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Sample records for adenomyosis tissue injury

  1. Adenomyosis

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    ... The cause of adenomyosis isn't known. Expert theories about a possible cause include: Invasive tissue growth. ... the fetus. Uterine inflammation related to childbirth. Another theory suggests a link between adenomyosis and childbirth. An ...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of endometrial tissues following GnRH agonist treatment in a mouse adenomyosis model

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    Guo S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Song Guo,1,* Xiaowei Lu,1,* Ruihuan Gu,2 Di Zhang,3 Yijuan Sun,2 Yun Feng1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine Center, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Gynecology, Shanghai Ji Ai Genetics & In Vitro Fertilization Institute, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Jinan Military General Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Adenomyosis is a common, benign gynecological condition of the female reproductive tract characterized by heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are one of the medications used in adenomyosis treatment; however, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain endometrial samples from women undergoing such treatment. To overcome this, we generated an adenomyosis mouse model, which we treated with an GnRH agonist to determine its effect on pregnancy outcomes. We also analyzed endometrial gene expression following GnRH agonist treatment to determine the mechanisms that may affect pregnancy outcome in individuals with adenomyosis.Methods: Neonatal female mice were divided into a control group, an untreated adenomyosis group, and an adenomyosis group treated with a GnRH agonist (n=6 each. The pregnancy outcome was observed and compared among the groups. Then, three randomly chosen transcriptomes from endometrial tissues from day 4 of pregnancy were analyzed between the adenomyosis group and the GnRH agonist treatment group by RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR.Results: The litter size was significantly smaller in the adenomyosis group than in the control group (7±0.28 vs 11±0.26; P<0.05. However, the average live litter

  3. Canine Uterine Leiomyoma with Epithelial Tissue Foci, Adenomyosis, and Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia

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    George S. Karagiannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch with a history of intermittent, sanguineous vaginal discharge of a six-month duration was presented. During exploratory laparotomy, two well-delineated, intramural masses were identified bilaterally in the uterine horns. Histopathologic examination of the mass on the left horn showed that it was a typical leiomyoma. However, the second mass appeared with an unusual coexistence of histological lesions, involving epithelial tissue foci, mild focal adenomyosis, and cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Interestingly, such combination was never encountered before in dogs. Although uterine leiomyoma is quite usual in the reproductive system of female dogs, this case resembled relevant cases of human uterine adenomyomas in morphology, and thus it was offered a similar tentative diagnosis.

  4. Estrogen biosynthesis in human uterine adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Takara; Kitawaki, Jo; Honjo, Hideo; Okada, Hiroji

    1989-01-01

    Estrogen biosynthesis (aromatiase activity) was investigated in human adenomyosis tissue and compared with that of the normal myometrium, endometrium, and endometrical cancer tissues. Homogenates were incubated with [1,2,6,7- 3 H]androstenedione and NADPH at 37 deg. C for 1 h. After stopping the enzymatic reaction with ethyl acetate, [4- 14 C]estrone and [4- 14 C]estradiol-17β were added to the incubated sample. Estrone and estradiol were purified and identified by Bio-Rad AG1-X2 column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and co-crystallization. Estrogen formed in the incubated sample was calculated from the 3 H/ 14 C ratio of the final crystal. The value for estrone formed from androstenedione was 52-132 fmol . h -1. g -1 wet weight. Aromatase activity in the adenomyosis tissues was higher than that in normal endometrial or myometrial tissues, but lower than that found in myometrial or endometrial tumour tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of danazol, progresterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate on adenomyosis cells in primary cultures. Aromatase activity in adenomyosis was blocked by danazol, but stimulated by progesterone and MPA. These results indicate that aromatase activity in adenomyosis may contribute to the growth of the ectopic endometrial tissue which occurs in this disease. (author)

  5. Canine Uterine Leiomyoma with Epithelial Tissue Foci, Adenomyosis, and Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia

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    Karagiannis, George S.; Pelekanis, Mihalis; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Ververidis, Haris N.; Kaldrymidou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    An 11-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch with a history of intermittent, sanguineous vaginal discharge of a six-month duration was presented. During exploratory laparotomy, two well-delineated, intramural masses were identified bilaterally in the uterine horns. Histopathologic examination of the mass on the left horn showed that it was a typical leiomyoma. However, the second mass appeared with an unusual coexistence of histological lesions, involving epithelial tissue foci, mild focal adenomy...

  6. Prolactin role in the bovine uterus during adenomyosis.

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    Łupicka, M; Socha, B M; Szczepańska, A A; Korzekwa, A J

    2017-01-01

    Adenomyosis is uterine dysfunction defined as the presence of endometrial glands within the myometrium. It is suggested that adenomyosis is estrogen-dependent pathology, and prolactin (PRL) also affects its development. In the uterus of ruminants, PRL stimulates gland proliferation and function. We hypothesized that in the bovine uterus, the expression of PRL and its receptors (PRLRs) during adenomyosis is disturbed and modulated by estradiol (E 2 ). Uterine tissues were collected postmortem from cows; epithelial, stromal, and myometrial cells were isolated; and cultured and treated with E 2 . Material was divided into 2 groups: control (nonadenomyotic) and uteri with adenomyosis. In adenomyotic uterine tissue, PRL and its long-form receptor protein were increased, as determined by Western blotting. Immunohistostaining showed that during adenomyosis, PRL and its receptors are highly expressed in adenomyotic lesions. In cultured myometrial cells, protein expression of PRL and its receptors was increased during adenomyosis. Estradiol decreased PRLRs protein expression in nonadenomyotic stromal cells and in adenomyotic myometrial cells, and increased PRL secretion by adenomyotic myometrial cells. Moreover, PRL secretion was increased in untreated epithelial and stromal cells during adenomyosis. On the other hand, in stromal cells, PRLRs messenger RNA and protein expression was decreased, as determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Obtained results show that significant changes in PRL and PRLRs expression are observed in uterine tissue and cells during adenomyosis, which were also affected by E 2 . These data suggest involvement of PRL in adenomyosis development and the link between PRL and E 2 actions during the dysfunction in cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

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    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries (Chilblains [Pernio]; Frostnip; Immersion Foot [Trench Foot]) By ...

  8. Endocannabinoids modulate apoptosis in endometriosis and adenomyosis.

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    Bilgic, Elif; Guzel, Elif; Kose, Sevil; Aydin, Makbule Cisel; Karaismailoglu, Eda; Akar, Irem; Usubutun, Alp; Korkusuz, Petek

    2017-06-01

    Adenomyosis that is a form of endometriosis is the growth of ectopic endometrial tissue within the muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium), which may cause dysmenorrhea and infertility. Endocannabinoid mediated apoptotic mechanisms of endometriosis and adenomyosis are not known. We hypothesized that the down regulation of endocannabinoid receptors and/or alteration in their regulatory enzymes may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and adenomyosis through apoptosis. Endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, their synthesizing and catabolizing enzymes (FAAH, NAPE-PLD, DAGL, MAGL) and the apoptotic indexes were immunohistochemically assessed in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues. Findings were compared to normal endometrium and myometrium. Endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) and ovarian endometriosis cyst wall stromal (CRL-7566) cell lines were furthermore cultured with or without cannabinoid receptor agonists. The IC50 value for CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists was quantified. Cannabinoid agonists on cell death were investigated by Annexin-V/Propidium iodide labeling with flow cytometry. CB1 and CB2 receptor levels decreased in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues compared to the control group (p=0,001 and p=0,001). FAAH, NAPE-PLD, MAGL and DAGL enzyme levels decreased in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues compared to control (p=0,001, p=0,001, p=0,001 and p=0,002 respectively). Apoptotic cell indexes both in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues also decreased significantly, compared to the control group (p=0,001 and p=0,001). CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist mediated dose dependent fast anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were detected in Ishikawa and ovarian endometriosis cyst wall stromal cell lines (CRL-7566). Endocannabinoids are suggested to increase apoptosis mechanisms in endometriosis and adenomyosis. CB1 and CB2 antagonists can be considered as potential medical therapeutic agents for endometriosis and adenomyosis. Copyright

  9. A NEW LOOK AT THE PATHOGENESIS OF ADENOMYOSIS

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    M. M. Damirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE. Сomprehensive study of morphological features in patients with adenomyosis.MATERIAL AND METHODS. Comprehensive clinical and morphological study was performed in 40 adenomyosis patients who had been operated (the average age 44,1±3,47 years with histologically verified diagnosis. A comprehensive morphological study using survey, histochemical and morphometric methods was carried out.RESULTS. Growth of heterotopic lesions was accompanied by a marked plethora microvasculature of the myometrium, lymphostasis, oedema of the tissues of the myometrium, number of tissue basophils increase around the endometriosis, alcian-positive glycosaminoglycans high content in the intercellular substance. Local changes taking place in the uterus play important role in adenomyosis occurrence. The research results allow to consider the onset and progression of adenomyosis from the position of the concept of the local failure of the uterus connective tissue. Knowledge of the morphological basis of adenomyosis allows to diagnose the pathology better and to interpret the results obtained by the application of additional methods of examination . 

  10. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the development of adenomyosis

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    Ben-Shian Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenomyosis is a hormone-related disease that affects 10–66% of women, and women with this disorder suffer from menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and/or infertility. Regarding the etiology of the disease, the current trend of thought is that adenomyosis or adenomyoma results as a down-growth and invagination of the endometrial basalis into the adjacent myometrium after disruption of the normally intact boundary between the two. The eutopic endometrium of adenomyosis presents invasive characteristics, including increased angiogenesis and proliferation, decreased apoptosis, induction of the local production of estrogens, induction of progesterone resistance, and impaired cytokine expression, and these changes enhance the ability of the endometrium to infiltrate the junctional zone myometrium and the growth of ectopic tissue. Hysterectomy is the major strategy to relieve secondary dysmenorrhea caused by adenomyosis. However, fertility and uterine preservation are compromised by such treatment. The traditional pharmacological therapies for adenomyosis are primarily aimed at the suppression of endogenous estrogen production, but the results are not satisfactory. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel treatment strategies for adenomyosis. There has been evidence that indicates that the estrogen-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT may play a role in the development of adenomyosis. In this article, we will concentrate on the estrogen-induced EMT in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis.

  11. Berberine inhibits the LPS-induced proliferation and inflammatory response of stromal cells of adenomyosis tissues mediated by the LPS/TLR4 signaling pathway.

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    Liu, Li; Chen, Li; Jiang, Caixia; Guo, Jing; Xie, Yan; Kang, Le; Cheng, Zhongping

    2017-12-01

    A previous study by our group has demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces adenomyosis through stimulating inflammatory cell proliferation and invasive growth of stromal cells via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of berberine (BBR) on LPS-induced ectopic endometrial stromal cells (EESCs) isolated from patients with adenomyosis. The viability of EESCs treated with LPS or LPS plus BBR was detected by a cell counting kit-8 assay, and the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. The effect of BBR on the expression of key molecules of inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth of LPS-induced EESCs was also evaluated. BBR significantly inhibited the LPS-induced proliferation of EESCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BBR induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and enhanced apoptosis of LPS-induced EESCs. Furthermore, BBR inhibited the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor-β, epithelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 2 in LPS-induced EESCs. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate that BBR has a protective effect on ameliorating the LPS-induced progression of adenomyosis. This result may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical treatment of the disease.

  12. The utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation of uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qiong; Zhang Lihua; Su Jing; Liu Jianyu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), especially apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the differentiation of uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma. Materials and methods: 17 patients with uterine leiomyoma and 22 patients with uterine adenomyosis underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in addition to routine MR imaging. The ADC values, as well as ADC D-value (defined as the ADC value of high signal intensive foci minus the ADC value of lesion tissues the difference in value), were measured and compared to investigate whether they could help in the differentiation of uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma. Histopathologic examination was conducted as the golden standard. Results: For high signal intensive foci within the lesions, uterine adenomyosis demonstrated significantly lower mean ADC value than uterine leiomyoma (1.582 vs. 2.122 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, P = 0.001). For lesion tissues, uterine adenomyosis demonstrated significantly higher mean ADC value than uterine leiomyoma (1.214 vs. 0.967 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, P = 0.001). However, there was overlap between uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma in both measurements. Mean ADC D-value was significantly lower in uterine adenomyosis than in uterine leiomyoma (0.369 vs. 1.096 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, P = 0.000). ADC D-value had no overlap between uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma. Conclusion: DWI can be applied for the further differentiation of uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma, in addition to routine MR imaging. ADC D-value may be a more useful tool than ADC value in the differentiation.

  13. [An update on adenomyosis and implantation].

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    Yazbeck, C; Falcone, S; Ballout, A; Gauché-Cazalis, C; Epelboin, S; Patrat, C; Luton, D

    2015-10-01

    Adenomyosis is an enigmatic disease whose impact on implantation and fertility outcome is still controversial. A negative effect on IVF outcome was already observed, but it is mainly explained by an increase in early spontaneous miscarriages. We reviewed scientific data in order to bring relevant information about adenomyosis and endometrial receptivity for patient counselling and to precise if screening of adenomyosis is indicated before IVF treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Fluorescence diagnosis in tissue injury

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    Maciel, Vitória H.; Ferreira, Juliana; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2009-06-01

    Background and Objectives: The paper aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the fluorescence spectroscopy in the detection of UV-induced skin change of Wistar rats. Study Design/ Materials and Methods: In a group male Wistar rats, the skin damage was produced by an UV-C lamp, periodically monitored using the laser-induced fluorescence, until complete healing process. After determining a characteristic emission band present in the fluorescence spectra of the induced injuries, the amplitude band monitoring allowed the follow up on the injury and the recovery. Results: We observed the appearance of two new emission bands more evident at the injury spectra when compared to the spectrums from normal non-exposed tissue. Following such spectral bands was possible to observe the establishment and recovery. Conclusions: The fluorescence spectroscopy is a promising technique in distinguishing between normal and UV induced skin change helping the evaluation of changes which are irreversible cancer tissue characteristics.

  15. Long-term MR Imaging after Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Adenomyosis

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    Lee, Shin Jae; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Hyun Seok; Lee, Mee Hwa; Kim, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Ho; Cha, Sun Hee [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    We wanted to assess the long-term follow-up MR (LTFU-MR) imaging of adenomyosis that was treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE). From 1998 to 2000, 22 patients who underwent UAE for symptomatic adenomyosis were enrolled. The pattern of adenomyosis was divided into two categories: focal (n=14) and diffuse type (n=8). All the patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR imaging 3 months before embolization and over 3 years after embolization. The MR findings for the volume change and the existence and alteration of necrosis were analyzed. In the focal adenomyosis, LTFU-MR revealed contrast enhancement in the completely necrotized area before in five out of seven patients and persistent necrosis with atrophy in the remaining two cases. In the six cases without necrosis, four showed global enlargement of the uterus. In the eight patients with diffuse adenomyosis, LTFU-MR revealed contrast enhancement in the necrotized area in four of the patients. Of the remaining four patients who had no necrosis, two showed global enlargement of the uterus. LTFU-MR revealed three common patterns: persistent necrosis or atrophy, viable tissue replacement in the previously necrotized area and global enlargements of the uterus.

  16. Noninvasive treatment of focal adenomyosis with MR-guided focused ultrasound in two patients

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    Laveena Polina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomyosis is a common benign gynecological disorder presenting with dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and pressure symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS utilizes precisely focused USG waves to generate and maintain high temperatures within the targeted tissue to achieve protein denaturation and coagulative necrosis. The heat generated is monitored using MRI images acquired in real-time in three planes. We present two cases of focal adenomyosis treated with MRgFUS showing good symptomatic relief at 3 and 6 months follow-up.

  17. Myomas and Adenomyosis: Impact on Reproductive Outcome

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    Nikos F. Vlahos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among uterine structural abnormalities, myomas and adenomyosis represent two distinct, though frequently coexistent entities, with a remarkable prevalence in women of reproductive age. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the impact of each of them on reproductive outcome. In respect to myomas, current evidence implies that submucosal ones have an adverse effect on conception and early pregnancy. A similar effect yet is not quite clear and has been suggested for intramural myomas. Still, it seems reasonable that intramural myomas greater than 4 cm in diameter may negatively impair reproductive outcome. On the contrary, subserosal myomas do not seem to have a significant impact, if any, on reproduction. The presence of submucosal and/or large intramural myomas has also been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In particular increased risk for miscarriage, fetal malpresentation, placenta previa, preterm birth, placenta abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, and cesarean section has been reported. With regard to adenomyosis, besides the tentative coexistence of adenomyosis and infertility, to date a causal relationship among these conditions has not been fully confirmed. Preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of membranes, uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony, and ectopic pregnancy have all been reported in association with adenomyosis. Further research on the impact of adenomyosis on reproductive outcome is welcome.

  18. Dienogest reduces proliferation, NGF expression and nerve fiber density in human adenomyosis.

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    Takeuchi, Arisa; Koga, Kaori; Miyashita, Mariko; Makabe, Tomoko; Sue, Fusako; Harada, Miyuki; Hirata, Tetsuya; Hirota, Yasushi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the in vivo effect of dienogest on proliferation, apoptosis, aromatase expression, vascular density, nerve growth factor (NGF) expression and nerve fiber density in human adenomyosis tissue. Twelve women who underwent hysterectomy for adenomyosis were enrolled. Six patients received dienogest treatment prior to hysterectomy (dienogest group), and age-matched six patients who had not received any hormonal treatment for ≥3 months before surgery (control group). Cell proliferation, vascular and nerve fiber density in adenomyosis tissue were evaluated by staining for Ki67, von Willebrand factor and PGP9.5, respectively. Apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL assay. The expression aromatase and NGF were evaluated by staining for corresponding antibodies. The proportion of Ki67 positive epithelial cells was significantly lower in samples from dienogest-treated patients in comparison with controls (pdienogest group in comparison with controls but statistical significance was not reached (p=0.07). The intensity of NGF expression and the density of nerve fibers were significantly lower in the dienogest group compared with controls (pdienogest, shows remarkable histological features, such as reductions in proliferation, NGF expression and nerve fiber density. These findings indicate the impact of dienogest on local histological events, and explains its therapeutic effect on adenomyosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Dienogest on Macrophage and Natural Killer Cells in Adenomyosis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

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    Prathoomthong, Saowapak; Tingthanatikul, Yada; Lertvikool, Srithean; Rodratn, Nittaya; Waiyaput, Wanwisa; Dittharot, Kanthanadon; Sroyraya, Morakot; Sophonsritsuk, Areepan

    2018-01-01

    Progestin has been used for symptomatic treatment of adenomyosis, although its effect on the immune system has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of macrophage and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration in tissues obtained from women with adenomyosis who did or did not receive oral progestin dienogest. In this randomized controlled clinical trial study, 24 patients with adenomyosis who required hysterectomy were enrolled. Twelve patients received dienogest 28-35 days before surgery, and the other 12 patients were not treated with any hormones. The endometrial and myometrial tissue samples were immediately collected after hysterectomy, and immunohistochemistry for a macrophage marker (CD68) and a NK cells marker (CD57) was performed. The number of CD57 cells was significantly increased in endometrial glands of the treated group compared to the untreated group (P=0.005) but not in stroma in the endometrium of the treated patients (P=0.416). The difference in the number of CD68 cells was not statistically significant between treated and untreated groups in the endometrial glands (P=0.055) or stromal tissues (P=0.506). Administration of oral progestin dienogest to patients with adenomyosis increased the number of uterine infiltrating NK cells in glandular structure of eutopic endometrium. The differential effects of progestin on NK cells depended on the site of immune cell infiltration. The effects of oral progestin on uterine NK cells in adenomyosis have the potentials to be beneficial to pregnancies occurring following discontinuation of treatment in terms of embryo implantation and fetal protection (Registration number: TCTR20150921001). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  20. Uterine artery embolization for adenomyosis without fibroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.D.; Won, J.W.; Lee, D.Y.; Ahn, C.-S.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential usefulness of transcatheter uterine artery embolization as a treatment for symptomatic adenomyosis in patients without uterine fibroids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Uterine artery embolization using polyvinyl alcohol particles sized 250-710 mm was performed in 43 patients (mean; 40.3 years, range; 31-52 years) with dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, or bulk-related symptoms (pelvic heaviness, urinary frequency) due to adenomyosis without fibroids. All patients underwent pre-procedural and 3.5 months (range 1-8 months) follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast enhancement. Clinical symptoms were also assessed at the time of MRI before and after embolization. RESULTS: Significant improvement of dysmenorrhoea (95.2%) and menorrhagia (95.0%) was reported in most patients. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed non-enhancing areas suggesting coagulation necrosis of adenomyosis in 31 patients (72.1%), decreased size without necrosis in 11 patients (25.6%), and no change in one patient (2.3%). The mean volume reduction of the uteri after uterine artery embolization was 32.5% (from 321.7±142.9 to 216.7±130.1 cm 3 ). CONCLUSION: Transcatheter uterine artery embolization is an effective therapy for the treatment of symptomatic pure adenomyosis, and may be a valuable alternative to hysterectomy

  1. Physical Agents for Soft Tissue Injury.

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    2016-07-01

    The clinical management of soft tissue injuries of the lower limb commonly includes physical agents such as electrotherapy or ultrasound. However, the evidence about the effectiveness of physical agents varies, and their use remains controversial. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), published in the July 2016 issue of JOSPT, examined the benefits and safety risks of various physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Importantly, the review looked closely at the quality of the RCTs and focused on studies with low risk of bias. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating patients with such musculoskeletal conditions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):555. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0503.

  2. From Clinical Symptoms to MR Imaging: Diagnostic Steps in Adenomyosis

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    H. Krentel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomyosis or endometriosis genitalis interna is a frequent benign disease of women in fertile age. It causes symptoms like bleeding disorders and dysmenorrhea and seems to have a negative effect on fertility. Adenomyosis can be part of a complex genital and extragenital endometriosis but also can be found as a solitary uterine disease. While peritoneal endometriosis can be easily diagnosed by laparoscopy with subsequent biopsy, the determination of adenomyosis is difficult. In the following literature review, the diagnostic methods clinical history and symptoms, gynecological examination, 2D and 3D transvaginal ultrasound, MRI, hysteroscopy, and laparoscopy will be discussed step by step in order to evaluate their predictive value in the diagnosis of adenomyosis.

  3. MAXILLOFACIAL SOFT TISSUE INJURIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.

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    Bernard, E K; Akama, M K; Odhiambo, W A; Chindia, M L; Mua, B

    2012-09-01

    To determine the aetiological factors and pattern of occurrence of maxillofacial soft tissue injuries (MF-STIs) presenting at a Kenyan National Referral Hospital in Nairobi. A cross-sectional study. The accident and emergency department of the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between September 2009 and December 2009. Four hundred and twenty two patients treated for MF-STIs. The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) were the leading cause of MF-STIs (44.6%) followed by interpersonal violence (IPV) (39.1%). MVA (50.0%) was the leading cause of MF-STIs in the less than 12-year-olds while falls from heights (58.3%) was the leading cause in under five-year-olds. IPV (48.1%) was the leading cause of facial fractures. There were no skeletal fractures observed in the under five-year-olds. Head injury (36%) and fractures of the long bones (52%) were the most common associated injuries. The leading causes of MF-STIs apparently differ from those of skeletal fractures.

  4. Uterine artery embolisation for symptomatic adenomyosis-Mid-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratby, M.J.; Walker, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of uterine artery embolisation (UAE) in the treatment of adenomyosis. Materials and methods: 27 women with symptomatic adenomyosis diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underwent UAE between 1998 and 2004. Clinical evaluation using a standardised questionnaire was made at regular intervals after embolisation to assess patient outcome. Results: The diagnosis of adenomyosis was confirmed histologically by transvaginal biopsy in 5 women. There were 14 women with associated uterine fibroids. Diffuse adenomyosis was identified in 18 women. A focal adenomyoma was present in another 8 women. In 1 patient adenomyosis was not classified. All patients except one underwent bilateral uterine artery embolisation. There was an initial favourable clinical response, with improvement of menorrhagia in 79% (13/16) of patients at 12 months. Follow-up data was available on a total of 14 patients at 2 and 3 years after embolisation. 45.5% (5/11) reported a deterioration in menorrhagia symptoms at 2 years. Conclusion: UAE for symptomatic adenomyosis is effective in the short-term but there is a high rate of recurrence of clinical symptoms 2 year following treatment.

  5. Uterine artery embolisation for symptomatic adenomyosis-Mid-term results

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    Bratby, M.J. [Radiology Department, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Egerton Road, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Walker, W.J. [Radiology Department, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Egerton Road, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wjwalker@doctors.org.uk

    2009-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of uterine artery embolisation (UAE) in the treatment of adenomyosis. Materials and methods: 27 women with symptomatic adenomyosis diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underwent UAE between 1998 and 2004. Clinical evaluation using a standardised questionnaire was made at regular intervals after embolisation to assess patient outcome. Results: The diagnosis of adenomyosis was confirmed histologically by transvaginal biopsy in 5 women. There were 14 women with associated uterine fibroids. Diffuse adenomyosis was identified in 18 women. A focal adenomyoma was present in another 8 women. In 1 patient adenomyosis was not classified. All patients except one underwent bilateral uterine artery embolisation. There was an initial favourable clinical response, with improvement of menorrhagia in 79% (13/16) of patients at 12 months. Follow-up data was available on a total of 14 patients at 2 and 3 years after embolisation. 45.5% (5/11) reported a deterioration in menorrhagia symptoms at 2 years. Conclusion: UAE for symptomatic adenomyosis is effective in the short-term but there is a high rate of recurrence of clinical symptoms 2 year following treatment.

  6. Morphological features and activity of estrogen receptors of endometrium and foci of adenomyosis in postmenopausal patients

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    V. A. Sitnikova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article is devoted to the research of morphological features and activity of estrogen receptors of endometrium and foci of adenomyosis in postmenopausal patients. Materials and methods. 30 cases of adenomyosis were investigated in the presence of the hyperplastic processes in the endometrium (endometrial adenocarcinoma of the uterine body and endometrial hyperplasia and without it (age changes in patients aged 51-73 years. We conducted immunohistochemical research and hematoxylin and eosin stain. IHC blocks were produced by the method of Tissue Microarray. The expression of estrogen markers was evaluated according to point system of general staining method for ER-status determining. Results. Morphological structure of eu- and ectopic endometrium was studied in the work in detail, according to comorbidity. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (G2 was diagnosed in 4 cases out of 10 in the group with the endometrial adenocarcinoma, and in 6 cases - level 2 of the nuclear atypia. It was revealed that morphological picture of adenomyosis in the presence of hyperplastic processes in the endometrium is characterized by the predominance of glandular component over stromal one in the ectopic endometrium. Significant differences between all the groups of the studied women during the estimation of the levels of the estrogen activity of the components of the eutopical endometrium were not revealed, with the exception of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Comparative analysis of our results with data of the other researchers was conducted. Conclusion. It was established that the foci of adenomyosis retain their activity, that is morphologically manifested as the foci of proliferation and secretion. The level of ER expression of eutopical endometrium dominates over the endometrium of adenomyosis foci in the presence of the endometrial adenocarcinoma and the atrophy of the endometrium. Low level of ER expression in stromal cells in comparison with the

  7. MAXILLOFACIAL SOFT TISSUE INJURIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-09

    Sep 9, 2012 ... of the variation in the classification of injuries that are used. Many studies .... Distribution of the associated systemic injuries according to the aetiology. MVA. IPV. Falls from heights. Human and. Animal bites. Firearm. Injuries. Total. Head Injury. 24. 14. 3. 0. 0 ... Cases of child abuse resulting in MF-injuries ...

  8. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  9. Modification of radiation injury to normal tissues by chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.L.; Wharam, M.D.; Margolis, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of several cancer chemotherapeutic agents on radiation damage to normal intestine, esophagus, and lung tissue were evaluated in LAF 1 mice using quantitative endpoints. In all tissues tested, actinomycin D increased injury and BCNU did not. In the intestine, adriamycin enhanced radiation damage more than any other agent. Bleomycin increased damage in the esophagus but not in the lung or intestine. Cyclophosphamide increased injury only in the lung, where vincristine caused minimal injury, and hyroxyurea, none. Only prednisolone caused significant radioprotection when given at the time of irradiation or at the time of expected death from pulmonary injury. (U.S.)

  10. Soft Tissue Injuries in Hungarian and Austrian Clinical Diagnostic Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarasi-Nuber Katalin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In addition to providing first aid, primary treating doctors are required to describe and register injuries acquired in accidents and assaults. They should do this with the highest possible accuracy, as this official document is often the only documentary evidence of soft tissue injuries in case a lawsuit is filed later. Characteristics of injuries may disappear faster with the healing process of the soft tissue, making it impossible for forensic experts to deduce the weapon involved. Consequently, terminological accuracy is a prerequisite for the appropriate reconstruction of the type and severity of injuries. This study aims at analysing reports on soft tissue injuries in Hungary and Austria from the terminological point of view. It is meant to reveal inaccuracies in the use of noun phrases impairing objective and accurate forensic assessment.

  11. Epidemology of soft tissue injuries in road traffic accidents | Emedike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year study of soft tissue injuries from road traffic accidents was undertaken at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital. Males out-numbered females by a ratio of 2.5 to 1, the commonest types of injuries encountered were lacerations, contusions and abrasions, and the head and neck, the lower and upper ...

  12. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression, and elevation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells.

  13. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since man invented fire he has been more frequently burning himself by this creation than by the naturally occurring bushfires. It is estimated that over 1.152 million people in India suffer from burn injuries requiring treatment every year and majority of them are women aged between 16-40 years and most of them occur in the kitchen. The treatment for burns basically involves autologous skin grafting, which originated in India more than two thousand years ago (Sushruta Samhita, is still the gold standard for the wound resurfacing, although, autografting is difficult where graftable donor sites are limited. Although, Cadaver skin, porcine or bovine xenografts are used alternatively over the past thirty years, modern approaches like the Bioengineering of skin substitutes emerged during the past 20 years as advanced wound management technologies with no social impediment. They can be broadly categorized as Acellular and Cellular biotechnological products. The acellular products like Alloderm (LifeCell Corporation, Integra (Integra Life Sciences act like template and depend on natural regeneration, while the cellular ones are either ‘Off-the-Shelf’ products like Apligraf (Organogenesis Inc and Orcel (Ortec International have allogenic elements and ‘home grown’ autologous cell products like Cultured Epithelial Autograft (CEA and epidermal-dermal composite skin use synthetic or natural non-human matrices. The CEA is based on the ex-vivo epidermal stem cell-expansion and our laboratory has been engaged in CEA technique development with innovative cost-effective approach and yielded promising preliminary clinical success. The basic methodological approach in CEA technique which is still clinically adopted by several developed countries involves the use of growth arrested mouse dermal fibroblasts as growth supportive matrix and is thus considered a drawback as a whole. Additionally, there is no superior enough method available to augment the

  14. Identification of focal adenomyosis as a uterine lesion in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcklin-Gautschi, N M; Guscetti, F; Reichler, I M; Geissbühler, U; Braun, S A; Arnold, S

    2001-08-01

    A focal uterine adenomyosis is described in two bitches. In both cases, the uterus showed knobbly enlargements of 4 to 8 cm in diameter, which resulted in distinct clinical symptoms. Other pathological changes of the uterus were not present. One bitch was presented because of a history of vaginal discharge of several months' duration. Radiographs, as well as ultrasonography, revealed a soft tissue lesion at the cervix. The other bitch showed a marked reduction in its general condition and a sudden onset of a tense abdomen. Radiologically, a lesion of soft tissue opacity was observed in the mid-abdomen and was seen to originate from the left uterine horn during exploratory laparotomy. A torsion of the lesion was present, which explained the clinical signs in this second case.

  15. The evaluation of relationship between prior uterine surgery and adenomyosis incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azin Alavi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adenomyosis is a common benign disorder in premenopausal women. It may be presents with uterus enlargement, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrheal. The main objective of this study was to assess prior uterine surgery was a risk factor for adenomyosis. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed the medical records of all women who underwent hysterectomy for benign and nonemergency gynecologic condition between 2001 – 2006 in Shariate hospital of Bandar Abbas. Data included: age, gravidity, parity, abortion, prior uterine surgery and uterine size by physical examination before hysterectomy, were collected from the clinical records and the information about adenomyosis was obtained from pathology records. Analysis was done using SPSS-16, descriptive statistics, T test and ANOVA. Significant level was set as P<0.05. Results: Of the 191 participants , 72 (37.7% women had pathologically confirmed adenomyosis. The prevalence of adenomyosis in this study was 37.7%. women with adenomyosis reported a history of prior uterine surgery more frequently than women without adenomyosis but age, menarch, gravidity, parity and history of abortion were similar between the 2 groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that adenomyosis had significant correlation with prior uterine surgery. And, confirmed that we can decrease prevalence of adenomyosis with decreased unnessecery uterine surgery.

  16. Carcinosarcoma arising from uterine adenomyosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Kaori; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kanamori, Anriko; Machida, Hiromi; Kojima, Masaru; Fukasawa, Ichio

    2016-03-01

    Carcinosarcoma arising from uterine adenomyosis is extremely rare. We encountered such a patient and herein provide a review of the literature. A 56-year-old woman was referred for a huge pelvic tumor, suspected to be an advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma. Intraoperative inspection revealed a mass, mainly located in the uterine myometrium, invading the uterine serosa. The tumor had previously spontaneously ruptured and disseminated to the pelvic cavity. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed an infiltrative pattern of biphasic tumor cells composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and a nonepithelial component with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Benign endometrial glands with stromal cells were found adjacent to the area of the carcinosarcoma. The endometrium and both ovaries and fallopian tubes were microscopically free of tumor cells. The final diagnosis was heterologous type carcinosarcoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation, originating from uterine adenomyosis. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Optical spectroscopy for the detection of ischemic tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Fitzgerald, Jason [Sacramento, CA; Troppmann, Christoph [Sacramento, CA; Michalopoulou, Andromachi [Athens, GR

    2009-09-08

    An optical method and apparatus is utilized to quantify ischemic tissue and/or organ injury. Such a method and apparatus is non-invasive, non-traumatic, portable, and can make measurements in a matter of seconds. Moreover, such a method and apparatus can be realized through optical fiber probes, making it possible to take measurements of target organs deep within a patient's body. Such a technology provides a means of detecting and quantifying tissue injury in its early stages, before it is clinically apparent and before irreversible damage has occurred.

  18. Complement and Immunoregulation in Tissue Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    that detects complement precursor C3 and fragments of C3 including c3a, c3b and c3c. Intestinal tissue sections from sham-operated mice displayed...C3a we considered that C3 is activated intracellularly by proteases. We searched for cathepsin expression in Caco2 cells by qPCR and found that...homeostasis. Annu Rev Immunol 28: 623-667. 27. Kulik, L., S. D. Fleming, et al. (2009). Pathogenic natural antibodies recognizing annexin IV are

  19. Review Article: Assessment of Infections in Soft Tissue Injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Assessment of Infections in Soft Tissue Injuries Following Penetrating Trauma; A Clinicolaboratory Dilemma. OI Ita, KI Onyedibe, DZ Egah. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Extracellular histones in tissue injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Kumar, Santhosh V R; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Neutrophil NETosis is an important element of host defense as it catapults chromatin out of the cell to trap bacteria, which then are killed, e.g., by the chromatin's histone component. Also, during sterile inflammation TNF-alpha and other mediators trigger NETosis, which elicits cytotoxic effects on host cells. The same mechanism should apply to other forms of regulated necrosis including pyroptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, and cyclophilin D-mediated regulated necrosis. Beyond these toxic effects, extracellular histones also trigger thrombus formation and innate immunity by activating Toll-like receptors and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thereby, extracellular histones contribute to the microvascular complications of sepsis, major trauma, small vessel vasculitis as well as acute liver, kidney, brain, and lung injury. Finally, histones prevent the degradation of extracellular DNA, which promotes autoimmunization, anti-nuclear antibody formation, and autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. Here, we review the current evidence on the pathogenic role of extracellular histones in disease and discuss how to target extracellular histones to improve disease outcomes.

  1. Effect of Undiagnosed Deep Adenomyosis After Failed NovaSure Endometrial Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengerink, B.B.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Haar, J.F. ter; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Pijnenborg, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adenomyosis and deep adenomyosis after NovaSure (Hologic Inc., Newark, DE) endometrial ablation in hysterectomy specimens after NovaSure endometrial ablation failure. DESIGN: Prospective observational study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2).

  2. Soft tissue and wound management of blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Andrew J; Tintle, Scott M; Rhee, Peter C

    2015-09-01

    The management of blast-related soft tissue wounds requires a comprehensive surgical approach that acknowledges extensive zones of injury and the likelihood of massive contamination. The experiences of military surgeons during the last decade of war have significantly enhanced current understandings of the optimal means of mitigating infectious complications, the timing of soft tissue coverage attempts, and the reconstructive options available for definitive wound management. Early administration of antibiotics in the setting of soft tissue wounds and associated open fractures is the single most important aspect of open fracture care. Both civilian and military reports have elucidated the incidence of invasive fungal infection in the setting of high-energy injuries with significant wound burdens, and novel treatment protocols have emerged. The type of reconstruction is predicated upon the zone of injury and location of the soft tissue defect. Multiple reports of military cohorts have suggested the equivalency of various techniques and types of soft tissue coverage. Longer-term follow-up will inform future perspectives on the durability of these surgical approaches.

  3. ‘Repair’ Treg Cells in Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqi Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies in mice and humans have elucidated an important role for Tregs in promoting tissue repair and restoring tissue integrity. Emerging evidence has revealed that Tregs promoted wound healing and repair processes at multiple tissue sites, such as the heart, liver, kidney, muscle, lung, bone and central nervous system. The localization of repair Tregs in the lung, muscle and liver exhibited unique phenotypes and functions. Epidermal growth factor receptor, amphiregulin, CD73/CD39 and keratinocyte growth factor are important repair factors that are produced or expressed by repair Tregs; these factors coordinate with parenchymal cells to limit injury and promote repair. In addition, repair Tregs can be modulated by IL-33/ST2, TCR signals and other cytokines in the context of injured microenvironment cues. In this review, we provide an overview of the emerging knowledge about Treg-mediated repair in damaged tissues and organs.

  4. Mathematical model of normal tissue injury in telegammatherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, S.A.; Lyass, F.M.; Mamin, R.G.; Minakova, E.I.; Raevskaya, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of normal tissue injury as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation is based on an assumption that the degree of tissue injury is determined by the degree of destruction by certain critical cells. The dependence of the number of lethal injuriies on a single dose is expressed by a trinomial - linear and quadratic parts and a constant, obtained as a result of the processing of experimental data. Quantitative correlations have been obtained for the skin and brain. They have been tested using clinical and experimental material. The results of the testing point out to the absence of time dependence on a single up to 6-week irradiation cources. Correlation with an irradiation field has been obtained for the skin. A conclusion has been made that the concept of isoefficacy of irradiation cources is conditional. Spatial-time fractionation is a promising direction in the development of radiation therapy

  5. Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.

  6. The paradox of the neutrophil's role in tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, George B; Halterman, Marc W; Lichtman, Marshall A

    2011-03-01

    The neutrophil is an essential component of the innate immune system, and its function is vital to human life. Its production increases in response to virtually all forms of inflammation, and subsequently, it can accumulate in blood and tissue to varying degrees. Although its participation in the inflammatory response is often salutary by nature of its normal interaction with vascular endothelium and its capability to enter tissues and respond to chemotactic gradients and to phagocytize and kill microrganisms, it can contribute to processes that impair vascular integrity and blood flow. The mechanisms that the neutrophil uses to kill microorganisms also have the potential to injure normal tissue under special circumstances. Its paradoxical role in the pathophysiology of disease is particularly, but not exclusively, notable in seven circumstances: 1) diabetic retinopathy, 2) sickle cell disease, 3) TRALI, 4) ARDS, 5) renal microvasculopathy, 6) stroke, and 7) acute coronary artery syndrome. The activated neutrophil's capability to become adhesive to endothelium, to generate highly ROS, and to secrete proteases gives it the potential to induce local vascular and tissue injury. In this review, we summarize the evidence for its role as a mediator of tissue injury in these seven conditions, making it or its products potential therapeutic targets.

  7. Efficacy of dienogest in the treatment of symptomatic adenomyosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Izumi, Gentaro; Takamura, Masashi; Saito, Ako; Nakazawa, Akari; Harada, Miyuki; Hirota, Yasushi; Koga, Kaori; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2014-10-01

    Adenomyosis is a common disorder in premenopausal women that causes dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain and menorrhagia. Considering that adenomyosis is an estrogen-dependent disease, the medical treatment is based on this hormone. Effective and well-tolerated medical treatments for symptomatic adenomyosis are needed. Dienogest, an oral progestin, has been extensively investigated in the treatment of endometriosis. In this report, we present the results on the efficacy and safety of dienogest in the treatment of symptomatic adenomyosis. Seventeen patients with symptomatic adenomyosis were included in this study, of which 15 continued dienogest for up to 24 weeks. Dienogest significantly reduced adenomyosis-associated pelvic pain as well as serum CA-125 and CA19-9 levels. It also demonstrated a modest suppression of estradiol (>50 pg/ mL), which is consistent with the findings of other reports. During treatment, five patients experienced worsening anemia because of metrorrhagia, which is the most frequent adverse effect associated with dienogest. This report suggests that dienogest is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for symptomatic adenomyosis.

  8. Aberrant innate immune activation following tissue injury impairs pancreatic regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E Folias

    Full Text Available Normal tissue architecture is disrupted following injury, as resident tissue cells become damaged and immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. While injury and inflammation are critical to tissue remodeling, the inability to resolve this response can lead to the destructive complications of chronic inflammation. In the pancreas, acinar cells of the exocrine compartment respond to injury by transiently adopting characteristics of progenitor cells present during embryonic development. This process of de-differentiation creates a window where a mature and stable cell gains flexibility and is potentially permissive to changes in cellular fate. How de-differentiation can turn an acinar cell into another cell type (such as a pancreatic β-cell, or a cell with cancerous potential (as in cases of deregulated Kras activity is of interest to both the regenerative medicine and cancer communities. While it is known that inflammation and acinar de-differentiation increase following pancreatic injury, it remains unclear which immune cells are involved in this process. We used a combination of genetically modified mice, immunological blockade and cellular characterization to identify the immune cells that impact pancreatic regeneration in an in vivo model of pancreatitis. We identified the innate inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophils as regulators of pancreatic regeneration. Under normal conditions, mild innate inflammation prompts a transient de-differentiation of acinar cells that readily dissipates to allow normal regeneration. However, non-resolving inflammation developed when elevated pancreatic levels of neutrophils producing interferon-γ increased iNOS levels and the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. Pancreatic injury improved following in vivo macrophage depletion, iNOS inhibition as well as suppression of iNOS levels in macrophages via interferon-γ blockade, supporting the impairment in regeneration and the

  9. Facilitated assessment of tissue loss following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eHånell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI result in a progressive loss of brain tissue. The extent of tissue loss reflects the injury severity and can be measured to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of experimental treatments. Quantitation of tissue volumes is commonly performed using evenly spaced brain sections stained using routine histochemical methods and digitally captured. The brain tissue areas are then measured and the corresponding volumes are calculated using the distance between the sections. Measurements of areas are usually performed using a general purpose image analysis software and the results are then transferred to another program for volume calculations. To facilitate the measurement of brain tissue loss we developed novel algorithms which automatically separate the areas of brain tissue from the surrounding image background and identify the ventricles. We implemented these new algorithms by creating a new computer program (SectionToVolume which also has functions for image organization, image adjustments and volume calculations. We analyzed brain sections from mice subjected to severe focal TBI using both SectionToVolume and ImageJ, a commonly used image analysis program. The volume measurements made by the two programs were highly correlated and analysis using SectionToVolume required considerably less time. The inter-rater reliability was high. Given the extensive use of brain tissue loss measurements in TBI research, SectionToVolume will likely be a useful tool for TBI research. We therefore provide both the source code and the program as attachments to this article.

  10. Variable uterine uptake of FDG in adenomyosis during concurrent chemoradiation therapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Tae Joong; Park, Byung Kwan [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To avoid improper tumor volume contouring in radiation therapy (RT) and other invasive procedures, we report a case of uterine adenomyosis showing increased 18F-fl uorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) mimicking malignant tumor in a 44-year-old woman during concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for uterine cervical cancer. The adenomyosis was not associated with her menstrual cycle or with normal endometrium uptake, and it resolved one month after completion of RT. This case indicates that uterine adenomyosis in a premenopausal woman may show false positive uptake of 18FDG-PET/CT associated with CCRT.

  11. Antisense oligonucleotide for tissue factor inhibits hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kadotani, Yayoi; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Akioka, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Masahiko; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji; Yoshimura, Rikio; Yoshimura, Norio

    2002-09-27

    Tissue factor (TF) is an initiation factor for blood coagulation and its expression is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory or immune responses. We designed an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-1/TF) for rat TF and studied its effect on hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury. AS-1/TF was delivered intravenously to Lewis rats. After 10 h, hepatic artery and portal vein were partially clamped. Livers were reperfused after 180 min and harvested. TF expression was studied using immunohistochemical staining. One of 10 rats survived in a 5-day survival rate and TF was strongly stained on endothelial cells in non-treatment group. However, by treatment with AS-1/TF, six of seven survived and TF staining was significantly reduced. Furthermore, we observed that fluorescein-labeled AS-1/TF was absorbed into endothelial cells. These results suggest that AS-1/TF can strongly suppress the expression of TF and thereby inhibit ischemic reperfusion injury to the rat liver.

  12. Elastin distribution in the normal uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Qiang; Ma, Rong; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Gong, Zhi-Jing

    2006-04-01

    To describe the histologic distribution of elastin in the nonpregnant human uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas. Uteri were obtained from women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions, including 26 cases of uterine leiomyomas, 24 cases of adenomyosis, 18 adenomyomas and 6 cases of autopsy specimens. Specific histochemical staining techniques were employed in order to demonstrate the distribution of elastin. The distribution of elastin components in the uterus was markedly uneven and showed a decreasing gradient from outer to inner myometrium. No elastin was present within leiomyomas, adenomyomas or adenomyosis. The distribution of elastin may help explain the normal function of the myometrium in labor. It implies that the uneven distribution of elastin components and absence of elastin within leiomyomas, adenomyomas and adenomyosis could be of some clinical significance. The altered elastin distribution in disease states may help explain such symptoms as dysmenorrhea in uterine endometriosis.

  13. The Investigation and Management of Adenomyosis in Women Who Wish to Improve or Preserve Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jiao Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of adenomyosis remains a great challenge to practicing gynaecologists. Until recently, hysterectomy has been the only definitive treatment in women who have completed child bearing. A number of nonsurgical and minimally invasive, fertility-sparing surgical treatment options have recently been developed. This review focuses on three aspects of management, namely, (1 newly introduced nonsurgical treatments; (2 management strategies of reproductive failures associated with adenomyosis; and (3 surgical approaches to the management of cystic adenomyoma.

  14. Endocrine factors influencing radiation injury to central nervous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, S.A.; Boone, M.L.; Laguna, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Corticosteroids have been shown experimentally to lower the tolerance of various normal tissues (lung, kidney, intestine) to irradiation. Pre-existing hypertension also modified the effect of irradiation on the rat spinal cord and brain. Hypercorticism and hypertension co-exist in patients with Cushing's disease. Although these patients are often approached therapeutically by irradiation, no reports concerning differences in the radiation sensitivity of nervous tissue between normal subjects (non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and those with hormonal imbalance and/or hypertension appear to be available. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed 14 patients with radiation damage to brain or to optic pathways following moderate doses for pituitary adenomas. Seven of the 14 patients (50%) had Cushing's disease. This apparent higher incidence of radiation injury is significant if we consider that less than 5% of all patients receiving irradiation for pituitary adenomas have Cushing's disease

  15. T2 relaxometry mapping in demonstrating layered uterine architecture: parameter optimization and utility in endometrial carcinoma and adenomyosis: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Adarsh; Singh, Tulika; Bagga, Rashmi; Srinivasan, Radhika; Singla, Veenu; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2018-01-01

    candidates for uterine preservation. Thickening of the fourth myometrial layer in adenomyosis requires further evaluation in a larger cohort of patients as an additional imaging finding. T 2 relaxation times of endometrial carcinoma is different from the normal endometrium in the three cases imaged, thus, further studies evaluating the T 2 values in a larger cohort might help in differentiating diseased from the healthy endometrium. T 2 time of the pelvic tissue described in the study will help select the time to echoes for MSE imaging of the female pelvis in further studies.

  16. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D.; Pastuovic, Zeljko

    2013-01-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma

  17. Laparoscopic resection versus myolysis in the management of symptomatic uterine adenomyosis: alternatives to conventional treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachyu Hadisaputra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective therapy preserving reproductive function in adenomyosis is warranted. From June 2003 to June 2004, patients diagnosed as having adenomyosis by transvaginal ultrasound and had symptoms of menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and pelvic pain were randomly allocated to either receive laparoscopic resection or myolysis. GnRH analog was given for 3 cycles after surgery. Within 6 months, symptoms were evaluated using questionnaires and at the end of follow up, adenomyosis volume was assessed by transvaginal ultra-sound. There were 20 patients included, 10 patients had resection and the rest underwent myolysis. Both procedures did not yield sig-nificant complications. Subjective evaluation by questionnaires was done in all patients. Three patients could not be evaluated objec-tively by transvaginal ultrasound, 2 patients resigned and 1 was pregnant. There was no significant difference in menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea reduction score between the 2 groups (p=0.399 and 0.213, respectively. In both groups, dysmenorrhea was reduced significantly after treatment. No significant statistical difference was found in median adenomyosis volume increment (p=0.630 be-tween the resection (median=+15.35% (-100-159} and myolysis groups (median=+48.43% (-100-553. Five patients were pregnant, 3 from the resection group and 2 from the myolysis group. Uterine rupture was found in 1 patient (from the myolysis group at the age of 8 months of pregnancy. The effectiveness of laparoscopic adenomyosis resection was not significantly different compared with lapa-rascopic myolysis as an alternative conservative surgery in treating symptomatic adenomyosis. Myolysis was not recommended for women who wish to be pregnant. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:9-17Keywords: laparascopy, resection, myolysis, conservative surgery, symptomatic adenomyosis

  18. Effect of pheniramine maleate on reperfusion injury in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürekli, Ismail; Gökalp, Orhan; Kiray, Müge; Gökalp, Gamze; Ergüneş, Kazım; Salman, Ebru; Yürekli, Banu Sarer; Satoğlu, Ismail Safa; Beşir, Yüksel; Cakır, Habib; Gürbüz, Ali

    2013-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (Pn), which is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, and pheniramine maleate (Ph), which is an antihistaminic with some anti-inflammatory effects, on reperfusion injury in brain developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. Twenty-eight randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 was the control group, Group 2 was the sham group (I/R), Rats in Group 3 were subjected to I/R and given Ph, and rats in Group 4 were subjected to I/R and given Pn. A tourniquet was applied at the level of left groin region of subjects in the I/R group after induction of anesthesia. One h of ischemia was performed with no drug administration. In the Ph group, half of a total dose of 10 mg/kg Ph was administered intraperitoneally before ischemia and the remaining half before reperfusion. In the Pn group, subjects received a single dose of 50 mg/kg Pn intraperitoneally at the 30th min of ischemia. Brains of all subjects were removed after 24 h for examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the prefrontal cortex were significantly lower in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities were found to be significantly higher in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Histological examination demonstrated that Ph had protective effects against I/R injury developing in the brain tissue. Ph has a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury created experimentally in rat brains.

