-Associated Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi; Ghanem, Amyl; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity, and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosine’s extremely short half-life in human blood (less than 10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this paper, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials, and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted. PMID:26453156

  12. Enhanced cellular adenosine uptake limits adenosine receptor stimulation in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Rongen, G.A.; Boers, G.H.J.; Blom, H.J.; Broek, P.H.H. van den; Smits, P.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Endogenous adenosine has several cardioprotective effects. We postulate that in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia increased intracellular formation of S-adenosylhomocysteine decreases free intracellular adenosine. Subsequently, facilitated diffusion of extracellular adenosine into cells

  13. Regulation of Cardiovascular Development by Adenosine and Adenosine-Mediated Embryo Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rivkees, Scott A; Wendler, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    Few signaling molecules have the potential to influence the developing mammal as the nucleoside adenosine. Adenosine levels increase rapidly with tissue hypoxia and inflammation. Adenosine antagonists include the methlyxanthines caffeine and theophylline. The receptors that transduce adenosine action are the A1, A2a, A2b, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). We examined how adenosine acts via A1ARs to influence embryo development.

  14. Extracellular guanosine regulates extracellular adenosine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dongmei; Jackson, Travis C.; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that extracellular guanosine regulates extracellular adenosine levels. Rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells were incubated with adenosine, guanosine, or both. Guanosine (30 μmol/l) per se had little effect on extracellular adenosine levels. Extracellular adenosine levels 1 h after addition of adenosine (3 μmol/l) were 0.125 ± 0.020 μmol/l, indicating rapid disposition of extracellular adenosine. Extracellular adenosine levels 1 h after addition of adenosine (3 μmol/l) plus guanosine (30 μmol/l) were 1.173 ± 0.061 μmol/l, indicating slow disposition of extracellular adenosine. Cell injury increased extracellular levels of endogenous adenosine and guanosine, and the effects of cell injury on endogenous extracellular adenosine were modulated by altering the levels of endogenous extracellular guanosine with exogenous purine nucleoside phosphorylase (converts guanosine to guanine) or 8-aminoguanosine (inhibits purine nucleoside phosphorylase). Extracellular guanosine also slowed the disposition of extracellular adenosine in rat preglomerular vascular endothelial cells, mesangial cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and kidney epithelial cells and in human aortic and coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells and coronary artery endothelial cells. The effects of guanosine on adenosine levels were not mimicked or attenuated by 5-iodotubericidin (adenosine kinase inhibitor), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (adenosine deaminase inhibitor), 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (guanine deaminase inhibitor), aristeromycin (S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor), low sodium (inhibits concentrative nucleoside transporters), S-(4-nitrobenzyl)−6-thioinosine [inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) type 1], zidovudine (inhibits ENT type 2), or acadesine (known modulator of adenosine levels). Guanosine also increases extracellular inosine, uridine, thymidine, and cytidine, yet decreases

  15. Insulin/adenosine axis linked signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Luis; Subiabre, Mario; Araos, Joaquín; Sáez, Tamara; Salsoso, Rocío; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; San Martín, Rody; Toledo, Fernando; Sobrevia, Luis

    Regulation of blood flow depends on systemic and local release of vasoactive molecules such as insulin and adenosine. These molecules cause vasodilation by activation of plasma membrane receptors at the vascular endothelium. Adenosine activates at least four subtypes of adenosine receptors (A(1)AR,

  16. RECIPIENT PRETRANSPLANT INOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN NONMYELOABLATIVE HCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Meagan J.; Risler, Linda J.; Phillips, Brian R.; Wang, Joanne; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Duan, Haichuan; Raccor, Brianne S.; Boeckh, Michael J.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides and catalyzes the oxidation of inosine 5’- monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP). We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to quantitate XMP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNC) isolated from the recipient pretransplant and used this method to determine IMPDH activity in 86 nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. The incubation procedure and analytical method yielded acceptable within-sample and within-individual variability. Considerable between-individual variability was observed (12.2-fold). Low recipient pretransplant IMPDH activity was associated with increased day +28 donor T-cell chimerism, more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), lower neutrophil nadirs, and more cytomegalovirus reactivation, but not with chronic GVHD, relapse, non-relapse mortality, or overall mortality. We conclude that quantitation of the recipient’s pretransplant IMPDH activity in PMNC lysate could provide a useful biomarker to evaluate a recipient’s sensitivity to MMF, but confirmatory studies are needed. Further trials should be conducted to confirm our findings and to optimize postgrafting immunosuppression in nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. PMID:24923537

  17. Stevioside acts directly on pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin: actions independent of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+-channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, P B; Gregersen, S; Poulsen, C R; Hermansen, K

    2000-02-01

    The natural sweetener stevioside, which is found in the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, has been used for many years in the treatment of diabetes among Indians in Paraguay and Brazil. However, the mechanism for the blood glucose-lowering effect remains unknown. To elucidate the impact of stevioside and its aglucon steviol on insulin release from normal mouse islets and the beta-cell line INS-1 were used. Both stevioside and steviol (1 nmol/L to 1 mmol/L) dose-dependently enhanced insulin secretion from incubated mouse islets in the presence of 16.7 mmol/L glucose (P diabetes mellitus.

  18. Nucleic acid molecules encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney B. (Pullman, WA); Lange, Bernd M. (Pullman, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A cDNA encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (IPK) from peppermint (Mentha x piperita) has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO:1) is provided which codes for the expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (SEQ ID NO:2), from peppermint (Mentha x piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase in plants in order to enhance the production of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or isoprenoids derived therefrom, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or the production of its products.

  19. Maintaining methylation activities during salt stress. The involvement of adenosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weretilnyk, E A; Alexander, K J; Drebenstedt, M; Snider, J D; Summers, P S; Moffatt, B A

    2001-02-01

    Synthesis of the compatible osmolyte Gly betaine is increased in salt-stressed spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Gly betaine arises by oxidation of choline from phosphocholine. Phosphocholine is synthesized in the cytosol by three successive S-adenosyl-Met-dependent N-methylations of phosphoethanolamine. With each transmethylation, a molecule of S-adenosylhomo-Cys (SAH) is produced, a potent inhibitor of S-adenosyl-Met-dependent methyltransferases. We examined two enzymes involved in SAH metabolism: SAH hydrolase (SAHH) catabolizes SAH to adenosine plus homo-Cys and adenosine kinase (ADK) converts adenosine to adenosine monophosphate. In vitro SAHH and ADK activities increased incrementally in extracts from leaves of spinach plants subjected to successively higher levels of salt stress and these changes reflected increased levels of SAHH and ADK protein and transcripts. Another Gly betaine accumulator, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), also showed salt-responsive increases in SAHH and ADK activities and protein whereas tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and canola (Brassica napus), which do not accumulate Gly betaine, did not show comparable changes in these enzymes. In spinach, subcellular localization positions SAHH and ADK in the cytosol with the phospho-base N-methyltransferase activities. Because SAHH activity is inhibited by its products, we propose that ADK is not a stress-responsive enzyme per se, but plays a pivotal role in sustaining transmethylation reactions in general by serving as a coarse metabolic control to reduce the cellular concentration of free adenosine. In support of this model, we grew Arabidopsis under a short-day photoperiod that promotes secondary cell wall development and found both ADK activity and transcript levels to increase severalfold.

  20. Role of 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on the epidermal growth factor dependent survival in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinman, Diego Y; Romorini, Leonardo; Presman, Diego M; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Coso, Omar A; Davio, Carlos; Pecci, Adali

    2016-01-05

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been suggested to play a key role in the maintenance of epithelial cell survival during lactation. Previously, we demonstrated that EGF dependent activation of PI3K pathway prevents apoptosis in confluent murine HC11 cells cultured under low nutrient conditions. The EGF protective effect is associated with increased levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Here, we identify the EGF-dependent mechanism involved in cell survival that converges in the regulation of bcl-X expression by activated CREB. EGF induces Bcl-XL expression through activation of a unique bcl-X promoter, the P1; being not only the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway but also the increase in cAMP levels and the concomitant PKA/CREB activation necessary for both bcl-XL upregulation and apoptosis avoidance. Results presented in this work suggest the existence of a novel connection between the EGF receptor and the adenylate cyclase that would have an impact in preventing apoptosis under low nutrient conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated leukocyte phosphodiesterase as a basis for depressed cyclic adenosine monophosphate responses in the Basenji greyhound dog model of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.C.; Hanifin, J.M.; Holden, C.A.; Thompson, W.J.; Hirshman, C.A.

    1985-08-01

    The BG dog manifests various characteristics of human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity to low concentrations of methacholine. Studies have suggested that airway hyperreactivity in asthma is related to inadequate intracellular cAMP responses. The authors studied cAMP characteristics in MNL from 19 BG and 14 mongrel dogs. beta-Adrenergic receptors were assessed by /sup 125/I CYP in the presence and absence of propranolol. The responses of cAMP to ISO were measured by radioimmunoassay. Adenylate cyclase activity was determined in homogenized MNL preparations by cAMP generation. PDE activity was quantitated by radioenzyme assay. Mongrel dog leukocyte ISO-stimulated cAMP levels doubled, whereas there were negligible increases in MNL from BG dogs. Basal PDE levels were higher in BG dogs than in mongrel dogs. The PDE inhibitor Ro 20-1724 restored ISO-stimulated cAMP responses in MNL of BG dogs. Adenylate cyclase activity was not lower in MNL homogenates from BG dogs than in mongrel dogs. Cells from both BG and mongrel dogs demonstrated similar receptor numbers and affinities of saturable, specific beta-adrenergic binding over a 10 pM to 400 pM range. The results suggest that depressed cAMP responses in BG dogs are due to high PDE activity rather than to a defect in the beta-adrenergic receptor adenylate cyclase system.

  2. Theoretical studies of cyclic adenosine monophosphate dependent protein kinase: native enzyme and ground-state and transition-state analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Katherine N; Webster, Charles Edwin

    2014-02-28

    The mechanisms of phosphoryl transfer enzymes have garnered considerable attention. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) catalyzes the transfer of the γ phosphoryl group of ATP to the serine hydroxyl group of a peptide chain. Metal-containing fluoro species have been used as transition-state and ground-state analogues in a variety of phosphoryl transfer enzymes and have shed light on the nature of the requirements in the active site to catalyze phosphoryl transfer. For cAPK, we present computational studies of the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer and the structure and (19)F NMR spectra of various ground- (BeF3(-)) and transition-state (MgF3(-), AlF4(-), and AlF3(0)) analogues. With native substrate, the phosphoryl transfer proceeds through a five-coordinate phosphorane transition state, i.e., there is not a five-coordinate phosphorane intermediate. Comparisons of simulated and experimental (19)F NMR spectra show cAPK prefers a monoanionic analogue (MgF3(-) or AlF4(-)) over a neutral analogue (AlF3), supporting the charge balance hypothesis.

  3. Role of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in interleukin-6 release from isolated mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glund, Stephan; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Long, Yun Chau

    2009-01-01

    IL-6 is released from skeletal muscle during exercise and has consequently been implicated to mediate beneficial effects on whole-body metabolism. Using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological activator of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we tested...

  4. Role of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase subunits in skeletal muscle mammalian target of rapamycin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Long, Yun Chau

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy-sensing protein in skeletal muscle. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates translation initiation and protein synthesis through ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). AMPK activ...

  5. Role of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Kinase, and Adiponectin in the Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Dupont

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms controlling the interaction between energy balance and reproduction are the subject of intensive investigations. The integrated control of these systems is probably a multifaceted phenomenon involving an array of signals governing energy homeostasis, metabolism, and fertility. Two fuel sensors, PPARs, a superfamily of nuclear receptors and the kinase AMPK, integrate energy control and lipid and glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin, one of the adipocyte-derived factors mediate its actions through the AMPK or PPARs pathway. These three molecules are expressed in the ovary, raising questions about the biological actions of fuel sensors in fertility and the use of these molecules to treat fertility problems. This review will highlight the expression and putative role of PPARs, AMPK, and adiponectin in the ovary, particularly during folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation.

  6. Leptin interferes with 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP signaling to inhibit steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HoYuen Basil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of female infertility. Leptin, an adipocytokine which is elevated during obesity, may influence gonadal function through modulating steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Methods The effect of leptin on progesterone production in simian virus 40 immortalized granulosa (SVOG cells was examined by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The effect of leptin on the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, P450scc, 3betaHSD in SVOG cells was examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The mRNA expression of leptin receptor isoforms in SVOG cells were examined by using PCR. SVOG cells were co-treated with leptin and specific pharmacological inhibitors to identify the signaling pathways involved in leptin-reduced progesterone production. Silencing RNA against leptin receptor was used to determine that the inhibition of leptin on cAMP-induced steroidogenesis acts in a leptin receptor-dependent manner. Results and Conclusion In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying leptin-regulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. We show that leptin inhibits 8-bromo cAMP-stimulated progesterone production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that leptin inhibits expression of the cAMP-stimulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein, the rate limiting de novo protein in progesterone synthesis. Leptin induces the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK but only the ERK1/2 (PD98059 and p38 (SB203580 inhibitors attenuate the leptin-induced inhibition of cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression and progesterone production. These data suggest that the leptin-induced MAPK signal transduction pathway interferes with cAMP/PKA-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. Moreover, siRNA mediated knock-down of the endogenous leptin receptor attenuates the effect of leptin on cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone production, suggesting that the effect of leptin on steroidogenesis in granulosa cells is receptor dependent. In summary, leptin acts through the MAPK pathway to downregulate cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone production in immortalized human granulosa cells. These results suggest a possible mechanism by which gonadal steroidogenesis could be suppressed in obese women.

  7. Changes in adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase as a mechanism of visceral obesity in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Blerina; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Lolli, Francesca; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Boscaro, Marco; Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta

    2008-12-01

    Features of the metabolic syndrome such as central obesity with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are typical signs of Cushing's syndrome and common side effects of prolonged glucocorticoid treatment. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulatory enzyme of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as appetite, is involved in the development of the deleterious metabolic effects of excess glucocorticoids, but no data are available in humans. In the current study, we demonstrate the effect of high glucocorticoid levels on AMPK activity of human adipose tissue samples from patients with Cushing's syndrome. AMPK activity and mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism were assessed in visceral adipose tissue removed at abdominal surgery of 11 patients with Cushing's syndrome, nine sex-, age-, and weight-matched patients with adrenal incidentalomas, and in visceral adipose tissue from four patients with non-endocrine-related abdominal surgery. The patients with Cushing's syndrome exhibited a 70% lower AMPK activity in visceral adipose tissue as compared with both incidentalomas and control patients (P = 0.007 and P Cushing's syndrome. AMPK activity was inversely correlated with 0900 h serum cortisol and with urinary free cortisol. Our data suggest that glucocorticoids inhibit AMPK activity in adipose tissue, suggesting a novel mechanism to explain the deposition of visceral adipose tissue and the consequent central obesity observed in patients with iatrogenic or endogenous Cushing's syndrome.

  8. Novel aspects of extracellular adenosine dynamics revealed by adenosine sensor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Yamashiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine modulates diverse physiological and pathological processes in the brain, including neuronal activities, blood flow, and inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of extracellular adenosine are not fully understood. We have recently developed a novel biosensor, called an adenosine sensor cell, and we have characterized the neuronal and astrocytic pathways for elevating extracellular adenosine. In this review, the physiological implications and therapeutic potential of the pathways revealed by the adenosine sensor cells are discussed. We propose that the multiple pathways regulating extracellular adenosine allow for the diverse functions of this neuromodulator, and their malfunctions cause various neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  9. Safety of regadenoson, an adenosine A2A receptor agonist for myocardial perfusion imaging, in mild asthma and moderate asthma patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaker, Brian R; O'Connor, B; Hansel, Trevor T; Barnes, Peter J; Meng, Lixen; Mathur, Vandana S; Lieu, Hsiao D

    2008-01-01

    Patients with reactive airways are at risk for adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction, mediated via A(2B) and/or A(3) adenosine receptors. To examine the effects of regadenoson, a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, on airway resistance, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in asthmatic patients with a positive adenosine monophosphate challenge test. The mean ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) at each tested time point relative to the baseline FEV(1) was significantly higher after treatment with regadenoson compared with placebo from 10 to 60 minutes after treatment. One patient had a substantial but asymptomatic FEV(1) reduction (-36.2%) after regadenoson that reversed spontaneously. The most common adverse events with regadenoson were tachycardia (66%), dizziness (53%), headache (45%), and dyspnea (34%). The mean heart rate significantly increased with regadenoson (maximum of +10.4 beats/min) versus placebo. In this pilot safety study of 48 patients with mild or moderate asthma who had bronchial reactivity to adenosine monophosphate, regadenoson was safe and well tolerated.

  10. Specific Interactions of Antitumor Metallocenes with Deoxydinucleoside Monophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Rahel P.; Hari, Yvonne; Schürch, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Bent metallocenes Cp2MCl2 (M = Ti, V, Nb, Mo) are known to exhibit cytotoxic activity against a variety of cancer types. Though the mechanism of action is not fully understood yet, the accumulation of the metal ions in the nucleus points towards DNA as one of the primary targets. A set of eight deoxydinucleoside monophosphates was used to study the adduct yields with metallocenes and cisplatin. The binding affinities are reflected by the relative intensities of the adducts and were found to follow the order of Pt > V > Ti > Mo (no adducts were detected with Nb). High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was applied to locate the binding patterns in the deoxydinucleoside monophosphates. Whereas cisplatin binds to the soft nitrogen atoms in the purine nucleobases, the metallocenes additionally interact with the hard phosphate oxygen, which is in good agreement with the hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases (HSAB) concept. However, the binding specificities were found to be unique for each metallocene. The hard Lewis acids titanium and vanadium predominantly bind to the deprotonated phosphate oxygen, whereas molybdenum, an intermediate Lewis acid, preferentially interacts with the nucleobases. Nucleobases comprise alternative binding sites for titanium and vanadium, presumably oxygen atoms for the first and nitrogen atoms for the latter. In summary, the intrinsic binding behavior of the different metallodrugs is reflected by the gas-phase dissociation of the adducts. Consequently, MS/MS can provide insights into therapeutically relevant interactions between metallodrugs and their cellular targets. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Elevation of extracellular adenosine enhances haemopoiesis-stimulating effects of G-CSF in normal and gamma-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Netikiva, J.; Hola, J. [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Effects of combined treatment with drugs elevating extracellular adenosine (dipyridamole /DP/, inhibiting the extracellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate /AMP/, an adenosine pro-drug), and G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) on haemopoiesis of normal and gamma-irradiated mice were ascertained. The agents were administered alone or in combination in a 4-day regimen. In normal, unirradiated animals, the haematological endpoints were determined 24 hours after the completion of the treatment. It was shown that the effects of G-CSF, i.e., increases in peripheral blood neutrophils, granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) and morphologically recognizable granulocyte cells in femoral marrow and a decrease in the marrow erythroid cells, can be enhanced by the combination of DP plus AMP administrated 30 minutes before G-CSF. Furthermore, it was found that the stimulatory action of DP plus AMP was expressed particularly at lower doses of G-CSF (1.5, 3, and 4.5 {mu}g/d). In experiments with irradiated mice, when the 4-day therapeutic regimen was applied on days 3 to 6 following irradiation with the dose of 4 Gy, analogical stimulation of granulopoiesis was observed in the recovery phase on days 14 and 18 after irradiation. As example, see Fig. 1 for counts of granulocyte cells in femoral bone marrow. (authors)

  12. Regulation of neutrophil function by adenosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Kathryn E.; Ley, Klaus; Mehrad, Borna

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenously released purine nucleoside that signals via four widely expressed G-protein coupled receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. In the setting of inflammation, the generation and release of adenosine is greatly enhanced. Neutrophils play an important role in host defense against invading pathogens and are the cellular hallmark of acute inflammation. Neutrophils both release adenosine and can respond to it via expression of all four adenosine receptor subtypes. At low concentrations, adenosine can act via the A1 and A3 adenosine receptor subtypes to promote neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. At higher concentrations, adenosine acts at the lower-affinity A2A and A2B receptors to inhibit neutrophil trafficking and effector functions such as oxidative burst, inflammatory mediator production, and granule release. Modulation of neutrophil function by adenosine is relevant in a broad array of disease models, including ischemia reperfusion injury, sepsis, and non-infectious acute lung injury. This review will summarize relevant research in order to provide a framework for understanding how adenosine directly regulates various elements of neutrophil function. PMID:22423037

  13. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and drugs elevating extracellular adenosine synergize to enhance haematopoietic reconstitution in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospisil, M.; Hofer, M.; Netikova, J.; Hola, J.; Vacek, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Inst. of Biophysics, Brno (Czech Republic); Znojil, V.; Vacha, J. [Masaryk Univ., Medical Faculty, Brno (Czech Republic)

    1998-03-01

    The activation of adenosine receptors has recently been demonstrated to stimulate haematopoiesis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of drugs elevating extracellular adenosine to influence curative effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mice exposed to a sublethal dose of 4 Gy of {sup 60}Co radiation. Elevation of extracellular adenosine in mice was induced by the combined administration of dipyridamole, a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), an adenosine prodrug. The effects of dipyridamole plus AMP, and G-CSF, administered either alone or in combination, were evaluated. The drugs were injected to mice in a 4-d treatment regimen starting on d 3 after irradiation and the haematopoietic response was evaluated on d 7, 10, 14, 18 and 24 after irradiation. While the effects of G-CSF on the late maturation stages of blood cells, appearing shortly after the completion of the treatment, were not influenced by dipyridamole plus AMP, positive effects of the combination therapy occurred in the post-irradiation recovery phase which is dependent on the repopulation of haematopoietic stem cells. This was indicated by the significant elevation of counts of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) and granulocytic cells in the bone marrow (d 14), of GM-CFC (d 14), granulocytic and erythroid cells (d 14 and 18) in the spleen, and of neutrophils (d 18), monocytes (d 14 and 18) and platelets (d 18) in the peripheral blood. These effects suggest that the repopulation potential of the combination therapy lies in a common multi-lineage cell population. The results of this study implicate the promising possibility to enhance the curative effects of G-CSF under conditions of myelosuppressive state induced by radiation exposure. (au) 43 refs.

  14. Recombinant ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73 has long lasting antinociceptive effects that are dependent on adenosine A1 receptor activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zylka Mark J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, also known as CD73 hydrolyzes extracellular adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP to adenosine in nociceptive circuits. Since adenosine has antinociceptive effects in rodents and humans, we hypothesized that NT5E, an enzyme that generates adenosine, might also have antinociceptive effects in vivo. Results To test this hypothesis, we purified a soluble version of mouse NT5E (mNT5E using the baculovirus expression system. Recombinant mNT5E hydrolyzed AMP in biochemical assays and was inhibited by α,β-methylene-adenosine 5'-diphosphate (α,β-me-ADP; IC50 = 0.43 μM, a selective inhibitor of NT5E. mNT5E exhibited a dose-dependent thermal antinociceptive effect that lasted for two days when injected intrathecally in wild-type mice. In addition, mNT5E had thermal antihyperalgesic and mechanical antiallodynic effects that lasted for two days in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA model of inflammatory pain and the spared nerve injury (SNI model of neuropathic pain. In contrast, mNT5E had no antinociceptive effects when injected intrathecally into adenosine A1 receptor (A1R, Adora1 knockout mice. Conclusion Our data indicate that the long lasting antinociceptive effects of mNT5E are due to hydrolysis of AMP followed by activation of A1R. Moreover, our data suggest recombinant NT5E could be used to treat chronic pain and to study many other physiological processes that are regulated by NT5E.

  15. Adenosine-induced neuroprotection : involvement of glia cells and cytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittendorp, Maria Catharina

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine is released during pathological conditions and has significant neuroprotective effects mainly by stimulating adenosine A1 receptors in neurons. These neuroprotective effects are increased following upregulation of adenosine A1 receptors. Much research has been performed to enhance the

  16. Substrate activation and conformational dynamics of guanosine 5'-monophosphate synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Justin C; Linger, Rebecca S; Chittur, Sridar V; Davisson, V Jo

    2013-08-06

    Glutamine amidotransferases catalyze the amination of a wide range of molecules using the amide nitrogen of glutamine. The family provides numerous examples for study of multi-active-site regulation and interdomain communication in proteins. Guanosine 5'-monophosphate synthetase (GMPS) is one of three glutamine amidotransferases in de novo purine biosynthesis and is responsible for the last step in the guanosine branch of the pathway, the amination of xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP). In several amidotransferases, the intramolecular path of ammonia from glutamine to substrate is understood; however, the crystal structure of GMPS only hinted at the details of such transfer. Rapid kinetics studies provide insight into the mechanism of the substrate-induced changes in this complex enzyme. Rapid mixing of GMPS with substrates also manifests absorbance changes that report on the kinetics of formation of a reactive intermediate as well as steps in the process of rapid transfer of ammonia to this intermediate. Isolation and use of the adenylylated nucleotide intermediate allowed the study of the amido transfer reaction distinct from the ATP-dependent reaction. Changes in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence upon mixing of enzyme with XMP suggest a conformational change upon substrate binding, likely the ordering of a highly conserved loop in addition to global domain motions. In the GMPS reaction, all forward rates before product release appear to be faster than steady-state turnover, implying that release is likely rate-limiting. These studies establish the functional role of a substrate-induced conformational change in the GMPS catalytic cycle and provide a kinetic context for the formation of an ammonia channel linking the distinct active sites.

  17. Halobacterial adenosine triphosphatases and the adenosine triphosphatase from Halobacterium saccharovorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Hordur; Sadler, Martha H.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared from various members of the genus Halobacterium contained a Triton X-l00 activated adenosine triphosphatase. The enzyme from Halobacterium saccharovorum was unstable in solutions of low ionic strength and maximally active in the presence of 3.5 M NaCl. A variety of nucleotide triphosphates was hydrolyzed. MgADP, the product of ATP hydrolysis, was not hydrolyzed and was a competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum was composed of at least 2 and possibly 4 subunits. The 83-kDa and 60-kDa subunits represented about 90 percent of total protein. The 60-kDa subunit reacted with dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide when inhibition was carried out in an acidic medium. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum, possesses properties of an F(1)F(0) as well as an E(1)E(2) ATPase.

  18. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-methylolacrylamide-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of adenosine phosphates in royal jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Zhang, Tianbin; Cheng, Yechun; Jia, Qiong

    2014-07-01

    A polymer monolith microextraction method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine monophosphate. The monolithic column was synthesized inside fused-silica capillaries using thermal initiation free-radical polymerization with glycidyl methacrylate as the monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, cyclohexanol, and 1-dodecanol as the porogen. N-Methylolacrylamide, an important hydrophilic monomer, was incorporated into the polymerization mixture to enhance the hydrophilicity of the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) column. The obtained poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-methylolacrylamide-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Optimum conditions for the preconcentration and separation of the target adenosines were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions, we obtained acceptable linearities, low limits of detection, and good relative standard deviations. The developed polymer monolith microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography method exhibited a good performance with recovery values in the range of 76.9-104.7% when applied to the determination of the adenosines in five royal jelly samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Homeostatic Control of Synaptic Activity by Endogenous Adenosine is Mediated by Adenosine Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diógenes, Maria José; Neves-Tomé, Raquel; Fucile, Sergio; Martinello, Katiuscia; Scianni, Maria; Theofilas, Panos; Lopatář, Jan; Ribeiro, Joaquim A.; Maggi, Laura; Frenguelli, Bruno G.; Limatola, Cristina; Boison, Detlev; Sebastião, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine, a key regulator of neuronal excitability, is metabolized by astrocyte-based enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK). We hypothesized that ADK might be an upstream regulator of adenosine-based homeostatic brain functions by simultaneously affecting several downstream pathways. We therefore studied the relationship between ADK expression, levels of extracellular adenosine, synaptic transmission, intrinsic excitability, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent synaptic actions in transgenic mice underexpressing or overexpressing ADK. We demonstrate that ADK: 1) Critically influences the basal tone of adenosine, evaluated by microelectrode adenosine biosensors, and its release following stimulation; 2) determines the degree of tonic adenosine-dependent synaptic inhibition, which correlates with differential plasticity at hippocampal synapses with low release probability; 3) modulates the age-dependent effects of BDNF on hippocampal synaptic transmission, an action dependent upon co-activation of adenosine A2A receptors; and 4) influences GABAA receptor-mediated currents in CA3 pyramidal neurons. We conclude that ADK provides important upstream regulation of adenosine-based homeostatic function of the brain and that this mechanism is necessary and permissive to synaptic actions of adenosine acting on multiple pathways. These mechanistic studies support previous therapeutic studies and implicate ADK as a promising therapeutic target for upstream control of multiple neuronal signaling pathways crucial for a variety of neurological disorders. PMID:22997174

  20. A Multimode Responsive Aptasensor for Adenosine Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel multimode detection aptasensor with three signal responses (i.e., fluorescence recovery, enhanced Raman signal, and color change. The presence of adenosine induces the conformational switch of the adenosine aptamer (Apt, forming adenosine-aptamer complex and releasing quantum dots (QDs from AuNPs, resulting in the recovered fluorescence, the enhanced Raman signal, and color change of the solution. The multimode signal recognition is potentially advantageous in improving the precision and reliability of the detection in complex environments compared to the conventional single-mode sensing system. The multimode detection strategy opens up a new possibility in sensing and quantifying more other target molecules.

  1. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040... Adenosine triphosphate release assay. (a) Identification. An adenosine triphosphate release assay is a device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following aggregation...

  2. Adenosine receptors as drug targets — what are the challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine signalling has long been a target for drug development, with adenosine itself or its derivatives being used clinically since the 1940s. In addition, methylxanthines such as caffeine have profound biological effects as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Moreover, drugs such as dipyridamole and methotrexate act by enhancing the activation of adenosine receptors. There is strong evidence that adenosine has a functional role in many diseases, and several pharmacological compounds specifically targeting individual adenosine receptors — either directly or indirectly — have now entered the clinic. However, only one adenosine receptor-specific agent — the adenosine A2A receptor agonist regadenoson (Lexiscan; Astellas Pharma) — has so far gained approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Here, we focus on the biology of adenosine signalling to identify hurdles in the development of additional pharmacological compounds targeting adenosine receptors and discuss strategies to overcome these challenges. PMID:23535933

  3. Mast cell adenosine receptors function: a focus on the A3 adenosine receptor and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam eRudich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is a metabolite, which has long been implicated in a variety of inflammatory processes. Inhaled adenosine provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatics or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, but not in non-asthmatics. This hyper responsiveness to adenosine appears to be mediated by mast cell activation. These observations have marked the receptor that mediates the bronchoconstrictor effect of adenosine on mast cells, as an attractive drug candidate. Four subtypes (A1, A2a, A2b and A3 of adenosine receptors have been cloned and shown to display distinct tissue distributions and functions. Animal models have firmly established the ultimate role of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R in mediating hyper responsiveness to adenosine in mast cells, although the influence of the A2b adenosine receptor was confirmed as well. In contrast, studies of the A3R in humans have been controversial. In this review, we summarize data on the role of different adenosine receptors in mast cell regulation of inflammation and pathology, with a focus on the common and distinct functions of the A3R in rodent and human mast cells. The relevance of mouse studies to the human is discussed.

  4. [Identification of thiamine monophosphate hydrolyzing enzymes in chicken liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolos, I K; Makarchikov, A F

    2014-01-01

    In animals, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) is an intermediate on the path of thiamine diphosphate, the coenzyme form of vitamin B1, degradation. The enzymes involved in TMP metabolism in animal tissues are not identified hitherto. The aim of this work was to study TMP hydrolysis in chicken liver. Two phosphatases have been found to contribute to TMP hydrolysis in liver homogenate. The first one, possessing a maximal activity at pH 6.0, is soluble, whereas the second one represents a membrane-bound enzyme with a pH optimum of 9.0. Membrane-bound TMPase activity was enhanced 1.7-fold by 5 mM Mg2+ ions and strongly inhibited by levamisole in uncompetitive manner with K1 of 53 μM, indicating the involvement of alkaline phosphatase. An apparent Km of alkaline phosphatase for TMP was calculated from the Hanes plot to be 0.6 mM. The soluble TMPase has an apparent Km of 0.7 mM; this enzyme is Mg2+ independent and insensitive to levamisole. As estimated by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-55 column, the soluble enzyme has a molecular mass of 17.8 kDa, TMPase activity being eluted simultaneously with peaks of flavinmononucleotide and p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity. Thus, TMP appears to be a physiological substrate for a low-molecular weight acid phosphatase, also known as low-molecular-weight protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase.

  5. Phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate is involved in toxoplasma apicoplast biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Tawk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. They harbour a plastid-like, non-photosynthetic organelle of algal origin, the apicoplast, which fulfils critical functions for parasite survival. Because of its essential and original metabolic pathways, the apicoplast has become a target for the development of new anti-apicomplexan drugs. Here we show that the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate (PI3P is involved in apicoplast biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii. In yeast and mammalian cells, PI3P is concentrated on early endosomes and regulates trafficking of endosomal compartments. Imaging of PI3P in T. gondii showed that the lipid was associated with the apicoplast and apicoplast protein-shuttling vesicles. Interference with regular PI3P function by over-expression of a PI3P specific binding module in the parasite led to the accumulation of vesicles containing apicoplast peripheral membrane proteins around the apicoplast and, ultimately, to the loss of the organelle. Accordingly, inhibition of the PI3P-synthesising kinase interfered with apicoplast biogenesis. These findings point to an unexpected implication for this ubiquitous lipid and open new perspectives on how nuclear encoded proteins traffic to the apicoplast. This study also highlights the possibility of developing specific pharmacological inhibitors of the parasite PI3-kinase as novel anti-apicomplexan drugs.

  6. Adenosine inhibits glutamatergic input to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, J. M.; Ferrari, L. L.; Keating, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous homeostatic sleep factor that accumulates during waking and inhibits wake-active neurons to promote sleep. It has been specifically hypothesized that adenosine decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep recovery by directly inhibiting wake-active neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), particularly BF cholinergic neurons. We previously showed that adenosine directly inhibits BF cholinergic neurons. Here, we investigated 1) how adenosine modulates glutamatergic input to BF cholinergic neurons and 2) how adenosine uptake and adenosine metabolism are involved in regulating extracellular levels of adenosine. Our experiments were conducted using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. We found that in BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine reduced the amplitude of AMPA-mediated evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs through presynaptic A1 receptors. Thus we have demonstrated that in addition to directly inhibiting BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine depresses excitatory inputs to these neurons. It is therefore possible that both direct and indirect inhibition may synergistically contribute to the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine in the BF. We also found that blocking the influx of adenosine through the equilibrative nucleoside transporters or inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase increased endogenous adenosine inhibitory tone, suggesting a possible mechanism through which adenosine extracellular levels in the basal forebrain are regulated. PMID:22357797

  7. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates in Plants and Plant Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marondedze, Claudius; Wong, Aloysius; Thomas, Ludivine; Irving, Helen; Gehring, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) and the enzymes that can generate them are of increasing interest in the plant sciences. Arguably, the major recent advance came with the release of the complete Arabidopsis thaliana genome that has enabled the systematic search for adenylate (ACs) or guanylate cyclases (GCs) and did eventually lead to the discovery of a number of GCs in higher plants. Many of these proteins have complex domain architectures with AC or GC centers moonlighting within cytosolic kinase domains. Recent reports indicated the presence of not just the canonical cNMPs (i.e., cAMP and cGMP), but also the noncanonical cCMP, cUMP, cIMP, and cdTMP in plant tissues, and this raises several questions. Firstly, what are the functions of these cNMPs, and, secondly, which enzymes can convert the substrate triphosphates into the respective noncanonical cNMPs? The first question is addressed here by comparing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) response of cAMP and cGMP to that elicited by the noncanonical cCMP or cIMP. The results show that particularly cIMP can induce significant ROS production. To answer, at least in part, the second question, we have evaluated homology models of experimentally confirmed plant GCs probing the substrate specificity by molecular docking simulations to determine if they can conceivably catalytically convert substrates other than ATP or GTP. In summary, molecular modeling and substrate docking simulations can contribute to the evaluation of cyclases for noncanonical cyclic mononucleotides and thereby further our understanding of the molecular mechanism that underlie cNMP-dependent signaling in planta.

  8. Changes in phosphorylation of adenosine phosphate and redox state of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) in Geobacter sulfurreducens in response to electron acceptor and anode potential variation

    KAUST Repository

    Rose, Nicholas D.

    2015-12-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Geobacter sulfurreducens is one of the dominant bacterial species found in biofilms growing on anodes in bioelectrochemical systems. The intracellular concentrations of reduced and oxidized forms of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD+, respectively) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and NADP+, respectively) as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) were measured in G. sulfurreducens using fumarate, Fe(III)-citrate, or anodes poised at different potentials (110, 10, -90, and -190mV (vs. SHE)) as the electron acceptor. The ratios of CNADH/CNAD+ (0.088±0.022) and CNADPH/CNADP+ (0.268±0.098) were similar under all anode potentials tested and with Fe(III)-citrate (reduced extracellularly). Both ratios significantly increased with fumarate as the electron acceptor (0.331±0.094 for NAD and 1.96±0.37 for NADP). The adenylate energy charge (the fraction of phosphorylation in intracellular adenosine phosphates) was maintained near 0.47 under almost all conditions. Anode-growing biofilms demonstrated a significantly higher molar ratio of ATP/ADP relative to suspended cultures grown on fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate. These results provide evidence that the cellular location of reduction and not the redox potential of the electron acceptor controls the intracellular redox potential in G. sulfurreducens and that biofilm growth alters adenylate phosphorylation.

  9. Role of Adenosine Signaling in Penile Erection and Erectile Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatarpekar, Prasad V.; Wen, Jiaming; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Penile erection is a hemodynamic process, which results from increased flow and retention of blood in the penile organ due to the relaxation of smooth muscle cells. Adenosine, a physiological vasorelaxant, has been shown to be a modulator of penile erection. Aim To summarize the research on the role of adenosine signaling in normal penile erection and erectile disorders. Main Outcome Measures Evidence in the literature on the association between adenosine signaling and normal and abnormal penile erection, i.e., erectile dysfunction (ED) and priapism. Methods The article reviews the literature on the role of endogenous and exogenous adenosine in normal penile erection, as well as in erectile disorders namely, ED and priapism. Results Adenosine has been shown to relax corpus cavernosum from various species including human in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Neuromodulatory role of adenosine in corpus cavernosum has also been demonstrated. Impaired adenosine signaling through A2B receptor causes partial resistance of corpus cavernosum, from men with organic ED, to adenosine-mediated relaxation. Increased level of adenosine has been shown to be a causative factor for priapism. Conclusion Overall, the research reviewed here suggests a general role of exogenous and endogenous adenosine signaling in normal penile erection. From this perspective, it is not surprising that impaired adenosine signaling is associated with ED, and excessive adenosine signaling is associated with priapism. Adenosine signaling represents a potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic target for the treatment of ED and priapism. PMID:19889148

  10. Role of adenosine signaling in penile erection and erectile disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatarpekar, Prasad V; Wen, Jiaming; Xia, Yang

    2010-11-01

    Penile erection is a hemodynamic process, which results from increased flow and retention of blood in the penile organ due to the relaxation of smooth muscle cells. Adenosine, a physiological vasorelaxant, has been shown to be a modulator of penile erection. To summarize the research on the role of adenosine signaling in normal penile erection and erectile disorders. Evidence in the literature on the association between adenosine signaling and normal and abnormal penile erection, i.e., erectile dysfunction (ED) and priapism. The article reviews the literature on the role of endogenous and exogenous adenosine in normal penile erection, as well as in erectile disorders namely, ED and priapism. Adenosine has been shown to relax corpus cavernosum from various species including human in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Neuromodulatory role of adenosine in corpus cavernosum has also been demonstrated. Impaired adenosine signaling through A(2B) receptor causes partial resistance of corpus cavernosum, from men with organic ED, to adenosine-mediated relaxation. Increased level of adenosine has been shown to be a causative factor for priapism. Overall, the research reviewed here suggests a general role of exogenous and endogenous adenosine signaling in normal penile erection. From this perspective, it is not surprising that impaired adenosine signaling is associated with ED, and excessive adenosine signaling is associated with priapism. Adenosine signaling represents a potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic target for the treatment of ED and priapism. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Anesthetic Cardioprotection: The Role of Adenosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Stephanie; Hughes, Kelly; Eckle, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Brief periods of cardiac ischemia and reperfusion exert a protective effect against subsequent longer ischemic periods, a phenomenon coined ischemic preconditioning. Similar, repeated brief episodes of coronary occlusion and reperfusion at the onset of reperfusion, called post-conditioning, dramatically reduce infarct sizes. Interestingly, both effects can be achieved by the administration of any volatile anesthetic. In fact, cardio-protection by volatile anesthetics is an older phenomenon than ischemic pre- or post-conditioning. Although the mechanism through which anesthetics can mimic ischemic pre- or post-conditioning is still unknown, adenosine generation and signaling are the most redundant triggers in ischemic pre- or postconditioning. In fact, adenosine signaling has been implicated in isoflurane-mediated cardioprotection. Adenosine acts via four receptors designated as A1, A2a, A2b, and A3. Cardioprotection has been associated with all subtypes, although the role of each remains controversial. Much of the controversy stems from the abundance of receptor agonists and antagonists that are, in fact, capable of interacting with multiple receptor subtypes. Recently, more specific receptor agonists and new genetic animal models have become available paving way towards new discoveries. As such, the adenosine A2b receptor was shown to be the only 1 of the adenosine receptors whose cardiac expression is induced by ischemia in both mice and humans and whose function is implicated in ischemic pre- or post-conditioning. In the current review, we will focus on adenosine signaling in the context of anesthetic cardioprotection and will highlight new discoveries, which could lead to new therapeutic concepts to treat myocardial ischemia using anesthetic preconditioning. PMID:24502579

  12. Mechanisms of adenosine-induced renal vasodilatation in hypertensive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierema, T.K.; Houben, A.J.H.M.; Kroon, A.A.; Postma, C.T.; Koster, D.; Engelshoven, J.M. van; Smits, P.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside with potent vasodilatory capacities, released under ischaemic conditions in particular. Its mechanisms of action, however, remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of adenosine, using a non-selective purinergic receptor antagonist, and the

  13. Targeting adenosine receptors in the development of cardiovascular therapeutics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine receptor stimulation has negative inotropic and dromotropic actions, reduces cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and remodeling, and prevents cardiac arrhythmias. In the vasculature, adenosine modulates vascular tone, reduces infiltration of inflammatory cells and generation of foam cells,

  14. Adenosine induced ventricular arrhythmias in the emergency room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. L.; Spekhorst, H. H.; Peters, R. J.; Wilde, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    While adenosine effectively terminates most supraventricular tachycardias (SVT), rare case reports have demonstrated its proarrhythmic potential, including induction of ventricular tachycardia (VT). The aim of this study was to define the proarrhythmic effects of adenosine in a large, unselected

  15. Mechanism of protection of adenosine from sulphate radical anion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photooxidation of adenosine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) has been studied by spectrophotometrically measuring the absorbance of adenosine at 260 nm. The rates of oxidation of adenosine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in ...

  16. Addition of adenosine to hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Systemic administration of adenosine produces anti-nociception. Although literature supports intrathecal adenosine for neuropathic pain, its efficacy in postoperative pain remains unproven. There has been no study on the efficacy of adenosine on postoperative pain when administered with hyperbaric ...

  17. Structural basis for the catalytic mechanism of a proficient enzyme: Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Pernille Hanne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2000-01-01

    Orotidine 5‘-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine 5‘-monophosphate, the last step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5‘-monophosphate. ODCase is a very proficient enzyme [Radzicka, A., and Wolfenden, R. (1995) Science 267, 90-93], enhancing the reaction...... for the decarboxylation of OMP, either through charge repulsion or through the formation of a very short O···H···O hydrogen bond between the two carboxylate groups......./ß-barrels with two shared active sites. The orientation of the orotate moiety of the substrate is unambiguously deduced from the structure, and previously proposed catalytic mechanisms involving protonation of O2 or O4 can be ruled out. The proximity of the OMP carboxylate group with Asp71 appears to be instrumental...

  18. Structural Mapping of Adenosine Receptor Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespers, Willem; Schiedel, Anke C; Heitman, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    The four adenosine receptors (ARs), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, constitute a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with exceptional foundations for structure-based ligand design. The vast amount of mutagenesis data, accumulated in the literature since the 1990s, has been recently supplemente...

  19. Differences in responsiveness of intrapulmonary artery and vein to arachidonic acid: mechanism of arterial relaxation involves cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate and cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarro, L.J.; Harbison, R.G.; Wood, K.S.; Wolin, M.S.; McNamara, D.B.; Hyman, A.L.; Kadowitz, P.J.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between responses of bovine intrapulmonary artery and vein to arachidonic acid and cyclic nucleotide levels in order to better understand the mechanism of relaxation elicited by arachidonic acid and acetylcholine. Arachidonic acid relaxed phenylephrine-precontracted arterial rings and elevated both cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP levels in arteries with intact endothelium. In contrast, endothelium-damaged arterial rings contracted to arachidonic acid without demonstrating significant changes in cyclic nucleotide levels. Indomethacin partially inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxation and abolished cyclic AMP accumulation whereas methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, partially inhibited relaxation and abolished cyclic GMP accumulation in response to arachidonic acid. All vessel responses were blocked by a combination of the two inhibitors. Prostaglandin (PG) I2 relaxed arterial rings and elevated cyclic AMP levels whereas PGE2 and PGF2 alpha caused contraction, suggesting that the indomethacin-sensitive component of arachidonic acid-elicited relaxation is due to PGI2 formation and cyclic AMP accumulation. The methylene blue-sensitive component is attributed to an endothelium-dependent but cyclooxygenase-independent generation of a substance causing cyclic GMP accumulation. Intrapulmonary veins contracted to arachidonic acid with no changes in cyclic nucleotide levels and PGI2 was without effect. Homogenates of intrapulmonary artery and vein formed 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid, which was inhibited by indomethacin. Thus, bovine intrapulmonary vein may not possess receptors for PGI2.

  20. Gold Core Mesoporous Organosilica Shell Degradable Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging and Gemcitabine Monophosphate Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Rhamani, Saher

    2017-09-12

    The synthesis of gold core degradable mesoporous organosilica shell nanoparticles is described. The nanopaticles were very efficient for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells and for in vitro gemcitabine monophosphate delivery, allowing promising theranostic applications in the nanomedicine field.

  1. Adenosine Signaling During Acute and Chronic Disease States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Xia, Yang; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine is a signaling nucleoside that is produced following tissue injury, particularly injury involving ischemia and hypoxia. The production of extracellular adenosine and its subsequent signaling through adenosine receptors plays an important role in orchestrating injury responses in multiple organs. There are four adenosine receptors that are widely distributed on immune, epithelial, endothelial, neuronal and stromal cells throughout the body. Interestingly, these receptors are subject to altered regulation following injury. Studies in mouse models and human cells and tissues have identified that the production of adenosine and its subsequent signaling through its receptors plays largely beneficial roles in acute disease states, with the exception of brain injury. In contrast, if elevated adenosine levels are sustained beyond the acute injury phase, adenosine responses can become detrimental by activating pathways that promote tissue injury and fibrosis. Understanding when during the course of disease adenosine signaling is beneficial as opposed to detrimental and defining the mechanisms involved will be critical for the advancement of adenosine based therapies for acute and chronic diseases. The purpose of this review is to discuss key observations that define the beneficial and detrimental aspects of adenosine signaling during acute and chronic disease states with an emphasis on cellular processes such as inflammatory cell regulation, vascular barrier function and tissue fibrosis. PMID:23340998

  2. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Qi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zr(IV can form phosphate and Zr(IV (–PO32−–Zr4+– complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV with phosphate. Zr(IV can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, while adenosine triphosphate(ATP can prevent Zr(IV-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRAsensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IVwith ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV. After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV, ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A520nm/A650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945 with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP.

  3. Characterization of biochemical effects of CGS 21680C, an A2-adenosine receptor agonist, in the mammalian ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokník, P; Neumann, J; Schmitz, W; Scholz, H; Wenzlaff, H

    1997-12-01

    Effects of a putative A2-adenosine receptor agonist 2-[(p-2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethyl-carboxamide-adeno sine (CGS 21680C) on force of contraction, protein phosphorylation, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content, and the activity of phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes in guinea pig ventricular (GPV) preparations were studied. CGS 21680C (1-100 microM) did not affect force of contraction in isolated electrically driven papillary muscles and was ineffective in increasing phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLB) and the inhibitory subunit of troponin (TnI) in [32P]-labeled GPV cardiomyocytes. However, under the same conditions, CGS 21680C (10 microM) increased cAMP content from 4.3 +/- 0.2 to 13.0 +/- 0.6 pmol/mg protein, and this effect was completely abolished by A2-adenosine receptor antagonist 9-chloro-2-(2-furanyl)-5,6-dihydro-1,2,4-triazolo-(1,5-c)quinazolin++ +-5-imine (CGS 15943A). CGS 21680C (10 microM) inhibited PDE isoenzymes I, II, III, IV by 7.0, 8.3, 4.7, and 23.2%, respectively. Similarly, rolipram (100 microM), a selective PDE IV inhibitor, increased cAMP content from 4.4 +/- 0.3 to 7.2 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein without affecting the phosphorylation state of PLB and TnI. We conclude that CGS 21680C increases cAMP content in GPV cardiomyocytes by activation of adenylyl cyclase or in part by inhibition of PDE IV activity. The increase in cAMP content by CGS 21680C or rolipram is ineffective in increasing phosphorylation of PLB and TnI. These results support the concept of compartments for cAMP or protein kinase A or both in cardiomyocytes that are not coupled to phosphorylation and contractility.

