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Sample records for adenomyosis tissue injury

  1. Canine Uterine Leiomyoma with Epithelial Tissue Foci, Adenomyosis, and Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Karagiannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch with a history of intermittent, sanguineous vaginal discharge of a six-month duration was presented. During exploratory laparotomy, two well-delineated, intramural masses were identified bilaterally in the uterine horns. Histopathologic examination of the mass on the left horn showed that it was a typical leiomyoma. However, the second mass appeared with an unusual coexistence of histological lesions, involving epithelial tissue foci, mild focal adenomyosis, and cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Interestingly, such combination was never encountered before in dogs. Although uterine leiomyoma is quite usual in the reproductive system of female dogs, this case resembled relevant cases of human uterine adenomyomas in morphology, and thus it was offered a similar tentative diagnosis.

  2. Estrogen biosynthesis in human uterine adenomyosis

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    Urabe, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Takara; Kitawaki, Jo; Honjo, Hideo; Okada, Hiroji (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    Estrogen biosynthesis (aromatiase activity) was investigated in human adenomyosis tissue and compared with that of the normal myometrium, endometrium, and endometrical cancer tissues. Homogenates were incubated with (1,2,6,7-{sup 3}H)androstenedione and NADPH at 37 deg. C for 1 h. After stopping the enzymatic reaction with ethyl acetate, (4-{sup 14}C)estrone and (4-{sup 14}C)estradiol-17{beta} were added to the incubated sample. Estrone and estradiol were purified and identified by Bio-Rad AG1-X2 column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and co-crystallization. Estrogen formed in the incubated sample was calculated from the {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C ratio of the final crystal. The value for estrone formed from androstenedione was 52-132 fmol{sup .}h{sup -1.}g{sup -1} wet weight. Aromatase activity in the adenomyosis tissues was higher than that in normal endometrial or myometrial tissues, but lower than that found in myometrial or endometrial tumour tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of danazol, progresterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate on adenomyosis cells in primary cultures. Aromatase activity in adenomyosis was blocked by danazol, but stimulated by progesterone and MPA. These results indicate that aromatase activity in adenomyosis may contribute to the growth of the ectopic endometrial tissue which occurs in this disease. (author).

  3. Adenomyosis and its impact on women fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Elisabetta; Audrey, Serafini; Annalisa, Inversetti; Stefano, Ferrari; Iacopo, Tandoi; Laura, Corti; Massimo, Candiani

    2015-06-01

    Adenomyosis is a widespread disease affecting the reproductive period of women's life. In the last ten years, different pathogenetic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the initiation and development of the disease. This article aims to present and discuss the most important pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying adenomyosis development in order to clarify the relationship between adenomyosis and infertility. A PubMed search was undertaken for English language literature using the MeSH terms 'adenomyosis', 'infertility', 'treatment', and 'pathogenesis'. Although the exact etiology of adenomyosis is unknown, many theories have been proposed. We analysed the most important pathogenic theories expressed and evaluated the potential consequences on women fertility. A better comprehension of the adenomyosis pathogenesis has allowed realizing that adenomyosis may affect young women and may have a great impact on their fertility through different mechanisms. The understanding of these mechanisms helps to clarify the potential usefulness of current therapies.

  4. [Treatment of adenomyosis (excluding pregnancy project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelage, L; Fenomanana, S; Brun, J-L; Levaillant, J-M; Fernandez, H

    2015-05-01

    In this review we aimed to update the possibilities of adenomyosis treatment in women excluding those with a desire for pregnancy. Adenomyosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium and frequently underestimated. Over the last decades, its pathophysiology has been better known. The diagnosis is essentially based on clinical symptoms like menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are the main tools of the radiologic diagnosis. However, the definitive diagnosis is histological. The most effective treatment remains hysterectomy; however it is expensive, radical and at risk of morbidity compared with medical or surgical conservative management. The literature has reported several series of patients undergoing various treatments, thus allowing different therapeutic options. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device showed its efficacy alone or in combination with hysteroscopic treatment. Oral progestins, GnRH agonists are useful at short term or in preoperative condition. Some conservative treatments like focused ultrasound therapies or uterus-sparing operative treatment stay under evaluation and seems to be effective. Embolization has been the subject of several studies and must be outlined. Furthermore, several molecules, such as modulators of progesterone receptors and the aromatase inhibitors have been recently studied and are perhaps future treatments. PMID:25899118

  5. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  6. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

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    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M. [Neuroimaging Inst., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  7. AT2 Receptor and Tissue Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namsolleck, Pawel; Recarti, Chiara; Foulquier, Sébastien;

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of tissue injuries in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The detrimental actions of the AT1 receptor (AT1R) in hypertension and vascular injury, myocardial infarction and brain ischemia are well...

  8. Leiomyoma and adenomyosis: US and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiomyoma and adenomyosis of the uterus are the most common gynecologic disorders in an enlarged uterus. The characteristic US and MR findings in differentiation between both lesions were prospectively evaluated in 30 patients. Of 30 patients, 15 were leiomyomas, 6 were adenomyosises, 8 were leiomyomas and adenomyosises, and 1 was a normal pregnancy, histologically. The total number of leiomyoma nodules were 49 while adenomyosises were 14 (9 diffuse and 5 focal). Among 49 myomas nodules, 36 were correctly diagnosed by sonography. The characteristic US findings of uterine leiomyoma were well defined nodules (36), hypoechoic peripheral rim (16), and whorl-like internal echoes (13). Forty four of the 49 myoma nodules were correctly diagnosed by MRI. The characteristic MR findings of myoma were well defined nodules (43), peripheral low signal intensity rim on T1WI (13) and T2WI (9), and peripheral high signal intensity rim on T2WI (5). Among 14 adenomyosises, 9 were correctly diagnosed by sonography. The characteristic US findings of adenomyosis were diffuse uterine hypertrophy more than 5.5cm in AP diameter with endometrial displacement and no significant echo change in myometrium. All 14 adenomyosis as were correctly diagnosed from MRI. On T2WI, adenomyosis appeared as ill defined localized or diffuse thickening of the junctional zone more than 1cm in thickness. It was our conclusion that to differentiate between leiomyoma and adenomyosis focused on should be the detection of existence of nodule in leiomyoma, the primary sign, not on the secondary indirect sign

  9. Leiomyoma and adenomyosis: US and MR findings

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    Jee, Mi Hyun; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Mi Hye; Kweon, Young Hwa; Cha, Kyung Soo; Hong, Ju Hee; Kim, Soon Yong; Bae, Seong Hee; Shim, Jung Weon [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    Leiomyoma and adenomyosis of the uterus are the most common gynecologic disorders in an enlarged uterus. The characteristic US and MR findings in differentiation between both lesions were prospectively evaluated in 30 patients. Of 30 patients, 15 were leiomyomas, 6 were adenomyosises, 8 were leiomyomas and adenomyosises, and 1 was a normal pregnancy, histologically. The total number of leiomyoma nodules were 49 while adenomyosises were 14 (9 diffuse and 5 focal). Among 49 myomas nodules, 36 were correctly diagnosed by sonography. The characteristic US findings of uterine leiomyoma were well defined nodules (36), hypoechoic peripheral rim (16), and whorl-like internal echoes (13). Forty four of the 49 myoma nodules were correctly diagnosed by MRI. The characteristic MR findings of myoma were well defined nodules (43), peripheral low signal intensity rim on T1WI (13) and T2WI (9), and peripheral high signal intensity rim on T2WI (5). Among 14 adenomyosises, 9 were correctly diagnosed by sonography. The characteristic US findings of adenomyosis were diffuse uterine hypertrophy more than 5.5cm in AP diameter with endometrial displacement and no significant echo change in myometrium. All 14 adenomyosis as were correctly diagnosed from MRI. On T2WI, adenomyosis appeared as ill defined localized or diffuse thickening of the junctional zone more than 1cm in thickness. It was our conclusion that to differentiate between leiomyoma and adenomyosis focused on should be the detection of existence of nodule in leiomyoma, the primary sign, not on the secondary indirect sign.

  10. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

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    Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P; Troppmann, C

    2004-03-11

    Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.

  11. The management of soft tissue ankle injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Crean, D.

    1981-01-01

    The anatomy of the ankle, and the types of sporting injuries that occur in this joint, are described. Traditional treatment of soft tissue injuries involves immobilisation, and the value of this is questioned. An alternative treatment strategy is described, and involves immobilisation and compression for twenty-four hours, followed by rapid mobilisation using a balance board. This alternative strategy can bring about full functional mobility in 94% of patients within 14 days.

  12. The significant value of uterine artery embolization in treating adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenomyosis is a common obstetric and gynecological disease. The main clinical symptoms include menorrhagia, menostaxis and progressive exacerbated dysmenorrhea. The main treatments currently used to deal with this disease are surgery and medication, but both have certain advantages. With the development of interventional radiology and the deepening of clinical researches concerning uterine artery embolization for adenomyosis, interventional therapy has become a major therapeutic method for adenomyosis in clinical practice. (authors)

  13. Uterine myoma and adenomyosis: sonographic findings and differentiation

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    Lee, Yeong Hwan; Yun, Kwang Myeong; Kim, Ok Dong; Chung, Duck Soo [College of Medicine, Taegu Catholic Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Uterine myoma and adenomyosis are the two most likely diagnoses in women with hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and an enlarged uterus, but it is often not possible to make a distinction between them preoperatively. But their treatments can differ : myoma can be treated through myomectomy whereas adenomyosis require hysterectomy. In order to establish the characteristic and differential findings of myoma and adenomyosis sonographically, sonographic findings of 125 cases of pathologically proven myoma and adenomyosis were reviewed retrospectively. Histologic diagnosis were myoma in 94 patients and adenomyosis in 31 patients. The results were as follows : 1. The common sonographic findings of uterine myoma were globular enlargement or bulging contour of uterus 77.8%, loss of central endometrial echoes 66.0%, and homogeneous decreased internal echoes 35.1% or heterogeneous internal echoes 44.7%. 2. The common sonographic findings of adenomyosis were diffuse enlargement without contour change 80.6%, homogeneous hypoechoic or isoechoic internal textures 96.8%, preserved central endometrial echoes 80.6%, and thickening of posterior uterine wall 64.5%. 3. Adenomyosis was highly suggested if the uterus showed diffuse enlargement without contour change or visible nodule, homogeneous hypoechoic textures, and especially thickened posterior wall with anteriorly displaced central endometrial echoes. 4. Adenomyosis could be excluded if the patient was under 30 or above 50 years old, and especially had no previous obstetric history.

  14. Uterine myoma and adenomyosis: sonographic findings and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uterine myoma and adenomyosis are the two most likely diagnoses in women with hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and an enlarged uterus, but it is often not possible to make a distinction between them preoperatively. But their treatments can differ : myoma can be treated through myomectomy whereas adenomyosis require hysterectomy. In order to establish the characteristic and differential findings of myoma and adenomyosis sonographically, sonographic findings of 125 cases of pathologically proven myoma and adenomyosis were reviewed retrospectively. Histologic diagnosis were myoma in 94 patients and adenomyosis in 31 patients. The results were as follows : 1. The common sonographic findings of uterine myoma were globular enlargement or bulging contour of uterus 77.8%, loss of central endometrial echoes 66.0%, and homogeneous decreased internal echoes 35.1% or heterogeneous internal echoes 44.7%. 2. The common sonographic findings of adenomyosis were diffuse enlargement without contour change 80.6%, homogeneous hypoechoic or isoechoic internal textures 96.8%, preserved central endometrial echoes 80.6%, and thickening of posterior uterine wall 64.5%. 3. Adenomyosis was highly suggested if the uterus showed diffuse enlargement without contour change or visible nodule, homogeneous hypoechoic textures, and especially thickened posterior wall with anteriorly displaced central endometrial echoes. 4. Adenomyosis could be excluded if the patient was under 30 or above 50 years old, and especially had no previous obstetric history

  15. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

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    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  16. Properdin in complement activation and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesher, Allison M; Nilsson, Bo; Song, Wen-Chao

    2013-12-15

    The plasma protein properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation. Although regarded as an initiator of the alternative pathway of complement activation at the time of its discovery more than a half century ago, the role and mechanism of action of properdin in the complement cascade has undergone significant conceptual evolution since then. Despite the long history of research on properdin, however, new insight and unexpected findings on the role of properdin in complement activation, pathogen infection and host tissue injury are still being revealed by ongoing investigations. In this article, we provide a brief review on recent studies that shed new light on properdin biology, focusing on the following three topics: (1) its role as a pattern recognition molecule to direct and trigger complement activation, (2) its context-dependent requirement in complement activation on foreign and host cell surfaces, and (3) its involvement in alternative pathway complement-mediated immune disorders and considerations of properdin as a potential therapeutic target in human diseases.

  17. Soft Tissue Injuries in Hungarian and Austrian Clinical Diagnostic Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarasi-Nuber Katalin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In addition to providing first aid, primary treating doctors are required to describe and register injuries acquired in accidents and assaults. They should do this with the highest possible accuracy, as this official document is often the only documentary evidence of soft tissue injuries in case a lawsuit is filed later. Characteristics of injuries may disappear faster with the healing process of the soft tissue, making it impossible for forensic experts to deduce the weapon involved. Consequently, terminological accuracy is a prerequisite for the appropriate reconstruction of the type and severity of injuries. This study aims at analysing reports on soft tissue injuries in Hungary and Austria from the terminological point of view. It is meant to reveal inaccuracies in the use of noun phrases impairing objective and accurate forensic assessment.

  18. Tissue Injury and Related Mediators of Pain Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya, Fumimasa; Izumi, Yuta; Matsuda, Megumi; Sasaki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Tissue injury and inflammation result in release of various mediators that promote ongoing pain or pain hypersensitivity against mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli. Pro-nociceptive mediators activate primary afferent neurons directly or indirectly to enhance nociceptive signal transmission to the central nervous system. Excitation of primary afferents by peripherally originating mediators, so-called “peripheral sensitization”, is a hallmark of tissue injury-related pain. Many kinds of p...

  19. The Role of Adenomyosis in the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasdemir, P. S.; Farasat, M.; Aydin, C.; Ozyurt, B. C.; Guvenal, T.; Pekindil, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adenomyosis can cause defective deep placentation. Preeclampsia is known to be associated with abnormal placentation. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of adenomyosis on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with and without history of preeclampsia in order to investigate the possible role of adenomyosis in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized study consisted of patients with (n = 35) and without (n = 34) history of preeclampsia. Direct (submucosal microcysts, adenomyoma and cystic adenomyoma) and indirect (maximal thickness of junctional zone, ratio of maximal thickness of junctional zone to myometrial thickness, junctional zone differential, focal thickening of junctional zone, globally enlarged uterus and non-uniform junctional zone contours) signs of adenomyosis were assessed by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The prevalence of adenomyosis was found to be more common in patients with preeclampsia und fetal growth restriction compared to patients without fetal growth restriction (94.4 vs. 64.7 %; p = 0.041), respectively. There was a strong association between maximal thickness of junctional zone (9 vs. 13 mm, p = 0.005), ratio of maximal thickness of junctional zone to myometrial thickness (0.42 vs. 0.66, p = 0.001) and junctional zone differential (3 vs. 5 mm, p = 0.02) and late-onset preeclampsia. Conclusions: Presence of adenomyoma is more common in patients with preeclampsia complicated with fetal growth restriction. Indirect signs of adenomyosis detected on pelvic magnetic resonance imaging might have a role in the pathogenesis of late-onset preeclampsia.

  20. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

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    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression, and elevation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells.

  1. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

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    Yerneni LK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since man invented fire he has been more frequently burning himself by this creation than by the naturally occurring bushfires. It is estimated that over 1.152 million people in India suffer from burn injuries requiring treatment every year and majority of them are women aged between 16-40 years and most of them occur in the kitchen. The treatment for burns basically involves autologous skin grafting, which originated in India more than two thousand years ago (Sushruta Samhita, is still the gold standard for the wound resurfacing, although, autografting is difficult where graftable donor sites are limited. Although, Cadaver skin, porcine or bovine xenografts are used alternatively over the past thirty years, modern approaches like the Bioengineering of skin substitutes emerged during the past 20 years as advanced wound management technologies with no social impediment. They can be broadly categorized as Acellular and Cellular biotechnological products. The acellular products like Alloderm (LifeCell Corporation, Integra (Integra Life Sciences act like template and depend on natural regeneration, while the cellular ones are either ‘Off-the-Shelf’ products like Apligraf (Organogenesis Inc and Orcel (Ortec International have allogenic elements and ‘home grown’ autologous cell products like Cultured Epithelial Autograft (CEA and epidermal-dermal composite skin use synthetic or natural non-human matrices. The CEA is based on the ex-vivo epidermal stem cell-expansion and our laboratory has been engaged in CEA technique development with innovative cost-effective approach and yielded promising preliminary clinical success. The basic methodological approach in CEA technique which is still clinically adopted by several developed countries involves the use of growth arrested mouse dermal fibroblasts as growth supportive matrix and is thus considered a drawback as a whole. Additionally, there is no superior enough method available to augment the

  2. The aetiology of deep tissue injury: a literature review.

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    Peart, Joanna

    2016-08-11

    Deep tissue injury affects patients of all ages in a variety of healthcare settings. It is therefore essential that nurses are aware of the underlying pathogenesis, in order to accurately assess the pressure ulcer risk of vulnerable patients, and to subsequently reduce patient harm. The majority of pressure ulcers are avoidable, however, a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors can contribute towards the development of deep tissue injury. Understanding the body's internal responses to external pressure will enable nurses to recognise that a visual assessment alone may not necessarily identify patients at risk of deep tissue damage. This article reviews the evidence for the internal causative mechanisms of deep tissue injury, while linking to clinical practice and pressure ulcer prevention. PMID:27523755

  3. Mechanisms of tissue injury in lupus nephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara K Nowling; Gilkeson, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production and immune complex formation/deposition in target organs such as the kidney. Resultant local inflammation then leads to organ damage. Nephritis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lupus, occurs in approximately 50% of lupus patients. In the present review, we provide an overview of the current research and knowledge concerning mechanisms of renal injury in both lupus...

  4. Fractures and Soft Tissue Injuries of the Feet and Ankle

    OpenAIRE

    English, Edward

    1985-01-01

    An accurate clinical diagnosis of foot and ankle pain can be made by a history, physical examination and routine X-rays of the affected part. Each problem has a specific treatment; however, fractures and dislocations around the foot and ankle can be thought of in an organized fashion by proper physical examination and then the appropriate treatment. Fractures and soft tissue injuries can be treated rationally by understanding the mechanism of injury and the possibility of subsequent deformity...

  5. Optical spectroscopy for the detection of ischemic tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros; Fitzgerald, Jason; Troppmann, Christoph; Michalopoulou, Andromachi

    2009-09-08

    An optical method and apparatus is utilized to quantify ischemic tissue and/or organ injury. Such a method and apparatus is non-invasive, non-traumatic, portable, and can make measurements in a matter of seconds. Moreover, such a method and apparatus can be realized through optical fiber probes, making it possible to take measurements of target organs deep within a patient's body. Such a technology provides a means of detecting and quantifying tissue injury in its early stages, before it is clinically apparent and before irreversible damage has occurred.

  6. Deep tissue injury from a bioengineering point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Amit

    2009-04-01

    The phrasing of the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel's (NPUAP) definition of deep tissue injury (DTI) was based on case reports, clinical observations, and experience. Although etiological studies of DTI, primarily related to characterizing biomechanical factors affecting onset and progression, support and strengthen parts of the NPUAP's definition, some recent findings suggest a need to re-evaluate the wording and perhaps refine future definitions of DTI. Application of existing bioengineering research to underlying biological, physical, biomechanical, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the definition of DTI suggests the following: 1) changes in skin color - ie, deviation of the local skin color from the surroundings - may indicate a DTI might be present, but color is not useful for quantifying the severity of injury; 2) the pressure and/or shear definition is inaccurate because it creates an artificial distinction between pressure and shear, which are physically coupled, and because it ignores tensional loads; 3) palpating tissue firmness at the wound site provides limited assessment information because tissue firmness will depend on the point in time along the course of DTI development. Damaged tissues might appear stiffer than surrounding tissues if examined when muscle tissue is locally contracted due to local rigor mortis but at a later stage damage might manifest as tissues that are softer than their surroundings when digestive enzymes start decomposing necrotic tissues; 4) skin temperature changes near the DTI site may reflect inflammatory response, causing local heating, or ischemic perfusion, causing local cooling; and 5) rapid deterioration of DTI is likely occurring due to muscle tissue stiffening at the rigor mortis phase; stiffened tissues abnormally deform adjacent tissues and this effect is amplified if muscles are atrophied. The application of interdisciplinary research may help clinicians and researchers move from evolving jargons

  7. β-Catenin activation contributes to the pathogenesis of adenomyosis through epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Oh, Seo; Shin, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hoon; Sun Lee, Hee; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Broaddus, Russell R.; Makoto M Taketo; Lydon, John P.; Leach, Richard E.; Lessey, Bruce A.; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Lim, Jeong Mook; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Adenomyosis is defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. Despite its frequent occurrence, the precise aetiology and physiopathology of adenomyosis is still unknown. WNT/β-catenin signalling molecules are important and should be tightly regulated for uterine function. To investigate the role of β-catenin signalling in adenomyosis, the expression of β-catenin was examined. Nuclear and cytoplasmic β-catenin expression was significantly higher in epithelial c...

  8. Increased expression of nuclear factor kappa-B p65 subunit in adenomyosis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hana; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Yoo Mi; Ihm, Hyo Jin; Oh, Young Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Chae, Hee Dong; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kang, Byung Moon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) is a critical proinflammatory regulator that has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether the expression of NF-κB p65 subunit is increased in the eutopic endometrium and/or in the adenomyosis nodule of women with adenomyosis. Methods Thirty-three women with histologically confirmed adenomyosis after laparoscopic or transabdominal hysterectomy were ...

  9. Mathematical model of normal tissue injury in telegammatherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, S.A.; Lyass, F.M.; Mamin, R.G.; Minakova, E.I.; Raevskaya, S.A. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Nejrokhirurgii)

    1983-03-01

    A model of normal tissue injury as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation is based on an assumption that the degree of tissue injury is determined by the degree of destruction by certain critical cells. The dependence of the number of lethal injuries on a single dose is expressed by a trinomial-linear and quadratic parts and a constant, obtained as a result of the processing of experimental data. Quantitative correlations have been obtained for the skin and brain. They have been tested using clinical and experimental material. The results of the testing point out to the absence of time dependence on a single up to 6-week irradiation courses. Correlation with an irradiation field has been obtained for the skin. A conclusion has been made that the concept of isoefficacy of irradiation courses is conditional. Spatial-time fractionation is a promising direction in the development of radiation therapy.

  10. OCT-based in vivo tissue injury mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Tissue injury mapping (TIM) is developed by using a non-invasive in vivo optical coherence tomography to generate optical attenuation coefficient and microvascular map of the injured tissue. Using TIM, the infarct region development in mouse cerebral cortex during stroke is visualized. Moreover, we demonstrate the in vivo human facial skin structure and microvasculature during an acne lesion development. The results indicate that TIM may help in the study and the treatment of various diseases by providing high resolution images of tissue structural and microvascular changes.