  19. The development and application of an injury prediction model for noncontact, soft-tissue injuries in elite collision sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2010-10-01

    Limited information exists on the training dose-response relationship in elite collision sport athletes. In addition, no study has developed an injury prediction model for collision sport athletes. The purpose of this study was to develop an injury prediction model for noncontact, soft-tissue injuries in elite collision sport athletes. Ninety-one professional rugby league players participated in this 4-year prospective study. This study was conducted in 2 phases. Firstly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over 2 competitive seasons in elite collision sport athletes. Training load and injury data were modeled using a logistic regression model with a binomial distribution (injury vs. no injury) and logit link function. Secondly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over a further 2 competitive seasons in the same cohort of elite collision sport athletes. An injury prediction model based on planned and actual training loads was developed and implemented to determine if noncontact, soft-tissue injuries could be predicted and therefore prevented in elite collision sport athletes. Players were 50-80% likely to sustain a preseason injury within the training load range of 3,000-5,000 units. These training load 'thresholds' were considerably reduced (1,700-3,000 units) in the late-competition phase of the season. A total of 159 noncontact, soft-tissue injuries were sustained over the latter 2 seasons. The percentage of true positive predictions was 62.3% (n = 121), whereas the total number of false positive and false negative predictions was 20 and 18, respectively. Players that exceeded the training load threshold were 70 times more likely to test positive for noncontact, soft-tissue injury, whereas players that did not exceed the training load threshold were injured 1/10 as often. These findings provide information on the training dose-response relationship and a scientific method of monitoring and regulating training load in

  20. Radiation-induced hypoxia may perpetuate late normal tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Feng, Q.-F.; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Amin, Khalid; Samulski, Thaddeus S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Haroon, Zishan A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not hypoxia develops in rat lung tissue after radiation. Methods and Materials: Fisher-344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax using a single dose of 28 Gy. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the changes in respiratory rate every 2 weeks, for 6 months after irradiation. The hypoxia marker was administered 3 h before euthanasia. The tissues were harvested at 6 weeks and 6 months after irradiation and processed for immunohistochemistry. Results: A moderate hypoxia was detected in the rat lungs at 6 weeks after irradiation, before the onset of functional or histopathologic changes. The more severe hypoxia, that developed at the later time points (6 months) after irradiation, was associated with a significant increase in macrophage activity, collagen deposition, lung fibrosis, and elevation in the respiratory rate. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed an increase in TGF-β, VEGF, and CD-31 endothelial cell marker, suggesting a hypoxia-mediated activation of the profibrinogenic and proangiogenic pathways. Conclusion: A new paradigm of radiation-induced lung injury should consider postradiation hypoxia to be an important contributing factor mediating a continuous production of a number of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

  1. Autophagy, Innate Immunity and Tissue Repair in Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Duann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kidney is a vital organ with high energy demands to actively maintain plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis. Among the nephron segments, the renal tubular epithelium is endowed with high mitochondria density for their function in active transport. Acute kidney injury (AKI is an important clinical syndrome and a global public health issue with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapy. AKI results in acute cell death and necrosis of renal tubule epithelial cells accompanied with leakage of tubular fluid and inflammation. The inflammatory immune response triggered by the tubular cell death, mitochondrial damage, associative oxidative stress, and the release of many tissue damage factors have been identified as key elements driving the pathophysiology of AKI. Autophagy, the cellular mechanism that removes damaged organelles via lysosome-mediated degradation, had been proposed to be renoprotective. An in-depth understanding of the intricate interplay between autophagy and innate immune response, and their roles in AKI pathology could lead to novel therapies in AKI. This review addresses the current pathophysiology of AKI in aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, innate immunity, and molecular mechanisms of autophagy. Recent advances in renal tissue regeneration and potential therapeutic interventions are also discussed.

  2. Regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following mechanical injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation, prolifer......Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation...

  3. Current status of high-intensity focused ultrasound for the management of uterine adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    While high-intensity focused ultrasound has been used for some time in the management of uterine fibroids, its effectiveness and safety in managing adenomyosis is less well established. A literature review was performed of all eligible reports using this modality as a treatment for adenomyosis. Relevant publications were obtained from the PubMed electronic database from inception through March 2016. Eleven articles, including information from 1,150 treatments and follow-up data from 990 patients, were reviewed. High-intensity focused ultrasound appears to be effective and safe in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis, and can be considered as an alternative uterine-sparing option for women with this condition.

  4. Long-Term Follow-up of Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, A. J.; Nijenhuis, R. J.; Boekkooi, P. F.; Vervest, H. A. M.; Rooij, W. J. van; Lohle, P. N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Long-term results of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for adenomyosis are largely unknown. We assess long-term outcome of UAE in 40 women with adenomyosis. Materials and methods: Between March 1999 and October 2006, 40 consecutive women with adenomyosis (22 in combination with fibroids) were treated with UAE. Changes in junction zone thickness were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and again at 3 months. After a mean clinical follow-up of 65 months (median 58 [range 38–129]), women filled out the uterine fibroid symptom and quality of life (UFS-QoL) questionnaire, which had additional questions on the long-term evolution of baseline symptoms and adverse events. Results: During follow-up, 7 of 40 women (18%) underwent hysterectomy. Among these 7 women, the junction zones were significantly thicker, both at baseline (mean 23 vs. 16 mm, P = 0.028) and at 3-month follow-up (mean 15 vs. 9 mm, P = 0.034). Of 33 women with preserved uterus, 29 were asymptomatic. Four patients had symptom severity scores of 50 to 85 and overall QoL scores of 60 to 66, indicating substantial clinical symptoms. There was no relation between clinical outcome and the initial presence of fibroids in addition to adenomyosis. Conclusion: In women with therapy-resistant adenomyosis, UAE resulted in long-term preservation of the uterus in the majority. Most patients with preserved uterus were asymptomatic. The only predictor for hysterectomy during follow-up was initial thickness of the junction zone. The presence or absence of fibroids in addition to adenomyosis had no relation with the need for hysterectomy or clinical outcome.

  5. Different tissue type categories of overuse injuries to cricket fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cricket fast bowlers have a high incidence of injury and have been the subject of previous research investigating the effects of previous injury, workload and technique. Bone stress injuries are of particular concern as they lead to prolonged absences from the game, with younger bowlers appearing to be at ...

  6. Different tissue type categories of overuse injuries to cricket fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cricket fast bowlers have a high incidence of injury and have been the subject of previous research investigating the effects of previous injury, workload and technique. Bone stress injuries are of particular concern as they lead to prolonged absences from the game, with younger bowlers appearing to be.

  7. Connective tissue injury in calf muscle tears and return to play: MRI correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ashutosh; Entwisle, Tom; Schneider, Michal; Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2017-10-26

    The aim of our study was to assess a group of patients with calf muscle tears and evaluate the integrity of the connective tissue boundaries and interfaces. Further, we propose a novel MRI grading system based on integrity of the connective tissue and assess any correlation between the grading score and time to return to play. We have also reviewed the anatomy of the calf muscles. We retrospectively evaluated 100 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion and MRI confirmation of calf muscle injury. We evaluated each calf muscle tear with MRI for the particular muscle injured, location of injury within the muscle and integrity of the connective tissue structure at the interface. The muscle tears were graded 0-3 depending on the degree of muscle and connective tissue injury. The time to return to play for each patient and each injury was found from the injury records and respective sports doctors. In 100 patients, 114 injuries were detected. Connective tissue involvement was observed in 63 out of 100 patients and failure (grade 3 injury) in 18. Mean time to return to play with grade 0 injuries was 8 days, grade 1 tears was 17 days, grade 2 tears was 25 days and grade 3 tears was 48 days (pcalf muscle tears. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. CA125 modified by PLT and NLR improves the predictive accuracy of adenomyosis-derived pelvic dense adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Caixia; Liu, Chao; Guo, Jing; Chen, Li; Luo, Ning; Qu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Weihong; Ren, Qing; Cheng, Zhongping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To explore the value of serum levels of CA125, platelet count (PLT), neutrophil?lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and modified CA125 markers CA125a and CA125b in predicting pelvic dense adhesion (PDA) associated with adenomyosis, CA125a = lg(CA125???PLT???109), CA125b = lg(CA125???NLR). This retrospective study included 304 patients who underwent surgery for adenomyosis. Correlations of serum levels of CA125, PLT, NLR, and modified CA125 markers with adenomyosis-derived PDA were analyzed by Lo...

  9. The Role of Hysteroscopy in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine adenomyosis is a common gynecologic disorder in women of reproductive age, characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. Dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and deep dyspareunia are common symptoms of this pathological condition. However, adenomyosis is often an incidental finding in specimens obtained from hysterectomy or uterine biopsies. The recent evolution of diagnostic imaging techniques, such as transvaginal sonography, hysterosalpingography, and magnetic resonance imaging, has contributed to improving accuracy in the identification of this pathology. Hysteroscopy offers the advantage of direct visualization of the uterine cavity while giving the option of collecting histological biopsy samples under visual control. Hysteroscopy is not a first-line treatment approach for adenomyosis and it represents a viable option only in selected cases of focal or diffuse “superficial” forms. During office hysteroscopy, it is possible to enucleate superficial focal adenomyomas or to evacuate cystic haemorrhagic lesions of less than 1.5 cm in diameter. Instead, resectoscopic treatment is indicated in cases of superficial adenomyotic nodules > 1.5 cm in size and for diffuse superficial adenomyosis. Finally, endometrial ablation may be performed with the additional removal of the underlying myometrium.

  10. A pilot study on the use of andrographolide to treat symptomatic adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Liu

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Andrographolide is effective in some patients with symptomatic adenomyosis, who have a higher endometrial expression of the activated form of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Future independent validation studies or randomized clinical trials may be needed to more precisely evaluate the efficacy of andrographolide.

  11. The importance of soft tissue examination in traumatic dental injuries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Suhad Hussein

    2010-12-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) represent one of the main oral health problems in children, with variable prevalence rates. The issue of unmet treatment needs and inadequate emergency management of TDIs have surfaced up lately in dental literature, indicating that some TDIs present late for treatment, which may complicate management of these injuries. Soft tissue injuries usually accompany other dental injuries therefore thorough clinical and radiographic inspection of soft tissue wounds can not be over emphasized, even in late presentation cases. Tooth fragments may be embedded in soft tissues, even in late presentation cases, and may go unnoticed in the presence of urgent situations. This case report presents a child with a fractured tooth fragment embedded in the lower lip for 18 months, which went unnoticed until the child presented later for treatment of the fractured incisor, highlighting the importance of soft tissue exploration even in late presentation trauma cases. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Evaluation of soft tissue injury by Tc-99m bone agent scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpassand, E.S.; Dhekne, R.D.; Barron, B.J.; Moore, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Six patients with soft tissue injury secondary to different etiologic factors are presented. The degree and extent of tissue necrosis was precisely identified by scintigraphy. In two of these, radionuclide imaging helped to establish accurately the level of amputation that resulted in appropriate wound healing

  13. The Immune System in Tissue Environments Regaining Homeostasis after Injury: Is "Inflammation" Always Inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Onkar P; Lichtnekert, Julia; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Mulay, Shrikant R

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a response to infections or tissue injuries. Inflammation was once defined by clinical signs, later by the presence of leukocytes, and nowadays by expression of "proinflammatory" cytokines and chemokines. But leukocytes and cytokines often have rather anti-inflammatory, proregenerative, and homeostatic effects. Is there a need to redefine "inflammation"? In this review, we discuss the functions of "inflammatory" mediators/regulators of the innate immune system that determine tissue environments to fulfill the need of the tissue while regaining homeostasis after injury.

  14. Soft-tissue injuries of the fingertip: methods of evaluation and treatment. An algorithmic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, Joshua A; Janis, Jeffrey E; Rohrich, Rod J

    2008-09-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the anatomy of the fingertip. 2. Describe the methods of evaluating fingertip injuries. 3. Discuss reconstructive options for various tip injuries. The fingertip is the most commonly injured part of the hand, and therefore fingertip injuries are among the most frequent injuries that plastic surgeons are asked to treat. Although microsurgical techniques have enabled replantation of even very distal tip amputations, it is relatively uncommon that a distal tip injury will be appropriate for replantation. In the event that replantation is not pursued, options for distal tip soft-tissue reconstruction must be considered. This review presents a straightforward method for evaluating fingertip injuries and provides an algorithm for fingertip reconstruction.

  15. Use of platelet growth factors in treating wounds and soft-tissue injuries:

    OpenAIRE

    Bolta, Zoran; Rožman, Primož

    2007-01-01

    Tissue repair begins with clot formation and platelet degranulation, which release the growth factors (GFs) necessary for wound repair. Platelet-derived GFs are biologically active substances that enhance tissue repair mechanisms such as chemotaxis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodeling. This review describes the biological background ofthe topical therapy of wounds and soft-tissue injuries with platelet gel (PG) and PG-derived GFs as well as the su...

  16. Training volume and soft tissue injury in professional and non-professional rugby union players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between training volume and soft tissue injury incidence, and characterise soft tissue injury in rugby union players. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. The search strategy combined terms covering: training volume and injury, and rugby union, and players of all levels. Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed. Studies were included if they reported: male rugby union players, a clear definition of a rugby union injury, the amount of training volume undertaken by participants, and epidemiological data for soft-tissue injuries including the number or incidence. 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall match and training injury incidence ranged from 3.3 to 218.0 injuries/1000 player match hours and 0.1-6.1 injuries/1000 player training hours, respectively. Muscle and tendon as well as joint (non-bone) and ligament injuries were the most frequently occurring injuries. The lower limb was the most prevalent injury location. Injury incidence was higher in professional rugby union players than non-professional players. Contact events were responsible for the greatest injury incidence. For non-contact mechanisms, running was responsible for the highest injury incidence. Inconsistent injury definitions hindered reliable comparison of injury data. The lack of reporting training volumes in hours per player per week limited the ability to investigate associations between training volume and injury incidence. A higher level of play may result in higher match injury incidence. Muscle and tendon injuries were the most common type of soft tissue injury, while the lower limb was the most common location of injury in rugby union players, and running was responsible for the highest injury incidence during non-contact events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  18. Adenomyosis and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB-A)-Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jason A

    2017-04-01

    The complex pathogenesis and variable presentation of adenomyosis make it one of the most difficult of the FIGO PALM-COIEN abnormal uterine bleeding group to diagnose and treat. Basic clinical parameters such as prevalence are difficult to accurately assess because histological confirmation is usually employed; however, because of the access to and accuracy and utilization of transvaginal ultrasound and other advanced imaging techniques such as MRI, noninvasive diagnosis is recognized to be highly accurate. The clinical symptoms of pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and subfertility are the primary presentations of adenomyosis with increasing data supporting a substantial role of this disease in reducing fecundity and interfering with assisted reproductive interventions. Treatments have been aimed at managing symptoms and improving fertility options. Management by hysterectomy is not always desired by women, and with many women having children in their fourth and even fifth decades, it is often not reasonable to consider this radical option. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Long-term use of dienogest in the treatment of painful symptoms in adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Yutaka; Watanabe, Manabu; Hagino, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of dienogest (DNG), a progestational 19-norsteroid, administered for 52 weeks in patients with symptomatic adenomyosis. A total of 130 patients with adenomyosis received 2 mg of DNG orally each day for 52 weeks. In cases of complicated anemia, patients were treated for anemia prior to receiving the medication. Adverse events and adverse drug reactions were evaluated. The patients' pain symptoms (dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain from adenomyosis) were assessed using a pain-scoring tool. This was a verbal rating scale comprising a 0-3-point pain-severity score measuring disability to work, and an analgesics-usage score measuring need for analgesics. The most common adverse drug reactions included metrorrhagia (96.9%) and hot flush (7.7%). However, in most cases, metrorrhagia was tolerable and no clinically significant changes were observed concerning the incidence or severity of reactions during the 52-week treatment period. There were no serious adverse events. Both the pain-severity score and analgesics-usage score decreased after the start of treatment with DNG. The mean ± standard deviation changes from baseline for the pain score were -3.4 ± 1.8 at 24 weeks and -3.8 ± 1.5 at 52 weeks, respectively. The long-term use of DNG was well-tolerated and effective in patients with symptomatic adenomyosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Variables associated with vaginal discharge after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation for adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Jing; Han, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Bing-Song; Liu, Hui; Li, Xiu-Mei; Ge, Hai-Long; Dong, Xue-Juan

    2016-08-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the significant variables for vaginal discharge after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA) therapy. Materials and methods PMWA was performed on 117 patients with adenomyosis from October 2012 to July 2014. The presence or absence, colour, quantity and duration of vaginal discharge, which was different from pre-ablation, were recorded within 1 year after PMWA. Patients were categorised into G1 (n = 26, without vaginal discharge), G2 (n = 40, vaginal discharge lasting 1 to 19 days), and G3 (n = 51, vaginal discharge lasting ≥20 days) groups. The potentially correlative variables were analysed. Variables with significant correlations with vaginal discharge post-ablation were identified via binary logistic regression analysis. Results The differences in adenomyosis type, pre-ablation uterine volume, total microwave ablation energy, total non-perfused volume (NPV) and minimum distance from the non-perfused lesion (NPL) margin to the endomyometrial junction (EMJ) among groups were statistically significant (p = 0.005, p = 0.000, p = 0.000, p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). Minimum distance from the NPL margin to the EMJ was the strongest predictor of vaginal discharge post-ablation with odds ratio (OR) 0.632, p = 0.018, 95% CI 0.432-0.923. Patients with diffuse adenomyosis were more likely to have prolonged vaginal discharge (≥20 days) post-ablation (OR 3.461, p = 0.000, 95% CI 1.759-7.536). Conclusion The minimum distance from the NPL margin to the EMJ and adenomyosis type were significantly associated with vaginal discharge post-ablation.

  1. Burn-injury affects gut-associated lymphoid tissues derived CD4+ T cells☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Alzahrani, Alhusain J.

    2013-01-01

    After scald burn-injury, the intestinal immune system responds to maintain immune balance. In this regard CD4+T cells in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (GALT), like mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) respond to avoid immune suppression following major injury such as burn. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut CD4+T cells become dysfunctional and turn the immune homeostasis towards depression of CD4+ T cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. In the current study we show ...

  2. Comparison of dienogest versus triptorelin acetate in premenopausal women with adenomyosis: a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Muhammad; Mesbah, Yasser

    2015-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of the oral dienogest versus triptorelin acetate injection for treatment of premenopausal menorrhagia and pelvic pains in women with uterine adenomyosis. A total of 41 patients with adenomyosis suffering from pelvic pains and menorrhagia were recruited. First group was managed with oral dienogest (2 mg/day, orally) while the second group received triptorelin acetate (3.75 mg/4 weeks, subcutaneous injection) for 16 weeks. Outpatient follow-up was undertaken after 8 weeks but mean values were calculated at baseline and after 16 weeks (end of treatment). A total of 41 women were allocated to treatment with dienogest (n = 22) or triptorelin acetate (n = 19); 19 (86.4 %) and 18 (94.7 %) % of the respective groups completed the trial. Significant reductions in pelvic pains after 16 weeks treatment were obtained in both groups demonstrating the equivalence of dienogest relative to triptorelin acetate. Triptorelin acetate was more effective in controlling of menorrhagia and reduction of uterine volume. Dienogest may be a valuable alternative to depot triptorelin acetate for treatment of premenopausal pelvic pains in women with uterine adenomyosis.

  3. Risk factors of treatment discontinuation due to uterine bleeding in adenomyosis patients treated with dienogest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chie; Yanagida, Satoshi; Okamoto, Aikou; Morikawa, Asuka; Sugimoto, Kohei; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Ochiai, Kazunori; Tanaka, Tadao

    2012-04-01

    Adenomyosis patients treated with dienogest are considered to be at higher risk of uterine bleeding; however, the mechanisms which cause severe uterine bleeding in those patients are unknown. This study aims to investigate the risk factors of uterine bleeding among adenomyosis patients treated with dienogest. Clinical data of 51 adenomyosis patients treated with dienogest were retrospectively collected from their medical records. The impact of potential risk factors (age, sagittal square area of the uterus before treatment, and estradiol at the third month of treatment) and confounders (hemoglobin before treatment and prior medical treatments) on the time to treatment discontinuation due to uterine bleeding was assessed using log-rank tests and a Cox proportional hazard model. Age (dienogest are at higher risk of treatment discontinuation due to uterine bleeding, especially when they are of younger age, have anemia before treatment, and/or have mildly suppressed or unsuppressed estradiol after they started dienogest treatment. Clinicians should pay special attention when they prescribe dienogest for such patients. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Mass spectrometry is a new approach to diagnosing adenomyosis and cancer of the corpus uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sorokina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 60 apparently healthy women (mean age 40 years; a control group, 40 patients with a verified diagnosis of adenomyosis (mean age 41 years and 42 patients with uterine corpus cancer (UCC (mean age 58 years were fractionated on magnetic beads with weak cation exchange surface, followed by an examination of the obtained fractions by time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MS with ma- trix-activated laser desorption/ionization. MS data analysis using classification algorithms, such as a genetic algorithm and a learning neural network, made it possible to construct mathematical models that were able to differentiate MS profiles of the above sample groups with a high specificity and a high sensitivity. The best values of the specificity and sensitivity of the classification models adenomyosis- control and UCC-control were 86.2, 93.8, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. Analysis of the statistical diagrams of these peak areas between different sample groups could identify 3 MS profile peaks for adenomyosis and 3 peaks for UCC.

  5. Pattern, severity, and management of cranio-maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayemi, Akinbami Babatunde; Adeniyi, Akadiri Oladimeji; Samuel, Udeabor; Emeka, Obiechina Ambrose

    2013-01-01

    Background: The pattern of craniofacial soft-tissue injuries occurring either in isolation or in association with fractures vary in different societies and is multiply influenced. The effects are enormous because of the prominence of the face; therefore, the purpose of this study was to document any changing pattern, severity and management of these craniofacial injuries in our center. Patients and Method: Cranio-maxillofacial region was classified into upper, middle and lower face. The cause, type, and site of the injuries were documented. Gunshot injuries were further categorized as penetrating, perforating or avulsions. Further, classification of injuries into mild, moderate, and severe was carried out based on multiple factors. Result: A total of 126 patients with soft-tissue injuries presented to our hospital out of which 85 (67.5%) were males and 41 (32.5) were females. The age range of the patients was between 10 months and 90 years with a mean ± SD of 26.4 ± 15.5 years. Road traffic accident was the most common etiology of which vehicular accidents constituted 50 (54.9%) and the motorcycle was 2 (2.2%). Assault contributed 16 (17.6%) while cases due to gun shots were 13 (14.3%). A total of 19 (15.1%) patients had associated head injuries, 11 (8.7%) patients had craniofacial fractures involving any of the bones while 3 (2.4%) patients had limb fractures and 2 (1.6%) patients had rib fractures. There were 51 (41.8%) cases classified as mild injuries, 37 (30.3%) cases as moderate injuries and 24 (19.7%) cases as severe injuries. Total of 126 cases managed, 121 (96.0%) received primary closure of the wounds while 5 (4.0%) received delayed closure under general anesthesia. PMID:24339654

  6. Pattern, severity, and management of cranio-maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Babatunde Olayemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of craniofacial soft-tissue injuries occurring either in isolation or in association with fractures vary in different societies and is multiply influenced. The effects are enormous because of the prominence of the face; therefore, the purpose of this study was to document any changing pattern, severity and management of these craniofacial injuries in our center. Patients and Method: Cranio-maxillofacial region was classified into upper, middle and lower face. The cause, type, and site of the injuries were documented. Gunshot injuries were further categorized as penetrating, perforating or avulsions. Further, classification of injuries into mild, moderate, and severe was carried out based on multiple factors. Result: A total of 126 patients with soft-tissue injuries presented to our hospital out of which 85 (67.5% were males and 41 (32.5 were females. The age range of the patients was between 10 months and 90 years with a mean ± SD of 26.4 ± 15.5 years. Road traffic accident was the most common etiology of which vehicular accidents constituted 50 (54.9% and the motorcycle was 2 (2.2%. Assault contributed 16 (17.6% while cases due to gun shots were 13 (14.3%. A total of 19 (15.1% patients had associated head injuries, 11 (8.7% patients had craniofacial fractures involving any of the bones while 3 (2.4% patients had limb fractures and 2 (1.6% patients had rib fractures. There were 51 (41.8% cases classified as mild injuries, 37 (30.3% cases as moderate injuries and 24 (19.7% cases as severe injuries. Total of 126 cases managed, 121 (96.0% received primary closure of the wounds while 5 (4.0% received delayed closure under general anesthesia.

  7. Thermal injury of skin and subcutaneous tissues: A review of experimental approaches and numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hanglin; De, Suvranu

    2017-08-01

    Thermal injury to skin and subcutaneous tissue is common in both civilian and combat scenarios. Understanding the change in tissue morphologies and properties and the underlying mechanisms of thermal injury are of vital importance to clinical determination of the degree of burn and treatment approach. This review aims at summarizing the research involving experimental and numerical studies of skin and subcutaneous tissue subjected to thermal injury. The review consists of two parts. The first part deals with experimental studies including burn protocols and prevailing imaging approaches. The second part deals with existing numerical models for burns of tissue and related computational simulations. Based on this review, we conclude that though there is literature contributing to the knowledge of the pathology and pathogenesis of tissue burn, there is scant quantitative information regarding changes in tissue properties including mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties as a result of burns that are linked to altered tissue morphology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Can measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient before treatment predict the response to uterine artery embolization for adenomyosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yaewon; Kim, Man Deuk; Jung, Dae Chul; Lee, Shin Jae; Kim, Gyoungmin; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To determine the usefulness of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in predicting response to uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic adenomyosis. A prospective study was performed on 25 patients who underwent diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before UAE between June 2011 and December 2012. All patients underwent 3-month follow-up MRI after UAE using non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles ranging from 150 to 500 μm. Quantitative measurement of the ADC was performed for each adenomyosis. Complete response and incomplete response were defined as ≥90 % or <90 %, respectively, of the non-perfusion area with adenomyosis at the follow-up MRI. The ADC values were compared between patients who achieved complete or incomplete response which was assessed according to the MRI findings after UAE. Nineteen patients showed complete response, and six showed incomplete response. The ADC value ranged from 0.842 to 1.346 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (mean 1.075 ± 0.117). The mean ADC was 1.043 ± 0.237 in the complete response group and 1.176 ± 0.429 in the incomplete response group (0.012). Using a threshold of <1.147 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, the sensitivity and specificity of the ADC to predict success after UAE were 83.3 % and 84.2 %. The ADC of adenomyosis may potentially predict a successful response to UAE for adenomyosis. (orig.)

  9. Expression Pattern of G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor in Myometrium of Uteri with and without Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jiao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the expression of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER in the junctional zone and outer myometrium of the proliferative and secretory phases of women with and without adenomyosis. Methods. A total of 76 women were included in this study, 42 with adenomyosis (proliferative phase, n=23; secretory phases, n=19 and 34 controls (proliferative phase, n=16; secretory phases, n=18. Protein and total RNA were extracted from the junctional zone (JZ and outer myometrium (OM. GPER protein and mRNA expression levels were evaluated by the use of western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results. The expression of GPER protein and mRNA in women with adenomyosis was significantly higher than that of control subjects, both in the junctional zone and in the outer myometrium and both in the proliferative and in the secretory phases. Conclusion. The significant and consistent increase in GPER expression in adenomyosis compared with control subjects, regardless of whether it was in the proliferative or secretory phases and regardless of whether it was in the JZ or OM, suggests that GPER plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the adenomyosis.

  10. Soft tissue injuries of the face in Port Harcourt, Nigeria | Kejeh | Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was carried out in Port Harcourt the centre of several violent activities in the Niger Delta Region of the South-South GeoPolitical Region in Nigeria. In addition, assaults, road traffic accidents and other causes of injuries are common in this environment. Aim: To determine the pattern of soft tissue ...

  11. Wnt/β-catenin pathway in tissue injury: roles in pathology and therapeutic opportunities for regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastakoty, Dikshya; Young, Pampee P.

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is an evolutionarily conserved set of signals with critical roles in embryonic and neonatal development across species. In mammals the pathway is quiescent in many organs. It is reactivated in response to injury and is reported to play complex and contrasting roles in promoting regeneration and fibrosis. We review the current understanding of the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in injury of various mammalian organs and discuss the current advances and potential of Wnt inhibitory therapeutics toward promoting tissue regeneration and reducing fibrosis.—Bastakoty, D., Young, P. P. Wnt/β-catenin pathway in tissue injury: roles in pathology and therapeutic opportunities for regeneration. PMID:27335371

  12. Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: mechanisms of brain tissue repair

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    Zhen-qiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buyanghuanwu decoction has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, rats were intragastrically given Buyanghuanwu decoction, 15 mL/kg, for 3 days. A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In rats administered Buyanghuanwu decoction, infarct volume was reduced, serum vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin αvβ3 levels were increased, and brain tissue vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 expression levels were increased compared with untreated animals. These effects of Buyanghuanwu decoction were partially suppressed by an angiogenesis inhibitor (administered through the lateral ventricle for 7 consecutive days. These data suggest that Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis, improves cerebral circulation, and enhances brain tissue repair after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  13. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  14. Modified classification and repair of perineal soft tissue injuries associated with open pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guo; Wang, Dong; Qin, Bengang; Xiang, Jianping; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a modified classification and management protocol for perineal soft tissue injuries associated with pelvic fractures. A total of 11 patients with perineal soft tissue injuries associated with open pelvic fractures were studied retrospectively. The patients were classified into three types based on the area of defect: type A (urogenital zone), type B (anal zone), and type C (both urogenital and anal zones). Each type included the following subclasses: A1 (without urethra injuries), A2 (with urethra injuries), B1 (without anorectal injuries), B2 (with anorectal injuries), C1 (with types A1 and B1), C2 (with types A2 and B1), C3 (with types A1 and B2), and C4 (with types A2 and B2). The management protocol was planned according to the individual classifications. Protocol A1 (for type A1) involved skin graft or myocutaneous flap transplantation. Protocol A2 (for type A2) involved the same protocol combined with urine diversion. Protocol B1 (for type B1) involved skin graft or myocutaneous flap transplantation. Protocol B2 (for type B2) involved the same management combined with fecal diversion. Protocol C involved the correspondent protocol used for each subtype of type C. Out of the 11 patients, there were 5, 3, and 3 cases of types A, B, and C, respectively. One patient died due to sepsis, and the wounds of the remaining patients healed well. No anal incontinence had occurred. Perineal soft tissue injuries associated with pelvic fractures can be classified into three types, and the management protocol can be planned according to the classification. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Subcutaneous Emphysema in Non-Necrotizing Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 63-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis who was sent to the emergency department by his primary care provider for further evaluation of left upper extremity crepitus. The patient fell onto his left elbow two days prior to presentation resulting in immediate swelling and a small laceration. He complained of minimal pain and denied fevers or chills. His medications included metformin, tocilizumab, methotrexate and prednisone. In the ED, the patient was well-appearing, afebrile, with a normal heart rate and in no acute distress. Examination of the left upper extremity revealed no tenderness to palpation but marked crepitus with a scabbed laceration over his olecranon process and was neurovascularly intact. White blood cell count (WBC, sodium, glucose, inflammatory markers and lactate were all within normal limits. Significant findings: X-Rays of the elbow revealed diffuse striated lucencies throughout the soft tissue, consistent with extensive subcutaneous air throughout the superficial and deep tissues. There was no evidence of a fracture. Discussion: The initiating mechanism for necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs is a disruption of the fascial planes, most commonly by trauma. The inoculated bacteria rapidly spread and surgical debridement is necessary.1-3 Early recognition and disposition to the operating room in 51 are correlated with increased morbidity and mortality.5 Additionally, it has been found that immunocompromised patients exhibit atypical presentations of NSTIs.6 The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC score is often used to risk stratify patients when there is suspicion for an NSTI.7 The patient discussed here had a LRINEC score of 0. However, the physical exam finding of crepitus, coupled with his history of immunocompromised status and subcutaneous air on X-ray made the diagnosis of NSTI seem likely. However, upon surgical exploration

  16. Tissues Use Resident Dendritic Cells and Macrophages to Maintain Homeostasis and to Regain Homeostasis upon Tissue Injury: The Immunoregulatory Role of Changing Tissue Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Lech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most tissues harbor resident mononuclear phagocytes, that is, dendritic cells and macrophages. A classification that sufficiently covers their phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity during homeostasis and disease does not yet exist because cell culture-based phenotypes often do not match those found in vivo. The plasticity of mononuclear phagocytes becomes obvious during dynamic or complex disease processes. Different data interpretation also originates from different conceptual perspectives. An immune-centric view assumes that a particular priming of phagocytes then causes a particular type of pathology in target tissues, conceptually similar to antigen-specific T-cell priming. A tissue-centric view assumes that changing tissue microenvironments shape the phenotypes of their resident and infiltrating mononuclear phagocytes to fulfill the tissue's need to maintain or regain homeostasis. Here we discuss the latter concept, for example, why different organs host different types of mononuclear phagocytes during homeostasis. We further discuss how injuries alter tissue environments and how this primes mononuclear phagocytes to enforce this particular environment, for example, to support host defense and pathogen clearance, to support the resolution of inflammation, to support epithelial and mesenchymal healing, and to support the resolution of fibrosis to the smallest possible scar. Thus, organ- and disease phase-specific microenvironments determine macrophage and dendritic cell heterogeneity in a temporal and spatial manner, which assures their support to maintain and regain homeostasis in whatever condition. Mononuclear phagocytes contributions to tissue pathologies relate to their central roles in orchestrating all stages of host defense and wound healing, which often become maladaptive processes, especially in sterile and/or diffuse tissue injuries.

  17. An ex vivo spinal cord injury model to study ependymal cells in adult mouse tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Zafra, Teresa; Codeluppi, Simone; Uhlén, Per

    2017-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is characterized by an initial cell loss that is followed by a concerted cellular response in an attempt to restore the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, little is known about the signaling mechanisms governing the cellular response to injury. Here, we have established an adult ex vivo system that exhibits multiple hallmarks of spinal cord injury and allows the study of complex processes that are difficult to address using animal models. We have characterized the ependymal cell response to injury in this model system and found that ependymal cells can become activated, proliferate, migrate out of the central canal lining and differentiate in a manner resembling the in vivo situation. Moreover, we show that these cells respond to external adenosine triphosphate and exhibit spontaneous Ca 2+ activity, processes that may play a significant role in the regulation of their response to spinal cord injury. This model provides an attractive tool to deepen our understanding of the ependymal cell response after spinal cord injury, which may contribute to the development of new treatment options for spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION AND PHYSICAL TREATMENT OF MUSCLE TISSUE INJURIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosav Joksimović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available activities which more often cause injuries of muscles. On account of “generousness” of the muscle tissue and according to the knowledge of complete regeneration of the muscle tissue without any complications, process of curing demands the knowledge and great pratical experience. The aim of this work is to show the most common localisations and sorts of injuries and also the methods of curing and rehabilitation of football players inferiority of fast returning to the sport fields and achieving high results.Materials and methods: this work included 1537 football players with injuries of muscle tissues, who have been treated in outpatient clinics of Football Club “Red Star” from Belgrade and Football Club “Berane” from Berane for two years. All of the patients were male, divided into two groups – under 18 and over 18 years – the seniors. The patients were chosen from their clubs by the same criteria. Results: among 1184 patients in the outpatient clinic of the Football Club “Red Star”, 614 (51.81% had light injuries, 488 (41.29% had medium injuries and 82 patients (6.9% had heavy injuries. In the same time, in the outpatients clinic of FC “Berane” 353 were overseen, 177 (50.1% had light injuries 140 (39.6% had medium injuries and 36 (10.3% were heavily injured. Comparing the sorts of injuries in both clubs, we found the contusion injuries without hematoma in 582 (37.8%, the contusion injuries with hematoma in 279 (19.5% patients, the distensional injuries in (29.2% patients, partial ruptures in 125 (8.1%, the total ruptures (2.3% and painful cramps in 133 (60.2% patients. The injuries were during trainings 612 (39.8%, during the game (on the field 962 (60.2% of injuries. Mainly, the injuries were localised in the area of the upper knee 997 (63.5%, lower knee 332 (22.6%, pelric and abdominal area 96 (8.2%, chest injuries 80 (5.2% and in the area of the head and 56 (3.6%. After intensive treatment, immediately after injuries

  19. The extent of soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries after earthquakes; describing a role for reconstructive surgeons in an emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, A J P; Jemec, B; Redmond, A D

    2014-10-01

    Earthquakes are the leading cause of natural disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries are the predominant type of injury seen after these events and a major reason for admission to hospital. Open fractures are relatively common; however, they are resource-intense to manage. Appropriate management is important in minimising amputation rates and preserving function. This review describes the pattern of musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries seen after earthquakes and explores the manpower and resource implications involved in their management. A Medline search was performed, including terms "injury pattern" and "earthquake," "epidemiology injuries" and "earthquakes," "plastic surgery," "reconstructive surgery," "limb salvage" and "earthquake." Papers published between December 1992 and December 2012 were included, with no initial language restriction. Limb injuries are the commonest injuries seen accounting for 60 % of all injuries, with fractures in more than 50 % of those admitted to hospital, with between 8 and 13 % of these fractures open. After the first few days and once the immediate lifesaving phase is over, the management of these musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries are the commonest procedures required. Due to the predominance of soft-tissue and musculoskeletal injuries, plastic surgeons as specialists in soft-tissue reconstruction should be mobilised in the early stages of a disaster response as part of a multidisciplinary team with a focus on limb salvage.

  20. Interleukin-33 in Tissue Homeostasis, Injury, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Ari B; Savage, Adam K; Locksley, Richard M

    2015-06-16

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a nuclear-associated cytokine of the IL-1 family originally described as a potent inducer of allergic type 2 immunity. IL-33 signals via the receptor ST2, which is highly expressed on group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells, thus underpinning its association with helminth infection and allergic pathology. Recent studies have revealed ST2 expression on subsets of regulatory T cells, and for a role for IL-33 in tissue homeostasis and repair that suggests previously unrecognized interactions within these cellular networks. IL-33 can participate in pathologic fibrotic reactions, or, in the setting of microbial invasion, can cooperate with inflammatory cytokines to promote responses by cytotoxic NK cells, Th1 cells, and CD8(+) T cells. Here, we highlight the regulation and function of IL-33 and ST2 and review their roles in homeostasis, damage, and inflammation, suggesting a conceptual framework for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Are midsagittal tissue bridges predictive of outcome after cervical spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Eveline; Lachappelle, Patrice; Sutter, Reto; Curt, Armin; Freund, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    T 2 -weighted scans provided data on the extent and dynamics of neuronal tissue damage and midsagittal tissue bridges at the epicenter of traumatic cervical spinal cord lesions in 24 subacute tetraplegic patients. At 1 month postinjury, smaller lesion area and midsagittal tissue bridges identified those patients with lower extremity evoked potentials and better clinical recovery. Wider midsagittal tissue bridges and smaller lesions at 1 month post-injury were associated with neurological and functional recovery at 1-year follow-up. Neuroimaging biomarkers of lesion size and midsagittal tissue bridges are potential outcome predictors and patient stratifiers in both subacute and chronic clinical trials. Ann Neurol 2017;81:740-748. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  2. Alternative mechanism for white adipose tissue lipolysis after thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Li; Patsouris, David; Sadri, Ali-Reza; Dai, Xiaojing; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-29

    Extensively burned patients often suffer from sepsis, a complication that enhances post-burn hypermetabolism and contributes to increased incidence of multiple organ failure, morbidity and mortality. Despite the clinical importance of burn sepsis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of such infection-related metabolic derangements and organ dysfunction are still largely unknown. We recently found that upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the white adipose tissue (WAT) interacts with the liver via inflammatory and metabolic signals leading to profound hepatic alterations, including hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic fatty infiltration. We therefore hypothesized that burn plus infection causes an increase in lipolysis of WAT after major burn, partially through induction of ER stress, contributing to hyperlipidemia and profound hepatic lipid infiltration. We used a two-hit rat model of 60% total body surface area scald burn, followed by intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 3 days post-burn. One day later, animals were sacrificed and liver and epididymal WAT (EWAT) samples were collected for gene expression, protein analysis and histological study of inflammasome activation, ER stress, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. Our results showed that burn plus LPS profoundly increased lipolysis in WAT associated with significantly increased hepatic lipid infiltration. Burn plus LPS augmented ER stress by upregulating CHOP and activating ATF6, inducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and leading to increased apoptosis and lipolysis in WAT with a distinct enzymatic mechanism related to inhibition of AMPK signaling. In conclusion, burn sepsis causes profound alterations in WAT and liver which are associated with changes in organ function and structure.

  3. Protein Redox Modification as a Cellular Defense Mechanism against Tissue Ischemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Jun Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein oxidative or redox modifications induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS or reactive nitrogen species (RNS not only can impair protein function, but also can regulate and expand protein function under a variety of stressful conditions. Protein oxidative modifications can generally be classified into two categories: irreversible oxidation and reversible oxidation. While irreversible oxidation usually leads to protein aggregation and degradation, reversible oxidation that usually occurs on protein cysteine residues can often serve as an “on and off” switch that regulates protein function and redox signaling pathways upon stress challenges. In the context of ischemic tolerance, including preconditioning and postconditioning, increasing evidence has indicated that reversible cysteine redox modifications such as S-sulfonation, S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation, and disulfide bond formation can serve as a cellular defense mechanism against tissue ischemic injury. In this review, I highlight evidence of cysteine redox modifications as protective measures in ischemic injury, demonstrating that protein redox modifications can serve as a therapeutic target for attenuating tissue ischemic injury. Prospectively, more oxidatively modified proteins will need to be identified that can play protective roles in tissue ischemic injury, in particular, when the oxidative modifications of such identified proteins can be enhanced by pharmacological agents or drugs that are available or to be developed.

  4. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Nicole [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Bouaicha, Samy [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Naraghi, Ali [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  5. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Nicole; Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J.; Bouaicha, Samy; Naraghi, Ali; Seifert, Burkhardt

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of Tissue Injury from Focused Ultrasonic Propulsion of Kidney Stones Versus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Bret A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Blomgren, Philip M.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C.; Paun, Marla; Starr, Frank; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Bailey, Michael R.; Lingeman, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Focused ultrasonic propulsion is a new non-invasive technique designed to move kidney stones and stone fragments out of the urinary collecting system. However, the extent of tissue injury associated with this technique is not known. As such, we quantitated the amount of tissue injury produced by focused ultrasonic propulsion under simulated clinical treatment conditions, and under conditions of higher power or continuous duty cycles, and compared those results to SWL injury. Materials and Methods A human calcium oxalate monohydrate stone and/or nickel beads were implanted (with ureteroscopy) into 3 kidneys of live pigs (45–55 kg) and repositioned using focused ultrasonic propulsion. Additional pig kidneys were exposed to SWL level pulse intensities or continuous ultrasound exposure of 10 minutes duration (ultrasound probe either transcutaneous or on the kidney). These kidneys were compared to 6 kidneys treated with an unmodified Dornier HM3 Lithotripter (2400 shocks, 120 SWs/min and 24 kV). Histological analysis was performed to assess the volume of hemorrhagic tissue injury created by each technique (% functional renal volume, FRV). Results SWL produced a lesion of 1.56±0.45% FRV. Ultrasonic propulsion produced no detectable lesion with the simulated clinical treatment. A lesion of 0.46±0.37% FRV or 1.15±0.49% FRV could be produced if excessive treatment parameters were used while the ultrasound probe was placed on the kidney. Conclusions Focused ultrasonic propulsion produced no detectable morphological injury to the renal parenchyma when using clinical treatment parameters and produced injury comparable in size to SWL when using excessive treatment parameters. PMID:23917165

  7. Percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites for symptomatic uterine adenomyosis: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ruifang; Han, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Fang Yi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and technical efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites for adenomyosis. Between May 2015 and May 2016, a total of 25 patients with symptomatic adenomyosis who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites were included in this retrospective study. A matching cohort of 50 patients underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation without artificial ascites as controls. The technical efficacy, complications and short-term treatment effectiveness were assessed and compared with the controls. Artificial ascites was successfully achieved in all of the 25 patients with the administration of a median of 550 mL (range, 250-1200 mL) of solution. There was substantial improvement in achieving a better antenna path in 100% (20/20) of the cases with a poor antenna path. The complete separation was achieved in 23 of 25 patients. The mean ablation time was 26.5 ± 7.3 min and the median non-perfusion volume ratio was 76% which was similar to the control group (p > .05). No serious complications were observed. Patient pain scores for dysmenorrhoea showed a statistically significant decline from the baseline of 6.71 ± 0.96 to 2.92 ± 0.79 and the symptom severity score declined statistically significantly from 21.8 ± 5.5 to 16.4 ± 4.8 at 3 months follow-up. Percutaneous microwave ablation with artificial ascites is feasible, safe and can be effective in improving access for treatment of adenomyosis.

  8. Outcome of tissue sparing surgical intervention in mine blast limb injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Zafar, A.; Khan, N.; Mufti, N.

    2006-01-01

    To describe the pattern of mine blast limb injuries in civilian population of Kashmir, to evaluate the outcome of tissue sparing surgical intervention in these injuries and to determine the sensitivity of hand-held percutaneous Doppler for tissue viability. One hundred and three patients who sustained mine blast injuries to upper or lower limbs, along side the line of control between the Indian-held Kashmir and Azad Kashmir, regardless of age and gender, were included in this study. Patients who already had amputation after injury at some other place were excluded. All patients were initially managed in emergency and had more than one surgical intervention. Transcutaneous Doppler was used to evaluate the vascularity of the remaining tissue. All patients were operated under spinal or general anaesthesia and had repeated debridements followed by skin cover by split skin graft, full thickness skin graft or rotational flaps. Every patient received at least 5 days course of antibiotics and tetanus prophylaxis. Postoperative rehabilitation and follow-up was conducted for at least 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Mean age of victims in this study was 22 years. Out of 103 patients, 72 (69.9%) received initial wound care in the peripheral primary health care centre but were not amputated while 31 patients (30%) were just dressed and referred for further treatment at tertiary care hospitals. Eighty five patients (82.5%), out of the total, had some sort of traumatic amputation at presentation due to the original injury. That included loss of limb below knee in 19 (18.45%) patients, at distal tibiofibular region in 13 (12.6%), mid tarsal amputations in 39(37.9%), and hemi foot amputation in 15 (14.6%) patients. Nine (8.7%) patients had losses of two or less than two toes, 1 (0.97%) patient had injury at mid palmer region, and 5 (4.9%) patients had 2 fingers traumatic amputation. Eighteen (17.5%) patients had soft tissue ( with or without bony injury) injury only

  9. Regional mechanical properties of human brain tissue for computational models of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, John D; Sundaresh, Sowmya N; Elkin, Benjamin S; McKhann, Guy M; Morrison, Barclay

    2017-06-01

    To determine viscoelastic shear moduli, stress relaxation indentation tests were performed on samples of human brain tissue resected in the course of epilepsy surgery. Through the use of a 500µm diameter indenter, regional mechanical properties were measured in cortical grey and white matter and subregions of the hippocampus. All regions were highly viscoelastic. Cortical grey matter was significantly more compliant than the white matter or hippocampus which were similar in modulus. Although shear modulus was not correlated with the age of the donor, cortex from male donors was significantly stiffer than from female donors. The presented material properties will help to populate finite element models of the brain as they become more anatomically detailed. We present the first mechanical characterization of fresh, post-operative human brain tissue using an indentation loading mode. Indentation generates highly localized data, allowing structure-specific mechanical properties to be determined from small tissue samples resected during surgery. It also avoids pitfalls of cadaveric tissue and allows data to be collected before degenerative processes alter mechanical properties. To correctly predict traumatic brain injury, finite element models must calculate intracranial deformation during head impact. The functional consequences of injury depend on the anatomical structures injured. Therefore, morbidity depends on the distribution of deformation across structures. Accurate prediction of structure-specific deformation requires structure-specific mechanical properties. This data will facilitate deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms that lead to traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aging causes collateral rarefaction and increased severity of ischemic injury in multiple tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E.; Zhang, Hua; Lassance-Soares, Roberta M.; Prabhakar, Pranay; Najafi, Amir H.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Aging is a major risk factor for increased ischemic tissue injury. Whether collateral rarefaction and impaired remodeling contribute to this is unknown. We quantified the number and diameter of native collaterals, and their remodeling in 3-, 16-, 24-, and 31-months-old mice. Methods and Results Aging caused an “age-dose-dependent” greater drop in perfusion immediately after femoral artery ligation, followed by a diminished recovery of flow and increase in tissue injury. These effects were associated with a decline in collateral number, diameter and remodeling. Angiogenesis was also impaired. Mechanistically, these changes were not accompanied by reduced recruitment of T-cells or macrophages to remodeling collaterals. However, eNOS signaling was dysfunctional, as indicated by increased protein nitrosylation and less phosphorylated eNOS and VASP in collateral wall cells. The cerebral circulation exhibited a similar age-dose-dependent loss of collateral number and diameter and increased tortuosity, resulting in an increase in collateral resistance and infarct volume (e.g., 6- and 3-fold, respectively, in 24-months-old mice) after artery occlusion. This was not associated with rarefaction of similarly-sized arterioles. Collateral remodeling was also reduced. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that aging causes rarefaction and insufficiency of the collateral circulation in multiple tissues, resulting in more severe ischemic tissue injury. PMID:21617137

  11. Predicting Intracranial Pressure and Brain Tissue Oxygen Crises in Patients With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Risa B; Lazaridis, Christos; Jermaine, Christopher M; Robertson, Claudia S; Rusin, Craig G

    2016-09-01

    To develop computer algorithms that can recognize physiologic patterns in traumatic brain injury patients that occur in advance of intracranial pressure and partial brain tissue oxygenation crises. The automated early detection of crisis precursors can provide clinicians with time to intervene in order to prevent or mitigate secondary brain injury. A retrospective study was conducted from prospectively collected physiologic data. intracranial pressure, and partial brain tissue oxygenation crisis events were defined as intracranial pressure of greater than or equal to 20 mm Hg lasting at least 15 minutes and partial brain tissue oxygenation value of less than 10 mm Hg for at least 10 minutes, respectively. The physiologic data preceding each crisis event were used to identify precursors associated with crisis onset. Multivariate classification models were applied to recorded data in 30-minute epochs of time to predict crises between 15 and 360 minutes in the future. The neurosurgical unit of Ben Taub Hospital (Houston, TX). Our cohort consisted of 817 subjects with severe traumatic brain injury. Our algorithm can predict the onset of intracranial pressure crises with 30-minute advance warning with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.86 using only intracranial pressure measurements and time since last crisis. An analogous algorithm can predict the start of partial brain tissue oxygenation crises with 30-minute advanced warning with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91. Our algorithms provide accurate and timely predictions of intracranial hypertension and tissue hypoxia crises in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Almost all of the information needed to predict the onset of these events is contained within the signal of interest and the time since last crisis.

  12. The Effectiveness of Phalleria macrocarpa Bioactive Fraction in Alleviating Endometriosis and/or Adenomyosis Related Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wiweko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The overexpression of estrogen receptor-beta (ER-ß and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme coupled with the absence of expression of progesterone receptors (PR is critical to thepathogenesis of endometriosis and adenomyosis associated pain.  DLBS1442, a novel bioactiveextract of Phaleria macrocarpa, exerts its action by downregulating the overexpressed ER-ß andCOX-2 products and up-regulating PR gene expression. This pilot study was conducted to evaluatethe effectiveness of DLBS1442 treatment in alleviating endometriosis- and/or adenomyosis-relatedpain. Ten endometriosis and/or adenomyosis patients were recruited consecutively at YasminClinic Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital in January - March 2013. Pain associated withmenses, including pre-menstrual pain, dysmenorrhea, dyschezia and dysuria, was measuredusing the visual analog scale (VAS at each of the next three menstrual cycles. Patients reportingone or more pain symptoms with a VAS score = 4 were given 100 mg of DLBS1442 three timesdaily for 12 weeks. VAS score reduction was noted in the first post-treatment menstrual cycle(approximately 5.3 weeks after treatment initiation and VAS scores continued to decline overthe final two cycles. DLBS1442 was effective in alleviating endometriosis- and/ or adenomyosisrelatedpain, as demonstrated by early pain reduction as evaluated using the VAS. Keywords: DLBS1442, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, adenomyosis Efektivitas Ekstrak Bioaktif Phaleria macrocarpa pada Masalah NyeriTerkait Endometriosis dan/ atau Adenomiosis Abstrak Over-ekspresi reseptor estrogen beta (ER-ß dan enzim siklo-oksigenase-2 (COX-2 akan menekan ekspresi reseptor progesteron (PR di endometrium; hal tersebut penting dalampatogenesis endometriosis dan adenomiosis. DLBS 1442, ekstrak bioaktif Phaleria macrocarpa,bekerja dengan menekan over-ekspresi ER-ß dan COX-2 serta meningkatkan regulasi ekspresigen PR

  13. Connective tissue regeneration in skeletal muscle after eccentric contraction-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Abigail L; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Human skeletal muscle has the potential to regenerate completely after injury induced under controlled experimental conditions. The events inside the myofibers as they undergo necrosis, followed closely by satellite cell-mediated myogenesis, have been mapped in detail. Much less is known about the adaptation throughout this process of both the connective tissue structures surrounding the myofibers and the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for synthesizing this connective tissue. However, the few studies investigating muscle connective tissue remodeling demonstrate a strong response that appears to be sustained for a long time after the major myofiber responses have subsided. While the use of electrical stimulation to induce eccentric contractions vs. voluntary eccentric contractions appears to lead to a greater extent of myofiber necrosis and regenerative response, this difference is not apparent when the muscle connective tissue responses are compared, although further work is required to confirm this. Pharmacological agents (growth hormone and angiotensin II type I receptor blockers) are considered in the context of accelerating the muscle connective tissue adaptation to loading. Cautioning against this, however, is the association between muscle matrix protein remodeling and protection against reinjury, which suggests that a (so far undefined) period of vulnerability to reinjury may exist during the remodeling phases. The role of individual muscle matrix components and their spatial interaction during adaptation to eccentric contractions is an unexplored field in human skeletal muscle and may provide insight into the optimal timing of rest vs. return to activity after muscle injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. [Application of skin and soft tissue expansion in treatment of burn injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N Z; Shen, Z Y; Ma, C X

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the application of skin and soft tissue expansion in the treatment of deformity due to extensive severe burn injury and repair of severe deep electrical burned scalp and skull with fresh wound. From 1988, 83 cases of application of skin and soft tissue expansion were reported. In those patients with deformity due to severe burn of large area and with whole nasal defect, soft tissue expander was used under the forehead skin graft and venter frontalis, followed by reconstruction of nose with the expanded vascularized skin flap and carved cartilago costalis as nasal frame. In patients of severe deep electrical burned scalp and skull with fresh wound, skin and soft tissue expansion were used to repair the wound simultaneously with scalp burn alopecia, anesthetics and antibiotics injected into the extracapsular space of the expander in case of pain and infection. All of the cases were successfully treated with little pain and minimized infection. Skin and soft tissue expansion in a safe and reliable measure in the treatment of deformity due to extensive severe burn injury and repair of severe deep electrical burned scalp and skull with fresh wound.