  4. [The involvement of adenosine and adenosine deaminase in experimental myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratone, A; Busuioc, A; Roşca, V; Bazgan, L; Popa, M; Hăulică, I

    1989-01-01

    By the ligature of the left coronary artery in the rat anesthetized with nembutal (10 mg/100 i.p.) a significant increase of the 5'-nucleotidase activity (Wooton method) was noticed 10 minutes after the left ventricle infarction (from an average value of 1038.5 +/- 187 mU/g tissue to 1537 +/- 225 mU/g fresh tissue). The adenosine desaminase levels spectrophotometrically determined by Denstedt technique, do not appear significantly modified 10 or 30 minutes after the left ventricle infarction. The chromatographically determined adenosine levels, by HPLC technique, decrease from the average value of 11.63 +/- 1.4 micrograms/mg PT to 8.60 +/- 1.0 micrograms/mg PT 30 minutes after infarction. The observed changes are explained by the conditions of hypoxia in the infarcted ventricle which lead to the raise in adenosine levels by activating the 5'-nucleotidase and their depression by a very fast metabolism of the same substance.

  5. Effect of adenosine and adenosine analogs on ( sup 14 C)aminopyrine accumulation by rabbit parietal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, S.; Hiraishi, H.; Terano, A.; Mutoh, H.; Kurachi, Y.; Shimada, T.; Ivey, K.J.; Sugimoto, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Adenosine receptors that modulate adenylate cyclase activity have been identified recently in a number of tissues. Adenosine A2 receptor is stimulatory to adenylate cyclase, whereas adenosine A1 receptor is inhibitory to adenylate cyclase. We investigated the effect of adenosine and its analogs on (14C)aminopyrine accumulation by rabbit parietal cells. Rabbit gastric mucosal cells were isolated by enzyme digestion. Parietal cells were enriched by nonlinear percoll gradients. (14C)Aminopyrine accumulation was used as an indicator of acid secretion. The effect of 2-chloroadenosine on histamine-stimulated (14C)aminopyrine accumulation was studied. The effects of N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine, 2-chloroadenosine, stable analogs of adenosine, and adenosine on (14C)aminopyrine accumulation were assessed. Cyclic AMP content of parietal cells was determined by radioimmunoassay. Histamine and carbachol, known secretagogues, stimulated (14C)aminopyrine accumulation. 2-Chloroadenosine did not suppress histamine-stimulated (14C)aminopyrine accumulation. 2-Chloroadenosine, N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine, and adenosine dose dependently increased (14C)aminopyrine accumulation. The order of potency was N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than adenosine. 8-Phenyltheophylline and theophylline, adenosine-receptor antagonists, or cimetidine did not have significant effects on the increase of AP uptake induced by 2-chloroadenosine. Coadministration of dipyridamole, and adenosine uptake inhibitor, augmented the effect of adenosine on (14C)aminopyrine accumulation. 2-Chloroadenosine, N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine, and adenosine each induced a significant increase in cellular cyclic AMP. We conclude that there may be adenosine A2 receptors on rabbit parietal cells which modulate gastric acid secretion.

  6. MyD88 and TRIF mediate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP induced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH expression in JEG3 choriocarcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocak Hande

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classically protein kinase A (PKA and transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1 mediate the cyclic AMP (cAMP induced-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH expression in the placenta. However enteric Gram (- bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS may also induce-CRH expression via Toll like receptor (TLR4 and its adaptor molecule Myd88. Here we investigated the role of MyD88, TRIF and IRAK2 on cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells in the absence of LPS/TLR4 stimulation. Methods JEG3 cells were transfected with CRH-luciferase and Beta-galactosidase expression vectors and either empty or dominant-negative (DN-MyD88, DN-TRIF or DN-IRAK2 vectors using Fugene6 (Roche. cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation was examined by using a luminometer and luciferase assay. Calorimetric Beta-galactosidase assays were performed to correct for transfection efficiency. Luciferase expression vectors of cAMP-downstream molecules, CRE and AP-1, were used to further examine the signaling cascades. Results cAMP stimulation induced AP-1 and CRE promoter expression and led to dose-dependent CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells. Inhibition of MyD88 signaling blocked cAMP-induced CRE and CRH promoter activation. Inhibition of TRIF signaling blocked cAMP-induced CRH but not CRE expression, while inhibition of IRAK2 did not have an effect on cAMP-induced CRH expression. Conclusion MyD88 and TRIF exert direct regulatory effect on cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells in the absence of infection. MyD88 most likely interacts with molecules upstream of IRAK2 to regulate cAMP-induced CRH expression.

  7. Observed correlation between the expression levels of catalytic subunit, Cβ2, of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Line Victoria; Ramberg, Håkon; Zhao, Sen; Grytli, Helene Hartvedt; Sveen, Anita; Berge, Viktor; Skotheim, Rolf I; Taskén, Kristin Austlid; Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen

    2017-03-01

    Today overtreatment of indolent prostate cancers and undertreatment of aggressive prostate cancer are a major concern for patients, their families, and the health care system. New biomarkers distinguishing indolent and aggressive prostate cancer are needed to improve precision medicine. In prostate cancer, protein kinase A (PKA) is known to activate the androgen receptor and published data indicate that PKA subunits can act as predictive markers for response to radiation and chemotherapy. We have previously shown that the catalytic subunit, Cβ2, of PKA is up-regulated in prostate cancer and we would in this study investigate the potential of Cβ2 to become a prognostic biomarker in prostate cancer. Data were sampled from a total of 241 patients from 3 independent cohorts. We measured and compared Cβ2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in prostate tumor and nontumor samples (n = 22), and exon levels in a cohort of 50 tumor samples, as well as acquiring mRNA data from the publicly available database The cancer genome atlas (n = 169). Cβ2 mRNA was up-regulated in prostate cancer in all 3 cohorts, measured by 3 different methods. Furthermore, the relative Cβ2 mRNA expression levels were lower in prostate cancer samples with Gleason score 8 to 10 compared with samples with Gleason score<8 (P = 0.004). Finally, low expression of Cβ2 mRNA in prostate cancer biopsies correlated with poor survival (hazard ratio = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.048-0.86; P = 0.031), adjusted for risk group and age. We suggest that Cβ2 mRNA expression may be used as a biomarker together with established prognostic markers to more precisely predict aggressiveness in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase activity in the somatic cells of the seminiferous tubules. II. Effect of retinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, M; Pezzotti, R; Nisticò, L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of retinol on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase activity of Sertoli cells and peritubular cells isolated from prepubertal rats has been investigated. Treatments longer than six hours induced a significant inhibition of type I protein kinase activity of Sertoli cells without appreciable variation of type II protein kinase. Short time treatments with the vitamin did not affect the Sertoli cell protein kinase activity. The vitamin A addition did not induce any appreciable variation of peritubular cell protein kinase activity.

  9. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase activity in the somatic cells of the seminiferous tubules. I. Isoform analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistico, L; Pezzotti, R; Galdieri, M

    1991-01-01

    In this work firstly are reported the chromatographic analysis of cAMP dependent protein kinases present in the cytosols obtained from rat Sertoli cells and peritubular cells. In both cell types two different isoenzymes have been detected, one eluting at 40-80 mM KC1 (type I) and a second one eluting at 150-200 mM KC1 (type II). Only the type I was strongly stimulated by cAMP whereas the type II was slightly cAMP dependent both in the Sertoli cells and in the peritubular cells.

  10. Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), a mediator of estradiol-induced apoptosis in long-term estrogen deprived breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Ji-Ping; Santen, Richard J; Yue, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Estrogens stimulate growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer but paradoxically induce tumor regress under certain circumstances. We have shown that long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) enhances the sensitivity of hormone dependent breast cancer cells to estradiol (E2) so that physiological concentrations of estradiol induce apoptosis in these cells. E2-induced apoptosis involve both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways but precise mechanisms remain unclear. We found that exposure of LTED MCF-7 cells to E2 activated AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, E2 inhibited AMPK activation in wild type MCF-7 cells where E2 prevents apoptosis. As a result of AMPK activation, the transcriptional activity of FoxO3, a downstream factor of AMPK, was up-regulated in E2 treatment of LTED. Increased activity of FoxO3 was demonstrated by up-regulation of three FoxO3 target genes, Bim, Fas ligand (FasL), and Gadd45α. Among them, Bim and FasL mediate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis respectively and Gadd45α causes cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. To further confirm the role of AMPK in apoptosis, we used AMPK activator AICAR in wild type MCF-7 cells and examined apoptosis, proliferation and expression of Bim, FasL, and Gadd45α. The effects of AICAR on these parameters recapitulated those observed in E2-treated LTED cells. Activation of AMPK by AICAR also increased expression of Bax in MCF-7 cells and its localization to mitochondria, which is a required process for apoptosis. These results reveal that AMPK is an important factor mediating E2-induced apoptosis in LTED cells, which is implicative of therapeutic potential for relapsing breast cancer after hormone therapy.

  11. Prognostic value of coexistence of abnormal expression of micro-RNA-200b and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein 1 in human astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-qing; Yao, Qing-he; Kuang, Yong-qin; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Li-bin; Huang, Hai-dong; Cheng, Jing-ming; Yang, Tao; Liu, En-yu; Liang, Liang; Fan, Ke-xia; Zhao, Kai; Xia, Xun; Gu, Jian-wen

    2014-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the expression of micro-RNA-200b (miR-200b) and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB-1) in astrocytoma and its efficacy for predicting outcome. Both miR-200b and CREB-1 messenger RNA expression was measured in 122 astrocytomas and 30 nonneoplastic brain specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of miR-200b was significantly lower in astrocytoma than in nonneoplastic brain (P RNA expression was significantly elevated in the tumors (P < .001). Both miR-200b down-regulation and CREB-1 up-regulation were significantly associated with advanced pathologic grade (P = .002 and P = .006, respectively). Low miR-200b expression correlated negatively with Karnofsky performance score (P = .03), and high CREB-1 expression correlated positively with mean tumor diameter (P = .03). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, low miR-200b, high CREB-1, and coexistence of abnormal miR-200b and CREB-1 expression (low miR-200b/high CREB-1) were predictive of shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in both grade III and grade IV astrocytoma. By multivariate analysis, only low miR-200b/high CREB-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in astrocytoma of advanced grade. Both miR-200b and CREB-1 may play important cooperative roles in the progression of human astrocytoma. The efficacy of miR-200b and CREB-1 together as a predictor of prognosis in astrocytoma patients is shown for the first time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A biphasic and brain-region selective down-regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations supports object recognition in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïte Hotte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to further understand the relationship between cAMP concentration and mnesic performance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Rats were injected with milrinone (PDE3 inhibitor, 0.3 mg/kg, i.p., rolipram (PDE4 inhibitor, 0.3 mg/kg, i.p. and/or the selective 5-HT4R agonist RS 67333 (1 mg/kg, i.p. before testing in the object recognition paradigm. Cyclic AMP concentrations were measured in brain structures linked to episodic-like memory (i.e. hippocampus, prefrontal and perirhinal cortices before or after either the sample or the testing phase. Except in the hippocampus of rolipram treated-rats, all treatment increased cAMP levels in each brain sub-region studied before the sample phase. After the sample phase, cAMP levels were significantly increased in hippocampus (1.8 fold, prefrontal (1.3 fold and perirhinal (1.3 fold cortices from controls rat while decreased in prefrontal cortex (∼0.83 to 0.62 fold from drug-treated rats (except for milrinone+RS 67333 treatment. After the testing phase, cAMP concentrations were still increased in both the hippocampus (2.76 fold and the perirhinal cortex (2.1 fold from controls animals. Minor increase were reported in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex from both rolipram (respectively, 1.44 fold and 1.70 fold and milrinone (respectively 1.46 fold and 1.56 fold-treated rat. Following the paradigm, cAMP levels were significantly lower in the hippocampus, prefrontal and perirhinal cortices from drug-treated rat when compared to controls animals, however, only drug-treated rats spent longer time exploring the novel object during the testing phase (inter-phase interval of 4 h. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that a "pre-sample" early increase in cAMP levels followed by a specific lowering of cAMP concentrations in each brain sub-region linked to the object recognition paradigm support learning efficacy after a middle-term delay.

  13. Prematuration with cyclic adenosine monophosphate modulators alters cumulus cell and oocyte metabolism and enhances developmental competence of in vitro-matured mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hai-Tao; Richani, Dulama; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L; Ren, Zi; Smitz, Johan E J; Stokes, Yvonne; Gilchrist, Robert B; Thompson, Jeremy G

    2014-08-01

    Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is an important assisted reproductive technology and research tool. The adoption of IVM into routine clinical practice has been hindered by its significantly lower success rates compared to conventional in vitro fertilization. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) modulation and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), independently, have long been known to improve IVM oocyte developmental competence. This study comprehensively examined the effects of FSH and cAMP/cGMP modulation, alone and in combination, on IVM oocyte metabolism and developmental outcomes. Mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were subjected to a 1 h prematuration phase ± the cAMP modulator forskolin and cAMP/cGMP modulator 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine followed by IVM ± FSH. Prematuration with these cyclic nucleotide modulators or IVM with FSH significantly improved oocyte developmental competence and reduced spindle abnormalities compared to spontaneous IVM (no treatment); however, these two treatments in combination endowed even greater developmental competence (improved subsequent blastocyst rates and quality; P < 0.05), albeit blastocyst yield and quality remained significantly lower than that of oocytes matured in vivo. A significant additive effect of combined IVM treatments was evident as increased COC lactate production and oxygen consumption and enhanced oocyte oxidative metabolism, ATP production, ATP:ADP ratio, and glutathione levels (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, IVM increased reactive oxygen species production, particularly as a consequence of FSH addition, relative to in vivo matured oocytes. In conclusion, improvements in the embryo yield following IVM is associated with increased COC oxygen consumption and oocyte oxidative metabolism, but these remain metabolically and developmentally less competent relative to in vivo derived oocytes. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Constitutive Expression of Inducible Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Early Repressor (ICER) in Cycling Quiescent Hematopoietic Cells: Implications for Aging Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven J; Yehia, Ghassan; Potian, Julius A; Molina, Carlos A; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2017-02-01

    Despite extensive insights on the interaction between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the supporting bone marrow (BM) stroma in hematopoietic homeostasis there remains unanswered questions on HSC regulation. We report on the mechanism by which HSCs attain cycling quiescence by addressing a role for inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER). ICER negatively transcriptional regulators of cAMP activators such as CREM and CREB. These activators can be induced by hematopoietic stimulators such as cytokines. We isolated subsets of hematopoietic cells from ten healthy donors: CD34(+)CD38(-)/c-kit (+) (primitive progenitor), CD34(+)CD38(+)/c-kit(low) (mature progenitor) and CD34(-)CD38(+/-)/c-kit(low/-) (differentiated lineage-). The relative maturity of the progenitors were verified in long-term culture initiating assay. Immunoprecipitation indicated the highest level of ICER in the nuclear extracts of CD34(+)/CD38(-) cells. Phospho (p)-CREM was also present suggesting a balance between ICER and p-CREM in HSC. ICER seems to be responsible for decrease in G1 transition, based on reduced Cdk4 protein, decreased proliferation and functional studies with propidium iodide. There were no marked changes in the cycling inhibitors, p15 and p-Rb, suggesting that ICER may act independently of other cycling inhibitors. The major effects of ICER were validated with BM mononuclear cells (BMNCs) in which ICER was ectopically expressed, and with BMNCs resistant to 5-fluorouracil- or cyclophosphamide. In total, this study ascribes a novel role for ICER in G1 checkpoint regulation in HSCs. These findings are relevant to gene therapy that require engineering of HSCs, age-related disorders that are associated with hematopoietic dysfunction and other hematological disorders.

  15. Inhibition of growth and modulation of gene expression in human lung carcinoma in athymic mice by site-selective 8-Cl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, S; Clair, T; Katsaros, D; Tortora, G; Yokozaki, H; Finch, R A; Avery, T L; Cho-Chung, Y S

    1989-10-15

    Site-selective cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogues inhibit growth and induce changes in morphology in a spectrum of human cancer cell lines (D. Katsaros et al., FEBS Lett., 223:97, 1987). The cellular events underlying such effects of cAMP analogues include differential regulation of type I versus type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase isozymes (S. Ally et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85: 6319, 1988). Infusion (i.p.) of 8-Cl-cAMP, the most potent site-selective cAMP analogue, for 7 days produced regression of LX-1 lung carcinoma in athymic mice in a dose-dependent manner. The tumor regression correlated with the changing levels of cAMP receptor proteins, RI alpha and RII beta, the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I and type II, respectively. By photoaffinity labeling with 8-N3-[32P]cAMP and immunoblotting with a monospecific anti-RII antibody, RI alpha (Mr 49,000) and RII beta (Mr 51,000) were identified in the untreated control tumors. 8-Cl-cAMP treatment induced a rapid increase of both RI alpha and RII beta in tumor cytosols and translocation (within 1 h) of only RII beta from the cytosol to the nucleus. RII beta in both cytosols and nuclei remained elevated during 8-Cl-cAMP treatment, whereas RI alpha in the cytosols gradually decreased with time of treatment after its initial transient increase. Northern blot analyses demonstrated that the RII beta mRNA level increased within 6 h of 8-Cl-cAMP treatment and remained elevated during treatment, whereas the RI alpha mRNA level decreased to below that of the untreated control tumor level after its transient increase during 1-6 h of treatment. 8-Cl-cAMP treatment also caused a sharp decrease in both N-ras and c-myc mRNA levels. These results suggest that the fundamental basis for the antineoplastic activity of 8-Cl-cAMP may reside in the restoration of normal gene regulation in neoplasms in which cAMP receptor proteins play a role.

  16. Evidence that an iodolactone mediates the inhibitory effect of iodide on thyroid cell proliferation but not on adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugrillon, A; Bechtner, G; Uedelhoven, W M; Weber, P C; Gärtner, R

    1990-07-01

    Iodolactone (6-iodo-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic-delta-lactone), an iodinated derivative of arachidonic acid, was found to be synthesized in rat thyroid slices; however, the physiological role of this compound is still unknown. We tried to detect iodolactone in isolated porcine thyroid follicles and investigated the effects of in vitro synthesized iodolactone on epidermal growth factor-induced thyroid cell proliferation and TSH-induced cAMP formation. In vitro synthesis of iodolactone was performed with lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of arachidonic acid in the presence of trace amounts of [125I]- and [3H]arachidonic acid. After purification by silica gel chromatography, HPLC of the reaction products revealed one main peak containing trace amounts of both [125I]- and [3H]arachidonic acid. With gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) a molecular mass of 391 m/z, corresponding to the derivatization product of iodolactone, was found. An ethanol-chloroform extract of isolated thyroid follicles preincubated with KI (10 microM) and arachidonic acid (1 microM) revealed peaks in HPLC and GC comparable with those of in vitro synthesized iodolactone. This indicates the ability of thyroid follicles to form iodolactone. Iodolactone (0.1-1.0 microM) dose-dependently inhibited epidermal growth factor-induced thyroid cell growth. This growth-inhibiting effect of iodolactone was 50-fold more pronounced than the inhibitory effect of KI (4 X 10(-5) microM) on thyroid cell proliferation. In contrast to the effect of iodide, the inhibitory effect of iodolactone on thyroid cell growth could not be abolished by methimazole (1 mM). Basal as well as TSH (0.5 U/liter)-induced cAMP formation were not changed by iodolactone. These experiments suggest a physiological role of iodolactone as a mediator of the known inhibitory effect of iodide on thyroid growth.

  17. The role of bicarbonate ions and of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in chloride transport by epithelial cells of bullfrog small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, W M; Youmans, S J

    1980-01-01

    In an HCO3-free medium, isolated segments of bullfrog small intestine, stripped of their external muscle layers, displayed a small, serosal positive PD that did not, on the average, differ significantly from zero. Similarly, in this medium, the mean values of Isc and of net Na+ and Cl- absorption under short-circuit conditions did not differ significantly from zero. External HCO3- (25 mM) induced a highly significant serosal negative PD and Isc and a large net absorption of Cl-. Net Cl- absorption exceeded Isc, i.e., there was a significant net flux, JR, which was consistent with a net secretion of HCO3-. The ratio of the internal Cl-activity of the absorptive cells (alpha Cli) to its equilibrium value was larger in the presence than in the absence of HCO3-. In the presence of HCO3-, cAMP, added to the serosal medium, reversed the serosal negative PD and Isc, and inhibited, though it did not completely abolish, net Cl- absorption. JR was unchanged; tissue Cl- and alpha Cli were reduced, and tissue Na+ decreased and tissue K+ increased. When HCO3- and Cl- were removed from the bathing medium, the electrical response of the tissue to cAMP, though greatly attenuated, was not completely abolished. Under these conditions, cAMP induced a significant net Na+ absorption. A model for ion transport in the absorptive cells of the small intestine is proposed that is consistent with these findings.

  18. Cloning of the cDNA encoding adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase 1 and its mRNA expression in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Keyong; Sun, Shujuan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    AMP deaminase catalyzes the conversion of AMP into IMP and ammonia. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of AMPD1 from skeletal muscle of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was cloned and characterized. The 2 526 bp cDNA contains a 5'-UTR of 78 bp, a 3'-UTR of 237 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 211 bp, which encodes a protein of 736 amino acids. The predicted protein contains a highly conserved AMP deaminase motif (SLSTDDP) and an ATP-binding site sequence (EPLMEEYAIAAQVFK). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AMPD1 and AMPD3 genes originate from the same branch, but are evolutionarily distant from the AMPD2 gene. RT-PCR showed that the flounder AMPD1 gene was expressed only in skeletal muscle. QRT-PCR analysis revealed a statistically significant 2.54 fold higher level of AMPD1 mRNA in adult muscle (750±40 g) compared with juvenile muscle (7.5±2 g) ( Panimals.

  19. Adenosine signalling in diabetes mellitus--pathophysiology and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, Luca; Blandizzi, Corrado; Csóka, Balázs; Pacher, Pál; Haskó, György

    2015-04-01

    Adenosine is a key extracellular signalling molecule that regulates several aspects of tissue function by activating four G-protein-coupled receptors, A1, A2A, A2B and A1 adenosine receptors. Accumulating evidence highlights a critical role for the adenosine system in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although adenosine signalling is known to affect insulin secretion, new data indicate that adenosine signalling also contributes to the regulation of β-cell homeostasis and activity by controlling the proliferation and regeneration of these cells as well as the survival of β cells in inflammatory microenvironments. Furthermore, adenosine is emerging as a major regulator of insulin responsiveness by controlling insulin signalling in adipose tissue, muscle and liver; adenosine also indirectly mediates effects on inflammatory and/or immune cells in these tissues. This Review critically discusses the role of the adenosine-adenosine receptor system in regulating both the onset and progression of T1DM and T2DM, and the potential of pharmacological manipulation of the adenosinergic system as an approach to manage T1DM, T2DM and their associated complications.

  20. Elevated adenosine signaling via adenosine A2B receptor induces normal and sickle erythrocyte sphingosine kinase 1 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaiqi; Zhang, Yujin; Bogdanov, Mikhail V.; Wu, Hongyu; Song, Anren; Li, Jessica; Dowhan, William; Idowu, Modupe; Juneja, Harinder S.; Molina, Jose G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocyte possesses high sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity and is the major cell type supplying plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate, a signaling lipid regulating multiple physiological and pathological functions. Recent studies revealed that erythrocyte SphK1 activity is upregulated in sickle cell disease (SCD) and contributes to sickling and disease progression. However, how erythrocyte SphK1 activity is regulated remains unknown. Here we report that adenosine induces SphK1 activity in human and mouse sickle and normal erythrocytes in vitro. Next, using 4 adenosine receptor-deficient mice and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) is essential for adenosine-induced SphK1 activity in human and mouse normal and sickle erythrocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we provide in vivo genetic evidence that adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to excess plasma adenosine and elevated erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Lowering adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy or genetic deletion of ADORA2B significantly reduced excess adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity in ADA-deficient mice. Finally, we revealed that protein kinase A-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation functioning downstream of ADORA2B underlies adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Overall, our findings reveal a novel signaling network regulating erythrocyte SphK1 and highlight innovative mechanisms regulating SphK1 activity in normal and SCD. PMID:25587035

  1. Recipient pretransplant inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Meagan J; Risler, Linda J; Phillips, Brian R; Wang, Joanne; Storer, Barry E; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Duan, Haichuan; Raccor, Brianne S; Boeckh, Michael J; McCune, Jeannine S

    2014-10-01

    Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides and catalyzes the oxidation of inosine 5'-monophosphate to xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP). We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantitate XMP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) isolated from the recipient pretransplant and used this method to determine IMPDH activity in 86 nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. The incubation procedure and analytical method yielded acceptable within-sample and within-individual variability. Considerable between-individual variability was observed (12.2-fold). Low recipient pretransplant IMPDH activity was associated with increased day +28 donor T cell chimerism, more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), lower neutrophil nadirs, and more cytomegalovirus reactivation but not with chronic GVHD, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or overall mortality. We conclude that quantitation of the recipient's pretransplant IMPDH activity in PMNC lysate could provide a useful biomarker to evaluate a recipient's sensitivity to MMF. Further trials should be conducted to confirm our findings and to optimize postgrafting immunosuppression in nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Partial agonism of theophylline-7-riboside on adenosine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, A. P.; van der Wenden, E. M.; von Frijtag Drabbe Künzel, J. K.; Mathôt, R. A.; Danhof, M.; Borea, P. A.; Varani, K.

    1994-01-01

    Theophylline-7-riboside was evaluated as a partial agonist for rat adenosine receptors. Radioligand binding experiments were performed on both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors, using several methodologies to discriminate between agonists and antagonists. Mainly from thermodynamic data it was concluded

  3. Elevated Placental Adenosine Signaling Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Sun, Kaiqi; Parchim, Nicholas F.; Li, Jessica; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Anren; Hart, Laura A.; Blackwell, Sean C.; Sibai, Baha M.; Chan, Lee-Nien L.; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Hicks, M. John; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This pathogenic condition is speculated to be due to placental abnormalities that contribute to the maternal syndrome. However, the specific factors and signaling pathways leading to impaired placentas and maternal disease development remain elusive. Methods and Results By using two independent animal models of PE—1) genetically-engineered pregnant mice with elevated adenosine exclusively in placentas, and 2) a pathogenic autoantibody-induced PE mouse model—we demonstrated here that chronically elevated placental adenosine was sufficient to induce hallmark features of PE including hypertension, proteinuria, small fetuses, and impaired placental vasculature. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches revealed that elevated placental adenosine coupled with excessive A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling contributed to the development of these features of PE. Mechanistically, we provided both human and mouse evidence that elevated placental CD73 is a key enzyme causing increased placental adenosine, thereby contributing to PE. Conclusions We determined that elevated placental adenosine signaling is a previously unrecognized pathogenic factor for PE. Moreover, our findings revealed the molecular basis underlying the elevation of placental adenosine and the detrimental role of excess placental adenosine in the pathophysiology of PE, and, thereby highlight novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25538227

  4. Comorbidities in Neurology: Is Adenosine the Common Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev; Aronica, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidities in Neurology represent a major conceptual and therapeutic challenge. For example, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a syndrome comprised of epileptic seizures and comorbid symptoms including memory and psychiatric impairment, depression, and sleep dysfunction. Similarly, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are accompanied by various degrees of memory dysfunction. Patients with AD have an increased likelihood for seizures, whereas all four conditions share certain aspects of psychosis, depression, and sleep dysfunction. This remarkable overlap suggests common pathophysiological mechanisms, which include synaptic dysfunction and synaptotoxicity, as well as glial activation and astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is linked to synapse function via the tripartite synapse, but astrocytes also control the availability of gliotransmitters and adenosine. Here we will specifically focus on the ‘adenosine hypothesis of comorbidities’ implying that astrocyte activation, via overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK), induces a deficiency in the homeostatic tone of adenosine. We present evidence from patient-derived samples showing astrogliosis and overexpression of ADK as common pathological hallmark of epilepsy, AD, PD, and ALS. We discuss a transgenic ‘comorbidity model’, in which brain-wide overexpression of ADK and resulting adenosine deficiency produces a comorbid spectrum of seizures, altered dopaminergic function, attentional impairment, and deficits in cognitive domains and sleep regulation. We conclude that dysfunction of adenosine signaling is common in neurological conditions, that adenosine dysfunction can explain comorbid phenotypes, and that therapeutic adenosine augmentation might be effective for the treatment of comorbid symptoms in multiple neurological conditions. PMID:25979489

  5. Adenosine deaminase activities and fasting blood glucose in obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A complex relationship seems to exist between adenosine deaminase (ADA) and insulin in obesity. Through its effect on adenosine, the enzyme can modulate the action of insulin and affect blood glucose while the administration of insulin is said to decrease the activities of the enzyme. Aim: To investigate the ...

  6. Endogenous adenosine curtails lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumour necrosis factor synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigler, A; Greten, T F; Sinha, B; Haslberger, C; Sullivan, G W; Endres, S

    Recent studies have demonstrated the inhibitory effect of exogenous adenosine on TNF production. During inflammation endogenous adenosine levels are elevated and may be one of several anti-inflammatory mediators that reduce TNF synthesis. In the present study the authors investigated this role of

  7. Adenosine Deaminase, (ADA) level in leprosy | Ogbu | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is involved in and the catabolism of toxic de-oxynucleotides (5) and modulation of insulin action. Although its activities in leprosy have been measured, its characteristics have not been reported. Objective: To determine adenosine deaminase activities in leprosy and possible ...

  8. Elevated placental adenosine signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Sun, Kaiqi; Parchim, Nicholas F; Li, Jessica; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Anren; Hart, Laura A; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M; Chan, Lee-Nien L; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Hicks, M John; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-02-24

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This pathogenic condition is speculated to be caused by placental abnormalities that contribute to the maternal syndrome. However, the specific factors and signaling pathways that lead to impaired placentas and maternal disease development remain elusive. Using 2 independent animal models of preeclampsia (genetically engineered pregnant mice with elevated adenosine exclusively in placentas and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model), we demonstrated that chronically elevated placental adenosine was sufficient to induce hallmark features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, small fetuses, and impaired placental vasculature. Genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that elevated placental adenosine coupled with excessive A₂B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling contributed to the development of these features of preeclampsia. Mechanistically, we provided both human and mouse evidence that elevated placental CD73 is a key enzyme causing increased placental adenosine, thereby contributing to preeclampsia. We determined that elevated placental adenosine signaling is a previously unrecognized pathogenic factor for preeclampsia. Moreover, our findings revealed the molecular basis underlying the elevation of placental adenosine and the detrimental role of excess placental adenosine in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, and thereby, we highlight novel therapeutic targets. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

  10. cyclic monophosphate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Finally, potential applications of cGMP in plant biotechnology will be discussed. Key words: .... different ion channels and pumps, cause cytosolic Ca2+ transients by stimulating release from intracellular stores and affect the ..... through a subset of abscisic acid-evoked signaling pathways. Natl. Acad. Sci.

  11. Human UMP-CMP kinase 2, a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase localized in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunjian; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna

    2008-01-18

    Enzyme deficiency in the salvage pathway of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in mitochondria can cause mtDNA depletion syndromes. We have identified a human mitochondrial UMP-CMP kinase (UMP-CMPK, cytidylate kinase; EC 2.7.4.14), designated as UMP-CMP kinase 2 (UMP-CMPK2). The C-terminal domain of this 449-amino acid protein contains all consensus motifs of a nucleoside monophosphate kinase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that UMP-CMPK2 belonged to a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase family, which was closer to thymidylate kinase than to cytosolic UMP-CMP kinase. Subcellular localization with green fluorescent protein fusion proteins illustrated that UMP-CMPK2 was localized in the mitochondria of HeLa cells and that the mitochondrial targeting signal was included in the N-terminal 22 amino acids. The enzyme was able to phosphorylate dUMP, dCMP, CMP, and UMP with ATP as phosphate donor, but the kinetic properties were different compared with the cytosolic UMP-CMPK. Its efficacy to convert dUMP was highest, followed by dCMP, whereas CMP and UMP were the poorest substrates. It also phosphorylated the monophosphate forms of the nucleoside analogs ddC, dFdC, araC, BVDU, and FdUrd, which suggests that UMP-CMPK2 may be involved in mtDNA depletion caused by long term treatment with ddC or other pyrimidine analogs. UMP-CMPK2 mRNA expression was exclusively detected in chronic myelogenous leukemia K-562 and lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 among eight studied cancer cell lines. Particular high expression in leukemia cells, dominant expression in bone marrow, and tight correlation with macrophage activation and inflammatory response suggest that UMP-CMPK2 may have other functions in addition to the supply of substrates for mtDNA synthesis.

  12. Determination of the amino acid sequence requirements for catalysis by the highly proficient orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ji; Cardenas, Ana Maria; Gilbert, Hiram F; Palzkill, Timothy

    2011-11-01

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate to uridine 5'-monophosphate during pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. This enzyme is one of the most proficient known, exhibiting a rate enhancement of over 17 orders of magnitude over the uncatalyzed rate. An interesting question is whether the high proficiency of ODCase is associated with a highly optimized sequence of active site residues. This question was addressed by randomizing 24 residue positions in and around the active site of the E. coli ODCase (pyrF) by site-directed mutagenesis. The libraries of mutants were selected for function from a multicopy plasmid or by single-copy replacement at the pyrF locus on the E. coli chromosome. Stringent sequence requirements for function were found for the mutants expressed from the chromosomal pyrF locus. Six positions were not tolerant of substitutions and several others accepted very limited substitutions. In contrast, all positions could be substituted to some extent when the library mutants were expressed from a multicopy plasmid. For the conserved quartet of charged residues Lys44-Asp71-Lys73-Asp76, a cysteine substitution was found to provide function at positions 71 and 76. A lower pK(a) for both cysteine mutants supports a mechanism whereby the thiolate group of cysteine substitutes for the negatively charged aspartate side chain. The partial function mutants such as D71C and D76C exhibit reduced catalytic efficiency relative to wild type but nevertheless provide a rate enhancement of 15 orders of magnitude over the uncatalyzed rate indicating the catalytic proficiency of the enzyme is robust and tolerant of mutation. Copyright © 2011 The Protein Society.

  13. Ticagrelor and Rosuvastatin Have Additive Cardioprotective Effects via Adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Yochai; Birnbaum, Gilad D; Birnbaum, Itamar; Nylander, Sven; Ye, Yumei

    2016-12-01

    Ticagrelor inhibits the equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-1 and thereby, adenosine cell re-uptake. Ticagrelor limits infarct size (IS) in non-diabetic rats and the effect is adenosine-dependent. Statins, via ecto-5'-nucleotidase activation, also increase adenosine levels and limit IS. Ticagrelor and rosuvastatin have additive effects on myocardial adenosine levels, and therefore, on IS and post-reperfusion activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome. Diabetic ZDF rats received via oral gavage; water (control), ticagrelor (150 mg/kg/d), prasugrel (7.5 mg/kg/d), rosuvastatin (5 mg/kg/d), ticagrelor + rosuvastatin and prasugrel + rosuvastatin for 3d. On day 4, rats underwent 30 min coronary artery occlusion and 24 h of reperfusion. Two additional groups received, ticagrelor + rosuvastatin or water in combination with CGS15943 (CGS, an adenosine receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg i.p. 1 h before ischemia). Both ticagrelor and rosuvastatin increased myocardial adenosine levels with an additive effect of the combination whereas prasugrel had no effect. Similarly, both ticagrelor and rosuvastatin significantly reduced IS with an additive effect of the combination whereas prasugrel had no effect. The effect on IS was adenosine dependent as CGS15943 reversed the effect of ticagrelor + rosuvastatin. The ischemia-reperfusion injury increased myocardial mRNA levels of NLRP3, ASC, IL-1β and IL-6. Ticagrelor and rosuvastatin, but not prasugrel, significantly decreased these pro-inflammatory mediators with a trend to an additive effect of the combination. The combination also increased the levels of anti-inflammatory 15-epilipoxin A4. Ticagrelor and rosuvastatin when given in combination have an additive effect on local myocardial adenosine levels in the setting of ischemia reperfusion. This translates into an additive cardioprotective effect mediated by adenosine-induced effects including downregulation of pro- but upregulation of anti-inflammatory mediators.

  14. Fluorescent Sensing of Guanine and Guanosine Monophosphate with Conjugated Receptors Incorporating Aniline and Naphthyridine Moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-Hung; Phang, Riping; Fang, Jim-Min

    2016-04-15

    Ethyne-linked naphthyridine-aniline conjugated molecules are selective sensors of decylguanine in dichloromethane and guanosine monophosphate in water (Kass = 16,000 M(-1)). The 2-acetamido-1,8-naphthyridine moiety binds with guanine in a DAA-ADD triply hydrogen-bonded motif. The aniline moiety enhances an electron-donating effect, and the substituent is tuned to attain extra hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking, and electrostatic interactions. The proposed binding modes are supported by a Job plot, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectral analyses.

  15. Adenosine through the A2A adenosine receptor increases IL-1β in the brain contributing to anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Gabriel S.; Darmody, Patrick T.; Walsh, John P.; Moon, Morgan L.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Bray, Julie K.; McCusker, Robert H.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Ailments associated with activation of the innate immune system, however, are increasingly linked to anxiety disorders. In adult male mice, we found that adenosine doubled caspase-1 activity in brain by a pathway reliant on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, protein kinase A (PKA) and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR). In addition, adenosine-dependent activation of caspase-1 increased interleukin (IL)-1β in the brain by two-fold. Peripheral administration of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice led to a 2.3-fold increase in caspase-1 activity in the amygdala and to a 33% and 42% reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity and food intake, respectively, that were not observed in caspase-1 knockout (KO), IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) KO and A2A AR KO mice or in mice administered a caspase-1 inhibitor centrally. Finally, adenosine administration increased anxiety-like behaviors in WT mice by 28% in the open field test and by 55% in the elevated zero-maze. Caspase-1 KO mice, IL-1R1 KO mice, A2A AR KO mice and WT mice treated with the KATP channel blocker, glyburide, were resistant to adenosine-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, our results indicate that adenosine can act as an anxiogenic by activating caspase-1 and increasing IL-1β in the brain. PMID:24907587

  16. Excess adenosine in murine penile erectile tissues contributes to priapism via A2B adenosine receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Tiejuan; Abbasi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Hong; Uray, Karen; Chunn, Janci L.; Xia, Ling Wei; Molina, Jose G.; Weisbrodt, Norman W.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Xia, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Priapism, abnormally prolonged penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation, is associated with ischemia-mediated erectile tissue damage and subsequent erectile dysfunction. It is common among males with sickle cell disease (SCD), and SCD transgenic mice are an accepted model of the disorder. Current strategies to manage priapism suffer from a poor fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder. Here we report that mice lacking adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of adenosine, displayed unexpected priapic activity. ADA enzyme therapy successfully corrected the priapic activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that it was dependent on elevated adenosine levels. Further genetic and pharmacologic evidence demonstrated that A2B adenosine receptor–mediated (A2BR-mediated) cAMP and cGMP induction was required for elevated adenosine–induced prolonged penile erection. Finally, priapic activity in SCD transgenic mice was also caused by elevated adenosine levels and A2BR activation. Thus, we have shown that excessive adenosine accumulation in the penis contributes to priapism through increased A2BR signaling in both Ada–/– and SCD transgenic mice. These findings provide insight regarding the molecular basis of priapism and suggest that strategies to either reduce adenosine or block A2BR activation may prove beneficial in the treatment of this disorder. PMID:18340377

  17. Inhibition of uptake of adenosine into human blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, J.P.M.; Sixma, J.J.; Trieschnigg, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Adenosine transport into human blood platelets is mediated by two independent systems with different affinities. Both systems transport only purine nucleosides and no pyrimidine nucleosides. In experiments with differently substituted purine nucleosides, purines and analogues, differences in carrier

  18. Adenosin deaminasa como molecula coestimuladora y marcador de inmunidad celular

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez-Aguilar, Mary Carmen; Goncalves, Loredana; Ibarra, Alba; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    La adenosin deaminasa (ADA), es una enzima del metabolismo de las purinas que ha sido objeto de mucho interes debido a que el defecto congenito de esta enzima causa el sindrome de inmunodeficiencia combinada severa...

  19. Addition of adenosine to hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-17

    effects, ... efficacy of adenosine on postoperative pain when administered with hyperbaric bupivacaine. The aim of our present study ... lower back, or ingestion of methylxanthine-containing food or beverages within 12 hours of ...

  20. Adenosine-deaminase (ADA activity in Psoriasis (A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Chaudhry

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of adenosine-deaminase activity ′in 23 patients hav-mg psoriasis compared with an equal number of healthy controls revealed significantly high ADA-activity in the psotiatic patients.

  1. Vasoconstrictor and vasodilator effects of adenosine in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    Adenosine is an ATP breakdown product that in most vessels causes vasodilatation and that contributes to the metabolic control of organ perfusion, i.e., to the match between oxygen demand and oxygen delivery. In the renal vasculature, in contrast, adenosine can produce vasoconstriction, a response...... that has been suggested to be an organ-specific version of metabolic control designed to restrict organ perfusion when transport work increases. However, the vasoconstriction elicited by an intravenous infusion of adenosine is only short lasting, being replaced within 1-2 min by vasodilatation. It appears...... that the steady-state response to the increase of plasma adenosine levels above normal resulting from the infusion is global renal vasorelaxation that is the result of A2AR activation in most parts of the renal vasculature, including larger renal arteries, juxtamedullary afferent arterioles, efferent arterioles...

  2. Structural Basis for the Specificity of Human NUDT16 and Its Regulation by Inosine Monophosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Trésaugues

    Full Text Available Human NUDT16 is a member of the NUDIX hydrolase superfamily. After having been initially described as an mRNA decapping enzyme, recent studies conferred it a role as an "housecleaning" enzyme specialized in the removal of hazardous (deoxyinosine diphosphate from the nucleotide pool. Here we present the crystal structure of human NUDT16 both in its apo-form and in complex with its product inosine monophosphate (IMP. NUDT16 appears as a dimer whose formation generates a positively charged trench to accommodate substrate-binding. Complementation of the structural data with detailed enzymatic and biophysical studies revealed the determinants of substrate recognition and particularly the importance of the substituents in position 2 and 6 on the purine ring. The affinity for the IMP product, harboring a carbonyl in position 6 on the base, compared to purine monophosphates lacking a H-bond acceptor in this position, implies a catalytic cycle whose rate is primarily regulated by the product-release step. Finally, we have also characterized a phenomenon of inhibition by the product of the reaction, IMP, which might exclude non-deleterious nucleotides from NUDT16-mediated hydrolysis regardless of their cellular concentration. Taken together, this study details structural and regulatory mechanisms explaining how substrates are selected for hydrolysis by human NUDT16.

  3. The effect of chlorination of nucleotide bases on the conformational properties of thymidine monophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mukhina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on Escherichia coli bacteria cultivation, in which DNA thymine was replaced with 5-chlorouracil have refreshed the problem of understanding the changes to physical properties of DNA monomers resultant from chemical modifications. These studies have shown that the replacement did not affect the normal activities and division of the bacteria, but has significantly reduced its life span. In this paper a comparative analysis was carried out by the methods of computational experiment of a set of 687 possible conformers of natural monomeric DNA unit (2′-deoxyribonucleotide thymidine monophosphate and 660 conformers of 5-chloro-2′-deoxyuridine monophosphate – a similar molecules in which the natural nitrogenous base thymine is substituted with 5-chlorouracil. Structures of stable conformers of the modified deoxyribonucleotide have been obtained and physical factors, which determine their variation from the conformers of the unmodified molecule have been analyzed. A comparative analysis of the elastic properties of conformers­ of investigated molecules and non-covalent interactions present in them was conducted. The results can be used for planning experiments on synthesis of artificial DNA suitable for incorporation into living organisms.

  4. Mycophenolic acid exposure and complement fraction C3 influence inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Yasuaki; Naito, Takafumi; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2017-07-01

    Background Mycophenolate mofetil has recently been reported to be effective against systemic lupus erythematosus. The influence of the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid, the active form of mycophenolate mofetil and the major inactive mycophenolic acid phenolic glucuronide on the activity of the target enzyme inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, is expected to be revealed. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Methods Fifty systemic lupus erythematosus patients in remission maintenance phase (29 received mycophenolate mofetil [MMF+] and 21 did not [MMF-]) were enrolled. Median and interquartile range of dose of mycophenolate mofetil were 1500 and 1000-1500 mg/day, respectively. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the dependence between inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity and 25 predictor values including predose plasma concentrations of free mycophenolic acid and mycophenolic acid phenolic glucuronide. Results Median and interquartile range of predose total plasma concentrations of mycophenolic acid and mycophenolic acid phenolic glucuronide were 2.73 and 1.43-5.73 and 25.5 and 13.1-54.7  µg/mL, respectively. Predose inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in MMF+ than MMF- patients (median 38.3 and 20.6 nmoL xanthosine 5'-monophosphate/g haemoglobin/h, Psystemic lupus erythematosus patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil therapy. Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity may be determined by mycophenolic acid exposure and complement fraction C3 in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

  5. Direct Determination of Six Cytokinin Nucleotide Monophosphates in Coconut Flesh by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhao-Yun; Ma, You-Ning; Sun, Li-Hua; Mou, Ren-Xiang; Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ming-Xue

    2017-11-15

    Coconut contains many uncharacterized cytokinins that have important physiological effects in plants and humans. In this work, a method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for identification and quantification of six cytokinin nucleotide monophosphates in coconut flesh. Excellent separation was achieved using a low-coverage C18 bonded-phase column with an acidic mobile phase, which greatly improved the retention of target compounds. To enable high-throughput analysis, a single-step solid-phase extraction using mixed-mode anion-exchange cartridges was employed for sample preparation. This proved to be an effective method to minimize matrix effects and ensure high selectivity. The limits of detection varied from 0.06 to 0.3 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/mL. The linearity was statistically verified over 2 orders of magnitude, giving a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.9981. The mean recoveries were from 81 to 108%; the intraday precision (n = 6) was less than 11%; and the interday precision (n = 11) was within 14%. The developed method was applied to the determination of cytokinin nucleotide monophosphates in coconut flesh samples, and four of them were successfully identified and quantified. The results showed that trans-zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate was the dominant cytokinin, with a concentration of 2.7-34.2 ng/g, followed by N6-isopentenyladenosine-5'-monophosphate (≤12.9 ng/g), while the concentrations of cis-zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate and dihydrozeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate were less than 2.2 and 4.9 ng/g, respectively.

  6. Cell Type-Specific Effects of Adenosine on Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aerde, Karlijn I.; Qi, Guanxiao; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The neuromodulator adenosine is widely considered to be a key regulator of sleep homeostasis and an indicator of sleep need. Although the effect of adenosine on subcortical areas has been previously described, the effects on cortical neurons have not been addressed systematically to date. To that purpose, we performed in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and biocytin staining of pyramidal neurons and interneurons throughout all layers of rat prefrontal and somatosensory cortex, followed by morphological analysis. We found that adenosine, via the A1 receptor, exerts differential effects depending on neuronal cell type and laminar location. Interneurons and pyramidal neurons in layer 2 and a subpopulation of layer 3 pyramidal neurons that displayed regular spiking were insensitive to adenosine application, whereas other pyramidal cells in layers 3–6 were hyperpolarized (range 1.2–10.8 mV). Broad tufted pyramidal neurons with little spike adaptation showed a small adenosine response, whereas slender tufted pyramidal neurons with substantial adaptation showed a bigger response. These studies of the action of adenosine at the postsynaptic level may contribute to the understanding of the changes in cortical circuit functioning that take place between sleep and awakening. PMID:24108800

  7. Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography: Detection of myocardial viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljkovic Milan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography in detection of myocardial viability. Background Vasodilation through low dose dipyridamole infusion may recruit contractile reserve by increasing coronary flow or by increasing levels of endogenous adenosine. Methods Forty-three patients with resting dyssynergy, due to previous myocardial infarction, underwent low-dose adenosine (80, 100, 110 mcg/kg/min in 3 minutes intervals echocardiography test. Gold standard for myocardial viability was improvement in systolic thickening of dyssinergic segments of ≥ 1 grade at follow-up. Coronary angiography was done in 41 pts. Twenty-seven patients were revascularized and 16 were medically treated. Echocardiographic follow up data (12 ± 2 months were available in 24 revascularized patients. Results Wall motion score index improved from rest 1.55 ± 0.30 to 1.33 ± 0.26 at low-dose adenosine (p Conclusion Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography test has high diagnostic potential for detection of myocardial viability in the group of patients with left ventricle dysfunction due to previous myocardial infarction. Low dose adenosine stress echocardiography may be adequate alternative to low-dose dobutamine test for evaluation of myocardial viability.