  11. Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases-related hepatic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Fu-Kui Zhang; Xiao-Ning Wu; Tai-Ling Wang; Ji-Dong Jia; Bao-En Wang

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic injury is rarely associated with undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTD).We report,here,a case of a middle-aged woman with UCTD-related hepatic injury,including its case history,clinical manifestations,laboratory findings,treatment and its short-term effect.The patient was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of fatigue,anorexia,low-grade fever and skin rashes.She had a past history of left knee joint replacement.Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of serum transaminase,IgG and globulin,accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate,eosinophilia and a high titer of antinuclear antibodies (1:320).Imaging studies showed interstitial pneumonitis and hydropericardium.Liver biopsy showed the features which were consistent with those of connective tissue diseases-related polyangitis.After treatment with a low-dose of oral prednisone,both symptoms and laboratory findings were significantly improved.UCTD-related hepatic injury should be considered in the differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases with abnormal liver function tests.Lowdose prednisone may effectively improve both symptoms and laboratory tests.

  12. Aberrant innate immune activation following tissue injury impairs pancreatic regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E Folias

    Full Text Available Normal tissue architecture is disrupted following injury, as resident tissue cells become damaged and immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. While injury and inflammation are critical to tissue remodeling, the inability to resolve this response can lead to the destructive complications of chronic inflammation. In the pancreas, acinar cells of the exocrine compartment respond to injury by transiently adopting characteristics of progenitor cells present during embryonic development. This process of de-differentiation creates a window where a mature and stable cell gains flexibility and is potentially permissive to changes in cellular fate. How de-differentiation can turn an acinar cell into another cell type (such as a pancreatic β-cell, or a cell with cancerous potential (as in cases of deregulated Kras activity is of interest to both the regenerative medicine and cancer communities. While it is known that inflammation and acinar de-differentiation increase following pancreatic injury, it remains unclear which immune cells are involved in this process. We used a combination of genetically modified mice, immunological blockade and cellular characterization to identify the immune cells that impact pancreatic regeneration in an in vivo model of pancreatitis. We identified the innate inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophils as regulators of pancreatic regeneration. Under normal conditions, mild innate inflammation prompts a transient de-differentiation of acinar cells that readily dissipates to allow normal regeneration. However, non-resolving inflammation developed when elevated pancreatic levels of neutrophils producing interferon-γ increased iNOS levels and the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. Pancreatic injury improved following in vivo macrophage depletion, iNOS inhibition as well as suppression of iNOS levels in macrophages via interferon-γ blockade, supporting the impairment in regeneration and the

  13. Facilitated assessment of tissue loss following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eHånell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI result in a progressive loss of brain tissue. The extent of tissue loss reflects the injury severity and can be measured to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of experimental treatments. Quantitation of tissue volumes is commonly performed using evenly spaced brain sections stained using routine histochemical methods and digitally captured. The brain tissue areas are then measured and the corresponding volumes are calculated using the distance between the sections. Measurements of areas are usually performed using a general purpose image analysis software and the results are then transferred to another program for volume calculations. To facilitate the measurement of brain tissue loss we developed novel algorithms which automatically separate the areas of brain tissue from the surrounding image background and identify the ventricles. We implemented these new algorithms by creating a new computer program (SectionToVolume which also has functions for image organization, image adjustments and volume calculations. We analyzed brain sections from mice subjected to severe focal TBI using both SectionToVolume and ImageJ, a commonly used image analysis program. The volume measurements made by the two programs were highly correlated and analysis using SectionToVolume required considerably less time. The inter-rater reliability was high. Given the extensive use of brain tissue loss measurements in TBI research, SectionToVolume will likely be a useful tool for TBI research. We therefore provide both the source code and the program as attachments to this article.

  14. The thresholds and mechanisms of tissue injury by focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Julianna

    Therapeutic ultrasound is used in clinics around the world to treat ailments such as uterine fibroids, kidney stones, and plantar fasciitis. While many of the therapeutic effects of ultrasound are elicited by hyperthermia, bubbles can also interact with tissue to produce beneficial effects. For example, bubbles are used in boiling histotripsy to de-bulk tissue and are used in shock wave lithotripsy to break kidney stones. However, the same bubbles that break the kidney stones also damage the kidney, which is why bubble damage is a concern in every ultrasound application including fetal imaging. Whether the aim is to emulsify a tumor or image a fetus, understanding the thresholds and mechanisms of tissue injury by bubbles in an ultrasound field is important for all ultrasound applications and was the goal of this dissertation. One specific application of therapeutic ultrasound, known as boiling histotripsy, uses shock wave heating to explosively expand a millimeter-size boiling bubble at the transducer focus and fractionate bulk tissue. Yet it was unclear how the millimeter-size boiling or vapor bubble broke down the tissue into its submicron components. In this dissertation, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that ultrasonic atomization, or the emission of fine droplets from an acoustically excited liquid film, is the mechanism by which the millimeter-size boiling bubble in boiling histotripsy fractionates tissue into its submicron components. Using high speed photography, we showed that tissue can behave as a liquid such that a miniature acoustic fountain forms and atomization occurs within a millimeter-size cavity that approximates the boiling or vapor bubble produced by boiling histotripsy. The end result of tissue atomization was a hole in the tissue surface. After showing that tissue can be eroded by atomization, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the tissue properties that influence atomization. The results indicated that highly

  15. A case of lethal soft tissue injuries due to assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagawa Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Youichi Yanagawa,1 Yoshimasa Kanawaku,2 Jun Kanetake21Department of Emergency and Disaster Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, 2Department of Forensic Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, JapanAbstract: A 42-year-old male had been assaulted by his family over the two previous days and went into a deep coma. When the emergency technician arrived, the patient was in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest. On arrival, his electrocardiogram showed asystole. His body showed swelling with subcutaneous hemorrhage, suggesting multiple contusional wounds. Serum biochemistry evaluation revealed blood urea nitrogen of 80 mg/dL, creatinine of 5.99 mg/dL, creatine phosphokinase of 10,094 IU/L, and potassium of 11.0 mEq/L. Advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation failed to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation. Laboratory findings revealed rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and hyperkalemia. Autopsy did not indicate the direct cause of death to be traumatic organ injuries. Because trauma was not the direct reason of death, we speculated that the patient died of hyperkalemia induced by multiple contusional soft tissue injuries, following rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, and acute renal failure. The physician should maintain a high index of suspicion for hyperkalemia induced by rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, especially in patients presenting with symptoms of multiple soft tissue injuries with massive subcutaneous hemorrhaging.Keywords: contusion, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, hyperkalemia

  16. Dynamically monitoring tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor following secondary brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪海; 施小燕; 干建新; 卢兴国; 江观玉; 周君富

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the altering rule of coagulation function at molecular level in patients with secondary brain injury (SBI).Methods: Tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) were studied in 32 patients 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after craniocerebral injury. Repeated cranial CT scans and platelet counts were made simultaneously. Same measurements were done in 30 normal adults except CT scan.Results: No obvious difference was found in age, sex and platelet count between the injured and the normal groups. TFPI/TF decreased markedly in the first week after injury in patients with SBI, but only decreased on the 7th day in the patients without obvious SBI. For the patients who developed delayed intracranial hematoma (DIH) or hematoma enlargement, TF rose only 1 and 2 days after injury, but TFPI had a tendency to rise again after a fall on the 3rd day. For those patients who developed no DIH, TF rose all the time within the 1st week.Conclusions: Decrease of TFPI/TF for a long time, especially within 3 days after injury, may be one of the most important reasons for SBI. High expression of TF for a relative short time and increase of TFPI after a fall within 3 days may be one of the important reasons for DIH or hematoma enlargement.

  17. Antisense oligonucleotide for tissue factor inhibits hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kadotani, Yayoi; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Akioka, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Masahiko; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji; Yoshimura, Rikio; Yoshimura, Norio

    2002-09-27

    Tissue factor (TF) is an initiation factor for blood coagulation and its expression is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory or immune responses. We designed an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-1/TF) for rat TF and studied its effect on hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury. AS-1/TF was delivered intravenously to Lewis rats. After 10 h, hepatic artery and portal vein were partially clamped. Livers were reperfused after 180 min and harvested. TF expression was studied using immunohistochemical staining. One of 10 rats survived in a 5-day survival rate and TF was strongly stained on endothelial cells in non-treatment group. However, by treatment with AS-1/TF, six of seven survived and TF staining was significantly reduced. Furthermore, we observed that fluorescein-labeled AS-1/TF was absorbed into endothelial cells. These results suggest that AS-1/TF can strongly suppress the expression of TF and thereby inhibit ischemic reperfusion injury to the rat liver. PMID:12270110

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, diabetes mellitus, and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liu; Xie, Hong; Liu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is characterized by the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. Unfolded and misfolded protein accumulation interferes with the ER function and triggers ER stress response. Thus, ER stress response, also called unfolded protein response (UPR), is an adaptive process that controls the protein amount in the ER lumen and the downstream protein demand. In normal conditions, the role of ER stress is to maintain ER homeostasis, restore ER function, and protect stressed cells from apoptosis, by coordinating gene expression, protein synthesis, and accelerating protein degradation through several molecular pathways. However, prolonged ER stress response plays a paradoxical role, which leads to cell damage, apoptosis, and concomitant tissue injuries. A number of tissue alterations are involved with diabetes mellitus progress and its comorbidities via ER stress. However, certain pharmacological agents affecting ER stress have been identified. In this review, we summarized the relationship between ER stress and insulin resistance development. Moreover, we aim to explain how ER stress influences type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. In addition, we reviewed the literature on ER stress and UPR in three kinds of tissue injuries induced by T2DM. Finally, a retrospective analysis of the effects of anti-diabetes medications on ER stress is presented.

  19. Deep tissue injury rat model for pressure ulcer research on spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Fang; Pandya, Atek; Cichowski, Andrew; Modi, Mauli; Reprogle, Briana; Lee, Dongkeun; Kadono, Norio; Makhsous, Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    Many rat/mouse pressure ulcer (PU) models have been developed to test different hypotheses to gain deeper understanding of various causative risk factors, the progress of PUs, and assessing effectiveness of potential treatment modalities. The recently emphasized deep tissue injury (DTI) mechanisms for PU formation has received increased attention and several studies reported findings on newly developed DTI animal models. However, concerns exist for the clinical relevance and validity of these...

  20. Considerations of long-term radiation injury in nonhemopoietic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute whole body doses resulting in long-term survival are limited to about 4-5 Gy if successful marrow transplantation is not performed, and the critical tissue at risk is the bone marrow. After doses approaching this limit, long-term somatic injury comprises cataracts, persistent but not permanent infertility in man, and temporary or permanent sterility in some women. If marrow tranplantation is successful, the acute dose can be increased to about 7.5 Gy. The limiting tissue now becomes the lung, and the limiting effect is pnenumonitis. Cataracts and infertility become more prevalent, and other long-term effects become apparent. The main additional nonhemopoietic somatic effects are restrictive and obstructive lung damage, and hormonal imbalances in children that result in retardation of sexual development and growth. There are also a few secondary malignancies and a few cases of leukoencephalopathy. However, the latter are associated with additional prophylactic treatments for CNS disease

  1. Role of benign ovarian cysts in the development of adenomyosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sadaf; Ahmad, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad M.; Nasir, Sabeen; Sharif, Naveed; Ziaullah, Sara; Khalid, Ahmareen; Rauf, Fozia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association of adenomyotic foci with co-existing benign ovarian cysts. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study consisted of 100 consecutive hysterectomy specimens referred to Histopathology Section of Pathology Department, Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan by its attached teaching hospitals from January 2011 to December 2012. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections were examined for adenomyotic foci and the presence of co-existent ovarian cysts. For evaluation of estrogen receptor (ER) status immunohistochemical stains were applied and H-scoring system was used with a score >50 as positive. Results: Out of the 100 hysterectomy specimens, 25 cases had both adenomyosis and ovarian cysts. The ER status of adenomyotic foci was positive in 20% cases and negative in 80% cases. The commonest type of ovarian cyst was hemorrhagic luteal cyst (28%), followed by serous and mucinous cystadenoma (20%) each. Out of the 28% cases of functional cysts, 71.5% were ER positive and 28.5% were ER negative. The p-value for association of ER status of adenomyotic foci with functional cysts was 0.0004; however, p-value was not significant in comparing cases with controls. All 72% cases of nonfunctional cysts were ER negative. However, 44% of functional cysts were not associated with adenomyotic foci. Conclusion: This study concludes that besides functional ovarian cysts, other local factors may be responsible for the development of adenomyosis. PMID:27570851

  2. Tissue plasminogen activator attenuates ventilatorinduced lung injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-ti HUANG; Hsiu-chu CHOU; Leng-fang WANG; Chung-ming CHEN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To test the hypothesis that the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may counteract the inhibitory effect ot plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI) and attenuate lung injury in a rat model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI).Methods:Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were ventilated with a HVZP (high-volume zero PEEP) protocol for 2 h at a tidal volume of 30 ml/kg,a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min,and an inspired oxygen fraction of 21%.The rats were divided into 3 groups (n=7 for each):HVZP+tPA group receiving tPA (1.25 mg/kg,iv) 15 min before ventilation,HVZP group receiving HVZP+vehicle injection,and a control group receiving no ventilation.After 2 h of ventilation,the rats were killed; blood and lungs were collected for biochemical and histological analyses.Results:HVZP ventilation significantly increased total protein content and the concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as the lung injury score.Rats that received HVZP ventilation had significantly higher lung PAI-1 mRNA expression,plasma PAI-1and plasma D-dimer levels than the control animals,tPA treatment significantly reduced the BALF total protein and the lung injury score as compared to the HVZP group,tPA treatment also significantly decreased the plasma D-dimer levels and the HVZP ventilation-induced lung vascular fibrin thrombi,tPA treatment showed no effect on MIP-2 level in BALF.Conclusion:These results demonstrate that VILI increases lung PAI-1 mRNA expression,plasma levels of PAI-1 and D-limers,lung injury score and vascular fibrin deposition,tPA can attenuate VILI by decreasing capillary-alveolar protein leakage as well as local and systemic coagulation as shown by decreased lung vascular fibrin deposition and plasma D-dimers.

  3. Oxidized tissue proteins after intestinal reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanaider Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse if the carbonyl proteins measurement could be validated as a method that allows the identification of an intestinal oxidative stress after ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS: Twenty-five male Wistar rats (n =21 weighting 200 to 250g were divided into three groups. Group I - control (n = 10. Group II - sham (n = 5 and Group III (n = 10 subjected to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia and equal period of reperfusion. For this purpose it was clamped the superior mesenteric artery in its distal third. Histological changes and carbonyl protein levels were determined in the samples of all groups. In group III, samples of both normal and reperfused ileal segment were studied. RESULTS: All the reperfused segments showed mucosal and submucosal swelling and inflammatory infiltrate of the lamina propria. Levels of carbonyl protein rose in group III, including in the non-ischemic segments. The sensitivity and specificity of the carbonyl protein tissue levels were respectively 94% and 88%. CONCLUSION: The carbonyl protein method is a useful biologic marker of oxidative stress after the phenomenon of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats. It was also noteworthy that the effects of oxidative stress could be seen far from the locus of the primary injury.

  4. Focal adenomyosis (intramural endometriotic cyst) in a very young patient - differential diagnosis with uterine fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manta, L; Suciu, N; Constantin, A; Toader, O; Popa, F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Adenomyosis is a widespread disease usually affecting the late reproductive years of the women's life, which has a great impact on their fertility. The most common form is diffuse adenomyosis, while focal adenomyosis, a cystic variant, is very rare, particularly in patients younger than 30 years old. Materials and methods. We reported a rare case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with cystic adenomyosis who was admitted in our service with severe chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia, who had received conservative surgical treatment to preserve fertility and improve her obstetrical prognosis. Results and Discussions. Although the necrobiosis of a uterine fibroid was suspected preoperatively, the extemporaneous histopathological exam revealed adenomyosis associated with fibroleiomyoma with hyaline dystrophy and multiple foci of endometriosis of cystic formation in the wall of a young woman without any risk factors. Conclusion. Although a rare lesion in young patients, cystic adenomyosis should be considered when chronic pelvic pain is exacerbated during menstruation and is associated with a uterine tumor. In young patients, the differential diagnosis should be made with uterine malformations (hematometra), necrobiosis of uterine fibroids, pelvic endometriosis. The surgical treatment should be conservative with the excision of the lesion, always taking into account fertility preservation in young patients. PMID:27453751

  5. Regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following mechanical injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation......, proliferation and remodelling. We investigated the expression of genes traditionally being important in these processes untill 7 days after the tissue damage in order to find inducible genetic markers following mechanical injury....

  6. Radiation-induced hypoxia may perpetuate late normal tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not hypoxia develops in rat lung tissue after radiation. Methods and Materials: Fisher-344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax using a single dose of 28 Gy. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the changes in respiratory rate every 2 weeks, for 6 months after irradiation. The hypoxia marker was administered 3 h before euthanasia. The tissues were harvested at 6 weeks and 6 months after irradiation and processed for immunohistochemistry. Results: A moderate hypoxia was detected in the rat lungs at 6 weeks after irradiation, before the onset of functional or histopathologic changes. The more severe hypoxia, that developed at the later time points (6 months) after irradiation, was associated with a significant increase in macrophage activity, collagen deposition, lung fibrosis, and elevation in the respiratory rate. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed an increase in TGF-β, VEGF, and CD-31 endothelial cell marker, suggesting a hypoxia-mediated activation of the profibrinogenic and proangiogenic pathways. Conclusion: A new paradigm of radiation-induced lung injury should consider postradiation hypoxia to be an important contributing factor mediating a continuous production of a number of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

  7. Autophagy, Innate Immunity and Tissue Repair in Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Duann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kidney is a vital organ with high energy demands to actively maintain plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis. Among the nephron segments, the renal tubular epithelium is endowed with high mitochondria density for their function in active transport. Acute kidney injury (AKI is an important clinical syndrome and a global public health issue with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapy. AKI results in acute cell death and necrosis of renal tubule epithelial cells accompanied with leakage of tubular fluid and inflammation. The inflammatory immune response triggered by the tubular cell death, mitochondrial damage, associative oxidative stress, and the release of many tissue damage factors have been identified as key elements driving the pathophysiology of AKI. Autophagy, the cellular mechanism that removes damaged organelles via lysosome-mediated degradation, had been proposed to be renoprotective. An in-depth understanding of the intricate interplay between autophagy and innate immune response, and their roles in AKI pathology could lead to novel therapies in AKI. This review addresses the current pathophysiology of AKI in aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, innate immunity, and molecular mechanisms of autophagy. Recent advances in renal tissue regeneration and potential therapeutic interventions are also discussed.

  8. Down on one knee: soft tissue knee injuries across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Thorlund, Jonas B.; Culvenor, Adam G; Ratzlaff, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Joint injury is a potent risk factor for osteoarthritis, the most important musculoskeletal disease affecting humankind. Yet the population incidence of soft tissue knee injury is not well documented. Using health-care register data from Sweden, Peat and colleagues report that soft tissue knee injuries are common, peak in adolescence and early adulthood, have a second spike in women who are 35 to 49 years old, and continue throughout the lifespan. The study highlights the need for more knowle...

  9. Down on one knee: soft tissue knee injuries across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Thorlund, Jonas B.; Culvenor, Adam G; Ratzlaff, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Joint injury is a potent risk factor for osteoarthritis, the most important musculoskeletal disease affecting humankind. Yet the population incidence of soft tissue knee injury is not well documented. Using health-care register data from Sweden, Peat and colleagues report that soft tissue knee injuries are common, peak in adolescence and early adulthood, have a second spike in women who are 35 to 49 years old, and continue throughout the lifespan. The study highlights the need for more knowle...

  10. Laparoscopic resection versus myolysis in the management of symptomatic uterine adenomyosis: alternatives to conventional treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachyu Hadisaputra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective therapy preserving reproductive function in adenomyosis is warranted. From June 2003 to June 2004, patients diagnosed as having adenomyosis by transvaginal ultrasound and had symptoms of menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and pelvic pain were randomly allocated to either receive laparoscopic resection or myolysis. GnRH analog was given for 3 cycles after surgery. Within 6 months, symptoms were evaluated using questionnaires and at the end of follow up, adenomyosis volume was assessed by transvaginal ultra-sound. There were 20 patients included, 10 patients had resection and the rest underwent myolysis. Both procedures did not yield sig-nificant complications. Subjective evaluation by questionnaires was done in all patients. Three patients could not be evaluated objec-tively by transvaginal ultrasound, 2 patients resigned and 1 was pregnant. There was no significant difference in menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea reduction score between the 2 groups (p=0.399 and 0.213, respectively. In both groups, dysmenorrhea was reduced significantly after treatment. No significant statistical difference was found in median adenomyosis volume increment (p=0.630 be-tween the resection (median=+15.35% (-100-159} and myolysis groups (median=+48.43% (-100-553. Five patients were pregnant, 3 from the resection group and 2 from the myolysis group. Uterine rupture was found in 1 patient (from the myolysis group at the age of 8 months of pregnancy. The effectiveness of laparoscopic adenomyosis resection was not significantly different compared with lapa-rascopic myolysis as an alternative conservative surgery in treating symptomatic adenomyosis. Myolysis was not recommended for women who wish to be pregnant. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:9-17Keywords: laparascopy, resection, myolysis, conservative surgery, symptomatic adenomyosis

  11. The Significance of MRI Evaluation of the Uterine Junctional Zone in the Early Diagnosis of Adenomyosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofic, Amela; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Carovac, Aladin; Jahic, Elma; Smailbegovic, Velda; Kupusovic, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Goal: The aim of the study is to define the MRI appearance of disorder in the Junctional zone (JZ) in women with adenomyosis compared to those without it, given the importance of the JZ in the regulation of various reproductive events. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, comparative and open study. Patients with adenomyosis have been sorted in target group, n = 82, while the control group consisted of patients without adenomyosis, n = 82. All patients, from both groups have undergone a magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis. Using a software tool for measurement, the thickness of the JZ was measured in T2w sag sequences in all patients from both groups (target and control) n = 164. Patients in the target group type adenomyosis were assessed and categorized either as: diffuse, focal, or Adenomyoma and the results were compared. The presence of endometriosis and myomas in both groups was evaluated and its coexistence with adenomyosis was analyzed as well. Results: Of the 82 patients in the target group, 81.7% of the patients had diffuse adenomyosis, while 18.3% had focal type with statistically significant difference (p <0.05). The results of the Mann-Whitney U test showed that p <0.05, implying that there is a statistically significant difference in the thickness of the JZ between the control and target group, therefore patients from the target group with adenomyosis had a statistically significantly thicker junctional zone than the patients in the control group. The JZ in the target group was on average M = 14,3mm, SD = 1.3mm, while the thickness of JZ in the control group without adenomyosis was M = 5,6mm, SD = 1,3. Chi-square shows that p <0.05, implying that there is a statistically significant difference in the number of patients with myomas between the two groups, where the myomas significantly over-represented in the target group with 32,9 % vs.6 %). Conclusion: MRI is the method of choice for imaging and evaluation of JZ as an important

  12. Uterine arterial methotrexate infusion and embolization in the treatment of uterine adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the efficacy of treating different types of uterine adenomyosis with transcatheter local infusion of methotrexate (MTX) combined with uterine arterial embolization under guidance of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Methods: 33 cases were primarily screened out according to clinical symptoms and color Doppler and then further diagnosis as diffuse or local adenomyosis were undertaken with super selective uterine arterial angiography. The patients were then treated with uterine arterial local infusion (50 mg MTX)and embolization with PVA microsphere (diameter 450-650 μm), individually. Finally, the comparison between the preoperative and postoperative menstruation volumes, the degrees of dysmenorrheal, uterine sizes and the levels of sexual hormones of diffuse and local adenomyosis was carried out. Results: The uterine arterial local infusion of MTX combined with embolization showed no chemotherapeutic side effects. In all cases, there were decrease of menstruation amount, alleviated dysmenorrhea, reduction of uterine size, and the efficacy was more evident in diffuse adenomyosis (P<0.05). Conclusions: Micro-invasive interventional technique combined with drug therapy is promising for diffuse and local adenomyosis especially for the former. (authors)