  15. The Immune System in Tissue Environments Regaining Homeostasis after Injury: Is “Inflammation” Always Inflammation?

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Onkar P.; Lichtnekert, Julia; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Mulay, Shrikant R.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a response to infections or tissue injuries. Inflammation was once defined by clinical signs, later by the presence of leukocytes, and nowadays by expression of “proinflammatory” cytokines and chemokines. But leukocytes and cytokines often have rather anti-inflammatory, proregenerative, and homeostatic effects. Is there a need to redefine “inflammation”? In this review, we discuss the functions of “inflammatory” mediators/regulators of the innate immune system that determine t...

  16. Nerve autografts and tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries: a 5-year bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in biomedical methods, tissue-engineered materials have developed rapidly as an alternative to nerve autografts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. However, the materials selected for use in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries, in particular multiple injuries and large-gap defects, must be chosen carefully. Various methods and materials for protecting the healthy tissue and repairing peripheral nerve injuries have been described, and each method or material has advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a large amount of research has been focused on tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. Using the keywords "pe-ripheral nerve injury", "autotransplant", "nerve graft", and "biomaterial", we retrieved publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries appearing in the Web of Science from 2010 to 2014. The country with the most total publications was the USA. The institutions that were the most productive in this field include Hannover Medical School (Germany, Washington University (USA, and Nantong University (China. The total number of publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries grad-ually increased over time, as did the number of Chinese publications, suggesting that China has made many scientific contributions to this field of research.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors cause premature rarefaction of the collateral circulation and greater ischemic tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Scott M; Zhang, Hua; Maeda, Nobuyo; Doerschuk, Claire M; Faber, James E

    2015-07-01

    Collaterals lessen tissue injury in occlusive disease. However, aging causes progressive decline in their number and smaller diameters in those that remain (collateral rarefaction), beginning at 16 months of age in mice (i.e., middle age), and worse ischemic injury-effects that are accelerated in even 3-month-old eNOS(-/-) mice. These findings have found indirect support in recent human studies. We sought to determine whether other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) associated with endothelial dysfunction cause collateral rarefaction, investigate possible mechanisms, and test strategies for prevention. Mice with nine different models of CVRFs of 4-12 months of age were assessed for number and diameter of native collaterals in skeletal muscle and brain and for collateral-dependent perfusion and ischemic injury after arterial occlusion. Hypertension caused collateral rarefaction whose severity increased with duration and level of hypertension, accompanied by greater hindlimb ischemia and cerebral infarct volume. Chronic treatment of wild-type mice with L-N (G)-nitro-arginine methylester caused similar rarefaction and worse ischemic injury which were not prevented by lowering arterial pressure with hydralazine. Metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity also caused collateral rarefaction. Neither chronic statin treatment nor exercise training lessened hypertension-induced rarefaction. Chronic CVRF presence caused collateral rarefaction and worse ischemic injury, even at relatively young ages. Rarefaction was associated with increased proliferation rate of collateral endothelial cells, effects that may promote accelerated endothelial cell senescence.

  18. Type-1 pericytes accumulate after tissue injury and produce collagen in an organ-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Files, Daniel Clark; Mannava, Sandeep; Smith, Thomas; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-11-06

    Fibrosis, or scar formation, is a pathological condition characterized by excessive production and accumulation of collagen, loss of tissue architecture, and organ failure in response to uncontrolled wound healing. Several cellular populations have been implicated, including bone marrow-derived circulating fibrocytes, endothelial cells, resident fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and recently, perivascular cells called pericytes. We previously demonstrated pericyte functional heterogeneity in skeletal muscle. Whether pericyte subtypes are present in other tissues and whether a specific pericyte subset contributes to organ fibrosis are unknown. Here, we report the presence of two pericyte subtypes, type-1 (Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+) and type-2 (Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+), surrounding blood vessels in lungs, kidneys, heart, spinal cord, and brain. Using Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed transgenic mice, we induced pulmonary, renal, cardiac, spinal cord, and cortical injuries to investigate the contributions of pericyte subtypes to fibrous tissue formation in vivo. A fraction of the lung's collagen-producing cells corresponds to type-1 pericytes and kidney and heart pericytes do not produce collagen in pathological fibrosis. Note that type-1, but not type-2, pericytes increase and accumulate near the fibrotic tissue in all organs analyzed. Surprisingly, after CNS injury, type-1 pericytes differ from scar-forming PDGFRβ + cells. Pericyte subpopulations respond differentially to tissue injury, and the production of collagen by type-1 pericytes is organ-dependent. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying scar formation generates cellular targets for future anti-fibrotic therapeutics.

  19. Experience with wound VAC and delayed primary closure of contaminated soft tissue injuries in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Brian E; Rasmussen, Todd E; Smith, David L; Jenkins, Donald H; Coppola, Christopher

    2006-11-01

    Wartime missile injuries are frequently high-energy wounds that devitalize and contaminate tissue, with high risk for infection and wound complications. Debridement, irrigation, and closure by secondary intention are fundamental principles for the management of these injuries. However, closure by secondary intention was impractical in Iraqi patients. Therefore, wounds were closed definitively before discharge in all Iraqi patients treated for such injures at our hospital. A novel wound management protocol was developed to facilitate this practice, and patient outcomes were tracked. This article describes that protocol and discusses the outcomes in a series of 88 wounds managed with it. High-energy injuries were treated with rapid aggressive debridement and pulsatile lavage, then covered with negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure [VAC]) dressings. Patients underwent serial operative irrigation and debridement until wounds appeared clean to gross inspection, at which time they were closed primarily. Patient treatment and outcome data were recorded in a prospectively updated database. Treatment and outcomes data from September 2004 through May 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 88 high-energy soft tissue wounds identified in 77 patients. Surprisingly, for this cohort of patients the wound infection rate was 0% and the overall wound complication rate was 0%. This series of 88 cases is the first report of the use of a negative pressure dressing (wound VAC) as part of the definitive management of high-energy soft tissue wounds in a deployed wartime environment. Our experience with these patients suggests that conventional wound management doctrine may be improved with the wound VAC, resulting in earlier more reliable primary closure of wartime injuries.

  20. Analysis of sports related mTBI injuries caused by elastic wave propagation through brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Case

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive concussions and sub-concussions suffered by athletes have been linked to a series of sequelae ranging from traumatic encephalopathy to dementia pugilistica. A detailed finite element model of the human head was developed based on standard libraries of medical imaging. The model includes realistic material properties for the brain tissue, bone, soft tissue, and CSF, as well as the structure and properties of a protective helmet. Various impact scenarios were studied, with a focus on the strains/stresses and pressure gradients and concentrations created in the brain tissue due to propagation of waves produced by the impact through the complex internal structure of the human head. This approach has the potential to expand our understanding of the mechanism of brain injury, and to better assess the risk of delayed neurological disorders for tens of thousands of young athletes throughout the world.

  1. Reconstruction with vascularized composite tissue in patients with excessive injury following surgery and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, D.; DeLand, M.; Lesesne, C.B.; Smith, P.J.; Noell, K.T.; Georgiade, N.

    1982-01-01

    The biological effects of a single high dose of radiation are examined. Both cellular injury and repair are reviewed during early, intermediate, and late phases. Anticipated composite tissue morbidity is detailed for therapeutic radiation doses administered to the head and neck, breast and thorax, and perineum. Patients who demonstrated excessive time-dose fractionation values were irradiated with lower x-ray energies. Those in whom there was an overlap of treatment fields presented a serious challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Judicious selection of well-vascularized composite tissue outside the portals of irradiation, preferably with a long vascular pedicle, facilitated reconstruction. When possible, both donor and recipient vasculature should be outside the irradiated area to ensure uninterrupted blood flow to the transferred or transplanted tissue

  2. High-throughput proteomics reveal alarmins as amplifiers of tissue pathology and inflammation after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Didangelos, Athanasios; Puglia, Michele; Iberl, Michaela; Sanchez-Bellot, Candela; Roschitzki, Bernd; Bradbury, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is characterized by acute cellular and axonal damage followed by aggressive inflammation and pathological tissue remodelling. The biological mediators underlying these processes are still largely unknown. Here we apply an innovative proteomics approach targeting the enriched extracellular proteome after spinal cord injury for the first time. Proteomics revealed multiple matrix proteins not previously associated with injured spinal tissue, including small proteoglycans invol...

  3. One Stage Reconstruction of Skull Exposed by Burn Injury Using a Tissue Expansion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Cho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn area of the skull exposed by burn injury has been covered by various methods including local flap, skin graft, or free flap surgery. Each method has disadvantages, such as postoperative alopecia or donor site morbidities. Due to the risk of osteomyelitis in the injured skull during the expansion period, tissue expansion was excluded from primary reconstruction. However, successful primary reconstruction was possible in burned skull by tissue expansion.MethodsFrom January 2000 to 2011, tissue expansion surgery was performed on 10 patients who had sustained electrical burn injuries. In the 3 initial cases, removal of the injured part of the skull and a bone graft was performed. In the latter 7 cases, the injured skull tissue was preserved and covered with a scalp flap directly to obtain natural bone healing and bone remodeling.ResultsThe mean age of patients was 49.9±12.2 years, with 8 male and 2 female. The size of the burn wound was an average of 119.6±36.7 cm2. The mean expansion duration was 65.5±5.6 days, and the inflation volume was an average of 615±197.6 mL. Mean defect size was 122.2±34.9 cm2. The complications including infection, hematoma, and the exposure of the expander were observed in 4 cases. Nonetheless, only 1 case required revision.ConclusionsSuccessful coverage was performed by tissue expansion surgery in burned skull primarily and no secondary reconstruction was needed. Although the risks of osteomyelitis during the expansion period were present, constant coverage of the injured skull and active wound treatment helped successful primary reconstruction of burned skull by tissue expansion.

  4. In vivo effects of Pain Relieving Plaster on closed soft tissue injury in rabbit ears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong-Zhi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soft tissue injury imposes major public health burdens worldwide. The positive effect of China's Tibetan medicine and the Lamiophlomis rotata-based herbal Pain Relieving Plaster (PRP on healing closed soft tissue injury (CSTI has been reported. The herbs contained in Plaster are also referred as 'blood-activating and stasis-dispelling' in herbal medicine. The formula of the plaster contains four China's Tibetan medical herbs, including Lamiophlomis rotata, Oxytropis falcate Bunge, Curcuma longa Linn, and Myricaria bracteata. Two of these herbs (Lamiophlomis rotate; Curcuma longa Linn are commonly used in different formulae of Chinese medicine. The objective of this study is to use an interdisciplinary approach to test the hypothesis that the formula and its components influence the process of CSTI. Methods In vivo models have been established in 30 rabbit ear pinnae and studied for: (1 blood flow velocity (BFV which was affected by pressure of 21.2 kg/cm2 for 30 second over the local rabbit ear tissue; (2 edema formation of the closed soft tissue injury; (3 in vivo local temperature change. Results The results of in vivo studies indicated that CSTI significantly increased the velocity of blood flow and increased edema formation within the control group. The PRP extracts for 5 hours significantly slowed down the BFV of CSTI in rabbit ears, markedly decreased the elevated edema level from the 3rd to the 5th day. Conclusion The ingredients contained in the formula have positive effects in healing CSTI and further study is worth exploring.

  5. Vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis. Methods: A total of 60 pregnant women with preeclampsia who received treatment and gave birth in our hospital between July 2012 and January 2016 were collected and divided into mild preeclampsia group (n=41 and severe preeclampsia group (n=19 according to the disease severity; 38 normal pregnant women who received pregnancy test and gave birth in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. The placental tissue samples of three groups of research subjects were retained, high performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry was used to detect VitE levels in tissue grinding fluid, automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of oxidative stress injury indexes, and fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the mRNA expression of apoptosis molecules. Results: VitE, SOD and CAT levels in grinding fluid of severe preeclampsia group were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while ROS and AOPP levels were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group; Fas, caspase and Apaf-1 mRNA expression were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Mcl-2 and p57kip2 mRNA expression were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group. Spearman correlation analysis showed that VitE level in the preeclampsia placenta tissue was directly correlated with oxidative stress injury and cell apoptosis. Conclusion: VitE deficiency is the direct factor that results in oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in patients with preeclampsia, and the VitE supplementation in time is expected to become the auxiliary treatment means for patients with preeclampsia.

  6. The Effectiveness of Physical Agents for Lower-Limb Soft Tissue Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hainan; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; Optima Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background Soft tissue injuries to the lower limb bring a substantial health and economic burden to society. Physical agents are commonly used to treat these injuries. However, the effectiveness of many such physical agents is not clearly established in the literature. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Methods We searched 5 databases from 1990 to 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies. Paired reviewers independently screened the retrieved literature and appraised relevant studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with a high risk of bias were excluded. We synthesized low-risk-of-bias studies according to principles of best-evidence synthesis. Results We screened 10261 articles. Of 43 RCTs identified, 20 had a high risk of bias and were excluded from the analysis, and 23 RCTs had a low risk of bias and were included in the analysis. The available higher-quality evidence suggests that patients with persistent plantar fasciitis may benefit from ultrasound or foot orthoses, while those with persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy may benefit from shockwave therapy. However, the current evidence does not support the use of shockwave therapy for recent plantar fasciitis, low-Dye taping for persistent plantar fasciitis, low-level laser therapy for recent ankle sprains, or splints for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Finally, evidence on the effectiveness of the following interventions is not established in the current literature: (1) shockwave therapy for persistent plantar fasciitis, (2) cryotherapy or assistive devices for recent ankle sprains, (3) braces for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy, and (4) taping or electric muscle stimulation for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Conclusion Almost half the identified RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of

  7. Pathogenesis of acute kidney injury: effects of remote tissue damage on the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoyan; Peng, Zhiyong; Kellum, John A

    2011-01-01

    The modern definition and classification of acute kidney injury (AKI) has now been applied to thousands of patients around the world and in different settings. Epidemiology is shedding intense light on the credibility of our fundamental notions of how AKI occurs and why. It is clear from multiple studies that sepsis is the leading etiology of AKI, although other settings associated with systemic inflammation (polytrauma, burns, pancreatitis, cardiopulmonary bypass) also represent important means of exposure. Early in sepsis-induced AKI, there is an intense reduction in glomerular filtration with only mild structural changes mostly limited to the tubular epithelium. Although endothelial and interstitial changes may also occur, histopathology in sepsis-induced AKI is characteristically bland. Of course, many patients with severe AKI do not recover (as many as 50% in recent studies), and these patients ultimately develop severe structural alterations including fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests that cells in injured and infected tissues release immunological danger signals or danger-associated molecular patterns which communicate with remote organs including the kidney, where they activate dendritic cells and T cells and thus initiate inflammation. Dissonance of mediator secretion and cell responses may lead to persistent injury and de novo chronic kidney disease. A number of soluble mediators initiate a variety of pathophysiological processes as kidney injury evolves. In this chapter, we will discuss the pathogenesis of AKI in light of new information concerning injury and repair, and focus on the controversies arising from emerging evidence. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Uterine adenomyosis in infertile patients: MR imaging findings and clinical conclusions; MRT der uterinen Adenomyose bei infertilen Patientinnen: Ergebnisse und klinische Rueckschluesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangos, S.; Eichler, K.; Herzog, C.; Marquardt, F.; Peters, J.; Jacobi, V.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Kissler, S.; Mueller, A.; Siebzehnruebl, E.; Kaufmann, M. [Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe, J. W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Hamscho, N.; Gruenwald, F. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, J. W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the uterus and the pelvis in infertile female with symptomatic endometriosis for the assessment of uterine morphology and function. Materials and Methods: Forty-one infertile women (mean age: 33.2 years) with symptomatic endometriosis documented by laparoscopy were evaluated with highfield MRI (Sonata, Siemens) using T2- and T1-weighted sequences. In addition, the patients underwent hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG) for evaluation of the uterotubal transport capacity. Pathologic findings of the uterine junction zone were correlated with the laparoscopic results, clinical symptoms and uterotubal transport capacity. Results: Adenomyosis was diagnosed on T2-weighted MR-images in 35 (85.4%) patients (focal adenomatosis in 26 patients and diffuse adenomatosis in 9). Patients showing signs of adenomyosis tended to be older than patients without adenomyosis (mean age 34.1 years vs. 30.1 years) and showed a longer history of symptomatic endometriosis. A positive transport capacity in HSSG was observed in 73.1% (19/26) of the patients with focal adenomyosis and only 22.2% (2/9) of patients with diffuse adenomyosis. In 83.3% (5/6) of the patients without signs of adenomyosis, a positive uterotubal transport was documented. Conclusion: MRI of the uterus is a helpful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of adenomyosis and for planning further therapies. Patients with the diagnosis of adenomyosis showed a reduced uterotubal transport capacity that depended on the severity of adenomyotic changes and might be a possible cause of infertility. (orig.)

  9. Antioxidant effects of proanthocyanidin from grape seed on hepatic tissue injury in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Abedi, Hassan Ali

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes plays an important role in the induction of the liver injury. Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) have a wide range of medicinal properties against oxidative stress. In this study we evaluated antioxidant effects of GSP on liver in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, untreated diabetic and diabetic rats treated with GSP. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). GSP were administered via oral gavage (200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. GSP produced significant hepatoprotective effects by decreasing activities of serum aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase, and decreasing liver malondialdehyde and bilirubin (PGSP significantly ameliorated structural changes induced in liver of diabetic rats. GSP have protective effects against hepatic tissue injury due to antioxidant properties.

  10. Liver regeneration - The best kept secret: A model of tissue injury response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Cienfuegos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver regeneration (LR is one of the most amazing tissue injury response. Given its therapeutic significance has been deeply studied in the last decades. LR is an extraordinary complex process, strictly regulated, which accomplishes the characteristics of the most evolutionary biologic systems (robustness and explains the difficulties of reshaping it with therapeutic goals. TH reproduces the physiological tissue damage response pattern, with a first phase of priming of the hepatocytes -cell-cycle transition G0-G1-, and a second phase of proliferation -cell-cycle S/M phases- which ends with the liver mass recovering. This process has been related with the tissue injury response regulators as: complement system, platelets, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, growth factors (HGF, EGF, VGF and anti-inflammatory factors (IL-10, TGF-β. Given its complexity and strict regulation, illustrates the unique alternative to liver failure is liver transplantation. The recent induced pluripotential cells (iPS description and the mesenchymal stem cell (CD133+ plastic capability have aroused new prospects in the cellular therapy field. Those works have assured the cooperation between mesenchymal and epithelial cells. Herein, we review the physiologic mechanisms of liver regeneration.

  11. Role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation-induced pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Song Liangwen; Diao Ruiying; Wang Shaoxia; Xu Xinping; Luo Qingliang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation- induced pulmonary injury. Methods: Wistar rats irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to the whole lungs were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 weeks. MMP-12 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12 activities were determined by zymography. The degradation and collapse of elastin were determined by tissue elastin particular staining; the 'cross talking' phenomenon between alveolar type II cells and mesenchymal cells was observed under electron microscope; the expression of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in BALF was detected by ELISA. The expression of α-SMA was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: The mRNA expression of MMP-12 displayed a significant elevation at 1, 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. MMP-12 activity increased at 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. Elastin began to degrade and collapse at 1 week, which became worst 4 weeks after irradiation. The cross talking phenomenon was found under electron microscope. The expression of TGF-β1, TNF-α and α-SMA was increased gradually as time elapse after irradiation. Conclusions: 60 Co γ-ray irradiation can promote pulmonary MMP-12 expression, initiate pulmonary tissue remodeling by degradation of elastin, and make the pulmonary injury develop towards pulmonary fibrosis eventually. (authors)

  12. Beware of the toilet: The risk for a deep tissue injury during toilet sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Maayan; Levy, Ayelet; Kopplin, Kara; Ovadia-Blechman, Zehava; Gefen, Amit

    2018-02-01

    A pressure injury (PrI) compromises quality of life and can be life-threatening. The fundamental cause of PrIs is sustained deformations in weight-bearing soft tissues, e.g., during prolonged sitting on inadequate surfaces such as a toilet seat. In nursing homes and geriatric facilities, patients need assistance using the restroom, and patients being left on the toilet for tens-of-minutes is a real-world scenario, unfortunately. Nevertheless, there are no published studies regarding sustained tissue loads during toilet sitting and their effects on tissue physiology. Here, the biomechanical and microcirculatory responses of the buttock tissues to toilet sitting were investigated using finite element modeling and cutaneous hemodynamic measurements, to explore the potential etiology of PrIs occurring on the toilet. We found that prolonged sitting on toilet seats involves a potential risk for PrI development, the extent of which is affected by the seat design. Additionally, we found that specialized toilet seat cushions are able to reduce this risk, by lowering instantaneous tissue exposures to internal stresses (by up to 88%) and maintaining reduced interface pressures. Furthermore, hemodynamic variables were altered during the toilet sitting; in particular, tcPO 2 was decreased by 49% ± 7% (44 ± 2[mmHg] to 22 ± 4[mmHg]) during sitting. The current study confirms that investing in expensive PrI prevention (PIP) products is likely to be ineffective for an immobilized patient who is left to sit on a bare toilet seat for long times. This argument highlights the need for a holistic-care approach, employing PIP devices that span across the entire environment where bodyweight forces apply to tissues. Copyright © 2017 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Connective tissue regeneration in skeletal muscle after eccentric contraction-induced injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail Louise; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    to be sustained for a long time after the major myofibre responses have subsided. While the use of electrical stimulation to induce eccentric contractions versus voluntary eccentric contractions appears to lead to a greater extent of myofibre necrosis and regenerative response, this difference is not apparent...... when the muscle connective tissue responses are compared, although further work is required to confirm this. Pharmacological agents (growth hormone and angiotensin II type I receptor blockers) are considered in the context of accelerating the muscle connective tissue adaptation to loading. Cautioning...... interaction during adaptation to eccentric contractions is an unexplored field in human skeletal muscle and may provide insight into the optimal timing of rest vs. return to activity after muscle injury....

  14. Diannexin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury and targets phosphatidylserines in ischemic tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley E Wever

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI frequently complicates shock, renal transplantation and cardiac and aortic surgery, and has prognostic significance. The translocation of phosphatidylserines to cell surfaces is an important pro-inflammatory signal for cell-stress after IRI. We hypothesized that shielding of exposed phosphatidylserines by the annexin A5 (ANXA5 homodimer Diannexin protects against renal IRI. Protective effects of Diannexin on the kidney were studied in a mouse model of mild renal IRI. Diannexin treatment before renal IRI decreased proximal tubule damage and leukocyte influx, decreased transcription and expression of renal injury markers Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and improved renal function. A mouse model of ischemic hind limb exercise was used to assess Diannexin biodistribution and targeting. When comparing its biodistribution and elimination to ANXA5, Diannexin was found to have a distinct distribution pattern and longer blood half-life. Diannexin targeted specifically to the ischemic muscle and its affinity exceeded that of ANXA5. Targeting of both proteins was inhibited by pre-treatment with unlabeled ANXA5, suggesting that Diannexin targets specifically to ischemic tissues via phosphatidylserine-binding. This study emphasizes the importance of phosphatidylserine translocation in the pathophysiology of IRI. We show for the first time that Diannexin protects against renal IRI, making it a promising therapeutic tool to prevent IRI in a clinical setting. Our results indicate that Diannexin is a potential new imaging agent for the study of phosphatidylserine-exposing organs in vivo.

  15. Liver Transplantation in the Mouse: Insights Into Liver Immunobiology, Tissue Injury and Allograft Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Ono, Yoshihiro; Geller, David A.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2016-01-01

    The surgically-demanding mouse orthotopic liver transplant model was first described in 1991. It has proved a powerful research tool for investigation of liver biology, tissue injury, the regulation of alloimmunity and tolerance induction and the pathogenesis of specific liver diseases. Liver transplantation in mice has unique advantages over transplantation of the liver in larger species, such as the rat or pig, since the mouse genome is well-characterized and there is much greater availability of both genetically-modified animals and research reagents. Liver transplant experiments using various transgenic or gene knockout mice has provided valuable mechanistic insights into the immuno- and pathobiology of the liver and the regulation of graft rejection and tolerance over the past 25 years. The molecular pathways identified in regulation of tissue injury and promotion of liver transplant tolerance provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention to control adverse inflammatory responses/ immune-mediated events in the hepatic environment and systemically. Conclusion: Orthotopic liver transplantation in the mouse is a valuable model for gaining improved insights into liver biology, immunopathology and allograft tolerance that may result in therapeutic innovation in liver and other diseases. PMID:26709949

  16. Free radicals and related reactive species as mediators of tissue injury and disease: implications for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, James P; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2015-01-01

    A radical is any molecule that contains one or more unpaired electrons. Radicals are normal products of many metabolic pathways. Some exist in a controlled (caged) form as they perform essential functions. Others exist in a free form and interact with various tissue components. Such interactions can cause both acute and chronic dysfunction, but can also provide essential control of redox regulated signaling pathways. The potential roles of endogenous or xenobiotic-derived free radicals in several human pathologies have stimulated extensive research linking the toxicity of numerous xenobiotics and disease processes to a free radical mechanism. In recent years, improvements in analytical methodologies, as well as the realization that subtle effects induced by free radicals and oxidants are important in modulating cellular signaling, have greatly improved our understanding of the roles of these reactive species in toxic mechanisms and disease processes. However, because free radical-mediated changes are pervasive, and a consequence as well as a cause of injury, whether such species are a major cause of tissue injury and human disease remains unclear. This concern is supported by the fact that the bulk of antioxidant defenses are enzymatic and the findings of numerous studies showing that exogenously administered small molecule antioxidants are unable to affect the course of most toxicities and diseases purported to have a free radical mechanism. This review discusses cellular sources of various radical species and their reactions with vital cellular constituents, and provides examples of selected disease processes that may have a free radical component.

  17. Spinal cord injury after blunt cervical spine trauma: correlation of soft-tissue damage and extension of lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Cepeda, S; Ramos, A; Castaño-León, A M; García-Fuentes, C; Lobato, R D; Gómez, P A; Lagares, A

    2014-05-01

    In patients with spinal cord injury after blunt trauma, several studies have observed a correlation between neurologic impairment and radiologic findings. Few studies have been performed to correlate spinal cord injury with ligamentous injury. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether ligamentous injury or disk disruption after spinal cord injury correlates with lesion length. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients diagnosed with traumatic spinal cord injury after cervical trauma between 1990-2011. Plain films, CT, and MR imaging were performed on patients and then reviewed for this study. MR imaging was performed within 96 hours after cervical trauma for all patients. Data regarding ligamentous injury, disk injury, and the extent of the spinal cord injury were collected from an adequate number of MR images. We evaluated anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and the ligamentum flavum. Length of lesion, disk disruption, and ligamentous injury association, as well as the extent of the spinal cord injury were statistically assessed by means of univariate analysis, with the use of nonparametric tests and multivariate analysis along with linear regression. There were significant differences in lesion length on T2-weighted images for anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum in the univariate analysis; however, when this was adjusted by age, level of injury, sex, and disruption of the soft tissue evaluated (disk, anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum) in a multivariable analysis, only ligamentum flavum showed a statistically significant association with lesion length. Furthermore, the number of ligaments affected had a positive correlation with the extension of the lesion. In cervical spine trauma, a specific pattern of ligamentous injury correlates with the length of the spinal cord lesion in MR imaging studies

  18. An experimental study of radiation injury on oral tissue at young age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, Youichi

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of studying radiation injury on mandibles at growth stage, the mandibles of young adult dogs were irradiated with X-ray of 200 kVp, and the irradiated intraoral tissues such as gingival membrane, teeth and mandibles were investigated macroscopically and the teeth and mandibles radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. As the injury on irradiated skin, partial epilation began two days after irradiation and ulceration (4 out of 16 cases) formed at 79 days and worsened further, and necrosis was seen in all subjects at 195 days. 2. As the injury on the intraoral tissue, pigment loss in the gingival membrane began four days after irradiation. Ulceration of gingiva (2 out of 16) formed at 30 days and worsened, and exposure of the alveolar bone was observed at 208 days. At 220 days, bone fracture (6 out of 16) was observed. 3. Formation of necrosis in the gingiva leading to necrosis of the skin corresponding to the third premolar was found in four cases. Formation of necrosis in the skin corresponding to the third premolar leading to necrosis of the gingival membrane was found in 12 cases. 4. In radiological findings, enlargement of periodontal membrane space, disappearance of lamina dura (6 out of 16), and resporption of the alveolar crest (6 out of 16) began in the subjects at 1 month. Worsening began with bone destruction (10 out of 16), bone destruction accompanied by osteosclerosis, and erosion of inferior border of the cortical bone (8 out of 16) in the subjects at 3 months. Formation of sequestrum (4 out of 16) at 6 months and bone fracture (6 out of 16) at 8 months were observed. 5. In radiological findings for the subjects with formation of ulceration, enlargement of periodontal membrane space, and resorption of the alveolar crest were the early findings and lamina dura image around the bone destruction image followed. (J.P.N.)

  19. Effect of shivering on brain tissue oxygenation during induced normothermia in patients with severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Mauro; Frangos, Suzanne; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Andrew Kofke, W; Le Roux, Peter D; Levine, Joshua M

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed the impact of shivering on brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO(2)) during induced normothermia in patients with severe brain injury. We studied patients with severe brain injury who developed shivering during induced normothermia. Induced normothermia was applied to treat refractory fever (body temperature [BT] > or =38.3 degrees C, refractory to conventional treatment) using a surface cooling device with computerized adjustment of patient BT target to 37 +/- 0.5 degrees C. PbtO(2), intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and BT were monitored continuously. Circulating water temperature of the device system was measured to assess the intensity of cooling. Fifteen patients (10 with severe traumatic brain injury, 5 with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) were treated with induced normothermia for an average of 5 +/- 2 days. Shivering caused a significant decrease in PbtO(2) levels both in SAH and TBI patients. Compared to baseline, shivering was associated with an overall reduction of PbtO(2) from 34.1 +/- 7.3 to 24.4 +/- 5.5 mmHg (P shivering-associated decrease of PbtO(2) (DeltaPbtO(2)) and circulating water temperature (R = 0.82, P shivering was associated with a significant decrease of PbtO(2), which correlated with the intensity of cooling. Monitoring of therapeutic cooling with computerized thermoregulatory systems may help prevent shivering and optimize the management of induced normothermia. The clinical significance of shivering-induced decrease in brain tissue oxygenation remains to be determined.

  20. Functional brown adipose tissue limits cardiomyocyte injury and adverse remodeling in catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Ernande, Laura; Cheng, Juan; Nagasaka, Yasuko; Yao, Vincent; Miranda-Bezerra, Alexandre; Chen, Chan; Chao, Wei; Panagia, Marcello; Sosnovik, David E; Puppala, Dheeraj; Armoundas, Antonis A; Hindle, Allyson; Bloch, Kenneth D; Buys, Emmanuel S; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2015-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has well recognized thermogenic properties mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1); more recently, BAT has been demonstrated to modulate cardiovascular risk factors. To investigate whether BAT also affects myocardial injury and remodeling, UCP1-deficient (UCP1(-/-)) mice, which have dysfunctional BAT, were subjected to catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. At baseline, there were no differences in echocardiographic parameters, plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) or myocardial fibrosis between wild-type (WT) and UCP1(-/-) mice. Isoproterenol infusion increased cTnI and myocardial fibrosis and induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in both WT and UCP1(-/-) mice. UCP1(-/-) mice also demonstrated exaggerated myocardial injury, fibrosis, and adverse remodeling, as well as decreased survival. Transplantation of WT BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice prevented the isoproterenol-induced cTnI increase and improved survival, whereas UCP1(-/-) BAT transplanted to either UCP1(-/-) or WT mice had no effect on cTnI release. After 3 days of isoproterenol treatment, phosphorylated AKT and ERK were lower in the LV's of UCP1(-/-) mice than in those of WT mice. Activation of BAT was also noted in a model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, and was correlated to LV dysfunction. Deficiency in UCP1, and accompanying BAT dysfunction, increases cardiomyocyte injury and adverse LV remodeling, and decreases survival in a mouse model of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. Myocardial injury and decreased survival are rescued by transplantation of functional BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice, suggesting a systemic cardioprotective role of functional BAT. BAT is also activated in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Burn-injury affects gut-associated lymphoid tissues derived CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Alzahrani, Alhusain J

    2013-01-01

    After scald burn-injury, the intestinal immune system responds to maintain immune balance. In this regard CD4+T cells in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (GALT), like mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) respond to avoid immune suppression following major injury such as burn. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut CD4+T cells become dysfunctional and turn the immune homeostasis towards depression of CD4+ T cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. In the current study we show down regulation of mucosal CD4+ T cell proliferation, IL-2 production and cell surface marker expression of mucosal CD4+ T cells moving towards suppressive-type. Acute burn-injury lead to up-regulation of regulatory marker (CD25+), down regulation of adhesion (CD62L, CD11a) and homing receptor (CD49d) expression, and up-regulation of negative co-stimulatory (CTLA-4) molecule. Moreover, CD4+CD25+ T cells of intestinal origin showed resistance to spontaneous as well as induced apoptosis that may contribute to suppression of effector CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, gut CD4+CD25+ T cells obtained from burn-injured animals were able to down-regulate naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation following adoptive transfer of burn-injured CD4+CD25+ T cells into sham control animals, without any significant effect on cell surface activation markers. Together, these data demonstrate that the intestinal CD4+ T cells evolve a strategy to promote suppressive CD4+ T cell effector responses, as evidenced by enhanced CD4+CD25+ T cells, up-regulated CTLA-4 expression, reduced IL-2 production, tendency towards diminished apoptosis of suppressive CD4+ T cells, and thus lose their natural ability to regulate immune homeostasis following acute burn-injury and prevent immune paralysis.

  2. Recovery of renal function after administration of adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction in rat model of acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunwoo; Jang, Myoung Jin; Kim, Bo Hyun; Park, Jin Young; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major challenge in critical care medicine. The purpose of this study is to determine the therapeutic effects of the adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and the optimal route for SVF delivery in a rat model of AKI induced by I/R injury. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (10 animals per group): sham, nephrectomy control, I/R injury control, renal arterial SVF infusion and subcapsular SVF injection. To induce AKI by I/R injury, the left renal artery was clamped with a nontraumatic vascular clamp for 40 min, and the right kidney was removed. Rats receiving renal arterial infusion of SVF had a significantly reduced increase in serum creatinine compared with the I/R injury control group at 4 days after I/R injury. The glomerular filtration rate of the renal arterial SVF infusion group was maintained at a level similar to that of the sham and nephrectomy control groups at 14 days after I/R injury. Masson's trichrome staining showed significantly less fibrosis in the renal arterial SVF infusion group compared with that in the I/R injury control group in the outer stripe (P renal arterial SVF infusion and subcapsular SVF injection groups compared with the I/R injury control group in the outer stripe (P renal function is effectively rescued from AKI induced by I/R injury through the renal arterial administration of SVF in a rat model.

  3. Use of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in the treatment of adenomyosis associated heavy menstrual bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uysal, A.; Taner, C.E.; Mun, S.; Celimli, F.H.; Uysal, F.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in the treatment of adenomyosis associated with heavy menstrual bleeding. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital in Izmir, Turkey, and comprised data on adenomyosis patients who were implanted with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device for heavy menstrual bleeding between December 2004 and January 2008. After the insertion of the device, all patients were followed up by transvaginal ultrasonography and serum haemoglobin levels and menstrual patterns were determined at the 6th and 12th month. Data was analysed using SPSS 10. Results: The mean age of the 42 women in the study was 43.2+-0.8 years. At the sixth month, amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea, spotting and regular menstrual flow were 9.5% (n=4), 7% (n=3), 19% (n=8), and 64% (n=27), respectively. At the 12th month, the same parametres were 9.5% (n=4), 7% (n=3), 12% (n=5), and 71% (n=30), respectively. Haemoglobin levels had increased and endometrial thickness had decreased, and these differences were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: The easy-to-use levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device can be added to the treatment options as a well-tolerated alternative in cases where a woman who has completed her fertility and does not request a hysterectomy has anaemia associated with adenomyosis. (author)

  4. Use of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in the treatment of adenomyosis associated heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ahmet; Taner, Cüneyt Eftal; Mun, Semih; Uysal, Fatma; Celimli, Fatma Horasan

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in the treatment of adenomyosis associated with heavy menstrual bleeding. The retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital in Izmir, Turkey, and comprised data on adenomyosis patients who were implanted with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device for heavy menstrual bleeding between December 2004 and January 2008. After the insertion of the device, all patients were followed up by transvaginal ultrasonography and serum haemoglobin levels and menstrual patterns were determined at the 6th and 12th month. Data was analysed using SPSS 10. The mean age of the 42 women in the study was 43.2 +/- 0.8 years. At the sixth month, amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea, spotting and regular menstrual flow were 9.5% (n = 4), 7% (n = 3), 19% (n = 8), and 64% (n = 27), respectively. At the 12th month, the same parametres were 9.5% (n = 4), 7% (n = 3), 12% (n = 5), and 71% (n = 30), respectively. Haemoglobin levels had increased and endometrial thickness had decreased, and these differences were statistically significant (p intrauterine device can be added to the treatment options as a well-tolerated alternative in cases where a woman who has completed her fertility and does not request a hysterectomy has anaemia associated with adenomyosis.

  5. Acute tissue injury activates satellite cells and promotes sarcoma formation via the HGF/c-MET signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Van Mater, David; Añó, Leonor; Blum, Jordan M.; Webster, Micah T.; Huang, WeiQiao; Williams, Nerissa; Ma, Yan; Cardona, Diana M.; Fan, Chen-Min; Kirsch, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Some patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) report a history of injury at the site of their tumor. While this phenomenon is widely reported, there are relatively few experimental systems that have directly assessed the role of injury in sarcoma formation. We recently described a mouse model of STS whereby p53 is deleted and oncogenic Kras is activated in muscle satellite cells via a Pax7CreER driver following intraperitoneal injection with tamoxifen. Here, we report that after systemic injec...

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Various Rat Ocular Tissues after Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury and Possible Relevance to Acute Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause vision loss and optical nerve damage. To investigate the protein expression alterations in various intraocular tissues (i.e., the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, retina, and sclera during ischemia–reperfusion (IR injury, this study performed a proteomic analysis to qualitatively investigate such alterations resulting from acute glaucoma. The IR injury model combined with the proteomic analysis approach of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS was used to monitor the protein expression alterations in two groups of specimens (an IR injury group and a control group. The analysis results revealed 221 unique differentially expressed proteins of a total of 1481 proteins in the cornea between the two groups. In addition, 97 of 1206 conjunctival proteins, 90 of 1354 uveal proteins, 61 of 1180 scleral proteins, and 37 of 1204 retinal proteins were differentially expressed. These findings imply that different ocular tissues have different tolerances against IR injury. To sum up, this study utilized the acute glaucoma model combined with 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to investigate the IR injury affected protein expression on various ocular tissues, and based on the ratio of protein expression alterations, the alterations in the ocular tissues were in the following order: the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, sclera, and retina.

  7. Management of adenomyosis in infertile women: comparison between laparotomic resection and administration of aromatase inhibitor (Experience in 55 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajuddin Rajuddin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the results of adenomyosis mangement with resection and administration of aromatase inhibitor. Cases of ademyosis in infertile women were collected for three years (January 1999 to December 2001 and the diagnoses were confirmed using transvaginal USG. Cases were grouped into two groups, i.e. group 1 (undergoing laparotomic resection and group 2 (receiving treatment with aromatase inhibitor of anastrozole. Both groups were evaluated for changes in clinical symptoms, rate of successful pregnancy, and postoperative recurrency rate. During three years as many as 1619 infertility cases were managed, and among which 66 (4.07% cases of adenomyosis were diagnosed with transvaginal USG. As many as 55 cases were analyzed, i.e., 32 cases underwent resection and 23 cases received aromatase inhibitor. Of 32 cases of surgical resection, the histopathological results showed 30 (93.75% cases of adenomyosis and 2 (6.25% cases of uterus myoma. In the group undergoing resection three cases (9.4% were successfully pregnant, i.e., two cases had live birth, one case ended up with 6-week abortion. Moreover, 25 (78.1% cases were not pregnant and 4 (12.5% cases had recurrency, while 24 (75.35% cases experienced disappearance of symptoms yet not pregnant. On the other hand, of 23 cases in the group receiving aromatase inhibitor 2 (8.6% cases were able to be pregnant, one case had live birth and another case ended up with abortion, while 14 (59.1% cases had disappearance of symptoms yet not pregnant. During three months of treatment with aromatase inhibitor, a reduction in the lesion size between 7.31 mm3 and 25.90 mm3 were observed with CI 95% (p < 0.001. In conclusion, treatment with aromatase inihibitor did not heal lesions, but only reduced the size of adenomyosis lesions. On the other hand, resection could heal lesions, yet recurrency of disease may occur (12.5% after one postoperative year. (Med J Indones 2006; 15

  8. Post-irradiation modification of normal-tissue injury: lessons from the clinic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowski, A.S. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit)

    1993-02-01

    The authors concludes that: (1) Glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs substantially ameliorate acute and chronic radiation injuries to a number of organs. Although in some trials the drugs were administered simultaneously with fractionated irradiation, this was by no means always the case and the drugs were therefore more likely to display a genuine therapeutic influence than to act as radioprotectors (i.e. by lowing the intrinsic radio-responsiveness of the exposed structures). (2) The therapeutic efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs suggests the development of radiation damage to many tissues and organs includes detrimental inflammatory reactions unaccounted for by cellular radiobiology but shared with a large number of other ailments. Such a possibility should be critically and systematically explored while taking advantage of the rapid progress of research on inflammatory processes and molecular pharmacology of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs have never been shown to exert a deleterious effect on tumour cell sterilization. (author).

  9. Delayed administration of dapsone protects from tissue damage and improves recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda; Montes, Sergio; Guizar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Gelista-Herrera, Noemi; Mendez-Armenta, Marisela; Diaz-Cintra, Sofia; Ríos, Camilo

    2011-03-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), a complex cascade of pathophysiological processes increases the primary damage. The inflammatory response plays a key role in this pathology. Recent evidence suggests that myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme produced and released by neutrophils, is of special importance in spreading tissue damage. Dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is an irreversible inhibitor of MPO. Recently, we demonstrated, in a model of brain ischemia/reperfusion, that dapsone has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. The effects of dapsone on MPO activity, lipid peroxidation (LP) processes, motor function recovery, and the amount of spared tissue were evaluated in a rat model of SCI. MPO activity had increased 24.5-fold 24 hr after SCI vs. the sham group, and it had diminished by 38% and 19% in the groups treated with dapsone at 3 and 5 hr after SCI, respectively. SCI increased LP by 45%, and this increase was blocked by dapsone. In rats treated with dapsone, a significant motor function recovery (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score, BBB) was observed beginning during the first week of evaluation and continuing until the end of the study. Spontaneous recovery 8 weeks after SCI was 9.2 ± 1.12, whereas, in the dapsone-treated groups, it reached 13.6 ± 1.04 and 12.9 ± 1.17. Spared tissue increased by 42% and 33% in the dapsone-treated groups (3 and 5 hr after SCI, respectively) vs. SCI without treatment. Dapsone significantly prevented mortality. The results show that inhibition of MPO by dapsone significantly protected the spinal cord from tissue damage and enhanced motor recovery after SCI. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Buttock tissue response to loading in men with spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Eve Sonenblum

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that most people with a spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair for mobility are considered at-risk for pressure ulcer (PrU development, there still exists a spectrum of risk amongst this group. Efforts to differentiate risk level would benefit from clinical tools that can measure or predict the buttocks response to loading. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify how tissue compliance and blood flow were impacted by clinically-measurable risk factors in young men with SCI.Blood flow at the ischial tuberosity was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry while the seated buttock was unloaded, and loaded at lower (40-60 mmHg and high (>200 mmHg loads. Tissue compliance of the buttock was measured using the Myotonometer while subject were lifted in a Guldmann Net.Across 28 participants, blood flow was significantly reduced at high loads, while no consistent, significant changes were found at lower loads. At 40-60 mmHg, blood flow decreased in participants with a pressure ulcer history and lower BMI, but stayed the same or increased in most other participants. The buttock displaced an average of 9.3 mm (2.7 mm at 4.2 N, which represented 82% (7% of maximum displacement. BMI was related to the amount of buttock tissue displacement while smoking status explained some of the variation in the percent of max displacement.Wide variability in tissue compliance and blood flow responses across a relatively homogeneous population indicate that differences in biomechanical risk may provide an explanation for the spectrum of PrU risk among persons with SCI.

  11. Effect of Fucoidan Extracted from Mozuku on Experimental Cartilaginous Tissue Injury 

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    Saburo Minami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on acceleration of healing of experimental cartilage injury in a rabbit model. An injured cartilage model was surgically created by introduction of three holes, one in the articular cartilage of the medial trochlea and two in the trochlear sulcus of the distal femur. Rabbits in three experimental groups (F groups were orally administered fucoidan of seven different molecular weights (8, 50, 146, 239, 330, 400, or 1000 kD for 3 weeks by screening. Control (C group rabbits were provided water ad libitum. After the experimental period, macroscopic examination showed that the degree of filling in the fucoidan group was higher than that in the C group. Histologically, the holes were filled by collagen fiber and fibroblasts in the C group, and by chondroblasts and fibroblasts in the F groups. Image analysis of Alcian blue- and safranin O-stained F-group specimens showed increased production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and proteoglycans (PGs, respectively. Some injured holes were well repaired both macroscopically and microscopically and were filled with cartilage tissues; cartilage matrices such as PGs and GAGs were produced in groups F 50, F 146, and F 239. Thus, fucoidan administration enhanced morphologically healing of cartilage injury.

  12. Position of probe determines prognostic information of brain tissue PO2 in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Lucido L; Pillai, Shibu; Cruz, Jovany; Li, Xiaoqi; Julia, H; Gopinath, Shankar; Robertson, Claudia S

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring brain tissue PO2 (PbtO2) is part of multimodality monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, PbtO2 measurement is a sampling of only a small area of tissue surrounding the sensor tip. To examine the effect of catheter location on the relationship between PbtO2 and neurological outcome. A total of 405 patients who had PbtO2 monitoring as part of standard management of severe traumatic brain injury were studied. The relationships between probe location and resulting PbtO2 and outcome were examined. When the probe was located in normal brain, PbtO2 averaged 30.8 ± 18.2 compared with 25.6 ± 14.8 mm Hg when placed in abnormal brain (P < .001). Factors related to neurological outcome in the best-fit logistic regression model were age, PbtO2 probe position, postresuscitation motor Glasgow Coma Scale score, and PbtO2 trend pattern. Although average PbtO2 was significantly related to outcome in univariate analyses, it was not significant in the final logistic model. However, the interaction between PbtO2 and probe position was statistically significant. When the PbtO2 probe was placed in abnormal brain, the average PbtO2 was higher in those with a favorable outcome, 28.8 ± 12.0 mm Hg, compared with those with an unfavorable outcome, 19.5 ± 13.7 mm Hg (P = .01). PbtO2 and outcome were not related when the probe was placed in normal-appearing brain. These results suggest that the location of the PbtO2 probe determines the PbtO2 values and the relationship of PbtO2 to neurological outcome.

  13. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lionberger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9. In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs. The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions

  14. Mineral trioxide aggregate improves healing response of periodontal tissue to injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrilic, I. Vidovic; de Azevedo Queiroz, I. O.; Matthews, B. G.; Gomes-Filho, J. E.; Mina, M.; Kalajzic, I.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objective Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biomaterial used in endodontic procedures as it exerts beneficial effects on regenerative processes. In this study, we evaluate the effect of MTA on healing of periodontal ligament (PDL) and surrounding tissue, following injury, in a transgenic mouse model and on the differentiation of murine mesenchymal progenitor cells in vitro. Material and Methods We used an inducible Cre-loxP in vivo fate mapping approach to examine the effects of MTA on the contributions of descendants of cells expressing the αSMA-CreERT2 transgene (SMA9+) to the PDL and alveolar bone after experimental injury to the root furcation on the maxillary first molars. Col2.3GFP was used as a marker to identify mature osteoblasts, cementoblasts and PDL fibroblasts. The effects of MTA were examined 2, 17 and 30 days after injury and compared histologically with sealing using an adhesive system. The effects of two dilutions of medium conditioned with MTA on proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from bone marrow (BMSC) and periodontal ligament (PDLC) in vitro were examined using the PrestoBlue viability assay, alkaline phosphatase and Von Kossa staining. The expression of markers of differentiation was assessed using real-time PCR. Results Histological analyses showed better repair in teeth restored with MTA, as shown by greater expansion of SMA9+ progenitor cells and Col2.3GFP+ osteoblasts compared with control teeth. We also observed a positive effect on differentiation of SMA9+ progenitors into osteoblasts and cementoblasts in the apical region distant from the site of injury. The in vitro data showed that MTA-conditioned medium reduced cell viability and osteogenic differentiation in both PDLC and BMSC, indicated by reduced von Kossa staining and lower expression of osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. In addition, cultures grown in the presence of MTA had marked decreases in SMA9+ and Col2.3GFP+ areas

  15. Evaluation of Vacuum Assisted Closure Therapy for Soft Tissue Injury in Open Musculoskeletal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Manish; Gill, S P S; Sheopaltan, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Pulkesh; Dinesh; Sigh, Jasveer; Rastogi, Prateek; Mishra, L N

    2016-04-01

    The application of controlled levels of negative or sub atmospheric pressure for a prolonged period of time on a wound had shown to accelerate removal of excess fluid and promote hyperaemia, which eventually promote wound healing. The study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) therapy for soft tissue injury in open musculoskeletal trauma. Twenty cases of complex musculoskeletal wound involving different parts of body were included in this progressive randomized study. In patients, aggressive debridement was done before the application of VAC therapy. Controlled negative pressure was uniformly applied to the wound. Dressings were changed after every 4 to 5 days. The evaluation of results included healing rate of the wound, eradication of infection, complication rate, and number of secondary procedures. VAC therapy over the wound was administered for an average of 20.4 days ±6.72 days (range 14 to 42 days). There was decrease in wound size attained by VAC therapy ranged from 2.6 to 24.4cm(2), with an average reduction of 10.55 cm(2). Three wounds were infected at the start of VAC therapy. However, all patients were cleared of bacterial infection by the end of VAC therapy. VAC therapy using negative pressure promote Wound healing by increasing local capillary perfusion and increased rate of granulation tissue formation, decreases the duration of wound healing and requires fewer painful dressing change.

  16. Inhibition of SERPINE1 Function Attenuates Wound Closure in Response to Tissue Injury: A Role for PAI-1 in Re-Epithelialization and Granulation Tissue Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M. Simone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1 is a prominent member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily (SERPIN and a causative factor of multi-organ fibrosis as well as a key regulator of the tissue repair program. PAI-1 attenuates pericellular proteolysis by inhibiting the catalytic activity of both urokinase and tissue-type protease activators (uPA and tPA effectively modulating, thereby, plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis and the overall pericellular proteolytic cascade. PAI-1 also impacts cellular responses to tissue injury and stress situations (growth, survival, migration by titering the locale and temporal activation of multimeric cell-surface signaling complexes. This review will describe PAI-1 structure and function and detail the role of PAI-1 in the tissue repair program with an emphasis on cutaneous wound healing.

  17. Profile of the subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at an occupational health service and the RSI

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    Camila de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the profile of subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at the Reference Center of Occupational Health – CEREST in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state, in 2010, and the social insurance benefits granted.Materials and Methods: Analysis of medical records of the subjects assisted at CEREST in 2010, surveying data on gender, age, occupation, clinical diagnostics, clinical complaints, retirement, etc. The clinical diagnostics were categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10, subjects with soft tissue injuries were selected, and the diagnostics related to mental health disorders were registered. Data were recorded in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using statistical software R Development Core Team.Results: Of the 206 medical records analyzed, 18.0% (n=37 showed soft tissue injuries, 81.1% were female and 18.9% were male, and the subjects’ mean age was 43.24 years (SD=8.76. Subjects between 31 and 50 years old (70.2% were the most affected. The most affected occupations were cleaners, general service workers, and bank clerks. The most prevalent clinical diagnoses were synovitis and tenosynovitis, shoulder bursitis, and rotator cuff syndrome, with 62.2% of the subjects presenting more than one clinical diagnosis. 13.5% of the subjects also presented mental disorders. Association between retirement from work and the presence of soft tissue injury was observed (p=0.032. Only 13.5% of the diagnoses had some association with the work conditions.Conclusions: The general profile of the workers with soft tissue injuries was obtained: prevalence in women, diseases manifested in productive age, difficulty of association with work conditions, need for interdisciplinary interventions.