  8. The 1976C>T polymorphism in the adenosine A2A receptor gene does not affect the vasodilator response to adenosine in humans in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Franke, B.; Broek, P. van den; Smits, P.; Rongen, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The 1976C>T polymorphism in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) modulates the psychological response to administration of the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine. We quantified the vascular response to adenosine and caffeine to determine the relevance of this variant allele in the

  9. Intracellular ATP concentration contributes to the cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects of adenosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujue Li

    Full Text Available Extracellular adenosine (ADE interacts with cells by two pathways: by activating cell surface receptors at nanomolar/micromolar concentrations; and by interfering with the homeostasis of the intracellular nucleotide pool at millimolar concentrations. Ade shows both cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of adenosine-mediated ATP on cell viability were investigated. Adenosine treatment was found to be cytoprotective in the low intracellular ATP state, but cytotoxic under the normal ATP state. Adenosine-mediated cytotoxicity and cytoprotection rely on adenosine-derived ATP formation, but not via the adenosine receptor pathway. Ade enhanced proteasome inhibition-induced cell death mediated by ATP generation. These data provide a new pathway by which adenosine exerts dual biological effects on cell viability, suggesting an important role for adenosine as an ATP precursor besides the adenosine receptor pathway.

  10. Role of A3 adenosine receptor in diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Heng; Zhang, Enshui; Feng, Chang; Zhao, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication. Although the A1 and A2A adenosine receptors are important pharmacological targets in alleviating diabetic neuropathy, the role of the A3 adenosine receptor remains unknown. Because the A3 adenosine receptor regulates pain induced by chronic constriction injury or chemotherapy, its stimulation might also attenuate diabetic neuropathy. This study examines the effects of systemic treatment with the A3 adenosine receptor agonist 1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-β-d-ribofuranuronamide (IB-MECA) on diabetic neuropathy and explores the putative mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects. We show that IB-MECA alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hypoalgesia in mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after streptozocin (STZ) treatment. Furthermore, IB-MECA prevented the reduction in sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity and sensory nerve conduction velocity in diabetic mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. Similarly, IB-MECA inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB and decreased the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in the spinal cord of mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. These phenomena were associated with reduction of A3 adenosine receptor expression in the spinal cord after long-term diabetes. Our results suggest that the A3 adenosine receptor plays a critical role in regulating diabetic neuropathy and that reduction in A3 adenosine receptor expression/function might contribute to the progression of diabetic neuropathy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Skeletal muscle expresses the extracellular cyclic AMP–adenosine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatti, T; Costa, V L; Araújo, M S; Godinho, R O

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: cAMP is a key intracellular signalling molecule that regulates multiple processes of the vertebrate skeletal muscle. We have shown that cAMP can be actively pumped out from the skeletal muscle cell. Since in other tissues, cAMP efflux had been associated with extracellular generation of adenosine, in the present study we have assessed the fate of interstitial cAMP and the existence of an extracellular cAMP-adenosine signalling pathway in skeletal muscle. Experimental approach: cAMP efflux and/or its extracellular degradation were analysed by incubating rat cultured skeletal muscle with exogenous cAMP, forskolin or isoprenaline. cAMP and its metabolites were quantified by radioassay or HPLC, respectively. Key results: Incubation of cells with exogenous cAMP was followed by interstitial accumulation of 5′-AMP and adenosine, a phenomenon inhibited by selective inhibitors of ecto-phosphodiesterase (DPSPX) and ecto-nucleotidase (AMPCP). Activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) in cultured cells with forskolin or isoprenaline increased cAMP efflux and extracellular generation of 5′-AMP and adenosine. Extracellular cAMP-adenosine pathway was also observed after direct and receptor-dependent stimulation of AC in rat extensor muscle ex vivo. These events were attenuated by probenecid, an inhibitor of ATP binding cassette family transporters. Conclusions and implications: Our results show the existence of an extracellular biochemical cascade that converts cAMP into adenosine. The functional relevance of this extracellular signalling system may involve a feedback modulation of cellular response initiated by several G protein-coupled receptor ligands, amplifying cAMP influence to a paracrine mode, through its metabolite, adenosine. PMID:18157164

  12. Adenosine prevents isoprenaline-induced cardiac contractile and electrophysiological dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yangzhen; Redfors, Björn; Mattson-Hultén, Lillemor; Scharing Täng, Margareta; Daryoni, Elma; Said, Mohammed; Omerovic, Elmir

    2013-10-15

    Excessive levels of catecholamines are believed to contribute to cardiac dysfunction in a variety of disease states, including myocardial infarction and heart failure, and are particularly implicated in stress-induced cardiomyopathy, an increasingly recognized cardiomyopathy associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that a high dose of isoprenaline induces reversible regional dysfunction of the left ventricle in mice. We now hypothesize that adenosine can prevent cardiac dysfunction in this mouse model of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Hundred male C57BL/6 mice were injected with 400mg/kg isoprenaline and then randomized to either 400mg/kg adenosine or saline. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography at baseline and 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 min post isoprenaline. Myocardial fibrosis was quantified after 10 days. Intracellular lipid accumulation was quantified after 2 and 24h. Electrophysiological parameters and degree of lipid accumulation were evaluated in cultured HL1 cardiomyocytes. Two hours post isoprenaline treatment, echocardiographic parameters of global and posterior wall regional function were significantly better in adenosine-treated mice (P<0.05). This difference persisted at 24h, but saline-treated mice gradually recovered over the next 96 h. Intracellular lipid accumulation was also significantly lower in adenosine mice. We found no sign of fibrosis in the adenosine mice, whereas the extent of fibrosis in isoprenaline mice was 1.3% (P<0.05). Furthermore, adenosine-treated HL1 cells showed preserved electrophysiological function and displayed less severe intracellular lipid accumulation in response to isoprenaline. In conclusion, adenosine attenuates isoprenaline-induced cardiac dysfunction in mice and cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Partial Adenosine A1 Agonist in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Wilfried; Albrecht-Küpper, Barbara; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Voors, Adriaan A; van der Laan, Michael; Sabbah, Hani N

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine exerts a variety of physiological effects by binding to cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, namely, A1, A2a, A2b, and A3. The central physiological role of adenosine is to preclude tissue injury and promote repair in response to stress. In the heart, adenosine acts as a cytoprotective modulator, linking cardiac function to metabolic demand predominantly via activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs), which leads to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, modulation of protein kinase C, and opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Activation of myocardial adenosine A1Rs has been shown to modulate a variety of pathologies associated with ischemic cardiac injury, including arrhythmogenesis, coronary and ventricular dysfunction, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ventricular remodeling. Partial A1R agonists are agents that are likely to elicit favorable pharmacological responses in heart failure (HF) without giving rise to the undesirable cardiac and extra-cardiac effects observed with full A1R agonism. Preclinical data have shown that partial adenosine A1R agonists protect and improve cardiac function at doses that do not result in undesirable effects on heart rate, atrioventricular conduction, and blood pressure, suggesting that these compounds may constitute a valuable new therapy for chronic HF. Neladenoson bialanate (BAY1067197) is the first oral partial and highly selective A1R agonist that has entered clinical development for the treatment of HF. This review provides an overview of adenosine A1R-mediated signaling in the heart, summarizes the results from preclinical and clinical studies of partial A1R agonists in HF, and discusses the potential benefits of these drugs in the clinical setting.

  14. Structural determinants for the inhibitory ligands of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan; Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M.; Mishra, Ram K.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P. (TGRI); (Toronto)

    2010-06-14

    In recent years, orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to design novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures.

  15. Increased riboflavin production by manipulation of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Balsera, Mónica; de Pereda, José María; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Guanine nucleotides are the precursors of essential biomolecules including nucleic acids and vitamins such as riboflavin. The enzyme inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the ratelimiting step in the guanine nucleotide de novo biosynthetic pathway and plays a key role in controlling the cellular nucleotide pools. Thus, IMPDH is an important metabolic bottleneck in the guanine nucleotide synthesis, susceptible of manipulation by means of metabolic engineering approaches. Herein, we report the functional and structural characterization of the IMPDH enzyme from the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii. Our data show that the overexpression of the IMPDH gene increases the metabolic flux through the guanine pathway and ultimately enhances 40 % riboflavin production with respect to the wild type. Also, IMPDH disruption results in a 100-fold increase of inosine excretion to the culture media. Our results contribute to the developing metabolic engineering toolbox aiming at improving the production of metabolites with biotechnological interest in A. gossypii.

  16. The crystal chemistry of iron (III monophosphates with mono and divalent metallic cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the study of alkaline iron (III monophosphates, we recently investigated the A3PO4-M3(PO42-FePO4 (A: alkali metal; M: divalent cation using both the flux method and the solid state reaction. This investigation led to the synthesis and structural characterization of twelve new compounds. Their structural analysis showed them to be constructed by PO4 tetrahedra and FeOx polyhedra (x = 6, 5, 4. The Fe polyhedra are either isolated or forming finite units of corner- or edge-sharing, or infinite chains of edge-sharing octahedra. The resulting Fe structural units are linked by the PO4 tetrahedra via corner or edge-sharing, giving rise to mixed covalent frameworks which can be either bi- or three-dimentionnel. The alkali cations occupy the interlayer space or tunnels and cavities.

  17. EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (UMAMI TASTE) WITH AND WITHOUT GUANOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE ON RAT AUTONOMIC RESPONSES TO MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEFFENS, AB; LEUVENINK, H; SCHEURINK, AJW

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used as a food additive to improve the taste of food. The effect of MSG on sweet taste is enhanced by guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP). Because increased palatability is known to increase the vagally mediated preabsorptive insulin response (PIR), we hypothesized that

  18. Adenosine hypothesis of schizophrenia –opportunities for pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev; Singer, Philipp; Shen, Hai-Ying; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia based on the dopamine hypothesis remains unsatisfactory for the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease. Enhancing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) function is expected to alleviate such persistent symptoms, but successful development of novel clinically effective compounds remains challenging. Adenosine is a homeostatic bioenergetic network modulator that is able to affect complex networks synergistically at different levels (receptor dependent pathways, biochemistry, bioenergetics, and epigenetics). By affecting brain dopamine and glutamate activities it represents a promising candidate for restoring the functional imbalance in these neurotransmitter systems believed to underlie the genesis of schizophrenia symptoms, as well as restoring homeostasis of bioenergetics. Suggestion of an adenosine hypothesis of schizophrenia further posits that adenosinergic dysfunction might contribute to the emergence of multiple neurotransmitter dysfunctionscharacteristic of schizophrenia via diverse mechanisms. Given the importance of adenosine in early brain development and regulation of brain immune response, it also bears direct relevance to the aetiology of schizophrenia. Here, we provide an overview of the rationale and evidence in support of the therapeutic potential of multiple adenosinergic targets, including the high-affinity adenosine receptors (A1R and A2AR), and the regulatory enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK). Key preliminary clinical data and preclinical findings are reviewed. PMID:21315743

  19. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET: Effects of adenosine and dipyridamole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac stress 82RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.7) min-1, P respiratory gating compared to dipyridamole (47% vs 71%, P = .12). As a result, imaging quality was superior in the dipyridamole group compared to adenosine. If respiratory gating is considered for use in cardiac PET, a dipyridamole stress protocol is recommended as it, compared to adenosine, causes a more uniform respiration and results in a higher frequency of successful respiratory gating and thereby superior imaging quality.

  20. [Hypocretins and adenosine in the regulation of sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salín-Pascual, R J

    To review the recent discovery of hypocretins (orexins) and their link to the pathophysiology of narcolepsy and the role of adenosine in the integration of brain metabolism and sleep. The importance of the functions carried out by the hypothalamus in the regulation of sleep and the waking state has been consolidated by the discovery of hypocretins and the role played by cerebral adenosine. Hypocretins are two peptides made up of 33 and 28 amino acids whose neurons are located predominantly in the lateral hypothalamus and surrounding regions. In the Doberman canine narcolepsy model, in which this disease is presented with an autosomal recessive pattern, a mutation was detected in one of the receptors involved in the hypocretin system, namely the hypocretin-2 receptor. Failures in the hypocretin system have been confirmed as a key factor in narcolepsy by other findings in laboratory animals and humans. Adenosine, on the other hand, is accumulated during the waking state as a result of neuronal metabolism and this in turn is related to drowsiness. Sleep episodes lower the levels of this substance in the brain. Adenosine receptor antagonists increase wakefulness (e.g. caffeine), while the agonists promote slow-wave sleep. Hypocretins and adenosine from the hypothalamus perform functions involving the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Understanding these two systems can have repercussions on clinical problems such as insomnia, hypersomnia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Regioselective 1-N-Alkylation and Rearrangement of Adenosine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2015-01-01

    Several methods for the preparation of some N(6)-substituted adenosines based on selective 1-N-alkylation with subsequent Dimroth rearrangement were developed. The proposed methods seem to be effective for the preparation of natural N(6)-isopentenyl- and N(6)-benzyladenosines, which are known to possess pronounced biological activities. Direct 1-N-alkylation of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and 3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of BaCO3 and KI gave 1-N-substituted derivatives with quantitative yields, whereas 1-N-alkylation of adenosine was accompanied by significant O-alkylation. Moreover, the reaction of trimethylsilyl derivatives of N(6)-acetyl-2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and N(6)-acetyl-3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides leads to the formation of the stable 1-N-substituted adenosines. Dimroth rearrangement of 1-N-substituted adenosines in aqueous ammonia yields pure N(6)-substituted adenosines.

  2. Adenosine induces growth-cone turning of sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Benjamin; Eilert, John-Christian; Munck, Sebastian; Harz, Hartmann

    2008-12-01

    The formation of appropriate connections between neurons and their specific targets is an essential step during development and repair of the nervous system. Growth cones are located at the leading edges of the growing neurites and respond to environmental cues in order to be guided to their final targets. Directional information can be coded by concentration gradients of substrate-bound or diffusible-guidance molecules. Here we show that concentration gradients of adenosine stimulate growth cones of sensory neurons (dorsal root ganglia) from chicken embryos to turn towards the adenosine source. This response is mediated by adenosine receptors. The subsequent signal transduction process involves cAMP. It may be speculated that the in vivo function of this response is concerned with the formation or the repair and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system.

  3. No role of interstitial adenosine in insulin-mediated vasodilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, F; Stallknecht, B

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the vasodilatory effect of insulin are not fully understood, but nitric oxide plays an important role. We have investigated the possibility that insulin mediates vasodilatation in the human skeletal muscle via an increase in extracellular adenosine concentrations. In eight...... healthy subjects (H) and in four subjects with a complete, high (C5-C6/7) spinal cord injury (SCI) a hyperinsulinaemic (480 mU min-1 kg-1), isoglycaemic clamp was performed. SCI subjects were included as it has been proposed that adenosine and adenine nucleotides may be released from nerve endings...... in the skeletal muscle. Adenosine concentrations in the extracellular fluid (ECF) of skeletal muscle in the thigh were measured by means of the microdialysis technique. Leg blood flow (LBF) was measured by termodilution. In response to insulin infusion, LBF always increased (P

  4. Inhibition of adenosine kinase attenuates acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, David; Streißenberger, Ariane; Morote-García, Julio C.; Granja, Tiago F.; Schneider, Mariella; Straub, Andreas; Boison, Detlev; Rosenberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Extracellular adenosine has tissue protective potential in several conditions. Adenosine levels are regulated by a close interplay between nucleoside transporters and adenosine kinase (ADK). Based on evidence of the role of ADK in regulating adenosine levels during hypoxia, we evaluated the effect of ADK on lung injury. Furthermore, we tested the influence of a pharmacological approach to blocking ADK on the extent of lung injury. Design Prospective experimental animal study. Setting University based research laboratory. Subjects In vitro cell lines, wildtype (Wt) and ADK+/− mice. Methods We tested the expression of ADK during inflammatory stimulation in vitro and in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation in vivo. Studies using the ADK promoter were performed in vitro. Wt and ADK+/− mice were subjected to LPS inhalation. Pharmacological inhibition of ADK was performed in vitro, and its effect on adenosine uptake was evaluated. The pharmacological inhibition was also performed in vivo, and the effect on lung injury was assessed. Measurements and Results We observed the repression of ADK by pro-inflammatory cytokines and found a significant influence of NF-κB on regulation of the ADK promoter. Mice with endogenous ADK repression (ADK+/−) showed reduced infiltration of leukocytes into the alveolar space, decreased total protein and myeloperoxidase levels, and lower cytokine levels in the alveolar lavage fluid. The inhibition of ADK by 5-iodotubercidine increased the extracellular adenosine levels in vitro, diminished the transmigration of neutrophils and improved the epithelial barrier function. The inhibition of ADK in vivo showed protective properties, reducing the extent of pulmonary inflammation during lung injury. Conclusions Taken together, these data show that ADK is a valuable target for reducing the inflammatory changes associated with lung injury and should be pursued as a therapeutic option. PMID:26491864

  5. Inert Reassessment Document for Adenosine - CAS No. 58-61-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenosine is classified as a 4B inert ingredient. Based on the reasonable certainty of no harm safety finding and the existing 40 CFR 180.920 use limiation, the List 4B classification for adenosine is affirmed.

  6. In vivo evidence against a role for adenosine in the exercise pressor reflex in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Ginneken, E.E.M. van; Broek, P.H.H. van den; Smits, P.; Rongen, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pressor response to exercise is of great importance in both physiology and pathophysiology. Whether endogenous adenosine is a trigger for this reflex remains controversial. Muscle interstitial adenosine concentration can be determined by microdialysis. However, there are indications that local

  7. Comparison of the novel vasodilator uridine triphosphate and adenosine for the measurement of fractional flow reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Jacob; Jensen, Jan; Galatius, Søren

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Examination of the fractional flow reserve (FFR) responses of intravenous (IV) adenosine with increasing doses of intracoronary (IC) adenosine versus IC uridine triphosphate (UTP) in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured FFR in 25 patients during continuous IV...... and IC infusion (using a microcatheter in the coronary ostium). Standard IV adenosine infusion (140 μg/kg/min) was compared to 8 equimolar incremental doses of IC UTP and IC adenosine (20, 40, 60, 80, 160, 240, 320 and 640 μg/min) in a randomized order. Across all doses, ΔFFR[IC UTP - IC adenosine......] was -0.038 ± 0.008, Padenosine (FFR[IV adenosine] = 0.72 ± 0.05; P=.02) and IC adenosine (FFR[IC adenosine] = 0.68 ± 0.05; P=.03). Furthermore, UTP had significantly fewer side effects compared...

  8. Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles combined with adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates for the fluorescence detection of adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Szu-Ying; Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wei-Lung, E-mail: tsengwl@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); Center for Stem Cell Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive and selective system was developed for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles as an efficient quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5′-triphosphate and as a recognition element for adenosine. - Highlights: • The proposed method can detect adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity. • The analysis of adenosine is rapid (∼6 min) using the proposed method. • This method provided better sensitivity for adenosine as compared to aptamer-based sensors. • This method can be applied for the determination of adenosine in urine. - Abstract: This study describes the development of a simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive, and selective system for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-AuNPs) as an efficient fluorescence quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5′-triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) and as a recognition element for adenosine. BODIPY-ATP can interact with Tween 20-AuNPs through the coordination between the adenine group of BODIPY-ATP and Au atoms on the NP surface, thereby causing the fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP through the nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) effect. When adenosine attaches to the NP surface, the attached adenosine exhibits additional electrostatic attraction to BODIPY-ATP. As a result, the presence of adenosine enhances the efficiency of AuNPs in fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP. The AuNP-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP progressively increased with an increase in the concentration of adenosine; the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for adenosine was determined to be 60 nM. The selectivity of the proposed system was more than 1000-fold for adenosine over any adenosine analogs and other nucleotides. The proposed system combined with a phenylboronic acid-containing column was successfully applied to the

  9. Development of coronary vasospasm during adenosine-stress myocardial perfusion CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jeong Gu; Choi, Seong Hoon; Kang, Byeong Seong; Bang, Min Aeo; Kwon, Woon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Adenosine is a short-acting coronary vasodilator, and it is widely used during pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion imaging. It has a well-established safety profile, and most of its side effects are known to be mild and transient. Until now, coronary vasospasm has been rarely reported as a side effect of adenosine during or after adenosine stress test. This study reports a case of coronary vasospasm which was documented on stress myocardial perfusion CT imaging during adenosine stress test.

  10. Neuronal transporter and astrocytic ATP exocytosis underlie activity-dependent adenosine release in the hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Mark J; Dale, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The neuromodulator adenosine plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes within the mammalian CNS. However, the precise mechanisms of how the concentration of extracellular adenosine increases following neural activity remain contentious. Here we have used microelectrode biosensors to directly measure adenosine release induced by focal stimulation in stratum radiatum of area CA1 in mouse hippocampal slices. Adenosine release was both action potential and Ca2+ dependent and could be evoked with low stimulation frequencies and small numbers of stimuli. Adenosine release required the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and could be evoked by local application of glutamate receptor agonists. Approximately 40% of stimulated-adenosine release occurred by translocation of adenosine via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). This component of release persisted in the presence of the gliotoxin fluoroacetate and thus results from the direct release of adenosine from neurons. A reduction of adenosine release in the presence of NTPDase blockers, in slices from CD73−/− and dn-SNARE mice, provides evidence that a component of adenosine release arises from the extracellular metabolism of ATP released from astrocytes. This component of release appeared to have slower kinetics than the direct ENT-mediated release of adenosine. These data suggest that activity-dependent adenosine release is surprisingly complex and, in the hippocampus, arises from at least two distinct mechanisms with different cellular sources. PMID:23713028

  11. The mouse brain adenosine A(1) receptor : functional expression and pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittendorp, MC; Kunzel, JVD; Ijzerman, AP; Boddeke, HWGM; Biber, K

    2004-01-01

    The adenosinergic system is involved in many important physiological functions. Adenosine exerts its extracellular effects through four types of G-protein-coupled receptors: A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3). Adenosine acts as an important regulator of metabolic processes. In the brain adenosine mediates

  12. The role of glial adenosine receptors in neural resilience and the neurobiology of mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, D; Biber, K

    2005-01-01

    Adenosine receptors were classified into A(1)- and A(2)-receptors in the laboratory of Bernd Hamprecht more than 25 years ago. Adenosine receptors are instrumental to the neurotrophic effects of glia cells. Both microglia and astrocytes release after stimulation via adenosine receptors factors that

  13. Adenosine A(3) receptor-induced CCL2 synthesis in cultured mouse astrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittendorp, MC; Boddeke, HWGM; Biber, K

    During neuropathological conditions, high concentrations of adenosine are released, stimulating adenosine receptors in neurons and glial cells. It has recently been shown that stimulation of adenosine receptors in glial cells induces the release of neuroprotective substances such as NGF, S-100beta,

  14. Mechanisms and clinical significance of adenosine-induced dormant accessory pathway conduction after catheter ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, Michelle D; Markowitz, Steven M; Liu, Christopher F; Thomas, George; Ip, James E; Liez, Joshua; Lerman, Bruce B; Cheung, Jim W

    2014-12-01

    Adenosine can unmask dormant pulmonary vein conduction after isolation. The role of adenosine in uncovering dormant accessory pathway (AP) conduction after AP ablation is unknown. We evaluated 109 consecutive patients (age, 41 ± 28 years; 62 [57%] men) who were administered adenosine after successful AP ablation. Dormant AP conduction was defined as adenosine-induced recurrent AP conduction, as demonstrated by recurrent preexcitation or change in retrograde ventriculoatrial activation patterns. Dormant AP conduction was identified in 13 (12%) patients. Adenosine led to transient retrograde AP conduction in 6 patients and transient anterograde AP conduction in 8 patients. In all these cases, adenosine-induced AP conduction occurred during the bradycardia phase of adenosine effect and resulted in dormant AP conduction times shorter than atrioventricular nodal conduction times before adenosine administration. On the basis of analysis of timing of occurrence of dormant AP conduction, the mechanism of adenosine-induced AP conduction was determined to be caused by AP excitability recovery in ≥ 12 (92%) cases. The presence of dormant AP conduction was a significant predictor of chronic recurrent AP conduction requiring repeat ablation (odds ratio, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-66.9; P=0.041). Adenosine can unmask dormant AP conduction after catheter ablation. Direct effects of adenosine on the AP, possibly via AP membrane potential hyperpolarization, are the dominant mechanism of adenosine-induced AP conduction after ablation. Dormant AP conduction is associated with higher rates of recurrent AP conduction requiring repeat ablation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aji; Wu, Hongyu; Iriyama, Takayuki; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Song, Anren; Liu, Hong; Peng, Zhangzhe; Tang, Lili; Lee, Minjung; Huang, Yun; Ni, Xin; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent pregnancy hypertensive disease with both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that global placental DNA hypomethylation is observed in patients with preeclampsia and is linked to altered gene expression and disease development. However, the molecular basis underlying placental epigenetic changes in preeclampsia remains unclear. Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced mouse model of preeclampsia, we demonstrate that elevated placental adenosine not only induces hallmark features of preeclampsia but also causes placental DNA hypomethylation. The use of genetic approaches to express an adenosine deaminase minigene specifically in placentas, or adenosine deaminase enzyme replacement therapy, restored placental adenosine to normal levels, attenuated preeclampsia features, and abolished placental DNA hypomethylation in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of CD73 (an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine) prevented the elevation of placental adenosine in the autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model and ameliorated preeclampsia features and placental DNA hypomethylation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that elevated placental adenosine-mediated DNA hypomethylation predominantly occurs in spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinthine trophoblasts and that this effect is independent of A2B adenosine receptor activation in both preeclampsia models. Extending our mouse findings to humans, we used cultured human trophoblasts to demonstrate that adenosine functions intracellularly and induces DNA hypomethylation without A2B adenosine receptor activation. Altogether, both mouse and human studies reveal novel mechanisms underlying placental DNA hypomethylation and potential therapeutic approaches for preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of mast cells in allergic diseases and innate immunity has been widely researched and much is known about the expression profiles of immune-related genes in mast cells after bacterial challenges. However, little is known about the gene expression profiles of mast cells in response to adenosine. Herein, we ...

  17. Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Subjects with Normal Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: One hundred and twenty-five pregnant women comprising 35 normal non-pregnant women, 35 normal pregnant women, 35 pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension and 20 patients with pre-eclampsia were recruited for the study. Serum adenosine deaminase enzyme (ADA) activity was ...

  18. Plasma Adenosine Deaminase Enzyme Reduces with Treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Plasma Adenosine Deaminase Enzyme Reduces with Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Nigerian Patients: Indication for. Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring. Ige O.a, Edem V.F.b and Arinola O.G.b,*. aDepartment of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria b Department of Chemical Pathology,. University of ...

  19. Short Term Glucose Load and Serum Adenosine Deaminase Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme that is involved in nucleic acid metabolism has been reported to show raised serum activity in diabetic patients. As part of a preliminary study to assess ADA activity in diabetic and non-diabetic Nigerians, ADA was measured in fasting and 2 hour post-prandial (PP) sera from the ...

  20. Quantitative effect and regulatory function of cyclic adenosine 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cyclic adenosine 5′-phosphate (cAMP) is a global regulator of gene expression in Escherichia coli. Despite decades of intensive study, the quantitative effect and regulatory function of cAMP remain the subjects of considerable debate. Here, we analyse the data in the literature to show that: In carbon-limited cultures ...

  1. Validity of serum Adenosine deaminase in diagnosis of tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious causes of death worldwide. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of sputum has high specificity in tuberculosis endemic countries, but modest sensitivity which varies among laboratories. This study was set up to investigate the diagnostic value of serum Adenosine ...

  2. Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Diabetic and Obese Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) commonly associated with severe combined immunodeficiency disease believed to be an important enzyme for the modulation of bioactivity of insulin. The clinical significance in Metabolic Diseases patients in South Eastern Nigeria was studied. Body Mass Index (BMI), Fating Blood Glucose, ...

  3. Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    levels) is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus, and that ADA plays an important role in the in the modulation of carbohydrate metabolism and glucose regulation (Onyeanusi et al, 2003). Table 4 shows the correlation and comparison of the Glycated Hemoglobin (GHbAic) with the. Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) in the ...

  4. Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine metabolism commonly associated with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and believed to modulate bioactivity of insulin. Its contributory role in patients with metabolic syndrome (having features such as obesity, insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycaemia, lipid ...

  5. Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine metabolism commonly associated with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and believed to modulate bioactivity of insulin. Its contributory role in patients with metabolic syndrome (having features such as obesity, insulin resistance, fasting ...

  6. High pleural fluid adenosine deaminase levels: A valuable tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High pleural fluid adenosine deaminase levels: A valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of pleural TB in a middle-income country with a high TB/HIV burden. ... Following queries from clinicians concerning the likely high false-positive (FP) rate of FADA from our laboratory, we performed a retrospective audit of all high FADA ...

  7. Adenosine involvement on bronchial reactivity modulation by diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cojocaru, Elena; Dumitriu, Irina Luciana; Gurzu, B; Margineanu, Ioana; Dinca, Maria; Costuleanu, M; Slătineanu, Simona Mihaela; Scutaru, Brigitte; Petrescu, Gh

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: In recent decades, epidemiologic investigations have suggested a strong relationship between air pollution and an increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma. AIM: To investigate the possible involvement of adenosine (AD) in bronchomotor effects of diesel exhaust (DE).

  8. Adenosine receptor modulation of seizure susceptibility in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szot, P.

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine is considered to be a neuromodulator or cotransmitter in the periphery and CNS. This neuromodulatory action of adenosine may be observed as an anticonvulsant effect. Dose-response curves for R-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA), cycohexyladenosine (CHA), 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAdo), N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and S-PIA were generated against PTZ seizure thresholds in the rat. The rank order of potency for adenosine agonists to elevate PTZ seizure threshold was R-PIA > 2-ClAdo > NECA > CHA > S-PIA. R-PIA was approximately 80-fold more potent than S-PIA. This 80-fold difference in potency between the diasteriomers of PIA was consistent with an A{sub 1} adenoise receptor-mediated response. The anticonvulsant action of 2-ClAdo was reversed by pretreatment with theoplylline. Chronic administration of theophylline significantly increased the specific binding of {sup 3}H-cyclohexyladenosine in membranes of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the rat. Chronic exposure to theophylline produced a significant increase in the densities of both the high- and low-affinity forms of A{sub 1} adenosine receptors in the cerebral cortex.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of C-5 modified 2'-deoxyuridine monophosphates as inhibitors of M. tuberculosis thymidylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Liudmila A; Chekhov, Vladimir O; Shmalenyuk, Eduard R; Kochetkov, Sergey N; El-Asrar, Rania Abu; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-11-15

    A series of 5'-monophosphates of 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogs, which recently demonstrated in vitro substantial suppression of two strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth (virulent laboratory H37Rv and multiple resistant MS-115), has been synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of M. tuberculosis thymidylate synthases: classical (ThyA) and flavin dependent thymidylate synthase (ThyX). A systematic SAR study and docking revealed 5-undecyloxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate 3b, displaying an IC50 value against ThyX of 8.32 μM. All derivatives lack activity against the ThyA. It can be assumed that the mechanism of action of 3b may be partially associated with the inhibition of the ThyX. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of polyanions on NBT Reductions hexose monophosphate shunt activity, and ultrastructure of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnetzki, B M; Cowan, D H; Belcher, R W

    1975-07-01

    Heparin causes enhanced nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's). To determine the mechanism of this stimulation, samples of 1 to 3 x 10(7) PMN's were incubated with various concentrations of heparin, chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), and chondroitin sulfate B (CSB), with and without NBT. The effect of the polyanions (PA) on PMN hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) activity was determined by the production of 14CO2 from glucose-1-14C by the leukocytes. NBT reduction was evaluated histochemically and spectrophotometrically at 515 mmu. Samples of PMN's in heparin and heparin-NBT mixtures were examined by electron microscopy after various incubation periods. Increased NBT reductions by PMN's was found when leukocytes were incubated with heparin, CSA, and CSB, but these compounds had no effect on the HMPS activity of PMN's unless NBT was added. Electron microscopy of samples that contained heparin-NBT revealed an insoluble complex that was phagocytosed by the leukocytes. The stimulation of PMN oxidative metabolism and NBT reduction that follows incubation with PA-NBT appears to be directly related to ingestion of this particulate complex by the leukocytes.

  11. Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) and X-chromosome deletion in fetal mummification in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed Elshabrawy; Nakao, Toshihiko; Nishibori, Masahide

    2006-01-01

    Ten mummified fetuses were tested for the deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), which is known to contribute to the embryonic and fetal mortality in cattle. Genomic DNAs of the mummified fetuses were extracted from tissue samples collected from the mummies and were amplified by GenomiPhi DNA amplification kit. UMPS gene of the mummies was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DUMPS primers. Out of ten mummies examined, two fetuses were heterozygous (carriers) for DUMPS as indicated by the presences of three bands of 89, 53 and 36 bp. Estimated stage of gestation when the death occurred in the two mummies was 3.5 and 2.5 months, respectively. The other fetuses exhibited only two bands of 53 and 36 bp on the polyacrylamide gel indicated that they were normal. On the other hand, all the mummies were sexed using AMX/Y primers. Specific regions of Y and X chromosomes were amplified by PCR using AMX/Y. The expected 280 bp fragment in the female sample and the 280 and 217 bp in the male sample were observed. Nine mummies had a normal X and Y chromosome bands; however, the other mummified fetus exhibited only Y chromosome band, while the constitutive X chromosome fragment was missing. The estimated stage of gestation when the death occurred in this mummified fetus was 100 days. This might be the first report of DUMPS and X-chromosome deletion at the amelogenin gene in bovine-mummified fetuses in Japan.

  12. Post-translational Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Proteins in Response to Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Parrott, Brian

    2011-12-12

    The introduction of mass spectrometry techniques to the field of biology has made possible the exploration of the proteome as a whole system as opposed to prior techniques, such as anti-body based assays or yeast two-hybrid studies, which were strictly limited to the study of a few proteins at a time. This practice has allowed for a systems biology approach of exploring the proteome, with the possibility of viewing entire pathways over increments of time. In this study, the effect of treating Arabidopsis thaliana suspension culture cells with 3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is a native second messenger, was examined. Samples were collected at four time points and proteins were extracted and enriched for both oxidation and phosphorylation before analysis via mass spectrometry. Preliminary results suggest a tendency towards an increased number of phosphorylated proteins as a result of cGMP treatment. The data also showed a sharp increase in methionine oxidation in response to the treatment, occurring within the first ten minutes. This finding suggests that cGMP may utilize methionine oxidation as a mechanism of signal transduction. As such, this study corroborates a growing body of evidence supporting the inclusion of methionine oxidation in intracellular signaling pathways.

  13. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF INOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (IMPDH) ACTIVITY IN MMF-TREATED HCT RECIPIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Storer, Barry E.; Boeckh, Michael J.; Bemer, Meagan J.; Phillips, Brian R.; Risler, Linda J.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach to personalizing postgrafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients is evaluating inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity as a drug-specific biomarker of mycophenolic acid (MPA)-induced immunosuppression. This prospective study evaluated total MPA, unbound MPA, and total MPA glucuronide plasma concentrations and IMPDH activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNC) at five time points after the morning dose of oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on day +21 in 56 nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. Substantial interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was observed and accurately characterized by the population pharmacokinetic/dynamic model. IMPDH activity decreased with increasing MPA plasma concentration, with maximum inhibition coinciding with maximum MPA concentration in most patients. The overall relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity was described by a direct inhibitory Emax model with an IC50 = 3.23 mg/L total MPA and 57.3 ng/mL unbound MPA. The day +21 IMPDH area under the effect curve (AUEC) was associated with cytomegalovirus reactivation, non-relapse mortality, and overall mortality. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic/dynamic model was developed that relates plasma MPA concentrations with PMNC IMPDH activity after an MMF dose in HCT recipients. Future studies should validate this model and confirm that day +21 IMPDH AUEC is a predictive biomarker. PMID:24727337

  14. Controlled supramolecular structure of guanosine monophosphate in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Hyeon Gwak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Guanosine monophosphates (GMPs were intercalated into the interlayer space of layered double hydroxides (LDHs and the molecular arrangement of GMP was controlled in LDHs. The intercalation conditions such as GMP/LDH molar ratio and reaction temperature were systematically adjusted. When the GMP/LDH molar ratio was 1:2, which corresponds to the charge balance between positive LDH sheets and GMP anions, GMP molecules were well-intercalated to LDH. At high temperature (100 and 80 °C, a single GMP molecule existed separately in the LDH interlayer. On the other hand, at lower temperature (20, 40 and 60 °C, GMPs tended to form ribbon-type supramolecular assemblies. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the ribbon-type GMP assembly had an intermolecular interaction energy of ≈101 kJ/mol, which corresponds to a double hydrogen bond between guanosine molecules. Once stabilized, the interlayer GMP orientations, single molecular and ribbon phase, were successfully converted to the other phase by adjusting the external environment by stoichiometry or temperature control.

  15. Sustained Adenosine Exposure Causes Lung Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction via Nucleoside Transporter–Mediated Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Julie; Hsiao, Vivian; Shamirian, Paul; Blackburn, Michael R.; Pedroza, Mesias

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies by our group as well as others have shown that acute adenosine exposure enhances lung vascular endothelial barrier integrity and protects against increased permeability lung edema. In contrast, there is growing evidence that sustained adenosine exposure has detrimental effects on the lungs, including lung edema. It is well established that adenosine modulates lung inflammation. However, little is known concerning the effect of sustained adenosine exposure on lung endothelial cells (ECs), which are critical to the maintenance of the alveolar–capillary barrier. We show that exogenous adenosine plus adenosine deaminase inhibitor caused sustained elevation of adenosine in lung ECs. This sustained adenosine exposure decreased EC barrier function, elevated cellular reactive oxygen species levels, and activated p38, JNK, and RhoA. Inhibition of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) prevented sustained adenosine-induced p38 and JNK activation and EC barrier dysfunction. Inhibition of p38, JNK, or RhoA also partially attenuated sustained adenosine-induced EC barrier dysfunction. These data indicate that sustained adenosine exposure causes lung EC barrier dysfunction via ENT-dependent intracellular adenosine uptake and subsequent activation of p38, JNK, and RhoA. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and the NADPH inhibitor partially blunted sustained adenosine-induced JNK activation but were ineffective in attenuation of p38 activation or barrier dysfunction. p38 was activated exclusively in mitochondria, whereas JNK was activated in mitochondria and cytoplasm by sustained adenosine exposure. Our data further suggest that sustained adenosine exposure may cause mitochondrial oxidative stress, leading to activation of p38, JNK, and RhoA in mitochondria and resulting in EC barrier dysfunction. PMID:22744860

  16. Contraction induced secretion of VEGF from skeletal muscle cells is mediated by adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Olsen, Karina; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2010-01-01

    The role of adenosine and contraction for secretion of VEGF in skeletal muscle was investigated in human subjects and rat primary skeletal muscle cells. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the thigh muscle of seven male subjects and dialysate was collected at rest, during infusion of adenosine...... and during knee extensor exercise. The dialysate was analyzed for content of VEGF protein and adenosine. The mechanism of VEGF secretion from muscle cells in culture was examined in resting and electro stimulated cells, and in response to the adenosine analogue NECA, and the adenosine A(2A) receptor specific...... infusion enhanced (Pmuscle cells, NECA...

  17. Small-Animal PET Study of Adenosine A(1) Receptors in Rat Brain : Blocking Receptors and Raising Extracellular Adenosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Soumen; Khanapur, Shivashankar; Rybczynska, Anna A.; Kwizera, Chantal; Sijbesma, Jurgen W. A.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van Waarde, Aren

    2011-01-01

    Activation of adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) in the brain causes sedation, reduces anxiety, inhibits seizures, and promotes neuroprotection. Cerebral A(1)R can be visualized using 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-C-11-methyl-3-propyl-xanthine (C-11-MPDX) and PET. This study aims to test whether C-11-MPDX

  18. Mechanism of A2 adenosine receptor activation. I. Blockade of A2 adenosine receptors by photoaffinity labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohse, M.J.; Klotz, K.N.; Schwabe, U.

    1991-04-01

    It has previously been shown that covalent incorporation of the photoreactive adenosine derivative (R)-2-azido-N6-p-hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine ((R)-AHPIA) into the A1 adenosine receptor of intact fat cells leads to a persistent activation of this receptor, resulting in a reduction of cellular cAMP levels. In contrast, covalent incorporation of (R)-AHPIA into human platelet membranes, which contain only stimulatory A2 adenosine receptors, reduces adenylate cyclase stimulation via these receptors. This effect of (R)-AHPIA is specific for the A2 receptor and can be prevented by the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline. Binding studies indicate that up to 90% of A2 receptors can be blocked by photoincorporation of (R)-AHPIA. However, the remaining 10-20% of A2 receptors are sufficient to mediate an adenylate cyclase stimulation of up to 50% of the control value. Similarly, the activation via these 10-20% of receptors occurs with a half-life that is only 2 times longer than that in control membranes. This indicates the presence of a receptor reserve, with respect to both the extent and the rate of adenylate cyclase stimulation. These observations require a modification of the models of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling.

  19. Feed-Forward Inhibition of CD73 and Upregulation of Adenosine Deaminase Contribute to the Loss of Adenosine Neuromodulation in Postinflammatory Ileitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Dias, Ana Sofia; Pelletier, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purinergic signalling is remarkably plastic during gastrointestinal inflammation. Thus, selective drugs targeting the “purinome” may be helpful for inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. The myenteric neuromuscular transmission of healthy individuals is fine-tuned and controlled by adenosine acting on A2A excitatory receptors. Here, we investigated the neuromodulatory role of adenosine in TNBS-inflamed longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Seven-day postinflammation ileitis lacks adenosine neuromodulation, which may contribute to acceleration of gastrointestinal transit. The loss of adenosine neuromodulation results from deficient accumulation of the nucleoside at the myenteric synapse despite the fact that the increases in ATP release were observed. Disparity between ATP outflow and adenosine deficit in postinflammatory ileitis is ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular ATP and/or ADP. Redistribution of NTPDase2, but not of NTPDase3, from ganglion cell bodies to myenteric nerve terminals leads to preferential ADP accumulation from released ATP, thus contributing to the prolonged inhibition of muscle-bound ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and to the delay of adenosine formation at the inflamed neuromuscular synapse. On the other hand, depression of endogenous adenosine accumulation may also occur due to enhancement of adenosine deaminase activity. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase were detected in the inflamed myenteric plexus. These findings provide novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory gut motility disorders. PMID:25210228

  20. Feed-Forward Inhibition of CD73 and Upregulation of Adenosine Deaminase Contribute to the Loss of Adenosine Neuromodulation in Postinflammatory Ileitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic signalling is remarkably plastic during gastrointestinal inflammation. Thus, selective drugs targeting the “purinome” may be helpful for inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. The myenteric neuromuscular transmission of healthy individuals is fine-tuned and controlled by adenosine acting on A2A excitatory receptors. Here, we investigated the neuromodulatory role of adenosine in TNBS-inflamed longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Seven-day postinflammation ileitis lacks adenosine neuromodulation, which may contribute to acceleration of gastrointestinal transit. The loss of adenosine neuromodulation results from deficient accumulation of the nucleoside at the myenteric synapse despite the fact that the increases in ATP release were observed. Disparity between ATP outflow and adenosine deficit in postinflammatory ileitis is ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular ATP and/or ADP. Redistribution of NTPDase2, but not of NTPDase3, from ganglion cell bodies to myenteric nerve terminals leads to preferential ADP accumulation from released ATP, thus contributing to the prolonged inhibition of muscle-bound ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and to the delay of adenosine formation at the inflamed neuromuscular synapse. On the other hand, depression of endogenous adenosine accumulation may also occur due to enhancement of adenosine deaminase activity. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase were detected in the inflamed myenteric plexus. These findings provide novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory gut motility disorders.

  1. Modulation of bladder function by luminal adenosine turnover and A1 receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, H. Sandeep; Herrington, Heather; Roppolo, James R.; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2012-01-01

    The bladder uroepithelium transmits information to the underlying nervous and musculature systems, is under constant cyclical strain, expresses all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3), and is a site of adenosine production. Although adenosine has a well-described protective effect in several organs, there is a lack of information about adenosine turnover in the uroepithelium or whether altering luminal adenosine concentrations impacts bladder function or overactivity. We observed that the concentration of extracellular adenosine at the mucosal surface of the uroepithelium was regulated by ecto-adenosine deaminase and by equilibrative nucleoside transporters, whereas adenosine kinase and equilibrative nucleoside transporters modulated serosal levels. We further observed that enriching endogenous adenosine by blocking its routes of metabolism or direct activation of mucosal A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a selective agonist, stimulated bladder activity by lowering the threshold pressure for voiding. Finally, CCPA did not quell bladder hyperactivity in animals with acute cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis but instead exacerbated their irritated bladder phenotype. In conclusion, we find that adenosine levels at both surfaces of the uroepithelium are modulated by turnover, that blocking these pathways or stimulating A1 receptors directly at the luminal surface promotes bladder contractions, and that adenosine further stimulates voiding in animals with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. PMID:22552934

  2. Adenosine transiently modulates stimulated dopamine release in the caudate putamen via A1 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ashley E.; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine modulates dopamine in the brain via A1 and A2A receptors, but that modulation has only been characterized on a slow time scale. Recent studies have characterized a rapid signaling mode of adenosine that suggests a possible rapid modulatory role. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the extent to which transient adenosine changes modulate stimulated dopamine release (5 pulses at 60 Hz) in rat caudate putamen brain slices. Exogenous adenosine was applied and dopamine concentration monitored. Adenosine only modulated dopamine when it was applied 2 or 5 s before stimulation. Longer time intervals and bath application of 5 µM adenosine did not decrease dopamine release. Mechanical stimulation of endogenous adenosine 2s before dopamine stimulation also decreased stimulated dopamine release by 41 ± 7 %, similar to the 54 ± 6 % decrease in dopamine after exogenous adenosine application. Dopamine inhibition by transient adenosine was recovered within 10 minutes. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) blocked the dopamine modulation, whereas dopamine modulation was unaffected by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 442416. Thus, transient adenosine changes can transiently modulate phasic dopamine release via A1 receptors. These data demonstrate that adenosine has a rapid, but transient, modulatory role in the brain. PMID:25219576

  3. Activation of A(2) adenosine receptors dilates cortical efferent arterioles in mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Mashhadi, Rozh H; Skøtt, Ole; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine can induce vasodilatation and vasoconstriction of the renal afferent arteriole of the mouse. We determined here its direct effect on efferent arterioles of mouse kidneys. Using isolated-perfused cortical efferent arterioles, we measured changes in luminal diameter in response to adenosine....... Extraluminal application of adenosine and cyclohexyladenosine had no effect on the luminal diameter. When the vessels were constricted by the thromboxane mimetic U46619, application of adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamido-adenosine dilated the efferent arterioles in a dose-dependent manner. We also found...... that the adenosine-induced vasodilatation was inhibited by the A(2)-specific receptor blocker 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine. In the presence of this inhibitor, adenosine failed to alter the basal vessel diameter of quiescent efferent arterioles. Using primer-specific polymerase chain reaction we found...

  4. Substrate mimicry: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase recognizes 6-modified-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphates as adenosine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Brian D; Schinazi, Raymond F; Zhang, Hong-wang; Nettles, James H; Stanton, Richard; Detorio, Mervi; Obikhod, Aleksandr; Pradère, Ugo; Coats, Steven J; Mellors, John W; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    β-D-3'-Azido-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine (3'-azido-ddG) is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 replication with a superior resistance profile to zidovudine. Recently, we identified five novel 6-modified-3'-azido-ddG analogs that exhibit similar or superior anti-HIV-1 activity compared to 3'-azido-ddG in primary cells. To gain insight into their structure-activity-resistance relationships, we synthesized their triphosphate (TP) forms and assessed their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic experiments show that the 6-modified-3'-azido-ddGTP analogs act as adenosine rather than guanosine mimetics in DNA synthesis reactions. The order of potency of the TP analogs against wild-type RT was: 3'-azido-2,6-diaminopurine >3'-azido-6-chloropurine; 3'-azido-6-N-allylaminopurine > 2-amino-6-N,N-dimethylaminopurine; 2-amino-6-methoxypurine. Molecular modeling studies reveal unique hydrogen-bonding interactions between the nucleotide analogs and the template thymine base in the active site of RT. Surprisingly, the structure-activity relationship of the analogs differed in HIV-1 RT ATP-mediated excision assays of their monophosphate forms, suggesting that it may be possible to rationally design a modified base analog that is efficiently incorporated by RT but serves as a poor substrate for ATP-mediated excision reactions. Overall, these studies identify a promising strategy to design novel nucleoside analogs that exert profound antiviral activity against both WT and drug-resistant HIV-1.