  13. Methods of experimental study of radiation injuries to organs and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented review of literature points to a great variety of quantitative methods for studying radiation injuries to many of the organs. Choice of a method depends on the problem of investigation that should be directed primarily at a possibility of applying the data obtained in clinical practice. This application can be realized at present by evaluation of radiation injuries at the tissue level, while further development of methods for in vitro cultivation of tissues, as it has already been realized for hemopoietic and some other tissues, is required for determination of radiosensitivity of certain cells in differet human tissues

  14. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Protects against Gα12 Activation and Tissue Damage in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ola Z.; Zhang, Xizhong; Wei, Junjun; Haig, Aaron; Denker, Bradley M.; Suri, Rita S.; Sener, Alp; Gunaratnam, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury is a serious untreatable condition. Activation of the G protein α12 (Gα12) subunit by reactive oxygen species is a major cause of tissue damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly up-regulated during acute kidney injury, but the physiologic significance of this up-regulation is unclear. Here, we report for the first time that Kim-1 inhibits Gα12 activation and protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We reveal that Kim-1 physically interacts with and inhibits cellular Gα12 activation after inflammatory stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, by blocking GTP binding to Gα12. Compared with Kim-1+/+ mice, Kim-1−/− mice exhibited greater Gα12 and downstream Src activation both in primary tubular epithelial cells after in vitro stimulation with H2O2 and in whole kidneys after unilateral renal artery clamping. Finally, we show that Kim-1–deficient mice had more severe kidney dysfunction and tissue damage after bilateral renal artery clamping, compared with wild-type mice. Our results suggest that KIM-1 is an endogenous protective mechanism against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of Gα12. PMID:25759266

  15. Factors influencing the ablative efficiency of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for adenomyosis: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunmei; Yang, Bin; Shi, Yarong; Liu, Zhongqiong; Wan, Lili; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Denghua; Zhang, Lian

    2016-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting ablative efficiency of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for adenomyosis. Materials and methods In all, 245 patients with adenomyosis who underwent ultrasound guided HIFU (USgHIFU) were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after HIFU treatment. The non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio, energy efficiency factor (EEF) and greyscale change were set as dependent variables, while the factors possibly affecting ablation efficiency were set as independent variables. These variables were used to build multiple regression models. Results A total of 245 patients with adenomyosis successfully completed HIFU treatment. Enhancement type on T1 weighted image (WI), abdominal wall thickness, volume of adenomyotic lesion, the number of hyperintense points, location of the uterus, and location of adenomyosis all had a linear relationship with the NPV ratio. Distance from skin to the adenomyotic lesion's ventral side, enhancement type on T1WI, volume of adenomyotic lesion, abdominal wall thickness, and signal intensity on T2WI all had a linear relationship with EEF. Location of the uterus and abdominal wall thickness also both had a linear relationship with greyscale change. Conclusion The enhancement type on T1WI, signal intensity on T2WI, volume of adenomyosis, location of the uterus and adenomyosis, number of hyperintense points, abdominal wall thickness, and distance from the skin to the adenomyotic lesion's ventral side can all be used as predictors of HIFU for adenomyosis. PMID:27385316

  16. α-Tocopherol adipose tissue stores are depleted after burn injury in pediatric patients123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Scott W; Traber, Daniel L; Traber, Lillian D; Gallagher, James; Bobe, Gerd; Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: We previously showed that thermal injury depletes plasma vitamin E in pediatric burn patients; however, plasma changes may reflect immediate alterations in vitamin E nutriture. Adipose tissue α-tocopherol concentrations are generally accepted to reflect long-term vitamin E status. Objective: To test the hypothesis that thermal injury depletes body stores of vitamin E, α-tocopherol concentrations were measured in adipose tissue samples. Design: Pediatric patients (n = 8) were followed up to 1 y after burn injury. Surgically obtained samples were collected at various intervals and stored at −80°C in a biorepository. α- and γ-Tocopherols, cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in the same tissue aliquot. Results: During the first week after injury, adipose tissue α-tocopherol concentrations were within the expected normal range of 199 ± 40 nmol/g adipose tissue but were substantially lower at weeks 2 and 3 (133 ± 13 and 109 ± 8 nmol/g adipose tissue, respectively). Individual rates of decrease, estimated by linear regression, showed that adipose tissue α-tocopherol decreased by an average of 6.1 ± 0.6 nmol/g daily. During the first month after injury, adipose tissue triglyceride concentrations also decreased, whereas no changes in cholesterol concentrations occurred. Conclusions: These data emphasize that the burn injury experienced by these pediatric patients altered their metabolism such that vitamin E status diminished during the month after injury. Further studies are needed to evaluate the mechanism and consequences of the observed vitamin E depletion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00675714. PMID:20881067

  17. Expression of Potassium Channels in Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells from Patients with Adenomyosis

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    Jing-Hua Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenomyosis (AM has impaired contraction. This study aimed to explore the expression of potassium channels related to contraction in myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs of AM. Methods: Uterine tissue samples from 22 patients (cases with histologically confirmed AM and 12 (controls with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were collected for both immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the expression of large conductance calcium- and voltage-sensitive K + channel (BKCa-α/β subunits, voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv 4.2, and Kv4.3. Student′s t-test was used to compare the expression. Results: The BKCa-α/β subunits, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 were located in smooth muscle cells, glandular epithelium, and stromal cells. However, BKCa-β subunit expression in endometrial glands of the controls was weak, and Kv4.3 was almost undetectable in the controls. The expression of BKCa-α messenger RNA (mRNA (0.62 ± 0.19-fold decrease, P < 0.05 and Kv4.3 mRNA (0.67 ± 0.20-fold decrease, P < 0.05 decreased significantly in the MSMCs of the control group compared with the AM group. However, there were no significant differences in BKCa-β subunit mRNA or Kv4.2 mRNA. Conclusions: The BKCa-α mRNA and the Kv4.3 mRNA are expressed significantly higher in AM than those in the control group, that might cause the abnormal uterus smooth muscle contractility, change the microcirculation of uterus to accumulate the inflammatory factors, impair the endometrium further, and aggravate the pain.

  18. Expression of Potassium Channels in Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells from Patients with Adenomyosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Hua Shi; Li Jin; Jin-Hua Leng; Jing-He Lang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Adenomyosis (AM) has impaired contraction.This study aimed to explore the expression of potassium channels related to contraction in myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs) of AM.Methods:Uterine tissue samples from 22 patients (cases) with histologically confirmed AM and 12 (controls) with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were collected for both immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the expression of large conductance calcium-and voltage-sensitive K+ channel (BKCa)-α/β subunits,voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) 4.2,and Kv4.3.Student's t-test was used to compare the expression.Results:The BKCa-α/β subunits,Kv4.2,and Kv4.3 were located in smooth muscle cells,glandular epithelium,and stromal cells.However,BKCa-β subunit expression in endometrial glands of the controls was weak,and Kv4.3 was almost undetectable in the controls.The expression of BKCa-α messenger RNA (mRNA) (0.62 ± 0.19-fold decrease,P < 0.05) and Kv4.3 mRNA (0.67 ± 0.20-fold decrease,P < 0.05) decreased significantly in the M SMCs of the control group compared with the AM group.However,there were no significant differences in BKCa-β subunit mRNA or Kv4.2 mRNA.Conclusions:The BKCa-α mRNA and the Kv4.3 mRNA are expressed significantly higher in AM than those in the control group,that might cause the abnormal uterus smooth muscle contractility,change the microcirculation of uterus to accumulate the inflammatory factors,impair the endometrium further,and aggravate the pain.

  19. Cystic adenomyosis spreading into subserosal-peduncolated myoma: How to explain it?

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    Gloria Calagna

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In this case, the peculiar growth pattern of cystic adenomyosis in a myoma represents a singular condition rarely reported in the medical literature. We therefore support the pathogenetic theory that the disease might have been caused by direct proliferation of endometrial cells within a peduncolated- subserosal myoma.

  20. Expressions of oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor in adenomyosis and their relationships with dysmenorrhea%OTR、ER在子宫腺肌病中的表达及与痛经的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐影; 赵艳晖; 邹颖刚; 张炜旸

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨OTR、ER在子宫腺肌病患者在位及病灶组织中的表达及其与痛经的关系.方法:采用免疫组化法检测30例子宫腺肌病在位和异位内膜中OTR、ER的表达,以子宫正常肌层组织和在位内膜为对照.结果:在子宫腺肌病灶组织中OTR、ER的表达高于在位内膜组及对照组(P<0.05);在子宫腺肌病组的在位内膜和病灶组织中,痛经组OTR、ER的表达高于无痛经组及对照组(P<0.05);在不同痛经程度分组中OTR、ER的表达依次降低.在子宫腺肌病的在位内膜和病灶组织中,OTR、ER两者之间存在正相关关系.结论:子宫腺肌病组织中OTR、ER的表达随痛经程度增强而增加,在子宫腺肌病痛经的发生与发展间可能存在协同作用.%Objective; To explore the expression levels of oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor in eutopic endometrium and ec-topic endometrium of the patients with adenomyosis and their relationships with dysmenorrhea Methods; Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression levels of oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor in eutopic endometrium and ectopic endometrium of 30 patients with adenomyosis, normal uterine muscular tissue and eutopic endometrium were designed as control group. Results: The expression levels of oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor in ectopic endometrium of adenomyosis group were significantly higher than those in eutopic endometrium of adenomyosis group and control group ( P < 0.05); in eutopic endometrium and ectopic endometrium of adenomyosis group, the expression levels of oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor in dysmenorrhea subgroup were significantly higher than those in non - dysmenorrhe-a subgroup ( P < 0.05 ) ; the expression levels of oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor decreased sequently in the subgroups with different degrees of dysmenorrhea; in eutopic endometrium and ectopic endometrium of adenomyosis group, there was a positive correlation

  1. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

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    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  2. Pattern, severity, and management of cranio-maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    Akinbami Babatunde Olayemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of craniofacial soft-tissue injuries occurring either in isolation or in association with fractures vary in different societies and is multiply influenced. The effects are enormous because of the prominence of the face; therefore, the purpose of this study was to document any changing pattern, severity and management of these craniofacial injuries in our center. Patients and Method: Cranio-maxillofacial region was classified into upper, middle and lower face. The cause, type, and site of the injuries were documented. Gunshot injuries were further categorized as penetrating, perforating or avulsions. Further, classification of injuries into mild, moderate, and severe was carried out based on multiple factors. Result: A total of 126 patients with soft-tissue injuries presented to our hospital out of which 85 (67.5% were males and 41 (32.5 were females. The age range of the patients was between 10 months and 90 years with a mean ± SD of 26.4 ± 15.5 years. Road traffic accident was the most common etiology of which vehicular accidents constituted 50 (54.9% and the motorcycle was 2 (2.2%. Assault contributed 16 (17.6% while cases due to gun shots were 13 (14.3%. A total of 19 (15.1% patients had associated head injuries, 11 (8.7% patients had craniofacial fractures involving any of the bones while 3 (2.4% patients had limb fractures and 2 (1.6% patients had rib fractures. There were 51 (41.8% cases classified as mild injuries, 37 (30.3% cases as moderate injuries and 24 (19.7% cases as severe injuries. Total of 126 cases managed, 121 (96.0% received primary closure of the wounds while 5 (4.0% received delayed closure under general anesthesia.

  3. Hypoxia-regulated therapeutic gene as a preemptive treatment strategy against ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachori, Alok S.; Melo, Luis G.; Hart, Melanie L.; Noiseux, Nicholas; Zhang, Lunan; Morello, Fulvio; Solomon, Scott D.; Stahl, Gregory L.; Pratt, Richard E.; Dzau, Victor J.

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion represent major mechanisms of tissue injury and organ failure. The timing of administration and the duration of action limit current treatment approaches using pharmacological agents. In this study, we have successfully developed a preemptive strategy for tissue protection using an adenoassociated vector system containing erythropoietin hypoxia response elements for ischemia-regulated expression of the therapeutic gene human heme-oxygenase-1 (hHO-1). We demonstrate that a single administration of this vector several weeks in advance of ischemia/reperfusion injury to multiple tissues such as heart, liver, and skeletal muscle yields rapid and timely induction of hHO-1 during ischemia that resulted in dramatic reduction in tissue damage. In addition, overexpression of therapeutic transgene prevented long-term pathological tissue remodeling and normalized tissue function. Application of this regulatable system using an endogenous physiological stimulus for expression of a therapeutic gene may be a feasible strategy for protecting tissues at risk of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  4. Tissue Mechanics and Its Relationship to Athletic Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Marion J. L.

    Three types of dense fibrous connective tissue are described: articular cartilage; tendon; and ligament; and the characteristics of each are related to its function. Articular cartilage is the smooth covering over the surface of bone at joints, and is comprised of up to 80 percent water. This smooth covering serves to decrease the friction between…

  5. Effects of cefodizime on chemokines of liver tissues in mice with immunological hepatic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng; KAN Quan-cheng; YU Zu-jiang; LI Ling; PAN Xue

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatic inflammation is characterized by the accumulation of lymphocytes as a consequence of increased recruitment from the blood and retention within the tissue at sites of infection. CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) mRNA has been detected in both inflamed and normal liver tissues and is strongly upregulated in the injured liver tissues in a murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cefodizime on CXCL16 mRNA of liver tissues in mice with immunological hepatic injury.Methods The murine model of immunological hepatic injury was induced by Bacillus Calmette Guerin and Lipoposaccharide. The mice with immunological hepatic injury were randomly assigned to the model group, the cefodizime group and the ceftriaxone group. The three groups were continuously given agents for seven days and CXCL16 mRNA of liver tissue was determined and contrasted with the control group treated by normal saline. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to assay CXCL16 mRNA levels in liver tissues.Results The expressions of CXCL16 mRNA were significantly higher in the model group and the ceftriaxone group than in the control group and the cefodizime group (P <0.05), indicating the mice in the model group and the ceftriaxone group were immunodeficient. There was no statistical difference in the expressions of CXCL16 mRNA between the control group and the cefodizime group. Similarly, no statistical difference in the expressions of CXCL16 mRNA between the model group and the ceftriaxone group was detected (P >0.05).Conclusion Cefodizime effectively reduces the infiltration of lymphocytes into liver tissues and alleviates the liver damage by decreasing CXCL16 mRNA in liver tissues in mice with immunological hepatic injury.

  6. How tissue injury alarms the immune system and causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pugin, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is very prevalent among critically ill patients, particularly those with extensive tissue injury. Although downstream mediators (cytokines) and effector cells (phagocytes) have been identified, proximal mediators originating from injured tissues remained elusive. Alarmins (“danger signals”) released by necrotic/injured cells have been identified recently and certainly play a role in triggering local and systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. The most promising...

  7. FAT EMBOLISM SYNDROME WITHOUT OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE OF BONE OR SOFT TISSUE INJURY

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    Amitabh Das

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fat embolism syndrome (FES, without evidence of bone or soft tissue injury is uncommon, and in absence of validated diagnostic criteria, its diagnosis is mainly dependent on treating clinician, who should have high index of suspicion. Treatment is predominantly supportive, and apart from some mortality, recovery is generally seen. Present article is a case report of a boy who suffered blunt injury due to fall from height, had no objective evidence of bone or soft tissue injury, but diagnosed as a case of fat embolism syndrome, using Gurd-Wilson and Schonfeld’s criteria, treated by pulmonary support and aggressive resuscitation, but he died after 4 days of admission to hospital.

  8. Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: mechanisms of brain tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Qiang; Song, Jun-Ying; Jia, Ya-Quan; Zhang, Yun-Ke

    2016-03-01

    Buyanghuanwu decoction has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, rats were intragastrically given Buyanghuanwu decoction, 15 mL/kg, for 3 days. A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In rats administered Buyanghuanwu decoction, infarct volume was reduced, serum vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin αvβ3 levels were increased, and brain tissue vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 expression levels were increased compared with untreated animals. These effects of Buyanghuanwu decoction were partially suppressed by an angiogenesis inhibitor (administered through the lateral ventricle for 7 consecutive days). These data suggest that Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis, improves cerebral circulation, and enhances brain tissue repair after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27127482

  9. Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: mechanisms of brain tissue repair

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    Zhen-qiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buyanghuanwu decoction has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, rats were intragastrically given Buyanghuanwu decoction, 15 mL/kg, for 3 days. A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In rats administered Buyanghuanwu decoction, infarct volume was reduced, serum vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin αvβ3 levels were increased, and brain tissue vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 expression levels were increased compared with untreated animals. These effects of Buyanghuanwu decoction were partially suppressed by an angiogenesis inhibitor (administered through the lateral ventricle for 7 consecutive days. These data suggest that Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis, improves cerebral circulation, and enhances brain tissue repair after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  10. α-Tocopherol adipose tissue stores are depleted after burn injury in pediatric patients123

    OpenAIRE

    Traber, Maret G.; Leonard, Scott W.; Traber, Daniel L; Traber, Lillian D; Gallagher, James; Bobe, Gerd; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: We previously showed that thermal injury depletes plasma vitamin E in pediatric burn patients; however, plasma changes may reflect immediate alterations in vitamin E nutriture. Adipose tissue α-tocopherol concentrations are generally accepted to reflect long-term vitamin E status.

  11. [A clinico-morphological comparison of the ultrasonic criteria of adenomyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damirov, M M; Bakuleva, L P; Shabanov, A M; Sliusar', N N

    1994-01-01

    The authors analyze the data of ultrasonic examinations in 110 patients operated on for adenomyosis and in 50 patients with this condition not exposed to surgery, in whom the diagnosis was made after comprehensive examinations. The accuracy of ultrasonic diagnosis correlated with the disease severity. Diagnostic difficulties are explained by the absence of pathognomonic echographic criteria, frequent associations with myoma, and with false echo signals emerging in the myometrium. Transabdominal and transvaginal methods may be recommended for a more precise diagnosis; it is desirable to single out several echographic criteria and by all means correlate them to clinical data. An attempt at morphologic explanation of the principal echographic criteria of adenomyosis has been made. Echo-negative structures in the myometrium emerge mainly as a result of the signal reflection from the zone of perifocal membranogenic edema of myometrial stroma developing round endometriosis focus. PMID:8017581

  12. Uterine arterial embolization for the treatment of adenomyosis: an analysis of therapeutic results in 80 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the therapeutic effect of uterine arterial embolization in treating adenomyosis. Methods: Uterine arterial embolization was performed in 80 patients with adenomyosis. The patients were followed up for 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the operation. After the treatment the degree of dysmenorrhea, the menstrual flow and the uterine volume were observed and were compared with those before the treatment. Results: After uterine arterial embolization the clinical symptoms were relieved in all 80 patients. The menstrual flow was markedly decreased, the anemia was obviously improved and the uterine volume was significantly reduced, while the ovary functioning was not apparently affected. The symptom of dysmenorrhea completely disappeared one month after the therapy in 76 cases and four months after the therapy in the remaining 4 cases. Conclusion: Uterine arterial embolization is a mini-invasive and safe therapy with remarkable therapeutic results and few side-effects. Therefore, this treatment can significantly improve the patient's living quality. (authors)

  13. Recent curative effect of adenomyosis by interventional technique through uterine artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the efficiency of transcatheter uterine artery embolization (TUAE) for the treatment of adenomyosis. Methods: Sixteen cases received the treatment willingly. Bilateral uterine arterial embolization with Lipiodol ping yang mycm emulsion and Gel foam panicles was carried out in all patients. 3-6 months later, curative effect was observed after the operation. Results: Complete disappearance of menstrual pain was obtained in 81.25%, and obvious improvement 18.75%. (ultrasonic reexamination) 6 months after TUAE, the uterine volume was decreased by a mean of 45.98% and the volume of the localized lesions was decreased by a mean of 58.83%. The hemoglobin concentration of the patients with hanemia was significantly increased or restored to normal after the surgery. Conclusion: TUAE shows good short term effect in the treatment of adenomyosis. (authors)

  14. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  15. Variables associated with vaginal discharge after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation for adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Jing; Han, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Bing-Song; Liu, Hui; Li, Xiu-Mei; Ge, Hai-Long; Dong, Xue-Juan

    2016-08-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the significant variables for vaginal discharge after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA) therapy. Materials and methods PMWA was performed on 117 patients with adenomyosis from October 2012 to July 2014. The presence or absence, colour, quantity and duration of vaginal discharge, which was different from pre-ablation, were recorded within 1 year after PMWA. Patients were categorised into G1 (n = 26, without vaginal discharge), G2 (n = 40, vaginal discharge lasting 1 to 19 days), and G3 (n = 51, vaginal discharge lasting ≥20 days) groups. The potentially correlative variables were analysed. Variables with significant correlations with vaginal discharge post-ablation were identified via binary logistic regression analysis. Results The differences in adenomyosis type, pre-ablation uterine volume, total microwave ablation energy, total non-perfused volume (NPV) and minimum distance from the non-perfused lesion (NPL) margin to the endomyometrial junction (EMJ) among groups were statistically significant (p = 0.005, p = 0.000, p = 0.000, p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). Minimum distance from the NPL margin to the EMJ was the strongest predictor of vaginal discharge post-ablation with odds ratio (OR) 0.632, p = 0.018, 95% CI 0.432-0.923. Patients with diffuse adenomyosis were more likely to have prolonged vaginal discharge (≥20 days) post-ablation (OR 3.461, p = 0.000, 95% CI 1.759-7.536). Conclusion The minimum distance from the NPL margin to the EMJ and adenomyosis type were significantly associated with vaginal discharge post-ablation. PMID:27087631

  16. Normal Tissue Protectors Against Radiation Injury (Review Paper

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    P. Uma Devi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiation damages normal tissues that can adversely affect the success of cancer radiotherapy, safety of nuclear installation workers and military personnel, and public exposed to nuclear accidents. Certain chemicals are able to protect against the harmful effects of radiation. But more than 50 years of research has produced only one approved radioprotective drug, WR-2721 or amifostine. The general utility of WR-2721 is limited by its inherent toxicity and high cost. Efforts to find non-toxic radioprotectors have revealed the promising properties of some medicinal plants. This is an attempt to review the recent publications on radioprotectors and to identify the research needs relevant to developing countries.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.105-112, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.829

  17. Negative pressure wound therapy for soft tissue injuries around the foot and ankle

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    Oh Jong-Keon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to evaluate the results of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT in patients with open wounds in the foot and ankle region. Materials and methods Using a NPWT device, 16 patients were prospectively treated for soft tissue injuries around the foot and ankle. Mean patient age was 32.8 years (range, 3–67 years. All patients had suffered an acute trauma, due to a traffic accident, a fall, or a crush injury, and all had wounds with underlying tendon or bone exposure. Necrotic tissues were debrided before applying NPWT. Dressings were changed every 3 or 4 days and treatment was continued for 18.4 days on average (range, 11–29 days. Results Exposed tendons and bone were successfully covered with healthy granulation tissue in all cases except one. The sizes of soft tissue defects reduced from 56.4 cm2 to 42.9 cm2 after NPWT (mean decrease of 24%. In 15 of the 16 cases, coverage with granulation tissue was achieved and followed by a skin graft. A free flap was needed to cover exposed bone and tendon in one case. No major complication occurred that was directly attributable to treatment. In terms of minor complications, two patients suffered scar contracture of grafted skin. Conclusion NPWT was found to facilitate the rapid formation of healthy granulation tissue on open wounds in the foot and ankle region, and thus, to shorten healing time and minimize secondary soft tissue defect coverage procedures.