  18. Effect of a hormone-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and Cox-2 expression in patients with adenomyosis submitted or not, to endometrial resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr1,2, Clarice Haddad1, Julio Casoy1, Rebeca Maia1, Nathanael Pinheiro3, Elsimar M Coutinho11Centro de Pesquisa e Assistência em Reprodução Humana (CEPARH, 2Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, 3IMAGEPAT, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilObjective: To investigate the effect of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression in the endometrium of patients with adenomyosis who were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of insertion, compared to a group not submitted to endometrial resection and a group of controls with adenomyosis not submitted to any previous hormonal treatment.Patients and methods: Patients with adenomyosis (n = 89 were included in this study. Twenty-two patients had been using Mirena® for 5 years but had not been submitted to endometrial resection prior to insertion of the device. Twenty-four patients were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of Mirena® insertion. The remaining 43 patients with adenomyosis had undergone no previous hormonal treatment and served as a control group. Cox-2 and aromatase expression were determined in the endometrium by immunohistochemistry.Results: Use of Mirena® for 5 years reduced aromatase expression in the endometrium; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the uteri previously submitted to endometrial resection. The reduction in Cox-2 expression was significant only in the uteri submitted to endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena®.Conclusion: Endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena® was associated with greater rates of amenorrhea in patients with adenomyosis, which in turn were associated with a more effective inhibition of aromatase and Cox-2 expression in the endometrium.Keywords: aromatase, Mirena®, adenomyosis, Cox-2, endometrium, levonorgestrel

  19. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular cloning, transcriptional regulation against immune challenge and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kim, Yucheol; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-08-01

    Here, we report the identification and characterization of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus that was denoted as AbAIF-1. The full-length cDNA of AbAIF-1 consists of a coding region (453 bp) for 151 amino acids with a 17 kDa molecular mass. Analysis of AbAIF-1 sequence showed that it shares characteristic two EF hand Ca(+2)-binding motifs. Results from phylogenetic analysis further confirm that AbAIF-1 is a member of the AIF-1 family similar to invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts suggesting it has high evolutional conservation. Tissue-specific expression and transcriptional regulation of AbAIF-1 were analyzed after bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) immune challenge and during tissue injury by quantitative real-time PCR. It is shown that the expression of AbAIF-1 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner showing the highest level in hemocytes. Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, AbAIF-1 showed the significant up-regulation in hemocytes than gills. After the tissue injury in shell and mantle, AbAIF-1 and antioxidant selenium-dependant glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx) transcripts were significantly upregulated in abalone hemocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that AIF-1 could response against the pathogenic challenge or tissue injury in abalone like mollusks. Also, AbAIF-1 may involve in wound healing and shell repair after the tissue injury of abalone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Free-Tissue Transfer for the Reconstruction of War-Related Extremity Injuries: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Mason, Katrina A; Pafitanis, Georgios; Ghanem, Ali M; Myers, Simon; Iwuagwu, Fortune C

    2016-01-01

    Extremity injuries in combat zones have devastating sequelae. The increasing survival of war-zone casualties, combined with rapid advances in microsurgery, means that there is a growing role for free-tissue reconstruction. We systematically reviewed the current practices in microsurgical reconstruction of combat-related extremity injuries, focusing on free-flap types, timing of surgery, and outcomes. We conducted a PubMed search of the terms "War" and "Reconstruction," identifying 21st century studies on subacute/delayed free-flap repair, to reflect the idiosyncrasies of modern warfare. Case reports and studies exclusively describing craniofacial and thoracoabdominal injuries were excluded. A total of 11 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. In 9 studies, patients were repatriated/transferred to specialist facilities for treatment; in 2 studies, reconstruction was performed within combat/austere environments. The number of free-flaps described per study ranged from 6 to 233 (Total = 501). Latissimus dorsi flaps were most commonly used (43.7%). The average time to definitive reconstruction ranged from 9.6 days to 3 years, being delayed to address life-threatening injuries. The average free-flap success rate was 95.5% (range = 88.9%-100%). Combat-associated extremity injuries are characterized by extensive tissue loss and gross contamination. Despite this, microsurgical reconstruction results in minimal morbidity and successful outcomes. Large, multicenter studies are necessary to corroborate these findings and establish definitive management guidelines. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

    2010-11-10

    The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978-2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical-chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions.

  2. Ischemic tissue injury and progenitor cell tropism: significant contributors to the pathogenesis of pterygium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Woo; Ha, Hyo Shin; Kim, Jae Chan

    2015-03-01

    Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by triangular wing-like growth consisting of subconjunctival hypertrophic connective tissue. Pterygium is easily complicated by adhesion to the eyelid and diplopia related to motility restriction of the eyeball. Beyond the cosmetic problems, this condition has a catastrophic effect on quality of life. Post-surgical recurrence rates of pterygium excision have been reported to be very high. Therefore, identifying the distinct pathogenic pathways of the disease may lead to new therapeutic strategies with lower risk of treatment failure. Based on the relatively low vascularity and known-predominance of disease occurrence in the nasal conjunctiva of normal eyes, we proposed that hypoxic ischemic injury can elicit the development of pterygium. Here, we review hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha-induced activation of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) signaling pathway as a possible mechanism. Supporting this concept of pathogenic mechanism, we also highlight bone marrow-derived progenitor cell tropism as a main contributor to pterygium pathogenesis.

  3. Identification of very small embryonic/epiblast-like stem cells (VSELs) circulating in peripheral blood during organ/tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Liu, Rui; Marlicz, Wojciech; Blogowski, Wojciech; Starzynska, Teresa; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Zuba-Surma, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    We have identified in adult tissues a population of pluripotent very small embryonic/epiblast-like stem cells (VSELs) that we hypothesize are deposited at onset of gastrulation in developing tissues and play an important role as backup population of tissue-specific/committed stem cells. We envision that during steady-state conditions these cells may be involved in tissue rejuvenation and in processes of regeneration/repair after organ injuries. VSELs similarly as epiblast-derived migrating primordial germ cells change the epigenetic signature of some of the imprinted genes and therefore remain quiescent in adult tissues. These epigenetic changes in methylation status of imprinted genes prevent them also from teratoma formation. Mounting evidence indicates that VSELs are mobilized into peripheral blood during tissue/organ injuries and enumeration of these cells may be of prognostic value (e.g., in stroke or heart infarct). In this chapter, we will present FACS-based strategies to detect and enumerate these cells in human peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heat dissipation by blood circulation and airway tissue heat absorption in a canine model of inhalational thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangbo; Zhang, Guoan; Qiu, Yuxuan; Wen, Chunquan; Fu, Tairan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to further explore heat dissipation by blood circulation and airway tissue heat absorption in an inhalational thermal injury model. Twelve adult male Beagle dogs were divided into four groups to inhale heated air for 10min: the control group, group I (100.5°C), group II (161.5°C), and group III (218°C). The relative humidity and temperature of the inhaled heated air were measured in the heating tube and trachea, as were blood temperatures and flow velocities in both common jugular veins. Formulas were used to calculate the total heat quantity reduction of the heated air, heat dissipation by the blood, and airway tissue heat absorption. The blood temperatures of both the common jugular veins increased by 0.29°C±0.07°C to 2.96°C±0.24°C and the mean blood flow volume after injury induction was about 1.30-1.74 times greater than before injury induction. The proportions of heat dissipated by the blood and airway tissue heat absorption were 68.92%±14.88% and 31.13%±14.87%, respectively. The heat dissipating ability of the blood circulation was demonstrated and improved upon along with tissue heat absorption owing to increased regional blood flow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of low dose erythromycin on the proliferation of granulation tissue after tracheal injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L H; Xu, M P; Gan, L M; Li, Y; Liang, Y L; Li, W T; Qin, E Y; Gan, J H; Liu, G N

    2017-03-14

    Objective: To investigate the effect of low dose erythromycin on the proliferation of granulation tissue after tracheal injury. Methods: Forty-two rabbits were randomly divided into 7 groups ( n =6 each), group A (saline control group), group B (penicillin group), group C (low dose erythromycin group), group D (low dose erythromycin and penicillin group), group E (budesonide group), group F (low dose erythromycin and budesonide group), group G (low dose erythromycin, penicillin and budesonide group). All rabbits received tracheotomy, and the tracheal mucosa was scraped with a nylon brush 20 times for tracheal stenosis model. Rabbits were treated with corresponding drugs from a week before operation to 9 days after operation. The serum concentrations of transforming growth factor - beta 1 (TGF-β(1)), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL) -6, IL-8 were determined and the tracheal specimens were harvested for measuring degree of stenosis on the 10th day after operation. Results: Serum concentrations of TGF-β(1) in group A, B, C, D, E, F and G were (17.6±1.3), (18.2±3.1), (13.0±1.1), (14.0±1.0), (21.0±6.1), (13.6± 3.5), (8.2±1.3) ng/L; VEGF were (88.1±4.1), (85.8±4.3), (58.1±6.3), (56.5±2.4), (87.8±2.8), (57.0±3.7), (34.3±6.7) ng/L; IL-6 were (67.8±4.0), (66.1±3.5), (54.1±4.8), (52.1±3.2), (64.6±4.9), (49.4±4.2), (35.9±3.7) ng/L; IL-8 were (112.8±5.2), (116.6±4.1), (88.0±6.2), (85.5±3.5), (114.4±4.6), (82.6±3.8), (55.9±6.0) ng/L, respectively. The serum concentrations of TGF-β(1), VEGF, IL-6 and IL-8 in group C, D, F and G were significantly lower than those in group A, B and E (all P granulation tissue. The degree of tracheal stenosis in Group A, B, C, D, E, F and G were (53.3±4.4)%, (48.2±5.0)%, (24.3±4.4)%, (29.5±3.2)%, (47.8±6.5)%, (27.9±3.1)%, (15.6±2.0)%, respectively. The degree of tracheal stenosis in group C, D, F and G was significantly lower than that in group A, B and E, which had statistical

  6. Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Nahk Keun; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Mee Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Purpose:To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy.Methods:Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 μm.Results:Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively.Conclusion:Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure

  7. Effect of Guizhifuling capsule combined with levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system on adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Tao Shi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of Guizhifuling capsule combined with levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS in the treatment of adenomyosis (AM. Methods: A total of 80 patients with AM who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2015 to February, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the study group and the control group. LNG-IUS was placed in patients in the two groups 7 d after menstruation. The patients in the study group were given additional Guizhifuling capsule, 3 capsules/time, 3 times/d, and the drug was withdrawn in the menstrual period. Six-month treatment was regarded as one course. PBAC was used to evaluate the menstrual blood volume before and after treatment. The chronic pain grading questionnaire method was used for dysmenorrhea degree rating. The vaginal B ultrasound 3 d after menstruation was performed to detect the uterine volume. E2, FSH, LH, and serum CA125 level before and after treatment were detected. Results: The menstrual blood volume, dysmenorrhea degree, and uterine volume after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05. After treatment, CA125 level in the two groups was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05, and the reduced degree in the study group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Guizhifuling capsule combined with LNG-IUS in the treatment of AM can significantly improve the clinical symptoms, effectively reduce CA125 level, and has no significant effect on the sex hormone levels with a satisfactory clinical efficacy; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  8. Recent progress in defining mechanisms and potential targets for prevention of normal tissue injury after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anscher, Mitchell S.; Chen, Liguang; Rabbani, Zahid; Kang Song; Larrier, Nicole; Huang Hong; Samulski, Thaddeus V.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Brizel, David M.; Folz, Rodney J.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2005-01-01

    The ability to optimize treatments for cancer on the basis of relative risks for normal tissue injury has important implications in oncology, because higher doses of radiation might, in some diseases, improve both local control and survival. To achieve this goal, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced toxicity will be essential. Recent research has demonstrated that ionizing radiation triggers a series of genetic and molecular events, which might lead to chronic persistent alterations in the microenvironment and an aberrant wound-healing response. Disrupted epithelial-stromal cell communication might also be important. With the application of a better understanding of fundamental biology to clinical practice, new approaches to treating and preventing normal tissue injury can focus on correcting these disturbed molecular processes

  9. Adverse event reporting and developments in radiation biology after normal tissue injury: International Atomic Energy Agency consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuhchyau; Trotti, Andy; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Mirimanoff, Rene O.; Hay, John; O'Brien, Peter C.; El-Gueddari, Brahim; Salvajoli, Joao V.; Jeremic, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research has enhanced our understanding of radiation injury at the molecular-cellular and tissue levels; significant strides have occurred in standardization of adverse event reporting in clinical trials. In response, the International Atomic Energy Agency, through its Division of Human Health and its section for Applied Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy, organized a consultation meeting in Atlanta (October 2, 2004) to discuss developments in radiobiology, normal tissue reactions, and adverse event reporting. Methods and Materials: Representatives from cooperative groups of African Radiation Oncology Group, Curriculo Radioterapeutica Ibero Latino Americana, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group held the meeting discussion. Results: Representatives of major radiotherapy groups/organizations and prominent leaders in radiotherapy discussed current understanding of normal tissue radiobiologic effects, the design and implementation of future clinical and translational projects for normal tissue injury, and the standardization of adverse-event reporting worldwide. Conclusions: The consensus was to adopt NCI comprehensive adverse event reporting terminology and grading system (CTCAE v3.0) as the new standard for all cooperative group trials. Future plans included the implementation of coordinated research projects focusing on normal tissue biomarkers and data collection methods

  10. A Tissue-Engineered Muscle Repair Construct for Functional Restoration of an Irrecoverable Muscle Injury in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    level of morbidity, permanent functional disfigurement, and the as- sociated loss of quality of life and self - esteem . In this sce- nario, the ability... cosmetic and functional deficits. In this regard, current management of VML injuries in- volves the use of existing host tissue to construct muscular flaps... surgery and outcome. Plast Reconstr Surg 102, 711, 1998. 18. Lin, C.H., Wei, F.C., Levin, L.S., and Chen, M.C. Donor site morbidity comparison between

  11. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    OpenAIRE

    Lionberger, David

    2010-01-01

    David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with ac...

  12. Relationship between acute and late normal tissue injury after postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Jassem, Jacek; Badzio, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between acute and late normal tissue reactions in 317 consecutive endometrial cancer patients treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Methods: The data of 317 patients (staging according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) treated with postoperative RT were analyzed. Both low-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam RT were applied in 247 patients (78%); brachytherapy only in 49 (15%) and external beam irradiation only in 21 (7%). The median follow-up was 7.3 years (range 4-21). The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system with elements of the late effects of normal tissue, subjective, objective, management, analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale was used to score the RT reactions. The correlation between the occurrence and severity of acute and late bowel and bladder toxicity, as well as the relationship between the severity of acute effects and time to occurrence of late reactions, were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 317 patients, 268 (85%) experienced acute RT reactions of any grade. Severe acute bowel reactions were observed in 15 patients (5%), urinary bladder complications in 1 patient (0.5%), cutaneous in 1 patient (0.5%), and vaginal in 1 patient (0.5%). Severe acute hematologic toxicity was seen in 3 patients (1%). A total of 158 patients (51%) experienced late RT reactions of any grade. Severe late bowel reactions were observed in 19 patients (6%), urinary bladder in 5 (2%), vaginal in 3 (1%), and bone in 10 (4%). When all toxic events were considered, there was a highly significant correlation between the acute and late bowel reactions (p <0.001), but the acute and late urinary bladder reactions did not correlate (p=0.64). The grade of acute toxicity was found to predict the grade of late toxicity for the bowel but not for the bladder (p<0.001 and p=0.47, respectively). The severity of acute

  13. Lysophospholipids and Their Receptors Serve as Conditional DAMPs and DAMP Receptors in Tissue Oxidative and Inflammatory Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ying; Nanayakkara, Gayani; Cheng, Jiali; Cueto, Ramon; Yang, William Y; Park, Joon-Young; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-04-26

    We proposed lysophospholipids (LPLs) and LPL-G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as conditional danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and conditional DAMP receptors as a paradigm shift to the widely accepted classical DAMP and DAMP receptor model. Recent Advances: The aberrant levels of LPLs and GPCRs activate pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways, trigger innate immune response, and lead to tissue oxidative and inflammatory injury. Classical DAMP model specifies only the endogenous metabolites that are released from damaged/dying cells as DAMPs, but fails to identify elevated endogenous metabolites secreted from viable/live cells during pathologies as DAMPs. The current classification of DAMPs also fails to clarify the following concerns: (i) Are molecules, which bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), the only DAMPs contributing to inflammation and tissue injury? (ii) Are all DAMPs acting only via classical PRRs during cellular stress? To answer these questions, we reviewed the molecular characteristics and signaling mechanisms of LPLs, a group of endogenous metabolites and their specific receptors and analyzed the significant progress achieved in characterizing oxidative stress mechanisms of LPL mediated tissue injury. Further LPLs and LPL-GPCRs may serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of pathologies induced by sterile inflammation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  14. Subfailure overstretch injury leads to reversible functional impairment and purinergic P2X7 receptor activation in intact vascular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stretch injury is associated with blunt trauma, vascular surgical procedures, and harvest of human saphenous vein for use in vascular bypass grafting. A model of subfailure overstretch in rat abdominal aorta was developed to characterize surgical vascular stretch injury. Longitudinal stretch of rat aorta was characterized ex vivo. Stretch to the haptic endpoint where the tissues would no longer lengthen, occurred at twice the resting length. The stress produced at this length was greater than physiologic mechanical forces but well below the level of mechanical disruption. Functional responses were determined in a muscle bath and this subfailure overstretch injury led to impaired smooth muscle function that was partially reversed by treatment with purinergic receptor (P2X7R antagonists. These data suggest that vasomotor dysfunction caused by subfailure overstretch injury may be due to activation of P2X7R. These studies have implications for our understanding of mechanical stretch injury of blood vessels and offer novel therapeutic opportunities.

  15. Assessment of tissue viability after frostbite injury by technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in an experimental rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, I. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kocaeli University Medical Faculty, Kocaeli (Turkey); Cemal Aygit, A. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Candan, L. [Department of Pathology, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Sarikaya, A.; Berkarda, S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Tuerkyilmaz, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Trakya University Faculty of Science, Edirne (Turkey)

    2000-01-01

    Frostbite causes injury to the tissue by direct ice-crystal formation at the cellular level with cellular dehydration and microvascular occlusion. Muscle that initially appears viable on reperfusion may subsequently become necrotic because of microcirculatory collapse. Since muscle is a sensitive tissue in frostbite injury, we used technetium-99m-sestamibi limb scintigraphy to assess tissue viability in an experimental rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were used for this investigation. The right hind limb of the rabbits was immersed to the ankle joint in a container filled with 90% ethanol at -25 C for 10 min. Frostbitten limbs were allowed to thaw in air at room temperature. Imaging and pathological examination of the affected limbs were performed 2 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after freezing. In 2-h images, initial hypoperfusion was seen that corresponded to circulatory collapse. In 24-h images, there was hyperperfusion (so-called period of temporary reperfusion), corresponding to circulatory restoration. In 48-h images, a second hypoperfusion corresponded to viable but ischaemic tissue. In 72-h images, there was non-perfusion of the limb that correlated with the pathologically determined diagnosis of necrosis. All scintigraphic patterns correlated with pathological findings. We suggest that these scintigraphic patterns in soft tissue may be helpful in distinguishing between frank infarction and reversible ischemia and therefore may be useful in selecting early therapeutic or surgical interventions to salvage bone and soft tissue. Further studies are needed to show the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi scintigraphy in clinical frostbite cases. (orig.)

  16. Braque and Kokoschka: Brain Tissue Injury and Preservation of Artistic Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D W

    2017-08-19

    The neural underpinning of art creation can be gleaned following brain injury in professional artists. Any alteration to their artistic productivity, creativity, skills, talent, and genre can help understand the neural underpinning of art expression. Here, two world-renown and influential artists who sustained brain injury in World War I are the focus, namely the French artist Georges Braque and the Austrian artist Oskar Kokoschka. Braque is particularly associated with Cubism, and Kokoschka with Expressionism. Before enlisting, they were already well-known and highly regarded. Both were wounded in the battlefield where they lost consciousness and treated in European hospitals. Braque's injury was in the left hemisphere while Kokoschka's was in the right hemisphere. After the injury, Braque did not paint again for nearly a whole year while Kokoschka commenced his artistic works when still undergoing hospital treatment. Their post-injury art retained the same genre as their pre-injury period, and their artistic skills, talent, creativity, and productivity remained unchanged. The quality of their post-injury artworks remained highly regarded and influential. These neurological cases suggest widely distributed and diffuse neural control by the brain in the creation of art.

  17. Common Laundry Detergent Ingredient May Help Preserve Muscle Tissue After Severe Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight on Research Spotlight on Research Common Laundry Detergent Ingredient May Help Preserve Muscle Tissue After Severe ... 2013 A compound commonly found in household laundry detergents may help preserve muscle tissue after a severe ...

  18. Cerebral ischemic injury decreases α-synuclein expression in brain tissue and glutamate-exposed HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2017-09-01

    α-Synuclein is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissue, plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress. Cerebral ischemia causes severe neurological disorders and neuronal dysfunction. In this study, we examined α-synuclein expression in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemic injury and neuronal cells damaged by glutamate treatment. MCAO surgical operation was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats, and brain samples were isolated 24 hours after MCAO. We confirmed neurological behavior deficit, infarction area, and histopathological changes following MCAO injury. A proteomic approach and Western blot analysis demonstrated a decrease in α-synuclein in the cerebral cortices after MCAO injury. Moreover, glutamate treatment induced neuronal cell death and decreased α-synuclein expression in a hippocampal-derived cell line in a dose-dependent manner. It is known that α-synuclein regulates neuronal survival, and low levels of α-synuclein expression result in cytotoxicity. Thus, these results suggest that cerebral ischemic injury leads to a reduction in α-synuclein and consequently causes serious brain damage.

  19. Assays of normal tissue injury and their cellular interpretation. Proceedings of the 12th L. H. Gray conference, Manchester, 2-5 September, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, J.H.; Potten, C.S.; Moore, J.V.; Hume, W.J. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Some of the questions posed were: 1) Can target cell populations be defined in the tissue for specific types of injury 2) Are there qualitative differences in the target-cell populations for different cytotoxic agents, e.g. resistant subpopulations of cells 3) What is the cellular basis to the volume effect (i.e. greater injury per unit volume with increasing volume of tissue treated) 4) What is the contribution of intracellular repair of potentially-lethal damage to the sparing of injury in late-responding tissues 5) What are the contributions of repopulation by colony-forming cells and cells with very limited division potential to the sparing of injury in the late-responding tissues 6) How well is functional (effector) cell number correlated with overall capacity for function 7) What is the contribution of stromal (including vascular) injury in the response of the parenchyma. A total of 90 contributions considered these questions and others, in the following sections: the alimentary canal, skin, germinal tissue, vascular tissue, neuromuscular and glandular tissues, kidneys, bladder and liver, and lungs, models and strategy.

  20. Assays of normal tissue injury and their cellular interpretation. Proceedings of the 12th L.H. Gray conference, Manchester, 2-5 September, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.; Potten, C.S.; Moore, J.V.; Hume, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the questions posed were: 1) Can target cell populations be defined in the tissue for specific types of injury 2) Are there qualitative differences in the target-cell populations for different cytotoxic agents, e.g. resistant subpopulations of cells 3) What is the cellular basis to the volume effect (i.e. greater injury per unit volume with increasing volume of tissue treated) 4) What is the contribution of intracellular repair of potentially-lethal damage to the sparing of injury in late-responding tissues 5) What are the contributions of repopulation by colony-forming cells and cells with very limited division potential to the sparing of injury in the late-responding tissues 6) How well is functional (effector) cell number correlated with overall capacity for function 7) What is the contribution of stromal (including vascular) injury in the response of the parenchyma. A total of 90 contributions considered these questions and others, in the following sections: the alimentary canal, skin, germinal tissue, vascular tissue, neuromuscular and glandular tissues, kidneys, bladder and liver, and lungs, models and strategy. (UK)

  1. The Effect of Blood Loss in the Presence and Absence of Severe Soft Tissue Injury on Hemodynamic and Metabolic Parameters; an Experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Moradi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of severe soft tissue injury on the severity of hemorrhagic shock is still unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to determine hemodynamic and metabolic changes in traumatic/hemorrhagic shock in an animal model. Methods: Forty male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups including sham, hemorrhagic shock, soft tissue injury, and hemorrhagic shock + soft tissue injury groups. The changes in blood pressure, central venous pressure (CVP level, acidity (pH, and base excess were dynamically monitored and comparedsented. Results: Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly in hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=10.9; p<0.001 and severe soft tissue injury + hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=11.7; p<0.001 groups 15 minutes and 5 minutes after injury, respectively. A similar trend was observed in CVP in severe soft tissue injury + hemorrhagic shock group (df: 12; F=8.9; p<0.001. After 40 minutes, pH was significantly lower in hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=6.8; p=0.009 and severe soft tissue injury + hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=7.9; p=0.003 groups. Base excess changes during follow ups have a similar trend. (df: 12; F=11.3; p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the effect of hemorrhage on the decrease of mean arterial blood pressure, CVP, pH, and base excess is the same in the presence or absence of soft tissue injury.

  2. Application of cell and biomaterial-based tissue engineering methods in the treatment of cartilage, menisci and ligament injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz; Richter, Magdalena; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Lach, Michał; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    Over 20 years ago it was realized that the traditional methods of the treatment of injuries to joint components: cartilage, menisci and ligaments, did not give satisfactory results and so there is a need of employing novel, more effective therapeutic techniques. Recent advances in molecular biology, biotechnology and polymer science have led to both the experimental and clinical application of various cell types, adapting their culture conditions in order to ensure a directed differentiation of the cells into a desired cell type, and employing non-toxic and non-immunogenic biomaterial in the treatment of knee joint injuries. In the present review the current state of knowledge regarding novel cell sources, in vitro conditions of cell culture and major important biomaterials, both natural and synthetic, used in cartilage, meniscus and ligament repair by tissue engineering techniques are described, and the assets and drawbacks of their clinical application are critically evaluated.

  3. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Seawater-Exposure-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting Autophagy in Lung Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-ping Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seawater drowning can lead to acute lung injury (ALI. Several studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC treatment could attenuate ALI. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon still remain elusive. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether BMSC treatment can ameliorate seawater-induced ALI and its underlying mechanisms in a rat model. In this study, arterial blood gas, lung weight coefficient, and TNF-α, and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, as well as histopathology examination, were used to detect the lung injury of seawater exposure. Moreover, western blot and RT-PCR were used to explore autophagy in lung tissues. The results demonstrated that seawater exposure induced ALI including impaired arterial blood gas, pulmonary edema, histopathologic changes, and inflammatory response in lung tissues. What is more, these changes were partly ameliorated by BMSC treatment through inhibition of autophagy in lung tissues. The application of BMSC may be a potential effective treatment for seawater-induced ALI.

  4. [Experimental study on the treatment of serious soft tissue injuries with strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun-wen; Zhu, Yong-zhan; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wu, Zheng-jie; He, Li-lei

    2008-09-01

    To study the effects of Chinese drugs based on strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi treatment rule on neoformative capillaries and fibroblast during the soft tissue repair after serious trauma in rats, so as to explore the biological basis of the TCM theory "the spleen dominate extremities and muscles" applied to the treatment of soft tissue injuries. The model rats were established by bleeding from femoral artery and lancing method, and the rats were randomly divided into the control group, strengthening the spleen group and activating blood and resolving stasis group. The samples were got from the tissue of the wounded area at the 5th, 10th and 15th days after oral administration of the traditional Chinese medicine. After fixation and section, the tissues were stained by CD31 and PCNA staining. The amount of the capillaries and fibroblasts in the tissue of the wounded area were observed through multi-purpose microscope (ZEISS Axioskop2). Quantitative analysis was carried out on Image-ProPlus image analyzer. The amount of the capillaries and fibroblasts in the wounded tissue in the strengthening the spleen group were larger than that in the control group at the 5th, 10th and 15th day. And the proliferation speed of capillaries and fibroblasts was faster than those in the control group or the activating blood and resolving stasis group. The Chinese drugs according to strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi treatment rule were effective to promote growth of the granulation tissue and facilitate healing of the wounded area. And it has better effect than the treatment of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis.

  5. An overview of tissue engineering approaches for management of spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadikuchaksaraei Ali

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Severe spinal cord injury (SCI leads to devastating neurological deficits and disabilities, which necessitates spending a great deal of health budget for psychological and healthcare problems of these patients and their relatives. This justifies the cost of research into the new modalities for treatment of spinal cord injuries, even in developing countries. Apart from surgical management and nerve grafting, several other approaches have been adopted for management of this condition including pharmacologic and gene therapy, cell therapy, and use of different cell-free or cell-seeded bioscaffolds. In current paper, the recent developments for therapeutic delivery of stem and non-stem cells to the site of injury, and application of cell-free and cell-seeded natural and synthetic scaffolds have been reviewed.

  6. Mechanisms of injury and protection in cells and tissues at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.

    1976-06-01

    The survival of frozen-thawed cells is importantly influenced by the cooling rate. In general, cells exhibit maximum survival at an intermediate cooling rate, the numerical value of which depends on the type of cell, the additive present, and the warming rate. Theory and experiment now strongly indicate that death at supraoptimal cooling rates is the result of the formation of intracellular ice crystals during cooling and their growth to damaging size during warming. The causes of death in cells cooled at suboptimal rates, on the other hand, are more complex and more uncertain. Although additives like glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide do not protect against injury at supraoptimal rates, they are generally essential for the survival of slowly frozen mammalian cells. The two major theories of slow freezing injury predict that protection is chiefly a colligative effect and that it requires the presence of additive inside the cell as well as outside. The evidence of the colligative aspects of protection is conflicting. The evidence on the requirement for permeation is increasingly negative, a fact which suggests that to protect the whole cell it may be sufficient to protect the cell surface. Slow freezing injury appears due to a number of sequential events. The first may well be high electrolyte concentrations. Additives protect against these, but may themselves introduce other forms of injury, the most likely of which is osmotic shock.

  7. Gene expression profiling of the Notch-AhR-IL22 axis at homeostasis and in response to tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbusch, Marc; Rodler, Severin; Song, Shangqing; Romoli, Simone; Marschner, Julian A; Kraft, Franziska; Holderied, Alexander; Kumar, Santosh; Mulay, Shrikant R; Honarpisheh, Mohsen; Kumar Devarapu, Satish; Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-12-22

    Notch and interleukin-22 (IL-22) signaling are known to regulate tissue homeostasis and respond to injury in humans and mice, and the induction of endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) ligands through Notch links the two pathways in a hierarchical fashion. However in adults, the species-, organ- and injury-specific gene expression of the Notch-AhR-IL22 axis components is unknown. We therefore performed gene expression profiling of DLL1, DLL3, DLL4, DLK1, DLK2, JAG1, JAG2, Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, Notch4, ADAM17/TNF-α ADAM metalloprotease converting enzyme (TACE), PSEN1, basigin (BSG)/CD147, RBP-J, HES1, HES5, HEY1, HEYL, AHR, ARNT, ARNT2, CYP1A1, CYP24A1, IL-22, IL22RA1, IL22RA2, IL10RB, and STAT3 under homeostatic conditions in ten mature murine and human organs. Additionally, the expression of these genes was assessed in murine models of acute sterile inflammation and progressive fibrosis. We show that there are organ-specific gene expression profiles of the Notch-AhR-IL22 axis in humans and mice. Although there is an overall interspecies congruency, specific differences between human and murine expression signatures do exist. In murine tissues with AHR/ARNT expression CYP1A1 and IL-22 were correlated with HES5 and HEYL expression, while in human tissues no such correlation was found. Notch and AhR signaling are involved in renal inflammation and fibrosis with specific gene expression changes in each model. Despite the presence of all Notch pathway molecules in the kidney and a model-specific induction of Notch ligands, IL-22 was only up-regulated in acute inflammation, but rapidly down-regulated during regeneration. This implies that for targeting injury responses, e.g. via IL-22, species-specific differences, injury type and time points have to be considered. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Matrix- and plasma-derived peptides promote tissue-specific injury responses and wound healing in diabetic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Anthony R; Massey, Conner J; Cronk, Stephen M; Iafrati, Mark D; Herman, Ira M

    2016-07-02

    Non-healing wounds are a major global health concern and account for the majority of non-traumatic limb amputations worldwide. However, compared to standard care practices, few advanced therapeutics effectively resolve these injuries stemming from cardiovascular disease, aging, and diabetes-related vasculopathies. While matrix turnover is disrupted in these injuries, debriding enzymes may promote healing by releasing matrix fragments that induce cell migration, proliferation, and morphogenesis, and plasma products may also stimulate these processes. Thus, we created matrix- and plasma-derived peptides, Comb1 and UN3, which induce cellular injury responses in vitro, and accelerate healing in rodent models of non-healing wounds. However, the effects of these peptides in non-healing wounds in diabetes are not known. Here, we interrogated whether these peptides stimulate healing in a diabetic porcine model highly reminiscent of human healing impairments in type 1 and type 2-diabetes. After 3-6 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, full-thickness wounds were surgically created on the backs of adult female Yorkshire swine under general anesthesia. Comb1 and UN3 peptides or sterile saline (negative control) were administered to wounds daily for 3-7 days. Following sacrifice, wound tissues were harvested, and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for wound closure, angiogenesis and granulation tissue deposition, along with quantitative molecular analyses of factors critical for angiogenesis, epithelialization, and dermal matrix remodeling. Comb1 and UN3 significantly increase re-epithelialization and angiogenesis in diabetic porcine wounds, compared to saline-treated controls. Additionally, fluorescein-conjugated Comb1 labels keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelial cells in porcine wounds, and Far western blotting reveals these cell populations express multiple fluorescein-Comb1-interacting proteins in vitro. Further

  9. Functional Regulation of the Plasma Protein Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein by Zn2+ in Settings of Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Priebatsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Divalent metal ions are essential nutrients for all living organisms and are commonly protein-bound where they perform important roles in protein structure and function. This regulatory control from metals is observed in the relatively abundant plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, which displays preferential binding to the second most abundant transition element in human systems, Zinc (Zn2+. HRG has been proposed to interact with a large number of protein ligands and has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes including the formation of immune complexes, apoptotic/necrotic and pathogen clearance, cell adhesion, antimicrobial activity, angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Interestingly, these processes are often associated with sites of tissue injury or tumour growth, where the concentration and distribution of Zn2+ is known to vary. Changes in Zn2+ levels have been shown to modify HRG function by altering its affinity for certain ligands and/or providing protection against proteolytic disassembly by serine proteases. This review focuses on the molecular interplay between HRG and Zn2+, and how Zn2+ binding modifies HRG-ligand interactions to regulate function in different settings of tissue injury.

  10. Safety of Allogeneic Canine Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Intraspinal Transplantation in Dogs with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cardoso Maciel Escalhão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a pilot clinical study primarily designed to assess the feasibility and safety of X-ray-guided percutaneous intraspinal injection of allogeneic canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury. Six dogs with chronic paraplegia (≥six months were intraparenchymally injected with allogeneic cells in the site of lesion. Cells were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of a healthy dog, cultured to passage 3, labeled with 99mTechnetium, and transplanted into the lesion by percutaneous X-ray-guided injection. Digital X-ray efficiently guided cell injection as 99mTechnetium-labeled cells remained in the injection site for at least 24 hours after transplantation. No adverse effects or complications (infection, neuropathic pain, or worsening of neurological function were observed during the 16-week follow-up period after transplantation. Three animals improved locomotion as assessed by the Olby scale. One animal walked without support, but no changes in deep pain perception were observed. We conclude that X-ray-guided percutaneous intraspinal transplantation of allogeneic cells in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury is feasible and safe. The efficacy of the treatment will be assessed in a new study involving a larger number of animals.

  11. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) For Soft Tissue Injuries (ASSERT): An Online Database Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, G; Hemmings, S; Maffulli, N

    2014-09-01

    Soft tissue injuries and tendinopathies account for large numbers of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is popular, and effective in the management of chronic tendon conditions in the elbow, shoulder, and pain at and around the heel. Ethical approval was granted from the South East London Research Ethics Committee to implement a database for the Assessment of Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Soft Tissue Injuries (ASSERT) to prospectively collect information on the effectiveness of ESWT across the UK. All participants will give informed consent. All clinicians follow a standardised method of administration of the ESWT. The primary outcome measures are validated outcome measures specific to the condition being treated. A Visual Analogue Score for pain and the EuroQol will be completed alongside the condition specific outcome tool at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post treatment. The development of the ASSERT database will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness of ESWT for patients suffering from chronic conditions (plantar fasciopathy, tennis elbow, Achilles tendinopathy, greater trochanter pain syndrome and patellar tendinopathy). The results will aid the clinicians in the decision making process when managing these patients.

  12. Current tissue engineering and novel therapeutic approaches to axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury using polymer scaffolds☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Nicolas N.; McMahon, Siobhan; O’Brien, Timothy; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights current tissue engineering and novel therapeutic approaches to axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury. The concept of developing 3-dimensional polymer scaffolds for placement into a spinal cord transection model has recently been more extensively explored as a solution for restoring neurologic function after injury. Given the patient morbidity associated with respiratory compromise, the discrete tracts in the spinal cord conveying innervation for breathing represent an important and achievable therapeutic target. The aim is to derive new neuronal tissue from the surrounding, healthy cord that will be guided by the polymer implant through the injured area to make functional reconnections. A variety of naturally derived and synthetic biomaterial polymers have been developed for placement in the injured spinal cord. Axonal growth is supported by inherent properties of the selected polymer, the architecture of the scaffold, permissive microstructures such as pores, grooves or polymer fibres, and surface modifications to provide improved adherence and growth directionality. Structural support of axonal regeneration is combined with integrated polymeric and cellular delivery systems for therapeutic drugs and for neurotrophic molecules to regionalize growth of specific nerve populations. PMID:19737633

  13. Combined delivery of chondroitinase ABC and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuroepithelial cells promote tissue repair in an animal model of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führmann, Tobias; Anandakumaran, Priya N; Payne, Samantha L; Pakulska, Malgosia M; Varga, Balazs V; Nagy, Andras; Tator, Charles; Shoichet, Molly S

    2018-02-02

    The lack of tissue regeneration after traumatic spinal cord injury in animal models is largely attributed to the local inhibitory microenvironment. To overcome this inhibitory environment while promoting tissue regeneration, we investigated the combined delivery of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs). ChABC was delivered to the injured spinal cord at the site of injury by affinity release from a crosslinked methylcellulose (MC) hydrogel by injection into the intrathecal space. NESCs were distributed in a hydrogel comprised of hyaluronan and MC and injected into the spinal cord tissue both rostral and caudal to the site of injury. Cell transplantation led to reduced cavity formation, but did not improve motor function. While few surviving cells were found 2 weeks post injury, the majority of live cells were neurons, with only few astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and progenitor cells. At 9 weeks post injury, there were more progenitor cells and a more even distribution of cell types compared to those at 2 weeks post injury, suggesting preferential survival and differentiation. Interestingly, animals that received cells and chABC had more neurons than animals that received cells alone, suggesting that chABC influenced the injury environment such that neuronal differentiation or survival was favoured.

  14. A systematic review of extravasation and local tissue injury from administration of vasopressors through peripheral intravenous catheters and central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubani, Osama M; Green, Robert S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to collect and describe all published reports of local tissue injury or extravasation from vasopressor administration via either peripheral intravenous (IV) or central venous catheter. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed from inception through January 2014 for reports of adults who received vasopressor intravenously via peripheral IV or central venous catheter for a therapeutic purpose. We included primary studies or case reports of vasopressor administration that resulted in local tissue injury or extravasation of vasopressor solution. Eighty-five articles with 270 patients met all inclusion criteria. A total of 325 separate local tissue injury and extravasation events were identified, with 318 events resulting from peripheral vasopressor administration and 7 events resulting from central administration. There were 204 local tissue injury events from peripheral administration of vasopressors, with an average duration of infusion of 55.9 hours (±68.1), median time of 24 hours, and range of 0.08 to 528 hours. In most of these events (174/204, 85.3%), the infusion site was located distal to the antecubital or popliteal fossae. Published data on tissue injury or extravasation from vasopressor administration via peripheral IVs are derived mainly from case reports. Further study is warranted to clarify the safety of vasopressor administration via peripheral IVs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of dienogest in the treatment of painful symptoms in patients with adenomyosis: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Yutaka; Fujimoto-Okabe, Haruka; Hagino, Atsushi

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dienogest (DNG), a progestational 19-norsteroid, in patients with symptomatic adenomyosis. Phase III, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study. Clinical study sites in Japan. Sixty-seven patients with adenomyosis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive DNG (2 mg/d, orally) or placebo for 16 weeks. In cases of complicated anemia, patients were treated for anemia before randomization. The primary end point was the change from baseline to after treatment pain score, using zero- to three-point verbal rating scales that defined pain severity according to limited ability to work and need for analgesics. The visual analogue scale was used as another pain parameter. Decreases from baseline in the pain score and the visual analogue scale at the end of treatment were significantly more in the DNG group than in the placebo group (P<.001). During the treatment period, almost all of the patients treated with DNG experienced irregular uterine bleeding and one patient had mild anemia. No severe cases of anemia were observed. These results suggest that DNG is effective and well tolerated in the treatment for painful symptoms associated with adenomyosis not complicated by severe uterine enlargement or severe anemia. JapicCTI-142642(en). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Vascularized Composite Tissue Allotransplantation Via Histone Deacetylase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Concors – surgical resident – animal model experimentation (warm ischemia) – 2 months CHOP: Wayne Hancock – Sub-PI – ORCID 56438952900 – design...IRI) in scenarios relevant to limb transplantation using mouse models for experimentation . Limitations in tolerated ischemia times limits the scope...reperfusion injury (IRI) in scenarios relevant to limb transplantation using mouse models for experimentation . Limitations in tolerated ischemia

  17. A correlation study of the expression of resistin and glycometabolism in muscle tissue after traumatic brain injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Peng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the expression pattern of resistin (RSTN in skeletal muscle tissue and its influence on glycometabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods:Seventy-eight SD rats were randomly divided into traumatic group (n=36, RSTN group (n=36 and sham operation group (n=6. Fluid percussion TBI model was developed in traumatic and RSTN groups and the latter received additional 1 mg RSTN antibody treatment for each rat. At respectively 12 h, 24 h, 72 h, 1 w, 2 w, and 4 w after operation, venous blood was collected and the right hind leg skeletal muscle tissue was sampled. We used real-time PCR to determine mRNA expression of RSTN in skeletal muscles, western blot to determine RSTN protein expression and ELISA to assess serum insulin as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG levels. Calculation of the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Q value was also conducted. The above mentioned indicators and their correction were statistically analyzed. Results:Compared with sham operation group, the RSTN expression in the skeletal muscle as well as serum insulin and FBG levels revealed significant elevation (P<0.05, and reduced Q value (P<0.05 in traumatic group. Single factor linear correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between RSTN expression and Q values (P<0.001 in traumatic group. Conclusion:The expression of RSTN has been greatly increased in the muscular tissue of TBI rats and it was closely related to the index of glycometabolism. RSTN may play an important role in the process of insulin resistance after TBI. Key words: Brain injuries; Resistin; Insulin resistance; Blood glucose; Insulin sensitivity

  18. In Vivo Effects of Quercetin in Association with Moderate Exercise Training in Improving Streptozotocin-Induced Aortic Tissue Injuries

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    Irina C. Chis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abnormal nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation are the major causal factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in DM. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction may be a first target against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the synergistic protective effects of quercetin administration and moderate exercise training on thoracic aorta injuries induced by diabetes. Methods: Diabetic rats that performed exercise training were subjected to a swimming training program (1 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks. The diabetic rats received quercetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen for the assessment of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA and protein carbonyls groups, PC, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT, nitrite plus nitrate (NOx production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein expression. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased MDA and PC levels, NOx production and iNOS expression and a reduction of SOD and CAT activity in aortic tissues. A decrease in the levels of oxidative stress markers, NOx production and iNOS expression associated with elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes in the aortic tissue were observed in quercetin-treated diabetic trained rats. Conclusions: These findings suggest that quercetin administration in association with moderate exercise training reduces vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by diabetes in rat aorta by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO bioavailability.

  19. Intrathecal Acetyl-L-Carnitine Protects Tissue and Improves Function after a Mild Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, Eric E; Hagg, Theo

    2016-02-01

    Primary and secondary ischemia after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to tissue and axon degeneration, which may result from decreased energy substrate availability for cellular and axonal mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Therefore, providing spinal tissue with an alternative energy substrate during ischemia may be neuroprotective after SCI. To assess this, rats received a mild contusive SCI (120 kdyn, Infinite Horizons impactor) at thoracic level 9 (T9), which causes loss of ∼ 80% of the ascending sensory dorsal column axonal projections to the gracile nucleus. Immediately afterwards, the energy substrate acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC; 1 mg/day) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was infused intrathecally (sub-arachnoid) for 6 days via an L5/6 catheter attached to a subcutaneous Alzet pump. ALC treatment improved overground locomotor function (Basso-Beattie-Breshnahan [BBB] score 18 vs. 13) at 6 days, total spared epicenter (71% vs. 57%) and penumbra white matter (90% vs. 85%), ventral penumbra microvessels (108% vs. 79%), and penumbra motor neurons (42% vs. 15%) at 15 days post-SCI, compared with PBS treatment. However, the ascending sensory projections (anterogradely traced with cholera toxin B from the sciatic nerves) and dorsal column white matter and perfused blood vessels were not protected. Furthermore, grid walking, a task we have shown to be dependent on dorsal column function, was not improved. Thus, mitochondrial substrate replacement may only be efficacious in areas of lesser or temporary ischemia, such as the ventral spinal cord and injury penumbra in this study. The current data also support our previous evidence that microvessel loss is central to secondary tissue degeneration.

  20. Mobilization of Circulating Vascular Progenitors in Cancer Patients Receiving External Beam Radiation in Response to Tissue Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, David S.; Morgan, Scott C.; Birch, Paul E.; Yang, Lin; Halpenny, Michael J.; Gunanayagam, Angelo; Li Yuhua; Eapen, Libni

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Endothelial-like vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) are associated with the repair of ischemic tissue injury in several clinical settings. Because the endothelium is a principal target of radiation injury, VPCs may be important in limiting toxicity associated with radiotherapy (RT) in patients with cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied 30 patients undergoing RT for skin cancer (n = 5), head-and-neck cancer (n = 15), and prostate cancer (n = 10) prospectively, representing a wide range of irradiated mucosal volumes. Vascular progenitor cell levels were enumerated from peripheral blood at baseline, midway through RT, at the end of treatment, and 4 weeks after radiation. Acute toxicity was graded at each time point by use of the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3.0. Results: Significant increases in the proportion of CD34 + /CD133 + VPCs were observed after completion of RT, from 0.012% at baseline to 0.048% (p = 0.029), and the increase in this subpopulation was most marked in patients with Grade 2 peak toxicity or greater after RT (p = 0.034). Similarly, CD34 + /vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive VPCs were increased after the completion of radiation therapy in comparison to baseline (from 0.014% to 0.027%, p = 0.043), and there was a trend toward greater mobilization in patients with more significant toxicity (p = 0.08). The mobilization of CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells did not increase after treatment (p = 0.58), and there was no relationship with toxicity. Conclusions: We suggest that VPCs may play an important role in reducing radiation-induced tissue damage. Interventions that increase baseline VPC levels or enhance their mobilization and recruitment in response to RT may prove useful in facilitating more rapid and complete tissue healing.

  1. New products tissue-engineering in the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakov, I. N.; Sergienko, V. I.; Kiselev, S. L.; Lagarkova, M. A.; Remigaylo, A. A.; Mihaylov, A. A.; Prokopenko, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    In the treatment of patients with complicated spinal cord injury the Russian Health spends about one million rubles for each patient in the acute and the interim period after the injury. The number of complicated spinal cord injury is different in geographical areas Russian Federation from 30 to 50 people per 1 million that is affected by the year 5600. Applied to the present surgical and pharmacological techniques provide unsatisfactory results or minimally effective treatment. Transplantation of 100 thousand neuronal mouse predecessors (24 rats) or human neuronal predecessors (18 rats) in the anatomical gap rat spinal cord, followed by analysis of neurological deficit. The neuro-matrix implantation in the rat spinal cord containing 100 thousand neuronal precursors hESC, repeatable control neuro-matrix transplantation, non-cell mass, eliminating neurological deficit for 14 weeks after transplantation about 5-9 points on the scale of the BBB. The cultivation under conditions in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cells on collagen-chitosan matrix (hIPSC) showed that neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells grown on scaffolds as compact groups and has no neurites. Cells do not penetrate into the matrix during long-term cultivation and formed near the surface of the spherical structures resembling neurospheres. At least 90% of the cells were positive for the neuronal marker tubulin b3. Further studies should be performed to examine the compatibility of neuronal cultures and matrices.

  2. Ligamentous Injuries and the Risk of Associated Tissue Damage in Acute Ankle Sprains in Athletes: A Cross-sectional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Frank W; Jomaah, Nabil; Niu, Jingbo; Almusa, Emad; Roger, Bernard; D'Hooghe, Pieter; Geertsema, Celeste; Tol, Johannes L; Khan, Karim; Guermazi, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Ankle joint injuries are extremely common sports injuries, with the anterior talofibular ligament involved in the majority of ankle sprains. There have been only a few large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on associated structural injuries after ankle sprains. To describe the injury pattern in athletes who were referred to MRI for the assessment of an acute ankle sprain and to assess the risk of associated traumatic tissue damage including lateral and syndesmotic ligament involvement. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 261 ankle MRI scans of athletes with acute ankle sprains were evaluated for: lateral and syndesmotic ligament injury; concomitant injuries to the deltoid and spring ligaments and sinus tarsi; peroneal, flexor, and extensor retinacula and tendons; traumatic and nontraumatic osteochondral and osseous changes; and joint effusion. Patients were on average 22.5 years old, and the average time from injury to MRI was 5.7 days. Six exclusive injury patterns were defined based on lateral and syndesmotic ligament involvement. The risk for associated injuries was assessed by logistic regression using ankles with no or only low-grade lateral ligament injuries and no syndesmotic ligament damage as the reference. With regard to the injury pattern, there were 103 ankles (39.5%) with complete anterior talofibular ligament disruption and no syndesmotic injury, and 53 ankles (20.3%) had a syndesmotic injury with or without lateral ligament damage. Acute osteochondral lesions of the lateral talar dome were seen in 20 ankles (7.7%). The percentage of chronic lateral osteochondral lesions was 1.1%. The risk for talar bone contusions increased more than 3-fold for ankles with complete lateral ligament ruptures (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.43; 95% CI, 1.72-6.85) but not for ankles with syndesmotic involvement. The risk for associated deltoid ligament injuries increased for ankles with complete lateral ligament injuries (aOR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1

  3. Protective effect of gel form of gastric gavage applicated aloe vera on ischemia reperfusion injury in renal and lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Hasan; Yener, Ali Umit; Karaboga, Ihsan; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Dogu, Tugba; Altinisik, Hatice Betul; Altinisik, Ugur; Simsek, Tuncer

    2017-12-30

    The aloe vera plant has become increasingly popular in recent years. This study aimed to research the effect of aloe vera to prevent renal and lung tissue damage in an experimental ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model. The study included 21 male Wistar Albino rats, which were categorized into control group, n = 7 (no procedures), Sham group n = 7 (I/R); and aloe vera therapy group, n = 7 (aloe vera and I/R). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated from lung and kidney tissues for biochemical investigations. As histopathological, hematoxylin and eosin and anti-iNOS were also examined. In biochemical investigations, SOD, CAT, and GPx levels of the Sham group were found to be lower compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). The aloe vera therapy group was not statistically different from control groups but significantly different compared with the Sham group. In the same way, the MDA levels of kidney and lung tissues were statistically significant in the aloe vera therapy group, compared to the Sham group. In the Sham group, the peribronchial and perialveolar edema were observed in lung parenchyma. Also, excess interstitial hemorrhage, leukocyte infiltration, and alveolar wall thickening were identified in ischemic groups. The histopathological changes were much lighter than in the aloe vera therapy group. In renal tissues, excess epithelial cell deterioration, tubular desqumination, and glomerular atrophy were observed in the Sham group. The histopathological changes were markedly reduced in the aloe vera therapy  group. In the kidney and lung tissue, the level of iNOS activity in the Sham group was significantly higher than in the control and aloe vera therapy group. This study indicated that aloe vera is protective against oxidative damage formed by I/R in distant organs like the lungs and kidneys.