  5. Adenosine receptor control of cognition in normal and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine and adenosine receptors (ARs) are increasingly recognized as important therapeutic targets for controlling cognition under normal and disease conditions for its dual roles of neuromodulation as well as of homeostatic function in the brain. This chapter first presents the unique ability of adenosine, by acting on the inhibitory A1 and facilitating A2A receptor, to integrate dopamine, glutamate, and BNDF signaling and to modulate synaptic plasticity (e.g., long-term potentiation and long-term depression) in brain regions relevant to learning and memory, providing the molecular and cellular bases for adenosine receptor (AR) control of cognition. This led to the demonstration of AR modulation of social recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, reversal learning, goal-directed behavior/habit formation, Pavlovian fear conditioning, and effort-related behavior. Furthermore, human and animal studies support that AR activity can also, through cognitive enhancement and neuroprotection, reverse cognitive impairments in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. Lastly, epidemiological evidence indicates that regular human consumption of caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive drug and nonselective AR antagonists, is associated with the reduced cognitive decline in aging and AD patients, and with the reduced risk in developing PD. Thus, there is a convergence of the molecular studies revealing AR as molecular targets for integrating neurotransmitter signaling and controlling synaptic plasticity, with animal studies demonstrating the strong procognitive impact upon AR antagonism in normal and disease brains and with epidemiological and clinical evidences in support of caffeine and AR drugs for therapeutic modulation of cognition. Since some of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are already in phase III clinical trials for motor benefits in PD patients with remarkable safety profiles

  6. 5FU resistance caused by reduced fluoro-deoxyuridine monophosphate and its reversal using deoxyuridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ryutaro; Futamura, Manabu; Tanahashi, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Matsuhashi, Nobuhisha; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Yoshida, Kazuhiro

    2017-09-01

    The mechanism of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) resistance was investigated, focusing on the level of thymidylate synthase (TS) ternary complex formed with fluoro-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP). MKN45 and 5FU-resistant MKN45/F2R cells were treated with 5FU and fluoro-deoxyuridine (FdU) in combination with deoxyuridine (dU) and thymidine (dT). Subsequently, the levels of ternary complex were determined by western blotting and the cell viability was calculated using an MTT assay. MKN45/F2R cells exhibited 5FU resistance (56.2-fold relative to MKN45 cells), and demonstrated decreased orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and increased TS levels, requiring a higher concentration of 5FU to induce ternary complex formation than MKN45 cells. Following transfection of small interfering RNA against OPRT, MKN45 exhibited increased resistance to 5FU and decreased ternary complex formation subsequent to treatment with 5FU, indicating that decreased OPRT led to increased 5FU resistance. However, MKN45/F2R also exhibited resistance to FdU, which can be converted to FdUMP without OPRT, and there was decreased ternary complex formation after treatment with FdU, indicating that the 5FU-resistant cells had the ability to decrease intracellular FdUMP. The addition of dU and thymidine dT to 5FU promoted the formation of ternary complexes and reversed 5FU resistance in MKN45/F2R cells, although dT inhibited the efficacy of raltitrexed (another TS inhibitor). These results suggested that 5FU-resistant cells had the ability to reduce intracellular FdUMP irrespective of decreased OPRT, which led to resistance to 5FU. This resistance was then inhibited by treatment with dT or dU.

  7. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate modulates accumulation of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajraktari, Gzona; Burhenne, Jürgen; Bugert, Peter; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Weiss, Johanna

    2017-12-01

    Sildenafil and tadalafil are widely-used phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for which no clear dose-response relationship could be established. Using isolated and/or recombinant PDE5, it has been demonstrated that cGMP can increase the affinity of this enzyme for sildenafil and tadalafil. We thus hypothesized that in cells expressing the nitric oxide - soluble guanylyl cyclase - cyclic guanosine monophosphate - PDE5 (NO-sGC-cGMP-PDE5) pathway such as platelets, the presence of NO increases the intracellular cGMP content and thus promotes the intracellular accumulation of sildenafil or tadalafil. As a cell model, isolated and washed human platelets were used. Platelet suspensions were incubated with sildenafil or tadalafil at different concentrations and for various time intervals with or without an NO donor to increase intraplatelet cGMP concentrations. Intracellular sildenafil or tadalafil was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and intracellular cGMP by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sildenafil accumulated in platelets with an up to 4-fold higher accumulation when platelets were pretreated with an NO donor (p < .0001). Accumulation of tadalafil in platelets was even higher, whereas the increase was 2-fold when an NO donor was present (p < .001). This accumulation was time-dependent and happened concomitantly with a rise in intracellular cGMP. Our data demonstrate that intracellular cGMP increases intracellular PDE5 inhibitor concentrations most likely by raising the affinity of these compounds for PDE5. These findings suggest that PDE5 inhibitor action in humans is critically influenced by modulators of the activity of the NO pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J. (Cornell); (UMC)

    2010-12-08

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  9. Adsorption of nucleotides on biomimetic apatite: The case of cytidine 5' monophosphate (CMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choimet, Maëla; Tourrette, Audrey; Drouet, Christophe

    2015-10-15

    The chemical interaction between DNA macromolecules and hard tissues in vertebrate is of foremost importance in paleogenetics, as bones and teeth represent a major substrate for the genetic material after cell death. Recently, the empirical hypothesis of DNA "protection" over time thanks to its adsorption on hard tissues was revisited from a physico-chemical viewpoint. In particular, the existence of a strong interaction between phosphate groups of DNA backbone and the surface of apatite nanocrystals (mimicking bone/dentin mineral) was evidenced on an experimental basis. In the field of nanomedicine, DNA or RNA can be used for gene transport into cells, and apatite nanocarriers then appear promising. In order to shed some more light on interactions between DNA molecules and apatite, the present study focuses on the adsorption of a "model" nucleotide, cytidine 5' monophosphate (CMP), on a carbonated biomimetic apatite sample. The follow-up of CMP kinetics of adsorption pointed out the rapidity of interaction with stabilization reached within few minutes. The adsorption isotherm could be realistically fitted to the Sips model (Langmuir-Freundlich) suggesting the influence of surface heterogeneities and adsorption cooperativity in the adsorption process. The desorption study pointed out the reversible character of CMP adsorption on biomimetic apatite. This contribution is intended to prove helpful in view of better apprehending the molecular interaction of DNA fragments and apatite compounds, independently of the application domain, such as bone diagenesis or nanomedicine. This study may also appear informative for researchers interested in the origins of life on Earth and the occurrence and behavior of primitive biomolecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Deciphering the photochemical mechanisms describing the UV-induced processes occurring in solvated guanine monophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Flavio Altavilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The photophysics and photochemistry of water-solvated guanine monophosphate (GMP are here characterized by means of a multireference quantum-chemical/molecular mechanics theoretical approach (CASPT2//CASSCF/AMBER in order to elucidate the main photo-processes occurring upon UV-light irradiation. The effect of the solvent and of the phosphate group on the energetics and structural features of this system are evaluated for the first time employing high-level ab initio methods and thoroughly compared to those in vacuo previously reported in the literature and to the experimental evidence to assess to which extent they influence the photoinduced mechanisms. Solvated electronic excitation energies of solvated GMP at the Franck-Condon (FC region show a red shift for the ππ* La and Lb states, whereas the energy of the oxygen lone-pair nπ* state is blue-shifted. The main photoinduced decay route is promoted through a ring-puckering motion along the bright lowest-lying La state towards a conical intersection (CI with the ground state, involving a very shallow stationary point along the minimum energy pathway in contrast to the barrierless profile found in gas-phase, the point being placed at the end of the minimum energy path (MEP thus endorsing its ultrafast deactivation in accordance with time-resolved transient and photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. The role of the nπ* state in the solvated system is severely diminished as the crossings with the initially populated La state and also with the Lb state are placed too high energetically to partake prominently in the deactivation photo-process. The proposed mechanism present in solvated and in vacuo DNA/RNA chromophores validates the intrinsic photostability mechanism through CI-mediated non-radiative processes accompanying the bright excited-state population towards the ground state and subsequent relaxation back to the FC region.

  11. Deciphering the photochemical mechanisms describing the UV-induced processes occurring in solvated guanine monophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, Salvatore; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Nenov, Artur; Conti, Irene; Rivalta, Ivan; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The photophysics and photochemistry of water-solvated guanine monophosphate (GMP) are here characterized by means of a multireference quantum-chemical/molecular mechanics theoretical approach (CASPT2//CASSCF/AMBER) in order to elucidate the main photo-processes occurring upon UV-light irradiation. The effect of the solvent and of the phosphate group on the energetics and structural features of this system are evaluated for the first time employing high-level ab initio methods and thoroughly compared to those in vacuo previously reported in the literature and to the experimental evidence to assess to which extent they influence the photoinduced mechanisms. Solvated electronic excitation energies of solvated GMP at the Franck-Condon (FC) region show a red shift for the ππ* La and Lb states, whereas the energy of the oxygen lone-pair nπ* state is blue-shifted. The main photoinduced decay route is promoted through a ring-puckering motion along the bright lowest-lying La state towards a conical intersection (CI) with the ground state, involving a very shallow stationary point along the minimum energy pathway in contrast to the barrierless profile found in gas-phase, the point being placed at the end of the minimum energy path (MEP) thus endorsing its ultrafast deactivation in accordance with time-resolved transient and photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. The role of the nπ* state in the solvated system is severely diminished as the crossings with the initially populated La state and also with the Lb state are placed too high energetically to partake prominently in the deactivation photo-process. The proposed mechanism present in solvated and in vacuo DNA/RNA chromophores validates the intrinsic photostability mechanism through CI-mediated non-radiative processes accompanying the bright excited-state population towards the ground state and subsequent relaxation back to the FC region.

  12. Triazole-containing monophosphate mRNA cap analogs as effective translation inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecyk, Karolina; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic analogs of the 5' end of mRNA (cap structure) are widely used in molecular studies on mechanisms of cellular processes such as translation, intracellular transport, splicing, and turnover. The best-characterized cap binding protein is translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Recognition of the mRNA cap by eIF4E is a critical, rate-limiting step for efficient translation initiation and is considered a major target for anticancer therapy. Here, we report a facile methodology for the preparation of N2-triazole-containing monophosphate cap analogs and present their biological evaluation as inhibitors of protein synthesis. Five analogs possessing this unique hetero-cyclic ring spaced from the m7-guanine of the cap structure at a distance of one or three carbon atoms and/or additionally substituted by various groups containing the benzene ring were synthesized. All obtained compounds turned out to be effective translation inhibitors with IC50 similar to dinucleotide triphosphate m(7)GpppG. As these compounds possess a reduced number of phosphate groups and, thereby, a negative charge, which may support their cell penetration, this type of cap analog might be promising in terms of designing new potential therapeutic molecules. In addition, an exemplary dinucleotide from a corresponding mononucleotide containing benzyl substituted 1,2,3-triazole was prepared and examined. The superior inhibitory properties of this analog (10-fold vs. m(7)GpppG) suggest the usefulness of such compounds for the preparation of mRNA transcripts with high translational activity. © 2014 Piecyk et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Intrathecal adenosine for treatment of acute pain : Safety assessments and evaluation in experimental, surgical and labour pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rane Lindgren, Kerstin

    2003-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous compound present in all cells in the body with a wide range of physiological effects. Exogenous administration of adenosine is used clinically as an antiarrytmic agent and as a vasodilator. In animals, antinociceptive effects have been demonstrated by adenosine and adenosine analogues, after systemic as well as intrathecal (IT) administration. In patients, a low dose of adenosine IV infusion during surgery reduces anaesthetic requirements as well a...

  14. Adenosine versus intravenous calcium channel antagonists for supraventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabed, Samer; Sabouni, Ammar; Providencia, Rui; Atallah, Edmond; Qintar, Mohammed; Chico, Timothy Ja

    2017-10-12

    People with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) frequently are symptomatic and present to the emergency department for treatment. Although vagal manoeuvres may terminate SVT, they often fail, and subsequently adenosine or calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) are administered. Both are known to be effective, but both have a significant side effect profile. This is an update of a Cochrane review previously published in 2006. To review all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compare effects of adenosine versus CCAs in terminating SVT. We identified studies by searching CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trial registers in July 2017. We checked bibliographies of identified studies and applied no language restrictions. We planned to include all RCTs that compare adenosine versus a CCA for patients of any age presenting with SVT. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently checked results of searches to identify relevant studies and resolved differences by discussion with a third review author. At least two review authors independently assessed each included study and extracted study data. We entered extracted data into Review Manager 5. Primary outcomes were rate of reversion to sinus rhythm and major adverse effects of adenosine and CCAs. Secondary outcomes were rate of recurrence, time to reversion, and minor adverse outcomes. We measured outcomes by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and assessed the quality of primary outcomes using the GRADE approach through the GRADEproGDT website. We identified two new studies for inclusion in the review update; the review now includes seven trials with 622 participants who presented to an emergency department with SVT. All included studies were RCTs, but only three described the randomisation process, and none had blinded participants, personnel, or outcome assessors to the intervention given. Moderate-quality evidence shows no differences in the number of people reverting to

  15. Characterization of adenosine deaminase isozymes from normal human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heukelom, L H; Boom, A; Bartstra, H A; Staal, G E

    1976-10-01

    Adenosine deaminase of phenotype ADA was partially purified by chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 and ammonium sulphate precipitation. With DEAE-Sephadex A-50 three isozymes could be detected. a. The KM values for the substrate adenosine were found to be 30 muM for each isozyme. b. pH optimum was 7.0 and the molecular weight estimated by gel filtration was found to be 30 000 for each isozyme. c. The heat stability of RBC-ADA type 1-1 was greater than type 1-2. The isozyme in type 2-1 representing the electrophoretic band of phenotype ADA2-2 is the most labile. d. ATP, ADP, AMP and cyclic AMP, PCMB and 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside were found to be competitive inhibitors with ADA in all three isozymes.

  16. Adenosine diphosphate as an intracellular regulator of insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, C G; Shyng, S L; Nestorowicz, A; Glaser, B; Clement, J P; Gonzalez, G; Aguilar-Bryan, L; Permutt, M A; Bryan, J

    1996-06-21

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple the cellular metabolic state to electrical activity and are a critical link between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin secretion. A mutation in the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF2) of the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of an individual diagnosed with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy generated KATP channels that could be opened by diazoxide but not in response to metabolic inhibition. The hamster SUR, containing the analogous mutation, had normal ATP sensitivity, but unlike wild-type channels, inhibition by ATP was not antagonized by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Additional mutations in NBF2 resulted in the same phenotype, whereas an equivalent mutation in NBF1 showed normal sensitivity to MgADP. Thus, by binding to SUR NBF2 and antagonizing ATP inhibition of KATP++ channels, intracellular MgADP may regulate insulin secretion.

  17. Adenosine deaminase polymorphism in the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, S R; Parkin, D T

    1986-01-01

    A polymorphism at the adenosine deaminase locus of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, has been investigated by starch gel electrophoresis. Five alleles have been identified, and most populations seem to be close to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allele frequencies differ strikingly across Europe, and in Britian there are significant differences between urban and rural populations. Samples from introduced populations in Australia and New Zealand lack some of the rarer alleles, as predicted from the Founder Effect.

  18. Adenosine signaling in striatal circuits and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Bruner, Robert C; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Numerous studies have indicated a role for A1 receptors (A1R) in acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination, while A2A receptors (A2AR) mainly regulate the rewarding effect of ethanol in mice. Recent findings have demonstrated that dampened A2AR-mediated signaling in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) promotes ethanol-seeking behaviors. Moreover, decreased A2AR function is associated with decreased CREB activity in the DMS, which enhances goal-oriented behaviors and contributes to excessive ethanol drinking in mice. Interestingly, caffeine, the most commonly used psychoactive substance, is known to inhibit both the A1R and A2AR. This dampened adenosine receptor function may mask some of the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol. Furthermore, based on the fact that A2AR activity plays a role in goal-directed behavior, caffeine may also promote ethanol-seeking behavior. The A2AR is enriched in the striatum and exclusively expressed in striatopallidal neurons, which may be responsible for the regulation of inhibitory behavioral control over drug rewarding processes through the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuit. Furthermore, the antagonistic interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptors in the striatum also play an integral role in alcoholism and addiction-related disorders. This review focuses on regulation of adenosine signaling in striatal circuits and the possible implication of caffeine in goal-directed behaviors and addiction.

  19. Adenosine Signaling in Striatal Circuits and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Bruner, Robert C.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Numerous studies have indicated a role for A1 receptors (A1R) in acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination, while A2A receptors (A2AR) mainly regulate the rewarding effect of ethanol in mice. Recent findings have demonstrated that dampened A2AR-mediated signaling in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) promotes ethanol-seeking behaviors. Moreover, ...

  20. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witts, Emily C.; Nascimento, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation allows neural networks to adapt to varying environmental and biomechanical demands. Purinergic signaling is known to be an important modulatory system in many parts of the CNS, including motor control circuitry. We have recently shown that adenosine modulates the output of mammalian spinal locomotor control circuitry (Witts EC, Panetta KM, Miles GB. J Neurophysiol 107: 1925–1934, 2012). Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this adenosine-mediated modulation. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on ventral horn interneurons and motoneurons within in vitro mouse spinal cord slice preparations. We found that adenosine hyperpolarized interneurons and reduced the frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to interneurons. Both effects were blocked by the A1-type adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents recorded from interneurons revealed that adenosine reduced their frequency but not amplitude, suggesting that adenosine acts on presynaptic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission. In contrast to interneurons, recordings from motoneurons revealed an adenosine-mediated depolarization. The frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to motoneurons were again reduced by adenosine, but we saw no effect on miniature postsynaptic currents. Again these effects on motoneurons were blocked by DPCPX. Taken together, these results demonstrate differential effects of adenosine, acting via A1 receptors, in the mouse spinal cord. Adenosine has a general inhibitory action on ventral horn interneurons while potentially maintaining motoneuron excitability. This may allow for adaptation of the locomotor pattern generated by interneuronal networks while helping to ensure the maintenance of overall motor output. PMID:26311185

  1. Adenosine-to-Inosine RNA Editing in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsiou, Aikaterini; Vlachogiannis, Nikolaos; Lunella, Federica Francesca; Sachse, Marco; Stellos, Konstantinos

    2017-09-26

    Adenosine deamination in transcriptome results in the formation of inosine, a process that is called A-to-I RNA editing. Adenosine deamination is one of the more than 140 described RNA modifications. A-to-I RNA editing is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes and is essential for life. Recent Advances: Accumulating evidence supports a critical role of RNA editing in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including mRNA stability, splicing, nuclear export, and localization, as well as in recoding of proteins. These advances have significantly enhanced the understanding of mechanisms involved in development and in homeostasis. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that RNA editing may be critically involved in cancer, aging, neurological, autoimmune, or cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes recent and significant achievements in the field of A-to-I RNA editing and discusses the importance and translational value of this RNA modification for gene expression, cellular, and organ function, as well as for disease development. Elucidation of the exact RNA editing-dependent mechanisms in a single-nucleotide level may pave the path toward the development of novel therapeutic strategies focusing on modulation of ADAR function in the disease context. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  2. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farija Peruvankuzhiyil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Altered blood levels of adenosine deaminase may help in predicting immunological dysfunction in diabetic individuals. But very few studies exist on ADA activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aim of this study is to compare serum adenosine deaminase activity in type 2 diabetic patients with non-diabetic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comparative study design was used in data collection process. The study was conducted in 40 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending diabetic clinic or admitted in the medicine ward for metabolic control of diabetes in medical college, Calicut from January 2011 to January 2012. The adenosine deaminase (ADA level in the serum is measured by endpoint method in these patients. The results were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The statistical significance of the differences between the values was assessed by ANOVA. RESULTS Among 40 diabetic patients, mean ADA level in the serum is 38.56, SD±6.72 (min 30, max 53. Mean ADA level in the serum in the control group is 22.04±4.625 (min 13, max 29. CONCLUSION ADA level in the serum is found to be increased indicating its role as an important immunoenzyme marker in the aetiopathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Identification of widespread adenosine nucleotide binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansong, Charles; Ortega, Corrie; Payne, Samuel H.; Haft, Daniel H.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Lewis, Michael P.; Ollodart, Anja R.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Shukla, Anil K.; Fortuin, Suereta; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Grundner, Christoph; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-01-24

    The annotation of protein function is almost completely performed by in silico approaches. However, computational prediction of protein function is frequently incomplete and error prone. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), ~25% of all genes have no predicted function and are annotated as hypothetical proteins. This lack of functional information severely limits our understanding of Mtb pathogenicity. Current tools for experimental functional annotation are limited and often do not scale to entire protein families. Here, we report a generally applicable chemical biology platform to functionally annotate bacterial proteins by combining activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics. As an example of this approach for high-throughput protein functional validation and discovery, we experimentally annotate the families of ATP-binding proteins in Mtb. Our data experimentally validate prior in silico predictions of >250 ATPases and adenosine nucleotide-binding proteins, and reveal 73 hypothetical proteins as novel ATP-binding proteins. We identify adenosine cofactor interactions with many hypothetical proteins containing a diversity of unrelated sequences, providing a new and expanded view of adenosine nucleotide binding in Mtb. Furthermore, many of these hypothetical proteins are both unique to Mycobacteria and essential for infection, suggesting specialized functions in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenicity. Thus, we provide a generally applicable approach for high throughput protein function discovery and validation, and highlight several ways in which application of activity-based proteomics data can improve the quality of functional annotations to facilitate novel biological insights.

  4. A Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Bitopic N6-Substituted Adenosine Derivatives as Biased Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelio, Luigi; Baltos, Jo-Anne; Ford, Leigh; Nguyen, Anh T N; Jörg, Manuela; Devine, Shane M; Valant, Celine; White, Paul J; Christopoulos, Arthur; May, Lauren T; Scammells, Peter J

    2018-02-15

    Herein, we investigate the structure-activity relationships of a series of compounds derived from the bitopic N6-substituted adenosine derivative 1, a previously reported biased ligand at the A1 adenosine receptor. Modifications were made to the orthosteric adenosine pharmacophore, the linker and the allosteric 2-amino-3-benzoylthiophene pharmacophore to probe the structure-activity relationships, both in terms of the effect of these modifications on biased signalling as well as receptor subtype selectivity. Modification of the orthosteric pharmacophore at the 2- or 5'-positions resulted in a significant loss of bias away from calcium mobilization that was observed for 1. Interestingly, increasing the linker length by one additional carbon resulted in approximately 10-fold increase in bias away from calcium mobilization, while reducing the linker length by one carbon trended towards a reduction in bias. In terms of the allosteric pharmacophore, the trifluoromethylphenyl substituent on the thiophene ring appears to be crucial for the biased signaling away from calcium mobilization.

  5. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    therapies based on cold exposure or β-adrenergic agonists are clinically not feasible, alternative strategies must be explored. Purinergic co-transmission might be involved in sympathetic control of BAT and previous studies reported inhibitory effects of the purinergic transmitter adenosine in BAT from...... hamster or rat. However, the role of adenosine in human BAT is unknown. Here we show that adenosine activates human and murine brown adipocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. Adenosine is released in BAT during stimulation of sympathetic nerves as well as from brown adipocytes. The adenosine A2A...... receptor is the most abundant adenosine receptor in human and murine BAT. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss of A2A receptors in mice causes a decrease in BAT-dependent thermogenesis, whereas treatment with A2A agonists significantly increases energy expenditure. Moreover, pharmacological stimulation...

  6. Interstitial and plasma adenosine stimulate nitric oxide and prostacyclin formation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Thaning, Pia

    2010-01-01

    One major unresolved issue in muscle blood flow regulation is that of the role of circulating versus interstitial vasodilatory compounds. The present study determined adenosine-induced formation of NO and prostacyclin in the human muscle interstitium versus in femoral venous plasma to elucidate....... In young healthy humans, microdialysate was collected at rest, during arterial infusion of adenosine, and during interstitial infusion of adenosine through microdialysis probes inserted into musculus vastus lateralis. Muscle interstitial NO and prostacyclin increased with arterial and interstitial infusion...... of adenosine. The addition of adenosine to skeletal muscle cells increased NO formation (fluorochrome 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7-difluorescein fluorescence), whereas prostacyclin levels remained unchanged. The addition of adenosine to microvascular endothelial cells induced an increase in NO and prostacyclin...

  7. Acute hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation is associated with increased extracellular brain adenosine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Dale, Nicholas; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) can lead to brain edema, cerebral hyperperfusion and intracranial hypertension. These complications are thought to be mediated by hyperammonemia and inflammation leading to altered brain metabolism. As increased levels of adenosine degradation products have been found...... in brain tissue of patients with ALF we investigated whether hyperammonemia could induce adenosine release in brain tissue. Since adenosine is a potent vasodilator and modulator of cerebral metabolism we furthermore studied the effect of adenosine receptor ligands on intracranial pressure (ICP......) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We measured the adenosine concentration with biosensors in rat brain slices exposed to ammonia and in a rat model with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation. Exposure to ammonia in concentrations from 0.15-10 mM led to increases in the cortical adenosine concentration up to 18...

  8. Flow cytometry application for studies on adenosine A2A receptors expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Tomasz; Bereta, Michał; Faron-Górecka, Agata; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors belong to the heptaspanning membrane receptors family A, also known as G protein-coupled receptors. In human brain they are highly expressed in striatum, where they co-exist and co-function with adenosine A1, glutamate mGlu5 and dopamine D2 receptors. As glutaminergic neurotransmission modulators in GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons, adenosine A2A receptors are attractive targets for new, alternative therapies of neurodegenerative disorders, like Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. The aim of the research was to obtained fluorescently tagged adenosine A2A receptors. Gene encoding human adenosine A2A receptor was inserted into plasmid pEYFP-N1, bearing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP). The construct was expressed in HEK 293 cells. Fluorescence was observed by flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy. Functional ligand binding properties were investigated by saturation binding analysis of adenosine A2A receptors specific agonist [3H] CGS 21680.

  9. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Khalaf F.; Thomas, Mark R.; Judge, Heather M.; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R.; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C.; Storey, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7% ± 4.4 vs. control 22.6% ± 2.4; p ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6 ± 6.6 vs. 28.0 ± 6.6; p = 0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection. PMID:25869515

  10. PAP and NT5E inhibit nociceptive neurotransmission by rapidly hydrolyzing nucleotides to adenosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) produce extracellular adenosine from the nucleotide AMP in spinal nociceptive (pain-sensing) circuits; however, it is currently unknown if these are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine or how rapidly they generate adenosine. Results We found that AMP hydrolysis, when measured histochemically, was nearly abolished in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and lamina II of spinal cord from Pap/Nt5e double knockout (dKO) mice. Likewise, the antinociceptive effects of AMP, when combined with nucleoside transport inhibitors (dipyridamole or 5-iodotubericidin), were reduced by 80-100% in dKO mice. In addition, we used fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure adenosine production at subsecond resolution within lamina II. Adenosine was maximally produced within seconds from AMP in wild-type (WT) mice but production was reduced >50% in dKO mice, indicating PAP and NT5E rapidly generate adenosine in lamina II. Unexpectedly, we also detected spontaneous low frequency adenosine transients in lamina II with FSCV. Adenosine transients were of short duration (60%) in frequency in Pap-/-, Nt5e-/- and dKO mice, suggesting these ectonucleotidases rapidly hydrolyze endogenously released nucleotides to adenosine. Field potential recordings in lamina II and behavioral studies indicate that adenosine made by these enzymes acts through the adenosine A1 receptor to inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and nociception. Conclusions Collectively, our experiments indicate that PAP and NT5E are the main ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive circuits and indicate these enzymes transform pulsatile or sustained nucleotide release into an inhibitory adenosinergic signal. PMID:22011440

  11. Endogenous adenosine and hemorrhagic shock: effects of caffeine administration or caffeine withdrawal.

    OpenAIRE

    Conlay, L A; Evoniuk, G; Wurtman, R J

    1988-01-01

    Plasma adenosine concentrations doubled when rats were subjected to 90 min of profound hemorrhagic shock. Administration of caffeine (20 mg per kg of body weight), an adenosine-receptor antagonist, attenuated the hemorrhage-induced decrease in blood pressure. In contrast, chronic caffeine consumption (0.1% in drinking water), followed by a brief period of caffeine withdrawal, amplified the hypotensive response to hemorrhage. These data suggest that endogenous adenosine participates in the hyp...

  12. Molecular Vibration-Activity Relationship in the Agonism of Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Keun Chee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands.

  13. Evidence for constitutively-active adenosine receptors at mammalian motor nerve endings

    OpenAIRE

    Searl, Timothy J; Silinsky, Eugene M

    2012-01-01

    A study was made to determine if constitutively active adenosine receptors are present at mouse motor nerve endings. In preparations blocked by low Ca2+ / high Mg2+ solution, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3,dipropylxanthine (CPX, 10–100 nM), which has been reported to be both an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist and inverse agonist, produced a dose-dependent increase in the number of acetylcholine quanta released by a nerve impulse. Adenosine deaminase, which degrades ambient adenosine into its inactive con...

  14. Mechanical stimulation evokes rapid increases in extracellular adenosine concentration in the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ashley E.; Nguyen, Michael D.; Privman, Eve; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical perturbations can release ATP, which is broken down to adenosine. In this work, we used carbon-fiber microelectrodes and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure mechanically-stimulated adenosine in the brain by lowering the electrode 50 μm. Mechanical stimulation evoked adenosine in vivo (average: 3.3 ± 0.6 μM) and in brain slices (average: 0.8 ± 0.1 μM) in the prefrontal cortex. The release was transient, lasting 18 ± 2 s. Lowering a 15 μm diameter glass pipette near the carbon-fiber microelectrode produced similar results as lowering the actual microelectrode. However, applying a small puff of artificial cerebral spinal fluid was not sufficient to evoke adenosine. Multiple stimulations within a 50 μm region of a slice did not significantly change over time or damage cells. Chelating calcium with EDTA or blocking sodium channels with tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly decreased mechanically evoked adenosine, signifying that the release is activity-dependent. An alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), did not affect mechanically-stimulated adenosine; however, the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1,2 and 3 (NTDPase) inhibitor POM-1 significantly reduced adenosine so a portion of adenosine is dependent on extracellular ATP metabolism. Thus, mechanical perturbations from inserting a probe in the brain cause rapid, transient adenosine signaling which might be neuroprotective. PMID:24606335

  15. Adenosine A(2A) receptor dynamics studied with the novel fluorescent agonist Alexa488-APEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Frank; Klutz, Athena M; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Fredholm, Bertil B; Schulte, Gunnar

    2008-08-20

    G protein-coupled receptors, such as the adenosine A(2A) receptor, are dynamic proteins, which undergo agonist-dependent redistribution from the cell surface to intracellular membranous compartments, such as endosomes. In order to study the kinetics of adenosine A(2A) receptor redistribution in living cells, we synthesized a novel fluorescent agonist, Alexa488-APEC. Alexa488-APEC binds to adenosine A(2A) (K(i)=149+/-27 nM) as well as A(3) receptors (K(i)=240+/-160 nM) but not to adenosine A(1) receptors. Further, we characterized the dose-dependent increase in Alexa488-APEC-induced cAMP production as well as cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation, verifying the ligand's functionality at adenosine A(2A) but not A(2B) receptors. In live-cell imaging studies, Alexa488-APEC-induced adenosine A(2A) receptor internalization, which was blocked by the competitive reversible antagonist ZM 241385 and hyperosmolaric sucrose. Further, internalized adenosine A(2A) receptors co-localized with clathrin and Rab5, indicating that agonist stimulation promotes adenosine A(2A) receptor uptake through a clathrin-dependent mechanism to Rab5-positive endosomes. The basic characterization of Alexa488-APEC described here showed that it provides a useful tool for tracing adenosine A(2A) receptors in vitro.

  16. Influence of the adenosine A1 receptor on blood pressure regulation and renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Russell D.; Thorén, Peter; Steege, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the role of adenosine A1 receptors in regulating blood pressure in conscious mice. Adenosine A1-receptor knockout (A1R-/-) mice and their wild-type (A1R+/+) littermates were placed on standardized normal-salt (NS), high-salt (HS), or salt-deficient (SD....... The elevated plasma renin concentrations found in the A1R-/- mice could also result in increased blood pressure. Our results confirm that adenosine, acting through the adenosine A1 receptor, plays an important role in regulating blood pressure, renin release, and sodium excretion....

  17. Adenosine formation in contracting primary rat skeletal muscle cells and endothelial cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study examined the capacity for adenosine formation, uptake and metabolism in contracting primary rat muscle cells and in microvascular endothelial cells in culture. 2. Strong and moderate electrical simulation of skeletal muscle cells led to a significantly greater increase...... in the extracellular adenosine concentration (421 +/- 91 and 235 +/- 30 nmol (g protein)-1, respectively; P muscle cells (161 +/- 20 nmol (g protein)-1). The ATP concentration was lower (18%; P muscle cells....... 3. Addition of microvascular endothelial cells to the cultured skeletal muscle cells enhanced the contraction-induced accumulation of extracellular adenosine (P cells in culture alone did not cause extracellular accumulation of adenosine. 4. Skeletal muscle cells were...

  18. The role of carotid chemoreceptors in the sympathetic activation by adenosine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Henri J L M; Rongen, Gerard A; Karemaker, John M; Wieling, Wouter; Marres, Henri A M; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2004-01-01

    The direct vasodilatory and negative chronotropic effects of adenosine in humans are counterbalanced by a reflex increase in sympathetic nerve traffic. A suggested mechanism for this reflex includes peripheral chemoreceptor activation. We, therefore, assessed the contribution of carotid chemoreceptors to sympatho-excitation by adenosine. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was recorded during adenosine infusion (140 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) for 5 min) in five patients lacking carotid chemoreceptors after bilateral carotid body tumour resection (one male and four female, mean age 51 +/- 11 years) and in six healthy controls (two male and four female, mean age 50 +/- 7 years). Sympathetic responses to sodium nitroprusside injections were assessed to measure baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic activation. In response to adenosine, controls showed no change in blood pressure, an increase in heart rate (+48.2 +/- 13.2%; Pactivity (+195 +/- 103%; Pactivity. Adenosine-induced hypotension in individual patients elicited less sympathetic activation than equihypotensive sodium nitroprusside injections. In humans lacking carotid chemoreceptors, adenosine infusion elicits hypotension due to the absence of significant sympatho-excitation. Chemoreceptor activation is essential for counterbalancing the direct vasodilation by adenosine. In addition, blunting of the baroreflex sympathetic response to adenosine-induced hypotension may indicate a direct sympatho-inhibitory effect of adenosine.

  19. Does coronary vasodilation after adenosine override endothelin-1-induced coronary vasoconstriction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghin, Catalin; Sdringola, Stefano; Gould, K Lance

    2007-01-01

    Endothelin-1 is a powerful coronary vasoconstrictor that is overexpressed in coronary artery disease. Adenosine is a powerful coronary vasodilator used for myocardial perfusion imaging to identify flow-limiting coronary artery stenosis. Therefore, in an animal model we tested the hypothesis that intracoronary endothelin-1 may cause myocardial perfusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography (PET) at resting conditions that may persist or only partially improve after intravenous adenosine stress in the absence of myocardial scar and flow-limiting stenosis. Fourteen dogs underwent serial PET perfusion imaging with rubidium-82 before and after subselective intracoronary infusion of endothelin-1, followed by intravenous and then intracoronary adenosine. Small physiological doses of endothelin-1 infused into the mid-left circumflex coronary artery caused quantitatively significant resting perfusion abnormalities that normalized after intracoronary adenosine but not consistently after intravenous adenosine used for diagnostic imaging. After effects of adenosine abated, resting perfusion defects returned, lasting up to 5 h in some animals. Cumulative doses of endothelin-1 caused perfusion defects that did not normalize after intravenous adenosine. In an animal model without myocardial scar or flow-limiting stenosis, intracoronary endothelin-1 causes visually apparent, quantitatively significant, long-lasting myocardial perfusion defects at resting conditions that may persist or only partially improve after intravenous adenosine used for diagnostic imaging. These results may potentially explain resting perfusion abnormalities or heterogeneity by clinical PET that may persist or only partially improve after adenosine stress perfusion imaging in the absence of myocardial scar and flow-limiting stenosis.

  20. IL-4 amplifies the pro-inflammatory effect of adenosine in human mast cells by changing expression levels of adenosine receptors.

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    Xiaoyang Hua

    Full Text Available Adenosine inhalation produces immediate bronchoconstriction in asthmatics but not in normal subjects. The bronchospastic effect of adenosine is largely mediated through adenosine-induced mast cell activation, the mechanism of which is poorly understood due to limitations in culturing human primary mast cells. Here, we show that human umbilical cord blood -derived mast cells incubated with the Th2 cytokine IL-4 develop increased sensitivity to adenosine. Potentiation of anti-IgE- induced and calcium ionophore/PMA-induced degranulation was augmented in mast cells cultured with IL-4, and this effect was reduced or abolished by pre-treatment with A(2BsiRNA and selective A(2B receptor antagonists, respectively. IL-4 incubation resulted in the increased expression of A(2B and reduced expression of A(2A adenosine receptors on human mast cells. These results suggest that Th2 cytokines in the asthmatic lung may alter adenosine receptor expression on airway mast cells to promote increased responsiveness to adenosine.

  1. IL-4 Amplifies the Pro-Inflammatory Effect of Adenosine in Human Mast Cells by Changing Expression Levels of Adenosine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiaoyang; Chason, Kelly D.; Patel, Janki Y.; Naselsky, Warren C.; Tilley, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine inhalation produces immediate bronchoconstriction in asthmatics but not in normal subjects. The bronchospastic effect of adenosine is largely mediated through adenosine-induced mast cell activation, the mechanism of which is poorly understood due to limitations in culturing human primary mast cells. Here, we show that human umbilical cord blood -derived mast cells incubated with the Th2 cytokine IL-4 develop increased sensitivity to adenosine. Potentiation of anti-IgE- induced and calcium ionophore/PMA-induced degranulation was augmented in mast cells cultured with IL-4, and this effect was reduced or abolished by pre-treatment with A2BsiRNA and selective A2B receptor antagonists, respectively. IL-4 incubation resulted in the increased expression of A2B and reduced expression of A2A adenosine receptors on human mast cells. These results suggest that Th2 cytokines in the asthmatic lung may alter adenosine receptor expression on airway mast cells to promote increased responsiveness to adenosine. PMID:21966389

  2. /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shielding tensors of L-0-serine phosphate and 3'-cytidine monophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, S.J.; Klein, M.P.

    1977-12-07

    /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shielding tensors have been measured from single crystals of L-O-serine phosphate and 3'-cytidine monophosphate. The principal elements of the shielding tensors are -48, -2, and 51 ppM for serine phosphate and -68, -13, and 64 ppM for 3'-cytidine monophosphate, relative to 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. In both cases four orientations of the shielding tensor on the molecule are possible; in both instances one orientation correlates well with the P--O bond directions. This orientation of the shielding tensor places the most downfield component of the tensor in the plane containing the two longest P--O bonds and the most upfield component of the shielding tensor in the plane containing the two shortest P--O bonds. A similar orientation was reported for the /sup 31/P shielding tensor of phosphorylethanolamine and a comparison is made between the three molecules.

  3. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

  4. The Role of Adenosine Receptors in Psychostimulant Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ballesteros-Yáñez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine receptors (AR are a family of G-protein coupled receptors, comprised of four members, named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors, found widely distributed in almost all human body tissues and organs. To date, they are known to participate in a large variety of physiopathological responses, which include vasodilation, pain, and inflammation. In particular, in the central nervous system (CNS, adenosine acts as a neuromodulator, exerting different functions depending on the type of AR and consequent cellular signaling involved. In terms of molecular pathways and second messengers involved, A1 and A3 receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC, through Gi/o proteins, while A2A and A2B receptors stimulate it through Gs proteins. In the CNS, A1 receptors are widely distributed in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, A2A receptors are localized mainly in the striatum and olfactory bulb, while A2B and A3 receptors are found at low levels of expression. In addition, AR are able to form heteromers, both among themselves (e.g., A1/A2A, as well as with other subtypes (e.g., A2A/D2, opening a whole range of possibilities in the field of the pharmacology of AR. Nowadays, we know that adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and therefore reward systems, being A1 receptors colocalized in heteromeric complexes with D1 receptors, and A2A receptors with D2 receptors. This review documents the present state of knowledge of the contribution of AR, particularly A1 and A2A, to psychostimulants-mediated effects, including locomotor activity, discrimination, seeking and reward, and discuss their therapeutic relevance to psychostimulant addiction. Studies presented in this review reinforce the potential of A1 agonists as an effective strategy to counteract psychostimulant-induced effects. Furthermore, different experimental data support the hypothesis that A2A/D2 heterodimers are

  5. Characterization of Spontaneous, Transient Adenosine Release in the Caudate-Putamen and Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael D.; Lee, Scott T.; Ross, Ashley E.; Ryals, Matthew; Choudhry, Vishesh I.; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuroprotective agent that inhibits neuronal activity and modulates neurotransmission. Previous research has shown adenosine gradually accumulates during pathologies such as stroke and regulates neurotransmission on the minute-to-hour time scale. Our lab developed a method using carbon-fiber microelectrodes to directly measure adenosine changes on a sub-second time scale with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Recently, adenosine release lasting a couple of seconds has been found in murine spinal cord slices. In this study, we characterized spontaneous, transient adenosine release in vivo, in the caudate-putamen and prefrontal cortex of anesthetized rats. The average concentration of adenosine release was 0.17±0.01 µM in the caudate and 0.19±0.01 µM in the prefrontal cortex, although the range was large, from 0.04 to 3.2 µM. The average duration of spontaneous adenosine release was 2.9±0.1 seconds and 2.8±0.1 seconds in the caudate and prefrontal cortex, respectively. The concentration and number of transients detected do not change over a four hour period, suggesting spontaneous events are not caused by electrode implantation. The frequency of adenosine transients was higher in the prefrontal cortex than the caudate-putamen and was modulated by A1 receptors. The A1 antagonist DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 6 mg/kg i.p.) increased the frequency of spontaneous adenosine release, while the A1 agonist CPA (N6-cyclopentyladenosine, 1 mg/kg i.p.) decreased the frequency. These findings are a paradigm shift for understanding the time course of adenosine signaling, demonstrating that there is a rapid mode of adenosine signaling that could cause transient, local neuromodulation. PMID:24494035

  6. Activity-Dependent Adenosine Release May Be Linked to Activation of Na+-K+ ATPase: An In Vitro Rat Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Robert Edward; Dale, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    In the brain, extracellular adenosine increases as a result of neuronal activity. The mechanisms by which this occurs are only incompletely understood. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the Na+ influxes associated with neuronal signalling activate the Na+-K+ ATPase which, by consuming ATP, generates intracellular adenosine that is then released via transporters. By measuring adenosine release directly with microelectrode biosensors, we have demonstrated that AMPA-receptor evoked adenosine release in basal forebrain and cortex depends on extracellular Na+. We have simultaneously imaged intracellular Na+ and measured adenosine release. The accumulation of intracellular Na+ during AMPA receptor activation preceded adenosine release by some 90 s. By removing extracellular Ca2+, and thus preventing indiscriminate neuronal activation, we used ouabain to test the role of the Na+-K+ ATPase in the release of adenosine. Under conditions which caused a Na+ influx, brief applications of ouabain increased the accumulation of intracellular Na+ but conversely rapidly reduced extracellular adenosine levels. In addition, ouabain greatly reduced the amount of adenosine released during application of AMPA. Our data therefore suggest that activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase is directly linked to the efflux of adenosine and could provide a universal mechanism that couples adenosine release to neuronal activity. The Na+-K+ ATPase-dependent adenosine efflux is likely to provide adenosine-mediated activity-dependent negative feedback that will be important in many diverse functional contexts including the regulation of sleep. PMID:24489921

  7. Adenosine versus regadenoson comparative evaluation in myocardial perfusion imaging: results of the ADVANCE phase 3 multicenter international trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandrian, Ami E; Bateman, Timothy M; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Brent; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Hendel, Robert C; Lieu, Hsiao; Mahmarian, John J; Olmsted, Ann; Underwood, S Richard; Vitola, João; Wang, Whedy

    2007-01-01

    Earlier phase 1 and 2 studies have shown that regadenoson has desirable features as a stress agent for myocardial perfusion imaging. This multicenter, double-blinded phase 3 trial involved 784 patients at 54 sites. Each patient underwent 2 sets of gated single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging studies: an initial qualifying study with adenosine and a subsequent randomized study with either regadenoson (2/3 of patients) or adenosine. Regadenoson was administered as a rapid bolus (adenosine-regadenoson images and adenosine-adenosine images, lay above a prespecified noninferiority margin. Other prospectively defined safety and tolerability comparisons and supporting analyses were also performed. The average agreement rate based on the median of 3 independent blinded readers was 0.63 +/- 0.03 for regadenoson-adenosine and 0.64 +/- 0.04 for adenosine-adenosine-a 1% absolute difference with the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval lying above the prespecified noninferiority margin. Side-by-side interpretation of regadenoson and adenosine images provided comparable results for detecting reversible defects. The peak increase in heart rate was greater with regadenoson than adenosine, but the blood pressure nadir was similar. A summed symptom score of flushing, chest pain, and dyspnea was less with regadenoson than adenosine (P = .013). This phase 3 trial shows that regadenoson provides diagnostic information comparable to a standard adenosine infusion. There were no serious drug-related side effects, and regadenoson was better tolerated than adenosine.

  8. Multifaceted Effects of Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate and Adenosine in the Tumor–Host Interaction and Therapeutic Perspectives

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    Paola de Andrade Mello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is still one of the world’s most pressing health-care challenges, leading to a high number of deaths worldwide. Immunotherapy is a new developing therapy that boosts patient’s immune system to fight cancer by modifying tumor–immune cells interaction in the tumor microenvironment (TME. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP and adenosine (Ado are signaling molecules released in the TME that act as modulators of both immune and tumor cell responses. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate and Ado activate purinergic type 2 (P2 and type 1 (P1 receptors, respectively, triggering the so-called purinergic signaling. The concentration of eATP and Ado within the TME is tightly controlled by several cell-surface ectonucleotidases, such as CD39 and CD73, the major ecto-enzymes expressed in cancer cells, immune cells, stromal cells, and vasculature, being CD73 also expressed on tumor-associated fibroblasts. Once accumulated in the TME, eATP boosts antitumor immune response, while Ado attenuates or suppresses immunity against the tumor. In addition, both molecules can mediate growth stimulation or inhibition of the tumor, depending on the specific receptor activated. Therefore, purinergic signaling is able to modulate both tumor and immune cells behavior and, consequently, the tumor–host interaction and disease progression. In this review, we discuss the role of purinergic signaling in the host–tumor interaction detailing the multifaceted effects of eATP and Ado in the inflammatory TME. Moreover, we present recent findings into the application of purinergic-targeting therapy as a potential novel option to boost antitumor immune responses in cancer.

  9. Capadenoson, a clinically trialed partial adenosine A1receptor agonist, can stimulate adenosine A2Breceptor biased agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltos, Jo-Anne; Vecchio, Elizabeth A; Harris, Matthew A; Qin, Cheng Xue; Ritchie, Rebecca H; Christopoulos, Arthur; White, Paul J; May, Lauren T

    2017-07-01

    The adenosine A 2B receptor (A 2B AR) has been identified as an important therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease, however in vitro and in vivo targeting has been limited by the paucity of pharmacological tools, particularly potent agonists. Interestingly, 2-((6-amino-3,5-dicyano-4-(4-(cyclopropylmethoxy)phenyl)-2-pyridinyl)thio)acetamide (BAY60-6583), a potent and subtype-selective A 2B AR agonist, has the same core structure as 2-amino-6-[[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]methylsulfanyl]-4-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)phenyl]pyridine-3,5-dicarbonitril (capadenoson). Capadenoson, currently classified as an adenosine A 1 receptor (A 1 AR) partial agonist, has undergone two Phase IIa clinical trials, initially in patients with atrial fibrillation and subsequently in patients with stable angina. Capadenoson has also been shown to decrease cardiac remodeling in an animal model of advanced heart failure and a capadenoson derivative, neladenoson bialanate, recently entered clinical development for the treatment of chronic heart failure. The therapeutic effects of capadenoson are currently thought to be mediated through the A 1 AR. However, the ability of capadenoson to stimulate additional adenosine receptor subtypes, in particular the A 2B AR, has not been rigorously assessed. In this study, we demonstrate that capadenoson does indeed have significant A 2B AR activity in physiologically relevant cells, cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, which endogenously express the A 2B AR. Relative to the non-selective adenosine receptor agonist NECA, capadenoson was a biased A 2B AR agonist with a preference for cAMP signal transduction over other downstream mediators in cells with recombinant and endogenous A 2B AR expression. These findings suggest the reclassification of capadenoson as a dual A 1 AR/A 2B AR agonist. Furthermore, a potential A 2B AR contribution should be an important consideration for the future clinical development of capadenoson-like therapeutics, as the A

  10. Erythrocyte adenosine transport. A rapid screening test for cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P K; Mosher, S J; Li, R; Farmer, P S; Klassen, G A; Pollak, P T; McMullen, M; Ferrier, G

    1993-11-01

    An erythrocyte (RBC) model based on whole blood was used to investigate the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the uptake of adenosine in vitro. Fresh whole blood obtained from healthy volunteers was allowed to equilibrate with various concentrations (5-1000 microM) of a tested agent. (2-3H)-Adenosine was used as a substrate, and the reaction was terminated after 2 sec of incubation at room temperature by rapid addition of a "Stopping Solution" which was a mixture of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine, dipyridamole, and EDTA. The mixture was centrifuged (1760 g, 4 degrees C, 10 min), and the radioactivity of an aliquot of the supernatant was determined by a scintillation counter. The results showed that dipyridamole was the most potent agent tested (IC50 = 0.2 microM). Amongst the calcium antagonists studied, isradipine was most potent, followed by verapamil, clentiazem, diltiazem, and then nifedipine. The racemates of two metabolites of diltiazem, MX and MB, were more potent than the parent drug. The antiarrhythmic agents, amiodarone and sotalol, the two new lipid peroxidation inhibitors, U-74389F and U-78517F, and the anxiolytic agent, alprazolam, were as active as verapamil. The beta-receptor antagonist propranolol and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril, were practically inactive. In addition, the model was stereoselective such that the S(-)-enantiomer of verapamil was considerably more potent than the R(+)-antipote, whereas d(+)-sotalol was practically inactive compared to racemic sotalol.