  18. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Tissue Inflammation Using an Animal Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Warram, Jason M.; Wang, Dezhi; Ratnayaka, Sithira; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular ultrasound (US) imaging for monitoring the early inflammatory effects following acute kidney injury. Procedures A population of rats underwent 30 min of renal ischemia (acute kidney injury, N=6) or sham injury (N=4) using established surgical methods. Animals were divided and molecular US imaging was performed during the bolus injection of a targeted microbubble (MB) contrast agent to either P-selectin or vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Imaging was performed before surgery and 4 and 24 h thereafter. After manual segmentation of renal tissue space, the molecular US signal was calculated as the difference between time-intensity curve data before MB injection and after reaching steady-state US image enhancement. All animals were terminated after the 24 h imaging time point and kidneys excised for immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Results Renal inflammation was analyzed using molecular US imaging. While results using the P-selectin and VCAM-1 targeted MBs were comparable, it appears that the former was more sensitive to biomarker expression. All molecular US imaging measures had a positive correlation with IHC findings. Conclusions Acute kidney injury is a serious disease in need of improved noninvasive methods to help diagnose the extent of injury and monitor the tissue throughout disease progression. Molecular US imaging appears well suited to address this challenge and more research is warranted. PMID:25905474

  19. Treatment of mild to moderate pain of acute soft tissue injury: diflunisal vs acetaminophen with codeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncie, H L; King, D E; DeForge, B

    1986-08-01

    Acute soft tissue injuries create pain and limitation of function. Treatment requires analgesia and time for full recovery. Acetaminophen with codeine (650 mg plus 60 mg, respectively, every 4 to 6 hours) is used frequently as the analgesic of choice. Diflunisal (1,000 mg initially then 500 mg twice a day) vs acetaminophen with codeine was prospectively studied in the treatment of acute mild to moderate pain from soft tissue injuries. Thirty-five patients with acute strains, sprains, or low back pain were randomized to treatment (17 acetaminophen with codeine vs 18 diflunisal). Both groups were similar in the amount of pain and type of injury at initiation of therapy. Patient pain rating went from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 1.6 +/- 1.5 for acetaminophen with codeine and from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 1.3 +/- 1.1 for diflunisal. However, 65 percent of acetaminophen with codeine patients experienced side effects, with 35 percent of these patients stopping the medication because of intolerable side effects. In the diflunisal group, 28 percent of the patients experienced side effects and 5 percent had to stop the medication early. Diflunisal was found to be an effective analgesic in mild to moderate pain of acute soft tissue injuries, and caused fewer and more tolerable side effects than did acetaminophen with codeine. PMID:2942630

  20. Role of endogenous Schwann cells in tissue repair after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-xin Zhang; Fengfa Huang; Mary Gates; Eric G. Holmberg

    2013-01-01

    Schwann cells are glial cells of peripheral nervous system, responsible for axonal myelination and ensheathing, as well as tissue repair following a peripheral nervous system injury. They are one of several cell types that are widely studied and most commonly used for cell transplantation to treat spinal cord injury, due to their intrinsic characteristics including the ability to secrete a variety of neurotrophic factors. This mini review summarizes the recent findings of endogenous Schwann cells after spinal cord injury and discusses their role in tissue repair and axonal regeneration. After spinal cord injury, numerous endogenous Schwann cells migrate into the lesion site from the nerve roots, involving in the construction of newly formed repaired tissue and axonal myelination. These invading Schwann cells also can move a long distance away from the injury site both rostrally and caudally. In addition, Schwann cells can be induced to migrate by minimal insults (such as scar ablation) within the spinal cord and integrate with astrocytes under certain circumstances. More importantly, the host Schwann cells can be induced to migrate into spinal cord by transplantation of different cell types, such as exogenous Schwann cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, and bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells. Migration of endogenous Schwann cells following spinal cord injury is a common natural phenomenon found both in animal and human, and the myelination by Schwann cells has been examined effective in signal conduction electrophysiologically. Therefore, if the inherent properties of endogenous Schwann cells could be developed and utilized, it would offer a new avenue for the restoration of injured spinal cord.

  1. Negative pressure wound therapy for soft tissue injuries around the foot and ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Oh Jong-Keon; Shon Oog-Jin; Min Woo-Kie; Oh Chang-Wug; Kim Joon-Woo; Lee Hyun-Joo; Park Byung-Chul; Ihn Joo-Chul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was performed to evaluate the results of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with open wounds in the foot and ankle region. Materials and methods Using a NPWT device, 16 patients were prospectively treated for soft tissue injuries around the foot and ankle. Mean patient age was 32.8 years (range, 3–67 years). All patients had suffered an acute trauma, due to a traffic accident, a fall, or a crush injury, and all had wounds with underlying tendon o...

  2. Protective effects of acupuncture on brain tissue following ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshan Wang; Fuguo Ma; Huailong Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with cerebrovascular disease, by means of the neuroendocrine system, acupuncture supports the transformation of a local pathological status into a physiological status. Recently, great progress has been made in studying the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. OBJECTIVE: To summarize research advances in the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the terms "acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and cerebral protection", we retrieved articles from the PubMed database published between January 1991 and June 1994. Meanwhile, we searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure with the same terms. Altogether, 114 articles and their results were analyzed. Inclusive criteria: studies that were closely related to the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury, or studies, whose contents were in the same study field and were published recently, or in the authorized journals. Exclusive criteria: repetitive studies. LITERATURE EVALUATION: Thirty articles that related to the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury were included. Among them, 7 were clinical studies, and the remaining 23 articles were animal experimental studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: ① Animal experimental studies have demonstrated that acupuncture improves brain blood perfusion and brain electrical activity, influences pathomorphological and ultramicrostructural changes in ischemic brain tissue, is beneficial in maintaining the stability of intracellular and extracellular ions, resists free radical injury and lipid peroxidation, and influences cytokine, neurotransmitter, brain cell signal transduction, and apoptosis-regulating genes. ② Clinical studies have demonstrated that acupuncture not only promotes nutritional supply to local brain tissue in patients with cerebral

  3. Connective tissue regeneration in skeletal muscle after eccentric contraction-induced injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail Louise; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle has the potential to regenerate completely after injury induced under controlled experimental conditions. The events inside the myofibres as they undergo necrosis, followed closely by satellite cell mediated myogenesis, have been mapped in detail. Much less is known about...... the adaptation throughout this process of both the connective tissue structures surrounding the myofibres, and the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for synthesising this connective tissue. However, the few studies investigating muscle connective tissue remodelling demonstrate a strong response that appears...... when the muscle connective tissue responses are compared, although further work is required to confirm this. Pharmacological agents (growth hormone and angiotensin II type I receptor blockers) are considered in the context of accelerating the muscle connective tissue adaptation to loading. Cautioning...

  4. Statins in nephrotic syndrome: a new weapon against tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Nostro, Lorena; Crascì, Eleonora; Barillà, Antonio; Cosentini, Vincenzo; Aloisi, Carmela; Sofi, Tito; Campo, Susanna; Frisina, Nicola

    2005-11-01

    The nephrotic syndrome is characterized by metabolic disorders leading to an increase in circulating lipoproteins levels. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in this case may depend on a reduction in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins catabolism and on an increase in hepatic synthesis of Apo B-containing lipoproteins. These alterations are the starting point of a self-maintaining mechanism, which can accelerate the progression of chronic renal failure. Indeed, hyperlipidemia can affect renal function, increase proteinuria and speed glomerulosclerosis, thus determining a higher risk of progression to dialysis. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis from mevalonate and its inhibitors, or statins, can therefore interfere with the above-mentioned consequences of hyperlipidemia. Statins are already well known for their effectiveness on primary cardiovascular prevention, which cannot be explained only through their hypolipemic effect. As far as kidney diseases are concerned, statin therapy has been shown to prevent creatinine clearance decline and to slow renal function loss, particularly in case of proteinuria, and its favorable effect may depend only partially on the attenuation of hyperlipidemia. Statins may therefore confer tissue protection through lipid-independent mechanisms, which can be triggered by other mediators, such as angiotensin receptor blockers. Possible pathways for the protective action of statins, other than any hypocholesterolemic effect, are: cellular apoptosis/proliferation balance, inflammatory cytokines production, and signal transduction regulation. Statins also play a role in the regulation of the inflammatory and immune response, coagulation process, bone turnover, neovascularization, vascular tone, and arterial pressure. In this study, we would like to provide scientific evidences for the pleiotropic effects of statins, which could be the starting point for the

  5. Can measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient before treatment predict the response to uterine artery embolization for adenomyosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yaewon; Kim, Man Deuk; Jung, Dae Chul; Lee, Shin Jae; Kim, Gyoungmin; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To determine the usefulness of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in predicting response to uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic adenomyosis. A prospective study was performed on 25 patients who underwent diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before UAE between June 2011 and December 2012. All patients underwent 3-month follow-up MRI after UAE using non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles ranging from 150 to 500 μm. Quantitative measurement of the ADC was performed for each adenomyosis. Complete response and incomplete response were defined as ≥90 % or <90 %, respectively, of the non-perfusion area with adenomyosis at the follow-up MRI. The ADC values were compared between patients who achieved complete or incomplete response which was assessed according to the MRI findings after UAE. Nineteen patients showed complete response, and six showed incomplete response. The ADC value ranged from 0.842 to 1.346 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (mean 1.075 ± 0.117). The mean ADC was 1.043 ± 0.237 in the complete response group and 1.176 ± 0.429 in the incomplete response group (0.012). Using a threshold of <1.147 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, the sensitivity and specificity of the ADC to predict success after UAE were 83.3 % and 84.2 %. The ADC of adenomyosis may potentially predict a successful response to UAE for adenomyosis. (orig.)

  6. Nerve autografts and tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries: a 5-year bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in biomedical methods, tissue-engineered materials have developed rapidly as an alternative to nerve autografts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. However, the materials selected for use in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries, in particular multiple injuries and large-gap defects, must be chosen carefully. Various methods and materials for protecting the healthy tissue and repairing peripheral nerve injuries have been described, and each method or material has advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a large amount of research has been focused on tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. Using the keywords "pe-ripheral nerve injury", "autotransplant", "nerve graft", and "biomaterial", we retrieved publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries appearing in the Web of Science from 2010 to 2014. The country with the most total publications was the USA. The institutions that were the most productive in this field include Hannover Medical School (Germany, Washington University (USA, and Nantong University (China. The total number of publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries grad-ually increased over time, as did the number of Chinese publications, suggesting that China has made many scientific contributions to this field of research.

  7. [Use of tissue engineering in the reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries of the hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Vilmos

    2015-02-01

    In his literary analysis, the author describes a novel method applied in the reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries of the hand. This procedure is named tissue engineering, and it is examined mainly under experimental circumstances. After definition of the method and descriptions of literary preliminaries the author discusses the healing process of the normal tendon tissue, then development of the scaffold, an important step of tissue engineering is described. After these topics the introduction of the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells into the scaffold, and proliferation of these cells and development of the sliding systems are presented. The mechanical resisting ability of the formed tendon tissue is also discussed. Finally, the author concludes that as long as results of experimental research cannot be successfully applied into clinical practice, well-tried tendon reconstruction operations and high quality postoperative rehabilitation are needed. PMID:25639635

  8. Src blockade stabilizes a Flk/cadherin complex, reducing edema and tissue injury following myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Weis, Sara; Shintani, Satoshi; Weber, Alberto; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Wood, Malcolm; Cravens, Adrianna; McSharry, Heather; Iwakura, Atsushi; Yoon, Young-Sup; Himes, Nathan; Burstein, Deborah; Doukas, John; Soll, Richard; Losordo, Douglas; Cheresh, David

    2004-01-01

    Ischemia resulting from myocardial infarction (MI) promotes VEGF expression, leading to vascular permeability (VP) and edema, a process that we show here contributes to tissue injury throughout the ventricle. This permeability/edema can be assessed noninvasively by MRI and can be observed at the ultrastructural level as gaps between adjacent endothelial cells. Many of these gaps contain activated platelets adhering to exposed basement membrane, reducing vessel patency. Following MI, genetic o...

  9. Analysis of the Arthroscopically Diagnosed Soft-Tissue Injuries Associated With the Distal Radius Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Katerina Kasapinova; Viktor Kamiloski

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the frequencies of these soft-tissue injuries and to describe the arthroscopic technique used for their diagnosis. METHODS: The prospective study included 85 patients with operatively treated distal radius fracture. Wrist arthroscopy was used to identify the associated lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), scapholunate ligament (SL) and lunitriquetral ligament (LT), extrinsic ligaments, and chondral lesions. RESULTS: Wrist arthr...

  10. GADD34 suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis and tissue injury through the regulation of macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S; Tanaka, Y; Oshino, R; Okado, S; Hori, M; Isobe, K-I

    2016-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA damage inducible protein 34 (GADD34) is induced by various cellular stresses, such as DNA damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and amino-acid deprivation. Although the major roles of GADD34 are regulating ER stress responses and apoptosis, a recent study suggested that GADD34 is linked to innate immune responses. In this report, we investigated the roles of GADD34 in inflammatory responses against bacterial infection. To explore the effects of GADD34 on systemic inflammation in vivo, we employed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine sepsis model and assessed the lethality, serum cytokine levels, and tissue injury in the presence or absence of GADD34. We found that GADD34 deficiency increased the lethality and serum cytokine levels in LPS-induced sepsis. Moreover, GADD34 deficiency enhanced tissue destruction, cell death, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in LPS-induced acute liver injury. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation is regulated by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. In vitro experiments revealed that GADD34 suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages through dephosphorylation of IKKβ. In conclusion, GADD34 attenuates LPS-induced sepsis and acute tissue injury through suppressing macrophage activation. Targeting this anti-inflammatory role of GADD34 may be a promising area for the development of therapeutic agents to regulate inflammatory disorders. PMID:27171261

  11. Wound ballistics of firearm-related injuries--part 1: missile characteristics and mechanisms of soft tissue wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanopoulos, P K; Filippakis, K; Soupiou, O T; Pazarakiotis, V C

    2014-12-01

    Firearm-related injuries are caused by a wide variety of weapons and projectiles. The kinetic energy of the penetrating projectile defines its ability to disrupt and displace tissue, whereas the actual tissue damage is determined by the mode of energy release during the projectile-tissue interaction and the particular characteristics of the tissues and organs involved. Certain projectile factors, namely shape, construction, and stability, greatly influence the rate of energy transfer to the tissues along the wound track. Two zones of tissue damage can be identified, the permanent cavity created by the passage of the bullet and a potential area of contused tissue surrounding it, produced mainly by temporary cavitation which is a manifestation of effective high-energy transfer to tissue. Due to the complex nature of these injuries, wound assessment and the type and extent of treatment required should be based on an understanding of the various mechanisms contributing to tissue damage. PMID:25128259

  12. TREATMENT OF 120 CASES OF SOFT-TISSUE INJURY OF THE SHOULDER-BACK REGION WITH FLOATING NEEDLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ping; WANG Ke-hong; WANG Xiu-juan

    2005-01-01

    @@ In recent several years, the authors of the present paper employed floating needle to treat 120 cases of soft tissue injury of the shoulder-back region and achieved a good therapeutic effect. Following is the report.

  13. Metals detected by ICP/MS in wound tissue of war injuries without fragments in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount and identity of metals incorporated into "weapons without fragments" remain undisclosed to health personnel. This poses a long-term risk of assumption and contributes to additional hazards for victims because of increased difficulties with clinical management. We assessed if there was evidence that metals are embedded in "wounds without fragments" of victims of the Israeli military operations in Gaza in 2006 and 2009. Methods Biopsies of "wounds without fragments" from clinically classified injuries, amputation (A, charred (C, burns (B, multiple piercing wounds by White Phosphorus (WP (M, were analyzed by ICP/MS for content in 32 metals. Results Toxic and carcinogenic metals were detected in folds over control tissues in wound tissues from all injuries: in A and C wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co, Hg, V, Cs and Sn, in M wounds (Al, Ti, Cu, Sr, Ba, Co and Hg and in B wounds (Co, Hg, Cs, and Sn; Pb and U in wounds of all classes; B, As, Mn, Rb, Cd, Cr, Zn in wounds of all classes, but M; Ni was in wounds of class A. Kind and amounts of metals correlate with clinical classification of injuries, exposing a specific metal signature, similar for 2006 and 2009 samples. Conclusions The presence of toxic and carcinogenic metals in wound tissue is indicative of the presence in weapon inducing the injury. Metal contamination of wounds carries unknown long term risks for survivors, and can imply effects on populations from environmental contamination. We discuss remediation strategies, and believe that these data suggest the need for epidemiological and environmental surveys.

  14. Decidual transformation in adenomyosis during pregnancy as an indication for hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Božidar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Incidence of adenomyosis is estimated on 20% in all of extracted uteruses. Clinically, it usually exists asymptomatically, but could be followed with dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia and pelvic pain. One third of patients with adenomyosis are sterile, however in other two thirds, conception and pregnancy could have normal development, with delivery without complications. One of possible complications related to adenomyosis is rupture of uterus during delivery. Case report. A pregnant woman at the end of the 10th lunar month of pregnancy, showed minimal labour contractions, following amnion rupture and the delivery was terminated by section ceasar. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed because of concominant profuse bleeding. Myometrium was occupied with decidual cells in trabecular arrangement, among which elongated endometrial glands were placed. Surrounding muscle fascicles showed atrophic, apoptic, and occasionally necrotic changes. Myometrial stroma was edematous, and infiltrated with mesenchymal cells, as well as with adipose cells, which were extending toward serosa. Discussion. The patient had been receiving treatment, for a long period, because of sterility without clear etiological factor. A small number of similar cases ends with complications. Here, it is evident that abundant decidual transformation of stromal cells in adenomiosis leads to atrophy and necrosis of muscle cells. Teh reduction of uterine muscle mass causes atony and threating rupture, through separation of muscle cells, and therefore the absence of their synchronized contractions. Conclusion. Atony of uterine muscle could be caused by decidual transformation in adenomyosal fields, atrophy of muscle fascicles, edema of the stroma, mesenchymal transformation, and fibrosis. This leads to a decrease in myometrial contractions, and prolonged postpartal bleeding.

  15. Nerve autografts and tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries:a 5-year bibliometric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Gao; Yu-ling Wang; Dan Kong; Bo Qu; Xiao-jing Su; Huan Li; Hong-ying Pi

    2015-01-01

    With advances in biomedical methods, tissue-engineered materials have developed rapidly as an alternative to nerve autografts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. However, the materials selected for use in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries, in particular multiple injuries and large-gap defects, must be chosen carefully. Various methods and materials for protecting the healthy tissue and repairing peripheral nerve injuries have been described, and each method or material has advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a large amount of research has been focused on tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. Using the keywords“pe-ripheral nerve injury”,“autotransplant”,“nerve graft”, and“biomaterial”, we retrieved publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries appearing in the Web of Science from 2010 to 2014. The country with the most total publications was the USA. The institutions that were the most productive in this ifeld include Hannover Medical School (Germany), Washington University (USA), and Nantong University (China). The total number of publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries grad-ually increased over time, as did the number of Chinese publications, suggesting that China has made many scientiifc contributions to this ifeld of research.

  16. Reconstruction with vascularized composite tissue in patients with excessive injury following surgery and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of a single high dose of radiation are examined. Both cellular injury and repair are reviewed during early, intermediate, and late phases. Anticipated composite tissue morbidity is detailed for therapeutic radiation doses administered to the head and neck, breast and thorax, and perineum. Patients who demonstrated excessive time-dose fractionation values were irradiated with lower x-ray energies. Those in whom there was an overlap of treatment fields presented a serious challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Judicious selection of well-vascularized composite tissue outside the portals of irradiation, preferably with a long vascular pedicle, facilitated reconstruction. When possible, both donor and recipient vasculature should be outside the irradiated area to ensure uninterrupted blood flow to the transferred or transplanted tissue

  17. Reconstruction with vascularized composite tissue in patients with excessive injury following surgery and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, D.; DeLand, M.; Lesesne, C.B.; Smith, P.J.; Noell, K.T.; Georgiade, N.

    1982-01-01

    The biological effects of a single high dose of radiation are examined. Both cellular injury and repair are reviewed during early, intermediate, and late phases. Anticipated composite tissue morbidity is detailed for therapeutic radiation doses administered to the head and neck, breast and thorax, and perineum. Patients who demonstrated excessive time-dose fractionation values were irradiated with lower x-ray energies. Those in whom there was an overlap of treatment fields presented a serious challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Judicious selection of well-vascularized composite tissue outside the portals of irradiation, preferably with a long vascular pedicle, facilitated reconstruction. When possible, both donor and recipient vasculature should be outside the irradiated area to ensure uninterrupted blood flow to the transferred or transplanted tissue.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin contributes to inflammation and muscle tissue injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Wen Tseng

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA threatens public health worldwide, and epidemiologic data suggest that the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL expressed by most CA-MRSA strains could contribute to severe human infections, particularly in young and immunocompetent hosts. PVL is proposed to induce cytolysis or apoptosis of phagocytes. However, recent comparisons of isogenic CA-MRSA strains with or without PVL have revealed no differences in human PMN cytolytic activity. Furthermore, many of the mouse studies performed to date have failed to demonstrate a virulence role for PVL, thereby provoking the question: does PVL have a mechanistic role in human infection? In this report, we evaluated the contribution of PVL to severe skin and soft tissue infection. We generated PVL mutants in CA-MRSA strains isolated from patients with necrotizing fasciitis and used these tools to evaluate the pathogenic role of PVL in vivo. In a model of necrotizing soft tissue infection, we found PVL caused significant damage of muscle but not the skin. Muscle injury was linked to induction of pro-inflammatory chemokines KC, MIP-2, and RANTES, and recruitment of neutrophils. Tissue damage was most prominent in young mice and in those strains of mice that more effectively cleared S. aureus, and was not significant in older mice and mouse strains that had a more limited immune response to the pathogen. PVL mediated injury could be blocked by pretreatment with anti-PVL antibodies. Our data provide new insights into CA-MRSA pathogenesis, epidemiology and therapeutics. PVL could contribute to the increased incidence of myositis in CA-MRSA infection, and the toxin could mediate tissue injury by mechanisms other than direct killing of phagocytes.

  19. In vivo effects of Pain Relieving Plaster on closed soft tissue injury in rabbit ears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong-Zhi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soft tissue injury imposes major public health burdens worldwide. The positive effect of China's Tibetan medicine and the Lamiophlomis rotata-based herbal Pain Relieving Plaster (PRP on healing closed soft tissue injury (CSTI has been reported. The herbs contained in Plaster are also referred as 'blood-activating and stasis-dispelling' in herbal medicine. The formula of the plaster contains four China's Tibetan medical herbs, including Lamiophlomis rotata, Oxytropis falcate Bunge, Curcuma longa Linn, and Myricaria bracteata. Two of these herbs (Lamiophlomis rotate; Curcuma longa Linn are commonly used in different formulae of Chinese medicine. The objective of this study is to use an interdisciplinary approach to test the hypothesis that the formula and its components influence the process of CSTI. Methods In vivo models have been established in 30 rabbit ear pinnae and studied for: (1 blood flow velocity (BFV which was affected by pressure of 21.2 kg/cm2 for 30 second over the local rabbit ear tissue; (2 edema formation of the closed soft tissue injury; (3 in vivo local temperature change. Results The results of in vivo studies indicated that CSTI significantly increased the velocity of blood flow and increased edema formation within the control group. The PRP extracts for 5 hours significantly slowed down the BFV of CSTI in rabbit ears, markedly decreased the elevated edema level from the 3rd to the 5th day. Conclusion The ingredients contained in the formula have positive effects in healing CSTI and further study is worth exploring.