  4. REGULATORY AND TRANSPORT PROTEINS OF BLOOD SERUM AND FOLLICULAR FLUID IN PREDICTION OF EFFICIENCY OF THE PROGRAMS OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN WOMEN WITH ADENOMYOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Васильевна Лихачева

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: Study of the content as well as the effect on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF programs of some regulatory and transport proteins: (alfa-2-macroglobulin (α2-МG, alfa-1-antitrypsin (α1-АТ, pregnancy associated alfa-2-glycoprotein (PAG, lactoferrin (LF, and albumin (ALB in blood serum and follicular fluid in women with adenomyosis and tubal factor of infertility. Materials and methods. The study included 89 patients, among them in 31 women the cause of infertility was adenomyosis (as a result of IVF, 12 patients got pregnant and 19 did not, and 58 patients with tubal infertility (24 patients got pregnant and 34 did not. The content of alfa-2-macroglobulin (α2-MG, alfa-1-antitrypsin (α1-АТ and pregnancy associated alfa-2-glycoprotein (PAG, lactoferrin (LF was determined by the quantitative rocket ummunoelectrophoresis method with the application of research test systems developed on the basis of research laboratory (RL of immunology at Novokuznetsk State Institute for Further Training of Physicians. The concentration of albumin was determined by biochemistry methods (with bromcresol green. Results. The research revealed that serum levels of alfa-2-macroglobulin, alfa-1-antitrypsin, pregnancy associated globulin, lactoferrin and albumin in women with adenomyosis generally over the group did not reliably differ from such indexes in women with tubal infertility. In the group of women with adenomyosis the low level of alfa-2-macroglobulin (less than 1.75 g/L and alfa-1-antitrypsin (less than 1.9 g/L in blood serum was associated with negative IVF program outcome. In tubal infertility negative outcome of IVF program was registered at the reduction in the blood serum albumin level below 41.5 g/L. Conclusion: The revealed changes, namely the α2-MG level below 1.75 g/L and α1-AT below 1.9 g/L in the infertile patients with adenomyosis, as well as the serum albumin level below 41.5 g/L in women with

  5. Sixty-four-slice CT angiography to determine the three dimensional relationships of vascular and soft tissue wounds in lower extremity war time injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer M; Fox, Charles J; Brazaitis, Michael P; Via, Kathy; Garcia, Roman; Feuerstein, Irwin M

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the use and benefits of the 64-slice CT scanner in determining the 3D relationships of vascular and soft tissue wounds in lower extremity war time injuries. A brief overview of CT scanning is given as well as the techniques used to produce the images needed for diagnosis. The series follows two similar cases of war time injury patients at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. The first case is a 30-year-old active duty male, who presented with multiple trauma from a motor vehicle accident because of an improvised explosive device (IED) blast, sustaining substantial lower extremity injuries. The second case is a 34-year-old active duty male, who presented with multiple trauma blast injuries. Both cases were of interest because the vasculature was found to be very close to the surface of the wound, which put the arteries at risk for rupture and for iatrogenic injury during repeated debridements.

  6. Tissue uptake of 3H-noradrenaline at radiation injuries of different degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonova, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The absorbability of hypothalamus and myocardium for 3 H-noradrenaline was tested in differently injured rats. In all forms of injuries (irradiation with doses of 5.0 Gy, 7.5 Gy, combination of irradiation with fracture of the femur) a considerable suppression of the energy-dependent neurotransmitter uptake was found with increased level of the 'total uptake', including passive diffusion and absorption of catecholamines in the cells. The results revealed a mechanism, of neurotransmitter depletion. Increase of radiation dose, and additional trauma rended the interference with the uptake process more difficult

  7. Oral cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors versus other oral analgesics for acute soft tissue injury: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter; Lamdin, Rain

    2010-01-01

    Acute soft tissue injuries are common and carry significant societal costs. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs), non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other analgesics are used to treat acute soft tissue injuries, with ongoing debate about their analgesic efficacy, effects on tissue healing and adverse effects (AEs). To systematically review the evidence comparing oral coxibs with other oral analgesics for acute soft tissue injuries, using the outcomes: pain, swelling, function and AEs. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, AMED, PEDro and SPORTDiscus. Further studies were sought through clinical trials registries, dissertations, correspondence with pharmaceutical companies and manual searches of relevant journals. There was no language restriction. 'Coxibs' were defined as drugs that inhibit COX-2 >5-fold more than COX-1; 'acute' was defined as injury occurring within 48 hours of enrollment; 'soft tissue injury' was defined as closed injuries to upper or lower limb soft tissues (ligaments, muscles or tendons). Randomized controlled trials in humans comparing a coxib to a different class of oral analgesic agent for the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries for or=80% of participants met the definition of acute soft tissue injury, were included. Studies were excluded if >20% of participants enrolled had back pain, cervical spine injury, repetitive strain injuries, delayed-onset muscle soreness, fractures, cartilage injury, penetrating wounds or primary inflammatory conditions (tendonitis, bursitis and arthritis). Nine out of 23 (39.1%) potentially relevant studies met the selection criteria. A standard form was used to extract data. Included studies were screened by the authors for risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and evidence was graded for quality using the GRADE tool. Clinical heterogeneity was minimized by application of strict selection criteria. Statistical

  8. Changes in gastric mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis IC pH may herald irreversible tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elaine M; Chiu, Sheau Huey; LaManna, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    Previously we noted an abrupt rise in gastric intracellular pH (IC pH) and bicarbonate buffering between 15 and 30 min of cardiac arrest which we termed agonal alkalinization, failure of pH regulation. Agonal alkalinization may represent the transition point between reversible and irreversible injury. We asked the question, what is the sequence of change in IC pH within the gastric layers, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis, and which layer is most sensitive? This research explored changes in IC pH within the stomach layers, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis, at 0, 5, 15, 30, and 40 min, under three conditions, normoxia (control), ischemia (cardiac arrest), and eucapnic hypoxia (12 % oxygen). The mucosa was the most alkalotic gastric layer at baseline. Ischemia and hypoxia at 40″ produced different layer responses with the mucosa and submucosa the most sensitive layers during ischemia and the muscularis during hypoxia. Further study to examine the mechanism of changes between gastric layers using spatial-temporal techniques may assist in understanding the transition to irreversible injury.

  9. Consecutive CT-guided core needle tissue biopsy of lung lesions in the same dog at different phases of radiation-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhongyuan; Deng, Sisi; Liang, Zhiwen; Wang, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    This project aimed to set up a Beagle dog model of radiation-induced lung injury in order to supply fresh lung tissue samples in the different injury phases for gene and protein research. Three dogs received 18 Gy X-ray irradiation in one fraction, another three dogs received 8 Gy in each of three fractions at weekly intervals, and one control dog was not irradiated. Acute pneumonitis was observed during the first 3 months after radiation, and chronic lung fibrosis was found during the next 4-12 months in all the dogs exposed to radiation. CT-guided core needle lung lesion biopsies were extracted from each dog five times over the course of 1 year. The dogs remained healthy after each biopsy, and 50-100 mg fresh lung lesion tissues were collected in each operation. The incidence of pneumothorax and hemoptysis was 20% and 2.8%, respectively, in the 35 tissue biopsies. A successful and stable radiation-induced lung injury dog model was established. Lung lesion tissue samples from dogs in acute stage, recovery stage and fibrosis stage were found to be sufficient to support cytology, genomics and proteomics research. This model safely supplied fresh tissue samples that would allow future researchers to more easily explore and develop treatments for radiation-induced lung injury. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  10. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S; Manjunath, S; Senthilkumar, R; Rajendiran, S; Yoshioka, H; Mori, Y; Abraham, S

    2011-01-01

    The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP) is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury. Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain) and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining). The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any adverse reactions and upon confirmation of safety following completion of the

  11. Examining the Protective Role of Caraway Hydroalcoholic Extract in Heart and Kidney Tissue Injury in CLP Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadkhah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Sepsis is a systemic response to infection leading to organdeath.With regard to the side effects of synthetic drugs, nowadays using medicinal plants in treatment of sepsis must not be ignored. In this study, the protective role of caraway hydroalcoholic extractin heart and kidney injuries in experimental inflammation model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP was examined.

     

    Methods: For the purpose of this study, the rats were divided into five groups i.e: Sham-operated (SOP; CLP; CLP+hydroalcoholic extract (50&100 mg/kg and CLP+Indomethacin (10mg/kg as positive control. The extract and indomethacin were injected i.p immediately after sepsis induction. 24 hours after CLP, the rats were sacrificed and their hearts, kidneys and plasma were removed and analyzed. The differences between the results were assessed by one-way ANOVA test followed byTukey’s HSD.

     

    Results: The results of this study showed that lipid peroxidation (LP in kidney and alsoplasmaurea/creatinine ratio were increased in CLP rats. In contrast, the glutathione (GSH level of kidney was not changed indicating the partial damage of kidney tissue due to sepsis. Unlike indomethacine, treatment of rats with both doses of caraway hydroalcoholic extract did not modulate these parameters.

     

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that treatment of septic rats by caraway hydroalcoholic extract immediately after sepsis induction via i.p route cannot modulate parameters related to kidney damages.So, this extract is not able to protect the kidney tissue against oxidative injuries induced by sepsis.

     

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging features of soft tissue and vascular injuries after high-voltage electrical burns and their clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligen, Li; Hongming, Yang; Feng, Li; Huinan, Yin; Quan, Hu; Guang, Feng

    2012-09-01

    To study the clinical application of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and MRA (MR angiography) technologies for examining the imaging characteristics of muscular and vascular injuries following high-voltage electrical burns. MRI and MRA examinations were conducted on 18 upper limbs and 8 lower limbs of 18 patients with high-voltage electric burns. Exploratory operations were performed on the necrotic muscle and injured vessels that had abnormal MRI and MRA signals. The necrotic muscle and embolised vessels were removed, and the muscle viability was tested. Meanwhile, histological examinations of the necrotic muscle and injured vessels were performed. Abnormal signals from the MRI were observed from the 18 upper limbs and 8 lower limbs of these patients. Two kinds of T1-weighted image signals were observed in the necrotic muscle. One form of signal enhancement indicated that the muscular tissue was necrotic, whereby a distinct demarcation was observed between necrotic and normal tissues. The other result was characterised by no signal enhancement in the area of the vessel where blood flow was entirely occluded and the muscle was entirely necrotic. The signal of the T2-weighted image was significantly enhanced in edematous and necrotic muscles and was higher than that of the T1-weighted image. However, the enhancement of the T2-weighted signal exhibited an uneven floccus appearance and had no distinct boundary. MRA of the 18 upper limbs and 8 lower limbs were abnormal and the main pathological manifestations included circuitous arteries and thromboses. The necrotic muscle and injured vessels that were found by MRI and MRA were removed upon exploratory surgery. Specific MRI and MRA imaging characteristics can be observed in muscular and vascular injures following high-voltage electrical burns. MRI and MRA were very useful for assessing the scope and degree of injury following high-voltage electrical burns, which was helpful to guide the explorative surgery. Copyright

  13. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongtao Sun,1,* Maohua Zheng,2,* Yanmin Wang,1 Yunfeng Diao,1 Wanyong Zhao,1 Zhengjun Wei1 1Sixth Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2 in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. Methods: There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP, jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Results: Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Conclusion: Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome. Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy

  14. Mechanism of Tissue Remodeling in Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    also explored the role of ethanol metabolism in our system. We found that 4- methylpyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, inhibited ethanol...alcohol dehydrogenase and that metabolism through this enzyme is required to allow for the effects of ethanol on fibronectin expression. This work... endotoxemia during sepsis might tin matrices by monocytic cells through induction of uld facilitate cellular migration into tissues with ound that the

  15. Extremity Regeneration of Soft Tissue Injury Using Growth Factor-Impregnated Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    coordination of animal experimentation on site. Name: Amal Nadal Project Role: Research technician Research Identifier: Nearest person month...Preliminary results from small animal studies show that this approach can promote expansion of the host cells, and enhance restoration of blood flow...regeneration of muscle tissue, and reconnection of nerves. Currently, this project is being tested in a large animal swine model for its effectiveness

  16. Tissue injury and repair following cutaneous exposure of mice to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurie B; Composto, Gabriella M; Heck, Diane E

    2016-08-01

    In mouse skin, sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant, damaging both the epidermis and the dermis. The extent of wounding is dependent on the dose of SM and the duration of exposure. Initial responses include erythema, pruritus, edema, and xerosis; this is followed by an accumulation of inflammatory leukocytes in the tissue, activation of mast cells, and the release of mediators, including proinflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids. These proinflammatory mediators contribute to damaging the epidermis, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands and to disruption of the epidermal basement membrane. This can lead to separation of the epidermis from the dermis, resulting in a blister, which ruptures, leading to the formation of an eschar. The eschar stimulates the formation of a neoepidermis and wound repair and may result in persistent epidermal hyperplasia. Epidermal damage and repair is associated with upregulation of enzymes generating proinflammatory and pro-growth/pro-wound healing mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2, which generates prostanoids, inducible nitric oxide synthase, which generates nitric oxide, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, and galectin-3. Characterization of the mediators regulating structural changes in the skin during SM-induced tissue damage and wound healing will aid in the development of therapeutic modalities to mitigate toxicity and stimulate tissue repair processes. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Carbon materials in the treatment of soft and hard tissue injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazewicz M.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based implant materials are of interest because they are well accepted by the biological environment. Carbon fibrous materials developed in the Department of Special Ceramics of the University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow were tested in in vivo studies to determine their influence on the living body. For comparative purposes, different carbon fibers were prepared and subjected to different surface modifications. Carbon materials prepared in the form of braids were implanted in subcutaneous tissue of rabbits and into skeletal muscle of rats. Carbon fabrics were examined as scaffolds in reconstruction of bone defects. The present study examined the synthesis-structure-property relationships of fibrous carbon samples with respect to the tissue response. It was shown that the tissue response depends on the form of the material form, the degree of order of the crystallites, the surface state and microstructural parameters. Carbon fibers with higher crystallinity and a better-organized graphite structure were assimilated by the body with more difficulty and small particles coming from these materials were found in the regional lymph nodes. Low-carbonized carbon fibers (small crystallite size underwent partial fragmentation and reacted with the biological environment by being gradually resorbed in the implantation site. The presence of acidic groups on the surface of the carbon fibers enhanced phagocytosis of the carbon material by macrophages. Depending on the surface state of carbon fibers different rates of bone wound healing were observed.

  18. Results of Posterior Dislocation of Elbow Associated with Bony and Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Bhavsar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Elbow trauma is challenging to manage by virtue of its complex articular structure and capsuloligamentous and musculotendinous arrangements. We included 17 patients with elbow dislocation and associated injuries in this study. The study protocol included early elbow reduction and planned fixation of the medial or lateral condyle, coronoid and radial head. The sample was 73% male and 27% female with mean duration follow-up of 8 months, and mean age of 37 years. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 96 points at conclusion of follow-up, indicating an excellent result in 14 patients. Whenever the radial head was excised, we performed a strong transosseous ligamentous repair of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments. Fixation of the coronoid is essential for elbow stability. A small avulsed fragment can be fixed using an ACL jig. We found this technique very useful. Early planned intervention, stable fixation, and repair provide sufficient stability and enhance functional outcomes.

  19. Antioxidant effects of proanthocyanidin from grape seed on hepatic tissue injury in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esrafil Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Diabetes plays an important role in the induction of the liver injury. Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP have a wide range of medicinal properties against oxidative stress. In this study we evaluated antioxidant effects of GSP on liver in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, untreated diabetic and diabetic rats treated with GSP. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg. GSP were administered via oral gavage (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Results: GSP produced significant hepatoprotective effects by decreasing activities of serum aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase, and decreasing liver malondialdehyde and bilirubin (P

  20. Further Controversies About Brain Tissue Oxygenation Pressure-Reactivity After Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Donnelly, Joseph; Aries, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    arterial pressure and intracranial pressure. A new ORx index based on brain tissue oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) has been proposed that similarly allows for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. Conflicting results exist concerning its clinical utility. METHODS: Retrospective......BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of cerebral autoregulation is considered clinically useful due to its ability to warn against brain ischemic insults, which may translate to a relationship with adverse outcome. It is typically performed using the pressure reactivity index (PRx) based on mean....... Higher mortality related to average CPP pressure reactivity as assessed with PRx. Its potential use for individualizing CPP thresholds remains unclear....

  1. Protective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Myocardium Against Remote Tissue Injury Following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumas, Meltem; Altintas, Ozge; Karatas, Ersin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2017-01-01

    Background Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPreC) could provide tissue-protective effect at a remote site by anti-inflammatory, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective effects of remote IPreC on myocardium after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in streptozotocin- induced diabetic (STZ) and non-diabetic rats. Methods 48 male Spraque Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: Sham, STZ, IPreC, MCAo, IPreC+MCAo, STZ+IPreC, STZ+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo groups. We induced transient MCAo seven days after STZ-induced diabetes, and performed IPreC 72 hours before transient MCAo. Remote myocardial injury was investigated histopathologically. Bax, Bcl2 and caspase-3 protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) of myocardial tissue were measured by colorimetric assay. Oxidative stress index(OSI) was calculated as TOS-to-TAS ratio. For all statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results We observed serious damage including necrosis, congestion and mononuclear cell infiltration in myocardial tissue of the diabetic and ischemic groups. In these groups TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher; TAS levels were lower than those of IPreC related groups (p < 0.05). IPreC had markedly improved histopathological alterations and increased TAS levels in IPreC+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo compared to MCAo and STZ+MCAo groups (p < 0.05). In non-diabetic rats, MCAo activated apoptotic cell death via increasing Bax/Bcl2 ratio and caspase-3 levels. IPreC reduced apoptotic cell death by suppressing pro-apoptotic proteins. Diabetes markedly increased apoptotic protein levels and the effect did not reversed by IPreC. Conclusions We could suggest that IPreC attenuates myocardial injury via ameliorating histological findings, activating antioxidant mechanisms, and inducing antiapoptotic activity in diabetic

  2. Protective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Myocardium Against Remote Tissue Injury Following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kumas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPreC could provide tissue-protective effect at a remote site by anti-inflammatory, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective effects of remote IPreC on myocardium after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo in streptozotocin- induced diabetic (STZ and non-diabetic rats. Methods: 48 male Spraque Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: Sham, STZ, IPreC, MCAo, IPreC+MCAo, STZ+IPreC, STZ+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo groups. We induced transient MCAo seven days after STZ-induced diabetes, and performed IPreC 72 hours before transient MCAo. Remote myocardial injury was investigated histopathologically. Bax, Bcl2 and caspase-3 protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Total antioxidant status (TAS, total oxidant status (TOS of myocardial tissue were measured by colorimetric assay. Oxidative stress index(OSI was calculated as TOS-to-TAS ratio. For all statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: We observed serious damage including necrosis, congestion and mononuclear cell infiltration in myocardial tissue of the diabetic and ischemic groups. In these groups TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher; TAS levels were lower than those of IPreC related groups (p < 0.05. IPreC had markedly improved histopathological alterations and increased TAS levels in IPreC+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo compared to MCAo and STZ+MCAo groups (p < 0.05. In non-diabetic rats, MCAo activated apoptotic cell death via increasing Bax/Bcl2 ratio and caspase-3 levels. IPreC reduced apoptotic cell death by suppressing pro-apoptotic proteins. Diabetes markedly increased apoptotic protein levels and the effect did not reversed by IPreC. Conclusions: We could suggest that IPreC attenuates myocardial injury via ameliorating histological findings, activating antioxidant mechanisms, and inducing

  3. Reduction in antioxidant enzyme expression and sustained inflammation enhance tissue damage in the subacute phase of spinal cord contusive injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyue Song-Kun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI forms a disadvantageous microenvironment for tissue repair at the lesion site. To consider an appropriate time window for giving a promising therapeutic treatment for subacute and chronic SCI, global changes of proteins in the injured center at the longer survival time points after SCI remains to be elucidated. Methods Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE-based proteome analysis and western blotting, we examined the differential expression of the soluble proteins isolated from the lesion center (LC at day 1 (acute and day 14 (subacute after a severe contusive injury to the thoracic spinal cord at segment 10. In situ apoptotic analysis was used to examine cell apoptosis in injured spinal cord after adenoviral gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, administration of chondroitinase ABC (chABC was performed to analyze hindlimb locomotor recovery in rats with SCI using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale. Results Our results showed a decline in catalase (CAT and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD found at day 14 after SCI. Accordingly, gene transfer of SOD was introduced in the injured spinal cord and found to attenuate cell apoptosis. Galectin-3, β-actin, actin regulatory protein (CAPG, and F-actin-capping protein subunit β (CAPZB at day 14 were increased when compared to that detected at day 1 after SCI or in sham-operated control. Indeed, the accumulation of β-actin+ immune cells was observed in the LC at day 14 post SCI, while most of reactive astrocytes were surrounding the lesion center. In addition, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG-related proteins with 40-kDa was detected in the LC at day 3-14 post SCI. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC (chABC at day 3 post SCI improved the hindlimb locomotion in SCI rats. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the differential expression in proteins related to signal transduction, oxidoreduction

  4. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  5. Oral paracetamol and/or ibuprofen for treating pain after soft tissue injuries: Single centre double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kevin K C; Graham, Colin A; Lo, Ronson S L; Leung, Yuk Ki; Leung, Ling Yan; Man, S Y; Woo, W K; Cattermole, Giles N; Rainer, Timothy H

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue injuries commonly present to the emergency department (ED), often with acute pain. They cause significant suffering and morbidity if not adequately treated. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are commonly used analgesics, but it remains unknown if either one or the combination of both is superior for pain control. To investigate the analgesic effect of paracetamol, ibuprofen and the combination of both in the treatment of soft tissue injury in an ED, and the side effect profile of these drugs. Double-blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial. 782 adult patients presenting with soft tissue injury without obvious fractures attending the ED of a university hospital in the New Territories of Hong Kong were recruited. Patients were randomised using a random number table into three parallel arms of paracetamol only, ibuprofen only and a combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen in a 1:1:1 ratio. The primary outcome measure was pain score at rest and on activity in the first 2 hours and first 3 days. Data was analysed on an intention to treat basis. There was no statistically significant difference in pain score in the initial two hours between the three groups, and no clinically significant difference in pain score in the first three days. There was no difference in analgesic effects or side effects observed using oral paracetamol, ibuprofen or a combination of both in patients with mild to moderate pain after soft tissue injuries attending the ED. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT00528658).

  6. Modeling the functional repair of nervous tissue in spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantila, Sara M.; Camp, Jon J.; Krych, Aaron J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2004-05-01

    Functional repair of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most challenging goals in modern medicine. The annual incidence of SCI in the United States is approximately 11,000 new cases. The prevalence of people in the U.S. currently living with SCI is approximately 200,000. Exploring and understanding nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is a critical first step in attempting to reverse the devastating consequences of SCI. At Mayo Clinic, a preliminary study of implants in the transected rat spinal cord model demonstrates potential for promoting axon regeneration. In collaborative research between neuroscientists and bioengineers, this procedure holds promise for solving two critical aspects of axon repair-providing a resorbable structural scaffold to direct focused axon repair, and delivery of relevant signaling molecules necessary to facilitate regeneration. In our preliminary study, regeneration in the rat's spinal cord was modeled in three dimensions utilizing an image processing software system developed in the Biomedical Imaging Resource at Mayo Clinic. Advanced methods for image registration, segmentation, and rendering were used. The raw images were collected at three different magnifications. After image processing the individual channels in the scaffold, axon bundles, and macrophages could be identified. Several axon bundles could be visualized and traced through the entire volume, suggesting axonal growth throughout the length of the scaffold. Such information could potentially allow researchers and physicians to better understand and improve the nerve regeneration process for individuals with SCI.

  7. IL-1 generated subsequent to radiation-induced tissue injury contributes to the pathogenesis of radiodermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Matthew; Ontiveros, Fernando; Fitzgerald, T J; Deng, April; DeCicco, Maria; Rock, Kenneth L

    2012-09-01

    Radiation injury in the skin causes radiodermatitis, a condition in which the skin becomes inflamed and the epidermis can break down. This condition causes significant morbidity and if severe it can be an independent factor that contributes to radiation mortality. Radiodermatitis is seen in some settings of radiotherapy for cancer and is also of concern as a complication post-radiation exposure from accidents or weapons, such as a "dirty bomb". The pathogenesis of this condition is incompletely understood. Here we have developed a murine model of radiodermatitis wherein the skin is selectively injured by irradiation with high-energy electrons. Using this model we showed that the interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway plays a significant role in the development of radiodermatitis. Mice that lack either IL-1 or the IL-1 receptor developed less inflammation and less severe pathological changes in their skin, especially at later time-points. These findings suggest that IL-1 pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for reducing the severity of radiodermatitis.

  8. Validation of the abrasion resistance test protocols and performance criteria of EN13595: The probability of soft tissue injury to motorcycle riders by abrasion resistance of their clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Lauren; Hurren, Christopher; Clarke, Elizabeth; Fitzharris, Michael; Baldock, Matthew; de Rome, Liz; Olivier, Jake; Brown, Julie

    2017-06-01

    Motorcyclists represent an increasing proportion of road users globally and are increasingly represented in crash statistics. Soft tissue injuries are the most common type of injuries to crashed motorcyclists. These injuries can be prevented through the use of protective clothing designed for motorcycle use. However, the quality of such clothing is not controlled in many countries around the world. A European Standard was developed to assess the performance of clothing but as this is not mandatory, clothing certified to this Standard is difficult to obtain. Given the importance of this Standard, and that it has been validated only once, further validation work is required. In-depth crash investigation data were used to investigate the relationship between the abrasion resistance performance of clothing and real-world injury outcome. Clothing was collected from riders who crashed on public roads in Sydney and Newcastle, Australia. This clothing was tested according to the EU Standard and the time to hole was recorded. Hospital medical records were reviewed and the association between a rider suffering a soft tissue injury and the time-to-hole for the garment was examined. The probability of soft tissue injury for Level 1 Standard garments was between 40-60%, but more than 60% of garments tested failed to meet the minimum requirement. The findings of this study provide qualified support for the Standard, with a marginal association between time-to-hole and injury being found. This work supports the need for improved safety performance and an increased number of high performing garments being available to motorcyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  9. Abiotic Versus Biotic Pathogens: Replicative Growth in Host Tissues Key to Discriminating Between Biotoxic Injury and Active Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    Life can be defined as a self-sustaining chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution; a self-bounded, self-replicating, and self-perpetuating entity [1]. This definition should hold for terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial life-forms. Although, it is reasonable to expect that a Mars life-form would be more adaptable to Mars-like conditions than to Earth-like environments, it remains possible that negative ecological or host interactions might occur if Mars microbiota were to be inadvertently released into the terrestrial environment. A biogenic infectious agent can be defined as a self-sustaining chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution and derives its sustenance from a living cell or from the by-products of cell death. Disease can be de-fined as the detrimental alteration of one or more ordered metabolic processes in a living host caused by the continued irritation of a primary causal factor or factors; disease is a dynamic process [2]. In contrast, an injury is due to an instantaneous event; injury is not a dynamic process [2]. A causal agent of disease is defined as a pathogen, and can be either abiotic or biotic in nature. Diseases incited by biotic pathogens are the exceptions, not the norms, in terrestrial host-microbe interactions. Disease induction in a plant host can be conceptually characterized using the Disease Triangle (Fig. 1) in which disease occurs only when all host, pathogen, and environ-mental factors that contribute to the development of disease are within conducive ranges for a necessary minimum period of time. For example, plant infection and disease caused by the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia recondita, occur only if virulent spores adhere to genetically susceptible host tissues for at least 4-6 hours under favorable conditions of temperature and moisture [3]. As long as one or more conditions required for disease initiation are not available, disease symptoms will not develop.

  10. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Promote Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model of Toxic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Koellensperger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the persisting lack of donor organs and the risks of allotransplantations, the possibility of liver regeneration with autologous stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSC is an intriguing alternative. Using a model of a toxic liver damage in Sprague Dawley rats, generated by repetitive intraperitoneal application of retrorsine and allyl alcohol, the ability of human ADSC to support the restoration of liver function was investigated. A two-thirds hepatectomy was performed, and human ADSC were injected into one remaining liver lobe in group 1 (n = 20. Injection of cell culture medium performed in group 2 (n = 20 served as control. Cyclosporine was applied to achieve immunotolerance. Blood samples were drawn weekly after surgery to determine liver-correlated blood values. Six and twelve weeks after surgery, animals were sacrificed and histological sections were analyzed. ADSC significantly raised postoperative albumin (P < 0.017, total protein (P < 0.031, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (P < 0.001, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.04 levels compared to injection of cell culture medium alone. Transplanted cells could be found up to twelve weeks after surgery in histological sections. This study points towards ADSC being a promising alternative to hepatocyte or liver organ transplantation in patients with severe liver failure.

  11. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury Materials & Methods: Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining.Results: The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any

  12. Tissue injury and cellular immune responses to mercuric chloride exposure in the common mussel Mytilus edulis: modulation by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheir, Sherin K; Handy, Richard D; Galloway, Tamara S

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the immunotoxic effects of sublethal mercury (Hg) exposure in bivalves, and whether or not stimulation of the immune system exacerbates Hg toxicity. The mussel, Mytilus edulis, was exposed to a total inorganic Hg concentration of 50 microgl(-1) as HgCl2 for up to 11 days compared to no added Hg controls. Then the immune functions of haemocytes, haematology, biochemistry and organ histology were assessed. Selected experiments were then repeated in mussels injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate the immune system prior to Hg exposure. Hg exposure alone caused Hg accumulation mainly in gills and digestive gland, and to a lesser extent in the adductor muscle and haemolymph. This general pattern of Hg accumulation also occurred during the Hg plus LPS experiments. Hg exposure alone caused a transient increase of phagocytosis, but no Hg-dependent effects on neutral red retention or the cytotoxicity of haemocytes. Changes in haemolymph Na+, K+ and glucose levels were negligible during Hg exposure alone compared to controls. However, histological examination showed tissues injuries consistent with inflammation in the gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle during Hg exposure alone. LPS injection had a significant effect (Kruskal Wallis, P=0.02) on circulating haemocytes numbers at the end of the experiment compared to saline injected controls and the Hg+LPS treatment (mean+/-S.E.M., n=6, cells ml(-1)x10(6)); control, 2.1+/-0.08; LPS treated, 3.18+/-0.36, and LPS+Hg, 2.1+/-0.2. The Hg+LPS treatment also caused a transient decline in superoxide dismutase activity in haemocytes (85% decline, Kruskal Wallis, P=0.006) compared to controls. Target tissue inflammation and injury was greatly increased by the effect of Hg exposure with an LPS injection compared to either treatment alone. We conclude that Hg can cause inflammation in mussels in vivo, and that stimulation with LPS can greatly increase Hg-dependent immunotoxicity. Copyright (c) 2010

  13. Role of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK in apoptosis of cavernosal tissue during acute phase after cavernosal nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hoon Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify which mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 or Jun amino-terminal kinase [JNK] was involved in cavernosal apoptosis during the acute phase after cavernosal nerve crush injury (CNCI in rats to ameliorate apoptosis of cavernosal tissue, such as smooth muscle (SM. A total of twenty 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into two groups: sham surgery (S and CNCI (I. The I group approximated the clinical situation of men undergoing radical prostatectomy using two 60-second compressions of both CNs with a microsurgical vascular clamp. At 2-week postinjury, erectile response was assessed using electrostimulation. Penile tissues were harvested for immunohistochemistry analysis of alpha-SM actin (α-SMA, western blot analysis, and double immunofluorescence analysis of α-SMA and phosphorylated p38 or JNK, as well as double immunofluorescent of TUNEL and phosphorylated p38 or JNK. At 2-week postinjury, the I group had a significantly lower intracavernous pressure (ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP and a lower area under the curve (AUC/MAP than the S group. The I group also exhibited decreased immunohistochemical staining of α-SMA, an increase in the number of SM cells positive for phosphorylated JNK, an increased number of apoptotic cells positive for phosphorylated JNK, and increased JNK phosphorylation compared with the S group. However, there was no significant difference in p38 phosphorylation expression or the number of SM cells positive for phosphorylated p38 between the two groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that JNK, not p38, is involved in cavernosal apoptosis during the acute phase after partial CN damage.

  14. Effect of nicorandil on the myocardial tissue perfusion and myocardial cell injury in patients with diabetes after PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Li Ren1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of nicorandil on the myocardial tissue perfusion and myocardial cell damage in patients with diabetes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Methods: 68 patients with coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus who received PCI in our hospital between May 2011 and September 2015 were collected and then divided into observation group and control group (n=34 according to the single-blind randomized control method. Control group of patients received PCI alone, and the observation group of patients received nicorandil therapy after PCI. After treatment, real-time myocardial ultrasound contrast was used to evaluate the myocardial perfusion of two groups of patients; blood biochemical analyzer was used to detect the contents of peripheral blood myocardial enzyme spectrum indexes; the ELISA method was used to detect the contents of serum oxidative stress indicators; RIA method was used to detect the contents of serum apoptosis molecules. Results: After treatment, the myocardial tissue perfusion parameters plateau peak intensity (A, slope rate of curve (β and myocardial blood flow (A×β levels of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; peripheral blood myocardial enzyme spectrum indexes creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, troponin I (cTnI and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT contents of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum vitamin E (VitE and vitamin C (VitC contents of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group while malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs, soluble apoptosis-associated factor (sFas and soluble apoptosis-associated factor ligand (sFasL contents were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjuvant nicorandil therapy can improve the myocardial perfusion and reduce the myocardial cell injury in patients with coronary

  15. Chemotherapy-Induced Tissue Injury: An Insight into the Role of Extracellular Vesicles-Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chontida Yarana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The short- and long-term side effects of chemotherapy limit the maximum therapeutic dose and impair quality of life of survivors. Injury to normal tissues, especially chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, is an unintended outcome that presents devastating health impacts. Approximately half of the drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for cancer treatment are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species, and Doxorubicin (Dox is one of them. Dox undergoes redox cycling by involving its quinone structure in the production of superoxide free radicals, which are thought to be instrumental to the role it plays in cardiomyopathy. Dox-induced protein oxidation changes protein function, translocation, and aggregation that are toxic to cells. To maintain cellular homeostasis, oxidized proteins can be degraded intracellularly by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or by autophagy, depending on the redox status of the cell. Alternatively, the cell can remove oxidized proteins by releasing extracellular vesicles (EVs, which can be transferred to neighboring or distant cells, thereby instigating an intercellular oxidative stress response. In this article, we discuss the role of EVs in oxidative stress response, the potential of EVs as sensitive biomarkers of oxidative stress, and the role of superoxide dismutase in attenuating EV-associated oxidative stress response resulting from chemotherapy.

  16. Topical diclofenac epolamine patch 1.3% for treatment of acute pain caused by soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarberg, B H; Argoff, C E

    2010-10-01

    Acute pain caused by musculoskeletal disorders is very common and has a significant negative impact on quality-of-life and societal costs. Many types of acute pain have been managed with traditional oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs). Data from prospective, randomised controlled clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance indicate that use of oral traditional NSAIDs and coxibs is associated with an elevated risk of developing gastrointestinal, renovascular and/or cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Increasing awareness of the AEs associated with NSAID therapy, including coxibs, has led many physicians and patients to reconsider use of these drugs and look for alternative treatment options. Treatment with NSAIDs via the topical route of administration has been shown to provide clinically effective analgesia at the site of application while minimising systemic absorption. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency of the traditional oral NSAID diclofenac, along with its physicochemical properties, makes it well suited for topical delivery. Several topical formulations of diclofenac have been developed. A topical patch containing diclofenac epolamine 1.3% (DETP, FLECTOR(®) Patch), approved for use in Europe in 1993, has recently been approved for use in the United States and is indicated for the treatment of acute pain caused by minor strains, sprains and contusions. In this article, we review the available clinical trial data for this product in the treatment of pain caused by soft tissue injury. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Reduction of oxidative tissue injury and endothelial dysfunction by graduated reperfusion after cardioplegic arrest in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, T; Sturz, J; Klauke, H; Isselhard, W

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a graduated resumption of the perfusion pressure after cardioplegic ischaemic arrest will reduce the impact of oxygen free radicals on myocardium and the cardiovasculature. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to cardioplegia and subsequent 40 min of global ischaemia at 25 degrees C. Reperfusion was carried out either abruptly (AR) or gradually (i.e., perfusion pressure stepwise increased from 40 to 75 mmHg within 30 min -GR). GR resulted in a significant improvement of percentage recovery of left ventricular systolic pressure as compared to AR. A marked increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was detected in the effluent during AR, accompanied by an impaired release of the endothelial vasodilator NO and diminished coronary flow rates compared to the baseline values. GR resulted in a significant reduction of TBARS in the effluent and promoted a better recovery of coronary flow as well as endothelial release of NO during the later phase of reperfusion. It is concluded that graduated reperfusion is beneficial in reducing free radical mediated peroxidative tissue injury and endothelial dysfunction upon reoxygenation.

  18. Successful treatment of a guitarist with a finger joint injury using instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry Loghmani, M; Bayliss, Amy J; Clayton, Greg; Gundeck, Evelina

    2015-12-01

    Finger injuries are common and can greatly affect a musician's quality of life. A 55-year-old man, who had injured the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger 6 months prior to any intervention, was treated with a manual therapy approach incorporating instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM). Initial examination findings included self-reported pain and functional limitations and physical impairments that significantly impeded his ability to play the acoustic guitar. He was treated once a week for 6 weeks with IASTM, joint mobilization, therapeutic exercise, and ice massage. Additionally, a home exercise program and self-care instructions were provided. The patient gained positive outcomes with improvements in pain (Numerical Pain Rating Scale while playing the guitar: initial 5/10, discharge 1/10) and function (Disability Arm Shoulder Hand Sports-Performing Arts Optional Module: initial 75; discharge 6·25), each reaching a minimum clinically important difference. Importantly, he was able to play the guitar with minimal to no pain as desired. Physical measures also improved, including an immediate gain in finger range of motion with IASTM alone. Manual therapy approaches integrating IASTM may provide an effective conservative treatment strategy for patients with finger/hand conditions in the performing arts and other patient populations.

  19. Abnormal Activation of RhoA/ROCK-I Signaling in Junctional Zone Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q

    2016-03-01

    Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Nebulized Recombinant Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Attenuates Coagulation and Exerts Modest Anti-inflammatory Effects in Rat Models of Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; Hofstra, Jorrit J; Brands, Xanthe; Levi, Marcel M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Zaat, Sebastiaan A J; Van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J

    2017-04-01

    Critically ill patients are at a constant risk of direct (e.g., by pneumonia) or indirect lung injury (e.g., by sepsis). Excessive alveolar fibrin deposition is a prominent feature of lung injury, undermining pulmonary integrity and function. We examined the effect of local administration of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI), a natural anticoagulant, in two well-established models of lung injury in rats. Rats received intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, causing direct lung injury, or they received an intravenous injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), causing indirect lung injury. Rats were randomized to local treatment with rh-TFPI or placebo through repeated nebulization. Challenge with P. aeruginosa or LPS was associated with increased coagulation and decreased fibrinolysis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma. Rh-TFPI levels in BALF increased after nebulization, whereas plasma rh-TFPI levels remained low and systemic TFPI activity was not affected. Nebulization of rh-TFPI attenuated pulmonary and systemic coagulation in both models, without affecting fibrinolysis. Nebulization of rh-TFPI modestly reduced the inflammatory response and bacterial growth of P. aeruginosa in the alveolar compartment. Local treatment with rh-TFPI does not alter systemic TFPI activity; however, it attenuates both pulmonary and systemic coagulopathy. Furthermore, nebulized rh-TFPI modestly reduces the pulmonary inflammatory response and allows increased bacterial clearance in rats with direct lung injury caused by P. aeruginosa.

  1. Comparison of an Additional Transdermal Fentanyl Patch Compared to Intravenous NSAID and Opioid Analgesics within 24 Hours of an Uterine Artery Embolization for Myoma and Adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Suk Yun; Kang, Byung Chul; Rho, Kyung Min

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an additional transdermal fentanyl patch compared to intravenous analgesics in pain control during the 24-hour period following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for myoma and adenomyosis. Between September 2009 and August 2010, 42 patients underwent UAE for myoma or adenomyosis. Of these, 21 received an intravenous opioid (pethidine) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (group A), and 21 received an additional transdermal fentanyl patch (group B). Pain perception levels were established verbally on a 0-10 scale during the 24-hour period following UAE. Differences in pain trends, mean dose of intravenous pethidine, and adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Pain perception was most severe at 6 hours after UAE and the mean pain level of group B at that time was 6.3 ± 0.7, which was significantly lower than that of group A, 8.2 ± 0.7 (p 0.05), and no evidence of respiratory distress was demonstrated. The addition of a transdermal fentanyl patch to intravenous analgesics is effective in reducing post-embolization pain during the 24-hour period after UAE.

  2. Comparison of an Additional Transdermal Fentanyl Patch Compared to Intravenous NSAID and Opioid Analgesics within 24 Hours of an Uterine Artery Embolization for Myoma and Adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Suk Yun; Kang, Byung Chul; Rho, Kyung Min [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an additional transdermal fentanyl patch compared to intravenous analgesics in pain control during the 24-hour period following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for myoma and adenomyosis. Between September 2009 and August 2010, 42 patients underwent UAE for myoma or adenomyosis. Of these, 21 received an intravenous opioid (pethidine) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (group A), and 21 received an additional transdermal fentanyl patch (group B). Pain perception levels were established verbally on a 0-10 scale during the 24-hour period following UAE. Differences in pain trends, mean dose of intravenous pethidine, and adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Pain perception was most severe at 6 hours after UAE and the mean pain level of group B at that time was 6.3 {+-} 0.7, which was significantly lower than that of group A, 8.2 {+-} 0.7 (p<0.05). The mean dose of intravenous pethidine was 114.3 {+-} 59.5 mg in group A and 90.5 {+-} 49.0 mg in group B, while the incidence of nausea was 67% in group A and 77% in group B. In both cases, the differences were not significantly different (p>0.05), and no evidence of respiratory distress was demonstrated. The addition of a transdermal fentanyl patch to intravenous analgesics is effective in reducing post-embolization pain during the 24-hour period after UAE.

  3. Fertility outcome of infertile women with adenomyosis treated with the combination of a conservative microsurgical technique and GnRH agonist: Long-term follow-up in a series of nine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Shian Huang

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: Although the combination of careful conservative surgery and GnRH agonist therapy might provide some benefits in patients with unexplained infertility and presumed severe adenomyosis, two-thirds of the patients still failed to become pregnant. The postoperative serum level of CA125 could predict the future pregnancy rate.

  4. The role of platelet factor 4 in local and remote tissue damage in a mouse model of mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Lapchak

    Full Text Available The robust inflammatory response that occurs during ischemia reperfusion (IR injury recruits factors from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. However the contribution of platelets and their products such as Platelet Factor 4 (PF4; CXCL4, during the pathogenesis of IR injury has not been thoroughly investigated. We show that a deficiency in PF4 protects mice from local and remote tissue damage after 30 minutes of mesenteric ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion in PF4-/- mice compared to control B6 mice. This protection was independent from Ig or complement deposition in the tissues. However, neutrophil and monocyte infiltration were decreased in the lungs of PF4-/- mice compared with B6 control mice. Platelet-depleted B6 mice transfused with platelets from PF4-/- mice displayed reduced tissue damage compared with controls. In contrast, transfusion of B6 platelets into platelet depleted PF4-/- mice reconstituted damage in both intestine and lung tissues. We also show that PF4 may modulate the release of IgA. Interestingly, we show that PF4 expression on intestinal epithelial cells is increased after IR at both the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that may PF4 represent an important mediator of local and remote tissue damage.

  5. [Mechanism of 17β-estrogen on intracellular free calcium regulation in smooth muscle cells at the endometrial-myometrial interface in uteri with adenomyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Duan, Hua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Henghui; Li, Guoli

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the regulation mechanism of estrogen on the free calcium of smooth muscle cells at the endometrial-myometrial interface (EMI) in uteri with adenomyosis. From September 2011 to November 2012, 59 uterine myometrial specimens were obtained from 59 cases underwent hysterectomy, including 28 adenomyosis patients as adenomyosis (ADS) group and 31 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III as control group. EMI smooth muscle cells were cultured and loaded with calcium ion fluorescent probe fluo-4/AM. After treated with trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonist, blocker of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-adenosine triphosphate (ATP), depleted agent of the ryanodine receptor-operated Ca(2+), inhibitor of L-type calcium channel, inhibitor of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger, the labeled cells were stimulated with estrogen. The changes of intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity were detected by laser scanning microscopy. The changes of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was indicated by △F[Ca(2+)](i). (1) Under normal calcium conditions, after the stimulation of estrogen, intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity in ADS group and control group both increased than those without estrogen. The △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was 384 ± 26, and in the control group △F[Ca(2+)](i) was 235 ± 20. The △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was higher than that in the control (P calcium conditions, the △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was 207 ± 17, and in the control group △F[Ca(2+)](i) was 221 ± 19. The △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was almost the same with the increase in the control (P = 0.731). The △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was significantly decreased compared with the calcium condition (P calcium conditions (P = 0.060). (2) After treated with IP3 receptor antagonist, blocker of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATP, depleted agent of the ryanodine receptor-operated Ca(2+), the △F[Ca(2+)]i in both groups were significantly reduced (P calcium channel, the △F[Ca(2+)](i

  6. Evaluation of adipose-derived stem cells for tissue-engineered muscle repair construct-mediated repair of a murine model of volumetric muscle loss injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kesireddy, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Venu Kesireddy1,2 1Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston Salem, NC, USA; 2Center for Craniofacial Research, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Volumetric muscle loss (VML) can occur from congenital defects, muscle wasting diseases, civilian or military injuries, and as a result of surgical removal of muscle tissue (eg, cancer), all of which can lead t...

  7. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX® on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärtner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX®, was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal®, was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL, ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX ® alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX® induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC. At opposite toe off (OT and heel rise (HR, differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either UCX® alone or UCX® administered with Floseal®. Overall, the UCX® application presented

  8. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates cardiac injury and adipose tissue inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S.; Sano, Y.; Nagasawa, K.; Matsuura, N.; Yamada, Y.; Uchinaka, A.; Murohara, T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction n‐3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are abundant in fish oil, have been shown to delay the onset of cardiovascular events. We previously established DahlS.Z‐Lepr fa/Lepr fa (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt‐sensitive and Zucker rats, as a model of metabolic syndrome. This study has now explored the influence of highly purified EPA on cardiac and adipose tissue pathophysiology in this animal model. Materials and methods DS/obese rats were administered EPA (300 or 1,000 mg kg−1 d−1, per os) or vehicle from age 9 to 13 weeks. Homozygous lean (DahlS.Z‐Lepr +/Lepr +, or DS/lean) littermates were studied as controls. Results Whereas EPA had no effect on body weight, food intake or systolic blood pressure in DS/obese rats, it attenuated cardiac fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation in these animals. In addition, EPA did not affect insulin resistance but reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation in visceral fat of DS/obese rats. Moreover, EPA increased circulating levels of adiponectin as well as attenuated both the down‐regulation of AMP‐activated protein kinase phosphorylation and the up‐regulation of phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor‐kB in the heart of DS/obese rats. Conclusions Treatment of DS/obese rats with EPA did not affect hypertension but reduced cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, with the latter effects being accompanied by AMP‐activated protein kinase activation and inactivation of nuclear factor‐kB signalling in the heart, possibly as a result of an increase in adiponectin secretion. EPA may be suitable for the treatment of cardiac injury associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27708849

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress tissue factor overexpression in rat balloon injury model with paclitaxel infusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bean Park

    Full Text Available The role and underlying mechanisms of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ agonist, on myocardial infarction are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of this PPAR-γ agonist on the expression of tissue factor (TF, a primary molecule for thrombosis, and elucidated its underlying mechanisms. The PPAR-γ agonist inhibited TF expression in response to TNF-α in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human monocytic leukemia cell line, and human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cells. The overexpression of TF was mediated by increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which was blocked by the PPAR-γ agonist. The effective MAPK differed depending on each cell type. Luciferase and ChIP assays showed that transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1, was a pivotal target of the PPAR-γ agonist to lower TF transcription. Intriguingly, two main drugs for drug-eluting stent, paclitaxel or rapamycin, significantly exaggerated thrombin-induced TF expression, which was also effectively blocked by the PPAR-γ agonist in all cell types. This PPAR-γ agonist did not impair TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI in three cell types. In rat balloon injury model (Sprague-Dawley rats, n = 10/group with continuous paclitaxel infusion, the PPAR-γ agonist attenuated TF expression by 70±5% (n = 4; P<0.0001 in injured vasculature. Taken together, rosiglitazone reduced TF expression in three critical cell types involved in vascular thrombus formation via MAPK and AP-1 inhibitions. Also, this PPAR-γ agonist reversed the paclitaxel-induced aggravation of TF expression, which suggests a possibility that the benefits might outweigh its risks in a group of patients with paclitaxel-eluting stent implanted.

  10. Picroside II Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Improves the Morphology and Structure of Brain Tissue following Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Wang

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to explore the protective effects of picroside II against the neuronal apoptosis and changes in morphology and structure that follow cerebral ischemic injury in rats. A focal cerebral ischemic model was established by inserting a monofilament thread to achieve middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in 60 Wistar rats, and intraperitoneal injections of picroside II (20 mg/kg were administered. The neurobehavioral functions were evaluated with the modified neurological severity score (mNSS test. The cerebral infarct volumes were measured with tetrazolium chloride (TTC staining. The morphology and ultrastructure of the cortical brain tissues were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The apoptotic cells were counted with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling and flow cytometry, and pERK1/2 expression was determined by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. The results indicated that neurological behavioral malfunctions and cerebral infarcts were present in the MCAO rats. In the model group, the damage to the structures of the neurons and the blood brain barrier (BBB in the cortex was more severe, and the numbers of apoptotic cells, the early apoptotic ratio (EAR and pERK1/2 expression were significantly increased in this group compared to the control group (P<0.05. In the treatment group, the neurological behavioral function and the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB were improved including the number of Mi increased and relative area of condensed chromosome and basement (BM thickness descreased, and the cerebral infarct volume, the number of apoptotic cells, the EAR and pERK1/2 expression were significantly decreased compared to the model group (P<0.05. These results suggest that picroside II reduced apoptosis and improved the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB and that these effects resulted in the

  11. Novel roles for metallothionein-I + II (MT-I + II) in defense responses, neurogenesis, and tissue restoration after traumatic brain injury: insights from global gene expression profiling in wild-type and MT-I + II knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Cáceres, Mario; Borup, Rehannah

    2006-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the brain is one of the leading causes of injury-related death or disability, especially among young people. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress likely underlie much of the damage elicited by injury, but the full repertoire of responses involved is not well known...... times consistent with the processes involved in the initial tissue injury and later regeneration of the parenchyma, as well as a prominent effect of MT-I + II deficiency. The results thoroughly confirmed the importance of the antioxidant proteins MT-I + II in the response of the brain to injury...

  12. MR imaging of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature gymnast: spectrum of soft-tissue and osseous lesions in the hand and wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, Jerry R.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Chung, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    In the pediatric gymnast, stress-related physeal injuries have been well described with characteristic imaging findings. However, a spectrum of overuse injuries, some rarely reported in the literature, can be encountered in the gymnast's hand and wrist. To demonstrate the MR appearance of a spectrum of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature wrist and hand of pediatric gymnasts. A total of 125 MR exams of the hand and wrist in skeletally immature children were performed at our institution during a 2-year period. Clinical histories were reviewed for gymnastics participation. MR studies of that subpopulation were reviewed and abnormalities tabulated. Of the MR studies reviewed, ten gymnasts were identified, all girls age 12-16 years (mean age 14.2 years) who presented with wrist or hand pain. Three of these children had bilateral MR exams. Abnormalities included chronic physeal injuries in three children. Two girls exhibited focal lunate osteochondral defects. Triangular fibrocartilage tears were present in three girls, one of whom had a scapholunate ligament tear. Two girls manifested metacarpal head flattening and necrosis. A variety of soft-tissue and osseous lesions can be encountered in the skeletally immature gymnast. Familiarity with these stress-related injuries is important for accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concerts ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures 3D Models Images Infographics Audio Pronunciations The One-Page Manual of Health Quizzes ... Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures 3D Models Images Infographics Audio Pronunciations The One-Page Manual of Health Quizzes ...