  11. Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency - More Than Just an Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Victoria Whitmore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine deaminase (ADA deficiency is best known as a form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID which results from mutations in the gene encoding adenosine deaminase. Affected patients present with clinical and immunological manifestations typical of a severe combined immunodeficiency. Therapies are currently available that can that target these immunological disturbances and treated patients show varying degrees of clinical improvement. However, there is now a growing body of evidence that deficiency of ADA has significant impact on non-immunological organ systems. This review will outline the impact of ADA deficiency on various organ systems, starting with the well understood immunological abnormalities. We will discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms and also highlight ways in which current treatments could be improved. In doing so, we aim to present ADA deficiency as more than an immunodeficiency and suggest that it should be recognized as a systemic metabolic disorder that affects multiple organ systems. Only by fully understanding ADA deficiency and its manifestations in all organ systems can we aim to deliver therapies that will correct all the clinical consequences.

  12. Structure-Based Rational Design of Adenosine Receptor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Sallander, Jessica; Sotelo, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    The family of adenosine receptors (ARs) is focus of several medicinal chemistry programs aimed to find new potent and selective drugs. Each receptor subtype has been proposed as a relevant drug target in the treatment of, e.g., cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, asthma or Parkinson's disease. Until recently, most of these efforts have been dominated by ligand-based or empirical approaches. However, the latest advances in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crystallography allowed for a thorough structural characterization of the A2AAR subtype, which has been crystalized with a number of agonists and antagonists. Consequently, the ligand discovery of AR ligands has been enriched with a number of structure-based approaches. These include the generation of higher-confident homology models for the remaining AR subtypes, virtual screening identification of novel chemotypes, structure-based lead-optimization programs, rationalization of selectivity profiles, or the structural characterization of novel binding sites that enable the design of novel allosteric modulators. Computational methodologies have importantly contributed to the success of these structure-based approaches, and the recent advances in the field are also analyzed in this review. We conclude that the design of adenosine receptor ligands has improved dramatically with the consideration of structure- based approaches, which is paving the way to a better understanding of the biology and pharmacological modulation of this relevant family of receptors.

  13. Methylthioadenosine reprograms macrophage activation through adenosine receptor stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Keyel

    Full Text Available Regulation of inflammation is necessary to balance sufficient pathogen clearance with excessive tissue damage. Central to regulating inflammation is the switch from a pro-inflammatory pathway to an anti-inflammatory pathway. Macrophages are well-positioned to initiate this switch, and as such are the target of multiple therapeutics. One such potential therapeutic is methylthioadenosine (MTA, which inhibits TNFα production following LPS stimulation. We found that MTA could block TNFα production by multiple TLR ligands. Further, it prevented surface expression of CD69 and CD86 and reduced NF-KB signaling. We then determined that the mechanism of this action by MTA is signaling through adenosine A2 receptors. A2 receptors and TLR receptors synergized to promote an anti-inflammatory phenotype, as MTA enhanced LPS tolerance. In contrast, IL-1β production and processing was not affected by MTA exposure. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MTA reprograms TLR activation pathways via adenosine receptors to promote resolution of inflammation.

  14. Spreading depolarization-induced adenosine accumulation reflects metabolic status in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Britta E; Shuttleworth, C William

    2014-01-01

    Spreading depolarization (SD), a pathologic feature of migraine, stroke and traumatic brain injury, is a propagating depolarization of neurons and glia causing profound metabolic demand. Adenosine, the low-energy metabolite of ATP, has been shown to be elevated after SD in brain slices and under conditions likely to trigger SD in vivo. The relationship between metabolic status and adenosine accumulation after SD was tested here, in brain slices and in vivo. In brain slices, metabolic impairment (assessed by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) autofluorescence and O2 availability) was associated with prolonged extracellular direct current (DC) shifts indicating delayed repolarization, and increased adenosine accumulation. In vivo, adenosine accumulation was observed after SD even in otherwise healthy mice. As in brain slices, in vivo adenosine accumulation correlated with DC shift duration and increased when DC shifts were prolonged by metabolic impairment (i.e., hypoglycemia or middle cerebral artery occlusion). A striking pattern of adenosine dynamics was observed during focal ischemic stroke, with nearly all the observed adenosine signals in the periinfarct region occurring in association with SDs. These findings suggest that adenosine accumulation could serve as a biomarker of SD incidence and severity, in a range of clinical conditions. PMID:25160669

  15. Beneficial and detrimental role of adenosine signaling in diseases and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a major signaling nucleoside that orchestrates cellular and tissue adaptation under energy depletion and ischemic/hypoxic conditions by activation of four G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The regulation and generation of extracellular adenosine in response to stress are critical in tissue protection. Both mouse and human studies reported that extracellular adenosine signaling plays a beneficial role during acute states. However, prolonged excess extracellular adenosine is detrimental and contributes to the development and progression of various chronic diseases. In recent years, substantial progress has been made to understand the role of adenosine signaling in different conditions and to clarify its significance during the course of disease progression in various organs. These efforts have and will identify potential therapeutic possibilities for protection of tissue injury at acute stage by upregulation of adenosine signaling or attenuation of chronic disease progression by downregulation of adenosine signaling. This review is to summarize current progress and the importance of adenosine signaling in different disease stages and its potential therapeutic effects. PMID:26316513

  16. The ischemic preconditioning effect of adenosine in patients with ischemic heart disease

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    Berglund Margareta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In vivo and in vitro evidence suggests that adenosine and its agonists play key roles in the process of ischemic preconditioning. The effects of low-dose adenosine infusion on ischemic preconditioning have not been thoroughly studied in humans. Aims We hypothesised that a low-dose adenosine infusion could reduce the ischemic burden evoked by physical exercise and improve the regional left ventricular (LV systolic function. Materials and methods We studied nine severely symptomatic male patients with severe coronary artery disease. Myocardial ischemia was induced by exercise on two separate occasions and quantified by Tissue Doppler Echocardiography. Prior to the exercise test, intravenous low-dose adenosine or placebo was infused over ten minutes according to a randomized, double blind, cross-over protocol. The LV walls were defined as ischemic if a reduction, no increment, or an increment of Results PSV increased from baseline to maximal exercise in non-ischemic walls both during placebo (P = 0.0001 and low-dose adenosine infusion (P = 0.0009. However, in the ischemic walls, PSV increased only during low-dose adenosine infusion (P = 0.001, while no changes in PSV occurred during placebo infusion (P = NS. Conclusion Low-dose adenosine infusion reduced the ischemic burden and improved LV regional systolic function in the ischemic walls of patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia, confirming that adenosine is a potential preconditioning agent in humans.

  17. Measurement of the endogenous adenosine concentration in humans in vivo: methodological considerations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, B.P.C.; Pickkers, P.; Deussen, A.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Broek, P. van den; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Smits, P.; Riksen, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The endogenous nucleoside adenosine has profound tissue protective effects in situations of ischaemia or inflammation. Animal studies have shown that various drugs can activate this protective mechanism by interfering with the metabolism of adenosine. Translation of this concept to the clinical

  18. Effects of adenosine and regadenoson on hemodynamics measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Dustin M.; Minor, Matthew R.; Aden, James K.; Lisanti, Christopher J.; Steel, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adenosine or regadenoson vasodilator stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an effective non-invasive strategy for evaluating symptomatic coronary artery disease. Vasodilator injection typically precedes ventricular functional sequences to efficiently reduce overall scanning times, though the effects of vasodilators on CMR-derived ventricular volumes and function are unknown. Methods We prospectively enrolled 25 healthy subjects to undergo consecutive adenosine and regad...

  19. DMPD: Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17056121 Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Hasko ...G, Pacher P, Deitch EA, Vizi ES. Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb;113(2):264-75. Epub 2006 Sep 14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Shapi...ng of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. PubmedID 17056121 Title Shapi

  20. Adenosine in peripheral chemoreception: new insights into a historically overlooked molecule--invited article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, S V; Monteiro, E C; Obeso, A; Gonzalez, C

    2009-01-01

    In the present article we review in a concise manner the literature on the general biology of adenosine signalling. In the first section we describe briefly the historical aspects of adenosine research. In the second section is presented the biochemical characteristics of this nucleoside, namely its metabolism and regulation, and its physiological actions. In the third section we have succinctly described the role of adenosine and its metabolism in hypoxia. The final section is devoted to the role of adenosine in chemoreception in the carotid body, providing a review of the literature on the presence of adenosine receptors in the carotid body; on the effects of adenosine at presynaptic level in carotid body chemoreceptor cells, as well as, its metabolism and regulation; and at postsynaptic level in carotid sinus nerve activity. Additionally, a review on the effects of adenosine in ventilation was done. This review discusses evidence for a key role of adenosine in the hypoxic response of carotid body and emphasizes new research likely to be important in the future.

  1. Adenosine induces apoptosis in human liver cancer cells through ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunfang; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Ping; Song, Junyao; Yu, Shunji; Liu, Hui; Liu, Fuchen; Song, Chunhua; Yang, Dongqin; Liu, Jie

    2014-05-23

    Mitochondria are the most important sensor for apoptosis. Extracellular adenosine is well reported to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Here we found that extracellular adenosine suppresses the cell growth by induction of apoptosis in BEL-7404 liver cancer cells, and identified a novel mechanism that extracellular adenosine triggers apoptosis by increasing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane dysfunction in the cells. We observed that adenosine increases ROS production, activates c-Caspase-8 and -9 and Caspase effectors, c-Caspase-3 and c-PARP, induces accumulation of apoptosis regulator Bak, decreases Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, and causes the mitochondrial membrane dysfunction and the release of DIABLO, Cytochrome C, and AIF from mitochondria to cytoplasm in the cells; ROS inhibitor, NAC significantly reduces adenosine-induced ROS production; it also shows the same degree of blocking adenosine-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis. Our study first observed that adenosine increases ROS production in tumor cells and identified the positive feedback loop for ROS-mediated mitochondrial membrane dysfunction which amplifies the death signals in the cells. Our findings indicated ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction play a key role in adenosine-induced apoptosis of 7404 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetically Controlled Upregulation of Adenosine A(1) Receptor Expression Enhances the Survival of Primary Cortical Neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serchov, Tsvetan; Atas, Hasan-Cem; Normann, Claus; van Calker, Dietrich; Biber, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine has a key endogenous neuroprotective role in the brain, predominantly mediated by the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). This has been mainly explored using pharmacological tools and/or receptor knockout mice strains. It has long been suggested that the neuroprotective effects of A(1)R are

  3. Adenosine contributes to blood flow regulation in the exercising human leg by increasing prostaglandin and nitric oxide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Nyberg, Michael; Thaning, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine can induce vasodilation in skeletal muscle, but to what extent adenosine exerts its effect via formation of other vasodilators and whether there is redundancy between adenosine and other vasodilators remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine, prostaglandins, and NO act...... in synergy to regulate skeletal muscle hyperemia by determining the following: (1) the effect of adenosine receptor blockade on skeletal muscle exercise hyperemia with and without simultaneous inhibition of prostaglandins (indomethacin; 0.8 to 1.8 mg/min) and NO (N(G)-mono-methyl-l-arginine; 29 to 52 mg....../min); (2) whether adenosine-induced vasodilation is mediated via formation of prostaglandins and/or NO; and (3) the femoral arterial and venous plasma adenosine concentrations during leg exercise with the microdialysis technique in a total of 24 healthy, male subjects. Inhibition of adenosine receptors...

  4. Adenosine Shifts Plasticity Regimes between Associative and Homeostatic by Modulating Heterosynaptic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakova, Marina; Chen, Jen-Yung; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous extracellular adenosine level fluctuates in an activity-dependent manner and with sleep–wake cycle, modulating synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity. Hebbian-type long-term plasticity introduces intrinsic positive feedback on synaptic weight changes, making them prone to runaway dynamics. We previously demonstrated that co-occurring, weight-dependent heterosynaptic plasticity can robustly prevent runaway dynamics. Here we show that at neocortical synapses in slices from rat visual cortex, adenosine modulates the weight dependence of heterosynaptic plasticity: blockade of adenosine A1 receptors abolished weight dependence, while increased adenosine level strengthened it. Using model simulations, we found that the strength of weight dependence determines the ability of heterosynaptic plasticity to prevent runaway dynamics of synaptic weights imposed by Hebbian-type learning. Changing the weight dependence of heterosynaptic plasticity within an experimentally observed range gradually shifted the operating point of neurons between an unbalancing regime dominated by associative plasticity and a homeostatic regime of tightly constrained synaptic changes. Because adenosine tone is a natural correlate of activity level (activity increases adenosine tone) and brain state (elevated adenosine tone increases sleep pressure), modulation of heterosynaptic plasticity by adenosine represents an endogenous mechanism that translates changes of the brain state into a shift of the regime of synaptic plasticity and learning. We speculate that adenosine modulation may provide a mechanism for fine-tuning of plasticity and learning according to brain state and activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Associative learning depends on brain state and is impaired when the subject is sleepy or tired. However, the link between changes of brain state and modulation of synaptic plasticity and learning remains elusive. Here we show that adenosine regulates weight dependence of

  5. Adenosine receptor antagonists for cognitive dysfunction: a review of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Reinaldo Naoto; Pamplona, Fabricio Alano; Prediger, Rui Daniel Schroder

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, adenosine receptors in the central nervous system have been implicated in the modulation of cognitive functions. Despite the general view that endogenous adenosine modulates cognition through the activation of adenosine A1 receptors, evidence is now emerging on a possible role of A2A receptors in learning and memory. The present review attempts to examine results reported in different studies using diverse animal models, to provide a comprehensive picture of the recent evidence of a relationship between adenosinergic function and memory deficits. The present data suggest that caffeine (a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist) and selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists can improve memory performance in rodents evaluated through different tasks. They might also afford protection against memory dysfunction elicited in experimental models of aging, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative genetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  6. Comparison of exogenous adenosine and voluntary exercise on human skeletal muscle perfusion and perfusion heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka H.A.; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine is a widely used pharmacological agent to induce a 'high flow' control condition to study the mechanisms of exercise hyperemia, but it is not known how well adenosine infusion depicts exercise-induced hyperemia especially in terms of blood flow distribution at the capillary level in human...... muscle. Additionally, it remains to be determined what proportion of adenosine-induced flow elevation is specifically directed to muscle only. In the present study we measured thigh muscle capillary nutritive blood flow in nine healthy young men using positron emission tomography at rest and during...... femoral artery infusion of adenosine (1 mg * min(-1) * litre thigh volume(-1)), which has previously been shown to induce maximal whole thigh blood flow of ~8 L/min. This response was compared to the blood flow induced by moderate-high intensity one-leg dynamic knee extension exercise. Adenosine increased...

  7. Evaluation of usefulness of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase in diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion from empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Shenoy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the utility of adenosine deaminase activity in the pleural fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion from empyema of non-tubercular origin. Method: A retrospective analysis of data was performed on patients who were diagnosed to have tuberculous pleural effusion and empyema of non tubercular origin. Among 46 patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India, from November 201 2 to February 2013 who underwent pleural fluid adenosine deaminase estimation, 25 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion and 21 patients with empyema were diagnosed respectively. Adenosine deaminase in pleural fluid is estimated using colorimetric, Galanti and Guisti method. Results: Pleural fluid Adenosine Deaminase levels among tuberculous pleural effusion(109.38依 53.83 , empyema (141.20依71.69 with P=0.27. Conclusion: Pleural fluid adenosine deaminase alone cannot be used as a marker for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion.

  8. The effect of circulating adenosine on cerebral haemodynamics and headache generation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, S; Petersen, K.A.; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup

    2005-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous neurotransmitter that is released from the brain during hypoxia and relaxes isolated human cerebral arteries. Many cerebral artery dilators cause migraine attacks. However, the effect of intravenous adenosine on headache and cerebral artery diameter has not previously...... been investigated in man and reports regarding the effect of intravenous adenosine on cerebral blood flow are conflicting. Twelve healthy participants received adenosine 80, 120 microg kg(-1) min(-1) and placebo intravenously for 20 min, in a double-blind, three-way, crossover, randomized design......(-1) min(-1) and six during 120 microg kg(-1) min(-1) compared with none on placebo (P = 0.006). The headache was very mild and predominantly described as a pressing sensation. When correcting data for adenosine-induced hyperventilation, no significant changes in rCBF (P = 0.22) or V(MCA) (P = 0...

  9. The kinetic mechanism of S. pneumoniae DNA ligase and inhibition by adenosine-based antibacterial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahić, Haris; Liu, Ce Feng; Thresher, Jason; Livchak, Stephania; Wang, Hongming; Ehmann, David E

    2012-09-01

    The NAD-dependent DNA ligase is an excellent target for the discovery of antibacterial agents with a novel mode of action. In this work the DNA ligase from Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated for its steady-state kinetic parameters and inhibition by compounds with an adenosine substructure. Inhibition by substrate DNA that was observed in the enzyme turnover experiments was verified by direct binding measurements using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The substrate-inhibited enzyme form was identified as deadenylated DNA ligase. The binding potencies of 2-(butylsulfanyl) adenosine and 2-(cyclopentyloxy) adenosine were not significantly affected by the presence of the enzyme-bound DNA substrate. Finally, a mutant protein was prepared that was known to confer resistance to the adenosine compounds' antibacterial activity. The mutant protein was shown to have little catalytic impairment yet it was less susceptible to adenosine compound inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism of squalenoyl adenosine nanoparticles in mice using dual radio-labeling and radio-HPLC analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudin, Alice; Lepetre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Mougin, Julie; Parrod, Martine; Pieters, Gr?gory; Garcia-Argote, S?bastien; Loreau, Olivier; Goncalves, Jordan; Chacun, H?l?ne; Courbebaisse, Yann; Clayette, Pascal; Desma?le, Didier; Rousseau, Bernard; Andrieux, Karine; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a pleiotropic endogenous nucleoside with potential neuroprotective pharmacological activity. However, clinical use of adenosine is hampered by its extremely fast metabolization. To overcome this limitation, we recently developed a new squalenoyl nanomedicine of adenosine [Squalenoyl-Adenosine (SQAd)] by covalent linkage of this nucleoside to the squalene, a natural lipid. The resulting nanoassemblies (NAs) displayed a dramatic pharmacological activity both in cerebral ischemia an...

  11. Adenosine receptor ligands on cancer therapy: A review of Patent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Carmen; Sousa, Joana Beatriz; Fresco, Paula; Goncalves, Jorge

    2017-11-07

    Adenosine is a purine, with an adenine group and a ribose sugar, formed endogenously by ATP catabolism both intracellularly and extracellularly. Among the medicinal features of adenosine and of its receptors (A1, A2A, A2B and A3), anticancer activity has been an intense field of research. The anticancer potential of adenosine receptor ligands has been brought forefront of research and evidenced in innumerous research articles and patents. The present review focuses on the patent literature from 2002 onwards (2002-2017). Patents were searched and downloaded from the open access patent data bases and available online. A significant number of patents (65) have been published on adenosine receptor ligands claiming anticancer activity, or presenting new methods of preparation or of treatment thereof from 2002-2017 (May). From these, 35 were published highlighting the promising attributes of compounds/methods to fight cancer. Most of the compounds act as adenosine A3 receptor agonists, while others act as antagonists for the other adenosine receptor subtypes. The signaling events triggered by activation of adenosine A3 receptor or by blockade of adenosine A1, A2A and A2B receptors can reverse an environment pro-cancer to an anti-cancer in the body. The promising anticancer effects mediated by adenosine receptor ligands put them in the forefront as new drug candidates. The present compilation can be worthy to medicinal chemists, pharmacologists, biochemists and other researchers focusing on the putative anticancer activity of adenosine receptor ligands. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Adenosine promotes alternative macrophage activation via A2A and A2B receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, Balázs; Selmeczy, Zsolt; Koscsó, Balázs; Németh, Zoltán H.; Pacher, Pál; Murray, Peter J.; Kepka-Lenhart, Diane; Morris, Sidney M.; Gause, William C.; Leibovich, S. Joseph; Haskó, György

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine has been implicated in suppressing the proinflammatory responses of classically activated macrophages induced by Th1 cytokines. Alternative macrophage activation is induced by the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13; however, the role of adenosine in governing alternative macrophage activation is unknown. We show here that adenosine treatment of IL-4- or IL-13-activated macrophages augments the expression of alternative macrophage markers arginase-1, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin-1. The stimulatory effect of adenosine required primarily A2B receptors because the nonselective adenosine receptor agonist 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) increased both arginase activity (EC50=261.8 nM) and TIMP-1 production (EC50=80.67 nM), and both pharmacologic and genetic blockade of A2B receptors prevented the effect of NECA. A2A receptors also contributed to the adenosine augmentation of IL-4-induced TIMP-1 release, as both adenosine and NECA were less efficacious in augmenting TIMP-1 release by A2A receptor-deficient than control macrophages. Of the transcription factors known to drive alternative macrophage activation, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β was required, while cAMP response element-binding protein and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 were dispensable in mediating the effect of adenosine. We propose that adenosine receptor activation suppresses inflammation and promotes tissue restitution, in part, by promoting alternative macrophage activation.—Csóka, B., Selmeczy, Z., Koscsó, B., Németh, Z. H., Pacher, P., Murray, P. J., Kepka-Lenhart, D., Morris S. M., Jr., Gause, W. C., Leibovich, S. J., Haskó, G. Adenosine promotes alternative macrophage activation via A2A and A2B receptors. PMID:21926236

  13. 75 FR 8981 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Treatment of Glaucoma by Administration of Adenosine A3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Glaucoma by Administration of Adenosine A3 Antagonists AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health... triazoloquinazoline derivatives, their preparation and use as adenosine receptor antagonists,'' filed January 29, 1996... one-, and triazoloquinazoline derivatives, their preparation and use as adenosine receptor antagonists...

  14. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism of squalenoyl adenosine nanoparticles in mice using dual radio-labeling and radio-HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Alice; Lepetre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Mougin, Julie; Parrod, Martine; Pieters, Grégory; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Loreau, Olivier; Goncalves, Jordan; Chacun, Hélène; Courbebaisse, Yann; Clayette, Pascal; Desmaële, Didier; Rousseau, Bernard; Andrieux, Karine; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-08-28

    Adenosine is a pleiotropic endogenous nucleoside with potential neuroprotective pharmacological activity. However, clinical use of adenosine is hampered by its extremely fast metabolization. To overcome this limitation, we recently developed a new squalenoyl nanomedicine of adenosine [Squalenoyl-Adenosine (SQAd)] by covalent linkage of this nucleoside to the squalene, a natural lipid. The resulting nanoassemblies (NAs) displayed a dramatic pharmacological activity both in cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury pre-clinical models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma profile and tissue distribution of SQAd NAs using both Squalenoyl-[(3)H]-Adenosine NAs and [(14)C]-Squalenoyl-Adenosine NAs as respective tracers of adenosine and squalene moieties of the SQAd bioconjugate. This study was completed by radio-HPLC analysis allowing to determine the metabolization profile of SQAd. We report here that SQAd NAs allowed a sustained circulation of adenosine under its prodrug form (SQAd) for at least 1h after intravenous administration, when free adenosine was metabolized within seconds after injection. Moreover, the squalenoylation of adenosine and its formulation as NAs also significantly modified biodistribution, as SQAd NAs were mainly captured by the liver and spleen, allowing a significant release of adenosine in the liver parenchyma. Altogether, these results suggest that SQAd NAs provided a reservoir of adenosine into the bloodstream which may explain the previously observed neuroprotective efficacy of SQAd NAs against cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So

    2009-01-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pi...

  16. Ethanol induces apoptotic death of developing beta-endorphin neurons via suppression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and activation of transforming growth factor-beta1-linked apoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cui Ping; Kuhn, Peter; Chaturvedi, Kirti; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2006-03-01

    The mechanism by which ethanol induces beta-endorphin (beta-EP) neuronal death during the developmental period was determined using fetal rat hypothalamic cells in primary cultures. The addition of ethanol to hypothalamic cell cultures stimulated apoptotic cell death of beta-EP neurons by increasing caspase-3 activity. Ethanol lowered the levels of adenylyl cyclase (AC)7 mRNA, AC8 mRNA, and/or cAMP in hypothalamic cells, whereas a cAMP analog blocked the apoptotic action of ethanol on beta-EP neurons. The AC inhibitor dideoxyadenosine (DDA) increased cell apoptosis and reduced the number of beta-EP neurons, and it potentiated the apoptotic action of ethanol on these neurons. beta-EP neurons in hypothalamic cultures showed immunoreactivity to transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) protein. Ethanol and DDA increased TGF-beta1 production and/or release from hypothalamic cells. A cAMP analog blocked the activation by ethanol of TGF-beta1 in these cells. TGF-beta1 increased apoptosis of beta-EP neurons, but it did not potentiate the action of ethanol or DDA actions on these neurons. TGF-beta1 neutralizing antibody blocked the apoptotic action of ethanol on beta-EP neurons. Determination of TGF-beta1-controlled cell apoptosis regulatory gene levels in hypothalamic cell cultures and in isolated beta-EP neurons indicated that ethanol, TGF-beta1, and DDA similarly alter the expression of these genes in these cells. These data suggest that ethanol increases beta-EP neuronal death during the developmental period by cellular mechanisms involving, at least partly, the suppression of cAMP production and activation of TGF-beta1-linked apoptotic signaling.

  17. Environmental effect on plasma thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3'-triido-L-thyronine (T3), prolactin and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) content in the mudskippers Periophthalmus chrysospilos and Boleophthalmus boddaerti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C G; Ip, Y K

    1987-01-01

    1. In both Periophthalmus chrysospilos and Boleophthalmus boddaerti, T4 was involved in enabling the fish to cope with terrestrial stress and not in osmoregulation in waters of different salinities. In B. boddaerti, however, 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) played a more significant role in osmoregulation under the various aquatic conditions. 2. The control of osmoregulation mechanisms in P. chrysospilos kept in waters of different salinities was taken over by prolactin instead, whereas prolactin was only involved in osmoregulation in B. boddaerti under extreme osmotic stress (100% SW). Prolactin is also involved in the terrestrial adaptations of P. chrysospilos. 3. Plasma cAMP levels in P. chrysospilos increased with increasing salinity of the external environment (Tables 4 and 5) implicating its role in the stimulation of chloride secretion and in intracellular isosmotic regulation. 4. Significant increase in the plasma cAMP level of B. boddaerti submerged in 100% SW was also observed. However, the plasma cAMP levels of B. boddaerti fully submerged in 30% and 50% SW were not significantly different from the control as these conditions simulated those of their natural habitats.

  18. Inhibitory effects of total saponin from Korean Red Ginseng on [Ca2+]i mobilization through phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type I in human platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hae Shin

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: These results strongly indicate that KRG-TS is a potent beneficial compound that inhibits [Ca2+]i mobilization in thrombin–platelet interactions, which may result in the prevention of platelet aggregation-mediated thrombotic disease.

  19. Photosensitized electron transfer within a self-assembled norharmane-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate (dAMP) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M Micaela; Rasse-Suriani, Federico A O; Franca, Carlos A; Diez, Reinaldo Pis; Gholipour, Yousef; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Cabrerizo, Franco M

    2012-12-21

    Norharmane is a compound that belongs to a family of alkaloids called β-carbolines (βCs). These alkaloids are present in a wide range of biological systems, playing a variety of significant photo-dependent roles. Upon UV-A irradiation, βCs are able to act as efficient photosensitizers. In this work, we have investigated the photosensitized oxidation of 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate (dAMP) by norharmane in an aqueous phase, upon UV-A (350 nm) irradiation. The effect of the pH was evaluated on both the interactions between norharmane and dAMP in the ground and electronic excited states, and on the dAMP photosensitized oxidation. A quite strong static interaction between norharmane and dAMP was observed, especially under those pH conditions where the protonated form of the alkaloid is present (pH dAMP complex is the operative mechanism in the dAMP photosensitization.

  20. Assimilation of formaldehyde in transgenic plants due to the introduction of the bacterial ribulose monophosphate pathway genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-mei; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Li, Kun-zhi; Orita, Izumi; Akita, Motomu; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Izui, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an air pollutant suspected of being carcinogenic and a cause of sick-house syndrome. Microorganisms called methylotrophs, which can utilize reduced C(1) compounds such as methane and methanol, fix and assimilate HCHO, whereas most plants are unable to assimilate HCHO directly. We found that a bacterial formaldehyde-fixing pathway (ribulose monophosphate pathway) can be integrated as a bypass to the Calvin-Benson cycle in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco by genetic engineering. These plants showed enhanced tolerance to HCHO and enhanced capacity to eliminate gaseous HCHO by fixing it as a sugar phosphate. Our results provide a novel strategy for phytoremediation of HCHO pollution, and also represent the first step toward the production of plants that can assimilate natural gas-derived C(1) compounds.

  1. Re-evaluation of the Optimum Dietary Vitamin C Requirement in Juvenile Eel, by Using L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Young Bae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to re-evaluate the dietary vitamin C requirement in juvenile eel, Anguilla japonica by using L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (AMP as the vitamin C source. Five semi-purified experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (AMP0, 30 (AMP24, 60 (AMP52, 120 (AMP108 and 1,200 (AMP1137 mg AMP kg-1 diet on a dry matter basis. Casein and defatted fish meal were used as the main protein sources in the semi-purified experimental diets. After a 4-week conditioning period, fish initially averaging 15±0.3 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed to each aquarium as triplicate groups of 20 fish each. One of five experimental diets was fed on a DM basis to fish in three randomly selected aquaria, at a rate of 3% of total body weight, twice a day. At the end of the feeding trial, weight gain (WG and specific growth rate (SGR for fish fed AMP52 and AMP108 were significantly higher than those recorded for fish fed the control diet (p<0.05. Similarly, feed efficiency (FE and protein efficiency ratio (PER for fish fed AMP52 were significantly higher than those for fish fed the control diet (p<0.05. Broken-line regression analysis on the basis of WG, SGR, FE and PER showed dietary vitamin C requirements of juvenile eel to be 41.1, 41.2, 43.9 and 43.1 (mg kg−1 diet, respectively. These results indicated that the dietary vitamin C requirement could range from 41.1 to 43.9 mg kg−1 diet in juvenile eel when L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate was used as the dietary source of vitamin C.

  2. N6-adenosine methylation in MiRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Berulava

    Full Text Available Methylation of N6-adenosine (m6A has been observed in many different classes of RNA, but its prevalence in microRNAs (miRNAs has not yet been studied. Here we show that a knockdown of the m6A demethylase FTO affects the steady-state levels of several miRNAs. Moreover, RNA immunoprecipitation with an anti-m6A-antibody followed by RNA-seq revealed that a significant fraction of miRNAs contains m6A. By motif searches we have discovered consensus sequences discriminating between methylated and unmethylated miRNAs. The epigenetic modification of an epigenetic modifier as described here adds a new layer to the complexity of the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression.

  3. N6-adenosine methylation in MiRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berulava, Tea; Rahmann, Sven; Rademacher, Katrin; Klein-Hitpass, Ludgar; Horsthemke, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of N6-adenosine (m6A) has been observed in many different classes of RNA, but its prevalence in microRNAs (miRNAs) has not yet been studied. Here we show that a knockdown of the m6A demethylase FTO affects the steady-state levels of several miRNAs. Moreover, RNA immunoprecipitation with an anti-m6A-antibody followed by RNA-seq revealed that a significant fraction of miRNAs contains m6A. By motif searches we have discovered consensus sequences discriminating between methylated and unmethylated miRNAs. The epigenetic modification of an epigenetic modifier as described here adds a new layer to the complexity of the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression.

  4. Role of adenosine signalling and metabolism in β-cell regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Olov, E-mail: olov.andersson@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    Glucose homeostasis, which is controlled by the endocrine cells of the pancreas, is disrupted in both type I and type II diabetes. Deficiency in the number of insulin-producing β cells – a primary cause of type I diabetes and a secondary contributor of type II diabetes – leads to hyperglycemia and hence an increase in the need for insulin. Although diabetes can be controlled with insulin injections, a curative approach is needed. A potential approach to curing diabetes involves regenerating the β-cell mass, e.g. by increasing β-cell proliferation, survival, neogenesis or transdifferentiation. The nucleoside adenosine and its cognate nucleotide ATP have long been known to affect insulin secretion, but have more recently been shown to increase β-cell proliferation during homeostatic control and regeneration of the β-cell mass. Adenosine is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties, and agonism of adenosine receptors can promote the survival of β-cells in an inflammatory microenvironment. In this review, both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms of adenosine and ATP are discussed in terms of their established and putative effects on β-cell regeneration. - Highlights: • A potential way to cure diabetes is to regenerate the β-cell mass by promoting cell survival, proliferation or neogenesis. • Adenosine may promote β-cell regeneration through several cellular mechanisms. • Adenosine and its cognate nucleotide ATP can each promote β-cell proliferation. • Do adenosine and ATP interact in promoting β-cell proliferation?.

  5. The perfusion pattern in coronary artery occlusion: comparison of exercise and adenosine.p6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandrian, A S; Kegel, J; Heo, J; Ogilby, J D; Untereker, W J; Cave, V

    1992-12-01

    This study compared exercise to adenosine thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography in detecting occlusion of left anterior descending or right coronary arteries in patients with no previous myocardial infarction. There were 41 patients who underwent adenosine thallium imaging (adenosine infusion at a rate of 140 micrograms/kg/min for 6 min), and 143 patients who underwent exercise thallium imaging. There were more patients with right coronary than left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Thus, in the adenosine group, there were 15 patients with left anterior descending artery occlusion, and 26 with right coronary artery occlusion, and in the exercise group, there were 46 patients with left anterior descending artery occlusion, and 97 patients with right coronary artery occlusion. In the adenosine group, the thallium images were abnormal in 41 patients (100%), while in the exercise group, the thallium images were abnormal in 125 patients (87%, P exercise group (P:NS). In patients with isolated single vessel occlusion, the size of the perfusion abnormality was 28 +/- 9% with adenosine, and 21 +/- 12% with exercise (P:NS). Thus, most patients with occlusion of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery have regional perfusion abnormality during stress; the different role of collaterals with each type of stress may explain the higher percentage of abnormal results with adenosine than exercise.

  6. Adenosine for postoperative analgesia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    Full Text Available Perioperative infusion of adenosine has been suggested to reduce the requirement for inhalation anesthetics, without causing serious adverse effects in humans. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of adenosine on postoperative analgesia.We retrieved articles in computerized searches of Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, up to July 2016. We used adenosine, postoperative analgesia, and postoperative pain(s as key words, with humans, RCT, and CCT as filters. Data of eligible studies were extracted, which included pain scores, cumulative opioid consumption, adverse reactions, and vital signs. Overall incidence rates, relative risk (RR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated employing fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included trials.In total, 757 patients from 9 studies were included. The overall effect of adenosine on postoperative VAS/VRS scores and postoperative opioid consumption was not significantly different from that of controls (P >0.1. The occurrence of PONV and pruritus was not statistically significantly different between an adenosine and nonremifentanil subgroup (P >0.1, but the rate of PONV occurrence was greater in the remifentanil subgroup (P 0.1.Adenosine has no analgesic effect or prophylactic effect against PONV, but reduce systolic blood pressure and heart rates. Adenosine may benefit patients with hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and tachyarrhythmia, thereby improving cardiac function.

  7. The Adverse Events and Hemodynamic Effects of Adenosine-Based Cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigtlander, Thomas; Magedanz, Annett; Schmermund, Axel [Cardiovascular Center Bethanien (CCB), Frankfurt (Germany); Bramlage, Peter [Technical University of Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Elsaesser, Amelie [University of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Mohrs, Oliver K. [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    We wanted to prospectively assess the adverse events and hemodynamic effects associated with an intravenous adenosine infusion in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease and who were undergoing cardiac MRI. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (64 {+-} 9 years) received adenosine (140 {mu}g/kg/min) during cardiac MRI. Before and during the administration, the heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were monitored using a MRI-compatible system. We documented any signs and symptoms of potential adverse events. In total, 47 out of 168 patients (28%) experienced adverse effects, which were mostly mild or moderate. In 13 patients (8%), the adenosine infusion was discontinued due to intolerable dyspnea or chest pain. No high grade atrioventricular block, bronchospasm or other life-threatening adverse events occurred. The hemodynamic measurements showed a significant increase in the heart rate during adenosine infusion (69.3 {+-} 11.7 versus 82.4 {+-} 13.0 beats/min, respectively; p < 0.001). A significant but clinically irrelevant increase in oxygen saturation occurred during adenosine infusion (96 {+-} 1.9% versus 97 {+-} 1.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The blood pressure did not significantly change during adenosine infusion (systolic: 142.8 {+-} 24.0 versus 140.9 {+-} 25.7 mmHg; diastolic: 80.2 {+-} 12.5 mmHg versus 78.9 {+-} 15.6, respectively). This study confirms the safety of adenosine infusion during cardiac MRI. A considerable proportion of all patients will experience minor adverse effects and some patients will not tolerate adenosine infusion. However, all adverse events can be successfully managed by a radiologist. The increased heart rate during adenosine infusion highlights the need to individually adjust the settings according to the patient, e.g., the number of slices of myocardial perfusion imaging.

  8. Role of Adenosine Signaling on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebel, Anna Maria; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Schaefer, Isabel da Costa; Frantz, Juliana Zanetti; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adenosine is a well-known endogenous modulator of neuronal excitability with anticonvulsant properties. Thus, the modulation exerted by adenosine might be an effective tool to control seizures. In this study, we investigated the effects of drugs that are able to modulate adenosinergic signaling on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. The adenosine A1 receptor agonist cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) increased the latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure stage. Both the adenosine A2A receptor agonist and antagonist, CGS 21680 and ZM 241385, respectively, did not promote changes in seizure parameters. Pretreatment with the ecto-5′nucleotidase inhibitor adenosine 5′-(α,β-methylene) diphosphate (AMPCP) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. However, when pretreated with the adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (EHNA), or with the nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitors, dipyridamole and S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), animals showed longer latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure status. Finally, our molecular analysis of the c-fos gene expression corroborates these behavioral results. Our findings indicate that the activation of adenosine A1 receptors is an important mechanism to control the development of seizures in zebrafish. Furthermore, the actions of ecto-5′-nucleotidase, ADA, and NTs are directly involved in the control of extracellular adenosine levels and have an important role in the development of seizure episodes in zebrafish. PMID:25560904

  9. Intravenous adenosine protects the myocardium primarily by activation of a neurogenic pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manintveld, Olivier C; te Lintel Hekkert, Maaike; Keijzer, Elisabeth; Verdouw, Pieter D; Duncker, Dirk J

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous adenosine is a trigger for ischemic myocardial preconditioning (IPC). Although intravascular administration of adenosine has been used to further unravel the mechanism of protection by IPC, it is questionable whether adenosine and IPC employ the same signaling pathways to exert cardioprotection. We therefore investigated whether the active metabolic barrier of the endothelium prevents an increase in myocardial interstitial adenosine concentrations by intravenous adenosine, using microdialysis, and also the role of NO and activation of a neurogenic pathway in the cardioprotection by adenosine. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, area at risk and infarct size (IS) were determined 120 min after a 60-min coronary artery occlusion (CAO), using trypan blue and nitro-blue-tetrazolium staining, respectively. IPC with a single 15-min CAO and a 15-min adenosine infusion (ADO, 200 μg min−1 i.v.) limited IS to the same extent (IS=41±6% and IS=40±4%, respectively) compared to control rats (IS=63±3%, both P<0.05). However, IPC increased myocardial interstitial adenosine levels seven-fold from 4.3±0.7 to 27.1±10.0 μM (P<0.05), while ADO had no effect on interstitial adenosine (4.1±1.2 μM), or any of the other purines. The NO synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA), which did not affect IS (IS=62±3%), attenuated the protection by ADO (IS=56±3%; P<0.05 vs ADO, P=NS vs LNNA). The ganglion blocker hexamethonium, which had also no effect on IS (IS=66±3%), blunted the protection by ADO (IS=55±4%; P<0.05 vs ADO and vs hexamethonium). These observations demonstrate that cardioprotection by ADO is dependent on NO, and is primarily mediated by activation of a neurogenic pathway. PMID:15895104

  10. Smoke Extract Impairs Adenosine Wound Healing. Implications of Smoke-Generated Reactive Oxygen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Zhang, Hui; Castellanos, Glenda; O’Malley, Jennifer K.; Alvarez-Ramirez, Horacio; Kharbanda, Kusum; Sisson, Joseph H.; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine concentrations are elevated in the lungs of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, where it balances between tissue repair and excessive airway remodeling. We previously demonstrated that the activation of the adenosine A2A receptor promotes epithelial wound closure. However, the mechanism by which adenosine-mediated wound healing occurs after cigarette smoke exposure has not been investigated. The present study investigates whether cigarette smoke exposure alters adenosine-mediated reparative properties via its ability to induce a shift in the oxidant/antioxidant balance. Using an in vitro wounding model, bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to 5% cigarette smoke extract, were wounded, and were then stimulated with either 10 μM adenosine or the specific A2A receptor agonist, 5′-(N-cyclopropyl)–carboxamido–adenosine (CPCA; 10 μM), and assessed for wound closure. In a subset of experiments, bronchial epithelial cells were infected with adenovirus vectors encoding human superoxide dismutase and/or catalase or control vector. In the presence of 5% smoke extract, significant delay was evident in both adenosine-mediated and CPCA-mediated wound closure. However, cells pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a nonspecific antioxidant, reversed smoke extract–mediated inhibition. We found that cells overexpressing mitochondrial catalase repealed the smoke extract inhibition of CPCA-stimulated wound closure, whereas superoxide dismutase overexpression exerted no effect. Kinase experiments revealed that smoke extract significantly reduced the A2A-mediated activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate–dependent protein kinase. However, pretreatment with NAC reversed this effect. In conclusion, our data suggest that cigarette smoke exposure impairs A2A-stimulated wound repair via a reactive oxygen species–dependent mechanism, thereby providing a better understanding of adenosine signaling that may direct the development of

  11. Regadenoson provides perfusion results comparable to adenosine in heterogeneous patient populations: a quantitative analysis from the ADVANCE MPI trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmarian, John J; Peterson, Leif E; Xu, Jiaqiong; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Iskandrian, Ami E; Bateman, Timothy M; Thomas, Gregory S; Nabi, Faisal

    2015-04-01

    Total and reversible left ventricular (LV) perfusion defect size (PDS) predict patient outcome. Limited data exist as to whether regadenoson induces similar perfusion abnormalities as observed with adenosine. We sought to determine whether regadenoson induces a similar LV PDS as seen with adenosine across varying patient populations. ADVANCE MPI were prospective, double-blind randomized trials comparing regadenoson to standard adenosine myocardial perfusion tomography (SPECT). Following an initial adenosine SPECT, patients were randomized to either regadenoson (N = 1284) or a second adenosine study (N = 660). SPECT quantification was performed blinded to randomization and image sequence. Propensity analysis was used to define comparability of regadenoson and adenosine perfusion results. Baseline clinical and SPECT results were similar in the two randomized groups. There was a close correlation between adenosine and regadenoson-induced total (r (2) = 0.98, P regadenoson vs adenosine, respectively, and irrespective of age, gender, diabetic status, body mass index, or prior cardiovascular history. By propensity analysis, regadenoson-induced total PDS was significantly larger than observed with adenosine. This is the first study to show that regadenoson induces similar, if not larger, perfusion defects than those observed with adenosine across different patient populations and demonstrates the value of quantitative analysis for defining serial changes in SPECT perfusion results. Regadenoson should provide comparable diagnostic and prognostic SPECT information to that obtained with adenosine.

  12. Intracellular signalling pathways in the vasoconstrictor response of mouse afferent arterioles to adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Friis, Ulla Glenert; Uhrenholt, Torben Rene

    2007-01-01

    the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C had no effect. The calcium-activated chloride channel inhibitor IAA-94 (30 microM) inhibited the adenosine-mediated constriction. Patch clamp experiments showed that adenosine treatment induced a depolarizing current in preglomerular smooth muscle cells which...... was abolished by IAA-94. Furthermore, the vasoconstriction caused by adenosine was significantly inhibited by 5 microM nifedipine (control 8.3 +/- 0.2 microM, ado 3.6 +/- 0.6 microM, ado + nifedipine 6.8 +/- 0.2 microM) suggesting involvement of voltage-dependent calcium channels. CONCLUSION: We conclude...

  13. Regional distribution of high affinity binding of 3H-adenosine in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversa, U.; Puppini, P.; de Angelis, L.; Vertua, R.

    1984-06-01

    The high and low affinity adenosine binding sites with Kd values ranging respectively from 0.8 to 1.65 microM and from 3.1 to 13.86 microM were demonstrated in the following rat brain areas: cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and pons-medulla. Adenosine receptors involved in the high affinity binding seem to be mainly Ra-type. The analysis of the regional distribution of 3H-Adenosine showed the highest levels of specific binding in striatum and hippocampus; somewhat smaller values in cortex, cerebellum, and diencephalon, and even lower in pons-medulla.

  14. An STS in the human adenosine deaminase gene (located 20q12-q13. 11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, B.C.; States, J.C. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States))

    1991-09-25

    The human adenosine deaminase gene has been characterized in detail. The adenosine gene product, as part of the purine catabolic pathway, catalyzes the irreversible deamination of adenosine and deoxyadenosine. Deficiency of this activity in humans is associated with an autosomal recessive form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Recently, this genetic deficiency disease has been targeted for the first attempts at gene therapy in humans. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a fragment of the expected size (160 bp) was amplified from human genomic DNA.

  15. The Brain In Vivo Expresses the 2′,3′-cAMP-Adenosine Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Travis C.; Bansal, Rashmi; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Puccio, Ava M.; Okonkwo, David O.; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2012-01-01

    Although multiple biochemical pathways produce adenosine, studies suggest that the 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2′,3′-cAMP → 2′-AMP/3′-AMP → adenosine) contributes to adenosine production in some cells/tissues/organs. To determine whether the 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway exists in vivo in the brain, we delivered to the brain (gray matter and white matter separately) via the inflow perfusate of a microdialysis probe either 2′,3′-cAMP, 3′,5′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, or 5′-AMP and measured the recovered metabolites in the microdialysis outflow perfusate with mass spectrometry. In both gray and white matter, 2′,3′-cAMP increased 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP and adenosine, and 3′,5′-cAMP increased 5′-AMP and adenosine. In both brain regions, 2′-AMP, 3-AMP and 5′-AMP were converted to adenosine. Microdialysis experiments in 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) wild-type mice demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI; controlled cortical impact model) activated the brain 2,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway; similar experiments in CNPase knockout mice indicated that CNPase was involved in the metabolism of endogenous 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and to adenosine. In CSF from TBI patients, 2′,3′-cAMP was significantly increased in the initial 12 hours after injury and strongly correlated with CSF levels of 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, adenosine and inosine. We conclude that in vivo, 2′,3′-cAMP is converted to 2′-AMP/3′-AMP, and these AMPs are metabolized to adenosine. This pathway exists endogenously in both mice and humans. PMID:22360621

  16. Adenosine A2B-receptor-mediated cyclic AMP accumulation in primary rat astrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Peakman, M C; Hill, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on the accumulation of cyclic AMP have been investigated in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. 2. Adenosine A2-receptor stimulation caused a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of [3H]-cyclic AMP in cells prelabelled with [3H]-adenine. The rank order of agonist potencies was 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA; EC50 = 1 microM) > adenosine (EC50 = 5 microM) > 2-chloroadenosine (EC50 = 20 microM) >> CGS 21680 (EC5...

  17. Development of a luminescent G-quadruplex-selective iridium(III) complex for the label-free detection of adenosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; He, Bingyong; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2016-01-01

    A panel of six luminescent iridium(III) complexes were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to act as G-quadruplex-selective probes. The novel iridium(III) complex 1 was found to be highly selective for G-quadruplex DNA, and was employed for the construction of a label-free G-quadruplex-based adenosine detection assay in aqueous solution. Two different detection strategies were investigated for adenosine detection, and the results showed that initial addition of adenosine to the adenosine aptamer gave superior results. The assay exhibited a linear response for adenosine in the concentration range of 5 to 120 μM (R2 = 0.992), and the limit of detection for adenosine was 5 μM. Moreover, this assay was highly selective for adenosine over other nucleosides, and exhibited potential use for biological sample analysis.