  20. The Effectiveness of Physical Agents for Lower-Limb Soft Tissue Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hainan; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; Optima Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background Soft tissue injuries to the lower limb bring a substantial health and economic burden to society. Physical agents are commonly used to treat these injuries. However, the effectiveness of many such physical agents is not clearly established in the literature. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Methods We searched 5 databases from 1990 to 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies. Paired reviewers independently screened the retrieved literature and appraised relevant studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with a high risk of bias were excluded. We synthesized low-risk-of-bias studies according to principles of best-evidence synthesis. Results We screened 10261 articles. Of 43 RCTs identified, 20 had a high risk of bias and were excluded from the analysis, and 23 RCTs had a low risk of bias and were included in the analysis. The available higher-quality evidence suggests that patients with persistent plantar fasciitis may benefit from ultrasound or foot orthoses, while those with persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy may benefit from shockwave therapy. However, the current evidence does not support the use of shockwave therapy for recent plantar fasciitis, low-Dye taping for persistent plantar fasciitis, low-level laser therapy for recent ankle sprains, or splints for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Finally, evidence on the effectiveness of the following interventions is not established in the current literature: (1) shockwave therapy for persistent plantar fasciitis, (2) cryotherapy or assistive devices for recent ankle sprains, (3) braces for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy, and (4) taping or electric muscle stimulation for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Conclusion Almost half the identified RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of

  1. Interleukin-19 mediates tissue damage in murine ischemic acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Hsu

    Full Text Available Inflammation and renal tubular injury are major features of acute kidney injury (AKI. Many cytokines and chemokines are released from injured tubular cells and acts as proinflammatory mediators. However, the role of IL-19 in the pathogenesis of AKI is not defined yet. In bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI-induced and HgCl2-induced AKI animal models, real-time quantitative (RTQ-PCR showed that the kidneys, livers, and lungs of AKI mice expressed significantly higher IL-19 and its receptors than did sham control mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that IL-19 and its receptors were strongly stained in the kidney, liver, and lung tissue of AKI mice. In vitro, IL-19 upregulated MCP-1, TGF-β1, and IL-19, and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in murine renal tubular epithelial M-1 cells. IL-19 upregulated TNF-α and IL-10 in cultured HepG2 cells, and it increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression in cultured A549 cells. In vivo, after renal IRI or a nephrotoxic dose of HgCl2 treatment, IL-20R1-deficient mice (the deficiency blocks IL-19 signaling showed lower levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in serum and less tubular damage than did wild-type mice. Therefore, we conclude that IL-19 mediates kidney, liver, and lung tissue damage in murine AKI and that blocking IL-19 signaling may provide a potent therapeutic strategy for treating AKI.

  2. Elective amputation and bionic substitution restore functional hand use after critical soft tissue injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszmann, Oskar C.; Vujaklija, Ivan; Roche, Aidan D.; Salminger, Stefan; Herceg, Malvina; Sturma, Agnes; Hruby, Laura A.; Pittermann, Anna; Hofer, Christian; Amsuess, Sebastian; Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Critical soft tissue injuries may lead to a non-functional and insensate limb. In these cases standard reconstructive techniques will not suffice to provide a useful outcome, and solutions outside the biological arena must be considered and offered to these patients. We propose a concept which, after all reconstructive options have been exhausted, involves an elective amputation along with a bionic substitution, implementing an actuated prosthetic hand via a structured tech-neuro-rehabilitation program. Here, three patients are presented in whom this concept has been successfully applied after mutilating hand injuries. Clinical tests conducted before, during and after the procedure, evaluating both functional and psychometric parameters, document the benefits of this approach. Additionally, in one of the patients, we show the possibility of implementing a highly functional and natural control of an advanced prosthesis providing both proportional and simultaneous movements of the wrist and hand for completing tasks of daily living with substantially less compensatory movements compared to the traditional systems. It is concluded that the proposed procedure is a viable solution for re-gaining highly functional hand use following critical soft tissue injuries when existing surgical measures fail. Our results are clinically applicable and can be extended to institutions with similar resources. PMID:27721419

  3. Liver regeneration - The best kept secret: A model of tissue injury response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Cienfuegos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver regeneration (LR is one of the most amazing tissue injury response. Given its therapeutic significance has been deeply studied in the last decades. LR is an extraordinary complex process, strictly regulated, which accomplishes the characteristics of the most evolutionary biologic systems (robustness and explains the difficulties of reshaping it with therapeutic goals. TH reproduces the physiological tissue damage response pattern, with a first phase of priming of the hepatocytes -cell-cycle transition G0-G1-, and a second phase of proliferation -cell-cycle S/M phases- which ends with the liver mass recovering. This process has been related with the tissue injury response regulators as: complement system, platelets, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, growth factors (HGF, EGF, VGF and anti-inflammatory factors (IL-10, TGF-β. Given its complexity and strict regulation, illustrates the unique alternative to liver failure is liver transplantation. The recent induced pluripotential cells (iPS description and the mesenchymal stem cell (CD133+ plastic capability have aroused new prospects in the cellular therapy field. Those works have assured the cooperation between mesenchymal and epithelial cells. Herein, we review the physiologic mechanisms of liver regeneration.

  4. Role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation-induced pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation- induced pulmonary injury. Methods: Wistar rats irradiated by 60Co γ-rays to the whole lungs were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 weeks. MMP-12 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12 activities were determined by zymography. The degradation and collapse of elastin were determined by tissue elastin particular staining; the 'cross talking' phenomenon between alveolar type II cells and mesenchymal cells was observed under electron microscope; the expression of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in BALF was detected by ELISA. The expression of α-SMA was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: The mRNA expression of MMP-12 displayed a significant elevation at 1, 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. MMP-12 activity increased at 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. Elastin began to degrade and collapse at 1 week, which became worst 4 weeks after irradiation. The cross talking phenomenon was found under electron microscope. The expression of TGF-β1, TNF-α and α-SMA was increased gradually as time elapse after irradiation. Conclusions: 60Co γ-ray irradiation can promote pulmonary MMP-12 expression, initiate pulmonary tissue remodeling by degradation of elastin, and make the pulmonary injury develop towards pulmonary fibrosis eventually. (authors)

  5. Effect of matrix metalloproteinase promoter polymorphisms on endometriosis and adenomyosis risk: evidence from a meta-analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HUI YE; YAZHOU HE; JIARONG WANG; TIANGE SONG; ZHU LAN; YIQI ZHAO; MINGRONG XI

    2016-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) promoter polymorphisms are considered to play roles in the aetiology of endometriosis and adenomyosis, however, the evidence available are inconsistent. We aimed to systematically review the asscociationbetween MMP-1 -1607 1G/2G MMP-2 -735 C/T, MMP-3 -1171 5A/6A and MMP-9 -1562 C/T polymorphisms and the risk of endometriosis and adenomyosis. A systemic search was conducted in Ovid, PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Wanfang Database. We used the pooled odds ratio (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) to calculate the statistical power. Besides, we evaluated the quality of individual studies based on Newcastle–Ottawa scale. A total of 13 papers with 18 studies conformed to our inclusion criteria. We observed a significant association betweenMMP-1 -1607 1G/2G polymorphism and the susceptibility of endometriosis and adenomyosis under recessive model (OR =1.25, 95%CI = 1.03–1.53,P=0.03). While no significant association was found in MMP-2 -735 C/T, MMP-3 -1171 5A/6A and MMP-9 -1562 C/T polymorphisms. This systemic review and meta-analysis suggested that the MMP-1 -1607 1G/2G polymorphism might play an important role in the risk of endometriosis and adenomyosis. Further, more well-designed and large-scale studies regarding gene–gene and gene–environment interactions are needed in the future.

  6. Influence of mirena treatment on uterine blood flow dynamics and serum related indexes of patients with uterine adenomyosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yun Wang; Hua Zhang; Zhen-Zhen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of mirena treatment on uterine blood flow dynamics and serum related indexes of patients with uterine adenomyosis.Methods:A total of 58 patients with uterine adenomyosis who were treated in our hospital during the time from June 2014 to July 2015 were randomly divided into two groups, 29 patients in the control group were treated with danazol, and 29 patients in the observation group were treated with mirena. Then the total effective rate, adverse reaction rates, uterine blood flow dynamics indexes, serum MMP related indexes and other disease related indexes of the two groups before the treatment and at first, third and sixth month after the treatment were compared.Results:The total effective rate and adverse reaction rate of observation group were both worse than that of control group (allP0.05). While the uterine blood flow dynamics indexes of the observation group at different time after the treatment were all significantly better than those of control group (allP<0.05).Conclusions:Mirena treatment can effectively improve the uterine blood flow dynamics and serum related indexes of patients with uterine adenomyosis, and it has application value for the patients with uterine adenomyosis is higher.

  7. Hepatitis E virus detection in liver tissue from patients with suspected drug-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna eChijioke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection is increasingly recognized as a cause of acute hepatitis in the industrialized world. We aimed to determine the frequency of acute Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection in cases of suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI, mainly a diagnosis of exclusion. To this aim, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE liver tissues of all cases routinely processed in our institute during a 2 ½ years period in which DILI was amongst the differential diagnoses (157 liver biopsies, one liver explant were subjected to semi-nested RT-PCR for the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV RNA. Histopathology was re-evaluated on all cases tested positive. HEV RNA was detectable in three of 158 cases (2% tested, comprising autochthonic as well as travel-related infections with genotypes 1, 3, and 4 each found once, respectively. Histopathologic findings comprised one case with subtotal hepatic necrosis and two cases of acute (cholestatic hepatitis not distinguishable from acute hepatitis of other etiology. Thus, the overall frequency of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV infection as determined by detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV RNA in liver tissue is substantially increased in patients with suspected drug-induced liver injury compared to the healthy population, emphasizing the need to actively look for hepatitis E virus (HEV infection in cases of suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI. Molecular testing for hepatitis E virus (HEV RNA in routinely processed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE liver tissues can be applied to cases with undetermined hepatitis E virus (HEV status.

  8. Fifteen cases clinical analysis of wedge-shaped resection of uterus treating adenomyosis-CONSORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, ShanRong; Luo, Xin; Wang, ZhiXin; Yao, YuHong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the improvement of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia after wedge-shaped resection of uterus. The clinical data of 15 patients who experienced wedge-shaped resection of uterus for adenomyosis were retrospectively analyzed from September 2012 to October 2013. We use the amount of the completed soaked napkins to measure the menstrual blood volume, and the visual analog scale to evaluate the degree of dysmenorrhea. We used the 2 index to evaluate the improvement of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia after operation. All operations were successful, no serious complication occurred. Before the operation, all 15 patients used more than 25 pieces of completed soaked napkins, after the operation, 13 patients had significantly decreased menstrual flow, the average amount of completed soaked napkins was 3.6. Meanwhile, 2 patients had no menstrual after surgery. Before the operation, among the 10 patients with severe dysmenorrhea, 9 patients had significant relief on pain, they only experienced slight pain after surgery, only 1 patient still experienced moderate pain. Two patients with slight pain had no pain after operation. Among the 3 patients with moderate pain, 2 patients experienced slight pain and 1 patient felt no pain after operation. The wedge-shaped resection of uterus is a safe and effective procedure to significantly reduce menorrhagia and alleviate the extent of dysmenorrhea, which is a promising alternative for patient who suffered from dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia for adenomyosis. PMID:27310956

  9. Effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong; LI Ai-lin; ZHI Da-shi; HUANG Hui-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) using clinical microdialysis.Methods: Thirty-one patients with STBI ( GCS ≤8) were randomly divided into hypothermic group (Group A) and control group (Group B). Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the cerebral cortex of perilesional and normal brain tissue. All samples were analyzed using CMA microdialysis analyzer.Results: In comparison with the control group, lactate/glucose ratio ( L/G) , lactate/pyruvate ratio ( L/P) and glycerol (Gly) in perilensional tissue were significantly decreased; L/P in normal brain tissue was significantly decreased. In control group, L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue were higher than that in normal brain tissue. In the hypothermic group, L/P in perilensional tissue was higher than that in relative normal brain.Conclusions: Mild hypothermia protects brain tissues by decreasing L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue and L/P in "normal brain" tissues. The energy crisis and membrane phospholipid degradation in perilensional tissue are easier to happen after traumatic brain injury, and mild hypothermia protects brain better in perilensional tissue than in normal brain tissue.

  10. Vacuum-Assisted Closure in the Management of Degloving Soft Tissue Injury: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Torsten; von Lübken, Falk; Friemert, Benedikt; Achatz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with an extensive degloving injury to his right foot involving severe subcutaneous soft tissue disruption and contamination. The initial treatment consisted of debridement, which was kept to a minimum, copious irrigation, primary wound closure at a few sites, and coverage of the remaining skin defects with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) dressings. After a few weeks of VAC therapy for wound bed preparation, definitive coverage with a meshed skin graft was possible. Additional plastic surgical procedures were not required. At the last follow-up visit, the patient had no complaints and was able to participate in normal social life without limitations. Wounds that are grossly contaminated or associated with extensive soft tissue defects often require a multistage approach before delayed primary wound closure or plastic surgical procedures can be performed. Vacuum therapy can be used for temporary soft tissue coverage and has been shown to improve bacterial clearance, to increase local blood flow, and to promote granulation tissue formation. In contrast, plastic surgical procedures initially achieve safe and stable wound closure; however, the absence of sensitivity can lead to secondary problems. This is of particular relevance if the graft recipient site is subject to heavy stress and the restoration of function is of paramount importance, such as in the present case. Vacuum therapy is an effective and safe treatment of degloving injuries. We achieved a very good functional outcome, which was particularly important in view of the high stresses and strains to which a foot is exposed. PMID:26826925

  11. Incidence of Soft-Tissue Injuries in Patients with Posterolateral Tibial Plateau Fractures: A Retrospective Review from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Cao, Fujiang; Liu, Minghui; Wang, Jiantao; Jia, Shikong

    2016-08-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of soft-tissue injuries in patients with posterolateral tibial plateau fractures. Methods The data of 265 patients who had sustained posterolateral tibial plateau fractures between May 2009 and Aug 2014 were retrospectively reviewed using a picture archiving and communication system. Fractures were classified according to the Schatzker, AO/OTA, and quadrant classification systems. Soft-tissue injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral meniscus, and medial meniscus injuries, were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Results The overall incidence of ACL and PCL tears was 80 and 36%, respectively. Nine (36%) patients sustained ACL footprint avulsions and three (12%) had complete ACL tears. A total of 19 (76%) patients had LCL injuries, and 15 (64%) had MCL injuries. The incidence of lateral meniscus tears was 48%, while that of medial meniscus tears was 4%. Conclusion Posterolateral tibial plateau fractures were associated with a high incidence of soft-tissue injuries, especially ACL footprint avulsions and lateral meniscus tears. The preoperative MRI examination was important for surgeons to decide whether the ligament and meniscal injuries should be treated simultaneously with the repair of the bone fractures. PMID:27183240

  12. Diannexin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury and targets phosphatidylserines in ischemic tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley E Wever

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI frequently complicates shock, renal transplantation and cardiac and aortic surgery, and has prognostic significance. The translocation of phosphatidylserines to cell surfaces is an important pro-inflammatory signal for cell-stress after IRI. We hypothesized that shielding of exposed phosphatidylserines by the annexin A5 (ANXA5 homodimer Diannexin protects against renal IRI. Protective effects of Diannexin on the kidney were studied in a mouse model of mild renal IRI. Diannexin treatment before renal IRI decreased proximal tubule damage and leukocyte influx, decreased transcription and expression of renal injury markers Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and improved renal function. A mouse model of ischemic hind limb exercise was used to assess Diannexin biodistribution and targeting. When comparing its biodistribution and elimination to ANXA5, Diannexin was found to have a distinct distribution pattern and longer blood half-life. Diannexin targeted specifically to the ischemic muscle and its affinity exceeded that of ANXA5. Targeting of both proteins was inhibited by pre-treatment with unlabeled ANXA5, suggesting that Diannexin targets specifically to ischemic tissues via phosphatidylserine-binding. This study emphasizes the importance of phosphatidylserine translocation in the pathophysiology of IRI. We show for the first time that Diannexin protects against renal IRI, making it a promising therapeutic tool to prevent IRI in a clinical setting. Our results indicate that Diannexin is a potential new imaging agent for the study of phosphatidylserine-exposing organs in vivo.

  13. Role of Chitin and Chitinase/Chitinase-Like Proteins in Inflammation, Tissue Remodeling, and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun Geun; Da Silva, Carla A.; Dela Cruz, Charles S.; Ahangari, Farida; Ma, Bing; Kang, Min-Jong; He, Chuan-Hua; Takyar, Seyedtaghi; Elias, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    The 18 glycosyl hydrolase family of chitinases is an ancient gene family that is widely expressed from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. In mammals, despite the absence of endogenous chitin, a number of chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (C/CLPs) have been identified. However, their roles have only recently begun to be elucidated. Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) inhibits chitin-induced innate inflammation; augments chitin-free, allergen-induced Th2 inflammation; and mediates effector functions of IL-13. The CLPs BRP-39/YKL-40 (also termed chitinase 3-like 1) inhibit oxidant-induced lung injury, augments adaptive Th2 immunity, regulates apoptosis, stimulates alternative macrophage activation, and contributes to fibrosis and wound healing. In accord with these findings, levels of YKL-40 in the lung and serum are increased in asthma and other inflammatory and remodeling disorders and often correlate with disease severity. Our understanding of the roles of C/CLPs in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and tissue injury in health and disease is reviewed below. PMID:21054166

  14. Free radicals and related reactive species as mediators of tissue injury and disease: implications for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, James P; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2015-01-01

    A radical is any molecule that contains one or more unpaired electrons. Radicals are normal products of many metabolic pathways. Some exist in a controlled (caged) form as they perform essential functions. Others exist in a free form and interact with various tissue components. Such interactions can cause both acute and chronic dysfunction, but can also provide essential control of redox regulated signaling pathways. The potential roles of endogenous or xenobiotic-derived free radicals in several human pathologies have stimulated extensive research linking the toxicity of numerous xenobiotics and disease processes to a free radical mechanism. In recent years, improvements in analytical methodologies, as well as the realization that subtle effects induced by free radicals and oxidants are important in modulating cellular signaling, have greatly improved our understanding of the roles of these reactive species in toxic mechanisms and disease processes. However, because free radical-mediated changes are pervasive, and a consequence as well as a cause of injury, whether such species are a major cause of tissue injury and human disease remains unclear. This concern is supported by the fact that the bulk of antioxidant defenses are enzymatic and the findings of numerous studies showing that exogenously administered small molecule antioxidants are unable to affect the course of most toxicities and diseases purported to have a free radical mechanism. This review discusses cellular sources of various radical species and their reactions with vital cellular constituents, and provides examples of selected disease processes that may have a free radical component.

  15. Uterine adenomyosis in infertile patients: MR imaging findings and clinical conclusions; MRT der uterinen Adenomyose bei infertilen Patientinnen: Ergebnisse und klinische Rueckschluesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangos, S.; Eichler, K.; Herzog, C.; Marquardt, F.; Peters, J.; Jacobi, V.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Kissler, S.; Mueller, A.; Siebzehnruebl, E.; Kaufmann, M. [Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe, J. W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Hamscho, N.; Gruenwald, F. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, J. W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the uterus and the pelvis in infertile female with symptomatic endometriosis for the assessment of uterine morphology and function. Materials and Methods: Forty-one infertile women (mean age: 33.2 years) with symptomatic endometriosis documented by laparoscopy were evaluated with highfield MRI (Sonata, Siemens) using T2- and T1-weighted sequences. In addition, the patients underwent hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG) for evaluation of the uterotubal transport capacity. Pathologic findings of the uterine junction zone were correlated with the laparoscopic results, clinical symptoms and uterotubal transport capacity. Results: Adenomyosis was diagnosed on T2-weighted MR-images in 35 (85.4%) patients (focal adenomatosis in 26 patients and diffuse adenomatosis in 9). Patients showing signs of adenomyosis tended to be older than patients without adenomyosis (mean age 34.1 years vs. 30.1 years) and showed a longer history of symptomatic endometriosis. A positive transport capacity in HSSG was observed in 73.1% (19/26) of the patients with focal adenomyosis and only 22.2% (2/9) of patients with diffuse adenomyosis. In 83.3% (5/6) of the patients without signs of adenomyosis, a positive uterotubal transport was documented. Conclusion: MRI of the uterus is a helpful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of adenomyosis and for planning further therapies. Patients with the diagnosis of adenomyosis showed a reduced uterotubal transport capacity that depended on the severity of adenomyotic changes and might be a possible cause of infertility. (orig.)

  16. bFGF and TGFβ expression in rat kidneys after ischemic/ reperfusional gut injury and its relationship with tissue repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Hui Yang; Xiao Bing Fu; Tong Zhu Sun; Li Xian Jiang; Xiao Man Gu

    2000-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Intestinal ischemia/ reperfusion ( I/ R ) occur commonly in critically ill patients. It is well recognized that gut I/R may cause tissue damage and dysfunction of intestine, and induce remote organ injury including kidney, lung, and liver[1]. It may also lead to complications after severe burn or injury. Previous studies have focused on cellular elements, cytokines and inflammatory mediators.Relatively little attention has been paid endogenous protective mechanisms, I.e. The growth factors.