  14. Trans-syndesmotic fibular plating for fractures of the distal tibia and fibula with medial soft tissue injury: report of 6 cases and description of surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciadini, Marcus F; Manson, Theodore T; Shah, Swapnil B

    2013-03-01

    This report presents a retrospective review of several cases of distal fractures of the tibia and fibula with significant injury to the medial soft tissues treated either primarily or in staged fashion with fixed-angle trans-syndesmotic fixation. This fixation strategy was used in an effort to minimize further surgical trauma and implant load in the zone of soft tissue injury. Ten patients were identified between September 2002 and November 2010 who presented to a level I trauma center with fractures of the distal tibia and fibula associated with open medial wounds (9 patients) or extensive closed medial degloving injury (1 patient). They were all treated with trans-syndesmotic plating of the distal fibula. Two patients were lost to follow-up after initial treatment, and an additional 2 patients had follow-up durations of only 6.5 and 3 months, respectively. This left 6 patients with an average of 23.3 months of follow-up (range: 14-36 months). Radiographs and medical records were reviewed, and clinical and radiographic results were evaluated. All 6 patients had radiographic evidence of bony healing and had resumed weight bearing. Two patients required additional bone graft surgery to encourage healing, 1 of whom also required free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair. One patient resumed weight bearing earlier than instructed and experienced mild but acceptable loss of reduction. No patients developed wound infections of either the medial traumatic or lateral surgical wounds, although, as noted above, 1 of the patients with a nonunion required medial free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair because of incompetent medial soft tissues. Trans-syndesmotic fixation has previously been described as providing enhanced fixation of diabetic and osteoporotic ankle fractures but has not, to our knowledge, been described for the treatment of higher energy traumatic injuries. Specifically, the valgus distal tibial fracture, frequently associated

  15. Review of the efficacy and tolerability of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Kerry S

    2010-06-01

    The diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2007 for the treatment of soft tissue injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions, although it has been available for many years in >40 countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and tolerability of the DETP in relieving acute pain caused by soft tissue injuries. The MEDLINE, Derwent Drug File, BIOSIS, and EMBASE databases were searched for literature published between 1984 and October 30, 2009, in any language, using the terms diclofenac epolamine patch, diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine patch, and FLECTOR Patch. Clinical studies of the efficacy and/or tolerability of the DETP in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries or localized periarticular disorders were included. Efficacy studies that enrolled patients with other medical conditions were excluded, except for reports that focused on tolerability, which were included to supplement tolerability data. The bibliographies of included studies were reviewed manually for relevant articles based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the manufacturer was contacted for additional relevant postmarketing surveillance information and presentations from scientific meetings. The search identified 6 placebo-controlled clinical studies, 1 active-comparator-controlled clinical study, and 1 open-label comparator clinical study of the efficacy and tolerability of the DETP in patients with soft tissue injuries. Three studies reported on tolerability. Primary analyses among the 8 studies reported DETP-associated reductions in spontaneous pain from baseline, assessed using a visual analog scale, ranging from 26% to 88% on day 7 and 56% to 61% on day 14. The use of the DETP was associated with significantly greater reductions in pain scores compared with a placebo patch (2 studies) on day 7 (88% vs 74%; P = 0.001) and day 14 (56.5% vs 46.8%; P = 0.001) and compared with

  16. Palifermin for the protection and regeneration of epithelial tissues following injury: new findings in basic research and pre-clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Paul W; Mark Cross, Lawrence J; McAuley, Daniel F; Farrell, Catherine L

    2013-09-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a paracrine-acting epithelial mitogen produced by cells of mesenchymal origin, that plays an important role in protecting and repairing epithelial tissues. Pre-clinical data initially demonstrated that a recombinant truncated KGF (palifermin) could reduce gastrointestinal injury and mortality resulting from a variety of toxic exposures. Furthermore, the use of palifermin in patients with hematological malignancies reduced the incidence and duration of severe oral mucositis experienced after intensive chemoradiotherapy. Based upon these findings, as well as the observation that KGF receptors are expressed in many, if not all, epithelial tissues, pre-clinical studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of palifermin in protecting different epithelial tissues from toxic injury in an attempt to model various clinical situations in which it might prove to be of benefit in limiting tissue damage. In this article, we review these studies to provide the pre-clinical background for clinical trials that are described in the accompanying article and the rationale for additional clinical applications of palifermin. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. [Effects of Shibao Powder on promoting the expression of b-FGF and TGF-beta 1, in the repair of soft tissue injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dao-zhou; Shi, Wen-yu; Zhang, Peng-gui; Zhang, Chun-lei

    2008-09-01

    To study the effects of Shibao Powder on the expression of b-FGF and TGF-beta 1 in granulation tissues of rabbit models with soft tissue injuries, so as to explore mechanism of external Chinese drugs for repairing of soft tissues in molecular levels. The rabbit models were established by classical method of full-thickness skin wounds. After 8% sodium sulfide was used and routine disinfection completed, intra-peritoneal anaesthesia was adopted. The skin was cut to expose gastrocnemius muscle, and imcomplete sharp dissection was made near the tendon insertion. The length of the incision was 0.8 cm and the width was 0.4 cm. The rabbits in the experimental group were treated with spread of Shibao Powder at the wound; the rabbits in clean group were treated with routine dressing changes and disinfection; and the rabbits in the control group were treated with dressing changes only. The granulation tissues in different stages were collected and observed with high power microscope. The expression of Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) protein and b-FGF protein in wound tissues were detected using StreptA-ridin-Biotin-Complex (SABC) method. The results showed that the expression of b-FGF protein had significant differences among 3 groups at the 6th day after trauma (Psoft tissues after trauma by stimulating production of endogenous growth factor from cells in wound.

  18. Non-Immunogenic Structurally and Biologically Intact Tissue Matrix Grafts for the Immediate Repair of Ballistic-Induced Vascular and Nerve Tissue Injury in Combat Casualty Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bachrach, Nathaniel

    2003-01-01

    .... This past year the source of he defects was determined to be the freeze-drying process. Ongoing efforts toward process optimization and design modifications that will provide undamaged tissue grafts are presented in this report...

  19. Effect of pigment epithelium derived factor on NO and the expression of caspase-3 in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the effect of pigment epithelium derived factor(PEDFon nitrogen monoxide(NOand expression of cysteine-containing, aspartate-specific proteases-3(caspase-3in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury. METHODS: A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, model group and PEDF group, with 20 rats in each group. Except the blank control group, the optic nerve crush injury rat models were established in the other groups, and left eyeballs were taken as samples. After successfully modeling, the model group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of balanced salt solution while PEDF group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of PEDF(0.2μg/μL. Two weeks later, the retinal tissues were collected, and changes of shape were observed under microscope after HE staining. The changes of NO level were measured by colorimetry assay, the expression of caspase-3 mRNA and caspase-3 protein was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCRand Western-blot. RESULTS: HE staining showed that retinal tissues of the blank control group arranged neatly and clearly. Retinal ganglion cells(RGCsarranged in a monolayer, and cells were oval, uniform in size and distribution, the cell nuclei were clear, closely arranged, with clear boundaries. The retinal tissues of the model group were sparse in shape, RGCs showed vacuolar changes, the overall number of cells was reduced, and cell nuclei of residual RGCs showed pyknosis and uneven staining. RGCs in PEDF group were with slightly edema and arranged closely, and the degree of injury was significantly milder than that in the model group. Levels of Caspase-3 mRNA and protein and NO levels in the three groups showed the model group > PEDF group > blank control group(all P CONCLUSION: The application of PEDF can down regulate the expression of Caspase-3 and NO in rates with optic nerve injury and reduce RGCs injury.

  20. Medicinal plant extract (Ankaferd Blood Stopper) application in deep tissue injuries in rats: histopathological investigation of the effect on regional and systemic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumuş, Mehmet; Yüksel, Kasım Zafer; Özbağ, Davut; Çıralık, Harun; Yılmaz, Zeki; Gümüşalan, Yakup; Bakan, Vedat; Kalender, Ali Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study was planned to evaluate both the histopathological changes under light microscope as well as the systemic organ effects following application of Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) (a mixture of five plant extracts) in an animal model of deep tissue hemorrhage. A total of 50 Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats each. The rats underwent femoral vein puncture and were treated with ABS tampon, ABS spray, or Surgicel, and one group was left untreated. After two weeks, each group underwent partial tissue excision from the same femoral region as well as from the brain, heart, kidney, and liver. The specimens from all groups were obtained from the femoral region after two weeks and evaluated under light microscope. The light microscope revealed no histopathological changes in neurovascular structures or in deep connective tissues in any of the groups. ABS provided hemostasis and was observed to stop bleeding. There were no histopathological changes at the tissue level and no pathological effects in other organs tissues under light microscope, and the remote organ tissue remained clear.

  1. RIG-I/MAVS and STING signaling promote gut integrity during irradiation- and immune-mediated tissue injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Julius C.; Bscheider, Michael; Eisenkolb, Gabriel; Lin, Chia Ching; Wintges, Alexander; Otten, Vera; Lindemans, Caroline A.; Heidegger, Simon; Rudelius, Martina; Monette, Sébastien; Rodriguez, Kori A.Porosnicu; Calafiore, Marco; Liebermann, Sophie; Liu, Chen; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Kalinke, Ulrich; Ruland, Jürgen; Peschel, Christian; Shono, Yusuke; Docampo, Melissa; Velardi, Enrico; Jenq, Robert R; Hanash, Alan M; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Haas, Tobias; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Poeck, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The molecular pathways that regulate the tissue repair function of type I interferon (IFN-I) during acute tissue damage are poorly understood. We describe a protective role for IFN-I and the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway during acute tissue damage in mice. Mice lacking mitochondrial

  2. The role of the plastic surgeon in dealing with soft tissue injuries: experience from the second Israel-Lebanon war, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharony, Zach; Eldor, Liron; Klein, Yuval; Ramon, Yitzchak; Rissin, Yaron; Berger, Yosef; Lerner, Alexander; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    During the 2006 war between Israel and Lebanon, 282 Israeli soldiers were evacuated to Rambam Health Care Campus. Of these, 210 were admitted for observation or treatment, and 15 of these were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Thirty-five other soldiers, hospitalized in other departments, required the care of Plastic Surgeons, either for conservative or surgical treatment. The injury profile observed was consistent with data from previous low-intensity warfare, which demonstrated that over 80% of injuries were produced by fragmentation weapons, such as artillery, mortarshells, rockets, and missiles. It differs, however, from our experience in previous wars and our expectations regarding burn wounds, both in incidence and severity, which were significantly lower as compared with the past. This article presents our management of extensive soft tissue injuries, and details 3 representative cases. It highlights the role of the Plastic Surgeon as part of the whole treatment in this type of injury and helps to predict the needs of the medical system in preparation for the future.

  3. Inhibition of COX1/2 alters the host response and reduces ECM scaffold mediated constructive tissue remodeling in a rodent model of skeletal muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearth, Christopher L; Slivka, Peter F; Stewart, Scott A; Keane, Timothy J; Tay, Justin K; Londono, Ricardo; Goh, Qingnian; Pizza, Francis X; Badylak, Stephen F

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been used as a biologic scaffold material to both reinforce the surgical repair of soft tissue and serve as an inductive template to promote a constructive tissue remodeling response. Success of such an approach is dependent on macrophage-mediated degradation and remodeling of the biologic scaffold. Macrophage phenotype during these processes is a predictive factor of the eventual remodeling outcome. ECM scaffolds have been shown to promote an anti-inflammatory or M2-like macrophage phenotype in vitro that includes secretion of downstream products of cycolooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX1/2). The present study investigated the effect of a common COX1/2 inhibitor (Aspirin) on macrophage phenotype and tissue remodeling in a rodent model of ECM scaffold treated skeletal muscle injury. Inhibition of COX1/2 reduced the constructive remodeling response by hindering myogenesis and collagen deposition in the defect area. The inhibited response was correlated with a reduction in M2-like macrophages in the defect area. The effects of Aspirin on macrophage phenotype were corroborated using an established in vitro macrophage model which showed a reduction in both ECM induced prostaglandin secretion and expression of a marker of M2-like macrophages (CD206). These results raise questions regarding the common peri-surgical administration of COX1/2 inhibitors when biologic scaffold materials are used to facilitate muscle repair/regeneration. COX1/2 inhibitors such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are routinely administered post-surgically for analgesic purposes. While COX1/2 inhibitors are important in pain management, they have also been shown to delay or diminish the healing process, which calls to question their clinical use for treating musculotendinous injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of a common NSAID, Aspirin, on the constructive remodeling response mediated by an ECM scaffold (UBM) in a rat skeletal

  4. In-111 labeled polyclonal anticollagen antibody (Type I): Detection and kinetics of tissue injury in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors evaluated type I anticollagen antibody (Ac-Ab-I) for the scintigraphic detection of subclinical crush injury in the rat tail. After cannulating the rat jugular vein to provide ready vascular access, we injected radiolabeled proteins at intervals after the injury. Using In-111-DTA-labeled Ac-Ab-I and sheep immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a control, they found that net uptake ratios (Ac-Ab-I/sheep IgG) from acute, 24 hour, and 48-hour experiments ranged from 1.7 to 2.4, with target uptake scintigraphically visible up to 48 hours after injury. At 72 hours, target uptake diminished. They conclude that imaging of subclinical crush injury in a murine model is feasible, and that significant temporal latitude exists to provide potential flexibility for diagnostic use

  5. Effectiveness of rugby headgear in preventing soft tissue injuries to the head: a case-control and video cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Lyons, R A; Evans, R; Newcombe, R G; Nash, P; McCabe, M; Palmer, S R

    2004-04-01

    To determine if headgear use by rugby players was associated with a reduced risk of head or facial laceration, abrasion, or fracture. An emergency department based case-control study in South Wales, UK, with cases being rugby players treated for superficial head and facial injuries and controls being their matched opponents during the game. A review of videos of the 41 games in the 1999 Rugby World Cup was also carried out to compare with the case-control study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to measure association between exposure (headgear wearing) and outcome (head and facial injuries). In the case-control study, 164 pairs were analysed, with headgear worn by 12.8% of cases and 21.3% of controls. Headgear use was associated with substantial but non-significant reductions in superficial head (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.19) and facial (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.46) injuries. The video study followed 547 players over 41 games, during which there were 47 bleeding injuries to the head. Headgear use significantly reduced the risk of bleeding head injury in forwards (OR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.99, p = 0.02), but not in backs. There was also a higher risk of facial injury among forwards, but this was not significant. The combined results suggest that headgear can prevent certain types of superficial head injuries in players at all levels of the game, but the evidence is strongest for superficial head injury in elite forwards. A randomised controlled trial would be the best way to study this further.

  6. The effectiveness of exercise on recovery and clinical outcomes of soft tissue injuries of the leg, ankle, and foot: A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitzik, Erin; Jacobs, Craig; Wong, Jessica J; Côté, Pierre; Shearer, Heather M; Randhawa, Kristi; Sutton, Deborah; Southerst, Danielle; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Brison, Robert J; Yu, Hainan; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Stern, Paula J; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne; Stupar, Maja; Mior, Silvano; Carroll, Linda J

    2015-10-01

    Soft tissue injuries of the leg, ankle, or foot are common and often treated by exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise for the management of soft tissue injuries of the leg, ankle, or foot. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. We searched five databases from 1990 to 2015. Relevant articles were critically appraised using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria. The evidence from studies with low risk of bias was synthesized using the best-evidence synthesis methodology. We screened 7946 articles. We critically appraised ten randomized trials and six had a low risk of bias. The evidence suggests that for recent lateral ankle sprain: 1) rehabilitation exercises initiated immediately post-injury are as effective as a similar program initiated one week post-injury; and 2) supervised progressive exercise plus education/advice and home exercise lead to similar outcomes as education/advice and home exercise. Eccentric exercises may be more effective than an AirHeel brace but less effective than acupuncture for Achilles tendinopathy of more than two months duration. Finally, for plantar heel pain, static stretching of the calf muscles and sham ultrasound lead to similar outcomes, while static plantar fascia stretching provides short-term benefits compared to shockwave therapy. We found little evidence to support the use of early or supervised exercise interventions for lateral ankle sprains. Eccentric exercises may provide short-term benefits over a brace for persistent Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fascia stretching provides short-term benefits for plantar heel pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of adenomyosis: The relationship between the features of magnetic resonance imaging on T2 weighted images and the therapeutic efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chunmei; Setzen, Raymond; Liu, Zhongqiong; Liu, Yunchang; Xie, Bin; Aili, Aixingzi; Zhang, Lian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the features of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on T2 weighted images (T2WI) and the therapeutic efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on adenomyosis. Materials and methods: From January 2011 to November 2015, four hundred and twenty-eight patients with symptomatic adenomyosis were treated with HIFU. Based on the signal intensity and the number of hyperintense foci in the adenomyotic lesions on T2WI, the patients were classified into groups. The day after HIFU ablation patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI and a comparison was made of non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio, energy efficiency factor (EEF), treatment time, sonication time, and adverse effects. Results: No significant difference in terms of HIFU treatment settings and results was observed between the group of patients with hypointense adenomyotic lesions and the group with isointense adenomyotic lesions (P > 0.05). However, the sonication time and EEF were significantly higher in the group with multiple hyperintense foci compared to the group with few hyperintense foci. The NPV ratio achieved in the lesions with multiple hyperintenese foci was significantly lower than that in the lesions with few hyperintense foci (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the rate of adverse effects between the two groups. Conclusions: Based on our results, the response of the adenomyotic lesions to HIFU treatment is not related to the signal intensity of adenomyotic lesions on T2WI. However, the number of the high signal intensity foci in the adenomyotic lesions on T2WI can be considered as a predictive factor to help select patients for HIFU treatment.

  8. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of adenomyosis: The relationship between the features of magnetic resonance imaging on T2 weighted images and the therapeutic efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Chunmei [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-founded by Chongqing and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, Chongqing Haifu Hospital, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Setzen, Raymond [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg (South Africa); Liu, Zhongqiong; Liu, Yunchang [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-founded by Chongqing and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, Chongqing Haifu Hospital, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xie, Bin [Department of Ultrasound, Huanggang Central Hospital, Huanggang City, Hubei 438000 (China); Aili, Aixingzi, E-mail: 1819483078@qq.com [Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Health Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Lian, E-mail: lianwzhang@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-founded by Chongqing and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, Chongqing Haifu Hospital, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2017-04-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the features of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on T2 weighted images (T2WI) and the therapeutic efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on adenomyosis. Materials and methods: From January 2011 to November 2015, four hundred and twenty-eight patients with symptomatic adenomyosis were treated with HIFU. Based on the signal intensity and the number of hyperintense foci in the adenomyotic lesions on T2WI, the patients were classified into groups. The day after HIFU ablation patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI and a comparison was made of non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio, energy efficiency factor (EEF), treatment time, sonication time, and adverse effects. Results: No significant difference in terms of HIFU treatment settings and results was observed between the group of patients with hypointense adenomyotic lesions and the group with isointense adenomyotic lesions (P > 0.05). However, the sonication time and EEF were significantly higher in the group with multiple hyperintense foci compared to the group with few hyperintense foci. The NPV ratio achieved in the lesions with multiple hyperintenese foci was significantly lower than that in the lesions with few hyperintense foci (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the rate of adverse effects between the two groups. Conclusions: Based on our results, the response of the adenomyotic lesions to HIFU treatment is not related to the signal intensity of adenomyotic lesions on T2WI. However, the number of the high signal intensity foci in the adenomyotic lesions on T2WI can be considered as a predictive factor to help select patients for HIFU treatment.

  9. The effectiveness of soft-tissue therapy for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries of the upper and lower extremities: A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury management (OPTIMa) collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Steven; Shearer, Heather M; Côté, Pierre; Wong, Jessica J; Yu, Hainan; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Southerst, Danielle; Randhawa, Kristi A; Sutton, Deborah A; Stupar, Maja; Nordin, Margareta C; Mior, Silvano A; van der Velde, Gabrielle M; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne L

    2016-02-01

    Soft-tissue therapy is commonly used to manage musculoskeletal injuries. To determine the effectiveness of soft-tissue therapy for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries of the upper and lower extremities. Systematic Review. We searched six databases from 1990 to 2015 and critically appraised eligible articles using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria. Evidence from studies with low risk of bias was synthesized using best-evidence synthesis methodology. We screened 9869 articles and critically appraised seven; six had low risk of bias. Localized relaxation massage provides added benefits to multimodal care immediately post-intervention for carpal tunnel syndrome. Movement re-education (contraction/passive stretching) provides better long-term benefit than one corticosteroid injection for lateral epicondylitis. Myofascial release improves outcomes compared to sham ultrasound for lateral epicondylitis. Diacutaneous fibrolysis (DF) or sham DF leads to similar outcomes in pain intensity for subacromial impingement syndrome. Trigger point therapy may provide limited or no additional benefit when combined with self-stretching for plantar fasciitis; however, myofascial release to the gastrocnemius, soleus and plantar fascia is effective. Our review clarifies the role of soft-tissue therapy for the management of upper and lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. Myofascial release therapy was effective for treating lateral epicondylitis and plantar fasciitis. Movement re-education was also effective for managing lateral epicondylitis. Localized relaxation massage combined with multimodal care may provide short-term benefit for treating carpal tunnel syndrome. More high quality research is needed to study the appropriateness and comparative effectiveness of this widely utilized form of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  11. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Heart Tissue and Nitric Oxide in Serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Rhesus Monkeys: Association with Heart Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cristiano Marcelo Espinola; Silverio, Jaline Coutinho; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Pereira, Isabela Resende; Coelho, Janice Mery Chicarino; Britto, Constança Carvalho; Moreira, Otacílio Cruz; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; da Glória Bonecini-Almeida, Maria; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2012-01-01

    Background The factors contributing to chronic Chagas' heart disease remain unknown. High nitric oxide (NO) levels have been shown to be associated with cardiomyopathy severity in patients. Further, NO produced via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) is proposed to play a role in Trypanosoma cruzi control. However, the participation of iNOS/NOS2 and NO in T. cruzi control and heart injury has been questioned. Here, using chronically infected rhesus monkeys and iNOS/NOS2-deficient (Nos2 −/−) mice we explored the participation of iNOS/NOS2-derived NO in heart injury in T. cruzi infection. Methodology Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 and Nos2 −/− mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Parasite DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction, T. cruzi antigens and iNOS/NOS2+ cells were immunohistochemically detected in heart sections and NO levels in serum were determined by Griess reagent. Heart injury was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram (ECHO), creatine kinase heart isoenzyme (CK-MB) activity levels in serum and connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in the cardiac tissue. Results Chronically infected monkeys presented conduction abnormalities, cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, which resembled the spectrum of human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC). Importantly, chronic myocarditis was associated with parasite persistence. Moreover, Cx43 loss and increased CK-MB activity levels were primarily correlated with iNOS/NOS2+ cells infiltrating the cardiac tissue and NO levels in serum. Studies in Nos2 −/− mice reinforced that the iNOS/NOS2-NO pathway plays a pivotal role in T. cruzi-elicited cardiomyocyte injury and in conduction abnormalities that were associated with Cx43 loss in the cardiac tissue. Conclusion T. cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys reproduce features of CCC. Moreover, our data support that in T. cruzi infection persistent parasite-triggered iNOS/NOS2 in the cardiac tissue and NO overproduction might contribute to CCC

  12. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in heart tissue and nitric oxide in serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys: association with heart injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Marcelo Espinola Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The factors contributing to chronic Chagas' heart disease remain unknown. High nitric oxide (NO levels have been shown to be associated with cardiomyopathy severity in patients. Further, NO produced via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2 is proposed to play a role in Trypanosoma cruzi control. However, the participation of iNOS/NOS2 and NO in T. cruzi control and heart injury has been questioned. Here, using chronically infected rhesus monkeys and iNOS/NOS2-deficient (Nos2(-/- mice we explored the participation of iNOS/NOS2-derived NO in heart injury in T. cruzi infection. METHODOLOGY: Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 and Nos2(-/- mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Parasite DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction, T. cruzi antigens and iNOS/NOS2(+ cells were immunohistochemically detected in heart sections and NO levels in serum were determined by Griess reagent. Heart injury was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG, echocardiogram (ECHO, creatine kinase heart isoenzyme (CK-MB activity levels in serum and connexin 43 (Cx43 expression in the cardiac tissue. RESULTS: Chronically infected monkeys presented conduction abnormalities, cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, which resembled the spectrum of human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC. Importantly, chronic myocarditis was associated with parasite persistence. Moreover, Cx43 loss and increased CK-MB activity levels were primarily correlated with iNOS/NOS2(+ cells infiltrating the cardiac tissue and NO levels in serum. Studies in Nos2(-/- mice reinforced that the iNOS/NOS2-NO pathway plays a pivotal role in T. cruzi-elicited cardiomyocyte injury and in conduction abnormalities that were associated with Cx43 loss in the cardiac tissue. CONCLUSION: T. cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys reproduce features of CCC. Moreover, our data support that in T. cruzi infection persistent parasite-triggered iNOS/NOS2 in the cardiac tissue and NO overproduction might contribute

  13. The Antioxidant Activity of Pistachios Reduces Cardiac Tissue Injury of Acute Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) in Diabetic Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Fusco, Roberta; Gugliandolo, Enrico; D'Amico, Ramona; Campolo, Michela; Latteri, Saverio; Carughi, Arianna; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for the development of heart pathology. Myocardial infarction is the cause of death occurring after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restoration of blood flow is the first intervention against heart attack, although the process of restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium could cause additional injury. This phenomenon, termed myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R) injury, is characterized by the formation of oxygen radicals. Pistachios have significant glucose- and insulin-lowering effects and can improve the inflammatory contest by downregulating both the expression and the circulating levels of several metabolic risk markers. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by natural raw (NP) and roasted salted (RP) pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR) injection in the paw. This study evaluates the antioxidant properties of pistachios on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) in diabetic rats. Rats were pre-treated with either NP or RP pistachios (30 mg/kg) 18 h prior to the experimental procedure. Results: Here, we demonstrated that treatment with NP reduced myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, NF-κB expression and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2) activation. This data clearly showes modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with MI-R injury, following administration of pistachios.

  14. The Antioxidant Activity of Pistachios Reduces Cardiac Tissue Injury of Acute Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R in Diabetic Streptozotocin (STZ-Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Di Paola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for the development of heart pathology. Myocardial infarction is the cause of death occurring after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restoration of blood flow is the first intervention against heart attack, although the process of restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium could cause additional injury. This phenomenon, termed myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R injury, is characterized by the formation of oxygen radicals. Pistachios have significant glucose- and insulin-lowering effects and can improve the inflammatory contest by downregulating both the expression and the circulating levels of several metabolic risk markers. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by natural raw (NP and roasted salted (RP pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR injection in the paw. This study evaluates the antioxidant properties of pistachios on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R in diabetic rats. Rats were pre-treated with either NP or RP pistachios (30 mg/kg 18 h prior to the experimental procedure.Results: Here, we demonstrated that treatment with NP reduced myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, NF-κB expression and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2 activation. This data clearly showes modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with MI-R injury, following administration of pistachios.

  15. Deep tissue injury in development of pressure ulcers: a decrease of inflammasome activation and changes in human skin morphology in response to aging and mechanical load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Stojadinovic

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms leading to pressure ulcer development are scarce in spite of high mortality of patients. Development of pressure ulcers that is initially observed as deep tissue injury is multifactorial. We postulate that biomechanical forces and inflammasome activation, together with ischemia and aging, may play a role in pressure ulcer development. To test this we used a newly-developed bio-mechanical model in which ischemic young and aged human skin was subjected to a constant physiological compressive stress (load of 300 kPa (determined by pressure plate analyses of a person in a reclining position for 0.5-4 hours. Collagen orientation was assessed using polarized light, whereas inflammasome proteins were quantified by immunoblotting. Loaded skin showed marked changes in morphology and NLRP3 inflammasome protein expression. Sub-epidermal separations and altered orientation of collagen fibers were observed in aged skin at earlier time points. Aged skin showed significant decreases in the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins. Loading did not alter NLRP3 inflammasome proteins expression in aged skin, whereas it significantly increased their levels in young skin. We conclude that aging contributes to rapid morphological changes and decrease in inflammasome proteins in response to tissue damage, suggesting that a decline in the innate inflammatory response in elderly skin could contribute to pressure ulcer pathogenesis. Observed morphological changes suggest that tissue damage upon loading may not be entirely preventable. Furthermore, newly developed model described here may be very useful in understanding the mechanisms of deep tissue injury that may lead towards development of pressure ulcers.

  16. Experience with Proctectomy to Manage Combat Casualties Sustaining Catastrophic Perineal Blast Injury Complicated by Invasive Mucor Soft-Tissue Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    resuscitation and surgery . Inherent in the survival of casualties with such devastating injuries is both the risk for invasive infections and the need for...injured combat casualties receiving far-forward resuscitation, damage control surgery , and rapid evacuation in recent overseas contingency opera- tions...included resuscitative thoracotomy, pelvic external fixation, laparotomy for proximal vascular control and fecal diversion, and debridement of traumatic

  17. Systematic Review on the Effects of Serious Games and Wearable Technology Used in Rehabilitation of Patients With Traumatic Bone and Soft Tissue Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Henriëtte A; Graafland, Maurits; Goslings, J Carel; Schijven, Marlies P

    2017-11-11

    To assess the effects on functional outcomes and treatment adherence of wearable technology and serious games (ie, interactive computer applications with specific purposes useful in the "real world") currently used in physical rehabilitation of patients after traumatic bone and soft tissue injuries. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Current Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched without publication date restrictions for the terms wearable, serious game, videogame or mobile application, and rehabilitation, exercise therapy, and physiotherapy. The search yielded 2704 eligible articles, which were screened by 2 independent reviewers. Studies comparing serious games to standard therapy were included. Methodology and results of the studies were critically appraised in conformity with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Twelve articles were included, all of which tested "off-the-shelf" games. No studies on "wearable-controlled" games or games specifically developed for rehabilitation could be included. Medical conditions included postoperative rehabilitation and acute traumatic injuries. All studies were of low to moderate quality. Only 2 studies found beneficial effects of serious games compared to conventional therapy. One of 3 studies reporting pain scores found beneficial effects of serious games compared to physiotherapy. One of 5 trials reporting treatment adherence found a statistically significant advantage in the game group compared to conventional physiotherapy. Because of heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures, pooling of data was not possible. Serious games seem a safe alternative or addition to conventional physiotherapy after traumatic bone and soft tissue injuries. Future research should determine their validity and effectiveness in rehabilitation therapy, next to their cost-effectiveness and effect on treatment adherence. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  18. c-Fos and pERK, which is a better marker for neuronal activation and central sensitization after noxious stimulation and tissue injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Jing; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2009-01-01

    c-Fos, the protein of the protooncogene c-fos, has been extensively used as a marker for the activation of nociceptive neurons in the spinal cord for more than twenty years since Hunt et al. first reported that peripheral noxious stimulation to a hind paw of rats leads to a marked induction of c-Fos in superficial and deep dorsal horn neurons in 1987. In 1999, Ji et al. reported that phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) is specifically induced by noxious stimulation in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Accumulating evidence indicates that pERK induction or ERK activation in dorsal horn neurons is essential for the development of central sensitization, increased sensitivity of dorsal horn neurons that is responsible for the generation of persistent pain. Further, molecular mechanisms underlying ERK-mediated central sensitization have been revealed. In contrast, direct evidence for c-Fos-mediated central sensitization is not sufficient. After a noxious stimulus (e.g., capsaicin injection) or tissue injury, c-Fos begins to be induced after 30-60 minutes, whereas pERK can be induced within a minute, which can correlate well with the development of pain hypersensitivity. While c-Fos is often induced in the nuclei of neurons, pERK can be induced in different subcellular structures of neurons such as nuclei, cytoplasma, axons, and dendrites. pERK can even be induced in spinal cord microglia and astrocytes after nerve injury. In summary, both c-Fos and pERK can be used as markers for neuronal activation following noxious stimulation and tissue injury, but pERK is much more dynamic and appears to be a better marker for central sensitization.

  19. Cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Wm J; Jenabzadeh, Kamrun; Ahrenholz, David H

    2009-11-01

    The pathophysiology of true frostbite reveals that the direct injury produced during the initial freeze process has a minor contribution to the global tissue damage. However, rapid rewarming to reverse the tissue crystallization has essentially been the lone frostbite intervention for almost half a century. The major pathologic process is the progressive microvascular thrombosis following reperfusion of the ischemic limb, with the cold-damaged endothelial cells playing a central role in the outcome of these frozen tissues. Newer interventions offer the opportunity to combat this process, and this article offers a scientific approach to frostbite injuries of the upper extremities.

  20. Tissue injury after lithium treatment in human and rat postnatal kidney involves glycogen synthase kinase 3β-positive epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that lithium causes accelerated and permanent injury to the postnatally developing kidney through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β immunoreactivity was associated with glomeruli, thick ascending limb...... of Henle's loop and collecting ducts in developing and adult human and rat kidney. In rats, the abundance of inactive, phosphorylated GSK-3β (pGSK-3β) protein decreased during postnatal development. After feeding dams with litters lithium (50 mmol Li/kg chow, postnatal (P) day 7-28), the offspring showed......-immunopositive epithelium. The postnatal rat kidney may serve as an experimental model for the study of lithium-induced human kidney injury. The data are compatible with a causal relation between epithelial entry of lithium into cells of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, inactivation of GSK-3β, proliferation...

  1. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury?symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus ? domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 inj...

  2. Three novel clade B serine protease inhibitors from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Molecular perspectives and responses to immune challenges and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Godahewa, G I; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Chul; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs) control cellular protease activity in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. The immune and inflammatory responses of invertebrate clade B SERPINs have not been widely reported. In the present study, three proteins with high similarity to clade B SERPINs, referred to as AbSERPIN-1, AbSERPIN-2 and AbSERPIN-3, were identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus). While AbSERPIN-1 (399 aa) was of a typical size for this protein class, AbSERPIN-2 (506 aa) and AbSERPIN-3 (532 aa) were relatively larger. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the characteristic SERPIN domain in each AbSERPIN. In addition, the N-terminal region of both AbSERPIN-2 and AbSERPIN-3 contained a predicted low complexity region (LCR) and a signal peptide, suggesting that these proteins are secretory proteins and are, thus, novel peptides. Tertiary structural models of the AbSERPINs highlighted their structural and functional conservation. Ubiquitous expression of AbSERPIN transcripts was evaluated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) analysis in seven tissue types. AbSERPIN-1, AbSERPIN-2, and AbSERPIN-3 transcript levels were highest in mantle, hemocytes, and muscles, respectively. Temporal expression analysis revealed that AbSERPINs were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in hemocytes during the early/middle stages following the injection of a bacterial pathogen (Vibrio parahaemolyticus or Listeria monocytogenes) or an immuno-stimulant (lipopolysaccharide). Moreover, mantle tissue injury led to significant changes in the temporal expression of AbSERPIN mRNA. Specifically, transcription of AbSERPIN-1 and AbSERPIN-3 was considerably up-regulated, while expression of AbSERPIN-2 was suppressed. These results suggest a potential role of AbSERPINs in response to pathogen invasion and tissue injury in disk abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic resonance tomography in the diagnosis of intraarticular tibial plateau fractures: value for fracture classification and spectrum of fracture-associated soft tissue injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, R.; Maintz, D.; Zaehringer, M.; Landwehr, P.; Prokop, A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray tomography in assessing the type of fracture, degree of comminution and amount of articular surface depression in acute tibial condylar fractures and to describe the associated soft tissue injuries diagnosed with MRI. Method: 27 patients with acute tibial plateau fractures were investigated usig linear X-ray tomography and MRI employing T 1 -weighted and proton density turbo spin echo, STIR, and T 2 -weighted gradient echo images. Fractures were classified according to the AO classification system. The degrees of depression and comminution were measured and soft tissue injuries were recorded. Results: Fractures were classified as type B1 in 7, as B2 in 6, and as B3 in 6 cases by MRI. More complex C-type fractures were diagnosed in 8 cases. MR and X-ray grading were consistent with the exception of two B3 fractures, which were graded as B1 by X-ray tomography. X-ray tomography under-estimated the degree of comminution. 63% of the patients had either meniscal tears or complete ruptures of their cruciate or collateral ligaments. Ten meniscal tears were diagnosed in 9 of 27 patients. Complete tears of the anterior cruciate ligament were seen in 4, and avulsions of the posterior cruciate ligament in 2 patients. Conclusion: MRI allows a detailed assessment of acute tibial plateau fractures and can replace conventional X-ray tomography. The high rate of fracture-associated soft tissue lesions makes MRI an especially valuable tool. (orig.) [de

  4. Protective effects of β-glucan against oxidative injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation in the skin tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Ali Murat; Akkaya, Vahide Baysal; Güleçol, Şeyma Celik; Ceyhan, Betül Mermi; Özgüner, Fehmi; Chen, WenChieh

    2012-09-01

    In recent times, there is widespread use of 2.45-GHz irradiation-emitting devices in industrial, medical, military and domestic application. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the oxidant and antioxidant status of skin and to examine the possible protective effects of β-glucans against the oxidative injury. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: control; sham exposed; EMR; and EMR + β-glucan. A 2.45-GHz EMR emitted device from the experimental exposure was applied to the EMR group and EMR + β-glucan group for 60 min daily, respectively, for 4 weeks. β-glucan was administered via gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day before each exposure to radiation in the treatment group. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in tissue homogenates of the skin. Exposure to 2.45-GHz EMR caused a significant increase in MDA levels and CAT activity, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px decreased in skin tissues. Systemic β-glucan significantly reversed the elevation of MDA levels and the reduction of SOD activities. β-glucan treatment also slightly enhanced the activity of CAT and prevented the depletion of GSH-Px activity caused by EMR, but not statistically significantly. The present study demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanisms in EMR-induced skin tissue damages and that β-glucan could ameliorate oxidative skin injury via its antioxidant properties.

  5. A Prospective Randomized Study of Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure-Guided Management in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Min Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PbtO2-guided therapy with traditional intracranial pressure- (ICP- guided treatment on the management of cerebral variables, therapeutic interventions, survival rates, and neurological outcomes of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. From 2009 to 2010, TBI patients with a Glasgow coma scale 20 mmHg, and 27 patients were treated with ICP-guided therapy (ICP 60 mmHg in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU; demographic characteristics were similar across groups. The survival rate in the PbtO2-guided group was also significantly increased at 3 and 6 months after injury. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the PbtO2 signal and Glasgow outcome scale-extended in patients from 1 to 6 months after injury. This finding demonstrates that therapy directed by PbtO2 monitoring is valuable for the treatment of patients with moderate and severe TBI and that increasing PaO2 to 150 mmHg may be efficacious for preventing cerebral hypoxic events after brain trauma.

  6. A Prospective Randomized Study of Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure-Guided Management in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Min; Lin, Ming-Chin; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Lui, Tai-Ngar; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Chung, Wen-Yuh; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Tsai, Shin-Han; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Lin, Mau-Roung; Wei, Li; Wu, Chung-Che; Lin, En-Yuan; Liao, Kuo-Hsing; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PbtO2-guided therapy with traditional intracranial pressure- (ICP-) guided treatment on the management of cerebral variables, therapeutic interventions, survival rates, and neurological outcomes of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. From 2009 to 2010, TBI patients with a Glasgow coma scale 20 mmHg), and 27 patients were treated with ICP-guided therapy (ICP 60 mmHg) in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU); demographic characteristics were similar across groups. The survival rate in the PbtO2-guided group was also significantly increased at 3 and 6 months after injury. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the PbtO2 signal and Glasgow outcome scale-extended in patients from 1 to 6 months after injury. This finding demonstrates that therapy directed by PbtO2 monitoring is valuable for the treatment of patients with moderate and severe TBI and that increasing PaO2 to 150 mmHg may be efficacious for preventing cerebral hypoxic events after brain trauma. PMID:26413530

  7. Use of a Dermal Regeneration Template Wound Dressing in the Treatment of Combat-Related Upper Extremity Soft Tissue Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Ian L; Masters, Zachary; Seavey, Jonathan G; Balazs, George C; Ipsen, Derek; Tintle, Scott M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the outcomes of treatment with a dermal regeneration template (DRT) in a cohort of combat casualties with severe upper extremity injuries. Records of all active duty military patients treated with DRT at our institution between November 2009 and July 2013 were screened. Inclusion criteria were upper extremity open wounds sustained during combat, requiring split-thickness or full-thickness skin grafting for closure. The primary outcome measure was wound healing after the first attempt at definitive treatment (defined as the first application of split-thickness or full-thickness skin graft). Independent variables collected included time from injury to arrival at our facility, mechanism of injury, wound infection, tobacco use, location of wound, number of operative debridements, and patient demographics. A total of 60 patients with 69 wounds met the inclusion criteria. Most wounds were to the wrist or forearm (54%) or fingers (19%). All wounds were heavily contaminated, requiring a mean of 2.5 operative debridements before DRT placement. All wounds treated with full-thickness skin grafting after DRT healed completely without further complication. Split-thickness skin grafting was successful in 96% of patients. DRT wound dressings are a helpful adjunct in the treatment of contaminated war wounds to the upper extremity. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic Periodontitis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Oxidative Stress as a Common Factor in Periodontal Tissue Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vidya S; Patil, Vijayetha P; Gokhale, Neeraja; Acharya, Anirudh; Kangokar, Praveenchandra

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of periodontitis is significantly higher among people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Majority of tissue destruction in periodontitis is considered to be the result of an aberrant inflammatory/immune response to microbial plaque and involve prolonged release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is increased evidence for compromised antioxidant capacity in periodontal tissues and fluids which may be an added factor for tissue damage in periodontitis. To study the possible role of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant status in blood among chronic periodontitis patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. The study comprised of total 100 subjects among which 25 were normal healthy controls, 25 were gingivitis patients, 25 were chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and 25 were having chronic periodontitis with type 2 diabetes (CP with DM). ROS levels were determined as MDA (Malondialdehyde) and antioxidant status as plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin C and erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. There was significant increase in MDA levels in all the patient groups compared with healthy controls (pperiodontitis patients with diabetes (r=0.566, p=0.003). There is increased oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes indicating a common factor involvement in tissue damage. More severe tissue destruction in periodontitis is associated with excessive ROS generation which is positively correlated in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  9. The Effect Of Supraphysiologic Blood Pressure on Traumatic Brain Injury and Proximal Tissue Beds During Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta and Variable Aortic Control in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    Supraphysiologic Blood Pressure On Traumatic Brain Injury And Proximal Tissue Beds During Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion Of The Aorta And Variable Aortic...combined effects of increased proximal mean arterial pressure (pMAP), carotid blood flow (Qcarotid), and intracranial pressure (ICP) from REBOA would...Mandatory) The Effect of REBOA, Partial Aortic Occlusion and Aggressive Blood Transfusion on Traumatic Brain Injury in a Swine Polytrauma Model

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Lung Tissue in a Rat Acute Lung Injury Model: Identification of PRDX1 as a Promoter of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains a high morbidity and mortality disease entity in critically ill patients, despite decades of numerous investigations into its pathogenesis. To obtain global protein expression changes in acute lung injury (ALI lung tissues, we employed a high-throughput proteomics method to identify key components which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. In the present study, we analyzed lung tissue proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced ALI rats and identified eighteen proteins whose expression levels changed more than twofold as compared to normal controls. In particular, we found that PRDX1 expression in culture medium was elevated by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of PRDX1 increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, whereas knockdown of PRDX1 led to downregulated expression of cytokines induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings provide a global alteration in the proteome of lung tissues in the ALI rat model and indicate that PRDX1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ARDS by promoting inflammation and represent a novel strategy for the development of new therapies against ALI.

  11. Autologous rabbit adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of bone injuries with distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunay, Ozgur; Can, Geylani; Cakir, Zeynep; Denek, Ziya; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Erbil, Guven; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Baran, Yusuf

    2013-06-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have a higher capacity for proliferation and differentiation compared with other cell lineages. Although distraction osteogenesis is the most important therapy for treating bone defects, this treatment is restricted in many situations. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue-derived MSCs and osteoblasts differentiated from adipose tissue-derived MSCs in the treatment of bone defects. Bone defects were produced in the tibias of New Zealand rabbits that had previously undergone adipose tissue extraction. Tibial osteotomy was performed, and a distractor was placed on the right leg of the rabbits. The rabbits were placed in control (group I), stem cell (group II) and osteoblast-differentiated stem cell (group III) treatment groups. The rabbits were sacrificed, and the defect area was evaluated by radiologic, biomechanical and histopathologic tests to examine the therapeutic effects of adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Radiologic analyses revealed that callus density and the ossification rate increased in group III compared with group I and group II. In biomechanical tests, the highest ossification rate was observed in group III. Histopathologic studies showed that the quality of newly formed bone and the number of cells active in bone formation were significantly higher in group III rabbits compared with group I and group II rabbits. These data reveal that osteoblasts differentiated from adipose tissue-derived MSCs shorten the consolidation period of distraction osteogenesis. Stem cells could be used as an effective treatment for bone defects. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thromboxane A{sub 2} receptor signaling promotes liver tissue repair after toxic injury through the enhancement of macrophage recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamino, Tsutomu [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ito, Yoshiya [Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ohkubo, Hirotoki [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Hosono, Kanako; Suzuki, Tatsunori [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sato, Takehito [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ae, Takako; Shibuya, Akitaka [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sakagami, Hiroyuki [Departments of Anatomy, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Narumiya, Shuh [Department of Pharmacology, Kyoto University School of Medicine, Kyoto, 606-8315 (Japan); Koizumi, Wasaburo [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Majima, Masataka, E-mail: mmajima@med.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    It is thought that thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) contributes to the progression of inflammation during acute hepatic injury; however, it is still unknown whether TxA{sub 2} is involved in liver repair. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of TxA{sub 2} receptor (TP) signaling in liver injury and repair in response to toxic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was used to induce liver injury in TP knockout (TP{sup −/−}) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the size of the necrotic area peaked at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and then declined. In TP{sup −/−} mice, the changes in ALT levels were similar to WT mice, but liver regeneration was impaired as evidenced by remained elevated levels of hepatic necrosis and by delayed hepatocyte proliferation, which was associated with the reduced expression of growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In TP{sup −/−} mice, the accumulation of hepatic CD11b{sup +}/F4/80{sup +} macrophages in injured livers was attenuated, and the hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor, the C―C chemokine receptor (CCR2), was reduced compared to WT. Additionally, the application of the TP receptor agonist, U-46619, enhanced the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 in peritoneal macrophages, which was associated with increased levels of IL-6, TNFα and HGF. These results suggested that TP receptor signaling facilitates liver recovery following CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity by affecting the expression of hepatotrophic growth factors, and through the recruitment of macrophages mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-CCR2 expression. -- Highlights: ► TP enhances liver regeneration by CCl{sub 4}. ► TP accumulates macrophages. ► TP up-regulates MCP-1.

  13. Investigations of Tissue-Level Mechanisms of Primary Blast Injury Through Modeling, Simulation, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    Corona radiata Bovine brain Core sample (Gray matter) Scalpel, trephine blade and punch Sample Dynamic response of bovine brain tissues...The PDMS provided a more rate dependent material with properties more closely representing biological samples (very similar texture /consistency to

  14. Soluble TGF-β type II receptor gene therapy reduces TGF-β activity in irradiated lung tissue and protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Z.; Rabbani, Z.; Zhang, X.; Samulski, T.V.; Li, C.-Y.; Anscher, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether administration of recombinant human adenoviral vector carrying soluble TGF-β1 type II receptor (TβR-II) gene reduces availability of active TGFβ1 and protects lung from radiation-induced injury. Female Fisher-344 rats were randomized into four groups to receive: 1) Control 2) Adenoviral green fluorescent protein vector (AdGFP) alone 3) Radiation (RT) + Adenoviral vector with TGF-β1 type II receptor gene (AdexTβR-II-Fc) 4) RT alone. Animals were irradiated to right hemithorax using a single dose of 30 Gy. The packaging and production of a recombinant adenovirus carrying the fused human TβR-II-IgG1 Fc gene was achieved by use of the AdEasy system. The treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc (1.5*1010 PFU) and control vector AdGFP (1*109 PFU) were injected i.v. 24 hrs after RT. Respiratory rate was measured as an index of pulmonary function weekly for 5 weeks post RT. Structural damage was scored histologically. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify activated macrophages. ELISA was used to quantify active TGF-β1 in tissue homogenate. Western blot was used to determine TβR-II expression in plasma and lung tissue. Animals receiving treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc have elevated plasma levels of soluble TβR-II at 24 and 48 hours after injection. In the RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group, there was a significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.002) at four weeks after treatment compared to RT alone group. Histology revealed a significant reduction in lung structural damage in animals receiving gene therapy after RT vs RT alone (p=0.0013). There was also a decrease in the number of activated macrophage (p= 0.02) in RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group vs RT alone. The tissue protein expression of active TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in rats receiving RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc treatment (p<0.05). This study shows the ability of adenovirus mediated soluble TβR-II gene therapy to reduce tissue levels of active TGF-β1 and ameliorate radiation

  15. [The role of disequilibrium of expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and their tissue inhibitors in pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Zhu, Guang-fa; Liu, Shuang; Foda, Hussein D

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1/2) in pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by hyperoxia. Seventy-two C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, hyperoxia for 24 hours group, hyperoxia for 48 hours group, and hyperoxia for 72 hours group, with 18 mice in each group. The mice in hyperoxia groups were exposed to >98% oxygen in sealed cages, and the normal control group were placed outside of the cage to breathe room air. At the end of the exposure time the animals were euthanized, the right lung was removed and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was used to lavage the lung through the endotracheal catheter. The wet/dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein content and the volume of pleural fluid were measured, the severity of lung injury was assessed; the expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 mRNA in lung tissue at 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were assessed by reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the amount of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 protein in lung tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hyperoxia caused ALI as evidenced by the increase in lung wet/dry weight ratio, BALF protein content and the volume of pleural fluid as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). RT-PCR study showed increased expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1 mRNA in lung tissues (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ELISA assay also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2/9 and an increase in TIMP-1 amount in BALF compared with their normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The ratios of both MMP-2 mRNA/TIMP-2 mRNA and MMP-2 protein/TIMP-2 protein were all increased in hyperoxia groups as compared with their normal control group (all P<0.01). Hyperoxia causes ALI in mice, and disturbance of MMP-2/TIMP-2 balance plays an important role in the development of hyperoxia-induced ALI in mice.

  16. Efficacy and safety assessment of acute sports-related traumatic soft tissue injuries using a new ibuprofen medicated plaster: results from a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Connolly, Mark P; Bhatt, Aomesh; Giannetti, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of a recently developed ibuprofen medicated plaster in the treatment of acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 3 study (EudraCT Number: 2012-003257-2) patients (n = 132; ages 18 to 60 years) diagnosed with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion to the upper or lower limbs were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster (n = 64) or placebo plaster (n = 68). Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was the area under the curve (AUC) of the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to 72 h (VAS 0-72 ). The ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with a reduction in pain on movement (POM) based on lower VAS AUC 0-72h (2399.4 mm*h) compared with placebo (4078.9 mm*h) (least squares mean difference: - 1679.5 mm*h; P ibuprofen medicated plaster compared with placebo at 12, 48, 24, and 120 h (P ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with greater reduction in tenderness/pain than placebo at each timepoint (P values ibuprofen plaster, and n = 6 [8.8%] for placebo). All drug-related AEs were administration site reactions and were mild in intensity. The results of this study indicate that ibuprofen medicated plaster results in rapid and clinically relevant reduction of pain in patients suffering from blunt musculoskeletal injuries or recurrent pain. The ibuprofen medicated plaster was well tolerated.

  17. Knee joint kinematics and kinetics during the hop and cut after soft tissue artifact suppression: Time to reconsider ACL injury mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Kenneth B; Potvin, Brigitte M; Shourijeh, Mohammad S; Benoit, Daniel L

    2017-09-06

    The recent development of a soft tissue artifact (STA) suppression method allows us to re-evaluate the tibiofemoral kinematics currently linked to non-contact knee injuries. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate knee joint kinematics and kinetics in six degrees of freedom (DoF) during the loading phases of a jump lunge and side cut using this in silico method. Thirty-five healthy adults completed these movements and their surface marker trajectories were then scaled and processed with OpenSim's inverse kinematics (IK) and inverse dynamics tools. Knee flexion angle-dependent kinematic constraints defined based on previous bone pin (BP) marker trajectories were then applied to the OpenSim model during IK and these constrained results were then processed with the standard inverse dynamics tool. Significant differences for all hip, knee, and ankle DoF were observed after STA suppression for both the jump lunge and side cut. Using clinically relevant effect size estimates, we conclude that STA contamination had led to misclassifications in hip transverse plane angles, knee frontal and transverse plane angles, medial/lateral and distractive/compressive knee translations, and knee frontal plane moments between the NoBP and the BP IK solutions. Our results have substantial clinical implications since past research has used joint kinematics and kinetics contaminated by STA to identify risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative Tissue Factor Deficiency Attenuates Ventilator-Induced Coagulopathy but Does Not Protect against Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

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    Esther K. Wolthuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventing tissue-factor-(TF- mediated systemic coagulopathy improves outcome in models of sepsis. Preventing TF-mediated pulmonary coagulopathy could attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. We investigated the effect of relative TF deficiency on pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation in a murine model of VILI. Heterozygous TF knockout (TF+/− mice and their wild-type (TF+/+ littermates were sedated (controls or sedated, tracheotomized, and mechanically ventilated with either low or high tidal volumes for 5 hours. Mechanical ventilation resulted in pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation, with more injury after mechanical ventilation with higher tidal volumes. Compared with TF+/+ mice, TF+/− mice demonstrated significantly lower pulmonary thrombin-antithrombin complex levels in both ventilation groups. There were, however, no differences in lung wet-to-dry ratio, BALF total protein levels, neutrophil influx, and lung histopathology scores between TF+/− and TF+/+ mice. Notably, pulmonary levels of cytokines were significantly higher in TF+/− as compared to TF+/+ mice. Systemic levels of cytokines were not altered by the relative absence of TF. TF deficiency is associated with decreased pulmonary coagulation independent of the ventilation strategy. However, relative TF deficiency does not reduce VILI and actually results in higher pulmonary levels of inflammatory mediators.

  19. Extracellular histones are essential effectors of C5aR- and C5L2-mediated tissue damage and inflammation in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmann, Markus; Grailer, Jamison J; Ruemmler, Robert; Russkamp, Norman F; Zetoune, Firas S; Sarma, J Vidya; Standiford, Theodore J; Ward, Peter A

    2013-12-01

    We investigated how complement activation promotes tissue injury and organ dysfunction during acute inflammation. Three models of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by LPS, IgG immune complexes, or C5a were used in C57BL/6 mice, all models requiring availability of both C5a receptors (C5aR and C5L2) for full development of ALI. Ligation of C5aR and C5L2 with C5a triggered the appearance of histones (H3 and H4) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). BALF from humans with ALI contained H4 histone. Histones were absent in control BALF from healthy volunteers. In mice with ALI, in vivo neutralization of H4 with IgG antibody reduced the intensity of ALI. Neutrophil depletion in mice with ALI markedly reduced H4 presence in BALF and was highly protective. The direct lung damaging effects of extracellular histones were demonstrated by airway administration of histones into mice and rats (Sprague-Dawley), which resulted in ALI that was C5a receptor-independent, and associated with intense inflammation, PMN accumulation, damage/destruction of alveolar epithelial cells, together with release into lung of cytokines/chemokines. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated lung damage, edema and consolidation in histone-injured lungs. These studies confirm the destructive C5a-dependent effects in lung linked to appearance of extracellular histones.