  18. Substrate mimicry: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase recognizes 6-modified-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphates as adenosine analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Brian D.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Zhang, Hong-wang; Nettles, James H.; Stanton, Richard; Detorio, Mervi; Obikhod, Aleksandr; Pradère, Ugo; Coats, Steven J.; Mellors, John W.; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    β-D-3′-Azido-2′,3′-dideoxyguanosine (3′-azido-ddG) is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 replication with a superior resistance profile to zidovudine. Recently, we identified five novel 6-modified-3′-azido-ddG analogs that exhibit similar or superior anti-HIV-1 activity compared to 3′-azido-ddG in primary cells. To gain insight into their structure–activity–resistance relationships, we synthesized their triphosphate (TP) forms and assessed their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic experiments show that the 6-modified-3′-azido-ddGTP analogs act as adenosine rather than guanosine mimetics in DNA synthesis reactions. The order of potency of the TP analogs against wild-type RT was: 3′-azido-2,6-diaminopurine >3′-azido-6-chloropurine; 3′-azido-6-N-allylaminopurine > 2-amino-6-N,N-dimethylaminopurine; 2-amino-6-methoxypurine. Molecular modeling studies reveal unique hydrogen-bonding interactions between the nucleotide analogs and the template thymine base in the active site of RT. Surprisingly, the structure–activity relationship of the analogs differed in HIV-1 RT ATP-mediated excision assays of their monophosphate forms, suggesting that it may be possible to rationally design a modified base analog that is efficiently incorporated by RT but serves as a poor substrate for ATP-mediated excision reactions. Overall, these studies identify a promising strategy to design novel nucleoside analogs that exert profound antiviral activity against both WT and drug-resistant HIV-1. PMID:21914723

  19. The role of muscarinic receptors in the beneficial effects of adenosine against myocardial reperfusion injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    Full Text Available Adenosine, a catabolite of ATP, displays a wide variety of effects in the heart including regulation of cardiac response to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Nonetheless, the precise mechanism of adenosine-induced cardioprotection is still elusive. Isolated Sprague-Dawley rat hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Both adenosine and acetylcholine treatment recovered the post-reperfusion cardiac function associated with adenosine and muscarinic receptors activation. Simultaneous administration of adenosine and acetylcholine failed to exert any additive protective effect, suggesting a shared mechanism between the two. Our data further revealed a cross-talk between the adenosine and acetylcholine receptor signaling in reperfused rat hearts. Interestingly, the selective M(2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methoctramine significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effect of adenosine. In addition, treatment with adenosine upregulated the expression and the maximal binding capacity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which were inhibited by the selective A(1 adenosine receptor antagonist 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. These data suggested a possible functional coupling between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors behind the observed cardioprotection. Furthermore, nitric oxide was found involved in triggering the response to each of the two receptor agonist. In summary, there may be a cross-talk between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors in ischemic/reperfused myocardium with nitric oxide synthase might serve as the distal converging point. In addition, adenosine contributes to the invigorating effect of adenosine on muscarinic receptor thereby prompting to regulation of cardiac function. These findings argue for a potentially novel mechanism behind the adenosine

  20. Determination of Adenosine, Cordycepin and Ergosterol Contents in Cultivated Antrodia camphorata by HPLC Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHIEN-YU CHANG; MING-YONG LUE; TZU-MING PAN

    2005-01-01

      The concentrations of adenosine and cordycepin, 3'-deoxyadenosine in the hot water extract and ergosterol in the ethanol extract of a cultivated Antrodia camphorata were measured by high performance...

  1. Caffeine, Adenosine Receptors and Estrogen in Toxin Models of Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwarzschild, Michael A; Xu, Kui

    2008-01-01

    Continued progress has been made toward each of the Specific Aims (SAs) 1 and 2 (SA 3 completed) of our research project, Caffeine, adenosine receptors and estrogen in toxin models of Parkinson's disease...

  2. Role of adenosine in regulating the heterogeneity of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Nesterov, Sergey V; Kemppainen, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that adenosine plays a role in the regulation of exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle. We tested whether adenosine also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow (BF) distribution and heterogeneity among and within quadriceps femoris (QF......) muscles during exercise, measured using positron emission tomography. In six healthy young women, BF was measured at rest and then during three incremental low and moderate intermittent isometric one-legged knee-extension exercise intensities without and with theophylline-induced nonselective adenosine...... and with theophylline (P Adenosine receptor blockade did not have any effect on mean bulk BF or BF heterogeneity among the QF muscles, yet blockade increased within-muscle BF heterogeneity in all four QF muscles (P = 0.03). Taken together, these results show that BF becomes less heterogeneous with increasing...

  3. The role of carotid chemoreceptors in the sympathetic activation by adenosine in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Karemaker, J.M.; Wieling, W.; Marres, H.A.M.; Lenders, J.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The direct vasodilatory and negative chronotropic effects of adenosine in humans are counterbalanced by a reflex increase in sympathetic nerve traffic. A suggested mechanism for this reflex includes peripheral chemoreceptor activation. We, therefore, assessed the contribution of carotid

  4. Hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis by vessel attenuation measurement on CT compared with adenosine perfusion MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dekker, Martijn A. M.; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Pundziute, Gabija; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    Purpose: We assessed the association between corrected contrast opacification (CCO) based on coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) and inducible ischemia by adenosine perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (APMR). Methods: Sixty cardiac asymptomatic patients with extra-cardiac arterial

  5. Cardiac endothelial transport and metabolism of adenosine and inosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lisa M.; Bukowski, Thomas R.; Revkin, James H.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of transmembrane flux limitations on cellular metabolism of purine nucleosides was assessed in whole organ studies. Transcapillary transport of the purine nucleosides adenosine (Ado) and inosine (Ino) via paracellular diffusion through interendothelial clefts in parallel with carrier-mediated transendothelial fluxes was studied in isolated, Krebs-Henseleit-perfused rabbit and guinea pig hearts. After injection into coronary inflow, multiple-indicator dilution curves were obtained from coronary outflow for 90 s for 131I-labeled albumin (intravascular reference tracer), [3H]arabinofuranosyl hypoxanthine (AraH; extracellular reference tracer and nonreactive adenosine analog), and either [14C]Ado or [14C]Ino. Ado or Ino was separated from their degradative products, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid, in each outflow sample by HPLC and radioisotope counting. Ado and Ino, but not AraH, permeate the luminal membrane of endothelial cells via a saturable transporter with permeability-surface area product PSecl and also diffuse passively through interendothelial clefts with the same conductance (PSg) as AraH. These parallel conductances were estimated via fitting with an axially distributed, multi-pathway, four-region blood-tissue exchange model. PSg for AraH were ~4 and 2.5 ml · g−1 · min−1 in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. In contrast, transplasmalemmal conductances (endothelial PSecl) were ~0.2 ml · g−1 · min−1 for both Ado and Ino in rabbit hearts but ~2 ml · g−1 · min−1 in guinea pig hearts, an order of magnitude different. Purine nucleoside metabolism also differs between guinea pig and rabbit cardiac endothelium. In guinea pig heart, 50% of the tracer Ado bolus was retained, 35% was washed out as Ado, and 15% was lost as effluent metabolites; 25% of Ino was retained, 50% washed out, and 25% was lost as metabolites. In rabbit heart, 45% of Ado was retained and 5% lost as metabolites, and 7% of Ino was retained and 3% lost as

  6. Myocardial perfusion imaging laboratory efficiency with the use of regadenoson compared to adenosine and dipyridamole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michelle; Spalding, James; Kothari, Smita; Wu, You; Gatt, Elyse; Boulanger, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine, dipyridamole, and regadenoson are pharmacologic stress agents used in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), to diagnose and monitor coronary artery disease. Clinical studies suggest that regadenoson has pharmacologic properties that simplify the MPI procedure through availability to a wider range of patients and easier administrative requirements. This study assesses the operational advantages and laboratory efficiency associated with the use of regadenoson compared to adenosine and dipyridamole. A web-based survey of 141 nuclear medicine technologists working in US-based cardiovascular imaging laboratories from June-July 2009. Descriptive statistics measured the adenosine, dipyridamole, and regadenoson cohorts. Bivariate analyses compared the overall and staff-specific time to conduct an MPI test. The site-specific sub-groups were defined by hospital vs non-hospital setting, hours of operation, number of SPECT cameras, and number of full-time equivalent staff, including nurses, nuclear technologists, physicians, and nurse practitioners/physician assistants. The total time to conduct an MPI test was shortest with regadenoson 156 (46) min compared to adenosine and dipyridamole 182 (63) and 191 (61) min, respectively. Time from regadenoson administration to the start of the imaging session, including dose calculation and infusion time, was 14.2 min less than adenosine, and 12.0 min less than dipyridamole. The time to manage adverse events was shortest if it occurred with regadenoson compared to adenosine and dipyridamole, with minor exceptions. Due to the nature of survey implementation, possible recall bias may limit the results. Some differences in procedures times may be attributable to differences in laboratories' protocols. Overall time savings and time savings stratified by operational ability (number of staff, number of SPECT cameras, hours of operation) translate to a more efficient utilization of laboratory resources when using regadenoson

  7. Effects of dose ranging of adenosine infusion on electrocardiographic findings during and after general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Xia; Habib, Ashraf S; Wenger, Tom; Gratz, Irwin; Glick, David; Adsumelli, Rishimani; Creed, Mary R; Gan, Tong J

    2012-10-01

    To assess changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) associated with intraoperative infusion of adenosine in patients undergoing open abdominal gynecological surgery. One hundred and sixty-six patients undergoing gynecological surgery were randomly assigned to receive one of four doses of adenosine infusion (25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/kg/min) or matching placebo. Study drug administration was started at skin incision and discontinued at end of surgery. A standardized general anesthetic regimen was used and adjusted based on hemodynamic and bispectral index values. Heart rate and rhythm variables, and PR, QRS, QT, and QTc intervals were recorded from 12-lead ECGs before anesthesia and immediately after patient arrival in the postanesthesia care unit. In addition, a rhythm strip was obtained during administration of the loading dose of the study drug. ECG variables were compared within and between groups. Incidence of ECG and hemodynamic abnormalities was recorded. One hundred and fifty-one subjects had a full set of electrocardiographic data: placebo (n = 38), group adenosine 25 μg/kg/min (n = 31), group adenosine 50 μg/kg/min (n = 29), group adenosine 100 μg/kg/min (n = 28), and group adenosine 200 μg/kg/min (n = 25). Statistically significant postoperative QTc prolongation was observed in all study groups when compared with baseline except for the adenosine 200 μg/kg/min group. However, these changes from baseline were not different among the groups. There were also no significant differences in PR, QRS, and QT intervals between the treatment groups. There was no difference in QTc prolongation following intraoperative administration of adenosine infusion compared with placebo during isoflurane general anesthesia. However, QTc prolongation is common following general anesthesia.

  8. No Effect of Nutritional Adenosine Receptor Antagonists on Exercise Performance in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    358–363, 1996. 11. Cook NC, Samman S. Flavonoids —chemistry, metabolism, cardiopro- tective effects, and dietary sources. Nutr Biochem 7: 66–76, 1996...metabolism and health effects of dietary flavonoids in man. Biomed Pharmacother 51: 305–310, 1997. R400 ADENOSINE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM AND EXERCISE IN THE HEAT...Interactions of flavonoids with adenosine receptors. J Med Chem 39: 781–788, 1996. 35. MacRae HS, Mefferd KM. Dietary antioxidant supplementation com

  9. Effects of adenosine and a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist on hemodynamic and thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jadbabaie, Farid; Dione, Donald P; Meoli, David F; Purushothaman, Kailasnath; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sinusas, Albert J

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a selective A(2A) adenosine receptor agonist (regadenoson) with adenosine in clinically relevant canine models with regard to effects on hemodynamics and thallium-201 ((201)Tl) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The clinical application of vasodilator stress for perfusion imaging requires consideration of the effects of these vasodilating agents on systemic hemodynamics, coronary flow, and radiotracer uptake and clearance kinetics. Sequential imaging and arterial blood sampling was performed on control, anesthetized closed-chest canines (n = 7) to evaluate radiotracer biodistribution and kinetics after either a bolus administration of regadenoson (2.5 microg/kg) or 4.5-min infusion of adenosine (280 microg/kg). The effects of regadenoson on coronary flow and myocardial radiotracer uptake were then evaluated in an open-chest canine model of a critical stenosis (n = 7). Results from ex vivo single-photon emission computed tomography were compared with tissue well-counting. The use of regadenoson compared favorably with adenosine in regard to the duration and magnitude of the hemodynamic effects and the effect on (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The arterial blood clearance half-time was significantly faster for (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (regadenoson: 1.4 +/- 0.03 min; adenosine: 1.5 +/- 0.08 min) than for (201)Tl (regadenoson: 2.5 +/- 0.16 min, p adenosine: 2.7 +/- 0.04 min, p regadenoson stress was significantly greater than the relative perfusion defect with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (0.69 +/- 0.03%, p regadenoson produced a hyperemic response comparable to a standard infusion of adenosine. The biodistribution and clearance of both (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI during regadenoson were similar to adenosine vasodilation. Ex vivo perfusion images under the most ideal conditions permitted detection of a critical stenosis, although (201)Tl offered significant advantages over (99m

  10. Ticagrelor Does Not Inhibit Adenosine Transport at Relevant Concentrations: A Randomized Cross-Over Study in Healthy Subjects In Vivo.

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    T N A van den Berg

    Full Text Available In patients with myocardial infarction, ticagrelor reduces cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality, and can cause dyspnea. It is suggested that this is caused by adenosine receptor stimulation, because in preclinical studies, ticagrelor blocks the nucleoside transporter and increases cellular ATP release. We now investigated the effects of ticagrelor on the adenosine system in humans in vivo.In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 14 healthy subjects, we have tested whether ticagrelor (180 mg affects adenosine- and dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation, as surrogates of nucleoside uptake inhibition and adenosine formation, respectively. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was measured. Primary endpoint was adenosine-induced vasodilation.Ticagrelor did not affect adenosine- or dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was not affected by ticagrelor. In vitro, ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibited nucleoside uptake, but only at supra-physiological concentrations.In conclusion, at relevant plasma concentration, ticagrelor does not affect adenosine transport, nor adenosine formation in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is unlikely that this mechanism is a relevant pleiotropic effect of ticagrelor.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01996735.

  11. Ticagrelor Does Not Inhibit Adenosine Transport at Relevant Concentrations: A Randomized Cross-Over Study in Healthy Subjects In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, G. A.; van den Broek, P. H. H.; Bilos, A.; Donders, A. R. T.; Gomes, M. E.; Riksen, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In patients with myocardial infarction, ticagrelor reduces cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality, and can cause dyspnea. It is suggested that this is caused by adenosine receptor stimulation, because in preclinical studies, ticagrelor blocks the nucleoside transporter and increases cellular ATP release. We now investigated the effects of ticagrelor on the adenosine system in humans in vivo. Experimental Approach In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 14 healthy subjects, we have tested whether ticagrelor (180 mg) affects adenosine- and dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation, as surrogates of nucleoside uptake inhibition and adenosine formation, respectively. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was measured. Primary endpoint was adenosine-induced vasodilation. Key Results Ticagrelor did not affect adenosine- or dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was not affected by ticagrelor. In vitro, ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibited nucleoside uptake, but only at supra-physiological concentrations. Conclusion and Implications In conclusion, at relevant plasma concentration, ticagrelor does not affect adenosine transport, nor adenosine formation in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is unlikely that this mechanism is a relevant pleiotropic effect of ticagrelor. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01996735 PMID:26509673

  12. Topical adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

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    Watanabe, Y; Nagashima, T; Hanzawa, N; Ishino, A; Nakazawa, Y; Ogo, M; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2015-12-01

    Hair thickness is more important than hair density in the appearance of baldness in male with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Adenosine improves hair loss by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hair growth efficacy and safety of topical adenosine in men with AGA. A lotion containing either adenosine or niacinamide was administered to the scalps of 102 Japanese men twice daily for 6 months in a double-blind, randomized study. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists who assessed the quality of the hair and by calculating the percentages of vellus-like and thick hairs among the vertex hairs, as well as hair density. Adenosine was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to niacinamide in terms of global improvement of AGA, increase in the percentage of thick hairs (at least 60 μm) and self-assessment of hair thickness by the study participants. No causal adverse event due to the adenosine lotion was observed. These data indicate that adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with AGA, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Extracellular Adenosine Generation in the Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Responses and Pathogen Colonization

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    M. Samiul Alam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine, an immunomodulatory biomolecule, is produced by the ecto-enzymes CD39 (nucleoside triphosphate dephosphorylase and CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase by dephosphorylation of extracellular ATP. CD73 is expressed by many cell types during injury, infection and during steady-state conditions. Besides host cells, many bacteria also have CD39-CD73-like machinery, which helps the pathogen subvert the host inflammatory response. The major function for adenosine is anti-inflammatory, and most recent research has focused on adenosine’s control of inflammatory mechanisms underlying various autoimmune diseases (e.g., colitis, arthritis. Although adenosine generated through CD73 provides a feedback to control tissue damage mediated by a host immune response, it can also contribute to immunosuppression. Thus, inflammation can be a double-edged sword: it may harm the host but eventually helps by killing the invading pathogen. The role of adenosine in dampening inflammation has been an area of active research, but the relevance of the CD39/CD73-axis and adenosine receptor signaling in host defense against infection has received less attention. Here, we review our recent knowledge regarding CD73 expression during murine Salmonellosis and Helicobacter-induced gastric infection and its role in disease pathogenesis and bacterial persistence. We also explored a possible role for the CD73/adenosine pathway in regulating innate host defense function during infection.

  14. Intravenous adenosine (adenoscan) versus exercise in the noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease by SPECT

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    LaManna, M.M.; Mohama, R.; Slavich, I.L. 3d.; Lumia, F.J.; Cha, S.D.; Rambaran, N.; Maranhao, V. (Deborah Heart and Lung Center, Browns Mills, NJ (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Fifteen patients at a mean age of 58 underwent adenosine and maximal exercise thallium SPECT imaging. All scans were performed 1 week apart and within 4 weeks of cardiac catheterization. SPECT imaging was performed after the infusion of 140 micrograms/kg/min of adenosine for 6 minutes. Mean heart rate increment during adenosine administration was 67 +/- 3.7 to 77 +/- 4.1. Mean blood pressure was 136 +/- 7.2 to 135 +/- 6.2 systolic and 78 +/- 1.8 to 68 +/- 2.6 diastolic. No adverse hemodynamic effects were observed. There were no changes in PR or QRS in intervals. Five stress ECGs were ischemic. No ST changes were observed with adenosine. Although 68% of the patients had symptoms of flushing, light-headedness, and dizziness during adenosine infusion, symptoms resolved within 1 minute of dosage adjustment or termination of the infusion in all but one patient, who required theophylline. Sensitivity for coronary artery detection was 77% and specificity 100%. Concordance between adenoscans and exercise thallium scintigraphy was high (13/15 = 87%). In two patients, there were minor scintigraphic differences. The authors conclude that adenosine is a sensitive, specific, and safe alternative to exercise testing in patients referred for thallium imaging and may be preferable to dipyridamole.

  15. CD73+ regulatory T cells contribute to adenosine-mediated resolution of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrentraut, Heidi; Clambey, Eric T; McNamee, Eoin N; Brodsky, Kelley S; Ehrentraut, Stefan F; Poth, Jens M; Riegel, Ann K; Westrich, Joseph A; Colgan, Sean P; Eltzschig, Holger K

    2013-06-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar injury and uncontrolled inflammation. Since most cases of ALI resolve spontaneously, understanding the endogenous mechanisms that promote ALI resolution is important to developing effective therapies. Previous studies have implicated extracellular adenosine signaling in tissue adaptation and wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesized a functional contribution for the endogenous production of adenosine during ALI resolution. As a model, we administered intratracheal LPS and observed peak lung injury at 3 d, with resolution by d 14. Treatment with pegylated adenosine-deaminase to enhance extracellular adenosine breakdown revealed impaired ALI resolution. Similarly, genetic deletion of cd73, the pacemaker for extracellular adenosine generation, was associated with increased mortality (0% wild-type and 40% in cd73(-/-) mice; P<0.05) and failure to resolve ALI adequately. Studies of inflammatory cell trafficking into the lungs during ALI resolution revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) express the highest levels of CD73. While Treg numbers in cd73(-/-) mice were similar to controls, cd73-deficient Tregs had attenuated immunosuppressive functions. Moreover, adoptive transfer of cd73-deficient Tregs into Rag(-/-) mice emulated the observed phenotype in cd73(-/-) mice, while transfer of wild-type Tregs was associated with normal ALI resolution. Together, these studies implicate CD73-dependent adenosine generation in Tregs in promoting ALI resolution.

  16. In vivo effects of adenosine 5´-triphosphate on rat preneoplastic liver

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    Ana V. Frontini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of adenosine 5´-triphosphate (ATP infusions to inhibit the growth of some human and animals tumors was based on the anticancer activity observed in in vitro and in vivo experiments, but contradictory results make the use of ATP in clinical practice rather controversial. Moreover, there is no literature regarding the use of ATP infusions to treat hepatocarcinomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ATP prevents in vivo oncogenesis in very-early-stage cancer cells in a well characterized two-stage model of hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. As we could not preclude the possible effect due to the intrinsic properties of adenosine, a known tumorigenic product of ATP hydrolysis, the effect of the administration of adenosine was also studied. Animals were divided in groups: rats submitted to the two stage preneoplasia initiation/promotion model of hepatocarcinogenesis, rats treated with intraperitoneal ATP or adenosine during the two phases of the model and appropriate control groups. The number and volume of preneoplastic foci per liver identified by the expression of glutathione S-transferase placental type and the number of proliferating nuclear antigen positive cells significantly increased in ATP and adenosine treated groups. Taken together, these results indicate that in this preneoplastic liver model, ATP as well as adenosine disturb the balance between apoptosis and proliferation contributing to malignant transformation.

  17. Suppression of adenosine-activated chloride transport by ethanol in airway epithelia.

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    Sammeta V Raju

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is associated with increased lung infections. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is not complete. Airway epithelial ion transport regulates the homeostasis of airway surface liquid, essential for airway mucosal immunity and lung host defense. Here, air-liquid interface cultures of Calu-3 epithelial cells were basolaterally exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM for 24 hours and adenosine-stimulated ion transport was measured by Ussing chamber. The ethanol exposure reduced the epithelial short-circuit currents (I(SC in a dose-dependent manner. The ion currents activated by adenosine were chloride conductance mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. Alloxazine, a specific inhibitor for A(2B adenosine receptor (A(2BAR, largely abolished the adenosine-stimulated chloride transport, suggesting that A(2BAR is a major receptor responsible for regulating the chloride transport of the cells. Ethanol significantly reduced intracellular cAMP production upon adenosine stimulation. Moreover, ethanol-suppression of the chloride secretion was able to be restored by cAMP analogs or by inhibitors to block cAMP degradation. These results imply that ethanol exposure dysregulates CFTR-mediated chloride transport in airways by suppression of adenosine-A(2BAR-cAMP signaling pathway, which might contribute to alcohol-associated lung infections.

  18. Striatal adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expression and alcohol drinking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonnoh R; Ruby, Christina L; Hinton, David J; Choi, Sun; Adams, Chelsea A; Young Kang, Na; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine signaling is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. Among its diverse functions in the brain, adenosine regulates glutamate release and has an essential role in ethanol sensitivity and preference. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adenosine-mediated glutamate signaling in neuroglial interaction remain elusive. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter, type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1), drink more ethanol compared with wild-type mice and have elevated striatal glutamate levels. In addition, ENT1 inhibition or knockdown reduces glutamate transporter expression in cultured astrocytes. Here, we examined how adenosine signaling in astrocytes contributes to ethanol drinking. Inhibition or deletion of ENT1 reduced the expression of type 2 excitatory amino-acid transporter (EAAT2) and the astrocyte-specific water channel, aquaporin 4 (AQP4). EAAT2 and AQP4 colocalization was also reduced in the striatum of ENT1 null mice. Ceftriaxone, an antibiotic compound known to increase EAAT2 expression and function, elevated not only EAAT2 but also AQP4 expression in the striatum. Furthermore, ceftriaxone reduced ethanol drinking, suggesting that ENT1-mediated downregulation of EAAT2 and AQP4 expression contributes to excessive ethanol consumption in our mouse model. Overall, our findings indicate that adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expressions, which control ethanol drinking in mice.

  19. Intracellular Adenosine Triphosphate Deprivation through Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Zeng, Xiao; Xie, Xiaoji; Han, Sanyang; Liew, Oi-Wah; Chen, Yei-Tsung; Wang, Lianhui; Liu, Xiaogang

    2015-05-27

    Growing interest in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for biological and medical uses has brought particular attention to their safety concerns. However, the intrinsic toxicity of this new class of optical nanomaterials in biological systems has not been fully evaluated. In this work, we systematically evaluate the long-term cytotoxicity of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles (NaGdF4 and NaYF4) to HeLa cells by monitoring cell viability (mitochondrial activity), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, and cell membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase release), respectively. Importantly, we find that ligand-free lanthanide-doped nanoparticles induce intracellular ATP deprivation of HeLa cells, resulting in a significant decrease in cell viability after exposure for 7 days. We attribute the particle-induced cell death to two distinct cell death pathways, autophagy and apoptosis, which are primarily mediated via the interaction between the nanoparticle and the phosphate group of cellular ATP. The understanding gained from the investigation of cytotoxicity associated with lanthanide-doped nanoparticles provides keen insights into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological systems.

  20. A comprehensive comparative review of adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Erin Y; Abraham, Teena; Saad, Nasser; Rapp, Jonathan H; Vastey, Fabienne L; Balmir, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Thrombosis risk necessitates dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist, in patients who have acute coronary syndrome. Current guidelines emphasize the critical role of dual antiplatelet therapy in both medical management and invasive strategy, especially in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. With the availability of multiple ADP-receptor antagonists, it is crucial to select the most appropriate agent for each patient. The pertinent trials were identified through a MEDLINE search, in addition to a manual search from the articles retrieved. This review examines the differences between clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor in terms of their pharmacological/pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, drug interactions and safety parameters. Prasugrel and ticagrelor exhibit greater platelet inhibition and superior efficacy compared with clopidogrel, at the expense of higher bleeding risk. Prasugrel and ticagrelor should be preferred over clopidogrel in patients who are at a high risk of thrombotic events with low risk of bleeding. Additionally, these two agents may offer advantage over clopidogrel in those patients who might have risk for drug resistance due to CYP2C19 polymorphism. In selecting the ideal agent for patients, clinicians should tailor the antiplatelet regimen by considering individual risk factors and medication characteristics.

  1. Footprint traversal by adenosine-triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeler motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Ashok; Mani, Jesrael; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2012-04-01

    Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes (CREs) are biomolecular motors in eukaryotic cells. These are driven by a chemical fuel, namely, ATP. CREs actively participate in many cellular processes that require accessibility of specific segments of DNA which are packaged as chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin is a nucleosome where 146 bp ˜ 50 nm of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is wrapped around a spool formed by histone proteins. The helical path of histone-DNA contact on a nucleosome is also called “footprint.” We investigate the mechanism of footprint traversal by a CRE that translocates along the dsDNA. Our two-state model of a CRE captures effectively two distinct chemical (or conformational) states in the mechanochemical cycle of each ATP-dependent CRE. We calculate the mean time of traversal. Our predictions on the ATP dependence of the mean traversal time can be tested by carrying out in vitro experiments on mononucleosomes.

  2. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Sarah; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Berthon, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Charbonnel, Marie Christine; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes.

  3. Adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) immunoreactivity in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, J; van den Ingh, H F; Khan, P M; Bosman, F T

    1986-04-15

    Immunoreactive adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) was studied in 91 human colorectal adenocarcinomas. The expression of ADCP was correlated with that of secretory component (SC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with the histological grade and the Dukes' stage of the carcinomas. The histological grade was scored semi-quantitatively according to 5 structural and 4 cytological variables. ADCP expression was observed in 3 different staining patterns, namely: (1) diffuse cytoplasmic (77% of the carcinomas); (2) granular cytoplasmic (13%); and (3) membrane-associated (66%). These patterns were observed alone or in combination. Eleven percent of the carcinomas exhibited no ADCP immunoreactivity. Linear regression analysis showed that the expression of ADCP correlates with that of SC and CEA. However, no significant correlation emerged between the histological parameters or the Dukes' stage and any of the immunohistological parameters. Comparison of the histological characteristics of carcinomas exhibiting little or no ADCP immunoreactivity with those showing extensive immunoreactivity, showed that membranous ADCP immunoreactivity occurs more frequently in well-differentiated carcinomas. Structural parameters showed a better correlation with membranous ADCP expression than the cytological variables. It is concluded that membranous expression of ADCP and CEA are indicators of a high level of differentiation as reflected primarily in the structural characteristics of the tumor.

  4. Distribution of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinjens, W N; ten Kate, J; van der Linden, E P; Wijnen, J T; Khan, P M; Bosman, F T

    1989-12-01

    The normal distribution of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in the human body was investigated quantitatively by ADCP-specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) and qualitatively by immunohistochemistry. In these studies we used a specific rabbit anti-human ADCP antiserum. In all 19 investigated tissues, except erythrocytes, ADCP was found by RIA in the soluble and membrane fractions. From all tissues the membrane fractions contained more ADCP (expressed per mg protein) than the soluble fractions. High membrane ADCP concentrations were found in skin, renal cortex, gastrointestinal tract, and prostate. Immunoperoxidase staining confirmed the predominant membrane-associated localization of the protein. In serous sweat glands, convoluted tubules of renal cortex, bile canaliculi, gastrointestinal tract, lung, pancreas, prostate gland, salivary gland, gallbladder, mammary gland, and uterus, ADCP immunoreactivity was found confined to the luminal membranes of the epithelial cells. These data demonstrate that ADCP is present predominantly in exocrine glands and absorptive epithelia. The localization of ADCP at the secretory or absorptive apex of the cells suggests that the function of ADCP is related to the secretory and/or absorptive process.

  5. Reproducibility of the adenosine-5'-triphosphate test in vasovagal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, D; Chassing, A; Donal, E; Hamani, D; Erickson, M; McCarville, S

    1998-11-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) provokes negative chronotropic and dromotropic vagal effects. In vasovagal syndrome, ATP test (20-mg i.v. bolus infusion) represents a promising technique for identifying patients at risk of severe cardioinhibitory response of vagal origin. The electrocardiographic and related symptom reproducibility of this descriptive test must be assessed. In order to achieve this objective, ATP tests were performed twice in 80 patients (44 men, 36 women; mean age 72.3+/-12.2 years) by using the recently published test procedure and criteria of positivity. The second test was repeated shortly after the initial test (mean: 7 days) in 43 patients and long-term (mean: 3.7 years) in 37 patients. The initial ATP test provoked a cardiac pause > 10 seconds in 31 patients (39%) and a short cardiac pause (< or =10 sec) or no pause in 49 patients (61%). The electrocardiographic outcome was reproduced during the second ATP test in 36 patients (84%) of the short-term group and in 29 patients (78%) of the long-term group. Similarly, symptoms were reproduced in 38 patients (88%) of the short-term group and 29 patients (78%) of the long-term group, reflecting the severity of the electrocardiographic outcome. The negative chronotropic and dromotropic vagal effect of ATP can be reproduced short term and long term in 84% and 78% of patients, respectively. Associated symptoms were related to the severity of the electrocardiographic outcome.

  6. Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase in diabetic nephropathy

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    Yaeni Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, and its pathogenesis is complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism is key to understanding the pathogenesis of DN, which can develop in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A hallmark of this disease is the accumulation of glucose and lipids in renal cells, resulting in oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, intracellular hypoxia, and inflammation, eventually leading to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that dysregulation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK, an enzyme that plays a principal role in cell growth and cellular energy homeostasis, in relevant tissues is a key component of the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus; thus, targeting this enzyme may ameliorate some pathologic features of this disease. AMPK regulates the coordination of anabolic processes, with its activation proven to improve glucose and lipid homeostasis in insulin-resistant animal models, as well as demonstrating mitochondrial biogenesis and antitumor activity. In this review, we discuss new findings regarding the role of AMPK in the pathogenesis of DN and offer suggestions for feasible clinical use and future studies of the role of AMPK activators in this disorder.

  7. Adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase prevents glycogen biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Bruna, Beatriz; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Bastarrica-Berasategui, Ainara; Zandueta-Criado, Aitor; Rodríguez-López, Milagros; Lasa, Iñigo; Akazawa, Takashi; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2001-01-01

    An adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase (ASPPase, EC 3.6.1.21) has been characterized by using Escherichia coli. This enzyme, whose activities in the cell are inversely correlated with the intracellular glycogen content and the glucose concentration in the culture medium, hydrolyzes ADP-glucose, the precursor molecule of glycogen biosynthesis. ASPPase was purified to apparent homogeneity (over 3,000-fold), and sequence analyses revealed that it is a member of the ubiquitously distributed group of nucleotide pyrophosphatases designated as “nudix” hydrolases. Insertional mutagenesis experiments leading to the inactivation of the ASPPase encoding gene, aspP, produced cells with marginally low enzymatic activities and higher glycogen content than wild-type bacteria. aspP was cloned into an expression vector and introduced into E. coli. Transformed cells were shown to contain a dramatically reduced amount of glycogen, as compared with the untransformed bacteria. No pleiotropic changes in the bacterial growth occurred in both the aspP-overexpressing and aspP-deficient strains. The overall results pinpoint the reaction catalyzed by ASPPase as a potential step of regulating glycogen biosynthesis in E. coli. PMID:11416161

  8. Adenosine to Inosine editing frequency controlled by splicing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Konstantin; Kapoor, Utkarsh; Mayrhofer, Elisa; Jantsch, Michael F

    2016-07-27

    Alternative splicing and adenosine to inosine (A to I) RNA-editing are major factors leading to co- and post-transcriptional modification of genetic information. Both, A to I editing and splicing occur in the nucleus. As editing sites are frequently defined by exon-intron basepairing, mRNA splicing efficiency should affect editing levels. Moreover, splicing rates affect nuclear retention and will therefore also influence the exposure of pre-mRNAs to the editing-competent nuclear environment. Here, we systematically test the influence of splice rates on RNA-editing using reporter genes but also endogenous substrates. We demonstrate for the first time that the extent of editing is controlled by splicing kinetics when editing is guided by intronic elements. In contrast, editing sites that are exclusively defined by exonic structures are almost unaffected by the splicing efficiency of nearby introns. In addition, we show that editing levels in pre- and mature mRNAs do not match. This phenomenon can in part be explained by the editing state of an RNA influencing its splicing rate but also by the binding of the editing enzyme ADAR that interferes with splicing. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Effect of Sea Buckthorn Leaves on Inosine Monophosphate and Adenylosuccinatelyase Gene Expression in Broilers during Heat Stress

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    Wei Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of sea buckthorn leaves (SBL on meat flavor in broilers during heat stress. A total 360 one-day-old Arbor Acre (AA broilers (male were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates pens pretreatment and 15 birds per pen. The control group was fed a basal diet, the experimental group I, II and III were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% SBL, respectively. During the 4th week, broilers were exposed to heat stress conditions (36±2°C, after which, muscle and liver samples were collected. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was performed to measure the content of inosine monophosphate (IMP; Real-Time PCR was performed to determine the expression of the ADSL gene. The results showed that the content of breast muscle IMP of group I, II and III was significantly increased 68%, 102% and 103% (p<0.01 compared with the control, respectively; the content of thigh muscle IMP of group II and III was significantly increased 56% and 58% (p<0.01, respectively. Additionally, ADSL mRNA expression in group I, II and III was increased significantly 80%, 65% and 49% (p<0.01 compared with the control, respectively. The content of IMP and expression of ADSL mRNA were increased by basal diet supplemented with SBL, therefore, the decrease of meat flavor caused by heat stress was relieved.

  10. Effect of Sea Buckthorn Leaves on Inosine Monophosphate and Adenylosuccinatelyase Gene Expression in Broilers during Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xin; Yan, Changjiang; Liu, Hongnan; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Pengzu; Su, Jie; Li, Yao

    2012-01-01

    The trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of sea buckthorn leaves (SBL) on meat flavor in broilers during heat stress. A total 360 one-day-old Arbor Acre (AA) broilers (male) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates pens pretreatment and 15 birds per pen. The control group was fed a basal diet, the experimental group I, II and III were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% SBL, respectively. During the 4th week, broilers were exposed to heat stress conditions (36±2°C), after which, muscle and liver samples were collected. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to measure the content of inosine monophosphate (IMP); Real-Time PCR was performed to determine the expression of the ADSL gene. The results showed that the content of breast muscle IMP of group I, II and III was significantly increased 68%, 102% and 103% (p<0.01) compared with the control, respectively; the content of thigh muscle IMP of group II and III was significantly increased 56% and 58% (p<0.01), respectively. Additionally, ADSL mRNA expression in group I, II and III was increased significantly 80%, 65% and 49% (p<0.01) compared with the control, respectively. The content of IMP and expression of ADSL mRNA were increased by basal diet supplemented with SBL, therefore, the decrease of meat flavor caused by heat stress was relieved.

  11. Virtual and experimental high-throughput screening (HTS) in search of novel inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase II (IMPDH II) inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkern, Torsten; Prabhu, Arati; Kharkar, Prashant S.; Goebel, Heike; Rolser, Edith; Burckhard-Boer, Waltraud; Arumugam, Premkumar; Makhija, Mahindra T.

    2012-11-01

    IMPDH (Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase) catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. IMPDH inhibition in sensitive cell types (e.g., lymphocytes) blocks proliferation (by blocking RNA and DNA synthesis as a result of decreased cellular levels of guanine nucleotides). This makes it an interesting target for cancer and autoimmune disorders. Currently available IMPDH inhibitors such as mycophenolic acid (MPA, uncompetitive inhibitor) and nucleoside analogs (e.g., ribavirin, competitive inhibitor after intracellular activation by phosphorylation) have unfavorable tolerability profiles which limit their use. Hence, the quest for novel IMPDH inhibitors continues. In the present study, a ligand-based virtual screening using IMPDH inhibitor pharmacophore models was performed on in-house compound collection. A total of 50,000 virtual hits were selected for primary screen using in vitro IMPDH II inhibition up to 10 μM. The list of 2,500 hits (with >70 % inhibition) was further subjected to hit confirmation for the determination of IC50 values. The hits obtained were further clustered using maximum common substructure based formalism resulting in 90 classes and 7 singletons. A thorough inspection of these yielded 7 interesting classes in terms of mini-SAR with IC50 values ranging from 0.163 μM to little over 25 μM. The average ligand efficiency was found to be 0.3 for the best class. The classes thus discovered represent structurally novel chemotypes which can be taken up for further development.

  12. Inosine 5'-Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH) as a Potential Target for the Development of a New Generation of Antiprotozoan Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotie, Jean

    2016-06-19

    Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the critical step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, and thus is at the center of cell growth and proliferation. However, although this enzyme has been exploited as potential target for the development of immunosuppressive, anticancer, and antiviral agents, the functional importance of IMPDH as a promising antiprotozoan drug target is still in its infancy mainly because of the availability of alternative nucleotides metabolic pathways in many of these parasites. This situation suggests that the inhibition of IMPDH might have little to no effect on the survival of protozoan parasites. As a result, no IMPDH inhibitor is currently commercially available or has advanced to clinical trials as a potential antiprotozoan drug. Nevertheless, recent advances toward the development of selective inhibitors of the IMPDH enzyme from Crystosporidium parvum as potential drug candidates against cryptosporidiosis should revive further investigations of this drug target in other protozoa parasites. The current review examines the chemical structures and biological activities of reported protozoan's IMPDH inhibitors. SciFinder was used to broadly pinpoint reports published on the topic in the chemical literature, with no specific time frame. Opportunities and challenges towards the development of inhibitors of IMPDH enzymes from protozoa parasites as potential chemotherapies toward the respective diseases they cause are also discussed.

  13. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients treated with mycophenolate mofetil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storer, Barry E; Boeckh, Michael J; Bemer, Meagan J; Phillips, Brian R; Risler, Linda J; McCune, Jeannine S

    2014-08-01

    A novel approach to personalizing postgrafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients is evaluating inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity as a drug-specific biomarker of mycophenolic acid (MPA)-induced immunosuppression. This prospective study evaluated total MPA, unbound MPA, and total MPA glucuronide plasma concentrations and IMPDH activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) at 5 time points after the morning dose of oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on day +21 in 56 nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. Substantial interpatient variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was observed and accurately characterized by the population pharmacokinetic-dynamic model. IMPDH activity decreased with increasing MPA plasma concentration, with maximum inhibition coinciding with maximum MPA concentration in most patients. The overall relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity was described by a direct inhibitory maximum effect model with an IC50 of 3.23 mg/L total MPA and 57.3 ng/mL unbound MPA. The day +21 IMPDH area under the effect curve (AUEC) was associated with cytomegalovirus reactivation, nonrelapse mortality, and overall mortality. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic-dynamic model was developed that relates plasma MPA concentrations with PMNC IMPDH activity after an MMF dose in HCT recipients. Future studies should validate this model and confirm that day +21 IMPDH AUEC is a predictive biomarker. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Photoinduced electron transfer occurs between 2-aminopurine and the DNA nucleic acid monophosphates: results from cyclic voltammetry and fluorescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Madhavan; Kodali, Goutham; Xing, Yangjun; Stanley, Robert J

    2010-08-19

    2-Aminopurine (2AP) is a fluorescent adenine analogue that is useful in part because its substantial fluorescence quantum yield is sensitive to base stacking with native bases in ss- and ds-DNA. However, the degree of quenching is sequence dependent and the mechanism of quenching is still a matter of some debate. Here we show that the most likely quenching mechanism in aqueous solution involves photoinduced electron transfer (PET), as revealed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) performed in aprotic organic solvents. These potentials were used with spectroscopic data to obtain excited-state reduction and oxidation potentials. Stern-Volmer (S-V) experiments using the native base monophosphate nucleotides (NMPs) rGMP, rAMP, rCMP, and dTMP were performed in aqueous solution to obtain quenching rate constants kq. The results suggest that 2AP* can act as either an electron donor or an electron acceptor depending on the particular NMP but that PET proceeds for all NMPs tested.

  15. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and enzymatic analysis of 8-modified cytidine monophosphate-sialic acid and sialyl lactose derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Thomas J; Withers, Stephen G

    2010-07-14

    The sialic acids found on eukaryotic glycans have remarkably diverse core structures, with a range of modifications at C5, C7, C8 and C9. These carbohydrates have been found to play key roles in cell-cell interactions within eukaryotes and often serve as the initial site of attachment for viruses and bacteria. Consequently simple changes to the structures of the sialic acids can result in profoundly different and often opposing biological effects. Of particular importance are modifications at the 8-position. These include O-acetylation, carried out by an acetyl transferase, and particularly polysialylation, catalyzed by a polysialyltransferase. As part of a structural and mechanistic study of sialyltransferases and polysialyltransferases, access was needed to sialic acid-containing oligosaccharides that are modified at the 8-position of the sialic acid to render this center non-nucleophilic. The free 8-modified sialic acid analogues were synthesized using a concise, divergent chemical synthetic approach, and each was converted to its cytidine monophosphate (CMP) sugar donor form using a bacterial CMP-sialic acid synthetase. The transfer of each of the modified donors to lactose by each of two sialyltransferases was investigated, and kinetic parameters were determined. These yielded insights into the roles of interactions occurring at that position during enzymatic sialyl transfer. A transferase from Campylobacter jejuni was identified as the most suitable for the enzymatic coupling and utilized to synthesize the 8''-modified sialyl lactose trisaccharides in multimilligram amounts.

  16. Lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy and vascular function: Role of the nitric oxide-phosphodiesterase type 5-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yukihito

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that there is an association of lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy with cardiovascular disease, suggesting that lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Vascular function, including endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle function, is involved in the pathogenesis, maintenance and development of atherosclerosis, leading to cardiovascular events. Vascular dysfunction per se should also contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy. Both lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy and vascular dysfunction have cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, aging, obesity and smoking. Inactivation of the phosphodiesterase type 5-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate-nitric oxide pathway causes lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy through an enhancement of sympathetic nervous activity, endothelial dysfunction, increase in Rho-associated kinase activity and vasoconstriction, and decrease in blood flow of pelvic viscera. Both endogenous nitric oxide and exogenous nitric oxide act as vasodilators on vascular smooth muscle cells through an increase in the content of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which is inactivated by phosphodiesterase type 5. In a clinical setting, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are widely used in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors might have beneficial effects on vascular function through not only inhibition of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate degradation, but also increases in testosterone levels and nitric oxide bioavailability, increase in the number and improvement of the function of endothelial progenitor cells, and decrease in insulin resistance. In the present review, the relationships between lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy, the

  17. Human taste and umami receptor responses to chemosensorica generated by Maillard-type N²-alkyl- and N²-arylthiomethylation of guanosine 5'-monophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Barbara; Brockhoff, Anne; Degenhardt, Andreas; Billmayer, Sylvia; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    Structural modification of the exocyclic amino function of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP) by Maillard-type reactions with reducing carbohydrates was recently found to increase the umami-enhancing activity of the nucleotide upon S-N(2)-1-carboxyalkylation and S-N(2)-(1-alkylamino)carbonylalkylation, respectively. Since the presence of sulfur atoms in synthetic N(2)-alkylated nucleotides was reported to be beneficial for sensory activity, a versatile Maillard-type modification of 5'-GMP upon reaction with glycine's Strecker aldehyde formaldehyde and organic thiols was performed in the present study. A series of N(2)-(alkylthiomethyl)guanosine and N(2)-(arylthiomethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphates was generated and the compounds were evaluated to what extent they enhance the umami response to monosodium L-glutamate in vivo by a paired-choice comparison test using trained human volunteers and in vitro by means of cell-based umami taste receptor assay. Associated with a high umami-enhancing activity (β-value 5.1), N(2)-(propylthiomethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphate could be generated when 5'-GMP reacted with glucose, glycine, and the onion-derived odorant 1-propanethiol, thus opening a valuable avenue to produce high-potency umami-enhancing chemosensorica from food-derived natural products by kitchen-type chemistry.

  18. Chronic lithium and sodium valproate both decrease the concentration of myoinositol and increase the concentration of inositol monophosphates in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T; Rotzinger, S; Nakashima, T T; Hanstock, C C; Ulrich, M; Silverstone, P H

    2003-05-01

    One of the mechanisms underlying lithium's efficacy as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder has been proposed to be via its effects on the phosphoinositol cycle (PI cycle), where it is an inhibitor of the enzyme converting inositol monophosphates to myoinositol. In contrast, sodium valproate, another commonly used mood stabilizer, appears to have no direct effects on this enzyme and was thus believed to have a different mechanism of action. In the present study, high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the chronic effects of both lithium and sodium valproate on the concentrations of myoinositol and inositol monophosphates in rat brain. As predicted, lithium-treated rats exhibited a significant increase in the concentration of inositol monophosphates and a significant decrease in myoinositol concentration compared to saline-treated controls. However, unexpectedly, sodium valproate administration produced exactly the same results as lithium administration. These novel findings suggest that both lithium and sodium valproate may share a common mechanism of action in the treatment of bipolar disorder via actions on the PI cycle.

  19. Adenosine effects on inhibitory synaptic transmission and excitation–inhibition balance in the rat neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei; Bannon, Nicholas M; Ilin, Vladimir; Volgushev, Maxim; Chistiakova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adenosine might be the most widespread neuromodulator in the brain: as a metabolite of ATP it is present in every neuron and glial cell. However, how adenosine affects operation of neurons and networks in the neocortex is poorly understood, mostly because modulation of inhibitory transmission by adenosine has been so little studied. To clarify adenosine's role at inhibitory synapses, and in excitation–inhibition balance in pyramidal neurons, we recorded pharmacologically isolated inhibitory responses, compound excitatory–inhibitory responses and spontaneous events in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in slices from rat visual cortex. We show that adenosine (1–150 μm) suppresses inhibitory transmission to these neurons in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. The suppression was mediated by presynaptic A1 receptors (A1Rs) because it was blocked by a selective A1 antagonist, DPCPX, and associated with changes of release indices: paired-pulse ratio, inverse coefficient of variation and frequency of miniature events. At some synapses (12 out of 24) we found evidence for A2ARs: their blockade led to a small but significant increase of the magnitude of adenosine-mediated suppression. This effect of A2AR blockade was not observed when A1Rs were blocked, suggesting that A2ARs do not have their own effect on transmission, but can modulate the A1R-mediated suppression. At both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, the magnitude of A1R-mediated suppression and A2AR–A1R interaction expressed high variability, suggesting high heterogeneity of synapses in the sensitivity to adenosine. Adenosine could change the balance between excitation and inhibition at a set of inputs to a neuron bidirectionally, towards excitation or towards inhibition. On average, however, these bidirectional changes cancelled each other, and the overall balance of excitation and inhibition was maintained during application of adenosine. These results suggest that changes of adenosine

  20. Release of adenosine from human neutrophils stimulated by platelet activating factor, leukotriene B4 and opsonized zymosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sipka

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL stimulated by platelet activating factor (PAF, leukotriene B4 (LTB4 or opsonized zymosan (OZ released adenosine measured by thermospray high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in the cell-free supernatants. Stimulation by PAF or LTB4 resulted in a bellshaped concentration-effect curve; 5 × 10−7 M PAF, 10−8 M LTB4 and 500 μg ml−1 OZ induced peak adenosine release, thus cytotoxic concentrations did not elevate adenosine level in the supernatants. Therefore adenosine release was characteristic of viable cells. As calculated from concentration-effect curves, the rank order of potency for adenosine release was PAF > LTB > OZ. These resuits suggest that adenosine, when bound specifically to membrane receptor sites, may initiate signal transduction, and, in co-operation with other inflammatory mediators, may modulate phagocyte function, e.g. production of chemoluminescence (CL.