  17. A new therapeutic strategy for lung tissue injury induced by influenza with CR2 targeting complement inhibitior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomlinson Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a respiratory disease that seriously threatens human health. In fact, influenza virus itself does not make critical contribution to mortality induced by influenza, but "cytokine storm" produced by the excessive immune response triggered by the virus can result in inflammatory reaction of lung tissues and fatal lung tissue injury, and thus increase influenza mortality. Therefore, besides antiviral drugs, immunosuppression drugs should also be included in infection treatment. Presentation of the hypothesis Complement is the center of inflammatory reaction. If complement system is over activated, the body will have strong inflammatory reaction or tissue injury, resulting in pathological process. Many studies have proved that, inflammatory injury of lung tissues caused by influenza virus is closely related to complement activation. Therefore, inhibiting complement activation can significantly reduce inflammatory injury in lung tissues. As complement is both a physiological defense and pathological damage medium, systematic inhibition may result in side effects including infection. Therefore, we design targeting complement inhibitors for complement activation sites, i.e. with CR2 as targeting vector, complement inhibitors like CD59 and Crry are targeted to inflammatory sites to specially inhibit the complement activation in local injury, thus local inflammatory reaction is inhibited. Testing the hypothesis CR2-CD59 and CR2-Crry targeting complement inhibitors are fusion-expressed, and their biological activity is examined via in vivo and in vitro tests. CR2 targeting complement inhibitors are used to treat mouse influenza viral pneumonia model, with PBS treatment group as the control. The survival and lung tissue injury of the mice is observed and the effect of CR2 targeting complement inhibitors on pneumonia induced by influenza virus is evaluated. Implications of the hypothesis CR2 targeting complement inhibitors

  18. 计算机辅助微波热消融计划系统在子宫腺肌症治疗中的应用%Application of Computer-Assisted Microwave Ablation Planning System in the Treatment of Adenomyosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛林; 翟伟明; 卜云芸; 孙铁梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the method and application value of computer-assisted microwave ablation planning system in the treatment of adenomyosis.Methods CT images of the patients with adenomyosis were imported into the computer-assisted microwave ablation planning system. Then uterus with its surrounding tissues were reconstructed through 3D reconstruction technology and computer-assisted surgery simulation technology based on the image data to determine the scope and implement approach of microwave ablation so that 3D model used to simulate microwave ablation thermal ifeld and damage ifeld after ablation can be established. Then the microwave ablation guided by ultrasound of the patient with adenomyosis was conducted according to the simulative implement approach and thermal ablation parameters.Results The planning accuracy, operation efifciency, safety and curative effect of the microwave ablation of adenomyosis have been improved with the application of the system. Conclusion Computer-assisted microwave ablation planning system which can improve the reliability and security of surgical planning can be used in the microwave hyperthermia of adenomyosis.%目的:探索计算机辅助微波热消融计划系统在子宫腺肌症治疗中的方法和应用价值。方法将子宫腺肌症患者术前的CT影像导入计算机辅助微波热消融计划系统;基于患者的影像数据,通过三维重建及计算机手术仿真技术,重建子宫及其周围组织关系,确立微波消融的范围及实施路径,构建模拟微波消融热场及消融后损伤场的三维模型;根据模拟的路径及热消融参数进行超声引导下的子宫腺肌症微波消融。结果该系统的应用提高了子宫腺肌症微波消融术的计划准确性、实施效率、安全性和疗效。结论计算机辅助微波热消融计划系统可以提高手术规划的可靠性及安全性,可应用于子宫腺肌症的微波热疗。

  19. The immunoprofile of interstitial Cajal cells within adenomyosis/endometriosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăghici, Isabela Magdalena; Drăghici, Liviu; Cojocaru, Manole; Gorgan, Carmen Loredana; Vrabie, Camelia Doina

    2015-01-01

    Adenomyosis and endometriosis are lesions which have aroused the interest for the investigation of antibodies specific to the structures from the composition, but also for the cause behind the appearance of these lesions in completely different structures. The impact they have on fertility is not known entirely, for they are difficult to diagnose. Endometriosis causes infertility and it is a hard to treat lesion. The research performed in the last years has been focused on the so-called linkage analysis, or reverse genetics. It refers to identifying the genes which are prone to developing this affection. We investigated clinically 40 female inpatients (n=40) who had underwent genital surgery and received a variegate diagnosis in the "Sf. Ioan" Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between January-September 2014 and also their histopathology and immunohistochemistry. We proceeded with the histopathology examination in order to establish a diagnosis in respect to the admission diagnosis and then, using the ABC (Avidin-Biotin complex) method, we analyzed the immunohistochemistry of the following markers: S100 protein (for detection of ganglia and nerve cells), CD117÷c-kit (selective detection of interstitial Cajal cells - ICC), desmin and vimentin (intermediary filaments for detecting ICC-like cells, which cohabit with uterine myocytes and are not contractile cells) and CD10 (a sensitive and useful immunomarker in the diagnosis of endometrial stroma and, in some cases, of neoplasia). Our study, regarding the immunoprofile of some markers of adenomyosis÷endometriosis lesions, supports the hypothesis that the interstitial Cajal cells are non-reactive, they are not in relationship with investigated lesions, but CD10 is a very useful marker to highlight the endometrial stroma in query cases. PMID:25826497

  20. State of the art. Four easy pieces: interconnections between tissue injury, intermediary metabolism, autoimmunity, and chronic degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lawrence

    2006-08-01

    Four questions are posed: (1) Can tissue damage itself provoke autoimmunity? (2) Can genetic mutations of key structures produce tissue pathology and thus provoke autoimmunity? (3) Can acute immune damage produce tissue degeneration without further hallmarks of an immune response? (4) Can intermediary metabolism modulate immune damage to tissues? Four answers are given: (1) Tissue injury itself may lead to autoimmunity. Both innate and adaptive immunity may arise as a response to tissue injury, and the immune attack can further damage tissue. (2) Genetic mutations can lead to an immune response indistinguishable from autoimmunity, exemplified from Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. (3) Chronic immune damage may lead to tissue degeneration, with or without further hallmarks of an immune response. Variations on this theme, including inverse scenarios, are also possible: Inborn errors of metabolism may lead to tissue damage that may provoke an adaptive and or innate immune response. The immune response might further damage tissue. (4) Finally, perturbations of intermediary metabolism may modulate the immune response, controlling the extent of immune-mediated damage. Examples are taken from perturbations in the cholesterol pathway that influence the characteristics of the immune response, and with tryptophan metabolites that modulate autoimmunity and graft rejection. Inflammatory, degenerative, and autoimmune neurological disease will be discussed in terms of their implications for pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  1. Cognitive deficits in patients after soft tissue injury of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanov, B P; Dvorák, J; Valach, L

    1992-02-01

    Fifty-one patients suffering from soft tissue injury of the cervical spine underwent clinical and psychometric examination. Clinical interview evaluated subjective complaints and formal testing of self-estimated cognitive impairment, divided attention, and speed of information processing. Results indicated at least two different syndromes: 1) the "cervicoencephalic syndrome," characterized by headache, fatigue, dizziness, poor concentration, disturbed accommodation, and impaired adaptation to light intensity; and 2) the "lower cervical spine syndrome," which is accompanied by cervical and cervicobrachial pain. When comparing patients with either of these two syndromes, those suffering from cervicoencephalic syndrome had significantly poorer results when tested for divided attention. Speed of information processing was reduced to a comparable extent in both syndromes. These findings were not related to the length of the post-traumatic interval. Reduced processing of working memory is assumed, which may account for more global cognitive problems as well as secondary neurotic reaction. PMID:1553581

  2. Effect of Fucoidan Extracted from Mozuku on Experimental Cartilaginous Tissue Injury 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Minami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on acceleration of healing of experimental cartilage injury in a rabbit model. An injured cartilage model was surgically created by introduction of three holes, one in the articular cartilage of the medial trochlea and two in the trochlear sulcus of the distal femur. Rabbits in three experimental groups (F groups were orally administered fucoidan of seven different molecular weights (8, 50, 146, 239, 330, 400, or 1000 kD for 3 weeks by screening. Control (C group rabbits were provided water ad libitum. After the experimental period, macroscopic examination showed that the degree of filling in the fucoidan group was higher than that in the C group. Histologically, the holes were filled by collagen fiber and fibroblasts in the C group, and by chondroblasts and fibroblasts in the F groups. Image analysis of Alcian blue- and safranin O-stained F-group specimens showed increased production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and proteoglycans (PGs, respectively. Some injured holes were well repaired both macroscopically and microscopically and were filled with cartilage tissues; cartilage matrices such as PGs and GAGs were produced in groups F 50, F 146, and F 239. Thus, fucoidan administration enhanced morphologically healing of cartilage injury.

  3. MicroRNA-155 drives TH17 immune response and tissue injury in experimental crescentic GN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christian F; Kapffer, Sonja; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Schmidt, Tilman; Bennstein, Sabrina B; Peters, Anett; Stege, Gesa; Brix, Silke R; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Turner, Jan-Eric; Steinmetz, Oliver M; Wolf, Gunter; Stahl, Rolf A K; Panzer, Ulf

    2013-12-01

    CD4(+) T cells play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, including human and experimental crescentic GN. Micro-RNAs (miRs) have emerged as important regulators of immune cell development, but the impact of miRs on the regulation of the CD4(+) T cell immune response remains to be fully clarified. Here, we report that miR-155 expression is upregulated in the kidneys of patients with ANCA-associated crescentic GN and a murine model of crescentic GN (nephrotoxic nephritis). To elucidate the potential role of miR-155 in T cell-mediated inflammation, nephritis was induced in miR-155(-/-) and wild-type mice. The systemic and renal nephritogenic TH17 immune response decreased markedly in nephritic miR-155(-/-) mice. Consistent with this finding, miR-155-deficient mice developed less severe nephritis, with reduced histologic and functional injury. Adoptive transfer of miR-155(-/-) and wild-type CD4(+) T cells into nephritic recombination activating gene 1-deficient (Rag-1(-/-)) mice showed the T cell-intrinsic importance of miR-155 for the stability of pathogenic TH17 immunity. These findings indicate that miR-155 drives the TH17 immune response and tissue injury in experimental crescentic GN and show that miR-155 is a potential therapeutic target in TH17-mediated diseases. PMID:23949802

  4. MicroRNA-155 Drives TH17 Immune Response and Tissue Injury in Experimental Crescentic GN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christian F.; Kapffer, Sonja; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Schmidt, Tilman; Bennstein, Sabrina B.; Peters, Anett; Stege, Gesa; Brix, Silke R.; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Turner, Jan-Eric; Steinmetz, Oliver M.; Wolf, Gunter; Stahl, Rolf A. K.

    2013-01-01

    CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, including human and experimental crescentic GN. Micro-RNAs (miRs) have emerged as important regulators of immune cell development, but the impact of miRs on the regulation of the CD4+ T cell immune response remains to be fully clarified. Here, we report that miR-155 expression is upregulated in the kidneys of patients with ANCA-associated crescentic GN and a murine model of crescentic GN (nephrotoxic nephritis). To elucidate the potential role of miR-155 in T cell-mediated inflammation, nephritis was induced in miR-155−/− and wild-type mice. The systemic and renal nephritogenic TH17 immune response decreased markedly in nephritic miR-155−/− mice. Consistent with this finding, miR-155–deficient mice developed less severe nephritis, with reduced histologic and functional injury. Adoptive transfer of miR-155−/− and wild-type CD4+ T cells into nephritic recombination activating gene 1-deficient (Rag-1−/−) mice showed the T cell-intrinsic importance of miR-155 for the stability of pathogenic TH17 immunity. These findings indicate that miR-155 drives the TH17 immune response and tissue injury in experimental crescentic GN and show that miR-155 is a potential therapeutic target in TH17-mediated diseases. PMID:23949802

  5. A new therapeutic strategy for lung tissue injury induced by influenza with CR2 targeting complement inhibitior

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson Stephen; Qiao Fei; Huang Liuyu; Sun Yansong; Wang Yong; Yang Yutao; Jia Leili; Xu Yuanyong; Zhang Chuanfu; Liu Xuelin; Zhou Yusen; Song Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Influenza is a respiratory disease that seriously threatens human health. In fact, influenza virus itself does not make critical contribution to mortality induced by influenza, but "cytokine storm" produced by the excessive immune response triggered by the virus can result in inflammatory reaction of lung tissues and fatal lung tissue injury, and thus increase influenza mortality. Therefore, besides antiviral drugs, immunosuppression drugs should also be included in infect...

  6. Tissue mass ratios and the reporting of distal lower extremity injuries in varsity athletes at a Canadian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Timothy A; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Andrews, David M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to determine the relative role of the distal lower extremity tissue masses of varsity athletes in predicting distal lower extremity injury sustained during a competitive season. One hundred male and female varsity athletes (basketball, volleyball, soccer, cross country) completed a questionnaire on general health, physiological, and psychosocial variables, during each sport's respective training camp. A series of anthropometric measurements were used as inputs to distal lower extremity tissue mass prediction equations to calculate lean mass, fat mass, bone mineral content and wobbling mass (lean mass + fat mass) and tissue mass ratios. Athletes were monitored throughout their respective seasons and were instructed to report any distal lower extremity injuries to a certified athletic therapist who was responsible for assessing and confirming the reports. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which variables significantly predicted distal lower extremity injury. Mean leg fat mass:bone mass (OR = 1.6, CI = 1.0 - 2.5), and competition surface (rubber OR = 8.5, CI = 1.5 - 47.7; artificial turf OR = 4.0, CI = 0.77 - 22.9) were identified as significant predictors of injury. Overall, tibia bone injuries were significantly associated with the ratio of fat mass:bone mineral content and the surface on which the athletes compete. PMID:23215824

  7. Perivascular adipose tissue-secreted angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) accelerates neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Miyata, Keishi; Tazume, Hirokazu; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi; Horio, Eiji; Takahashi, Otowa; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Araki, Kimi; Hirata, Yoichiro; Tabata, Minoru; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Takeya, Motohiro; Hao, Hiroyuki; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka; Kawasuji, Michio; Oike, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Much attention is currently focused on the role of perivascular adipose tissue in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Some researchers view it as promoting CVD through secretion of cytokines and growth factors called adipokines, while recent reports reveal that perivascular adipose tissue can exert a protective effect on CVD development. Furthermore, adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, reportedly suppresses neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury, whereas such vascular remodeling is enhanced by pro-inflammatory adipokines secreted by perivascular adipose, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These findings suggest that extent of vascular remodeling, a pathological process associated with CVD development, depends on the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from perivascular adipose tissue. We previously demonstrated that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2), a pro-inflammatory factor secreted by adipose tissue, promotes adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we examined whether Angptl2 secreted by perivascular adipose tissue contributes to vascular remodeling after endovascular injury in studies of transgenic mice expressing Angptl2 in adipose tissue (aP2-Angptl2 transgenic mice) and Angptl2 knockout mice (Angptl2(-/-) mice). To assess the role of Angptl2 secreted by perivascular adipose tissue on vascular remodeling after endovascular injury, we performed adipose tissue transplantation experiments using these mice. Wild-type mice with perivascular adipose tissue derived from aP2-Angptl2 mice exhibited accelerated neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury compared to wild-type mice transplanted with wild-type tissue. Conversely, vascular inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury were significantly attenuated in wild-type mice transplanted with Angptl2(-/-) mouse-derived perivascular adipose tissue compared to wild-type mice

  8. Pedicled Breast Flap for Soft Tissue Coverage of a Forearm Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriarrain, Alexander; Brooks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Summary: This article presents the case of a 35-year-old woman who sustained a shotgun blast injury to the left forearm and chest wall causing significant soft tissue loss of the extensor compartment. The patient suffered a Gustilo IIIB open radial shaft fracture requiring orthopedic stabilization and plastic surgery intervention. As a result, the patient eventually was reconstructed with the use of a pedicled breast flap. Because of the patient’s macromastia and her large forearm wound and morbid obesity, an individualized approach was developed such that a breast flap was designed because of its proximity to the upper extremity. The advantage of this type of reconstruction is a more natural contour to the forearm with minimal donor site morbidity. Before creation of the flap, the patient expressed interest in a reduction mammaplasty because of her symptomatic macromastia. Overall, this was a 2-step operation whereby first the breast flap was created, and then a few weeks later, once the arm healed, the reduction mammaplasty was performed. Other types of flaps for upper extremity reconstruction include the rectus abdominis myocutaneous, transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous, vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous, groin, and latissumus dorsi. The pedicled breast flap is an innovative approach to upper extremity soft tissue coverage and can be tailored to the specific needs of patients similar to our case presentation. PMID:27104108

  9. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michelle E; Requena, Daniela F; Abdullah, Osama M; Casper, T Charles; Beachy, Joanna; Malleske, Daniel; Pauly, James R

    2016-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Specific therapies to treat acute TBI are lacking. Cognitive impairment from TBI may be blunted by decreasing inflammation and oxidative damage after injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreases cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in adult rats after TBI. Effects of DHA on cognitive outcome, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in the developing rat after experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that DHA would decrease early inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, and improve cognitive, imaging and histologic outcomes in rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). CCI or sham surgery was delivered to 17 d old male rat pups exposed to DHA or standard diet for the duration of the experiments. DHA was introduced into the dam diet the day before CCI to allow timely DHA delivery to the pre-weanling pups. Inflammatory cytokines and nitrates/nitrites were measured in the injured brains at post-injury Day (PID) 1 and PID2. Morris water maze (MWM) testing was performed at PID41-PID47. T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging studies were obtained at PID12 and PID28. Tissue sparing was calculated histologically at PID3 and PID50. DHA did not adversely affect rat survival or weight gain. DHA acutely decreased oxidative stress and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 in CCI brains. DHA improved MWM performance and lesion volume late after injury. At PID12, DHA decreased T2-imaging measures of cerebral edema and decreased radial diffusivity, an index of white matter injury. DHA improved short- and long-term neurologic outcomes after CCI in the rat pup. Given its favorable safety profile, DHA is a promising candidate therapy for pediatric TBI. Further studies are needed to explore neuroprotective mechanisms of DHA after developmental TBI. PMID:26247583

  10. Profile of the subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at an occupational health service and the RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the profile of subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at the Reference Center of Occupational Health – CEREST in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state, in 2010, and the social insurance benefits granted.Materials and Methods: Analysis of medical records of the subjects assisted at CEREST in 2010, surveying data on gender, age, occupation, clinical diagnostics, clinical complaints, retirement, etc. The clinical diagnostics were categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10, subjects with soft tissue injuries were selected, and the diagnostics related to mental health disorders were registered. Data were recorded in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using statistical software R Development Core Team.Results: Of the 206 medical records analyzed, 18.0% (n=37 showed soft tissue injuries, 81.1% were female and 18.9% were male, and the subjects’ mean age was 43.24 years (SD=8.76. Subjects between 31 and 50 years old (70.2% were the most affected. The most affected occupations were cleaners, general service workers, and bank clerks. The most prevalent clinical diagnoses were synovitis and tenosynovitis, shoulder bursitis, and rotator cuff syndrome, with 62.2% of the subjects presenting more than one clinical diagnosis. 13.5% of the subjects also presented mental disorders. Association between retirement from work and the presence of soft tissue injury was observed (p=0.032. Only 13.5% of the diagnoses had some association with the work conditions.Conclusions: The general profile of the workers with soft tissue injuries was obtained: prevalence in women, diseases manifested in productive age, difficulty of association with work conditions, need for interdisciplinary interventions.

  11. Anti-Human Tissue Factor Antibody Ameliorated Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Human Tissue Factor Knock-In Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Marco; Li, Li; Cypel, Marcelo; Soderman, Avery; Picha, Kristen; Yang, Jing; Liu, Mingyao

    2008-01-01

    Background Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI) transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859) were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. Conclusions This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies. PMID:18231608

  12. Protective effect of DL-3-n-Butylphthalide on radiation injury of rat brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect and its mechanism of DL-3-n-Butylphthalide on the brain damage in rats following whole brain irradiation. Methods: A total of 120 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-irradiation group, irradiation group and DL-3-n-Butylphthalide group. The model of whole-brain irradiation was established by exposing rat brain to 4 MeV X-rays with a single-dose of 10 Gy. The rats were intraperitoneally injected with DL-3-n-Butylphthalide at the dosages of 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg once a day. The contents of malondialdehyde and super oxide dismutase activity were measured, while the expressions of apoptosis-associated genes and the ultrastructural changes in hippocampus were examined by immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscope, respectively. Results: After irradiation, the content of malondialdehyde and the expression of apoptosis gene bax in rat brain tissue increased while the activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and the expression of anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2 decreased. Apoptosis was also observed in the neurons of hippocampus CA1. Compared with irradiation group, the content of malondialdehyde and the expression of bax gene in the DL-3-n-Butylphthalide group wen significantly reduced (t=-3.89 - -1.96, 2.72-3.48, P<0.05), while the activity of SOD and bcl-2 gene were significantly elevated (t=2.94-3.76, -3.18 - -2.08, P<0.05), and the injury degree of neuron structure in the DL-3-n-Butylphthalide group was slighter than that in the irradiation group. Conclusions: DL-3-n-Butylphthalide executes protective effects in a dose-dependent manner against the radiation injury in rats brain by reducing the induction of malondialdehyde, raising the activity of SOD and inhibiting the generation of apoptosis. (authors)

  13. Effects of recombinant sCR1 on the immune inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury tissue of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良满; 朱悦; 范广宇

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of recombinant soluble complement receptor type I (sCR1) on the immune inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury tissue of rats and its protective effects. Results: The motor function of rat in sCR1 group at 3 d, 7 d, and 14 d was obviously better than that in NS group (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01). C3c positive expression in sCR1 group at each time point after injury was obviously less than that in NS group (P<0.01). The myeloperoxidase activity in sCR1 group at each time point after injury was obviously less than that in NS group (P<0.01). Conclusions: Recombinant soluble complement receptor type I (sCR1) can lessen the immune inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury tissue and relieve secondary spinal cord injury by inhibiting the activation of the complement system.

  14. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells differentiated from adipose tissue-derived stem cells for treatment of sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shasha Dong§; Na Liu§; Yang Hu ; Ping Zhang; Chao Pan; Youping Zhang; Yingxin Tang; Zhouping Tang 

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Currently, the clinical repair of sciatic nerve injury remains difficult. Previous studies have confirmed that transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells promotes nerve regeneration and restoration at peripheral nerve injury sites. Methods:In this study, adipose tissue-derived stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural progenitor cells, transfected with a green fluorescent protein-containing lentivirus, and then transplanted into the lesions of rats with sciatic nerve compression injury. Results: Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the transplanted cells survived, migrated, and differentiated in rats. At two weeks post-operation, a large number of transplanted cells had migrated to the injured lesions; at six weeks post-operation, transplanted cells were visible around the injured nerve and several cells were observed to express a Schwann cell marker. Sciatic function index and electrophysiological outcomes of the transplantation group were better than those of the control group. Cell transplantation promoted the recovery of motor nerve conduction velocity and com-pound muscle action potential amplitude, and reduced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy. Conclusions: Our experimental findings indicate that neural progenitor cells, differentiated from adipose tissue-derived stem cells, are potential seed stem cells that can be transplanted into lesions to treat sciatic nerve injury. This provides a theoretical basis for their use in clinical applications.

  15. Lack of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein leads to increased apoptosis and tissue loss following neonatal brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim West

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurological deficits caused by H-I (hypoxia-ischaemia) to the perinatal brain are often severely debilitating and lead to motor impairment, intellectual disability and seizures. Perinatal brain injury is distinct from adult brain injury in that the developing brain is undergoing the normal process of neuronal elimination by apoptotic cell death and thus the apoptotic machinery is more easily engaged and activated in response to injury. Thus cell death in response to neonatal H-I brain injury is partially due to mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of the apoptosome and caspase 3. An important regulator of the apoptotic response following mitochondrial dysfunction is XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein). XIAP inhibits apoptosis at the level of caspase 9 and caspase 3 activation, and lack of XIAP in vitro has been shown to lead to increased apoptotic cell death. In the present study we show that mice lacking the gene encoding the XIAP protein have an exacerbated response to neonatal H-I injury as measured by tissue loss at 7 days following the injury. In addition, when the XIAP-deficient mice were studied at 24 h post-H-I we found that the increase in injury correlates with an increased apoptotic response in the XIAP-deficient mice and also with brain imaging changes in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient that correspond to the location of apoptotic cell death. These results identify a critical role of XIAP in regulating neuronal apoptosis in vivo and demonstrate the enhanced vulnerability of neurons to injury in the absence of XIAP in the developing brain.

  16. Recent progress in defining mechanisms and potential targets for prevention of normal tissue injury after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to optimize treatments for cancer on the basis of relative risks for normal tissue injury has important implications in oncology, because higher doses of radiation might, in some diseases, improve both local control and survival. To achieve this goal, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced toxicity will be essential. Recent research has demonstrated that ionizing radiation triggers a series of genetic and molecular events, which might lead to chronic persistent alterations in the microenvironment and an aberrant wound-healing response. Disrupted epithelial-stromal cell communication might also be important. With the application of a better understanding of fundamental biology to clinical practice, new approaches to treating and preventing normal tissue injury can focus on correcting these disturbed molecular processes

  17. CXCL16 participates in pathogenesis of immunological liver injury by regulating T lymphocyte infiltration in liver tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Bin Xu; Yan-Ping Gong; Jin Cheng; Yi-Wei Chu; Si-Dong Xiong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of CXCL16 in the pathogenesis of immunological liver injury and to explore the possible mechanism of T lymphocyte infiltration requlated by CXCL16.METHODS: Immunological liver injury in murine model was induced by Bacille Calmette-Guerin and lipopolysaccharide.Expression pattem and distribution of CXCL16 were examined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Anti-CXCL16 antibody was administrated in vivo to investigate its effect on T-cell recruitment and acute hepatic necrosis. The survival of murine model was also evaluated.RESULTS: The murine immunological liver injury model was successfully established. CXCL16 expression increased and predominantly distributed in periportal areas and vascular endothelia in injured liver tissues. Administration of anti-CXCL16 Ab protected the mice from death and acute liver damage. Approximately 70% of the mice survived for 72 h in the anti-CXCL16 Ab treatment group, whereas 80% died within 72 h in control Ab group. The number of liver-infiltrating T lymphocytes was significantly reduced from 1.01×L07 to 3.52x 106/liver, compared with control Ab treatment.CONCLUSION: CXCL16 is involved in immunological liver injury by regulating T lymphocyte infiltration in liver tissue.