  20. Terrorist attacks in the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan: Profile of soft tissue and skeletal injuries from a single trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahid; Waheed, Shahan; Ali, Arif; Mumtaz, Narjis; Feroze, Asher; Noordin, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan has been hugely struck with massive bomb explosions (car and suicide bombs) resulting in multiple casualties in the past few years. The aim of this study is to present the patterns of skeletal and soft tissue injuries and to review the outcome of the victims who presented to our hospital. This is a retrospective chart review from January 2008 to December 2012. The medical record numbers of patients were obtained from the hospital Health Information and Management Sciences (HIMS) as per the ICD-9 coding. During the study period, more than 100 suicide and implanted bomb blast attacks took place in the public proceedings, government offices, residential areas and other places of the city. Altogether 262 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 31±14 years. The shrapnel inflicted wounds were present on to the upper limb in 24 patients and the lower limb in 50. Long bone fractures were the most common skeletal injuries. The fractures were complicated by penetrating fragments and nails which result in post operative infections and prolonged hospital stay.

  1. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Corna, Gianfranca; Rigamonti, Elena; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J; Manfredi, Angelo A; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue.

  2. The long-term impact of tissue injury on pain processing and modulation: a study on ex-prisoners of war who underwent torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrin, R; Ginzburg, K; Mikulincer, M; Solomon, Z

    2014-04-01

    Tissue injury may, in some instances, induce chronic pain lasting for decades. Torture survivors suffer from high rates of chronic pain and hypersensitivity in the previously injured regions. Whether torture survivors display generalized alterations in pain perception and modulation, and whether such alterations underlie their chronic pain is unknown. We aimed at exploring the long-term alterations in pain perception and modulation in torture survivors. In order to address these questions, a systematic quantitative somatosensory evaluation was performed in individuals (n = 60) who suffer from chronic pain, and who, decades previously, were tortured, resulting in substantial tissue damage. These individuals were compared with age- and sex-matched individuals (n = 44) of similar background. Testing included the measurement of pain threshold and pain tolerance, perceived suprathreshold stimuli, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and temporal summation of pain (TSP) in intact body regions. Chronic pain was found highly prevalent (86.6%) among torture survivors, who exhibited higher suprathreshold pain ratings (p < 0.05), poorer CPM (p < 0.0001) and stronger TSP (p < 0.0001) than controls. Significant differences in CPM and TSP were also found between torture survivors and controls with chronic pain. Chronic pain intensity among torture survivors correlated negatively with the magnitude of CPM (r = -0.47, p < 0.01). Torture appears to induce generalized dysfunctional pain modulation that may underlie the intense chronic pain experienced by torture survivors decades after torture. The results may be generalized to instances where chronic pain exists for decades after severe injury in non-tortured populations and emphasize the importance of preventive care. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  4. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Castiglioni

    Full Text Available Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue.

  5. Correlation of NOX1 and NOX2 expression in ulcerative colitis tissue with intestinal mucosal oxidative stress response and barrier function injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of NOX1 and NOX2 expression in ulcerative colitis tissue with intestinal mucosal oxidative stress response and barrier function injury. Methods: A total of 69 patients who were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis in Yan’an People’s Hospital between May 2015 and March 2017 were selected as the UC group of the research, and 78 patients who were diagnosed with colon polyps were selected as the polyps group of the research. The ulcerative colitis lesion and polyp lesion were collected to detect the expression of NOX1 and NOX2, the generation of oxygen free radicals as well as the contents of apoptosis molecules and mucosal barrier molecules. Results: The mRNA expression and protein expression of NOX1 and NOX2 in the intestinal mucosa of UC group were significantly higher than those of polyps group; LPO, MDA, AOPP, NO, PDCD5 and Bax levels in intestinal mucosa of UC group were significantly higher than those of polyps group and positively correlated with the mRNA expression and protein expression of NOX1 and NOX2 while Bcl-2, Cdx1, Cdx2, galectin-1, galectin-3, OCLN, cingulin and ZO-1 levels were significantly lower than those of polyps group and negatively correlated with the mRNA expression and protein expression of NOX1 and NOX2. Conclusion: The high expression of NOX1 and NOX2 in ulcerative colitis tissue can activate the intestinal mucosal oxidative stress response and result in the intestinal mucosal barrier function injury.

  6. Immune priming and experimental glaucoma: the effect of prior systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge on tissue outcomes after optic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Daniel S; Casson, Robert J; Ebneter, Andreas; Chidlow, Glyn; Grace, Peter M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wood, John Pm

    2014-08-01

    Microglial activation is a prominent feature throughout the optic pathway in experimental glaucoma. Pro-inflammatory microglial activation may contribute to neurodegeneration through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide stimulates microglia to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemoattractants. A preliminary investigation demonstrated pro-inflammatory microglial activation throughout the optic pathway following systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge. The aim of the current work was to investigate whether microglial priming with lipopolysaccharide would exacerbate optic nerve injury in rats following experimental glaucoma. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into lipopolysaccharide treatment (n = 15) and saline treatment groups (n = 15). Microglial priming was induced with a 2.5-mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide; control animals received saline. Experimental glaucoma was induced 48 h later in the right eyes of animals by laser photocoagulation of the trabecular meshwork. Animals were sacrificed 9 days after laser treatment. The estimated number of axons per optic nerve was 51 327 ± 3868 (mean ± standard error of the mean) in the lipopolysaccharide group and 54 569 ± 6687 (mean ± standard error of the mean) in the saline group. Optic nerve axon counts were not significantly different between lipopolysaccharide and saline groups (P = 0.67). Systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge had no discernible effect on optic nerve injury in laser-induced experimental glaucoma. These findings do not support the hypothesis that this model of experimental glaucoma involves inflammation and instead suggest that microglial activation may occur secondary to chronic neurodegeneration. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of a new ibuprofen 200mg plaster in patients with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Giannetti, Bruno; Connolly, Mark P; Lewis, Fraser; Bhatt, Aomesh

    2018-01-01

    Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of non-serious pain. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new ibuprofen plaster for the treatment of pain associated with acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (n = 130; 18-58 years of age) diagnosed with acute sports-related blunt soft tissue injury/contusion were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster or placebo plaster. Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was area under the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to three days (VAS AUC 0-3d ). Other endpoints included algometry AUC from 0 to three days (AUC 0-3d ) and 0 to five days (AUC 0-5d ), to evaluate improvement of sensitivity at the injured site, and patient and investigator global assessment of efficacy. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The ibuprofen plaster resulted in superior reduction in AUC 0-3d compared with placebo; the Least Squares (LS) mean difference was 662.82 mm*h in favour of the ibuprofen 200mg plaster (P = 0.0011). The greater improvement in VAS AUC of POM was also observed after 12 h, 24 h, and five days of therapy. Tenderness also significantly improved with the ibuprofen plaster compared with placebo; LS mean difference in algometry/tenderness AUC 0-3d was 1.87 N/cm 2 *d and AUC 0-5d was 1.87 N/cm 2 *d (P values ≤0.0004). At all study timepoints, a greater percentage of patients and investigators rated the effectiveness of the ibuprofen 200 mg plaster as good/excellent than the placebo plaster. Treatment-emergent adverse events for the ibuprofen plaster were few (≤1.5%) and were mild in severity. The results of this study indicate 200 mg plaster is effective and safe for the treatment of pain due to acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion in adults.

  8. Pretreatment with AQP4 and NKCC1 Inhibitors Concurrently Attenuated Spinal Cord Edema and Tissue Damage after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Juanfang; Wang, Xiji; Li, Wenhao; Chen, Jingyuan; Sun, Honghui

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide. Spinal cord edema plays critical roles in the pathological progression of SCI. This study aimed to delineate the roles of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and Na + -K + -Cl - cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in acute phase edema and tissue destruction after SCI and to explore whether inhibiting both AQP4 and NKCC1 could improve SCI-induced spinal edema and damage. Rat SCI model was established by modified Allen's method. Spinal cord water content, cerebrospinal fluid lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, AQP4 and NKCC1 expression, and spinal cord pathology from 30 min to 7 days after SCI were monitored. Additionally, aforementioned parameters in rats treated with AQP4 and/or NKCC1 inhibitors were assessed 2 days after SCI. Spinal cord water content was significantly increased 1 h after SCI while AQP4 and NKCC1 expression and spinal fluid LDH activity elevated 6 h after SCI. Spinal cord edema and spinal cord destruction peaked around 24 h after SCI and maintained at high levels thereafter. Treating rats with AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 and NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide significantly reduced spinal cord edema, tissue destruction, and AQP4 and NKCC1 expression after SCI in an additive manner. These results demonstrated the benefits of simultaneously inhibiting both AQP4 and NKCC1 after SCI.

  9. The Effects of Xiangqing Anodyne Spray on Treating Acute Soft-Tissue Injury Mainly Depend on Suppressing Activations of AKT and p38 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study we try to elucidate the mechanism of Xiangqing anodyne spray (XQAS effects on acute soft-tissue injury (STI. Methods. Acute STI model was established by hammer blow in the rat hind leg muscle. Within 8 hours, instantly after modeling and per 2-hour interval repeated topical applications with or without XQAS, CP or IH ethanol extracts spray (CPS and IHS were performed, respectively; muscle swelling rate and inflammation-related biochemical parameters, muscle histological observation, and mRNA and protein expression were then examined. Results. XQAS dose-dependently suppressed STI-caused muscle swelling, proinflammatory mediator productions, and oxidative stress as well as severe pathological changes in the injured muscle tissue. Moreover, CPS mainly by blocking p38 activation while IHS majorly by blocking AKT activation led to cytoplastic IκBα degradation with NF-κB p65 translocated into the nucleus. There are synergistic effects between CP and IH components in the XQAS on preventing from acute STI with suppressing IκBα degradation, NF-κB p65 translocation, and subsequent inflammation and oxidative stress-related abnormality. Conclusion. Marked effects of XQAS on treating acute STI are ascribed to strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions with a reasonable combination of CP active components, blocking p38-NF-κB pathway activated, and IH active components, blocking AKT-NF-κB pathway activated.

  10. Role of oxidative tissue injury in the pathophysiology of experimentally induced equine laminitis: a comparison of 2 models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T A; Westerman, T; Nuovo, G J; Watts, M R; Pettigrew, A; Yin, C; Belknap, J K

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress reportedly plays a role in sepsis-induced organ dysfunction and failure in many species. In septic horses, laminae are targeted; evidence of laminar oxidative stress has been reported experimentally in the black walnut extract (BWE) model. Carbohydrate (CHO)-induced laminitis may be more similar to clinical sepsis-related laminitis than the BWE model in that animals with CHO-induced disease commonly develop laminar failure. The role of oxidative stress in the CHO model remains unknown. Markers of oxidative stress will be increased in laminae from horses with BWE- and CHO-induced laminitis. Banked laminar tissue from various time points from animals subjected to BWE (n = 15) and CHO (n = 20) protocols. Laminar 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and protein carbonyl content were evaluated by slot blot analysis. Laminar 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) immunohistochemistry was performed. The number of laminar 3-NT (+) cells was increased at developmental and Obel grade 1 (OG1) time points in the BWE model (versus control [CON]; P= .013) and lower in OG1 tissues than CON in the CHO model (P = .04). No change in 4-HNE content was observed in the CHO model, and no increase in laminar protein carbonyl content was present in either model (P > .05). These results do not support a prominent role for oxidative stress at examined time points in CHO-overload laminitis and support transient oxidative stress in the BWE model. Tissue oxidation does not appear to be a central early pathophysiologic event in CHO-associated laminitis. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Ligamentous Injuries and the Risk of Associated Tissue Damage in Acute Ankle Sprains in Athletes: A Cross-sectional MRI Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Frank W.; Jomaah, Nabil; Niu, Jingbo; Almusa, Emad; Roger, Bernard; D'Hooghe, Pieter; Geertsema, Celeste; Tol, Johannes L.; Khan, Karim; Guermazi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Ankle joint injuries are extremely common sports injuries, with the anterior talofibular ligament involved in the majority of ankle sprains. There have been only a few large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on associated structural injuries after ankle sprains. To describe the injury pattern

  12. Two-dimensional zymography differentiates gelatinase isoforms in stimulated microglial cells and in brain tissues of acute brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanyan; Meng, Fanjun; Chen, Zhenzhou; Tomlinson, Brittany N; Wesley, Jennifer M; Sun, Grace Y; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2015-01-01

    Excessive activation of gelatinases (MMP-2/-9) is a key cause of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. A single-dimension zymography has been widely used to determine gelatinase expression and activity, but this method is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity could be modified at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In this study, we investigated gelatinase isoforms under in vitro and in vivo conditions using two-dimensional (2D) gelatin zymography electrophoresis, a protocol allowing separation of proteins based on isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights. We observed organomercuric chemical 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate-induced activation of MMP-2 isoforms with variant pI values in the conditioned medium of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Studies with murine BV-2 microglial cells indicated a series of proform MMP-9 spots separated by variant pI values due to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The MMP-9 pI values were shifted after treatment with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting presence of phosphorylated isoforms due to the proinflammatory stimulation. Similar MMP-9 isoforms with variant pI values in the same molecular weight were also found in mouse brains after ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. In contrast, there was no detectable pI differentiation of MMP-9 in the brains of chronic Zucker obese rats. These results demonstrated effective use of 2D zymography to separate modified MMP isoforms with variant pI values and to detect posttranslational modifications under different pathological conditions.

  13. The Potential of Combination Therapeutics for More Complete Repair of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries: The Role of Exogenous Growth Factors and/or Progenitor Cells in Implantable Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passipieri, Juliana A; Christ, George J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the robust regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, there are a variety of congenital and acquired conditions in which the volume of skeletal muscle loss results in major permanent functional and cosmetic deficits. These latter injuries are referred to as volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries or VML-like conditions, and they are characterized by the simultaneous absence of multiple tissue components (i.e., nerves, vessels, muscles, satellite cells, and matrix). There are currently no effective treatment options. Regenerative medicine/tissue engineering technologies hold great potential for repair of these otherwise irrecoverable VML injuries. In this regard, three-dimensional scaffolds have been used to deliver sustained amounts of growth factors into a variety of injury models, to modulate host cell recruitment and extracellular matrix remodeling. However, this is a nascent field of research, and more complete functional improvements require more precise control of the spatiotemporal distribution of critical growth factors over a physiologically relevant range. This is especially true for VML injuries where incorporation of a cellular component into the scaffolds might provide not only a source of new tissue formation but also additional signals for host cell migration, recruitment, and survival. To this end, we review the major features of muscle repair and regeneration for largely recoverable injuries, and then discuss recent cell- and/or growth factor-based approaches to repair the more profound and irreversible VML and VML-like injuries. The underlying supposition is that more rationale incorporation of exogenous growth factors and/or cellular components will be required to optimize the regenerative capacity of implantable therapeutics for VML repair. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Local soft tissue musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, A; Ilieva, E M; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. Soft tissue musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and injuries are associated with significant pain and loss of function that may lead to significant disability. The aim of this paper is to define the role of PRM physician in the management of local soft tissue MSDs and injuries with their specific focus on assessing and improving function as well as participation in the community. The training of PRM specialists make them well equipped to successfully treat MSDs including soft tissue MSDs and injuries. PRM specialists may well meet the needs of patients with soft tissue MSDs and injuries using PRM approaches including 1) assessment based on the comprehensive model of functioning, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), that enable them to identify the areas of impaired functioning in order to apply necessary measures; 2) accurate diagnosis using instrumental diagnostic procedures in addition to clinical examination; 3) outcome measurements available to them; 4) evidence-based pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments; and finally 5) maintenance of social involvement including "return to work" based on restoration of function, all of which will eventually result in improved quality of life for patients with soft tissue MSDs and injuries.

  15. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  16. Infection of Atlantic salmon with Moritella viscosus compared to a mechanical tissue injury model in rainbow trout show similar expression patterns of cytokine genes and may be related to triggering of the same signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Physical damage of tissue and multiple kinds of infections are found to cause inflammatory reactions in mammals. Regardless of the difference between non-pathogenic induced tissue damage and a bacterial infection, many of the same pathways and genes are triggered. To determine if the same...... phenomenon occurs in salmonid fishes, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were infected with the bacteria Moritella viscosus, the causative agent of winter ulcer. The clinical signs showing visible, punctual lesions in the skin make this pathogen unique in order to study local inflammation. Muscle tissue...... mykiss) were subjected to controlled tissue disruption applying sterile needles to skin and muscle tissue to one side of the fish. Samples were taken 4, 8, 24 hours and 7 days post injury from both the injured side and non injured site, internal control. From both studies, the samples were subject...

  17. Implication of endothelial to mesenchymal cell transition in the development of healthy digestive tissue injury following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintet, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is identified as a chronic side effect occurring after radiotherapy for pelvic tumors in 5 to 10 % of patients. This pathological healing process is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix synthesized by mesenchymal cells. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), is a processes during which endothelial cells express mesenchymal markers in response to stress. EndoMT is identified as a new source of mesenchymal cells taking part to fibrosis development in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. Then, this study focused on the potential participation of EndoMT in radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis and tried to identify new therapeutics targets. Interestingly, our results showed for the first time EndoMT in rectal tissues from patients who developed radiation proctitis following radiotherapy. We used an in vivo approach to follow the mesenchymal cells having an endothelial origin in a mouse model expressing the GFP under the control of an endothelial promoter, Tie2 (Tie2-GFP). Thereby, our results confirmed the existence of radiation-induced EndoMT in our preclinical model of radiation proctitis. In vitro characterization showed that irradiation induced a modulation of the endothelial phenotype through a mesenchymal profile, a hallmark of EndoMT. This project also focused on a potential molecular actor, Hey2. In this context, we generated a transgenic mouse model in which Hey2 gene expression is repressed specifically in the endothelial compartment and observed a decrease in radiation-induced mucosal damages and EndoMT frequency. Consequently, inhibiting Hey2 expression could represent a new interesting therapeutic strategy. (author)

  18. Determining the Depth of Injury in Bioengineered Tissue Models of Cornea and Conjunctiva for the Prediction of All Three Ocular GHS Categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Zorn-Kruppa

    Full Text Available The depth of injury (DOI is a mechanistic correlate to the ocular irritation response. Attempts to quantitatively determine the DOI in alternative tests have been limited to ex vivo animal eyes by fluorescent staining for biomarkers of cell death and viability in histological cross sections. It was the purpose of this study to assess whether DOI could also be measured by means of cell viability detected by the MTT assay using 3-dimensional (3D reconstructed models of cornea and conjunctiva. The formazan-free area of metabolically inactive cells in the tissue after topical substance application is used as the visible correlate of the DOI. Areas of metabolically active or inactive cells are quantitatively analyzed on cryosection images with ImageJ software analysis tools. By incorporating the total tissue thickness, the relative MTT-DOI (rMTT-DOI was calculated. Using the rMTT-DOI and human reconstructed cornea equivalents, we developed a prediction model based on suitable viability cut-off values. We tested 25 chemicals that cover the whole range of eye irritation potential based on the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS. Principally, the MTT-DOI test method allows distinguishing between the cytotoxic effects of the different chemicals in accordance with all 3 GHS categories for eye irritation. Although the prediction model is slightly over-predictive with respect to non-irritants, it promises to be highly valuable to discriminate between severe irritants (Cat. 1, and mild to moderate irritants (Cat. 2. We also tested 3D conjunctiva models with the aim to specifically address conjunctiva-damaging substances. Using the MTT-DOI method in this model delivers comparable results as the cornea model, but does not add additional information. However, the MTT-DOI method using reconstructed cornea models already provided good predictability that was superior to the already existing established in vitro/ex vivo

  19. Neuroendocrine and Cardiac Metabolic Dysfunction and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Adipose Tissue and Pancreas following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E. Bigford

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available CVD (cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury. Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI. Using immunohistochemical, -precipitation, and -blotting analysis, we show decreased POMC (proopiomelanocortin and increased NPY (neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic ARC (arcuate nucleus and PVN (paraventricular nucleus, 1-month post-SCI. Long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb, JAK2 (Janus kinase/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/p38 and RhoA/ROCK (Rho-associated kinase signaling is significantly increased in the heart tissue post-SCI, and we observe the formation and activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome in VAT (visceral adipose tissue and pancreas post-SCI. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine signaling peptide alterations, associated with central inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI, and provide evidence for the peripheral activation of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiac, VAT and pancreatic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI. Further understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to SCI-related inflammatory processes and metabolic dysfunction associated with CVD pathology may help to direct therapeutic and rehabilitation countermeasures.

  20. Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Frank C., III; and Others

    The majority of shoulder injuries occurring in throwing sports involve the soft tissue structures. Injuries often occur when the unit is overstretched to a point near its greatest length, involving the elastic tissues. The other injury mechanism involves the contractural unit of the muscle, which occurs near the midpoint of contractions, involving…

  1. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstead, William M [U PENNSYLVANIA; Kiessling, J W [U PENNSYLVANIA; Chen, Xiao - Han [U PENNSYLVANIA; Smith, Douglas H [U PENNSYLVANA; Higazi, Abd Ar [U PENNSYLVANIA; Cines, Douglas B [U PENNSYLVANIA; Bdeir, Khalil [U PENNSYLVANIA; Zaitsev, Sergei [U PENNSYLVANIA; Muzykantov, Vladimir R [U PENNSYLVANIA

    2008-01-01

    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  2. Effect of MgSO4 on the contents of Ca2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of rats with radiation-induced acute brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenjia; Cui Fengmei; Liu Ping; He Chao; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2009-01-01

    The work is to explore the protection of magnesium sulfate(MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injury. Thirty six mature Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, experimental control and experimental therapy group. The whole brains of SD rats of experimental control and experimental therapy group were irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron beam. MgSO 4 was injected into the abdomen of experimental therapy rats group 1 day before, immediately and continue for 5 days after irradiation respectively. The brain tissues were taken on 3, 10, 17 and 24 d after irradiation. Ca 2+ content in brain cell was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the NO content in brain tissue was detected by the method of nitric acid reductase. Compared with the blank control group, the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of the experimental control group increase (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue after radiation-induced acute brain injury. It means that MgSO 4 has a protective effect on radiation-induced acute brain injury. (authors)

  3. Implementation of a Shoulder Soft Tissue Injury Triage Service in a UK NHS Teaching Hospital Improves Time to Surgery for Acute Rotator Cuff Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Marcus; Davies-Jones, Gareth; Tambe, Amol; Clark, David I

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder problems account for 2.4% of GP consultations in the United Kingdom and of those 70% are related to the rotator cuff. Many rotator cuff tears are of a degenerate nature but they can occur as a result of trauma in 8% of cases. Evidence suggests that patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears gain a better outcome in terms of pain and function if the tear is repaired early after injury. A specialist shoulder soft tissue injury clinic was set up in a large UK NHS teaching hospital with the primary purpose in the first year to halve the length of time patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears had to wait to consult a specialist and double the number of patients undergoing surgical repair within three months. The secondary purpose was to ensure that the new clinic was utilised to capacity by the end of the first year. The clinic was later expanded to manage patients with acute glenohumeral joint (GHJ) or acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocations and identify those patients requiring surgical stabilisation. The new service involved referral of all patients presenting to the Accident & Emergency department with recent shoulder trauma and either an inability to raise the arm over shoulder height with a normal set of radiographs, or a confirmed GHJ or ACJ dislocation; to a specialist clinic run by an experienced upper limb physiotherapist. Patients were reassessed and referred for further imaging if required. Those patients found to have traumatic rotator cuff tears or structural instability lesions were listed for expedited surgery. The clinic ran alongside a consultant-led fracture clinic giving fast access to surgical decision-making. The service was reviewed after 3, 6, and 12 months and findings compared to a sample of 30 consecutive patients having undergone rotator cuff repair surgery via the previous pathway. 144 patients were referred to the clinic in the first year: 62 with rotator cuff symptoms, 38 with GHJ instability, 13 with ACJ instability, and 33

  4. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...

  5. High velocity missile injuries of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    large exit wounds or evidence of cavitating injury to the liver or all of the above. Bomb blast fragment injury with marked tissue destruction with burns of the surrounding tissue was also considered as high velocity inissile injury. Demographic data and mechanisms of injury were noted. A policy of mandatory laparotomy was ...

  6. Is exercise effective for the management of subacromial impingement syndrome and other soft tissue injuries of the shoulder? A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Sean Y; Southerst, Danielle; Côté, Pierre; Shearer, Heather M; Sutton, Deborah; Randhawa, Kristi; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Wong, Jessica J; Yu, Hainan; Marchand, Andrée-Anne; Chrobak, Karen; Woitzik, Erin; Shergill, Yaadwinder; Ferguson, Brad; Stupar, Maja; Nordin, Margareta; Jacobs, Craig; Mior, Silvano; Carroll, Linda J; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Exercise is a key component of rehabilitation for soft tissue injuries of the shoulder; however its effectiveness remains unclear. Determine the effectiveness of exercise for shoulder pain. We searched seven databases from 1990 to 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort and case control studies comparing exercise to other interventions for shoulder pain. We critically appraised eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria. We synthesized findings from scientifically admissible studies using best-evidence synthesis methodology. We retrieved 4853 articles. Eleven RCTs were appraised and five had a low risk of bias. Four studies addressed subacromial impingement syndrome. One study addressed nonspecific shoulder pain. For variable duration subacromial impingement syndrome: 1) supervised strengthening leads to greater short-term improvement in pain and disability over wait listing; and 2) supervised and home-based strengthening and stretching leads to greater short-term improvement in pain and disability compared to no treatment. For persistent subacromial impingement syndrome: 1) supervised and home-based strengthening leads to similar outcomes as surgery; and 2) home-based heavy load eccentric training does not add benefits to home-based rotator cuff strengthening and physiotherapy. For variable duration low-grade nonspecific shoulder pain, supervised strengthening and stretching leads to similar short-term outcomes as corticosteroid injections or multimodal care. The evidence suggests that supervised and home-based progressive shoulder strengthening and stretching are effective for the management of subacromial impingement syndrome. For low-grade nonspecific shoulder pain, supervised strengthening and stretching are equally effective to corticosteroid injections or multimodal care. CRD42013003928. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Imaging of muscle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, G.Y. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Brandser, E.A. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kathol, M.H. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Tearse, D.S. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Callaghan, J.J. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1996-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  8. Novel roles for metallothionein-I + II (MT-I + II) in defense responses, neurogenesis, and tissue restoration after traumatic brain injury: insights from global gene expression profiling in wild-type and MT-I + II knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkowa, Milena; Cáceres, Mario; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Poulsen, Christian Bjørn; Quintana, Albert; Molinero, Amalia; Carrasco, Javier; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Juan

    2006-11-15

    Traumatic injury to the brain is one of the leading causes of injury-related death or disability, especially among young people. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress likely underlie much of the damage elicited by injury, but the full repertoire of responses involved is not well known. A genomic approach, such as the use of microarrays, provides much insight in this regard, especially if combined with the use of gene-targeted animals. We report here the results of one of these studies comparing wild-type and metallothionein-I + II knockout mice subjected to a cryolesion of the somatosensorial cortex and killed at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 16 days postlesion (dpl) using Affymetrix genechips/oligonucleotide arrays interrogating approximately 10,000 different murine genes (MG_U74Av2). Hierarchical clustering analysis of these genes readily shows an orderly pattern of gene responses at specific times consistent with the processes involved in the initial tissue injury and later regeneration of the parenchyma, as well as a prominent effect of MT-I + II deficiency. The results thoroughly confirmed the importance of the antioxidant proteins MT-I + II in the response of the brain to injury and opened new avenues that were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Data in KO, MT-I-overexpressing, and MT-II-injected mice strongly suggest a role of these proteins in postlesional activation of neural stem cells.

  9. Orbital soft-tissue trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazen, J Levi; Lantos, Joshua; Gupta, Ajay; Lelli, Gary J; Phillips, C Douglas

    2014-08-01

    In the clinical assessment of orbital trauma, visual acuity and extraocular muscle motility are critical for rapid evaluation of injury severity. However, assessment of these parameters may be limited by edema and concomitant injuries. Imaging may further delineate the trauma pattern and extent of injury. This review focuses on orbital soft-tissue injuries that can exist with or without orbital fracture. Imaging techniques and soft-tissue injuries, including those involving the anterior chamber, iris and ciliary body, lens, globe, posterior segment, and optic nerve, are reviewed, in addition to intraocular foreign bodies and cavernous-carotid fistulas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lihua; Cui, Jingkun; Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng; Han, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  11. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Lihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Cui, Jingkun [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanling School District Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Fujun, E-mail: fujun_han@aliyun.com [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  12. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your legs are made up of bones, blood vessels, muscles, and other connective tissue. They are important for motion ... falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint ...

  13. Painful Cervical Facet Joint Injury Is Accompanied by Changes in the Number of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses in the Superficial Dorsal Horn That Differentially Relate to Local Tissue Injury Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Meagan E; Crosby, Nathan D; Bulka, Ben A; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2017-06-15

    Immunohistochemistry labeled pre- and postsynaptic structural markers to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the spinal superficial dorsal horn at 14 days after painful facet joint injury in the rat. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain and synapse density in the spinal cord after facet injury. Neck pain is a major contributor to disability and often becomes chronic. The cervical facet joints are susceptible to loading-induced painful injury, initiating spinal central sensitization responses. Although excitatory synapse plasticity has been reported in the superficial dorsal horn early after painful facet injury, whether excitatory and/or inhibitory synapse density is altered at a time when pain is maintained is unknown. Rats underwent either a painful C6/C7 facet joint distraction or sham surgery. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured and immunohistochemistry techniques for synapse quantification were used to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapse densities in the superficial dorsal horn at day 14. Logarithmic correlation analyses evaluated whether the severity of facet injury correlated with either behavioral or synaptic outcomes. Facet joint injury induces pain that is sustained until day 14 (P Injury severity is significantly correlated with pain at days 1 (P = 0.0011) and 14 (P = 0.0002), but only with inhibitory, not excitatory, synapse density (P = 0.0025) at day 14. This study demonstrates a role for structural plasticity in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the maintenance of facet-mediated joint pain, and that altered inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse density correlates to the severity of painful joint injury. Understanding the functional consequences of this spinal structural plasticity is critical to elucidate mechanisms of chronic joint pain. N /A.

  14. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause any lasting problems for your child or teen. Growth plates are areas of growing tissues that cause ... are replaced by solid bone. Who gets them? Growth plate injuries happen to children and teens. This injury happens twice as often in boys ...

  15. Nasal avulsion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneny, J C

    1987-11-01

    The nose is the most frequently traumatized portion of the human face. High-speed motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence commonly produce bony pyramid and septal damage and occasional minor soft-tissue damage. Major soft-tissue injuries are much less commonly encountered. Avulsion injuries of this type may involve skin only or the bony and cartilaginous framework as well. The severity of these injuries can range from total avulsion to minor skin loss and anywhere within the spectrum between. My experience is reviewed, management guidelines and options are detailed, and selected cases are presented.

  16. Sports injuries in adolescent boarding school boys.

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, J H

    1985-01-01

    A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football...

  17. Further Development of a Tissue Engineered Muscle Repair Construct In Vitro for Enhanced Functional Recovery Following Implantation In Vivo in a Murine Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    derived from all three in vitro protocols were im- planted at the site of a surgically created VML injury in the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of nude...inserted at the humerus. Suture markers were then placed on the LD muscle demarking the superior half of the spinal fascia and the medial half of the of...0) to the site of injury. In all cases, the fascia and skin were then sutured and closed, and the animals were allowed to recover from anesthesia. Of

  18. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  19. Soft-tissue injuries from sports activities and traffic accidents--treatment with low-level laser therapy: a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study on 132 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Zlatko; Trobonjaca, Tatjana

    2000-06-01

    The aim of current multicenter clinical study was to assess the efficacy of low energy-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of soft tissue injuries compared to the placebo and classical phyiotherapeutic procedures. This clinical study was conducted in two centers located in Locarno, Switzerland and Opatija, Croatia. Two types of irradiation techniques were used: (1) direct, skin contact technique for treatment of trigger points where IR diode laser 830 nm continuous wave was applied; and (2) scanning technique for irradiation of larger surface area with use of Helium Neon laser 632.8 nm combined with IR diode laser 904 nm pulsed wave. Results were evaluated according to clinical parameters like: hematoma, swelling, heat, pan and loss of function. The findings were statistically analyzed via chi- square test. Results have demonstrated that the recovery process was accelerated in 85 percent of patients treated with LLLT compared to the control group of patients. The results and advantages obtained proved once again the efficacy of LLLT as a new and successful way to treat soft tissue injuries.

  20. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Mahfouz

    Stem cells;. Bladder tissue engineering;. Decellularization;. Bladder acellular matrix. Abstract. A wide range of injuries could affect the bladder and lead to eventual loss ... Tissue engineering relies upon three essential pillars; the scaffold, the cells seeded on scaffolds and lastly ..... Clinical trials in bladder tissue engineering.

  1. The prevalence of crown injuries to frontal teeth at schoolchildren aged 6 to 14 and their effects on the periodontal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascălu, Ionela Teodora; Manolea, Horia Octavian; Coleş, Evantia; Dăguci, Constantin; Bătăiosu, Marilena; Andrei, Cristina Maria; Ţuculină, Mihaela Jana; Diaconu, Oana Andreea; Dăguci, LuminiŢa

    2016-01-01

    The research aims at emphasizing the interrelation between the social impact and the self-esteem of schoolchildren with dental crown fractures in the frontal group. Dental traumatic injuries are frequently met to schoolchildren, therefore, the prevention and interception of traumatic pathology within parents, teachers and children is more than necessary. Our statistical study intends to determine the prevalence of dental trauma to southwestern Romanian schoolchildren aged 6 to 14. The survey included a number of 1684 schoolchildren attending public schools, randomly chosen. Data were collected from October 2012 to December 2013. Clinical examination was conducted to assess the dental traumatic injuries. Age and gender distribution, etiological factors, risk factors and the cause of injuries were the parameters taken into consideration. The data collected was processed and analyzed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) statistical software. The overall prevalence of dental trauma was 4.63% amongst the subjects examined. The maxillary central incisor was the most commonly affected tooth (85.19% in boys and 97.87% in girls). We observed a significant statistical difference in the number of children with one, two or three fractured teeth from the urban and rural areas. The percentage of schoolchildren with crown fractures that we examined was of 3.09% in the urban area and 1.54% in the rural area. The traumatic injuries of the maxillary upper teeth were most prevalent. Since the dental trauma of incisors has a strong impact on the quality of life of children and their families, health preventive policies are needed in order to avoid psychological implications on the lifelong existence of children affected.

  2. Extravasation injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, D T

    1993-03-01

    The leakage of cytotoxic drugs, intravenous nutrition, solutions of calcium, potassium, bicarbonate and even 10% dextrose outside the vein into which they are delivered is known not only to cause skin necrosis but also to precipitate significant scarring around tendons, nerves and joints. In this review of 96 patients with extravasation injuries seen between 1987 and 1992 at St Thomas' Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, several patients required extensive reconstruction and in some, despite this, extravasation injury has rendered a limb virtually useless. Two techniques, liposuction and saline flushout, are described to remove extravasated material while conserving the overlying skin. Analysis of flushout material confirmed that the extravasated material was actually being removed. Forty four of the study group in whom noxious materials were known to have extravasated underwent such early treatment. The results in this group were quite striking--the majority (86%) healed without any soft tissue loss at all. The early referral and treatment of extravasation injuries is, therefore, recommended.

  3. Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Tissue Injury via Secretion of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Stimulated Protein/Gene 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have described therapeutic benefits in various disease models after administration of the adult stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow or other tissues referred to as mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. They all showed that one of the important effects of MSCs is to act against excessive inflammatory responses and repair the damaged tissues. The therapeutic benefits of MSCs were initially interpreted by their migration, engraftment, and differentiation into target tissues. However, remarkable anatomical structural repairs and functional improvements were increasingly observed with a small number of or even no MSCs in the injured tissues. This suggests that most beneficial effects are largely due to paracrine secretions or cell-to-cell contacts that have multiple effects involving modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Currently, the therapeutic benefits of MSCs are in part explained by the cells being activated by signals from injured tissues to express an anti-inflammatory protein, tumor-necrosis-factor-α-induced protein 6. This important mechanism of action has attracted increasing attention, and therefore we conducted this review to summarize the latest research.

  4. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) does not reduce subcutaneous adipose tissue by local adipocyte injury but rather by modulation of systemic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Marek; Gawrych, Mariusz; Adamska, Urszula; Ciescinski, Jakub; Serafin, Zbigniew; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied recently to body contouring. However the mechanism of LLLT-induced reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness has not been elucidated and proposed hypotheses are highly controversial. Non-obese volunteers were subject to 650nm LLLT therapy. Each patient received 6 treatments 2-3 days apart to one side of the abdomen. The contralateral side was left untreated and served as control. Subjects' abdominal adipose tissue thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging at baseline and 2 weeks post-treatment. Our study is to the best of our knowledge, the largest split-abdomen study employing subcutaneous abdominal fat imaging. We could not show a statistically significant reduction of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue by LLLT therapy. Paradoxically when the measurements of the loss of fat thickness on treated side was corrected for change in thickness on non treated side, we have observed that in 8 out of 17 patients LLLT increased adipose tissue thickness. In two patients severe side effect occurred as a result of treatment: one patient developed ulceration within appendectomy scar, the other over the posterior superior iliac spine. The paradoxical net increase in subcutaneous fat thickness observed in some of our patients is a rationale against liquefactive and transitory pore models of LLLT-induced adipose tissue reduction. LLLT devices with laser diode panels applied directly on the skin are not as safe as devices with treatment panels separated from the patient's skin.

  5. Release of Tissue-specific Proteins into Coronary Perfusate as a Model for Biomarker Discovery in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart; Edwards, Alistair; Liddy, Kiersten

    2012-01-01

    of 60 min reperfusion following brief, reversible ischemia (15 min; 15I/60R) for comparison with irreversible I/R (60I/60R). Perfusate proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS), revealing 26 tissue-specific proteins released during...... reperfusion post-15I. Proteins released during irreversible I/R (60I/60R) were profiled using gel-based (2-DE and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; geLC–MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) methods. A total of 192 tissue-specific proteins were identified......Diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes is based on protein biomarkers, such as the cardiac troponins (cTnI/cTnT) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) that are released into the circulation. Biomarker discovery is focused on identifying very low abundance tissue-derived analytes from within albumin...

  6. Maxillofacial injuries and traumatic brain injury--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Syed Omar, Syed Nabil; Rashdi, Muhd Fazly Nizam; Abdul Jabar, Mohd Nazimi

    2014-04-01

    Maxillofacial injuries comprising hard tissue as well as soft tissue injuries can be associated with traumatic brain injuries due to the impact of forces transmitted through the head and neck. To date, the role of maxillofacial injury on brain injury has not been properly documented with some saying it has a protective function on the brain while others opposing this idea. This cross-sectional retrospective study evaluated all patients with maxillofacial injuries. The aim of the study was to analyze the occurrence and relationship of maxillofacial injuries with traumatic brain injuries. We retrospectively studied the hospital charts of all trauma patients seen at the accident and emergency department of UKM Medical Centre from November 2010 until November 2011. A detail analysis was then carried out on all patients who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 11294 patients were classified as trauma patients in which 176 patients had facial fractures and 292 did not have facial fractures. Middle face fractures was the most common pattern of facial fracture seen. Traumatic brain injury was present in 36.7% of maxillofacial cases. A significant association was found between facial fractures and traumatic brain injury (P maxillofacial injuries with or without facial fractures are at risk of acute or delayed traumatic brain injury. All patients should always have proper radiological investigations together with a proper observation and follow-up schedule. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Injuries in racket sports among Slovenian players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondric, Miran; Matković, Branka R; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Hadzić, Vedran; Dervisević, Edvin

    2011-06-01

    On the sample of 83 top Slovenian athletes we have studied the frequency of injuries among table tennis, tennis and badminton players, types of injuries and severity of injuries--the latter based on data of players absences from training and/or competition processes. The most liable parts to injuries are shoulder girdle (17.27%), spine (16.55%) and ankle (15.83%), while foot (10.07%) and wrist (12.23%) are slightly less liable to injuries. The most frequent injuries in racket sports pertain to muscle tissues. According to this data, the majority of injuries occur halfway through a training session or a competition event, mostly during a competition season. The injuries primarily pertain to muscle tissues; these are followed by joint and tendon injuries. There are no differences between male and female players. Compared to other racket sports players, table tennis players suffer from fewer injuries.

  8. A systematic review on the effect of serious games and wearable technology used in rehabilitation of patients with traumatic bone and soft tissue injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Henriëtte A. W.; Graafland, Maurits; Goslings, J. Carel; Schijven, Marlies P.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects on functional outcomes and treatment adherence of wearable technology and serious games (i.e., interactive computer applications with specific purposes useful in the 'real world') currently applied in physical rehabilitation of patients after traumatic bone and soft tissue

  9. Does the Zone of Injury in Combat-Related Type III Open Tibia Fractures Preclude the Use of Local Soft Tissue Coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    wound management , although consistently similar, were not standardized among patients, surgeons, or institutions and soft tissue coverage type was...Wilkins; 2002:415 462. 2. Bagg MR, Levin LS. Moderators’summary: wound management (session II). J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2006;14:S73 S74. 3. Adams WP Jr

  10. The prostaglandin E1 analog, misoprostol, a normal tissue protector, does not protect four murine tumors in vivo from radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.R.; Zhen, W.; Geng, L.

    1995-01-01

    The clinical development of radioprotectors, such as misoprostol, to protect normal tissue during cancer treatment must proceed with the assurance that tumors are not protected similarly or significantly. To provide data on this critical question, radiation-induced growth delay with or without the presence of misoprostol was measured in four murine tumors grown in the flanks of mice: the Lewis lung carcinoma, M-5076 ovarian sarcoma, FSA and NFSA. The effect of misoprostol on the tumor control dose (TCD 50 ) of radiation was measured in FSA-bearing mice with or without prior treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Misoprostol did not influence the in vivo growth of any of the four tumors, nor did it protect any of the tumors from radiation-induced growth delay. Likewise, there was no increase in the radiation TCD 50 to treat the FSA in vivo in control or indomethacin-treated tumor-bearing mice. To measure any possible influence of tumor burden on the protective effect of miso-prostol on normal tissue in mice, the protective effect of misoprostol on the survival of intestinal clonogenic cells was measured in M-5076-bearing mice and found to be the same as in non-tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that misoprostol protects normal tissue in mice without protecting at least four experimental murine tumors. The data support the contention that misoprostol can achieve therapeutic gain by protecting normal tissues without protecting tumors. 44 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. The prostaglandin E{sub 1} analog, misoprostol, a normal tissue protector, does not protect four murine tumors in vivo from radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.R.; Zhen, W.; Geng, L. [Loyola Univ. Chicago and Hines Veterans Administration Medical Centers, Hines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The clinical development of radioprotectors, such as misoprostol, to protect normal tissue during cancer treatment must proceed with the assurance that tumors are not protected similarly or significantly. To provide data on this critical question, radiation-induced growth delay with or without the presence of misoprostol was measured in four murine tumors grown in the flanks of mice: the Lewis lung carcinoma, M-5076 ovarian sarcoma, FSA and NFSA. The effect of misoprostol on the tumor control dose (TCD{sub 50}) of radiation was measured in FSA-bearing mice with or without prior treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Misoprostol did not influence the in vivo growth of any of the four tumors, nor did it protect any of the tumors from radiation-induced growth delay. Likewise, there was no increase in the radiation TCD{sub 50} to treat the FSA in vivo in control or indomethacin-treated tumor-bearing mice. To measure any possible influence of tumor burden on the protective effect of miso-prostol on normal tissue in mice, the protective effect of misoprostol on the survival of intestinal clonogenic cells was measured in M-5076-bearing mice and found to be the same as in non-tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that misoprostol protects normal tissue in mice without protecting at least four experimental murine tumors. The data support the contention that misoprostol can achieve therapeutic gain by protecting normal tissues without protecting tumors. 44 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Assessment of C-phycocyanin effect on astrocytes-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative brain injury using 2D and 3D astrocyte tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seul Ki; Park, Jun Sang; Luo, Lidan; Kwon, Yeo Seon; Lee, Hoo Cheol; Shim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2015-09-24

    Drugs are currently being developed to attenuate oxidative stress as a treatment for brain injuries. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is an antioxidant protein of green microalgae known to exert neuroprotective effects against oxidative brain injury. Astrocytes, which compose many portions of the brain, exert various functions to overcome oxidative stress; however, little is known about how C-Pc mediates the antioxidative effects of astrocytes. In this study, we revealed that C-Pc intranasal administration to the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats ensures neuroprotection of ischemic brain by reducing infarct size and improving behavioral deficits. C-Pc also enhanced viability and proliferation but attenuated apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of oxidized astrocytes, without cytotoxicity to normal astrocytes and neurons. To elucidate how C-Pc leads astrocytes to enhance neuroprotection and repair of ischemia brain, we firstly developed 3D oxidized astrocyte model. C-Pc had astrocytes upregulate antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and neurotrophic factors BDNF and NGF, while alleviating inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-1β and glial scar. Additionally, C-Pc improved viability of 3D oxidized neurons. In summary, C-Pc was concluded to activate oxidized astrocytes to protect and repair the ischemic brain with the combinatorial effects of improved antioxidative, neurotrophic, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  13. Head injuries in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, R C

    1996-12-01

    Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common athletic head injury is concussion, which may very widely in severity. Intracranial haemorrhage is the leading cause of head injury death in sports, making rapid initial assessment and appropriate follow up mandatory after a head injury. Diffuse cerebral swelling is another serious condition that may be found in the child or adolescent athlete, and the second impact syndrome is a major concern in adult athletes. Many head injuries in athletes are the result of improper playing techniques and can be reduced by teaching proper skills and enforcing safety promoting rules. Improved conditioning (particularly of the neck), protective headgear, and careful medical supervision of athletes will also minimise this type of injury.

  14. Regulated necrosis-related molecule mRNA expression in humans and mice and in murine acute tissue injury and systemic autoimmunity leading to progressive organ damage, and progressive fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpisheh, Mohsen; Desai, Jyaysi; Marschner, Julian A; Weidenbusch, Marc; Lech, Maciej; Vielhauer, Volker; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Mulay, Shrikant R

    2016-12-01

    The species-specific, as well as organ-specific expression of regulated necrosis (RN)-related molecules, is not known. We determined the expression levels of tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), receptor activated protein kinase (RIPK)1, RIPK3, mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), CASP8, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (CIAP)1, CIAP2, glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4), cyclophilin D (CYPD), CASP1, NLRP3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) in human and mouse solid organs. We observed significant differences in expression of these molecules between human and mice. In addition, we characterized their expression profiles in acute as well as persistent tissue injury and chronic tissue remodelling using acute and chronic kidney injury models. We observed that the degree and pattern of induction of RN-related molecules were highly dependent on the trigger and disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we studied their expression patterns in mice with lupus-like systemic autoimmunity, which revealed that the expression of MLKL, GPX4 and PARP1 significantly increased in the spleen along disease progression and CASP1, RIPK1, RIPK3 and CYPD were higher at the earlier stages but were significantly decreased in the later stages. In contrast, in the kidney, the expression of genes involved in pyroptosis, e.g. NLRP3 and CASP1 were significantly increased and TNFR1, RIPK1, RIPK3, CIAP1/2 and GPX4 were significantly decreased along the progression of lupus nephritis (LN). Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression of RN-related molecules should be considered during designing experiments, interpreting the results as well as extrapolating the conclusions from one species or organ to another species or organ respectively. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. [Effects of eye-acupuncture therapy on the expression of AQP4 in brain tissue of rats with acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Ma, Xian-De; Liu, Hui-Hui; Liu, Xu-Dong; Gao, Yuan; Guan, Hong-Quan; Wang, De-Shan

    2011-08-01

    To explore the mechanism of the eye-acupuncture for treatment of acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty-two healthy SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a sham operation group, a model group and an eye-acupuncture group, 8 rats in each group. The rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion was established with thread occlusion method in the model group and the eye-acupuncture group. The eye-acupuncture group was treated by eye-acupuncture at "liver region", "upper energizer area", "lower energizer area" and "kidney region" for 20 min immediately after reperfusion and at 30 min before sampling. No treatment was done in the normal group and the sham operation group, and no thread occlusion was performed in the sham operation group. The Neurologic impairment was scored and the methods of immunohistochemistry staining, western-blotting and real-time fluorescent quantitation polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) were taken to detect the expression of the aquaporin protein 4 (AQP4) and its mRNA in cerebral cortex after reperfusion for 3 hours. The neurologic impairment score of 1.50 +/- 0.54 in the eye-acupuncture group was significant lower than 2.63 +/- 0.92 in the model group (P eye-acupuncture group, with statistical significance compared to 150.88 +/- 15.82 and 0.94 +/- 0.04 in the model group (all P eye-acupuncture group and the normal group (both P eye-acupuncture therapy can relieve the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and the protective mechanism is related to the downregulation of the cerebral AQP4 expression.

  16. Liver tissue trace element levels in HepB patients and the relationship of these elements with histological injury in the liver and with clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Memduh; Karayakar, Fahri; Erdogan, Kivilcim Eren; Bas, Firdevs; Colak, Tahsin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of liver tissue trace element concentrations with hepatitis B disease and the effects of several environmental factors were analysed. The liver tissue concentrations of Al, Fe, Cd, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Ag, and Co were evaluated in 92 patients with hepatitis B using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS) method in the analyses. The patients were divided into the following two groups: low-high Ishak histologic activity index (HAI) (0-6: Low Histologic Activity, 7-18: High Histologic Activity) and low-high fibrosis (FS) (Fibrosis 1,1,2 and Fibrosis 3,4,5,6). The metal levels were compared between the groups. The Cd concentration was found to be statistically higher in the group with low HAI scores (p=0.019). The hepatic Cu concentration was found to be higher in women than in men (p=0.046). The hepatic Fe concentration was found to be higher in the group with increased FS compared to the group with decreased FS (p=0.033). Cd was found to be higher in patients who worked in positions involving exposure to heavy metals and in individuals with an ALT level above 40 IU/L (p=0.008). Several correlations have been found between the hepatic tissue metal levels in our study. In a linear regression analysis, Fe and Zn were found to be correlated with the fibrosis scores (p=element levels are correlated with disease activity and histologic damage in patients with HepB disease. Additionally, smoking, the environment in which the patient works and the amount of fish consumption affect the accumulation of trace elements in the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. High-dose mode of mortality in Tribolium: A model system for study of radiation injury and repair in non-proliferative tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chihing Christina.

    1989-01-01

    With appropriate doses of ionizing radiation, both the acute, or lethal-midlethal, dose-independent pattern of mortality, and the hyperacute, dose-dependent pattern, were demonstrated within a single insect genus (Tribolium). This demonstration provides resolution of apparently contradictory reports of insect radiation responses in terms of doses required to cause lethality and those based on survival time as a function of dose. A dose-dependent mortality pattern was elicited in adult Tribolium receiving high doses, viz., 300 Gy or greater; its time course was complete in 10 days, before the dose-independent pattern of mortality began. Visual observations of heavily-irradiated Tribolium suggested neural and/or neuromuscular damage, as had been previously proposed by others for lethally-irradiated wasps, flies, and mosquitoes. Results of experiments using fractionated high doses supported the suggestion that the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death is the result of damage to nonproliferative tissues. Relative resistance of a strain to the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death was not correlated with resistance to the midlethal mode, which is believed to be the result of damage to the proliferative cells of the midgut. Using the high-dose mode of death as a model of radiation damage to nonproliferative tissues, the effects of age, and of a moderate priming dose were assessed. Beetles showed age-related increase in sensitivity to the high-dose mode of death, suggesting a decline in capacity to repair radiation damage to postmitotic tissue. This correlated with a decrease (50%) in the amount of repair reflected in the sparing effect of dose-fractionation (SDF) between the age of 1 to 3 months. The age related increase in radiosensitivity was reduced by a moderate priming dose (40 or 65 Gy) given at a young age

  18. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  19. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  20. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  1. Traumatic injuries: imaging of spinal injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Fuchsjaeger, M. [Department of Osteology, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2002-06-01

    Severe (high-energy) spinal injuries are common sequelae of acute traumas. The task of radiology is to establish the radiological diagnosis, classify it, judge stability and instability and lead further radiological evaluation in cases of non-agreement between the radiological diagnosis and the clinical (neurological) findings. While skeletal abnormalities are best diagnosed with spiral CT and to a lesser degree with plain-film radiographs, soft tissue lesions, such as cord injuries or ligament ruptures, are best outlined with emergency MRI. The classification of fractures depends on fracture (trauma)-biomechanics and location. All these efforts are necessary to get the best clinical outcome for the patient. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of potential changes in liver and lung tissue of rats in an ischemia-reperfusion injury model (modified pringle maneuver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Henrique Freitas

    Full Text Available In surgical procedures involving the liver, such as transplantation, resection, and trauma, a temporary occlusion of hepatic vessels may be required. This study was designed to analyze the lesions promoted by ischemia and reperfusion injury of the hepatic pedicle, in the liver and lung, using histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. In total, 39 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group (C n = 3 and ischemia groups subjected to 10, 20, and 30 minutes of hepatic pedicle clamping (I10, n = 12; I20, n = 12; I30, n = 12. Each ischemia group was subdivided into four subgroups of reperfusion (R15, n = 3; R30, n = 3; R60, n = 3; R120, n = 3, after 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes of reperfusion, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the liver parenchyma (P 0.05. In the lung parenchyma, a significant difference was observed (P 0.05 at different times of ischemia and reperfusion. In the pulmonary parenchyma, the immunoreactivity was not specific, and was not quantified. This study demonstrated that the longer the duration of ischemia and reperfusion, the greater are the morphological lesions found in the hepatic and pulmonary parenchyma.