  1. Adenosine elicits an eNOS-independent reduction in arterial blood pressure in conscious mice that involves adenosine A(2A) receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Jaff, Mohammad G; Høgh, Ditte

    2011-01-01

    Aims:  Adenosine plays an important role in the regulation of heart rate and vascular reactivity. However, the mechanisms underlying the acute effect of adenosine on arterial blood pressure in conscious mice are unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of the nucleoside on mean...... arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in conscious mice. Methods:  Chronic indwelling catheters were placed in C57Bl/6J (WT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-out (eNOS(-/-) ) mice for continuous measurements of MAP and HR. Using PCR and myograph analysis involment of adenosine...... receptors was investigated in human and mouse renal blood vessels Results:  Bolus infusion of 0.5 mg/kg adenosine elicited significant transient decreases in MAP (99.3±2.3 to 70.4±4.5 mmHg) and HR (603.2±18.3 to 364.3±49.2 min(-1) ) which were inhibited by the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385. Activation...

  2. Sleep-wake sensitive mechanisms of adenosine release in the basal forebrain of rodents: an in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Edward Sims

    Full Text Available Adenosine acting in the basal forebrain is a key mediator of sleep homeostasis. Extracellular adenosine concentrations increase during wakefulness, especially during prolonged wakefulness and lead to increased sleep pressure and subsequent rebound sleep. The release of endogenous adenosine during the sleep-wake cycle has mainly been studied in vivo with microdialysis techniques. The biochemical changes that accompany sleep-wake status may be preserved in vitro. We have therefore used adenosine-sensitive biosensors in slices of the basal forebrain (BFB to study both depolarization-evoked adenosine release and the steady state adenosine tone in rats, mice and hamsters. Adenosine release was evoked by high K(+, AMPA, NMDA and mGlu receptor agonists, but not by other transmitters associated with wakefulness such as orexin, histamine or neurotensin. Evoked and basal adenosine release in the BFB in vitro exhibited three key features: the magnitude of each varied systematically with the diurnal time at which the animal was sacrificed; sleep deprivation prior to sacrifice greatly increased both evoked adenosine release and the basal tone; and the enhancement of evoked adenosine release and basal tone resulting from sleep deprivation was reversed by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor, 1400 W. These data indicate that characteristics of adenosine release recorded in the BFB in vitro reflect those that have been linked in vivo to the homeostatic control of sleep. Our results provide methodologically independent support for a key role for induction of iNOS as a trigger for enhanced adenosine release following sleep deprivation and suggest that this induction may constitute a biochemical memory of this state.

  3. Sleep-Wake Sensitive Mechanisms of Adenosine Release in the Basal Forebrain of Rodents: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Robert Edward; Wu, Houdini Ho Tin; Dale, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine acting in the basal forebrain is a key mediator of sleep homeostasis. Extracellular adenosine concentrations increase during wakefulness, especially during prolonged wakefulness and lead to increased sleep pressure and subsequent rebound sleep. The release of endogenous adenosine during the sleep-wake cycle has mainly been studied in vivo with microdialysis techniques. The biochemical changes that accompany sleep-wake status may be preserved in vitro. We have therefore used adenosine-sensitive biosensors in slices of the basal forebrain (BFB) to study both depolarization-evoked adenosine release and the steady state adenosine tone in rats, mice and hamsters. Adenosine release was evoked by high K+, AMPA, NMDA and mGlu receptor agonists, but not by other transmitters associated with wakefulness such as orexin, histamine or neurotensin. Evoked and basal adenosine release in the BFB in vitro exhibited three key features: the magnitude of each varied systematically with the diurnal time at which the animal was sacrificed; sleep deprivation prior to sacrifice greatly increased both evoked adenosine release and the basal tone; and the enhancement of evoked adenosine release and basal tone resulting from sleep deprivation was reversed by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, 1400 W. These data indicate that characteristics of adenosine release recorded in the BFB in vitro reflect those that have been linked in vivo to the homeostatic control of sleep. Our results provide methodologically independent support for a key role for induction of iNOS as a trigger for enhanced adenosine release following sleep deprivation and suggest that this induction may constitute a biochemical memory of this state. PMID:23326515

  4. Caffeine intake inverts the effect of adenosine on myocardial perfusion during stress as measured by T1 mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Prakken, Niek H.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Dijkman, Paul R. M.; Van der Harst, Pim; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine intake before adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging may cause false negative findings. We hypothesized that the antagonistic effect of caffeine can be measured by T1 relaxation times in rest and adenosine stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), as T1 mapping techniques are sensitive to changes in myocardial blood volume. We prospectively analyzed 105 consecutive patients with adenosine stress perfusion CMR on a 1.5-T MRI system. Rest and stress T1 mapping was perform...

  5. Stimulation of endothelial adenosine Al receptors enhances adhesion of neutrophils in the intact guinea pig coronary system

    OpenAIRE

    Zahler, Stefan; Becker, Bernhard F.; Raschke, P.; Gerlach, E.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim was to determine the action of pathophysiologically relevant adenosine concentrations (0.1-1 μM) on adhesion of neutrophils to coronary endothelium. Further aims were to evaluate the nature and localisation of the adenosine receptor involved. and to assess the effect of endogenous adenosine. Methods: Adhesion was studied in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts by determining the number of cells emerging in the coronary effluent after intracoronary bolus injections...

  6. Protective effect of adenosine receptors against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Boris; Varn, Matthew N.; Zemskova, Marina A.; Zemskov, Evgeny A.; Sridhar, Supriya; Lucas, Rudolf; Verin, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) affect 200,000 people a year in the USA. Pulmonary vascular and specifically endothelial cell (EC) barrier compromise is a hallmark of these diseases. We have recently shown that extracellular adenosine enhances human pulmonary (EC) barrier via activation of adenosine receptors (ARs) in cell cultures. On the basis of these data, we hypothesized that activation of ARs might exert barrier-protective effects in a model of ALI/ARDS in mice. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of pre- and posttreatment of adenosine and 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a nonselective stable AR agonist, on LPS-induced lung injury. Mice were given vehicle or LPS intratracheally followed by adenosine, NECA, or vehicle instilled via the internal jugular vein. Postexperiment cell counts, Evans Blue Dye albumin (EBDA) extravasation, levels of proteins, and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. Harvested lungs were used for histology and myeloperoxidase studies. Mice challenged with LPS alone demonstrated an inflammatory response typical of ALI. Cell counts, EBDA extravasation, as well as levels of proteins and inflammatory cytokines were decreased in adenosine-treated mice. Histology displayed reduced infiltration of neutrophils. NECA had a similar effect on LPS-induced vascular barrier compromise. Importantly, posttreatment with adenosine or NECA recovers lung vascular barrier and reduces inflammation induced by LPS challenge. Furthermore, adenosine significantly attenuated protein degradation of A2A and A3 receptors induced by LPS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that activation of ARs protects and restores vascular barrier functions and reduces inflammation in LPS-induced ALI. PMID:24414256

  7. Impaired Erectile Function in CD73-deficient Mice with Reduced Endogenous Penile Adenosine Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiaming; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Zhang, Weiru; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Adenosine has been implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection. However, a direct role of endogenous adenosine in erectile physiology and pathology has not been established. Aim To determine the functional role of endogenous adenosine production in erectile function. Methods CD73-deficient mice (CD73−/−) and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were used. Some WT mice were treated with alpha, beta-methylene adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (APCP), a CD73-specific inhibitor. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure adenosine levels in mouse penile tissues. In vivo assessment of intracorporal pressure (ICP) normalized to mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to electrical stimulation (ES) of the cavernous nerve was used. Main Outcome Measurement The main outcome measures of this study were the in vivo assessment of initiation and maintenance of penile erection in WT mice and mice with deficiency in CD73 (ecto-5′-nucleotidase), a key cell-surface enzyme to produce extracellular adenosine. Results Endogenous adenosine levels were elevated in the erected state induced by ES of cavernous nerve compared to the flaccid state in WT mice but not in CD73−/− mice. At cellular levels, we identified that CD73 was highly expressed in the neuronal, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in mouse penis. Functionally, we found that the ratio of ES-induced ICP to MAP in CD73−/− mice was reduced from 0.48 ± 0.03 to 0.33 ± 0.05 and ES-induced slope was reduced from 0.30 ± 0.13 mm Hg/s to 0.15 ± 0.05 mm Hg/s (both P penile erection. PMID:21595838

  8. Orexin A attenuates the sleep-promoting effect of adenosine in the lateral hypothalamus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Yanping; Tang, Lin; Yan, Jie; He, Chao; Li, Yang; Hu, Zhian; Xia, Jianxia

    2014-10-01

    Orexin neurons within the lateral hypothalamus play a crucial role in the promotion and maintenance of arousal. Studies have strongly suggested that orexin neurons are an important target in endogenous adenosine-regulated sleep homeostasis. Orexin A induces a robust increase in the firing activity of orexin neurons, while adenosine has an inhibitory effect. Whether the excitatory action of orexins in the lateral hypothalamus actually promotes wakefulness and reverses the sleep-producing effect of adenosine in vivo is less clear. In this study, electroencephalographic and electromyographic recordings were used to investigate the effects of orexin A and adenosine on sleep and wakefulness in rats. We found that microinjection of orexin A into the lateral hypothalamus increased wakefulness with a concomitant reduction of sleep during the first 3 h of post-injection recording, and this was completely blocked by a selective antagonist for orexin receptor 1, SB 334867. The enhancement of wakefulness also occurred after application of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the first 3 h post-injection. However, in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist APV, orexin A did not induce any change of sleep and wakefulness in the first 3 h. Further, exogenous application of adenosine into the lateral hypothalamus induced a marked increase of sleep in the first 3-h post-injection. No significant change in sleep and wakefulness was detected after adenosine application followed by orexin A administration into the same brain area. These findings suggest that the sleep-promoting action of adenosine can be reversed by orexin A applied to the lateral hypothalamus, perhaps by exciting glutamatergic input to orexin neurons via the action of orexin receptor 1.

  9. Splenic Switch-off: A Tool to Assess Stress Adequacy in Adenosine Perfusion Cardiac MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisty, Charlotte; Ripley, David P; Herrey, Anna S; Captur, Gabriella; Wong, Timothy C; Petersen, Steffen E; Plein, Sven; Peebles, Charles; Schelbert, Erik B; Greenwood, John P; Moon, James C

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the pharmacology and potential clinical utility of splenic switch-off to identify understress in adenosine perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Splenic switch-off was assessed in perfusion cardiac MR examinations from 100 patients (mean age, 62 years [age range, 18-87 years]) by using three stress agents (adenosine, dobutamine, and regadenoson) in three different institutions, with appropriate ethical permissions. In addition, 100 negative adenosine images from the Clinical Evaluation of MR Imaging in Coronary Heart Disease (CE-MARC) trial (35 false and 65 true negative; mean age, 59 years [age range, 40-73 years]) were assessed to ascertain the clinical utility of the sign to detect likely pharmacologic understress. Differences in splenic perfusion were compared by using Wilcoxon signed rank or Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and true-negative and false-negative findings in CE-MARC groups were compared by using the Fisher exact test. The spleen was visible in 99% (198 of 200) of examinations and interobserver agreement in the visual grading of splenic switch-off was excellent (κ = 0.92). Visually, splenic switch-off occurred in 90% of adenosine studies, but never in dobutamine or regadenoson studies. Semiquantitative assessments supported these observations: peak signal intensity was 78% less with adenosine than at rest (P regadenoson (4% reduction; P = .08). Calculated peak splenic divided by myocardial signal intensity (peak splenic/myocardial signal intensity) differed between stress agents (adenosine median, 0.34; dobutamine median, 1.34; regadenoson median, 1.13; P adenosine is a new, simple observation that identifies understressed patients who are at risk for false-negative findings on perfusion MR images. These data suggest that almost 10% of all patients may be understressed, and that repeat examination of individuals with failed splenic switch-off may significantly improve test sensitivity.

  10. Structural basis of the substrate specificity of Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessanti, Paola [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States); Università di Sassari, (Italy); Zhang, Yang [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States); Allegrini, Simone [Università di Sassari, (Italy); Tozzi, Maria Grazia [Università di Pisa, (Italy); Sgarrella, Francesco [Università di Sassari, (Italy); Ealick, Steven E., E-mail: see3@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Adenosine phosphorylase from B. cereus shows a strong preference for adenosine over other 6-oxopurine nucleosides. Mutation of Asp204 to asparagine reduces the efficiency of adenosine cleavage but does not affect inosine cleavage, effectively reversing the substrate specificity. The structures of D204N complexes explain these observations. Purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond of purine (2′-deoxy)nucleosides, generating the corresponding free base and (2′-deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate. Two classes of PNPs have been identified: homotrimers specific for 6-oxopurines and homohexamers that accept both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines. Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase (AdoP) is a hexameric PNP; however, it is highly specific for 6-aminopurines. To investigate the structural basis for the unique substrate specificity of AdoP, the active-site mutant D204N was prepared and kinetically characterized and the structures of the wild-type protein and the D204N mutant complexed with adenosine and sulfate or with inosine and sulfate were determined at high resolution (1.2–1.4 Å). AdoP interacts directly with the preferred substrate through a hydrogen-bond donation from the catalytically important residue Asp204 to N7 of the purine base. Comparison with Escherichia coli PNP revealed a more optimal orientation of Asp204 towards N7 of adenosine and a more closed active site. When inosine is bound, two water molecules are interposed between Asp204 and the N7 and O6 atoms of the nucleoside, thus allowing the enzyme to find alternative but less efficient ways to stabilize the transition state. The mutation of Asp204 to asparagine led to a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency for adenosine without affecting the efficiency of inosine cleavage.

  11. Bradykinin and adenosine receptors mediate desflurane induced postconditioning in human myocardium: role of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Jean-Louis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desflurane during early reperfusion has been shown to postcondition human myocardium, in vitro. We investigated the role of adenosine and bradykinin receptors, and generation of radical oxygen species in desflurane-induced postconditioning in human myocardium. Methods We recorded isometric contraction of human right atrial trabeculae hanged in an oxygenated Tyrode's solution (34 degrees Celsius, stimulation frequency 1 Hz. After a 30-min hypoxic period, desflurane 6% was administered during the first 5 min of reoxygenation. Desflurane was administered alone or with pretreatment of N-mercaptopropionylglycine, a reactive oxygen species scavenger, 8-(p-Sulfophenyltheophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, HOE140, a selective B2 bradykinin receptor antagonist. In separate groups, adenosine and bradykinin were administered during the first minutes of reoxygenation alone or in presence of N-mercaptopropionylglycine. The force of contraction of trabeculae was recorded continuously. Developed force at the end of a 60-min reoxygenation period was compared (mean ± standard deviation between the groups by a variance analysis and post hoc test. Results Desflurane 6% (84 ± 6% of baseline enhanced the recovery of force after 60-min of reoxygenation as compared to control group (51 ± 8% of baseline, P N-mercaptopropionylglycine (54 ± 3% of baseline, 8-(p-Sulfophenyltheophylline (62 ± 9% of baseline, HOE140 (58 ± 6% of baseline abolished desflurane-induced postconditioning. Adenosine (80 ± 9% of baseline and bradykinin (83 ± 4% of baseline induced postconditioning (P vs control, N-mercaptopropionylglycine abolished the beneficial effects of adenosine and bradykinin (54 ± 8 and 58 ± 5% of baseline, respectively. Conclusions In vitro, desflurane-induced postconditioning depends on reactive oxygen species production, activation of adenosine and bradykinin B2 receptors. And, the cardioprotective effect of adenosine and bradykinin

  12. Adenosine signaling promotes neuronal, catecholaminergic differentiation of primary neural crest cells and CNS-derived CAD cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Matthew L; Ji, Ming; Paris, Maryline; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2005-07-01

    In neural crest (NC) cultures cAMP signaling is an instructive signal in catecholaminergic, sympathoadrenal cell development. However, the extracellular signals activating the cAMP pathway during NC cell development have not been identified. We demonstrate that in avian NC cultures, evidenced by tyrosine hydroxylase expression and catecholamine biosynthesis, adenosine and not adrenergic signaling, together with BMP2, promotes sympathoadrenal cell development. In NC cultures, addition of the adenosine receptor agonist NECA in the presence of BMP2 promotes sympathoadrenal cell development, whereas the antagonist CGS 15943 or the adenosine degrading enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) suppresses TH expression. Importantly, NC cells express A2A and A2B receptors which couple with Gsalpha increasing intracellular cAMP. Employing the CNS-derived catecholaminergic CAD cell line, we also demonstrate that neuronal differentiation mediated by serum withdrawal is further enhanced by treatment with IBMX, a cAMP-elevating agent, or the adenosine receptor agonist NECA, acting via cAMP. By contrast, the adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943 or the adenosine degrading enzyme ADA inhibits CAD cell neuronal differentiation mediated by serum withdrawal. These results support that adenosine is a physiological signal in neuronal differentiation of the CNS-derived catecholaminergic CAD cell line and suggest that adenosine signaling is involved in NC cell development in vivo.

  13. Comparison of intravenous adenosine and intravenous regadenoson for the measurement of pressure-derived coronary fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugham, Pradeep; Figueredo, Vincent M; Patel, Parul B; Morris, D Lynn

    2013-02-22

    Defining the clinical and physiologic significance of an intermediate coronary artery stenosis is aided by measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). Adenosine is the most common agent used in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory for the measurement of FFR. Regadenoson, a selective adenosine receptor agonist, with fewer side effects than adenosine has been used extensively in stress testing to induce hyperaemia. We postulated that FFR measurements would be equivalent following administration of regadenoson and adenosine. Twenty patients with an angiographic intermediate coronary artery stenosis (50% to 80%) were included in the study. FFR was measured during three minutes of intravenous (IV) adenosine infusion and for five minutes after an injection of regadenoson. The mean difference between the FFR measured by IV adenosine and IV regadenoson was 0.0040 (min -0.04, max +0.04, standard deviation [SD] 0.025). There was a strong linear correlation between the FFR measured by IV adenosine and IV regadenoson (R2 linear=0.933). The FFR at maximum hyperaemia was achieved earlier using regadenoson than adenosine (59±24.5 sec vs. 93±44.5 sec, p=0.01). Regadenoson produces similar pressure-derived FFR compared to IV adenosine infusion.

  14. The Arabidopsis thiamin-deficient mutant pale green1 lacks thiamin monophosphate phosphatase of the vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wei-Yu; Liao, Jo-Chien; Wang, Hsin-Tzu; Hung, Tzu-Huan; Tseng, Ching-Chih; Chung, Tsui-Yun; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2017-07-01

    Thiamin diphosphate (TPP, vitamin B1 ) is an essential coenzyme present in all organisms. Animals obtain TPP from their diets, but plants synthesize TPPde novo. We isolated and characterized an Arabidopsis pale green1 (pale1) mutant that contained higher concentrations of thiamin monophosphate (TMP) and less thiamin and TPP than the wild type. Supplementation with thiamin, but not the thiazole and pyrimidine precursors, rescued the mutant phenotype, indicating that the pale1 mutant is a thiamin-deficient mutant. Map-based cloning and whole-genome sequencing revealed that the pale1 mutant has a mutation in At5g32470 encoding a TMP phosphatase of the TPP biosynthesis pathway. We further confirmed that the mutation of At5g32470 is responsible for the mutant phenotypes by complementing the pale1 mutant with constructs overexpressing full-length At5g32470. Most plant TPP biosynthetic enzymes are located in the chloroplasts and cytosol, but At5g32470-GFP localized to the mitochondrion of the root, hypocotyl, mesophyll and guard cells of the 35S:At5g32470-GFP complemented plants. The subcellular localization of a functional TMP phosphatase suggests that the complete vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway may involve the chloroplasts, mitochondria and cytosol in plants. Analysis of PALE1 promoter-uidA activity revealed that PALE1 is mainly expressed in vascular tissues of Arabidopsis seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of TPP biosynthesis genes and genes encoding the TPP-dependent enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase revealed that the transcript levels of these genes were upregulated in the pale1 mutant. These results suggest that endogenous levels of TPP may affect the expression of genes involved in TPP biosynthesis and TPP-dependent enzymes. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Myricetin is a novel inhibitor of human inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase with anti-leukemia activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Huiling; Hu, Qian; Wang, Jingyuan; Liu, Zehui; Wu, Dang [Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Mei Long Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lu, Weiqiang, E-mail: wqlu@bio.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Huang, Jin, E-mail: huangjin@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Mei Long Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-09-02

    Human inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (hIMPDH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of purine nucleotides, playing crucial roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Dysregulation of hIMPDH expression and activity have been found in a variety of human cancers including leukemia. In this study, we found that myricetin, a naturally occurring phytochemical existed in berries, wine and tea, was a novel inhibitor of human type 1 and type 2 IMPDH (hIMPDH1/2) with IC{sub 50} values of 6.98 ± 0.22 μM and 4.10 ± 0.14 μM, respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis using Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that myricetin is a mix-type inhibitor for hIMPDH1/2. Differential scanning fluorimetry and molecular docking simulation data demonstrate that myricetin is capable of binding with hIMPDH1/2. Myricetin treatment exerts potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on K562 human leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, cytotoxicity of myricetin on K562 cells were markedly attenuated by exogenous addition of guanosine, a salvage pathway of maintaining intracellular pool of guanine nucleotides. Taking together, these results indicate that natural product myricetin exhibits potent anti-leukemia activity by interfering with purine nucleotides biosynthetic pathway through the suppression of hIMPDH1/2 catalytic activity. - Highlights: • Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid, is a novel inhibitor of hIMPDH1/2. • Myricetin directly binds with hIMPDH1/2 and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of leukemia cells. • The cytotoxicity of myricetin on K562 cells is markedly attenuated by exogenous addition of guanosine.

  16. Plasmin is a potent and specific chemoattractant for human peripheral monocytes acting via a cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrovets, T; Tippler, B; Rieks, M; Simmet, T

    1997-06-15

    We have previously reported that the serine protease plasmin generated during contact activation of human plasma triggers biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LTs) in human peripheral monocytes (PMs), but not in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). We now show that purified plasmin acts as a potent chemoattractant on human monocytes, but not on PMNs. Human plasmin or plasminogen activated with urokinase, but not active site-blocked plasmin or plasminogen, elicited monocyte migration across polycarbonate membranes. Similarly, stimulation of monocytes with plasmin, but not with active site-blocked plasmin or plasminogen, induced actin polymerization. As assessed by checkerboard analysis, the plasmin-mediated monocyte locomotion was a true chemotaxis. The plasmin-induced chemotactic response was inhibited by the lysine analog trans-4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (t-AMCA), which prevents binding of plasmin/ogen to the appropriate membrane binding sites. In addition, active site-blocked plasmin inhibited monocyte migration triggered by active plasmin. Further, plasmin-induced monocyte chemotaxis was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX) and 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (HMG) and chelerythrine, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC). Plasmin, but not active site-blocked plasmin or plasminogen, triggered formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in monocytes. LY83583, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, inhibited both plasmin-induced cGMP formation and the chemotactic response. The latter effect could be antagonized by 8-bromo-cGMP. In addition, KT5823 and (Rp)-8-(p-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate [(Rp)-8-pCPT-cGMPs], two structurally unrelated inhibitors of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, inhibited plasmin-mediated monocyte chemotaxis. Thus, beyond being a stimulus for lipid mediator release, plasmin is a potent and specific chemoattractant for human monocytes acting via a c

  17. Penile Erection Induced by Scoparone from Artemisia capillaris through the Nitric Oxide-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Ram; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jong Kwan

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relaxant effect of scoparone from Artemisia capillaris on rabbit penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (PCCSM) and to elucidate the mechanism of action of scoparone for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). PCCSM that had been precontracted with phenylephrine was treated with 3 Artemisia herbs (A. princeps, A. capillaris, and A. iwayomogi) and 3 fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) with different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/mL). Four components (esculetin, scopoletin, capillarisin, and scoparone) isolated from A. capillaris were also evaluated. The PCCSM was preincubated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Cyclic nucleotides in the perfusate were measured by a radioimmunoassay. The interactions of scoparone with udenafil and rolipram were also evaluated. A. capillaris extract relaxed PCCSM in a concentration-dependent manner. Scoparone had the highest relaxant effect on PCCSM among the 4 components (esculetin, scopoletin, capillarisin, and scoparone) isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. The application of scoparone on PCCSM pretreated with L-NAME and ODQ led to significantly less relaxation. Scoparone also increased the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the perfusate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, scoparone enhanced udenafil- and rolipram-induced relaxation of the PCCSM. Scoparone relaxed the PCCSM mainly by activating the nitric oxide-cGMP signaling pathway, and it may be a new promising treatment for ED patients who do not completely respond to udenafil.

  18. Modulation of Adenosine Receptors by [60]Fullerene Hydrosoluble Derivative in SK-N-MC Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The most known fullerenes are spherical carbon compounds composed of 60 carbon atoms. C60 fullerenes have shown biochemical and biomedical properties in the last years such as as blockade of apoptosis and neuroprotection. The nucleoside adenosine has a neuroprotective role mainly due to inhibition of glutamate release, which is a neurotransmitter related to excitotoxicity and cell death. In the present work, we have determined the presence of adenosine receptors in SK-N-MC cells, a neuroepithelioma human cell line, and analyzed the effect of fullerenes in these receptors by using radioligand binding, immunoblotting, and quantitative real time PCR assays. Results demonstrated that SK-N-MC cells endogenously express adenosine receptors. Fullerene exposure of these cells did not affect cell viability measured by MTT reduction assay. However, adenosine A1 and A2A receptors were both increased in SK-N-MC cells after treatment. These results suggest for the first time the modulation of adenosine receptors after C60 fullerenes exposure. PMID:22816023

  19. Modulation of neuroimmunity by adenosine and its receptors: Metabolism to mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Gabriel S.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a pleiotropic bioactive with potent neuromodulatory properties. Due to its ability to easily cross the blood-brain barrier, it can act as a signaling molecule between the periphery and the brain. It functions through four (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3) cell surface G protein-coupled adenosine receptors (AR) that are expressed in some combination on nearly all cells types within the CNS. By regulating the activity of adenylyl cyclase and changing the intracellular concentration of cAMP, adenosine can alter neuronal function and neurotransmission. A variety of illnesses related to metabolic dysregulation, such as type 1 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease, are associated with an elevated serum concentration of adenosine and a pathogenesis rooted in inflammation. This review describes the accepted physiologic function of adenosine in neurological disease and explores its new potential as a peripheral to central danger signal that can activate the neuroimmune system and contribute to symptoms of sickness and psychopathologies. PMID:25308443

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Responding to Dissolved Oxygen in Adenosine Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chun-Yun; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important factor for adenosine fermentation. Our previous experiments have shown that low oxygen supply in the growth period was optimal for high adenosine yield. Herein, to better understand the link between oxygen supply and adenosine productivity in B. subtilis (ATCC21616), we sought to systematically explore the effect of DO on genetic regulation and metabolism through transcriptome analysis. The microarrays representing 4,106 genes were used to study temporal transcript profiles of B. subtilis fermentation in response to high oxygen supply (agitation 700 r/min) and low oxygen supply (agitation 450 r/min). The transcriptome data analysis revealed that low oxygen supply has three major effects on metabolism: enhance carbon metabolism (glucose metabolism, pyruvate metabolism and carbon overflow), inhibit degradation of nitrogen sources (glutamate family amino acids and xanthine) and purine synthesis. Inhibition of xanthine degradation was the reason that low oxygen supply enhanced adenosine production. These provide us with potential targets, which can be modified to achieve higher adenosine yield. Expression of genes involved in energy, cell type differentiation, protein synthesis was also influenced by oxygen supply. These results provided new insights into the relationship between oxygen supply and metabolism. PMID:21625606

  1. Aberrant bone density in aging mice lacking the adenosine transporter ENT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hinton

    Full Text Available Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1 is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density.

  2. Deletion of presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors impairs the recovery of synaptic transmission after hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, E; Crocker, A J; Saper, C B; Greene, R W; Scammell, T E

    2005-01-01

    Adenosine protects neurons during hypoxia by inhibiting excitatory synaptic transmission and preventing NMDA receptor activation. Using an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector containing Cre recombinase, we have focally deleted adenosine A(1) receptors in specific hippocampal regions of adult mice. Recently, we found that deletion of A(1) receptors in the CA1 area blocks the postsynaptic responses to adenosine in CA1 pyramidal neurons, and deletion of A(1) receptors in CA3 neurons abolishes the presynaptic effects of adenosine on the Schaffer collateral input [J Neurosci 23 (2003) 5762]. In the current study, we used this technique to delete A(1) receptors focally from CA3 neurons to investigate whether presynaptic A(1) receptors protect synaptic transmission from hypoxia. We studied the effects of prolonged (1 h) hypoxia on the evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in the CA1 region using in vitro slices. Focal deletion of the presynaptic A(1) receptors on the Schaffer collateral input slowed the depression of the fEPSPs in response to hypoxia and impaired the recovery of the fEPSPs after hypoxia. Delayed responses to hypoxia linearly correlated with impaired recovery. These findings provide direct evidence that the neuroprotective role of adenosine during hypoxia depends on the rapid inhibition of synaptic transmission by the activation of presynaptic A(1) receptors.

  3. Squalenoyl adenosine nanoparticles provide neuroprotection after stroke and spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Alice; Yemisci, Müge; Eroglu, Hakan; Lepetre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Dönmez-Demir, Buket; Caban, Seçil; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Pieters, Grégory; Loreau, Olivier; Rousseau, Bernard; Tagit, Oya; Hildebrandt, Niko; Le Dantec, Yannick; Mougin, Julie; Valetti, Sabrina; Chacun, Hélène; Nicolas, Valérie; Desmaële, Didier; Andrieux, Karine; Capan, Yilmaz; Dalkara, Turgay; Couvreur, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of severe neurological trauma, such as stroke and spinal cord injuries. However, many drugs with potential neuropharmacological activity, such as adenosine, are inefficient upon systemic administration because of their fast metabolization and rapid clearance from the bloodstream. Here, we show that conjugation of adenosine to the lipid squalene and the subsequent formation of nanoassemblies allows prolonged circulation of this nucleoside, providing neuroprotection in mouse stroke and rat spinal cord injury models. The animals receiving systemic administration of squalenoyl adenosine nanoassemblies showed a significant improvement of their neurologic deficit score in the case of cerebral ischaemia, and an early motor recovery of the hindlimbs in the case of spinal cord injury. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the nanoassemblies were able to extend adenosine circulation and its interaction with the neurovascular unit. This Article shows, for the first time, that a hydrophilic and rapidly metabolized molecule such as adenosine may become pharmacologically efficient owing to a single conjugation with the lipid squalene.

  4. Acute rejection after kidney transplantation promotes graft fibrosis with elevated adenosine level in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft nephropathy is a worldwide issue with the major feature of progressive allograft fibrosis, eventually ending with graft loss. Adenosine has been demonstrated to play an important role in process of fibrosis. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between adenosine and fibrosis in renal allograft acute rejection in rat.Wistar rats and SD rats were selected as experimental animals. Our study designed two groups. In the allograft transplantation group, kidneys of Wistar rats were orthotopically transplanted into SD rat recipients, the same species but not genetically identical, to induce acute rejection. Kidney transplantations of SD rats to SD rats which were genetically identical were served as the control. We established rat models and detected a series of indicators. All data were analyzed statistically. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Compared with the control group, levels of adenosine increased significantly in the allograft transplantation group, in which acute rejection was induced (P<0.05. Progressive allograft fibrosis as well as collagen deposition were observed.These findings suggested that level of adenosine was upregulated in acute rejection after kidney allograft transplantation in rat. Acute rejection may promote renal allograft fibrosis via the adenosine signaling pathways.

  5. Comparison of the prognostic value of regadenoson and adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh-Far, Afshin; Shaw, Linda K; Dunning, Allison; Oldan, Jorge D; O'Connor, Christopher M; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2015-08-01

    Regadenoson is now widely used in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). However, the prognostic value of abnormal stress perfusion findings with regadenoson vs adenosine are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of regadenoson SPECT and to compare it to that of adenosine SPECT. 3698 consecutive patients undergoing either adenosine or regadenoson SPECT were assessed at 1 year for the endpoints of cardiovascular death and a composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or MI. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression modeling with the inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimators method adjusting to propensity for agent was used to account for differences in baseline characteristics. Patients undergoing adenosine SPECT MPI had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking history, diabetes, hypertension, and prior myocardial infarction (P regadenoson SPECT MPI is a significant predictor of events and provides incremental prognostic information beyond basic clinical variables. We have shown for the first time that use of regadenoson vs adenosine as stress agent does not modify the prognostic significance of SSS. Similar findings were seen with SDS.

  6. Comparison of the Safety of Adenosine and Regadenoson in Patients Undergoing Outpatient Cardiac Stress Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Heidi L; Dickerson, Jennifer A; Stephens, Julie A; Pickworth, Kerry K

    2015-12-01

    To compare the adverse effect profiles of adenosine and regadenoson in patients undergoing outpatient cardiac stress testing. Single-center retrospective cohort study. Two outpatient clinics, both of which are part of a single tertiary academic medical health system; one clinic exclusively used adenosine for cardiac stress testing, and the other clinic exclusively used regadenoson. A total of 489 patients who underwent an outpatient cardiac stress test between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014; of those patients, 254 received adenosine and 235 received regadenoson. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, except for chronic kidney disease (pregadenoson groups. A significantly higher proportion of patients who were given regadenoson during cardiac stress testing experienced at least one adverse effect compared with patients who underwent an adenosine stress test (79.6% vs 31.5%, pregadenoson experienced a significantly higher occurrence of arrhythmia (30.6% vs 16.1%, pregadenoson based on the average wholesale price. Among patients undergoing an outpatient pharmacologic stress test, the use of adenosine was associated with a lower occurrence of adverse effects and lower rate of a rescue agent use and may provide a potential medication cost savings opportunity compared with regadenoson. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  7. Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitor EHNA Exhibits a Potent Anticancer Effect Against Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

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    Yasuhiro Nakajima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is an aggressive malignant tumor and an effective therapy has been little provided as yet. The present study investigated the possibility for the adenosine deaminase (ADA inhibitor EHNA as a target of MPM treatment. Methods: MTT assay, TUNEL staining, monitoring of intracellular adenosine concentrations, and Western blotting were carried out in cultured human MPM cell lines without and with knocking-down ADA. The in vivo effect of EHNA was assessed in mice inoculated with NCI-H2052 MPM cells. Results: EHNA induced apoptosis of human MPM cell lines in a concentration (0.01-1 mM- and treatment time (24-48 h-dependent manner, but such effect was not obtained with another ADA inhibitor pentostatin. EHNA increased intracellular adenosine concentrations in a treatment time (3-9 h-dependent manner. EHNA-induced apoptosis of MPM cells was mimicked by knocking-down ADA, and the effect was neutralized by the adenosine kinase inhibitor ABT-702. EHNA clearly suppressed tumor growth in mice inoculated with NCI-H2052 MPM cells. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that EHNA induces apoptosis of MPM cells by increasing intracellular adenosine concentrations, to convert to AMP, and effectively prevents MPM cell proliferation. This suggests that EHNA may be useful for treatment of the tragic neoplasm MPM.

  8. Adenosine Receptor Stimulation Improves Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzino, Gabriele; Irrera, Natasha; Galfo, Federica; Oteri, Giacomo; Atteritano, Marco; Pallio, Giovanni; Mannino, Federica; D'Amore, Angelica; Pellegrino, Enrica; Aliquò, Federica; Anastasi, Giuseppe P; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Bitto, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is a secondary cause of bone loss. Bisphosphonates approved for GIO, might induce jaw osteonecrosis; thus additional therapeutics are required. Adenosine receptor agonists are positive regulators of bone remodeling, thus the efficacy of adenosine receptor stimulation for treating GIO was tested. In a preventive study GIO was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methylprednisolone (MP) for 60 days. Animals were randomly assigned to receive polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, or PDRN and DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A 2 antagonist), or vehicle (0.9% NaCl). Another set of animals was used for a treatment study, following the 60 days of MP-induction rats were randomized to receive (for additional 60 days) PDRN, or PDRN and DMPX (an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist), or zoledronate (as control for gold standard treatment), or vehicle. Control animals were administered with vehicle for either 60 or 120 days. Femurs were analyzed after treatments for histology, imaging, and breaking strength analysis. MP treatment induced severe bone loss, the concomitant use of PDRN prevented the developing of osteoporosis. In rats treated for 120 days, PDRN restored bone architecture and bone strength; increased b-ALP, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and stimulated the Wnt canonical and non-canonical pathway. Zoledronate reduced bone resorption and ameliorated the histological features, without significant effects on bone formation. Our results suggest that adenosine receptor stimulation might be useful for preventing and treating GIO.

  9. Adenosine Receptor Stimulation Improves Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Pizzino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO is a secondary cause of bone loss. Bisphosphonates approved for GIO, might induce jaw osteonecrosis; thus additional therapeutics are required. Adenosine receptor agonists are positive regulators of bone remodeling, thus the efficacy of adenosine receptor stimulation for treating GIO was tested. In a preventive study GIO was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methylprednisolone (MP for 60 days. Animals were randomly assigned to receive polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN, an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, or PDRN and DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 antagonist, or vehicle (0.9% NaCl. Another set of animals was used for a treatment study, following the 60 days of MP-induction rats were randomized to receive (for additional 60 days PDRN, or PDRN and DMPX (an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist, or zoledronate (as control for gold standard treatment, or vehicle. Control animals were administered with vehicle for either 60 or 120 days. Femurs were analyzed after treatments for histology, imaging, and breaking strength analysis. MP treatment induced severe bone loss, the concomitant use of PDRN prevented the developing of osteoporosis. In rats treated for 120 days, PDRN restored bone architecture and bone strength; increased b-ALP, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and stimulated the Wnt canonical and non-canonical pathway. Zoledronate reduced bone resorption and ameliorated the histological features, without significant effects on bone formation. Our results suggest that adenosine receptor stimulation might be useful for preventing and treating GIO.

  10. Intracellular adenosine formation and release by freshly-isolated vascular endothelial cells from rat skeletal muscle: effects of hypoxia and/or acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G Y; Essackjee, H C; Ballard, H J

    2014-07-18

    Previous studies suggested indirectly that vascular endothelial cells (VECs) might be able to release intracellularly-formed adenosine. We isolated VECs from the rat soleus muscle using collagenase digestion and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). The VEC preparation had >90% purity based on cell morphology, fluorescence immunostaining, and RT-PCR of endothelial markers. The kinetic properties of endothelial cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase suggested it was the AMP-preferring N-I isoform: its catalytic activity was 4 times higher than ecto-5'nucleotidase. Adenosine kinase had 50 times greater catalytic activity than adenosine deaminase, suggesting that adenosine removal in VECs is mainly through incorporation into adenine nucleotides. The maximal activities of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine kinase were similar. Adenosine and ATP accumulated in the medium surrounding VECs in primary culture. Hypoxia doubled the adenosine, but ATP was unchanged; AOPCP did not alter medium adenosine, suggesting that hypoxic VECs had released intracellularly-formed adenosine. Acidosis increased medium ATP, but extracellular conversion of ATP to AMP was inhibited, and adenosine remained unchanged. Acidosis in the buffer-perfused rat gracilis muscle elevated AMP and adenosine in the venous effluent, but AOPCP abolished the increase in adenosine, suggesting that adenosine is formed extracellularly by non-endothelial tissues during acidosis in vivo. Hypoxia plus acidosis increased medium ATP by a similar amount to acidosis alone and adenosine 6-fold; AOPCP returned the medium adenosine to the level seen with hypoxia alone. These data suggest that VECs release intracellularly formed adenosine in hypoxia, ATP during acidosis, and both under simulated ischaemic conditions, with further extracellular conversion of ATP to adenosine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenosine A3 receptor activation is neuroprotective against retinal neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Joana; Elvas, Filipe; Martins, Tiago; Cordeiro, M Francesca; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2015-11-01

    Death of retinal neural cells, namely retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), is a characteristic of several retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Although the role of adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) in neuroprotection is controversial, A3R activation has been reported to afford protection against several brain insults, with few studies in the retina. In vitro models (retinal neural and organotypic cultures) and animal models [ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) and partial optic nerve transection (pONT)] were used to study the neuroprotective properties of A3R activation against retinal neurodegeneration. The A3R selective agonist (2-Cl-IB-MECA, 1 μM) prevented apoptosis (TUNEL(+)-cells) induced by kainate and cyclothiazide (KA + CTZ) in retinal neural cultures (86.5 ± 7.4 and 37.2 ± 6.1 TUNEL(+)-cells/field, in KA + CTZ and KA + CTZ + 2-Cl-IB-MECA, respectively). In retinal organotypic cultures, 2-Cl-IB-MECA attenuated NMDA-induced cell death, assessed by TUNEL (17.3 ± 2.3 and 8.3 ± 1.2 TUNEL(+)-cells/mm(2) in NMDA and NMDA+2-Cl-IB-MECA, respectively) and PI incorporation (ratio DIV4/DIV2 3.3 ± 0.3 and 1.3 ± 0.1 in NMDA and NMDA+2-Cl-IB-MECA, respectively) assays. Intravitreal 2-Cl-IB-MECA administration afforded protection against I-R injury decreasing the number of TUNEL(+) cells by 72%, and increased RGC survival by 57%. Also, intravitreal administration of 2-Cl-IB-MECA inhibited apoptosis (from 449.4 ± 37.8 to 207.6 ± 48.9 annexin-V(+)-cells) and RGC loss (from 1.2 ± 0.6 to 8.1 ± 1.7 cells/mm) induced by pONT. This study demonstrates that 2-Cl-IB-MECA is neuroprotective to the retina, both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of A3R may have great potential in the management of retinal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by RGC death, as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, and ischemic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Computational Elucidation of Structural Basis for Ligand Binding with Leishmania donovani Adenosine Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv K. Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme adenosine kinase is responsible for phosphorylation of adenosine to AMP and is crucial for parasites which are purine auxotrophs. The present study describes development of robust homology model of Leishmania donovani adenosine kinase to forecast interaction phenomenon with inhibitory molecules using structure-based drug designing strategy. Docking calculation using reported organic small molecules and natural products revealed key active site residues such as Arg131 and Asp16 for ligand binding, which is consistent with previous studies. Molecular dynamics simulation of ligand protein complex revealed the importance of hydrogen bonding with active site residues and solvent molecules, which may be crucial for successful development of drug candidates. Precise role of Phe168 residue in the active site was elucidated in this report that provided stability to ligand-protein complex via aromatic-π contacts. Overall, the present study is believed to provide valuable information to design a new compound with improved activity for antileishmanial therapeutics development.

  13. Abolished tubuloglomerular feedback and increased plasma renin in adenosine A1 receptor deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, R.; Ollerstam, A.; Johansson, B.

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis that adenosine acting on adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) regulates several renal functions and mediates tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) was examined using A1R knockout mice. We anesthetized knockout, wild-type, and heterozygous mice and measured glomerular filtration rate, TGF response...... greater in the A1R knockout mice [74.2 +/- 14.3 milli-Goldblatt units (mGU)/ml] mice compared with the wild-type and A1R+/- mice (36.3 +/- 8.5 and 34.1 +/- 9.6 mGU/ml), respectively. The results demonstrate that adenosine acting on A1R is required for TGF and modulates renin release....

  14. GIRK channel activation via adenosine or muscarinic receptors has similar effects on rat atrial electrophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liang, Bo; Skibsbye, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRK) are important in the regulation of heart rate and atrial electrophysiology. GIRK channels are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M2 receptors and adenosine A1 receptors. The aim of this study was to characterize...... and compare the electrophysiological effects of acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine on GIRK channels in rat atria. Action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD90), effective refractory period (ERP), and resting membrane potential (RMP) were investigated in isolated rat atria by intracellular recordings....... Both the adenosine analog N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and ACh profoundly shortened APD90 and ERP and hyperpolarized the RMP. No additive or synergistic effect of CPA and ACh coapplication was observed. To antagonize GIRK channel activation, the specific inhibitor rTertiapin Q (TTQ) was applied...

  15. Effects of adenosine on renin release from isolated rat glomeruli and kidney slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Baumbach, L

    1985-01-01

    Adenosine produced by the macula densa cells in response to changes in the tubular NaCl-concentration has been suggested to inhibit renin release in vivo. In order to test this suggestion we studied: incubated kidney cortical slices (KS) which contain both the macula densa and the entire afferent...... was used. The specificity of the renin release process was validated by measuring adenylate kinase as a marker for cytoplasmatic leak. Adenosine (10 micrograms/ml) halved basal renin release from incubated KS as compared to controls (P less than 0.001, n = 8, 8). Renin release from LAG stimulated...... by calcium depletion was also inhibited (P less than 0.05, n = 8, 9) whereas basal release was not affected (n = 6, 12). No effect was detected neither on basal nor on calcium stimulated renin release from SAG. We conclude that adenosine inhibits renin release in vitro by a mechanism independent...

  16. Impaired cerebral microcirculation induced by ammonium chloride in rats is due to cortical adenosine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Bjerrum, Esben Jannik; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2018-01-01

    chloride applied on the brain surface and compared to control groups exposed to artificial cerebrospinal fluid or ammonium + an adenosine receptor antagonist. A flow preservation curve was obtained by analysis of flow responses to a haemorrhagic hypotensive challenge and during stepwise exsanguination....... The periarteriolar adenosine concentration was measured with enzymatic biosensors inserted in cortex. RESULTS: After ammonium exposure the arteriolar flow velocity increased by 21.7 (23.4)% vs. controls 7.2 (10.2)% (median (IQR), N=10 and 6, respectively p... rise in the periarteriolar adenosine concentration was observed. During the hypotensive challenge the flow decreased by 27.8 (14.9)% vs. 9.2 (14.9)% (p

  17. Computational study of the molecular mechanisms of caffeine action: Caffeine complexes with adenosine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltev, V. I.; Rodríguez, E.; Grokhlina, T. I.; Deriabina, A.; Gonzalez, E.

    To understand the molecular basis of the principal biological action of the caffeine (CAF), the molecular mechanics calculations of possible complexes between CAF and the fragments of human A1 adenosine receptor were performed. The fragments were selected after considerations of the CAF molecular structure and its possible interactions, as well as after an analysis of the extensive bibliography on the structure, biological role, site-directed mutagenesis, and the modeling of the adenosine receptors. The minimum energy configurations of these complexes were obtained using two different computer programs with different force fields. The most favorable configurations correspond to the formation of two hydrogen bonds between the CAF molecule and hydrophilic amino acid residues of the fragments of transmembrane domains of the receptor. These configurations are supposed to contribute to CAF blocking of the adenosine receptors. They will be used later for the construction of model CAF complexes with two transmembrane domains simultaneously.

  18. Caffeine's Attenuation of Cocaine-Induced Dopamine Release by Inhibition of Adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malave, Lauren B; Broderick, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    Background: It is well known that the reinforcing properties of cocaine addiction are caused by the sharp increase of dopamine (DA) in the reward areas of the brain. However, other mechanisms have been speculated to contribute to the increase. Adenosine is one system that is associated with the sleep-wake cycle and is most important in regulating neuronal activity. Thus, more and more evidence is pointing to its involvement in regulating DA release. The current study set out to examine the role of adenosine in cocaine-induced DA release. Methods: Increasing doses of cocaine, caffeine, and their combination, as well as, 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), an adenosine A1 antagonist (alone and in combination with cocaine) were used to denote a response curve. A novel biosensor, the BRODERICK PROBE(®) was implanted in the nucleus accumbens to image the drug-induced surge of DA release in vivo, in the freely moving animal in real time. Results: Combinations of cocaine and caffeine were observed to block the increased release of DA moderately after administration of the low dose (2.5 mg/kg cocaine and 12.5 mg/kg caffeine) and dramatically after administration of the high dose (10 mg/kg cocaine and 50 mg/kg caffeine), suggesting neuroprotection. Similarly, CPT and cocaine showed a decreased DA surge when administered in combination. Thus, the low and high dose of a nonselective adenosine antagonist, caffeine, and a moderate dose of a selective adenosine antagonist, CPT, protected against the cocaine-induced DA release. Conclusions: These results show a significant interaction between adenosine and DA release and suggest therapeutic options for cocaine addiction and disorders associated with DA dysfunction.