  18. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    OpenAIRE

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with ac...

  19. Plasma Bacterial and Mitochondrial DNA Distinguish Bacterial Sepsis from Sterile SIRS and Quantify Inflammatory Tissue Injury in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Sursal, Tolga; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Oh, Sun-Young; Sun, Shiqin; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Hauser, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a fundamental host response common to bacterial infection and sterile tissue injury. SIRS can cause organ dysfunction and death but its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Moreover, SIRS can progress to organ failure or death despite being sterile or after control of the inciting infection. Biomarkers discriminating between sepsis, sterile SIRS and post-infective SIRS would therefore help direct care. Circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ...

  20. Protein disulfide isomerase acts as an injury response signal that enhances fibrin generation via tissue factor activation

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Christoph; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Manukyan, Davit; Grahl, Lenka; Lorenz, Michael; Altmann, Berid; Dlugai, Silke; Hess, Sonja; Konrad, Ildiko; Orschiedt, Lena; Mackman, Nigel; Ruddock, Lloyd; Massberg, Steffen; Engelmann, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The activation of initiator protein tissue factor (TF) is likely to be a crucial step in the blood coagulation process, which leads to fibrin formation. The stimuli responsible for inducing TF activation are largely undefined. Here we show that the oxidoreductase protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) directly promotes TF-dependent fibrin production during thrombus formation in vivo. After endothelial denudation of mouse carotid arteries, PDI was released at the injury site from adherent platelets...

  1. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury.Methods. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasone group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimens. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA.Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P<0.01), demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasone and rhubarb could decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P<0.01, P<0.05); the corresponding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were significantly decreased or ameliorated.Conclusions. The increase of the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI. The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM

  2. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春盛; 桂培春; 何新华

    2000-01-01

    Objeaive. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury. Methods. Lipopolysaeeharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasoue group.Macroscopic and histopathological e~aminatiom were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimem. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA. Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P < 0.01),demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasoue and rhubarb emfld decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P< 0.01, P < 0.05) ; the correslxmding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were simifieantlv decreased or ameliorated. Conclusions. The increase of the expression d ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI.The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM-1 m

  3. Effect of ketamine on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues following brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zangong Zhou; Xiangyu Ji; Li Song; Jianfang Song; Shiduan Wang; Yanwei Yin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is closely related to the formation of brain edema. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important part in the conversion of swelled neuron following traumatic brain injury. At present, the studies on the protective effect of ketamine on brain have involved in its effect on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissues following brain injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ketamine on AQP-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue following rat brain injury, and analyze the time-dependence of ketamine in the treatment of brain injury.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design, controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 150 rats of clean grade, aged 3 months, were involved and randomized into control group and ketamine-treated group, with 75 rats in each. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups separately at 6,12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury, with 15 rats at each time point. Main instruments and reagents:homemade beat machine, ketamine hydrochloride (Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu), rabbit anti-rat AQP-4 polyclonal antibody, SABC immunohistochemical reagent kit and TUNEL reagent kit (Boster Co.,Ltd.,Wuhan).METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University during March 2005 to February 2006. A weight-dropping rat model of brain injury was created with Feeney method. The rats in the ketamine-treated group were intraperitoneally administered with 50 g/L ketamine (120 mg/kg) one hour after injury, but ketamine was replaced by normal saline in the control group. In each subgroup, the water content of cerebral hemisphere was measured in 5 rats chosen randomly. The left 10 rats in each subgroup were transcardiacally perfused with ketamine, then the brain tissue was made into paraffin sections and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal

  4. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we investigated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMPs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with moderate and severe TBI and 15 age-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Plasma and CSF samples were collected within 24 h (as the initial value, at 72 and 120 h post injury. CSF and plasma MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were estimated using ELISA. Different levels of these indexes were compared in the two groups and further investigated the correlation between each other. Results: There was a significant elevation in the levels of the initial MMP-9 in the CSF (P < 0.05, which lasted for 72 h post injury. TIMP-1 kept increasing within 120 h post injury and it was different compared with TIMP-1 at 24 and 72 h post injury. Plasma levels of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in TBI patients were also significantly different from those in controls. Furthermore the CSF MMP-9 in patients with severe TBI was higher than that in patients with moderate TBI. In addition, there was a positive relationship between the initial MMP-9 and TIMP-1 at 120 h post injury (r = 0.614, P < 0.01. Conclusion: MMPs and TIMPs are increased in both CSF and plasma of TBI patients. TIMP-1 has a positive correlation with MMP-9 and the initial MMP-9 is associated with the neurological outcomes.

  6. Clinical research on the efficacy of Mirena in combined with mifepristone in the treatment of adenomyosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Juan Cao; Xin-Jun Shu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of levonorgestrel slow-release system (LNG-IUS, Mirena) in combined with mifepristone in the treatment of adenomyosis (AM). Methods:A total of 76 patients with AM who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2013 to January, 2015 were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group and the control group with 38 cases in each group. The patients in the treatment group were given Mirena in combined with mifepristone, while the patients in the control group were only placed with Mirena. The changes of symptoms and sex hormone levels before and after treatment between the two groups were compared. B ultrasound was used to examine the uterine volume and intimal thickness. Results:The comparison of menstrual cycle before and after treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant. After treatment, the menstrual duration in the two groups was significantly shortened when compared with before treatment, PBAC and VAS scores were significantly reduced. The improvement degree of dysmenorrhea after treatment in the treatment was significantly superior to that in the control group. The endometrial thickness and uterine volume after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, but the comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. The serum CA125 after treatment in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group. The comparison of LH, FSH, and E2 levels before and after treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions:Mirena in combined with mifepristone in the treatment of AM can effectively alleviate the clinical symptoms with no effect on sex hormone levels;therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  7. Assessment of tissue viability after frostbite injury by technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in an experimental rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, I. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kocaeli University Medical Faculty, Kocaeli (Turkey); Cemal Aygit, A. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Candan, L. [Department of Pathology, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Sarikaya, A.; Berkarda, S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Tuerkyilmaz, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Trakya University Faculty of Science, Edirne (Turkey)

    2000-01-01

    Frostbite causes injury to the tissue by direct ice-crystal formation at the cellular level with cellular dehydration and microvascular occlusion. Muscle that initially appears viable on reperfusion may subsequently become necrotic because of microcirculatory collapse. Since muscle is a sensitive tissue in frostbite injury, we used technetium-99m-sestamibi limb scintigraphy to assess tissue viability in an experimental rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were used for this investigation. The right hind limb of the rabbits was immersed to the ankle joint in a container filled with 90% ethanol at -25 C for 10 min. Frostbitten limbs were allowed to thaw in air at room temperature. Imaging and pathological examination of the affected limbs were performed 2 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after freezing. In 2-h images, initial hypoperfusion was seen that corresponded to circulatory collapse. In 24-h images, there was hyperperfusion (so-called period of temporary reperfusion), corresponding to circulatory restoration. In 48-h images, a second hypoperfusion corresponded to viable but ischaemic tissue. In 72-h images, there was non-perfusion of the limb that correlated with the pathologically determined diagnosis of necrosis. All scintigraphic patterns correlated with pathological findings. We suggest that these scintigraphic patterns in soft tissue may be helpful in distinguishing between frank infarction and reversible ischemia and therefore may be useful in selecting early therapeutic or surgical interventions to salvage bone and soft tissue. Further studies are needed to show the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi scintigraphy in clinical frostbite cases. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of tissue viability after frostbite injury by technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in an experimental rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frostbite causes injury to the tissue by direct ice-crystal formation at the cellular level with cellular dehydration and microvascular occlusion. Muscle that initially appears viable on reperfusion may subsequently become necrotic because of microcirculatory collapse. Since muscle is a sensitive tissue in frostbite injury, we used technetium-99m-sestamibi limb scintigraphy to assess tissue viability in an experimental rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were used for this investigation. The right hind limb of the rabbits was immersed to the ankle joint in a container filled with 90% ethanol at -25 C for 10 min. Frostbitten limbs were allowed to thaw in air at room temperature. Imaging and pathological examination of the affected limbs were performed 2 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after freezing. In 2-h images, initial hypoperfusion was seen that corresponded to circulatory collapse. In 24-h images, there was hyperperfusion (so-called period of temporary reperfusion), corresponding to circulatory restoration. In 48-h images, a second hypoperfusion corresponded to viable but ischaemic tissue. In 72-h images, there was non-perfusion of the limb that correlated with the pathologically determined diagnosis of necrosis. All scintigraphic patterns correlated with pathological findings. We suggest that these scintigraphic patterns in soft tissue may be helpful in distinguishing between frank infarction and reversible ischemia and therefore may be useful in selecting early therapeutic or surgical interventions to salvage bone and soft tissue. Further studies are needed to show the usefulness of 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy in clinical frostbite cases. (orig.)

  9. Gene expression arrays as a tool to unravel mechanisms of normal tissue radiation injury and prediction of response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacqueline JCM Kruse; Fiona A Stewart

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 5 years there has been a rapid increase in the use of microarray technology in the field of cancer research. The majority of studies use microarray analysis of tumor biopsies for profiling of molecular characteristics in an attempt to produce robust classifiers for prognosis. There are now several published gene sets that have been shown to predict for aggressive forms of breast cancer, where patients are most likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and tumors most likely to develop distant metastases, or be resistant to treatment. The number of publications relating to the use of microarrays for analysis of normal tissue damage, after cancer treatment or genotoxic exposure, is much more limited. A PubMed literature search was conducted using the following keywords and combination of terms: radiation, normal tissue, microarray, gene expression profiling, prediction. With respect to normal tissue radiation injury, microarrays have been used in three ways: (1) to generate gene signatures to identify sensitive and resistant populations (prognosis); (2) to identify sets of biomarker genes for estimating radiation exposure, either accidental or as a result of terrorist attack (diagnosis); (3) to identify genes and pathways involved in tissue response to injury (mechanistic). In this article we will review all (relevant) papers that covered our literature search criteria on microarray technology as it has been applied to normal tissue radiation biology and discuss how successful this has been in defining predisposition markers for radiation sensitivity or how it has helped us to unravel molecular mechanisms leading to acute and late tissue toxicity. We also discuss some of the problems and limitations in application and interpretation of such data.

  10. Effect of ketamine on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues following brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zangong Zhou; Xiangyu Ji; Li Song; Jianfang Song; Shiduan Wang; Yanwei Yin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is closely related to the formation of brain edema. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important part in the conversion of swelled neuron following traumatic brain injury. At present, the studies on the protective effect of ketamine on brain have involved in its effect on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissues following brain injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ketamine on AQP-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue following rat brain injury, and analyze the time-dependence of ketamine in the treatment of brain injury.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design, controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 150 rats of clean grade, aged 3 months, were involved and randomized into control group and ketamine-treated group, with 75 rats in each. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups separately at 6,12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury, with 15 rats at each time point. Main instruments and reagents:homemade beat machine, ketamine hydrochloride (Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu), rabbit anti-rat AQP-4 polyclonal antibody, SABC immunohistochemical reagent kit and TUNEL reagent kit (Boster Co.,Ltd.,Wuhan).METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University during March 2005 to February 2006. A weight-dropping rat model of brain injury was created with Feeney method. The rats in the ketamine-treated group were intraperitoneally administered with 50 g/L ketamine (120 mg/kg) one hour after injury, but ketamine was replaced by normal saline in the control group. In each subgroup, the water content of cerebral hemisphere was measured in 5 rats chosen randomly. The left 10 rats in each subgroup were transcardiacally perfused with ketamine, then the brain tissue was made into paraffin sections and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal

  11. Monochorionic twin delivery after conservative surgical treatment of a patient with severe diffuse uterine adenomyosis without uterine rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Jae Young; Jeon, Su-Bun; Kim, Keuna; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Kwon, Yong Soon

    2016-07-01

    A 31-year-old nulliparous woman with severe diffuse uterine adenomyosis, which replaced nearly the whole uterine myometrium, visited our hospital due to severe dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and a desire to have a baby. The patient had a history of two spontaneous abortions. Laparotomic adenomyomectomy with transient occlusion of uterine arteries (TOUA) was performed safely and the patient tried in vitro fertilization and achieved a intrauterine twin pregnancy after recovery time of the operation. At 31+6 weeks of gestation, a male neonate baby weighing 1,620 g and a male neonate baby weighing 1,480 g were born by transverse lower segment cesarean delivery. There was no complication after the operation. The babies were discharged after receiving routine neonatal intensive care for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Adenomyomectomy with TOUA technique would be an option for conservative surgical treatment in patients with severe diffuse whole uterine adenomyosis. This is the first report of twin pregnancy after diffuse whole uterine adenomyomectomy with TOUA. PMID:27462599

  12. Expression of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3 in lung tissue of rat model with ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Song; LI Xiang-nan

    2010-01-01

    @@ End-stage lung diseases are common and frequentlyoccurring diseases which are difficult for clinical treatment. In recent years, lung transplantation has become a widely accepted and effective therapeutic option for patients with the end-stage pulmonary diseases. Early pulmonary edema resulting from ischemia-reperfusion injury accounts for the major part of mortality and morbidity after lung transplantation. The water channel proteins in lung injury have been little studied, and their impact on the formation of pulmonary edema remains unclear. In this study, we established a rat lung ischemia-reperfusion model to study its impact on the expressions of water channel proteins in lung tissue and explore a new approach to lung transplantation in pulmonary edema pathogenesis.

  13. Effect of seawater immersion on periosteal function of the soft tissue with open injury in rabbit limbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chang-sheng; CHENG Xun-sheng; CHEN Xiao-song; SHAN Hong-wei; LIN Zhao-fen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of seawater immersion on periosteal function of the soft tissue with open injury in rabbit limbs.Methods Forty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in the experiment.The animal model of open soft tissue injury was developed by cutting open the hindlimbs,and then the animals were randomly divided into 3 groups:the simple injury group or the control group ( group A),the injury plus 30 min seawater immersion group (group B),and the injury plus 1 h seawater immersion group (group C).Rabbits were sacrificed following surgery on 0,1,3,7 days,and histopathology and expressions of TNF-α and TGF-β1 were observed and monitored from the collected periosteum.Results (1) Inflammatory response of periosteum resulting from limb surgery plus 30 min seawater immersion was more serious than that of the animals in the control group.The longer the immersion,the more serious the response.(2) Intramembranous bone formation delayed markedly,following 1 h seawater immersion,however,for the animals in group B,delay in intramembranous bone formation was insignificant. (3) Periosteal malpighian layer cells for the animals in group B increased significantly,following injury on 1,3,7 days.Marked differences could be seen,when comparisons were made with animals of group A and group C (P < 0.01 ).Though periosteal malpighian layer cells for the animals in group A increased,when compared with those of the animals in group C,no significant differences could be noted between them ( P > 0.05 ).(4) Expressions of TNF-α were all seen in periosteal osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts in the animals of the 3 groups.The expression reached peak on day 1 after surgery,then,decreased gradually,with the expression level increased with the extension of seawater immersion. (5)There were expressions of TGF-β1 in periosteal osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts in the animals of the 3 groups and persistent expression of TGF-β1 could be observed on day 0 to day 7,and

  14. Expression and significance of SOCS3 in liver tissue of rats with severe acute pancreatitis complicated by liver injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Miao-fan YANG; Xiao-wei WU; Xu, Xiao-Bing; Mei-xia GUO; Min-li LI

    2012-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the expression and mechanism of action of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in liver tissue of rats with experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) concurring with liver injury. Methods  The rat model of SAP was reproduced by retrograde injection of 4% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (8 each): normal control group (NC), SAP 6h, 12h, and 18h groups. The levels of serum amylase (...

  15. Expression of GLUT4 mRNA of peripheral tissues and insulin resistance in rats with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Da-qing; ZHU Lie-lie; LI Yong-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the expression of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues and investigate the mechanism of posttraumatic insulin resistance.Methods: Sixteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 group (n=8 in each group), i.e., severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) group due to falls from a height and normal control group. Blood glucose and serum insulin were measured at 0.5 h before trauma and 3 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 d after trauma, respectively. And insulin sensitivity was calculated by insulin activity index (IAI) formula. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected at the same time when blood was sampled. The changes of expression of GLUT4 mRNA were observed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results: Accompanied by the decrease of insulin sensitivity, the expression of GLUT4 mRNA was significantly decreased in adipose tissues at 24 h and 72 h after trauma (P<0.01), however, such phenomena did not appear in skeletal muscle samples.Conclusions: To some extent, the development of posttraumatic insulin resistance is related to the abnormality of transcription activity of GLUT4 gene. Adipose tissues show some difference in the transcriptional level of GLUT4 gene after trauma as compared with skeletal muscle tissues.

  16. Tissue Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Expression in the Prediction of Renal Function for Several Years after Kidney Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Simic Ogrizovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Retrospective study was designed to examine the importance of tissue kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 expression in predicting kidney function in sixty patients (27 males aged 34.15 ± 12.23 years with different kidney diseases over three years after kidney biopsy. Materials and Methods. Tissue KIM-1 expression was determined immunohistochemically and KIM-1 staining was scored semiquantitatively, as well as tubulointerstitialis (TIN, inflammation, atrophy, and fibrosis. Kidney function (MDRD formula and proteinuria/day were evaluated at the time of biopsy (GFR0 and 6, 12, 24, and 36 months later. Results. Significantly positive correlations between tissue KIM-1 expression and age (r=0.313, TIN inflammation (r=0.456, fibrosis (r=0.317, and proteinuria at 6 months (r=0.394 as well as negative correlations with GFR0 (r=−0.572, GFR6 (r=−0.442, GFR24 (r=−0.398, and GFR36 (r=−0.412 were found. Meanwhile, TIN inflammation was the best predictor of all measured kidney functions during three years, while tissue KIM-1 expression (P=0.016 was a predictor only at 6 months after biopsy. Conclusion. Tissue KIM-1 expression significantly predicts kidney function solely at 6 months after biopsy, when the effects of immune and nonimmune treatments are the strongest.

  17. Combined anterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral reconstruction of the knee using allograft tissue in chronic knee injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Gregory C; Fanelli, David G; Edson, Craig J; Fanelli, Matthew G

    2014-10-01

    Combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterolateral injury of the knee can result in significant functional instability for the affected individual. Both components of the instability must be treated to maximize the probability of success for the surgical procedure. Higher failure rates of the ACL reconstruction have been reported when the posterolateral instability has been left untreated. The purpose of this article is to describe our surgical technique, and present the results of 34 chronic combined ACL posterolateral reconstructions in 34 knees using allograft tissue, and evaluating these patient outcomes with KT 1000 knee ligament arthrometer, Lysholm, Tegner, and Hospital for Special Surgery knee ligament rating scales. In addition, observations regarding patient demographics with combined ACL posterolateral instability, postoperative range of motion loss, postinjury degenerative joint disease, infection rate, return to function, and the use of radiated and nonirradiated allograft tissues will be presented.

  18. Combined anterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral reconstruction of the knee using allograft tissue in chronic knee injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Gregory C; Fanelli, David G; Edson, Craig J; Fanelli, Matthew G

    2014-10-01

    Combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterolateral injury of the knee can result in significant functional instability for the affected individual. Both components of the instability must be treated to maximize the probability of success for the surgical procedure. Higher failure rates of the ACL reconstruction have been reported when the posterolateral instability has been left untreated. The purpose of this article is to describe our surgical technique, and present the results of 34 chronic combined ACL posterolateral reconstructions in 34 knees using allograft tissue, and evaluating these patient outcomes with KT 1000 knee ligament arthrometer, Lysholm, Tegner, and Hospital for Special Surgery knee ligament rating scales. In addition, observations regarding patient demographics with combined ACL posterolateral instability, postoperative range of motion loss, postinjury degenerative joint disease, infection rate, return to function, and the use of radiated and nonirradiated allograft tissues will be presented. PMID:24949986

  19. HSF1 is essential for the resistance of zebrafish eye and brain tissues to hypoxia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R Tucker

    Full Text Available Ischemia and subsequent reperfusion (IR produces injury to brain, eye and other tissues, contributing to the progression of important clinical pathologies. The response of cells to IR involves activation of several signaling pathways including those activating hypoxia and heat shock responsive transcription factors. However, specific roles of these responses in limiting cell damage and preventing cell death after IR have not been fully elucidated. Here, we have examined the role of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 in the response of zebrafish embryos to hypoxia and subsequent return to normoxic conditions (HR as a model for IR. Heat shock preconditioning elevated heat shock protein expression and protected zebrafish embryo eye and brain tissues against HR-induced apoptosis. These effects were inhibited by translational suppression of HSF1 expression. Reduced expression of HSF1 also increased cell death in brain and eye tissues of embryos subjected to hypoxia and reperfusion without prior heat shock. Surprisingly, reduced expression of HSF1 had only a modest effect on hypoxia-induced expression of Hsp70 and no effect on hypoxia-induced expression of Hsp27. These results establish the zebrafish embryo as a model for the study of ischemic injury in the brain and eye and reveal a critical role for HSF1 in the response of these tissues to HR. Our results also uncouple the role of HSF1 expression from that of Hsp27, a well characterized heat shock protein considered essential for cell survival after hypoxia. Alternative roles for HSF1 are considered.

  20. The iliac wing sign: An indicator of the presence of bone and/or soft-tissue injury of the pelvis and hips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakigi, Takahide, E-mail: t.a.kakigi@dance.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Ibaraki Hospital, 2-1-45 Mitsukeyama, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0035 (Japan); Hosono, Makoto, E-mail: hosono@med.kindai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kinki University School of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osakasayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Hiraoka, Taizo; Nishimura, Kazumasa [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Ibaraki Hospital, 2-1-45 Mitsukeyama, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0035 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of using the “iliac wing sign (IWS)” as an indicator of bone and/or soft-tissue injury of the pelvis and hips on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. IWS means edema of the iliacus muscle attachment entering the iliac wing that is visualized as a linear high signal intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images. Methods: Consecutive 106 patients who complained of hip pain were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the correlation between IWS and bone and/or soft-tissue injury of the pelvis and hips using Fisher's exact test. Further, performance parameters of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, the positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of IWS were calculated. Results: Thirty-eight of the 106 (36%) patients had bone and/or soft-tissue injury. Twenty-seven of these 38 (71%) patients with injury showed a positive IWS, while only 11 of 68 (16%) patients without injury showed a positive IWS (p < .0001). IWS, thus, yielded a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 84%, accuracy of 79%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 71%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 84%. Conclusion: In cases with a positive IWS, the careful interpretation of MR images is needed because injury presence is highly likely, as suggested by the relatively high sensitivity and PPV. IWS absence may mean a low probability of injury because of the high specificity and NPV.