  3. Tissue engineering of the meniscus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, P.; Ramrattan, N.N.; Tienen, T. van; Veth, R.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Meniscus lesions are among the most frequent injuries in orthopaedic practice and they will inevitably lead to degeneration of the knee articular cartilage. The fibro-cartilage-like tissue of the meniscus is notorious for its limited regenerative capacity. Tissue engineering could offer new

  4. Comparative Population Plasma and Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Micafungin in Critically Ill Patients with Severe Burn Injuries and Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-Lorenzo, A.; Grau, S.; Agrifoglio, A.; Cachafeiro, L.; Herrero, E.; Asensio, M. J.; Sánchez, S. M.; Roberts, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Severely burned patients have altered drug pharmacokinetics (PKs), but it is unclear how different they are from those in other critically ill patient groups. The aim of the present study was to compare the population pharmacokinetics of micafungin in the plasma and burn eschar of severely burned patients with those of micafungin in the plasma and peritoneal fluid of postsurgical critically ill patients with intra-abdominal infection. Fifteen burn patients were compared with 10 patients with intra-abdominal infection; all patients were treated with 100 to 150 mg/day of micafungin. Micafungin concentrations in serial blood, peritoneal fluid, and burn tissue samples were determined and were subjected to a population pharmacokinetic analysis. The probability of target attainment was calculated using area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h/MIC cutoffs of 285 for Candida parapsilosis and 3,000 for non-parapsilosis Candida spp. by Monte Carlo simulations. Twenty-five patients (18 males; median age, 50 years; age range, 38 to 67 years; median total body surface area burned, 50%; range of total body surface area burned, 35 to 65%) were included. A three-compartment model described the data, and only the rate constant for the drug distribution from the tissue fluid to the central compartment was statistically significantly different between the burn and intra-abdominal infection patients (0.47 ± 0.47 versus 0.15 ± 0.06 h−1, respectively; P burn patients and intra-abdominal infection patients. After the first dose, micafungin at 100 mg/day achieved the PK/PD targets in plasma for MIC values of ≤0.008 mg/liter and ≤0.064 mg/liter for non-parapsilosis Candida spp. and Candida parapsilosis species, respectively. PMID:27458229

  5. Transplantation of tendon-derived stem cells pre-treated with connective tissue growth factor and ascorbic acid in vitro promoted better tendon repair in a patellar tendon window injury rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Wong, On Tik; Lee, Yuk Wa

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) with connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and ascorbic acid promoted their tenogenic differentiation. We investigated the effects of TDSCs pre-treated with CTGF and ascorbic acid on tendon repair in a patellar tendon window injury rat model. Green fluorescent protein-TDSCs (GFP-TDSCs) were pre-treated with or without CTGF and ascorbic acid for 2 weeks before transplantation. The patellar tendons of rats were injured and divided into three groups: fibrin glue-only group (control group), untreated and treated TDSC group. The rats were followed up until week 16. The treated TDSCs accelerated and enhanced the quality of tendon repair compared with untreated TDSCs up to week 8, which was better than that in the controls up to week 16 as shown by histology, ultrasound imaging and biomechanical test. The fibrils in the treated TDSC group showed better alignment and larger size compared with those in the control group at week 8 (P = 0.004). There was lower risk of ectopic mineralization after transplantation of treated or untreated TDSCs (all P ≤ 0.050). The transplanted cells proliferated and could be detected in the window wound up to weeks 2 to 4 and week 8 for the untreated and treated TDSC groups, respectively. The transplantation of TDSCs promoted tendon repair up to week 16, with CTGF and ascorbic acid pre-treatment showing the best results up to week 8. Pre-treatment of TDSCs with CTGF and ascorbic acid may be used to further enhance the rate and quality of tendon repair after injury. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...

  7. Development and application of a rapid rehabilitation system for reconstruction of maxillofacial soft-tissue defects related to war and traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi-Zhu; Feng, Zhi-Hong; Gao, Rui; Dong, Yan; Bi, Yun-Peng; Wu, Guo-Feng; Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The application of a maxillofacial prosthesis is an alternative to surgery in functional-aesthetic facial reconstruction. Computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing has opened up a new approach to the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. An intelligentized rapid simulative design and manufacturing system for prostheses was developed to facilitate the prosthesis fabrication procedure. The rapid simulation design and rapid fabrication system for maxillofacial prostheses consists of three components: digital impression, intelligentized prosthesis design, and rapid manufacturing. The patients' maxillofacial digital impressions were taken with a structured-light 3D scanner; then, the 3D model of the prostheses and their negative molds could be designed with specific software; lastly, with resin molds fabricated by the rapid prototyping machine, the prostheses could be produced directly and quickly. Fifteen patients with maxillofacial defects received prosthesis rehabilitation provided by the established system. The total clinical time used for each patient was only 4 hours over 2 appointments on average. The contours of the prostheses coordinated properly with the appearance of the patients, and the uniform-thickness border sealed well to adjacent tissues. All of the patients were satisfied with their prostheses. The rapid simulative rehabilitation system of maxillofacial defects is approaching completion. It could provide an advanced technological solution for the Army in cases of maxillofacial defect rehabilitation.

  8. Xenon-helium gas mixture at equimolar concentration of 37.5% protects against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury and inhibits tissue plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Hélène N; Haelewyn, Benoit; Blatteau, Jean-Éric; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Vallée, Nicolas; Abraini, Jacques H

    2017-01-01

    Xenon (Xe) is considered to be the golden standard neuroprotective gas. However, Xe has a higher molecular weight and lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, the main diluent of oxygen in air. These physical characteristics could impair or at least reduce the intrinsic neuroprotective action of Xe by increasing the patient's respiratory workload and body temperature. In contrast, helium (He) is a cost-efficient gas with a lower molecular weight and higher thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, but is far less potent than Xe. In this study, we hypothesized that mixing Xe and He could allow obtaining a neuroprotective gas mixture with advantageously reduced molecular weight and increased thermal conductivity. We found that Xe and He at the equimolar concentration of 37.5% reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced increase in lactate dehydrogenase in brain slices, an ex vivo model of acute ischemic stroke. These results together with the effects of Xe-He on the thrombolytic efficiency of tissue plasminogen activator are discussed.

  9. Xenon-helium gas mixture at equimolar concentration of 37.5% protects against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury and inhibits tissue plasminogen activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène N David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenon (Xe is considered to be the golden standard neuroprotective gas. However, Xe has a higher molecular weight and lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, the main diluent of oxygen in air. These physical characteristics could impair or at least reduce the intrinsic neuroprotective action of Xe by increasing the patient's respiratory workload and body temperature. In contrast, helium (He is a cost-efficient gas with a lower molecular weight and higher thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, but is far less potent than Xe. In this study, we hypothesized that mixing Xe and He could allow obtaining a neuroprotective gas mixture with advantageously reduced molecular weight and increased thermal conductivity. We found that Xe and He at the equimolar concentration of 37.5% reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced increase in lactate dehydrogenase in brain slices, an ex vivo model of acute ischemic stroke. These results together with the effects of Xe-He on the thrombolytic efficiency of tissue plasminogen activator are discussed.

  10. [Tissue toxicity of antiseptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalteis, T; Lüring, C; Schaumburger, J; Perlick, L; Bäthis, H; Grifka, J

    2003-01-01

    Local antiseptics are used for desinfection of skin and for lavage of wounds. The aim of this study was to determine the tissue toxicity of different antiseptics and to measure the irritation score (IS) and the irritation threshold (IT) for each substance. The tissue compatibilities of Dibromol, Kodan, Jodobac, Octenisept, Lavasept 0.2 %, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidindigluconate 0.5 % and 2-propanol 60 % were evaluated in the in vivo hens eggs chorion-allantoic membrane test (HET-CAM). We found the most severe tissue toxicity for chlorhexidin digluconate 0.5 % (IS 20) and Kodan (IS 18). Irritating values were found for Dibromol (IS 14), Octenisept (IS 14) and 2-propanol 60 % (IS 13). Moderate vascular injuries were caused by Jodobac (IS 2). In the HET-CAM test Lavasept 0.2 % (IS 0) and hydrogen peroxide (IS 0) showed no tissue toxicity. Our results show that some of the tested antiseptics might cause severe vascular injuries as a sign of tissue toxicity. The tissue compatibility of Lavasept 0.2 % and hydrogen peroxide is much better than the compatibility of the other tested substances. With focus on the literature and our results, Lavasept 0.2 % can be recommended as the local antiseptic of choice.

  11. Sports injuries in adolescent boarding school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, J H

    1985-06-01

    A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football played at Eton--Rugby, Association and Eton--showed Rugby football to be the most dangerous and Eton football the safest game. Advice on the management and prevention of injury is given.

  12. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  13. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  14. Tissue engineering of reproductive tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atala, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may soon offer new hope for patients with serious injuries and end-stage reproductive organ failure. Scientists are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured reproductive tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is advancing, and new discoveries in this field will lead to new therapeutic strategies. For example, newly discovered types of stem cells have been retrieved from uterine tissues such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous adult cells have already entered the clinic. This article discusses these tissue engineering strategies for various organs in the male and female reproductive tract. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannus, P; Paavola, M; Paakkala, T; Parkkari, J; Järvinen, T; Järvinen, M

    2002-10-01

    Overuse tendon injury is one of the most common injuries in sports. The etiology as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to tendinopathy are of crucial medical importance. At the moment intrinsic and extrinsic factors are assumed as mechanisms of overuse tendon injury. Except for the acute, extrinsic trauma, the chronic overuse tendon injury is a multifactorial process. There are many other factors, such as local hypoxia, less of nutrition, impaired metabolism and local inflammatory that may also contribute to the development of tissue damage. The exact interaction of these factors cannot be explained entirely at the moment. Further studies will be necessary in order to get more information.

  16. Thigh Injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Matava, Matthew J

    Quadriceps and hamstring injuries occur frequently in football and are generally treated conservatively. While return to competition following hamstring strains is relatively quick, a high rate of injury recurrence highlights the importance of targeted rehabilitation and conditioning. This review describes the clinical manifestations of thigh-related soft-tissue injuries seen in football players. Two of these-muscle strains and contusions-are relatively common, while a third condition-the Morel-Lavallée lesion-is a rare, yet relevant injury.

  17. Hydrogen-rich water achieves cytoprotection from oxidative stress injury in human gingival fibroblasts in culture or 3D-tissue equivalents, and wound-healing promotion, together with ROS-scavenging and relief from glutathione diminishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate protective effects of hydrogen-rich water (HW) against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cellular harmful events and cell death in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and three-dimensional (3D-) gingival tissue equivalents. HW was prepared with a magnesium stick in 600-mL double distilled water (DDW) overnight. Dissolved hydrogen was about 1460 ± 50 μg/L versus approximately 1600 μg/L for the saturated hydrogen. Under cell-free conditions, HW, dose-dependently, significantly scavenged peroxyl radicals (ROO·) derived from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Extract from HW-treated HGF cells scavenged ROO· more markedly than that from DDW-treated cells, suggesting that HW can increase the intracellular antioxidant capacity. Hydrogen peroxide dose-dependently increased the intracellular ROS generation, which was significantly repressed by HW, both in the cytoplasm and nuclei. LIVE/DEAD staining and our original cell viability dye-extraction assay showed that HW significantly protected HGF cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Hydrogen peroxide also diminished the contents of intracellular glutathione, which were appreciably relieved by HW-pretreatment. Additionally, HW noticeably prevented cumene hydroperoxide-induced generation of cellular ROS in epidermis parts of 3D-gingival equivalents. The in vitro scratch assay showed that HW was able to diminish physical injury-induced ROS generation and promote wound healing in HGF cell monolayer sheets. In summary, HW was able to increase intracellular antioxidative capacity and to protect cells and tissue from oxidative damage. Thus, HW might be used for prevention/treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  18. miR-199a-5p Is upregulated during fibrogenic response to tissue injury and mediates TGFbeta-induced lung fibroblast activation by targeting caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lacks Lino Cardenas

    dysregulation of miR-199a-5p represents a general mechanism contributing to the fibrotic process. MiR-199a-5p thus behaves as a major regulator of tissue fibrosis with therapeutic potency to treat fibroproliferative diseases.

  19. miR-199a-5p Is Upregulated during Fibrogenic Response to Tissue Injury and Mediates TGFbeta-Induced Lung Fibroblast Activation by Targeting Caveolin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcot, Elisabeth; Roderburg, Christoph; Cauffiez, Christelle; Aubert, Sébastien; Copin, Marie-Christine; Wallaert, Benoit; Glowacki, François; Dewaeles, Edmone; Milosevic, Jadranka; Maurizio, Julien; Tedrow, John; Marcet, Brice; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Kaminski, Naftali; Barbry, Pascal; Luedde, Tom; Perrais, Michael

    2013-01-01

    R-199a-5p represents a general mechanism contributing to the fibrotic process. MiR-199a-5p thus behaves as a major regulator of tissue fibrosis with therapeutic potency to treat fibroproliferative diseases. PMID:23459460

  20. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM. Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study.

  1. Achilles tendon injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, M

    1994-09-01

    varus is found in athletes with Achilles tendon overuse injuries, reflecting the predisposing role of ankle joint overpronation. Athletes with the major stress in lower extremities have often a limited range of motion in the passive dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and total subtalar joint mobility, which seems to be predisposing factor for these injuries. Various predisposing transient factors are found in about one-third of athletes with Achilles tendon overuse injuries; of these, traumatic factors (mostly minor injuries) predominate. The typical histological features of chronically inflamed paratendineal tissue of the Achilles tendon are profound proliferation of loose, immature connective tissue and marked obliterative and degenerative alterations in the blood vessels. These changes cause continuing leakage of plasma proteins, which may have an important role in the pathophysiology of these injuries. The chronically inflamed paratendineal tissues of the Achilles tendon do not seem to have enough capacity to form mature connective tissue.

  2. Aplicação de dispositivo intra-uterino liberador de levonorgestrel, previamente a ciclos de fertilização in vitro, nas portadoras de adenomiose Application of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device prior to in vitro fertilization cycles in women with adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Donadio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar os efeitos do dispositivo intra-uterino (DIU de levonorgestrel em portadoras de adenomiose, com falhas de implantação em ciclos de fertilização in vitro (FIV. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas 80 mulheres inférteis, com até 38 anos, com diagnóstico de adenomiose pela ultra-sonografia e ressonância magnética pélvica. Todas apresentavam tentativas anteriores de FIV sem sucesso. No grupo Diu, de 40 mulheres, foi colocado DIU liberador de 20 µg de levonorgestrel/dia por seis meses, previamente a um novo ciclo de FIV. No grupo Fiv, de 40 mulheres, estas foram submetidas diretamente a novo ciclo, sem o prévio tratamento. No Grupo Diu, avaliaram-se o volume uterino, a espessura e os focos de hipersinal da zona juncional, pré e pós-tratamento, assim como as taxas de gravidez em novo ciclo de FIV comparadas com as obtidas no grupo Fiv. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas adotando-se o nível de significância de 5% (pPURPOSE: to verify the effects of intrauterine levonorgestrel device (IUD in women with adenomyosis, with implantation failure in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. METHODS: eighty infertile women with ages up to 38 years, who had adenomyosis diagnosed by ultrasonography and MRI were selected. All the women presented antecedents of one or more tormer IVF attempts without success due to implantation failure. The women were subdivided into IUD Group, composed of 40 women with an IUD that released 20 µg of levonorgestrel/day during six months, preceding a new IVF cycle, and IVF Group, also composed of 40 women, who were directly submitted to a new IVF cycle without previous adenomyosis treatment. In the IUD Group the uterine volume, thickness and hypersignal foci of the junctional zone were assessed before and after treatment, as well as the pregnancy rates in the new IVF cycle, compared to the data obtained with the IVF Group. Statistical analyses were performed adopting the significance level of

  3. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... numbness in the arms or legs. Loss of consciousness. Seizures. What causes a head injury? There are ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  4. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention. (2012). Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable . Retrieved August 23, 2012, from ... Disclaimer FOIA Privacy Policy Accessibility NIH...Turning Discovery ...

  5. Cellular proliferation and regeneration following tissue damage. Progress report. [Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, C.V.

    1976-10-01

    Results are reported from a study of wound healing in tissues of the eye, particularly lens, cornea, and surrounding tissues. The reactions of these tissues to mechanical injuries, as well as injuries induced by chemotoxic agents were studied. It is postulated that a better understanding of the basic reactions of the eye to injurious agents may be of importance in the evaluation of potential environmental hazards.

  6. Ultrasound imaging of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)

  7. Laser eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

    2000-01-01

    Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons.

  8. Aquatic antagonists: cutaneous sea urchin spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Clifford; Aronson, Erica R; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M

    2016-11-01

    Injuries from sea urchin spines are commonly seen in coastal regions with high levels of participation in water activities. Although these injuries may seem minor, the consequences vary based on the location of the injury. Sea urchin spine injuries may cause arthritis and synovitis from spines in the joints. Nonjoint injuries have been reported, and dermatologic aspects of sea urchin spine injuries rarely have been discussed. We present a case of a patient with sea urchin spines embedded in the thigh who subsequently developed painful skin nodules. Tissue from the site of the injury demonstrated foreign-body type granulomas. Following the removal of the spines and granulomatous tissue, the patient experienced resolution of the nodules and associated pain. Extraction of sea urchin spines can attenuate the pain and decrease the likelihood of granuloma formation, infection, and long-term sequelae.

  9. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  10. Mortality and Outcome Comparison Between Brain Tissue Oxygen Combined with Intracranial Pressure/Cerebral Perfusion Pressure-Guided Therapy and Intracranial Pressure/Cerebral Perfusion Pressure-Guided Therapy in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiang; Wu, Hai-Bing; Yan, Yu-Feng; Liu, Meng; Wang, Er-Song

    2017-04-01

    The combination of brain tissue oxygen and standard intracranial pressure (ICP)/cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)-guided therapy is thought to improve traumatic brain injury (TBI) prognosis compared with standard ICP/CPP-guided therapy. However, related results of previous observational studies and recently published cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the combined therapy with that of standard ICP/CPP-guided therapy on mortality rate, favorable outcome, ICP/CPP, and length of stay (LOS). We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Web of Science in July 2016 for studies comparing the combined therapy and standard ICP/CPP-guided therapy. Random-effect and fixed-effect models were used for pooled analyses. After screening 362 studies, 8 cohort studies and 1 RCT were included. Primary outcomes were mortality and favorable outcome. The overall mortality risk ratio showed no obvious advantages between the 2 groups (risk ratio [RR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.06) and discharge mortality (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.80-1.26) and 3-month mortality (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.53-1.12). Compared with the ICP/CPP group, the combined group was more likely to achieve better outcome during the 6 months after TBI (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.52) or exactly at 6 months (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.07-1.68), whereas ICP (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.19; 95% CI, -0.43 to 0.05), CPP (SMD, 0.13; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.35), and LOS (SMD, 0.13; 95% CI, -0.11 to 0.37) showed no obvious differences. Compared with standard ICP/CPP-guided therapy, brain tissue oxygen combined with ICP/CPP-guided therapy improved long-term outcomes without any effects on mortality, ICP/CPP, or LOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is poststroke complex regional pain syndrome the combination of shoulder pain and soft tissue injury of the wrist?: A prospective observational study: STROBE of ultrasonographic findings in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Wook; Kim, Yoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Hong, Ji Seong; Lim, Hyun Sun; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-08-01

    Patients with poststroke complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) show different symptoms compared to other types of CRPS, as they usually complain of shoulder and wrist pain with the elbow relatively spared. It is thus also known by the term "shoulder-hand syndrome."The aim of this study is to present a possible pathophysiology of poststroke CRPS through ultrasonographic observation of the affected wrist before and after steroid injection at the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon in patients suspected with poststroke CRPS.Prospective evaluation and observation, the STROBE guideline checklist was used.Twenty-three patients diagnosed as poststroke CRPS in accordance to clinical criteria were enrolled. They had a Three Phase Bone Scan (TPBS) done and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of EDC tendon was measured by using ultrasonography. They were then injected with steroid at the EDC tendon. The CSA of EDC tendon, visual analogue scale (VAS), and degree of swelling of the wrist were followed up 1 week after the injection.TPBS was interpreted as normal for 4 patients, suspected CRPS for 10 patients, and CRPS for 9 patients. Ultrasonographic findings of the affected wrist included swelling of the EDC tendon. After the injection of steroid to the wrist, CSA and swelling of the affected wrist compared to that before the treatment was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). The VAS score declined significantly after the injection (P < 0.001).Our results suggest that the pathophysiology of poststroke CRPS might be the combination of frozen shoulder or rotator cuff tear of shoulder and soft tissue injury of the wrist caused by the hemiplegic nature of patients with stroke.

  12. A phase I study evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of an antibody-based tissue factor antagonist in subjects with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Peter E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue factor (TF-dependent extrinsic pathway has been suggested to be a central mechanism by which the coagulation cascade is locally activated in the lungs of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS and thus represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. This study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ALT-836, an anti-TF antibody, in patients with ALI/ARDS. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation Phase I clinical trial in adult patients who had suspected or proven infection, were receiving mechanical ventilation and had ALI/ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mm. Eighteen patients (6 per cohort were randomized in a 5:1 ratio to receive ALT-836 or placebo, and were treated within 48 hours after meeting screening criteria. Cohorts of patients were administered a single intravenously dose of 0.06, 0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg ALT-836 or placebo. Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity measurements. Safety was assessed by adverse events, vital signs, ECGs, laboratory, coagulation and pulmonary function parameters. Results Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a dose dependent exposure to ALT-836 across the infusion range of 0.06 to 0.1 mg/kg. No anti-ALT-836 antibody response was observed in the study population during the trial. No major bleeding episodes were reported in the ALT-836 treated patients. The most frequent adverse events were anemia, observed in both placebo and ALT-836 treated patients, and ALT-836 dose dependent, self-resolved hematuria, which suggested 0.08 mg/kg as an acceptable dose level of ALT-836 in this patient population. Conclusions Overall, this study showed that ALT-836 could be safely administered to patients with sepsis-induced ALI/ARDS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01438853

  13. Cellular and Tissue Injury During Nonfreezing Cold Injury and Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    membranes and is believed to interact primarily with the bulk solvent properties of water on a colligative basis. PVPs, due to their high molecular weights...are excluded from cells. Colligative mechanisms of action are usually not considered to be of importance for PVP-induced cryoprotection, rather I

  14. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Veighey, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    When an organ or tissue is rendered ischaemic, there is inevitable cell death and tissue injury, the extent of which can be limited by timely reperfusion. However, paradoxically, an additional injury occurs upon reperfusion that limits the amount of tissue that can be salvaged. This composite injury is termed ‘ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury’. Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) is an innate protective phenomenon whereby brief non-lethal periods of ischaemia and reperfusion may protect against ...

  15. Complement and Immunoregulation in Tissue Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    hypoxic stress. Figure 1. R-spo3 tightens endothelial cell junctions and preserves barrier function. (A) Effect of R-spo3 on...BSA, histamine , R-spo3 and Rspo3+ histamine . (B) R-spo3 pretreatment 10 decreased histamine and thrombin-induced endothelial permeability in HUVECs...dextran passage (n=5, *pɘ.05, **pɘ.01). (D) Effect of R-spo3 on localization of VE-cadherin (adherens junction marker) and F-actin was evaluated

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  18. Automated spectroscopic tissue classification in colorectal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, R.M.; Alic, L.; Beets, G.L.; Breukink, S.O.; Wieringa, F.P.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    In colorectal surgery, detecting ureters and mesenteric arteries is of utmost importance to prevent iatrogenic injury and to facilitate intraoperative decision making. A tool enabling ureter- and artery-specific image enhancement within (and possibly through) surrounding adipose tissue would

  19. Review of adult head injury admissions into the intensive care unit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mode of injury was road traffic accident. All the patients admitted to ICU had either moderate or severe head injury, with 73.7% having severe head injury. About 26.3% of the patients had associated cervical spine injuries and 50% had various musculoskeletal and soft tissue injuries. Cranial computed ...

  20. Facial Dog Attack Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2013-01-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to succe...

  1. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial such as hipoxia, hypotensi, hyponatremia, hypertermia, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The cause of intracranial such as extradural, subdural, intraserebral, intraventrikular, dan subarachnoid hemorrhage. Beside that secondary injury can also be caused by edema and infection. Post-traumatic cerebral injured is characterized by direct tissue damage, impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow (cerebral blood flow / CBF, and disruption of metabolism. Manifestations of secondary brain injured include increased intracranial pressure, ischemic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbi, as well as disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The first priority is to stabilize the patient's cervical spine injury, relieve and maintain airway, ensure adequate ventilation (breathing, and making venous access for fluid resuscitation pathways (circulation and assessing the level of awareness and disability. This steps is crucial in patients with head injured to prevent hypoxia and hypotension, which is the main cause of secondary brain injury.

  2. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat......-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved...... and prevent injuries in rowers....

  3. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  4. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  5. Effect of ionizing radiations on connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, K.I.; Gerber, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiations on connective tissue in lung, heart, vasculature, kidney, skin, and skeletal tissues are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ionizing radiations on vasculo-connective tissue and fibrotic changes following radiation-induced injury to organs and tissues. In order to put the subject matter in proper prospective, the general biochemistry, physiology, and pathology of connective tissue is reviewed briefly together with the participation of connective tissue in disease. The review closes with an assessment of future problems and an enumeration and discussion of important, as yet unanswered questions

  6. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenski, N.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  7. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenski, N

    2002-06-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  8. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2002-06-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  9. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  10. Fibronectin in tissue regeneration : timely disassembly of the scaffold is necessary to complete the build

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, Josephine M. J.; Zhao, Chao; Baron, Wia

    2013-01-01

    Tissue injury initiates extracellular matrix molecule expression, including fibronectin production by local cells and fibronectin leakage from plasma. To benefit tissue regeneration, fibronectin promotes opsonization of tissue debris, migration, proliferation, and contraction of cells involved in

  11. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Soccer have seen positive results and fewer injuries with PEP. The Santa Monica Sports Medicine Foundation (SMSMF) created this program. There is no clear evidence that use of a knee brace prevents ACL injuries. There also is no ...

  12. The Surgical Management of Facial Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rovak, Jason M.; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The surgical management of facial nerve injuries is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve anatomy, nerve physiology, and microsurgical techniques. When possible, primary neurorrhaphy is the “gold standard” repair technique. Injuries resulting in long nerve gaps or a significant delay between the time of injury and repair requires alterative techniques, such as nerve grafts, nerve transfers, regional muscle transfers, free tissue transfers, and static procedures. Scrupulous t...

  13. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  14. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue ... and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...

  16. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  17. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  18. Geriatric injuries among patients attending a regional hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of injuries (81.9%) occurred at home. Pre-hospital care was recorded in 5.3% of cases. The musculoskeletal (72.3%) and head (66.0%) regions were commonly affected. Soft tissue injuries (wounds) (89.4%) and fractures (52.2%) were the most common type of injuries. The majority of patients (90.4%) ...

  19. [Epidemiology of open globe injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, C; Roider, J

    1999-11-01

    Severe open globe injuries are frequent emergencies in an ophthalmologic clinic and required immediate operation. The extent of these injuries is various depending on the mechanism of the injury and involvement of ocular tissue. In many cases a full visual rehabilitation can be achieved but in a lot of cases blindness results. To prevent such severe eye injuries it is important to judge the leading injury mechanisms. For this we collected our data about open globe injuries. Retrospectively we collected the data from 103 consecutive patients in the year 1996 and 1997, presenting with an open globe eye injury followed by operation. The data contained personal patients data, information about mechanism of injury, visual acuity, operation and rehabilitation. Statistical analysis was performed using binomimal-test and t-test for paired and unpaired samples (p mechanics, electricians, or the locksmith were preferred). Pensioners were affected in 14.6% of all cases followed by small children (7.8%) and school children (7.8%). In 50% of all cases metal and glass were responsible for the trauma, explosions were noticed in 8.7%. An intraocular foreign body was found in 37.9%. In 62% of all cases no second operation was necessary. An enucleation during the follow-up was performed in 2 cases. At least a third of all severe eye injuries would have been preventable. Concerning the non-preventable injuries accidents at home and in children were predominating. The rate of the open globe injuries was 2.32 in 100.000 people, which is about the same like in US-American studies. Most of the injuries happened at home because of carelessness and would have been avoidable. The rate of injuries at the working place is significantly higher than in the USA but there were significantly more gun-shot-injuries or offensive accidents abroad. The rate of accidents at home and in traffic were the same. We think that public campaigns and prevention strategies can help to reduce the potential risk

  20. Advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-cheng LI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage is a kind of terminally differentiated tissue devoid of vessel or nerve, and it is difficult to repair by itself after damage. Many studies for the treatment of cartilage injuries were performed in recent years aiming at repair of the structure and restoration of its function for injured joint. This article reviews the traditional methods of treatment for cartilage injuries, such as joint lavage with the aid of arthroscope, abrasion chondroplasty, laser abrasion and chondroplasty, and drilling of the subchondral bone-marrow space. The research advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries with tissue engineering were summarized.

  1. Lightning Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Lightning Injuries By Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME, Assistant Clinical ...

  2. Urethral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Urethral Injuries By Noel A. Armenakas, MD, Clinical Professor of ...

  3. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  4. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  5. Corneal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001017.htm Corneal injury To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  7. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis or a similar sport that involves sprinting ... may not be able to bear the full force of the action required during certain activities. Muscle ...

  8. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can happen when the testicle receives a forceful direct blow or when the testicle is crushed against ... to avoid testicular injuries, especially if you play sports, exercise a lot, or just live an all- ...

  9. Crush injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Ragazzoni L, Djatali A, Della Corte F. Introduction to structural collapse (crush injury and crush syndrome). ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. Pediatric overuse injuries in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Quynh B; Mortazavi, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Overuse injuries in the pediatric and adolescent population are a growing problem in the United States as more children participate in recreational and organized sports. It is not uncommon for children and adolescents to play on multiple teams simultaneously or to be involved in sports year-round. Without adequate rest, the demands of exercise can exceed the body's ability to repair tissues, leading to repetitive microtrauma and overuse injury. Unlike in adults, the consequences of overuse injury in the pediatric and adolescent athlete are far more serious because the growing bones are vulnerable to stress. The ability to identify individuals who are at risk of overuse injuries is key so that education, prevention, and early diagnosis and treatment can occur. Preventive measures of modifying training factors (ie, magnitude, intensity, and frequency of sports participation) and correcting improper biomechanics (alignment, laxity, inflexibility, and muscle imbalance) should always be part of the management plan.

  11. Nerve entrapment after hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Konerding, Moritz A

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries are a frequent cause of athletic sequelae, and the frequency of reinjuries is high. Frequently, disability in sport is the consequence and performance is limited. A case report of a soccer player who was unable to play his sport after a minor hamstring muscle injury is presented. We introduce a previously undescribed lesion featured by a scar compromising a motor branch of the sciatic nerve to the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. Resection of the involved branch of the nerve resulted in complete pain relief and full sport capacity. This case report demonstrates that in very rare cases, a scar tissue-induced intramuscular entrapment of a branch of the sciatic nerve must be considered as a reason for athletic incapacity after minor hamstring injury. Both the degree of a muscular injury and its specific location within the injured muscle may therefore influence the functional outcome.

  12. Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannus, P.; Paavola, M.; Paakkala, T.; Parkkari, J.; Jaervinen, T.; Jaervinen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Overuse tendon injury is one of the most common injuries in sports.The etiology as well as the pathophysilogical mechanisms leading to tendinopathy are of crucial medical importance.At the moment intrinsic and extrinsic factors are assumed as mechanisms of overuse tendon injury. Except for the acute, extrinsic trauma, the chronic overuse tendon injury is a multifactorial process. There are many other factors, such as local hypoxia, less of nutrition, impaired metabolism and local inflammatory that may also contribute to the development of tissue damage.The exact interaction of these factors cannot be explained entirely at the moment.Further studies will be necessary in order to get more information. (orig.) [de

  13. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  14. Injury by mittens in neonates: a report of an unusual presentation of this easily overlooked problem and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kelvin Kin-Wai; Choi, Kai-Yiu; Chow, Yuk-Yin

    2007-10-01

    Injuries caused by mittens applied to infants' hands had been reported since the 1960s. Despite the attention brought forward, reports of injuries continued to appear. We report a case of an unusual presentation of upper limb injuries related to mittens, where the injuries involve the entire hand. The injuries fortunately recovered within 2 weeks without subsequent tissue loss.

  15. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hardwiring stem cell communication through tissue structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. PMID:26967287

  17. Biomechanics of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Thibault P; Balakrishnan, Asha; Suresh, Subra; Socrate, Simona

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of porcine brain tissue, obtained from a series of in vitro observations and experiments, is analyzed and described here with the aid of a large strain, nonlinear, viscoelastic constitutive model. Mixed gray and white matter samples excised from the superior cortex were tested in unconfined uniaxial compression within 15h post mortem. The test sequence consisted of three successive load-unload segments at strain rates of 1, 0.1 and 0.01 s⁻¹, followed by stress relaxation (n=25). The volumetric compliance of the tissue was assessed for a subset of specimens (n=7) using video extensometry techniques. The tissue response exhibited moderate compressibility, substantial nonlinearity, hysteresis, conditioning and rate dependence. A large strain kinematics nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed to account for the essential features of the tissue response over the entire deformation history. The corresponding material parameters were obtained by fitting the model to the measured conditioned response (axial and volumetric) via a numerical optimization scheme. The model successfully captures the observed complexities of the material response in loading, unloading and relaxation over the entire range of strain rates. The accuracy of the model was further verified by comparing model predictions with the tissue response in unconfined compression at higher strain rate (10 s⁻¹) and with literature data in uniaxial tension. The proposed constitutive framework was also found to be adequate to model the loading response of brain tissue in uniaxial compression over a wider range of strain rates (0.01-3000 s⁻¹), thereby providing a valuable tool for simulations of dynamic transients (impact, blast/shock wave propagation) leading to traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pterostilbene Prevents Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced for 60 min. After the complete I/R injury the jejunal segment was removed and the animals were sacrificed by exsanguination. The blood collected was centrifuged and serum was stored at -70 ºC. The tissues were rinsed with ice cold saline and blood was completely removed. The tissues were homogenized using ...

  19. TRAUMATIC INJURIES TO THE TEETII OF CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnos:s and treatment certain skills are required for the practitioner ... for children, and in particular as it relates to the dental injuries. This paper will be limited to the hard tissues and their traumata, and only a few aspects of soft tissue traumata will ... can be expected to sustain a trauma before leaving school at the age of ...

  20. Integrating soft and hard tissues via interface tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sahishnu; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Doty, Stephen B; Levine, William N; Rodeo, Scott; Soslowsky, Louis J; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Lu, Helen H

    2017-11-17

    The enthesis, or interface between bone and soft tissues such as ligament and tendon, is prone to injury and often does not heal, even post surgical intervention. Interface tissue engineering represents an integrative strategy for regenerating the native enthesis by functionally connecting soft and hard tissues and thereby improving clinical outcome. This review focuses on integrative and cell-instructive scaffold designs that target the healing of the two most commonly injured soft tissue-bone junctions: tendon-bone interface (e.g., rotator cuff) and ligament-bone interface (e.g., anterior cruciate ligament). The inherent connectivity between soft and hard tissues is instrumental for musculoskeletal motion and is therefore a key design criterion for soft tissue regeneration. To this end, scaffold design for soft tissue regeneration have progressed from single tissue systems to the emerging focus on pre-integrated and functional composite tissue units. Specifically, a multifaceted, bioinspired approach has been pursued wherein scaffolds are tailored to stimulate relevant cell responses using spatially patterned structural and chemical cues, growth factors, and/or mechanical stimulation. Moreover, current efforts to elucidate the essential scaffold design criteria via strategic biomimicry are emphasized as these will reduce complexity in composite tissue regeneration and ease the related burden for clinical translation. These innovative studies underscore the clinical relevance of engineering connective tissue integration and have broader impact in the formation of complex tissues and total joint regeneration. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Finger avulsion injuries: A report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejjal N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury that occurs to a finger wearing a ring though rare can have grave consequences. It is a preventable injury which has a peculiar mode of trauma that is usually occupational. Injury ranges from simple contusion to degloving of soft tissues to traumatic amputation. We hereby report our experience of four cases of finger avulsion injuries due to a ring and discuss their variable clinical presentation and individualized management.

  2. The bone scan in traumatic and sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, P.

    1987-01-01

    There are several types of injuries which are not diagnosable by routine radiographic methods but can be detected easily by nuclear medicine techniques. This chapter describes four primary categories of injury where nuclear medicine techniques may be of use: stress fracture and periosteal injury; covert fractures; joint abnormalities and injuries to connective tissues, especially where they attach to bone; and acute skeletal muscle injury and rhabdomyolysis. One of the most important features of the use of nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of sports and traumatic injury is the ability, in most cases, to be able to differentiate among these various categories. Other uses of nuclear medicine techniques are discussed in this chapter

  3. Ring Avulsion Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Malhotra, Gautam; Bueno, Reuben A; Thayer, Wesley P; Shack, R Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Ring avulsion injuries can range from soft tissue injury to complete amputation. Grading systems have been developed to guide treatment, but there is controversy with high-grade injuries. Traditionally, advanced ring injuries have been treated with completion amputation, but there is evidence that severe ring injuries can be salvaged. The purpose of this systematic review was to pool the current published data on ring injuries. A systematic review of the English literature published from 1980 to 2015 in PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted to identify patients who underwent treatment for ring avulsion injuries. Twenty studies of ring avulsion injuries met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 572 patients reported with ring avulsion injuries. The Urbaniak class breakdown was class I (54 patients), class II (204 patients), and class III (314 patients). The average total arc of motion (TAM) for patients with a class I injury was 201.25 (n = 40). The average 2-point discrimination was 5.6 (n = 10). The average TAM for patients with a class II injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 187.0 (n = 114), and the average 2-point discrimination was 8.3 (n = 40). The average TAM for patients with a class III injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 168.2 (n = 170), and the average 2-point discrimination was 10.5 (n = 97). Ring avulsion injuries are commonly classified with the Urbaniak class system. Outcomes are superior for class I and II injuries, and there are select class III injuries that can be treated with replantation. Shared decision making with patients is imperative to determine whether replantation is appropriate.

  4. Evaluation of an In Vitro of Human Immune Activation Induced by Freeze-Thaw Tissue Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuBose, D

    2002-01-01

    In training and in combat, soldiers are under the constant threat of injury. Injury that results in tissue necrosis can activate the immune system and ultimately enhance disturbances in organ function...

  5. Biomimetic strategies for engineering composite tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy; Robinson, Jennifer; Lu, Helen

    2016-08-01

    The formation of multiple tissue types and their integration into composite tissue units presents a frontier challenge in regenerative engineering. Tissue-tissue synchrony is crucial in providing structural support for internal organs and enabling daily activities. This review highlights the state-of-the-art in composite tissue scaffold design, and explores how biomimicry can be strategically applied to avoid over-engineering the scaffold. Given the complexity of biological tissues, determining the most relevant parameters for recapitulating native structure-function relationships through strategic biomimicry will reduce the burden for clinical translation. It is anticipated that these exciting efforts in composite tissue engineering will enable integrative and functional repair of common soft tissue injuries and lay the foundation for total joint or limb regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Maria A.

    2003-01-01

    Injuries by exposure to ionizing radiation can be due to the detonation of a nuclear device in a military conflict, or it can occur following a large industrial accident (e.g. Chernobyl), or it can be the result of therapy (e.g. in a laboratory, in the case of cancer or other clinical situations). The severity of biological tissues damage depends on the energy deposited. The skin and subcutaneous tissue alone damaged may be related with an exposure to low energy radiation. In case of an exposure to high energy radiation the deeper structures will be involved. The treatment of the clinical situation after radiation requires special facilities (burn intensive care unit) and a massive support from a dedicated team. (author)

  7. Advances in Meniscal Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meniscal tears are the most common knee injuries and have a poor ability of healing. In the last few decades, several techniques have been increasingly used to optimize meniscal healing. Current research efforts of tissue engineering try to combine cell-based therapy, growth factors, gene therapy, and reabsorbable scaffolds to promote healing of meniscal defects. Preliminary studies did not allow to draw definitive conclusions on the use of these techniques for routine management of meniscal lesions. We performed a review of the available literature on current techniques of tissue engineering for the management of meniscal tears.

  8. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification....... Although other methods exist, we concentrate on Bayesian modeling approaches, in which generative image models are constructed and subsequently ‘inverted’ to obtain automated segmentations. This general framework encompasses a large number of segmentation methods, including those implemented in widely used...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  11. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  15. Tissue Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The project began as a e ort to support InLight and Lumidigm. With the sale of the companies to a non-New Mexico entity, the project then focused on supporting a new company Medici Technologies. The Small Business (SB) is attempting to quantify glucose in tissue using a series of short interferometer scans of the nger. Each scan is produced from a novel presentation of the nger to the device. The intent of the project is to identify and, if possible, implement improved methods for classi cation, feature selection, and training to improve the performance of predictive algorithms used for tissue classi cation.

  16. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  17. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  18. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    Ophthalmologist (NOG) that protective polycarbonate glasses be worn while lighting and watching of fire-works is also advocated (7). Banger-related ocular injuries result in significant ocular morbidity and unilateral visual loss. Public education regarding proper use of bangers along with strict legislation regulating their use ...

  19. Biomaterials for revascularization and immunomodulation after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Agnes E; Maldonado-Lasuncion, Ines; Oudega, Martin

    2018-01-23

    Spinal cord injury causes immediate damage to the nervous tissue accompanied by loss of motor and sensory function. The limited self-repair competence of injured nervous tissue underscores the need for reparative interventions to recover function after spinal cord injury. The vasculature of the spinal cord plays a crucial role in spinal cord injury and repair. Ruptured and sheared blood vessels in the injury epicenter and blood vessels with a breached blood-spinal cord barrier in the surrounding tissue cause bleeding and inflammation, which contribute to the overall tissue damage. The insufficient formation of new functional vasculature in and near the injury impedes endogenous tissue repair and limits the prospect of repair approaches. Limiting the loss of blood vessels, stabilizing the blood-spinal cord barrier, and promoting the formation of new blood vessels are therapeutic targets for spinal cord repair. Inflammation is an integral part of injury-mediated vascular damage, with deleterious and reparative consequences. Inflammation and the formation of new blood vessels are intricately interwoven. Biomaterials can be effectively used for promoting and guiding blood vessel formation or modulating the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury, thereby governing the extent of damage and the success of reparative interventions. This review deals with the vasculature after spinal cord injury, the reciprocal interactions between inflammation and blood vessel formation, and the potential of biomaterials to support revascularization and immunomodulation in damaged spinal cord nervous tissue. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Localized bioimpedance to assess muscle injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nescolarde, L; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Yanguas, J; Lukaski, H; Alomar, X; Rodas, G

    2013-01-01

    Injuries to lower limb muscles are common among football players. Localized bioimpedance analysis (BIA) utilizes electrical measurements to assess soft tissue hydration and cell membrane integrity non-invasively. This study reports the effects of the severity of muscle injury and recovery on BIA variables. We made serial tetra-polar, phase-sensitive 50 kHz localized BIA measurements of quadriceps, hamstring and calf muscles of three male football players before and after injury and during recovery until return-to-play, to determine changes in BIA variables (resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA)) in different degrees of muscle injury. Compared to non-injury values, R, Xc and PA decreased with increasing muscle injury severity: grade III (23.1%, 45.1% and 27.6%), grade II (20.6%, 31.6% and 13.3%) and grade I (11.9%, 23.5% and 12.1%). These findings indicate that decreases in R reflect localized fluid accumulation, and reductions in Xc and PA highlight disruption of cellular membrane integrity and injury. Localized BIA measurements of muscle groups enable the practical detection of soft tissue injury and its severity. (paper)

  1. Clinical applications of remote ischaemic preconditioning in native and transplant acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Veighey, Kristin; MacAllister, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a composite of the injury sustained during a period of reduced or absent blood flow to a tissue or organ and the additional insult sustained upon reperfusion that limits the amount of tissue that can be salvaged. IR injury plays a central role in both native and transplant acute kidney injury (AKI). Native AKI is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hospital inpatients, and transplant AKI contributes to graft dysfunction, ultimately limitin...

  2. Next Generation Tissue Engineering of Orthopedic Soft Tissue-to-Bone Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boys, Alexander J.; McCorry, Mary Clare; Rodeo, Scott; Bonassar, Lawrence J.; Estroff, Lara A.

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue-to-bone interfaces are complex structures that consist of gradients of extracellular matrix materials, cell phenotypes, and biochemical signals. These interfaces, called entheses for ligaments, tendons, and the meniscus, are crucial to joint function, transferring mechanical loads and stabilizing orthopedic joints. When injuries occur to connected soft tissue, the enthesis must be re-established to restore function, but due to structural complexity, repair has proven challenging. Tissue engineering offers a promising solution for regenerating these tissues. This prospective review discusses methodologies for tissue engineering the enthesis, outlined in three key design inputs: materials processing methods, cellular contributions, and biochemical factors. PMID:29333332

  3. Tissue engineering of cartilages using biomatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melrose, J.; Chuang, C.; Whitelock, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an exciting new cross-disciplinary methodology which applies the principles of engineering and structure-function relationships between normal and pathological tissues to develop biological substitute to restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Tissue engineering...... therefore involves a melange of approaches encompassing developmental biology, tissue mechanics, medicine, cell differentiation and survival biology, mechanostransduction and nano-fabrication technology. The central tissue of interest in this review is cartilage. Traumatic injuries, congenital abnormalities...... engineering approaches and many of these are discussed and their in vitro and in vivo applications covered in this review. Tissue engineering is entering an exciting era; significant advances have been made; however, many technical challenges remain to be solved before this technology becomes widely...

  4. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  5. MR imaging of rectus femoris origin injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, Hugue; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Nelson, Erik; Torriani, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging findings of acute and chronic rectus femoris origin (RFO) injuries. A retrospective review of pelvic and hip MR imaging procedures was performed over a 4-year period for detection of cases with injuries to the RFO. Subjects were classified as having either acute or chronic symptoms. MR imaging studies, radiographs, CT scans, radiology reports, medical records, and operative notes were reviewed. Imaging analysis was directed to assess injuries affecting the direct and indirect heads of the RFO. Concurrent osseous, cartilaginous and musculotendinous injuries were tabulated. The incidence of RFO injuries on MR imaging was 0.5% (17/3160). With the exception of one case of anterior inferior iliac spine apophysis avulsion and partial tear of the direct head of RFO, all subjects had indirect head of RFO injuries (acute injury 8/9, chronic injury 8/8). Partial tear of the direct head of RFO was less frequently seen (acute injury 3/9, chronic injury 2/8). Partial tears of the conjoint tendon were least frequent (acute 1/9, chronic 2/8). No full-thickness tears of the RFO were noted. Associated labral tears were seen in only one case, with no other concomitant abnormality of the articular cartilage or surrounding soft tissues. All RFO injuries were treated non-operatively. Injuries of the RFO are uncommon on MR examinations of pelvis/hips and may occur in a sequence progressing from indirect head injury to involvement of direct head and conjoint tendon in more severe cases. (orig.)

  6. Adjusting the Chemical and Physical Properties of Hydrogels Leads to Improved Stem Cell Survival and Tissue Ingrowth in Spinal Cord Injury Reconstruction: A Comparative Study of Four Methacrylate Hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejčl, Aleš; Růžička, Jiří; Kapcalová, Miroslava; Turnovcová, Karolína; Krumbholcová, Eva; Přádný, Martin; Michálek, Jiří; Cihlář, J.; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 20 (2013), s. 2794-2805 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/11/P633; GA ČR GAP108/10/1560 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 521712 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : spinal cord injury * hydrogel * mesenchymal stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.202, year: 2013

  7. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine.

  8. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo

    1995-01-01

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine

  9. A new zebrafish bone crush injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sousa

    2012-07-01

    While mammals have a limited capacity to repair bone fractures, zebrafish can completely regenerate amputated bony fin rays. Fin regeneration in teleosts has been studied after partial amputation of the caudal fin, which is not ideal to model human bone fractures because it involves substantial tissue removal, rather than local tissue injury. In this work, we have established a bone crush injury model in zebrafish adult caudal fin, which consists of the precise crush of bony rays with no tissue amputation. Comparing these two injury models, we show that the initial stages of injury response are the same regarding the activation of wound healing molecular markers. However, in the crush assay the expression of the blastema marker msxb appears later than during regeneration after amputation. Following the same trend, bone cells deposition and expression of genes involved in skeletogenesis are also delayed. We further show that bone and blood vessel patterning is also affected. Moreover, analysis of osteopontin and Tenascin-C reveals that they are expressed at later stages in crushed tissue, suggesting that in this case bone repair is prolonged for longer than in the case of regeneration after amputation. Due to the nature of the trauma inflicted, the crush injury model seems more similar to fracture bone repair in mammals than bony ray amputation. Therefore, the new model that we present here may help to identify the key processes that regulate bone fracture and contribute to improve bone repair in humans.

  10. Nanomedicine for treating spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-09-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds.

  11. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Manzar; Bari, Muhammad-Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue. At 6 months'follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  12. Meat grinder injuries to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, M; Bunkis, J; Trengove-Jones, G

    1985-05-01

    Three cases of hand injury caused by meat grinders are presented. All 3 injuries involved the dominant hand and resulted in varying degrees of deformity. Two of the 3 patients arrived in the emergency room with the injured hand still firmly wedged in the meat grinder. Although these injuries continue to prove very mutilating, maximum restoration of the injured hand can be accomplished by careful extrication, followed by preservation and reconstruction of all viable tissues. Perioperative antibiotics and wound irrigation with antibiotic solution are recommended. Microsurgical technique can be of value in treating selected patients.

  13. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  15. Adherence of Candida albicans to bladder mucosa: development and application of a tissue explant assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, C A; Navarro, E; Garrett, K F; Roberts, D D; Pizzo, P A; Walsh, T J

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the interactions between Candida species and uroepithelial tissue, a tissue explant assay was developed using bladder mucosa harvested from New Zealand white rabbits. Blastoconidia of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata attached to the uroepithelial tissue in similar quantities. However, there was significantly more adherence to the uroepithelium by pre-germinated C. albicans compared with C. albicans blastoconidia. Furthermore, the amount of uroepithelial tissue injury was directly related to the length of exposure of the tissue to Candida. Thus, this tissue explant assay may provide a useful method for investigating properties related to fungal adherence to transitional uroepithelium and organism-mediated tissue injury.

  16. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  17. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen; Hall, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  18. BID Mediates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures and Modulates Tissue Inflammation in a Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model without Changing Lesion Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Bonner, Helena; Elkjær, Maria Louise

    2016-01-01

    The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in death receptor-induced and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Recently, it has also been suggested that BID is involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. We found that BID...... deficiency protected organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in vitro from neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. In vivo, BID-knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to 60 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) to induce focal cerebral ischemia...... between BID-KO and WT mice. The inflammatory response was reduced by BID deficiency as indicated by a change in microglial/leukocyte response. In conclusion, our data suggest that BID deficiency is neuroprotective in an in vitro model and modulates the inflammatory response to focal cerebral ischemia...

  19. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  20. New trends in spinal cord tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-145 ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : biomaterial * cell therapy * regenerative medicine * spinal cord injury * stem cells scaffold * tissue engineering Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

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    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipoff, Adam C; Rowcroft, Alistair; Weber, Dieter G

    2015-08-30

    Serious intra-abdominal injuries are very uncommon in cricket; traumatic cricket injuries are traditionally musculoskeletal, soft tissue or maxillofacial in origin. The cause of such cricket injuries can be broadly divided into collision type injuries (a result of direct contact with the ball or bat, another player, the ground or boundary) or overuse injuries (due to running, throwing, batting, bowling, repetitive movements and overexertion). This case report describes a rare cause of small bowel perforation and suspected genitofemoral nerve injury secondary to the direct impact of a cricket ball, and includes a brief review of blunt abdominal injuries resulting in isolated small bowel perforations. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

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    Science.gov (United States)

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    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

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