  19. Intracellular acidification increases adenosine transport in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Natalia; Araos, Joaquín; Sanhueza, Carlos; Toledo, Fernando; Beltrán, Ana R; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Ramírez, Marco A; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Adenosine is taken up via human equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 (hENT1) and 2 (hENT2) at a physiological extracellular pH (pHo ∼7.4) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Acidic pHo increases the uptake of adenosine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) via hENT4 in this cell type. However, modulation of hENT1 and hENT2 transport activity by the pHi is unknown. We investigated whether hENT1 and hENT2-adenosine transport was regulated by acidic pHi. HUVECs loaded with a pH sensitive probe were subjected to 0.1-20 mmol/L NH 4 Cl pulse assay to generate 6.9-6.2 pHi. Before pHi started to recover, adenosine transport kinetics (0-500 μmol/L, 37 °C) in the absence or presence 1 or 10 μmol/L S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thio-inosine (NBTI), 2 mmol/L hypoxanthine, 2 mmol/L adenine, 100 μmol/L 5HT, or 500 μmol/L adenosine, was measured. Overall adenosine transport (i.e., hENT1+hENT2) was semisaturable and partially inhibited by 1 μmol/L, but abolished by 10 μmol/L NBTI in cells non-treated or treated with NH 4 Cl. The initial velocity and non-saturable, lineal component for overall transport were increased after NH 4 Cl pulse. hENT1 and hENT2-mediated adenosine transport maximal capacity was increased by acidic pHi. hENT1 activity was more sensitive than hENT2 activity to acidic pHi. hENT1 and hENT2-adenosine transport is differentially regulated by acidic pHi in HUVECs. These findings are important in pathologies associated with pHi alterations such as gestational diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adenosine as a signaling molecule in the retina: biochemical and developmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO PAES-DE-CARVALHO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The nucleoside adenosine plays an important role as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system, including the retina. In the present paper we review compelling evidence showing that adenosine is a signaling molecule in the developing retina. In the chick retina, adenosine transporters are present since early stages of development before the appearance of adenosine A1 receptors modulating dopamine-dependent adenylate cyclase activity or A2 receptors that directly activate the enzyme. Experiments using retinal cell cultures revealed that adenosine is taken up by specific cell populations that when stimulated by depolarization or neurotransmitters such as dopamine or glutamate, release the nucleoside through calcium-dependent transporter-mediated mechanisms. The presence of adenosine in the extracellular medium and the long-term activation of adenosine receptors is able to regulate the survival of retinal neurons and blocks glutamate excitoxicity. Thus, adenosine besides working as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the mature retina, is considered as an important signaling molecule during retinal development having important functions such as regulation of neuronal survival and differentiation.O nucleosídeo adenosina apresenta um importante papel como neurotransmissor ou neuromodulador no sistema nervoso central, inclusive na retina. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão das evidências que mostram que a adenosina é uma molécula sinalizadora na retina em desenvolvimento. Na retina de pinto, transportadores de adenosina estão presentes desde estágios precoces do desenvolvimento, antes do aparecimento dos receptores A1 que modulam a atividade adenilato ciclase dependente de dopamina ou dos receptores A2 que ativam diretamente a enzima. Experimentos usando culturas de células de retina revelaram que a adenosina é captada por populações celulares específicas que, quando estimuladas por despolarização ou por

  1. Endogenous activation of adenosine A1 receptors promotes post-ischemic electrocortical burst suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, A; Ciocan, D; Constantinescu, A O

    2009-01-01

    . Several lines of evidence suggest that BS reflects an impairment of neocortical connectivity. Here we tested in vivo whether synaptic depression by adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) activation contributes to BS patterns following GCI. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 1, 5 or 10 min of GCI using a "four......-min GCI the effect of DPCPX was only apparent on the initial fast decay of the BS ratio. These data suggest that endogenous adenosine release promotes BS patterns during reperfusion following transient cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the endogenous A1R activation may be the primary underlying cause...

  2. Adenosine receptors in rat and human pancreatic ducts stimulate chloride transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Hede, Susanne; Hansen, Mette

    2007-01-01

    these could be involved in secretory processes, which involve cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels or Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels and [Formula: see text] transporters. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis on rat pancreatic ducts and human duct cell......, it was found that 58% of PANC-1 cells responded to adenosine, whereas only 9% of CFPAC-1 cells responded. Adenosine elicited Ca(2+) signals only in a few rat and human duct cells, which did not seem to correlate with Cl(-) signals. A(2A) receptors were localized in the luminal membranes of rat pancreatic ducts...

  3. Adenosine inhibits renin release from juxtaglomerular cells via an A1 receptor-TRPC-mediated pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Capisano, M. Cecilia; Atchison, Douglas K.; Harding, Pamela; Lasley, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Renin is synthesized and released from juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. Adenosine inhibits renin release via an adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) calcium-mediated pathway. How this occurs is unknown. In cardiomyocytes, adenosine increases intracellular calcium via transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels. We hypothesized that adenosine inhibits renin release via A1R activation, opening TRPC channels. However, higher concentrations of adenosine may stimulate renin release through A2R activation. Using primary cultures of isolated mouse JG cells, immunolabeling demonstrated renin and A1R in JG cells, but not A2R subtypes, although RT-PCR indicated the presence of mRNA of both A2AR and A2BR. Incubating JG cells with increasing concentrations of adenosine decreased renin release. Different concentrations of the adenosine receptor agonist N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) did not change renin. Activating A1R with 0.5 μM N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) decreased basal renin release from 0.22 ± 0.05 to 0.14 ± 0.03 μg of angiotensin I generated per milliliter of sample per hour of incubation (AngI/ml/mg prot) (P renin. Reducing extracellular calcium with EGTA increased renin release (0.35 ± 0.08 μg AngI/ml/mg prot; P renin inhibition by CHA (0.28 ± 0.06 μg AngI/ml/mg prot; P renin release by 55%, and blocked the inhibitory effect of CHA. Repeating these experiments in JG cells from A1R knockout mice using CHA or NECA demonstrated no effect on renin release. However, RT-PCR showed mRNA from TRPC isoforms 3 and 6 in isolated JG cells. Adding the TRPC blocker SKF-96365 reversed CHA-mediated inhibition of renin release. Thus A1R activation results in a calcium-dependent inhibition of renin release via TRPC-mediated calcium entry, but A2 receptors do not regulate renin release. PMID:23884142

  4. Adenosine inhibits neutrophil vascular endothelial growth factor release and transendothelial migration via A2B receptor activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    The effects of adenosine on neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMN)-directed changes in vascular permeability are poorly characterized. This study investigated whether adenosine modulates activated PMN vascular endothelial growth factor (vascular permeability factor; VEGF) release and transendothelial migration. PMN activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 10 ng\\/mL) were incubated with adenosine and its receptor-specific analogues. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF. PMN transendothelial migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed in vitro. Adhesion molecule receptor expression was assessed flow cytometrically. Adenosine and some of its receptor-specific analogues dose-dependently inhibited activated PMN VEGF release. The rank order of potency was consistent with the affinity profile of human A2B receptors. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was reversed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 receptor antagonist. Adenosine (100 microM) or the A2B receptor agonist 5\\'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 100 microM) significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration. However, expression of activated PMN beta2 integrins and HUVEC ICAM-1 were not significantly altered by adenosine or NECA. Adenosine attenuates human PMN VEGF release and transendothelial migration via the A2B receptor. This provides a novel target for the modulation of PMN-directed vascular hyperpermeability in conditions such as the capillary leak syndrome.

  5. Localized adenosine signaling provides fine-tuned negative feedback over a wide dynamic range of neocortical network activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the patterns of activity produced by neocortical networks are now better understood, how these states are activated, sustained, and terminated still remains unclear. Negative feedback by the endogenous neuromodulator adenosine may potentially play an important role, as it can be released by activity and there is dense A1 receptor expression in the neocortex. Using electrophysiology, biosensors, and modeling, we have investigated the properties of adenosine signaling during physiological and pathological network activity in rat neocortical slices. Both low- and high-rate network activities were reduced by A1 receptor activation and enhanced by block of A1 receptors, consistent with activity-dependent adenosine release. Since the A1 receptors were neither saturated nor completely unoccupied during either low- or high-rate activity, adenosine signaling provides a negative-feedback mechanism with a wide dynamic range. Modeling and biosensor experiments show that during high-rate activity increases in extracellular adenosine concentration are highly localized and are uncorrelated over short distances that are certainly adenosine release during low-rate activity, although it is present, is probably a consequence of small localized increases in adenosine concentration that are rapidly diminished by diffusion and active removal mechanisms. Saturation of such removal mechanisms when higher concentrations of adenosine are released results in the accumulation of inosine, explaining the strong purine signal during high-rate activity. PMID:25392170

  6. Caffeine intake inverts the effect of adenosine on myocardial perfusion during stress as measured by T1 mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Prakken, Niek H.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Dijkman, Paul R. M.; van der Harst, Pim; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine intake before adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging may cause false negative findings. We hypothesized that the antagonistic effect of caffeine can be measured by T1 relaxation times in rest and adenosine stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), as T1 mapping techniques are

  7. Effect of an inhaled adenosine A(2A) agonist on the allergen-induced late asthmatic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, B.; van den Berge, M.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; Postma, D. S.; Cass, L.; Sabin, A.; Lammers, J. -W. J.

    Background: Adenosine receptor activation is suggested to play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation. Inhibition of adenosine receptors may have an effect on the late asthmatic response (LAR) after allergen inhalation and this mechanism could offer a potential new treatment in asthma. Methods: We

  8. Chronic hypoxia increases arterial blood pressure and reduces adenosine and ATP induced vasodilatation in skeletal muscle in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Robach, P

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the role played by adenosine, ATP and chemoreflex activation on the regulation of vascular conductance in chronic hypoxia. METHODS: The vascular conductance response to low and high doses of adenosine and ATP was assessed in ten healthy men. Vasodilators were infused into the f...

  9. Interleukin-6 enhances expression of adenosine A(1) receptor mRNA and signaling in cultured rat cortical astrocytes and brain slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biber, K; Lubrich, B; Fiebich, BL; Boddeke, HWGM; van Calker, D

    The inhibitory neuromodulator adenosine is released in the brain in high concentrations under conditions of exaggerated neuronal activity such as ischemia and seizures, or electroconvulsive treatment. By inhibiting neural overactivity, adenosine counteracts seizure activity and promotes neuronal

  10. Interleukin-6-type cytokines in neuroprotection and neuromodulation: Oncostatin M, but not leukemia inhibitory factor, requires neuronal Adenosine A1 receptor function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moidunny, S.; Dias, R.; Van Calker, D.; Boddeke, H.; Sebastiao, A.; Biber, K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adenosine is a neuromodulator in the central nervous system exhibiting anticonvulsive, neuroprotective and sedating/sleep regulating properties. A pathophysiological importance of adenosine in various neuropsychiatric diseases (e.g. epilepsy, neurodegenerative disorders, apoplexia and

  11. Mechanism of the orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase-catalyzed reaction: importance of residues in the orotate binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiams, Vanessa; Desai, Bijoy J; Fedorov, Alexander A; Fedorov, Elena V; Almo, Steven C; Gerlt, John A

    2011-10-04

    The reaction catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) is accompanied by exceptional values for rate enhancement (k(cat)/k(non) = 7.1 × 10(16)) and catalytic proficiency [(k(cat)/K(M))/k(non) = 4.8 × 10(22) M(-1)]. Although a stabilized vinyl carbanion/carbene intermediate is located on the reaction coordinate, the structural strategies by which the reduction in the activation energy barrier is realized remain incompletely understood. This laboratory recently reported that "substrate destabilization" by Asp 70 in the OMPDC from Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus (MtOMPDC) lowers the activation energy barrier by ∼5 kcal/mol (contributing ~2.7 × 10(3) to the rate enhancement) [Chan, K. K., Wood, B. M., Fedorov, A. A., Fedorov, E. V., Imker, H. J., Amyes, T. L., Richard, J. P., Almo, S. C., and Gerlt, J. A. (2009) Biochemistry 48, 5518-5531]. We now report that substitutions of hydrophobic residues in a pocket proximal to the carboxylate group of the substrate (Ile 96, Leu 123, and Val 155) with neutral hydrophilic residues decrease the value of k(cat) by as much as 400-fold but have a minimal effect on the value of k(ex) for exchange of H6 of the FUMP product analogue with solvent deuterium; we hypothesize that this pocket destabilizes the substrate by preventing hydration of the substrate carboxylate group. We also report that substitutions of Ser 127 that is proximal to O4 of the orotate ring decrease the value of k(cat)/K(M), with the S127P substitution that eliminates hydrogen bonding interactions with O4 producing a 2.5 × 10(6)-fold reduction; this effect is consistent with delocalization of the negative charge of the carbanionic intermediate on O4 that produces an anionic carbene intermediate and thereby provides a structural strategy for stabilization of the intermediate. These observations provide additional information about the identities of the active site residues that contribute to the rate enhancement and, therefore

  12. Synthesis, Structures, and Electrochemistry of Au(III)-ethylenediamine Complexes and Interactions with Guanosine 5’-Monophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shourong; Gorski, Waldemar; Powell, Douglas R.; Walmsley, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    [Au(en)Cl2]Cl·2H2O has been synthesized and its structure has been solved for the first time by the single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The complex has square planar geometry about the Au(III) and the anionic Cl− is located in the apical position and at a distance of 3.3033(10) Å compared to 2.2811(9) and 2.2836(11) Å for the coordinated Cl−. [Au(en)Cl2]Cl·2H2O belongs to the space group Pbca with a = 11.5610(15) Å, b = 12.6399(17) Å, c = 13.2156(17) Å, α = β = γ = 90° and Z=8. Bond lengths of Au-N are 2.03 Å. [Au(en)Cl2]Cl·2H2O is less thermally stable than [Au(en)2]Cl3 due to the replacement of 2 Cl ligands by a second ethylenediamine ligand in the latter. Cyclic voltammetry shows that the formal potential of Au(III)/Au(0) becomes more negative in the series [AuCl4]−, [Au(en)Cl2]+, [Au(en)2]3+. 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR reveal that in aqueous solution [Au(en)Cl2]+ bonds to guanosine 5’-monophosphate, 5’-GMP, (1:1 mole ratio) via N7, although the stability is not very high. NMR data also indicate that N7-O6 or N7-phosphate 5’-GMP chelation, as found in some Au(III)-nucleotide complexes, is not present. The Au(III) complex undergoes hydrolysis at pH > 2.5−3.0 and, therefore N1 coordination to 5’-GMP is not observed. No direct coordination between 5’-GMP and [Au(en)2]Cl3 is observed. PMID:16529492

  13. Exercise-induced increase in interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations in skeletal muscle and peritendinous tissue in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Bjørn, C; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Bradykinin is known to cause vasodilatation in resistance vessels and may, together with adenosine, be an important regulator of tissue blood flow during exercise. Whether tissue concentrations of bradykinin change with exercise in skeletal muscle and tendon-related connective tissue has not yet......, range 22-33 years). Interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations were determined using an internal reference to determine relative recovery ([2,3,prolyl-3,4-(3)H(N)]-bradykinin and [2-(3)H]-adenosine). Bradykinin and adenosine recovery were closely related and in the range of 30......-50 %. The interstitial concentration of bradykinin rose in response to exercise both in skeletal muscle (from 23.1 +/- 4.9 nmol l(-1) to 110.5 +/- 37.9 nmol l(-1); P adenosine concentration...

  14. Guanosine 5′-monophosphate-chelated calcium and iron feed additives maintains egg production and prevents Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Kim, Heekyong; Heo, Su Jeong; Cho, Hyang Hyun; Koh, Hong Bum

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP)-chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, a CaFe-GMP feed additive was added to a commercial layer feed and fed to layers over a four-week period. All were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate wer...

  15. Would calcium or potassium channels be responsible for cardiac arrest produced by adenosine and ATP in the right atria of Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Henrique; Rodrigues, Juliano Quintella Dantas; Alves, Gabriel Andrade; da Silva Junior, Edilson Dantas; Caricati-Neto, Afonso; Garcia, Antônio G; Jurkiewicz, Aron

    2015-12-05

    Autonomic nerves release ATP, which is processed into adenosine in the synaptic cleft. Adenosine and ATP exert a negative chronotropic effect in the heart. This study aims to evaluate adenosine and P2 receptors and cellular signalling in cardiac arrest produced by purines in the heart. Right atria of adult Wistar rats were used to evaluate the effects of adenosine, ATP and CPA (an adenosine A1 receptor agonist), in the presence and absence of DPCPX, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Effects of adenosine A2 and A3 receptors agonists and antagonists were also investigated. Finally, involvement of calcium and potassium channels in these responses was assessed using BayK 8644 and 4-Aminopyridine. Cumulative concentration-effect curves of adenosine and CPA resulted in a negative chronotropic effect culminating in cardiac arrest at 1000μM (adenosine) and 1µM (CPA). Furthermore, ATP produced a negative chronotropic effect at 1-300µM and cardiac arrest at 1000μM in the right atrium. ATPγS (a non-hydrolysable analogue of ATP) reduced chronotropism only. The effects of adenosine, CPA and ATP were inhibited by DPCPX, a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. The selective adenosine A2 and A3 receptors antagonists did not alter the chronotropic response of adenosine. 4-Aminopyridine, a blocker of potassium channels at 10mM, prevented the cardiac arrest produced by adenosine and ATP, while BayK 8644, activator of calcium channels, did not prevent cardiac arrest. Adenosine A1 receptor activation by adenosine and ATP produces cardiac arrest in the right atrium of Wistar rats predominantly through activation of potassium channels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective inhibition of KCa3.1 channels mediates adenosine regulation of the motility of human T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimote, Ameet A.; Hajdu, Peter; Kucher, Vladimir; Boiko, Nina; Kuras, Zerrin; Szilagyi, Orsolya; Yun, Yeo-Heung; Conforti, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine, a purine nucleoside, is present at high concentrations in tumors where it contributes to the failure of immune cells to eliminate cancer cells. The mechanisms responsible for the immunosuppressive properties of adenosine are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine’s immunosuppressive functions in human T lymphocytes are in part mediated via modulation of ion channels. The activity of T lymphocytes relies on ion channels. KCa3.1 and Kv1.3 channels control cytokine release and, together with TRPM7, regulate T cell motility. Adenosine selectively inhibited KCa3.1, but not Kv1.3 and TRPM7, in activated human T cells. This effect of adenosine was mainly mediated by A2A receptors as KCa3.1 inhibition was reversed by SCH58261 (selective A2A receptor antagonist), but not by MRS1754 (A2B receptor antagonist) and it was mimicked by the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680. Furthermore, it was mediated by the cAMP/PKAI signaling pathway as adenylyl-cyclase and PKAI inhibition prevented adenosine effect on KCa3.1. The functional implication of the effect of adenosine on KCa3.1 was determined by measuring T cell motility on ICAM-1 surfaces. Adenosine and CGS21680 inhibited T cell migration. Comparable effects were obtained by KCa3.1 blockade with TRAM-34. Furthermore, the effect of adenosine on cell migration was abolished by pre-exposure to TRAM-34. Additionally, adenosine suppresses IL-2 secretion via KCa3.1 inhibition. Our data indicate that adenosine inhibits KCa3.1 in human T cells via A2A receptor and PKAI thereby resulting in decreased T cell motility and cytokine release. This mechanism is likely to contribute to decreased immune surveillance in solid tumors. PMID:24227782

  17. Regadenoson induces comparable left ventricular perfusion defects as adenosine: a quantitative analysis from the ADVANCE MPI 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmarian, John J; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Iskandrian, Ami E; Bateman, Timothy M; Thomas, Gregory S; Hendel, Robert C; Moye, Lemuel A; Olmsted, Ann W

    2009-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether regadenoson induces left ventricular perfusion defects of similar size and severity as seen with adenosine stress. Total and ischemic left ventricular perfusion defect size predict patient outcome. Therefore, it is important to show that newer stressor agents induce similar perfusion abnormalities as observed with currently available ones. The ADVANCE MPI 2 (Adenosine versus Regadenoson Comparative Evaluation for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging) study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial comparing image results in patients undergoing standard gated adenosine single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging who were then randomized in a 2:1 ratio to either regadenoson (N = 495) or a second adenosine SPECT (N = 260). Quantitative SPECT analysis was used to determine total left ventricular perfusion defect size and the extent of ischemia. Quantification was performed by a single observer who was blinded to randomization and image sequence. Baseline gated perfusion results were similar in patients randomized to adenosine or regadenoson. No significant differences in total (11.5 +/- 15.7 vs. 11.4 +/- 15.8, p = 0.88) or ischemic (4.8 +/- 9.2 vs. 4.6 +/- 8.9, p = 0.43) perfusion defect sizes were observed between the regadenoson and adenosine groups, respectively. Linear regression showed a close correlation between adenosine and regadenoson for total (r = 0.97, p regadenoson versus adenosine, respectively. The good correlation between serial adenosine and regadenoson studies regarding total (0.41 +/- 5.43 vs. 0.21 +/- 5.23, p = 0.76) and ischemic (0.17 +/- 5.31 vs. 0.23 +/- 6.08, p = 0.94) perfusion defects persisted in the subgroup of 308 patients with an abnormal baseline SPECT. Applying quantitative analysis, regadenoson induces virtually identical scintigraphic results as adenosine regarding the size and severity of left ventricular perfusion defects and the extent of scintigraphic

  18. Adenosine A(1) Receptors in the Central Nervous System : Their Functions in Health and Disease, and Possible Elucidation by PET Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, S.; Elsinga, P. H.; Ishiwata, K.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; van Waarde, A.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuromodulator with several functions in the central nervous system (CNS), such as inhibition of neuronal activity in many signaling pathways. Most of the sedating, anxiolytic, seizure-inhibiting and protective actions of adenosine are mediated by adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) on

  19. Estimation of adenosine triphosphate utilization of rat mast cells during and after anaphylactic histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    Determination of the cellular content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the rate of ATP-synthesis were used to estimate the cellular utilization of ATP in relation to anaphylactic histamine secretion. There was an increased rate of oxidative ATP-synthesis and a decreased cellular ATP content du...

  20. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  1. Efficacy of Adenosine for Acute Treatment of Supraventricular Tachycardia in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Dalili

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was done to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of the different doses of adenosine in the pediatric age group with respect to multiple patient variables. Methods: Over a period of 1 year, 86 occasions of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT were treated with adenosine in 81 infants and children aged between 18 days and 12 years (median of 1.3 years, SD=3. Adenosine efficacy was evaluated in terms of the patients’ demographics, SVT rate, electrocardiogram characteristics, and route of drug administration.Results: The dose of 50μg/kg was effective only in 24% of the SVT cases, and the additional doses of 100μg/kg, 150μg/kg, and 200μg/kg were effective in another 29% of the cases. The drug efficacy was higher in the infants than that in the older children. There were no predictors other than age for the estimation of the efficacy of the drug. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the current recommended doses of adenosine are ineffective in the vast majority of children and infants with SVT. No patient-related factor other than age seems to affect the efficacy of the drug

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) against organophosphate intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueters, T.J.H.; Groen, B.; Danhof, M.; IJzerman, A.P.; Helden, H.P.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether reduction of central acetylcholine (ACh) accumulation by adenosine receptor agonists could serve as a generic treatment against organophosphate (OP) poisoning. The OPs studied were tabun (O-ethyl-N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), sarin

  3. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  4. The effect of beta blocker withdrawal on adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, C; Preuss, R; Weise, R; Burchert, W; Lindner, O

    2014-12-01

    The effect of beta blockers on myocardial blood flow (MBF) under vasodilators has been studied in several SPECT and PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies with divergent results. The present study evaluated the effect of a beta blocker withdrawal on quantitative adenosine MBF and on MPI results. Twenty patients with beta blockers and CAD history were studied with quantitative adenosine N-13 ammonia PET. The first study was performed under complete medication and the second after beta blocker withdrawal. The PET studies were independently read with respect to MPI result and clinical decision making. Global MBF showed an increase from 180.2 ± 59.9 to 193.6 ± 60.8 mL·minute(-1)/100 g (P = .02) after beta blocker withdrawal. The segmental perfusion values were closely correlated (R(2) = 0.82) over the entire range of perfusion values. An essentially different interpretation after beta blocker discontinuation was found in two cases (10%). A beta blocker withdrawal induces an increase in adenosine MBF. In the majority of cases, MPI interpretation and decision making are independent of beta blocker intake. If a temporary beta blocker withdrawal before MPI is not possible or was not realized by the patient, it is appropriate to perform adenosine stress testing without loss of the essential MPI result.

  5. New insights into a classic aptamer: binding sites, cooperativity and more sensitive adenosine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijie; Oni, Olatunji; Liu, Juewen

    2017-07-27

    The DNA aptamer for adenosine (also for AMP and ATP) is a highly conserved sequence that has recurred in a few selections. It it a widely used model aptamer for biosensor development, and its nuclear magnetic resonance structure shows that each aptamer binds two AMP molecules. In this work, each binding site was individually removed by rational sequence design, while the remaining site still retained a similar binding affinity and specificity as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. The thermodynamic parameters of binding are presented, and its biochemical implications are discussed. The number of binding sites can also be increased, and up to four sites are introduced in a single DNA sequence. Finally, the different sequences are made into fluorescent biosensors based on the structure-switching signaling aptamer design. The one-site aptamer has 3.8-fold higher sensitivity at lower adenosine concentration with a limit of detection of 9.1 μM adenosine, but weaker fluorescence signal at higher adenosine concentrations, consistent with a moderate cooperativity in the original aptamer. This work has offered insights into a classic aptamer for the relationship between the number of binding sites and sensitivity, and a shorter aptamer for improved biosensor design. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Structural Disruption of an Adenosine-Binding DNA Aptamer on Graphene: Implications for Aptasensor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Zak E; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2017-11-22

    We report on the predicted structural disruption of an adenosine-binding DNA aptamer adsorbed via noncovalent interactions on aqueous graphene. The use of surface-adsorbed biorecognition elements on device substrates is needed for integration in nanofluidic sensing platforms. Upon analyte binding, the conformational change in the adsorbed aptamer may perturb the surface properties, which is essential for the signal generation mechanism in the sensor. However, at present, these graphene-adsorbed aptamer structure(s) are unknown, and are challenging to experimentally elucidate. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and analyte-binding properties of this aptamer, in the presence and absence of adenosine, both free in solution and adsorbed at the aqueous graphene interface. We predict this aptamer to support a variety of stable binding modes, with direct base-graphene contact arising from regions located in the terminal bases, the centrally located binding pockets, and the distal loop region. Considerable retention of the in-solution aptamer structure in the adsorbed state indicates that strong intra-aptamer interactions compete with the graphene-aptamer interactions. However, in some adsorbed configurations the analyte adenosines detach from the binding pockets, facilitated by strong adenosine-graphene interactions.

  7. Detecting adenosine triphosphatase 6 (PfATP6) point mutations that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detecting adenosine triphosphatase 6 (PfATP6) point mutations that may be associated with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin: prevalence at baseline, before policy change in Uganda. ... For the important codons 260, 263 and 769, methods using engineered restriction sites were employed. We did not find ...

  8. B-cell development and functions and therapeutic options in adenosine deaminase-deficient patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Brigida (Immacolata); A.V. Sauer (Aisha); F. Ferrua (Francesca); S. Giannelli (Stefania); S. Scaramuzza (Samantha); V. Pistoia (Valentina); M.C. Castiello (Maria Carmina); B.H. Barendregt (Barbara); M.P. Cicalese (Maria Pia); F. Casiraghi (Federica); C. Brombin (Chiara); J. Puck (Jennifer); K. Muller (Karin); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); D. Montin (Davide); J.M. van Montfrans (Joris); M.G. Roncarolo (Maria Grazia); E. Traggiai (Elisabetta); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); A. Aiuti (Alessandro)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes severe cellular and humoral immune defects and dysregulation because of metabolic toxicity. Alterations in B-cell development and function have been poorly studied. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)

  9. SIGNIFICANCE OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE SERUM CONCENTRATIONS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF EXTRA-PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic G,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is a growing problem worldwide. Due to the nature of the disease, the diversity of clinical pictures as well as its minor epidemiological importance, the diagnosis is difficult and often late.In addition to standard TB diagnostic techniques use of new biochemical (surrogate markers are increased. With this work we wanted to examine the usefulness of serum adenosine deaminase levels as a diagnostic parameter for EPTB.The work included 116 patients with fever of unknown origin in which tuberculosis or infectious mononucleosis was not proven and 51 person who had proven EPTB. Correlated adenosine deaminase levels between these two groups we obtained significantly higher values ​​in patients with EPTB. The calculated sensitivity was 0.56, specificity 0.89, positive predictive value 0.80 and negative predictive value 0.72. Certain reducing of the values observed during anti TB therapy. In previous studies the diagnostic importance of adenosine deaminase in the diagnosis of tuberculosis serosityes was demonstrated. The significance of serum levels in diagnosis is rarely evaluated during EPTB. Our findings are similar to the results of authors who have conducted such testing in the pediatric population.Increased concentrations of serum adenosine deaminase have shown the potential of usable screening test and can be used as an indicative EPTB parameter. To fully assess its diagnostic significance require future clinical research.

  10. Adenosine concentrations in the interstitium of resting and contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Maclean, D.; Rådegran, G.

    1998-01-01

    extensor exercise. At rest, the interstitial concentration of adenosine was 220+/-100 nmol/L and femoral arterial blood flow (FaBF) was 0.19+/-0.02 L/min. When the subjects exercised lightly, at a work rate of 10 W, there was a markedly higher (1140+/-540 nmol/L; P

  11. Adenosine Selectively Depletes Alloreactive T Cells to Prevent GVHD While Conserving Immunity to Viruses and Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Greg D; Amarnath, Shoba; Muranski, Pawel; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin J; Chinnassamy, Dhanalakshmi

    2016-09-01

    Selective depletion (SD) of alloreactive T cells from allogeneic hematopoeitic stem cell transplants to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) without compromising immune reconstitution and antitumor responses remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a novel SD strategy whereby alloreacting T cells are efficiently deleted ex vivo with adenosine. SD was achieved in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatched cocultures by multiple exposures to 2 mmol/l adenosine over 7 days. Adenosine depleted greater than to 90% of alloproliferating T cells in mismatched, haploidentical, and matched sibling pairs while conserving response to third-party antigens. Alloreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells were targeted for depletion while NK and B cells were preserved. Our novel approach also preserved nonalloreactive naive, central, and effector memory T-cell subsets, Tregs, and notably preserved T-cell responses against DNA viruses that contribute to transplant related mortality after allogeneic hematopoeitic stem cell transplants. Additionally, T cells recognizing leukemia-associated antigens were efficiently generated in vitro from the cell product post-SD. This study is the first to demonstrate that adenosine depletion of alloactivated T cells maintains a complete immune cell profile and recall viral responses. Expansion of tumor antigen-specific subsets postdepletion opens the possibility of generating T-cell products capable of graft-versus-tumor responses without causing GVHD.

  12. Methods for the Detection of Adenosine-to-Inosine Editing Events in Cellular RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Eimile; Vadlamani, Pranathi; Hundley, Heather A

    2017-01-01

    Modification of RNA is essential for properly expressing the repertoire of RNA transcripts necessary for both cell type and developmental specific functions. RNA modifications serve to dynamically re-wire and fine-tune the genetic information carried by an invariable genome. One important type of RNA modification is RNA editing and the most common and well-studied type of RNA editing is the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine. Inosine is a biological mimic of guanosine; therefore, when RNA is reverse transcribed, inosine is recognized as guanosine by the reverse transcriptase and a cytidine is incorporated into the complementary DNA (cDNA) strand. During PCR amplification, guanosines pair with the newly incorporated cytidines. As a result, the adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing events are recognized as adenosine to guanosine changes when comparing the sequences of the genomic DNA to the cDNA. This chapter describes the methods for extracting endogenous RNA for subsequent analyses of A-to-I RNA editing using reverse transcriptase-based approaches. We discuss techniques for the detection of A-to-I RNA editing events in messenger RNA (mRNA), including analyzing editing levels at specific adenosines within the total pool of mRNA versus analyzing editing patterns that occur in individual transcripts and a method for detecting editing events across the entire transcriptome. The detection of RNA editing events and editing levels can be used to better understand normal biological processes and disease states.

  13. REDUCTION OF ADENOSINE-A1-RECEPTORS IN THE PERFORANT PATHWAY TERMINAL ZONE IN ALZHEIMER HIPPOCAMPUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JAARSMA, D; SEBENS, JB; KORF, J

    1991-01-01

    The cells of origin of the perforant pathway are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In rat the adenosine A1-receptors are specifically localized on the perforant path terminals in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. In the present study the density of A1-receptors in the hippocampus of

  14. Endogenous activation of adenosine A(1) receptors accelerates ischemic suppression of spontaneous electrocortical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ciocan, Dragos; Zagrean, Ana-Maria

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces a rapid suppression of spontaneous brain rhythms prior to major alterations in ionic homeostasis. It was found in vitro during ischemia that the rapidly formed adenosine, resulting from the intracellular breakdown of ATP, may inhibit synaptic transmission via the A(1...

  15. Astrocytes derived from fetal neural progenitor cells as a novel source for therapeutic adenosine delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dycke, A.; Raedt, R.; Verstraete, A.; Theofilas, P.; Wadman, W.; Vonck, K.; Boison, D.; Boon, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intracerebral delivery of anti-epileptic compounds represents a novel strategy for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Adenosine is a possible candidate for local delivery based on its proven anti-epileptic effects. Neural stem cells constitute an ideal cell source for intracerebral

  16. Short-term glucose load and serum adenosine deaminase activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term glucose load and serum adenosine deaminase activity in diabetic Nigerians. P O Anaja, E A Ekanem. Abstract. No Abstract. Annals of Nigerian Medicine Vol. 2 (1) 2006: pp. 43-48. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics ...

  17. Indicator cell lines for the detection of hidden mycoplasma contamination, using an adenosine phosphorylase screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, G.T.; Polak-Vogelzang, A.A.; Bast, B.J.E. G.

    1988-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are a major cause of cell culture contamination and are especially troublesome during HAT selection. The enzyme adenosine phosphorylase (adoP) is present in all common mycoplasma species but is considered to have a low activity in mammalian cells. However, using an adoP screening test,

  18. Pollen-derived adenosine is a necessary cofactor for ragweed allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, M; Alessandrini, F; Gilles, S; Frank, U; Oeder, S; Hauser, M; Ring, J; Ferreira, F; Ernst, D; Winkler, J B; Schmitt-Kopplin, P; Ohnmacht, C; Behrendt, H; Schmidt-Weber, C; Traidl-Hoffmann, C; Gutermuth, J

    2015-08-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is a strong elicitor of allergic airway inflammation with worldwide increasing prevalence. Various components of ragweed pollen are thought to play a role in the development of allergic responses. The aim of this study was to identify critical factors for allergenicity of ragweed pollen in a physiological model of allergic airway inflammation. Aqueous ragweed pollen extract, the low molecular weight fraction or the major allergen Amb a 1 was instilled intranasally on 1-11 consecutive days, and allergic airway inflammation was evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage, lung histology, serology, gene expression in lung tissue, and measurement of lung function. Pollen-derived adenosine was removed from the extract enzymatically to analyze its role in ragweed-induced allergy. Migration of human neutrophils and eosinophils toward supernatants of ragweed-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells was analyzed. Instillation of ragweed pollen extract, but not of the major allergen or the low molecular weight fraction, induced specific IgG1 , pulmonary infiltration with inflammatory cells, a Th2-associated cytokine signature in pulmonary tissue, and impaired lung function. Adenosine aggravated ragweed-induced allergic lung inflammation. In vitro, human neutrophils and eosinophils migrated toward supernatants of bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with ragweed extract only if adenosine was present. Pollen-derived adenosine is a critical factor in ragweed-pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation. Future studies aim at therapeutic strategies to control these allergen-independent pathways. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ischemic nucleotide breakdown increases during cardiac development due to drop in adenosine anabolism/catabolism ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Jong (Jan Willem); E. Keijzer (Elisabeth); T. Huizer (Tom); B. Schoutsen

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Our earlier work on reperfusion showed that adult rat hearts released almost twice as much purine nucleosides and oxypurines as newborn hearts did [Am J Physiol 254 (1988) H1091]. A change in the ratio anabolism/catabolism of adenosine could be responsible for this

  20. Structural basis of the substrate specificity of Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessanti, Paola; Zhang, Yang; Allegrini, Simone; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Sassari); (Pisa)

    2012-10-08

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond of purine (2{prime}-deoxy)nucleosides, generating the corresponding free base and (2{prime}-deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate. Two classes of PNPs have been identified: homotrimers specific for 6-oxopurines and homohexamers that accept both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines. Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase (AdoP) is a hexameric PNP; however, it is highly specific for 6-aminopurines. To investigate the structural basis for the unique substrate specificity of AdoP, the active-site mutant D204N was prepared and kinetically characterized and the structures of the wild-type protein and the D204N mutant complexed with adenosine and sulfate or with inosine and sulfate were determined at high resolution (1.2-1.4 {angstrom}). AdoP interacts directly with the preferred substrate through a hydrogen-bond donation from the catalytically important residue Asp204 to N7 of the purine base. Comparison with Escherichia coli PNP revealed a more optimal orientation of Asp204 towards N7 of adenosine and a more closed active site. When inosine is bound, two water molecules are interposed between Asp204 and the N7 and O6 atoms of the nucleoside, thus allowing the enzyme to find alternative but less efficient ways to stabilize the transition state. The mutation of Asp204 to asparagine led to a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency for adenosine without affecting the efficiency of inosine cleavage.

  1. Attenuated renovascular constrictor responses to angiotensin II in adenosine 1 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B; Hashimoto, Seiji; Briggs, Josie

    2003-01-01

    In the present experiments we examined the renovascular constrictor effects of ANG II in the chronic and complete absence of A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR) using mice with targeted deletion of the A1AR gene. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not different between A1AR +/+ and A1AR -/- mice unde...

  2. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicita Pedata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes. Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke.

  3. Reflex systemic sympatho-neural response to brachial adenosine infusion in treated heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijeysundera, H.C.; Parmar, G.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Floras, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: In healthy men, brachial artery adenosine infusion elicits a reflex increase in total body norepinephrine (NE) spillover (TBS) that is blunted by oral angiotensin AT(1) receptor blockade. Our objectives were to determine whether a similar reflex is active in treated heart failure (HF) patients

  4. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  5. Targeting Adenosine A2A Receptors in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    1Facultad de Ciencias Químicas BUAP and 2Centro de Estudios Regionales UAY. *(ilhlimon@siu.buap.mx). Background: The A2A receptors antagonists have been...Funded by: FCQ- BUAP . Targeting Adenosine A2A Receptors in Parkinson’s Disease and Other CNS Disorders May 17 - 19, 2006 Boston

  6. Pyrazolo Derivatives as Potent Adenosine Receptor Antagonists: An Overview on the Structure-Activity Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Lee Cheong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, medicinal chemistry research towards potent and selective antagonists of human adenosine receptors (namely, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 has been evolving rapidly. These antagonists are deemed therapeutically beneficial in several pathological conditions including neurological and renal disorders, cancer, inflammation, and glaucoma. Up to this point, many classes of compounds have been successfully synthesized and identified as potent human adenosine receptor antagonists. In this paper, an overview of the structure-activity relationship (SAR profiles of promising nonxanthine pyrazolo derivatives is reported and discussed. We have emphasized the SAR for some representative structures such as pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo-[1,5-c]pyrimidines; pyrazolo-[3,4-c] or -[4,3-c]quinolines; pyrazolo-[4,3-d]pyrimidinones; pyrazolo-[3,4-d]pyrimidines and pyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridines. This overview not only clarifies the structural requirements deemed essential for affinity towards individual adenosine receptor subtypes, but it also sheds light on the rational design and optimization of existing structural templates to allow us to conceive new, more potent adenosine receptor antagonists.

  7. Stimulation of endothelial adenosine A1 receptors enhances adhesion of neutrophils in the intact guinea pig coronary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahler, S; Becker, B F; Raschke, P; Gerlach, E

    1994-09-01

    The primary aim was to determine the action of pathophysiologically relevant adenosine concentrations (0.1-1 microM) on adhesion of neutrophils to coronary endothelium. Further aims were to evaluate the nature and localisation of the adenosine receptor involved, and to assess the effect of endogenous adenosine. Adhesion was studied in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts by determining the number of cells emerging in the coronary effluent after intracoronary bolus injections of 600,000 neutrophils prepared from guinea pig or human blood. The system was characterised by the use of the proadhesive stimulus thrombin. A 5 min infusion of adenosine (0.1-0.3 microM) or the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 microM) significantly increased adhesion from about 20% (control) to 30%. This effect was prevented by the A1 receptor antagonist dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM). It was not diminished by cessation of adenosine infusion 90 s prior to neutrophil injection. At a higher concentration of adenosine (1 microM), adhesion did not seem to be enhanced. However, coinfusion of the A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX, 0.1 microM) with 1 microM adenosine unmasked the A1 action, adhesion rising to 39%. Adenosine had a quantitatively identical effect on adhesion of human neutrophils. Total ischaemia of 15 min duration raised adhesion of subsequently applied neutrophils to 35%. This effect was completely blocked by DPCPX, as well as by ischaemic preconditioning (3 x 3 min). Preconditioning raised initial postischaemic coronary effluent adenosine from about 0.8 microM to 1.5 microM. The findings suggest a bimodal participation of adenosine in the development of postischaemic dysfunction by an endothelium dependent modulation of neutrophil adhesion. Stimulation occurs via endothelial A1 receptors at submicromolar adenosine levels, whereas cardioprotection by adenosine may in part relate to the use of pharmacologically high

  8. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase attenuates endotoxin-induced release of cytokines in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofovic, S P; Zacharia, L; Carcillo, J A; Jackson, E K

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo the effects of modulating the adenosine system on endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and changes in heart performance and neurohumoral status in early, profound endotoxemia in rats. Time/pressure variables of heart performance and blood pressure were recorded continuously, and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), plasma renin activity (PRA), and catecholamines were determined before and 90 min after administration of endotoxin (30 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide, i.v.). Erythro-9[2-hydroxyl-3-nonyl] adenine (EHNA; an adenosine deaminase inhibitor) had no effects on measured time-pressure variables of heart performance under baseline conditions and during endotoxemia, yet significantly attenuated endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and PRA. Pretreatment with the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist DPSPX not only prevented the effects of EHNA but also increased the basal release of cytokines and augmented PRA. At baseline, caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) increased HR, +dP/dtmax, heart rate x ventricular pressure product (HR x VPSP) and +dP/dtmax normalized by pressure (+dP/dtmax/VPSP), and these changes persisted during endotoxemia. Caffeine attenuated endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and augmented endotoxin-induced increases in plasma catecholamines and PRA. Pretreatment with propranolol abolished the effects of caffeine on heart performance and neurohumoral activation during the early phase of endotoxemia. 6N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist) induced bradicardia and negative inotropic effects, reduced work load (i.e., decreased HR, VPSP, +dP/dtmax, +dP/dtmax/VPSP and HR x VPSP) and inhibited endotoxin-induced tachycardia and renin release. CGS 21680 (selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist) decreased blood pressure under basal condition but did not potentiate decreases in blood pressure

  9. Adenosine Kinase Deficiency in the Brain Results in Maladaptive Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandau, Ursula S; Colino-Oliveira, Mariana; Jones, Abbie; Saleumvong, Bounmy; Coffman, Shayla Q; Liu, Long; Miranda-Lourenço, Catarina; Palminha, Cátia; Batalha, Vânia L; Xu, Yiming; Huo, Yuqing; Diógenes, Maria J; Sebastião, Ana M; Boison, Detlev

    2016-11-30

    Adenosine kinase (ADK) deficiency in human patients (OMIM:614300) disrupts the methionine cycle and triggers hypermethioninemia, hepatic encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, and seizures. To identify whether this neurological phenotype is intrinsically based on ADK deficiency in the brain or if it is secondary to liver dysfunction, we generated a mouse model with a brain-wide deletion of ADK by introducing a Nestin-Cre transgene into a line of conditional ADK deficient Adk(fl/fl) mice. These Adk(Δbrain) mice developed a progressive stress-induced seizure phenotype associated with spontaneous convulsive seizures and profound deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Pharmacological, biochemical, and electrophysiological studies suggest enhanced adenosine levels around synapses resulting in an enhanced adenosine A1 receptor (A1R)-dependent protective tone despite lower expression levels of the receptor. Theta-burst-induced LTP was enhanced in the mutants and this was dependent on adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling, suggesting increased activation of these receptors in synaptic plasticity phenomena. Accordingly, reducing adenosine A2A receptor activity in Adk(Δbrain) mice restored normal associative learning and contextual memory and attenuated seizure risk. We conclude that ADK deficiency in the brain triggers neuronal adaptation processes that lead to dysregulated synaptic plasticity, cognitive deficits, and increased seizure risk. Therefore, ADK mutations have an intrinsic effect on brain physiology and may present a genetic risk factor for the development of seizures and learning impairments. Furthermore, our data show that blocking A2AR activity therapeutically can attenuate neurological symptoms in ADK deficiency. A novel human genetic condition (OMIM #614300) that is based on mutations in the adenosine kinase (Adk) gene has been discovered recently. Affected patients develop hepatic encephalopathy, seizures

  10. Effects of adenosine and regadenoson on hemodynamics measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dustin M; Minor, Matthew R; Aden, James K; Lisanti, Christopher J; Steel, Kevin E

    2017-12-04

    Adenosine or regadenoson vasodilator stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an effective non-invasive strategy for evaluating symptomatic coronary artery disease. Vasodilator injection typically precedes ventricular functional sequences to efficiently reduce overall scanning times, though the effects of vasodilators on CMR-derived ventricular volumes and function are unknown. We prospectively enrolled 25 healthy subjects to undergo consecutive adenosine and regadenoson administration. Short axis CINE datasets were obtained on a 1.5 T scanner following adenosine (140mcg/kg/min IV for 6 min) and regadenoson (0.4 mg IV over 10 s) at baseline, immediately following administration, at 5 min intervals up to 15 min. Hemodynamic response, bi-ventricular volumes and ejection fractions were determined at each time point. Peak heart rate was observed early following administration of both adenosine and regadenoson. Heart rate returned to baseline by 10 min post-adenosine while remaining elevated at 15 min post-regadenoson (p = 0.0015). Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) increased immediately following both vasodilators (p regadenoson remained increased at 10 min (p = 0.003) and 15 min (p = 0.0015) with a mean LVEF increase at 15 min of 4.2 ± 1.3%. Regadenoson resulted in a similar magnitude reduction in both LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) and LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVi) at 15 min whereas LVESVi resolved at 15 min following adenosine and LVEDVi remained below baseline values (p = 0.52). Regadenoson and adenosine have significant and prolonged impact on ventricular volumes and LVEF. In patients undergoing vasodilator stress CMR where ventricular volumes and LVEF are critical components to patient care, ventricular functional sequences should be performed prior to vasodilator use or consider the use of aminophylline in the setting of regadenoson. Additionally, heart rate resolution itself is not an

  11. The cyclic nucleotide monophosphate domain of Xanthomonas campestris global regulator Clp defines a new class of cyclic di-GMP effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fei; He, Ya-Wen; Wu, Dong-Hui; Swarup, Sanjay; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2010-02-01

    The widely conserved second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays a key role in quorum-sensing (QS)-dependent production of virulence factors in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. The detection of QS diffusible signal factor (DSF) by the sensor RpfC leads to the activation of response regulator RpfG, which activates virulence gene expression by degrading c-di-GMP. Here, we show that a global regulator in the X. campestris pv. campestris QS regulatory pathway, Clp, is a c-di-GMP effector. c-di-GMP specifically binds to Clp with high affinity and induces allosteric conformational changes that abolish the interaction between Clp and its target gene promoter. Clp is similar to the cyclic AMP (cAMP) binding proteins Crp and Vfr and contains a conserved cyclic nucleotide monophosphate (cNMP) binding domain. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the cNMP binding domain of Clp contains a glutamic acid residue (E99) that is essential for c-di-GMP binding. Substituting the residue with serine (E99S) resulted in decreased sensitivity to changes in the intracellular c-di-GMP level and attenuated bacterial virulence. These data establish the direct role of Clp in the response to fluctuating c-di-GMP levels and depict a novel mechanism by which QS links the second messenger with the X. campestris pv. campestris virulence regulon.

  12. GhLTPG1, a cotton GPI-anchored lipid transfer protein, regulates the transport of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates and cotton fiber elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ting; Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jun; Xue, Hongwei; Zuo, Kaijing

    2016-06-17

    The cotton fibers are seed trichomes that elongate from the ovule epidermis. Polar lipids are required for the quick enlargement of cell membrane and fiber cell growth, however, how lipids are transported from the ovules into the developing fibers remains less known. Here, we reported the functional characterization of GhLTPG1, a GPI-anchored lipid transport protein, during cotton fiber elongation. GhLTPG1 was abundantly expressed in elongating cotton fibers and outer integument of the ovules, and GhLTPG1 protein was located on cell membrane. Biochemical analysis showed that GhLTPG1 specifically bound to phosphatidylinositol mono-phosphates (PtdIns3P, PtdIns4P and PtdIns5P) in vitro and transported PtdInsPs from the synthesis places to the plasma membranes in vivo. Expression of GhLTPG1 in Arabidopsis caused an increased number of trichomes, and fibers in GhLTPG1-knockdown cotton plants exhibited significantly reduced length, decreased polar lipid content, and repression of fiber elongation-related genes expression. These results suggested that GhLTPG1 protein regulates the cotton fiber elongati