  1. Acute lung injury: How macrophages orchestrate resolution of inflammation and tissue repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eHerold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung macrophages are long living cells with broad differentiation potential, which reside in the lung interstitium and alveoli or are organ-recruited upon inflammatory stimuli. A role of resident and recruited macrophages in initiating and maintaining pulmonary inflammation in lung infection or injury has been convincingly demonstrated. More recent reports suggest that lung macrophages are main orchestrators of termination and resolution of inflammation and initiators of parenchymal repair processes that are essential for return to homeostasis with normal gas exchange. In this review we will discuss cellular cross-talk mechanisms and molecular pathways of macrophage plasticity which define their role in inflammation resolution and in initiation of lung barrier repair following lung injury.

  2. Potential effects of PKC or protease inhibitors on acute pancreatitis-induced tissue injury in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Changbin; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Xiangdong; Zhao, Liming; Andersson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is still one of the severe diseases, that cause the development of multiple organ dysfunction with a high mortality. Effective therapies for AP are still limited, mainly due to unclear mechanisms by which A-P initiates both pancreatic and extrapancreatic organ injury. Methods: Protease inhibitors (aprotinin, pefabloc, trypsin inhibitor) and PKC inhibitors (polymyxin B, staurosporine) were administrated 30 min before 'induction of AP in rats. To investig...

  3. New products tissue-engineering in the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakov, I. N.; Sergienko, V. I.; Kiselev, S. L.; Lagarkova, M. A.; Remigaylo, A. A.; Mihaylov, A. A.; Prokopenko, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    In the treatment of patients with complicated spinal cord injury the Russian Health spends about one million rubles for each patient in the acute and the interim period after the injury. The number of complicated spinal cord injury is different in geographical areas Russian Federation from 30 to 50 people per 1 million that is affected by the year 5600. Applied to the present surgical and pharmacological techniques provide unsatisfactory results or minimally effective treatment. Transplantation of 100 thousand neuronal mouse predecessors (24 rats) or human neuronal predecessors (18 rats) in the anatomical gap rat spinal cord, followed by analysis of neurological deficit. The neuro-matrix implantation in the rat spinal cord containing 100 thousand neuronal precursors hESC, repeatable control neuro-matrix transplantation, non-cell mass, eliminating neurological deficit for 14 weeks after transplantation about 5-9 points on the scale of the BBB. The cultivation under conditions in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cells on collagen-chitosan matrix (hIPSC) showed that neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells grown on scaffolds as compact groups and has no neurites. Cells do not penetrate into the matrix during long-term cultivation and formed near the surface of the spherical structures resembling neurospheres. At least 90% of the cells were positive for the neuronal marker tubulin b3. Further studies should be performed to examine the compatibility of neuronal cultures and matrices.

  4. In Vivo Effects of Quercetin in Association with Moderate Exercise Training in Improving Streptozotocin-Induced Aortic Tissue Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C. Chis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abnormal nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation are the major causal factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in DM. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction may be a first target against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the synergistic protective effects of quercetin administration and moderate exercise training on thoracic aorta injuries induced by diabetes. Methods: Diabetic rats that performed exercise training were subjected to a swimming training program (1 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks. The diabetic rats received quercetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen for the assessment of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA and protein carbonyls groups, PC, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT, nitrite plus nitrate (NOx production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein expression. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased MDA and PC levels, NOx production and iNOS expression and a reduction of SOD and CAT activity in aortic tissues. A decrease in the levels of oxidative stress markers, NOx production and iNOS expression associated with elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes in the aortic tissue were observed in quercetin-treated diabetic trained rats. Conclusions: These findings suggest that quercetin administration in association with moderate exercise training reduces vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by diabetes in rat aorta by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO bioavailability.

  5. GOOD NEWS TO THOSE SUFFERING FROM CERVICOBRACHIALGIA,LUMBAGO AND SCELALGIA AN INTRODUCTION OF DING’S THERAPY FOR THE SOFT TISSUE INJURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Under the guidelines of modern medical principles,applying the theory ofmicrocirculation and receptor and by using molecular cytologic method,Dr.DingChangyi,the director of the Soft Tissue Injury and Strain Institute and its affiliatedhospital,engaged in research of the mechanism of soft tisssue injury for years,has firstcreated and developed a complete series of traditional,specific and new regimen for soft

  6. Analysis of the Arthroscopically Diagnosed Soft-Tissue Injuries Associated With the Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Katerina Kasapinova

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of the associated soft-tissue lesions in distal radius fractures is high. Ulnar styloid fracture was identified as risk factor for associated LT lesion, as well as combined lesion of both scapholunate and luntriquetral ligament.

  7. Gene expression profile comparison in the penile tissue of diabetes and cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Sung Chul; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Ju Hong; So, Insuk; Chae, Mee Ree; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of cavernous nerve injury (CNI) on gene expression profiles in the cavernosal tissue of a CNI-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) model and to provide a basis for future investigations to discover potential target genes for ED treatment. Materials and Methods Young adult rats were divided randomly into 2 groups: sham operation and bilateral CN resection. At 12 weeks after CNI we measured erectile responses and performed microarray experiments and gene set enrichment analysis to reveal gene signatures that were enriched in the CNI-induced ED model. Alterations in gene signatures were compared with those in the diabetes-induced ED model. The diabetic-induced ED data is taken from GSE2457. Results The mean ratio of intracavernosal pressure/blood pressure for the CNI group (0.54±0.4 cmH2O) was significantly lower than that in the sham operation group (0.73±0.8 cmH2O, p<0.05). Supervised and unsupervised clustering analysis showed that the diabetes- and CNI-induced ED cavernous tissues had different gene expression profiles from normal cavernous tissues. We identified 46 genes that were upregulated and 77 genes that were downregulated in both the CNI- and diabetes-induced ED models. Conclusions Our genome-wide and computational studies provide the groundwork for understanding complex mechanisms and molecular signature changes in ED. PMID:27437539

  8. Effects of in vivo 'priming' on endotoxin-induced hypotension and tissue injury. The role of PAF and tumor necrosis factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, X. M.; Hsueh, W; Torre-Amione, G.

    1990-01-01

    Exogenously administered tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and bacterial endotoxin (LPS) induce shock and tissue injury. Here, the authors studied the effect of endogenous TNF on LPS-induced hypotension and tissue injury and investigated the role of PAF in these responses. Rats were primed with intraperitoneal injection of zymosan 24 hours before, or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) 12 to 15 days before intravenous injection of low dose (0.5 mg/kg) LPS. It was found that nonprimed animals showe...

  9. [Injury and reparative regeneration of the oral mucosal epithelium after cytostatic drugs administration (tissue, cell and molecular mechanisms)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, V L; Leont'eva, I V

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the systematized summary of current literature data and the authors' own findings on the regularities of human and animal surface oral mucosal epithelium (OME) injury caused by cytostatic drugs (CSD) administration, and on the ways of its regeneration after the cytostatic chemotherapy (CSCT) discontinuation. Tissue, cell and molecular mechanisms of CSCT effects on OME, are described. The direct effects of CSD included the epithelial layer attenuation with the derangement of its architecture, epitheliocyte proliferation suppression, apoptosis activation, and differentiation disturbances (involving the broad spectrum of cytological, cytochemical, ultrastructural and molecular-biological changes). In severe cases, these processes resulted in the loss of the epithelial layer integrity with the development of ulceration. Complete epithelial regeneration requires a long period after the CSCT discontinuation. Indirect effects of CSD on OME are associated with the microbial invasion and the diffusion of microbial vital activity products into the epithelium with concurrent leukopenia, immunosuppression and decreased salivary secretion.

  10. A Review of the Literature Refuting the Concept of Minor Impact Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Centeno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minor impact soft tissue (MIST is an insurance industry concept that seeks to identify late whiplash as a psychosocial phenomenon. However, the medical literature in this area has not been systematically reviewed since the Quebec Task Force's review in 1995.

  11. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongtao Sun,1,* Maohua Zheng,2,* Yanmin Wang,1 Yunfeng Diao,1 Wanyong Zhao,1 Zhengjun Wei1 1Sixth Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2 in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. Methods: There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP, jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Results: Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Conclusion: Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome. Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy

  12. An athymic rat model of cutaneous radiation injury designed to study human tissue-based wound therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a pilot study for a novel preclinical model used to test human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. A protocol was designed to irradiate the skin of athymic rats while sparing the body and internal organs by utilizing a non-occlusive skin clamp along with an x-ray image guided stereotactic irradiator. Each rat was irradiated both on the right and the left flank with a circular field at a 20 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD). Single fractions of 30.4 Gy, 41.5 Gy, 52.6 Gy, 65.5 Gy, and 76.5 Gy were applied in a dose-finding trial. Eight additional wounds were created using the 41.5 Gy dose level. Each wound was photographed and the percentage of the irradiated area ulcerated at given time points was analyzed using ImageJ software. No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred in any animals, and all irradiated skin areas in the multi-dose trial underwent ulceration. Greater than 60% of skin within each irradiated zone underwent ulceration within ten days, with peak ulceration ranging from 62.1% to 79.8%. Peak ulceration showed a weak correlation with radiation dose (r = 0.664). Mean ulceration rate over the study period is more closely correlated to dose (r = 0.753). With the highest dose excluded due to contraction-related distortions, correlation between dose and average ulceration showed a stronger relationship (r = 0.895). Eight additional wounds created using 41.5 Gy all reached peak ulceration above 50%, with all healing significantly but incompletely by the 65-day endpoint. We developed a functional preclinical model which is currently used to evaluate human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Similar models may be widely applicable and useful the development of novel therapies which may improve radiotherapy management over a broad clinical spectrum

  13. Uterine Artery Embolisation for Symptomatic Adenomyosis with Polyzene F-Coated Hydrogel Microspheres: Three-Year Clinical Follow-Up Using UFS–QoL Questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijenhuis, R. J., E-mail: nijenhuis@maastrichtuniversity.nl; Smeets, A. J., E-mail: a.smeets@elisabeth.nl; Morpurgo, M., E-mail: m.morpurgo@elisabeth.nl [St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Boekkooi, P. F., E-mail: f.boekkooi@elisabeth.nl; Reuwer, P. J. H. M., E-mail: p.reuwer@elisabeth.nl; Smink, M., E-mail: m.smink@elisabeth.nl [St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Netherlands); Rooij, W. J. van, E-mail: wjjvanrooij@gmail.com; Lohle, P. N. M., E-mail: radiol@eztilburg.nl, E-mail: paullohle@gmail.com [St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess midterm outcome of uterine artery embolisation (UAE) for women with therapy-resistant adenomyosis using polyzene F-coated hydrogel microspheres.MethodsBetween September 2006 and January 2010, 29 consecutive women with adenomyosis (15 in combination with fibroids) were treated with UAE using polyzene F-coated hydrogel microspheres. Junction zone thickness was assessed with MRI at baseline and 3 months. Women filled out the uterine fibroid symptom and quality of life questionnaire at baseline, 3 months and after a mean clinical follow-up of 37 months (median 35, range 29–64 months).ResultsAt baseline, symptom severity score of 29 women was mean 67 (median 72, range 23–100). At 3 months, this score decreased to mean 22 (median 15, range 0–66) and mean 15 (median 17, range 0–34) at final follow-up. At final follow-up of mean 37 months (median 35, range 29–64 months), 22 of 29 (76 %) patients were asymptomatic. Of these 22 women, 3 underwent a second UAE at 6, 7, and 14 months. The remaining seven patients clinically improved but still had symptoms; one underwent a hysterectomy. There was no difference in outcome between women with pure adenomyosis and women with additional fibroids. The junction zone of 4 women with additional therapy was significantly thicker compared with the remaining 25 patients.ConclusionsIn women with therapy resistant adenomyosis, UAE using polyzene F-coated hydrogel microspheres resulted in 3 years preservation of the uterus in 28 of 29 (97 %) with good clinical outcome in the vast majority of patients. Initial thickness of the junction zone is related to additional therapy.

  14. The Pathophysiology of Dysmenorrhea in Adenomyosis%子宫腺肌症痛经病理生理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江彩霞(综述); 程忠平(审校)

    2016-01-01

    子宫腺肌症是育龄妇女的常见妇科疾病,主要的病理特征为子宫肌层内存在子宫内膜腺体与间质细胞浸润性生长。临床主要表现为月经过多与逐渐加重的进行性痛经。子宫腺肌症痛经机制十分复杂,缩宫素及其受体、炎性因子、前列腺素等可通过激发子宫平滑肌细胞痉挛收缩引起痛经;而盆腔内脏器官痛觉传导则涉及腹下交感神经纤维(第10胸椎~第1腰椎)及副交感神经纤维(第2骶椎~第4骶椎)。%Adenomyosis is a common gynecologic disorder in women in their reproductive years,which is characterized by the growth of endometrial glands and stroma into the myometrium .The main clinical manifes-tations of adenomyosis are menorrhagia and progressive dysmenorrhea.The pathogenesis of dysmenorrhea in adenomyosis is extremely complicated,oxytocin and oxytocin receptor,inflammatory factors and prostaglandin F2α( PGF2α) may be responsible for increased uterine contractility and adenomyosis associated dysmenorrhea;the pelvic viscera( internal organs) receive nerve impulses from both sympathetic ( T10-L1 ) and parasympa-thetic ( S2-4 ) nervous systems.

  15. Severe Burn Injury Induces Thermogenically Functional Mitochondria in Murine White Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Bhattarai, Nisha; Ogunbileje, John O; Szczesny, Bartosz; Szabo, Csaba; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cold exposure induces functionally thermogenic mitochondria in the inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) of mice. Whether this response occurs in pathophysiological states remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of severe burn trauma on iWAT mitochondrial function in mice. Male BALB/c mice (10-12 weeks) received full-thickness scald burns to ∼30% of the body surface area. Inguinal white adipose tissue was harvested from mice at 1, 4, 10, 20, and 40 days postinjury. Total and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mitochondrial thermogenesis were determined in iWAT. Citrate synthase activity was determined as a proxy of mitochondrial abundance. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess iWAT morphology and UCP1 expression. Uncoupling protein 1-dependent respiration was significantly greater at 4 and 10 days after burn compared with sham, peaking at 20 days after burn (P white adipose tissue in vivo and may offer a mechanistic explanation for the chronic hypermetabolism observed in burn victims.

  16. Concentrations of Nitric Oxide in Rat Brain Tissues after Diffuse Brain Injury and Neuroprotection by the Selective Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Aminoguanidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-bao Wang; Shao-wu Ou; Guang-yu Li; Yun-hui Liu

    2005-01-01

    @@ To investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and the selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) on trauma, we explored the concentrations of nitric oxide in rat brain tissues at different time stamps after diffuse brain injury (DBI) with or without AG treatment.

  17. Reduction in antioxidant enzyme expression and sustained inflammation enhance tissue damage in the subacute phase of spinal cord contusive injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyue Song-Kun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI forms a disadvantageous microenvironment for tissue repair at the lesion site. To consider an appropriate time window for giving a promising therapeutic treatment for subacute and chronic SCI, global changes of proteins in the injured center at the longer survival time points after SCI remains to be elucidated. Methods Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE-based proteome analysis and western blotting, we examined the differential expression of the soluble proteins isolated from the lesion center (LC at day 1 (acute and day 14 (subacute after a severe contusive injury to the thoracic spinal cord at segment 10. In situ apoptotic analysis was used to examine cell apoptosis in injured spinal cord after adenoviral gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, administration of chondroitinase ABC (chABC was performed to analyze hindlimb locomotor recovery in rats with SCI using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale. Results Our results showed a decline in catalase (CAT and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD found at day 14 after SCI. Accordingly, gene transfer of SOD was introduced in the injured spinal cord and found to attenuate cell apoptosis. Galectin-3, β-actin, actin regulatory protein (CAPG, and F-actin-capping protein subunit β (CAPZB at day 14 were increased when compared to that detected at day 1 after SCI or in sham-operated control. Indeed, the accumulation of β-actin+ immune cells was observed in the LC at day 14 post SCI, while most of reactive astrocytes were surrounding the lesion center. In addition, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG-related proteins with 40-kDa was detected in the LC at day 3-14 post SCI. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC (chABC at day 3 post SCI improved the hindlimb locomotion in SCI rats. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the differential expression in proteins related to signal transduction, oxidoreduction

  18. Partial liquid ventilation decreases tissue and serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations in acute lung injury model of immature piglet induced by oleic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; FAN Xiang-ming; LI Xiao-feng; LI Zhi-qiang; WANG Qiang; SUN Li-zhong; LIU Ying-long

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury.Acute lung injury in children often results in high mortality.Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been shown to markedly improve oxygenation and reduce histologic evidence of injury in a number of lung injury models.This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that PLV would attenuate the production of local and systemic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in an immature piglet model of acute lung injury induced by oleic acid (OA).Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced acute lung injury by OA.The animals were randomly assigned to two groups of six animals,(1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) group and (2) PLV with 10 ml/kg FC-77 group.Results Compared with MV group,the PLV group had better cardiopulmonary variables (P <0.05).These variables included heart rate,mean blood pressure,blood pH,partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2),PaO2/inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2).PLV reduced TNF-α levels both in plasma and tissue compared with MV group (P <0.05).Conclusion PLV provides protective effects against TNF-a response in OA-induced acute lung injury in immature piglets.

  19. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages. PMID:26883518

  20. 子宫腺肌症与血清泌乳素相关性的研究%Study on the correction between the adenomyosis and serum prolactin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦励; 唐莉; 曹雪辉

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨子宫腺肌症与血清泌乳素的相关性。方法选取2010~2012年于我院治疗的59例子宫腺肌症患者为观察组,另外选取59例健康女性为对照组研究对象,比较两组研究对象的血清泌乳素检测结果,探讨子宫腺肌症与血清泌乳素之间是否存在相关性。结果观察组血清泌乳素水平为(543.98+179.14)μIU/mL,明显高于对照组的(173.79±103.17)μIU/mL。另外,观察组中泌乳素阳性人群所占比例55.93%同样远高于对照组的3.39%,以上比较差异明显,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论子宫腺肌症患者的血清泌乳素明显异常,水平较高且阳性率高于正常人,可能与子宫腺肌症的发病机制存在关联。%Objective To study the correction between the adenomyosis and serum prolactin. Methods 59 patients with adenomyosis who were treated in our hospital from 2010 to 2012 were selected as observation group,59 healthy women were selected as control group,then serum prolactin detection results of two groups were analyzed,whether there was a correlation between adenomyosis and serum prolactin was investigated. Results The serum prolactin levels of observation group was(543.98+179.14)μIU/ml,and it was obviously higher than(173.79±103.17)μIU/ml of control group,serum prolactin positive rate of observation group was 55.93%,and it was significantly higher than 3.39%of control group,those indexes of two groups were compared,there were obvious differences(P<0.05). Conclusion The serum prolactin of patients with adenomyosis is obviously abnormal,their levels and positive rate are both higher than those of normal persons,and it may be a relationship to pathogenesis of adenomyosis.

  1. A correlation study of the expression of resistin and glycometabolism in muscle tissue after traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Peng; Zhu Lielie; Zhang Jiasheng; Xie Songling; Pan Da; Wen Hao; Meng Weiyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression pattern of resistin (RSTN) in skeletal muscle tissue and its influence on glycometabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods:Seventy-eight SD rats were randomly divided into traumatic group (n=36),RSTN group (n=36) and sham operation group (n=6).Fluid percussion TBI model was developed in traumatic and RSTN groups and the latter received additional 1 mg RSTN antibody treatment for each rat.At respectively 12 h,24 h,72 h,1 w,2 w,and 4 w after operation,venous blood was collected and the right hind leg skeletal muscle tissue was sampled.We used real-time PCR to determine mRNA expression of RSTN in skeletal muscles,western blot to determine RSTN protein expression and ELISA to assess serum insulin as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels.Calculation of the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Q value) was also conducted.The above mentioned indicators and their correction were statistically analyzed.Results:Compared with sham operation group,the RSTN expression in the skeletal muscle as well as serum insulin and FBG levels revealed significant elevation (P<0.05),and reduced Q value (P<0.05) in traumatic group.Single factor linear correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between RSTN expression and Q values (P<0.001) in traumatic group.Conclusion:The expression of RSTN has been greatly increased in the muscular tissue of TBI rats and it was closely related to the index of glycometabolism.RSTN may play an important role in the process of insulin resistance after TBI.

  2. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  3. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth. PMID:26720604

  4. Protective Effects of Oyster Extract Against Hepatic Tissue Injury in Alcoholic Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cuiping; LI Xiaoyu; JING Xue; ZHANG Bo; ZHANG Qi; NIU Qinghui; WANG Jianjun; TIAN Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Oyster extract is an effective bioactivity component. It has abundant nutritional value and antiviral, antitumor and im-mune defense functions. The role of oyster extract in treating liver injury has been paid more attention. We use Wistar rats to make alcoholic liver disease model through injecting alcohol into rats’ stomachs. These rats were randomly divided into five groups:model group, control group, low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose experimental group with a dose of 0.12 g kg-1, 0.40 g kg-1, and 1.20 g kg-1 alcoholic. After nine weeks, serum biomarkers (ALT, AST, TG and TCHO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), C3a, C5a, IL-17, TNF-ɑ, anti-MAA-HAS IgG, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cell activation and zinc content were assessed. The results showed that the serum biomarkers(ALT, AST, TG and TCHO), MDA content, anti-MAA-HSA IgG, serum C3a, C5a IL-17 and TNF-ɑlevels of oyster extract treatment groups were significantly decreased in comparison with model group. On the contrary, GSH showed ad-verse trend. Serum CD3+, CD4+ and NK cell activation were significantly increased in middle-dose group and high-dose group compared with model group, and there was decrease of CD8+activity in high-dose group. Plasma Zn level was decreased in model group compared with that in control group. Meanwhile, Mean plasma Zn levels increased dramatically following the dose increase of a given oyster extract.

  5. Plasma bacterial and mitochondrial DNA distinguish bacterial sepsis from sterile systemic inflammatory response syndrome and quantify inflammatory tissue injury in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sursal, Tolga; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Oh, Sun-Young; Sun, Shiqin; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Hauser, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a fundamental host response common to bacterial infection and sterile tissue injury. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome can cause organ dysfunction and death, but its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Moreover, SIRS can progress to organ failure or death despite being sterile or after control of the inciting infection. Biomarkers discriminating between sepsis, sterile SIRS, and postinfective SIRS would therefore help direct care. Circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a damage-associated molecular pattern reflecting cellular injury. Circulating bacterial 16S DNA (bDNA) is a pathogen-associated pattern (PAMP) reflecting ongoing infection. We developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify these markers, and predicting their plasma levels might help distinguish sterile injury from infection. To study these events in primates, we assayed banked serum from Papio baboons that had undergone a brief challenge of intravenous Bacillus anthracis delta Sterne (modified to remove toxins) followed by antibiotics (anthrax) that causes organ failure and death. To investigate the progression of sepsis to "severe" sepsis and death, we studied animals where anthrax was pretreated with drotrecogin alfa (activated protein C), which attenuates sepsis in baboons. We also contrasted lethal anthrax bacteremia against nonlethal E. coli bacteremia and against sterile tissue injury from Shiga-like toxin 1. Bacterial DNA and mtDNA levels in timed samples were correlated with blood culture results and assays of organ function. Sterile injury by Shiga-like toxin 1 increased mtDNA, but bDNA was undetectable: consistent with the absence of infection. The bacterial challenges caused parallel early bDNA and mtDNA increases, but bDNA detected pathogens even after bacteria were undetectable by culture. Sublethal E. coli challenge only caused transient rises in mtDNA consistent with a self-limited injury. In lethal

  6. Abiotic Versus Biotic Pathogens: Replicative Growth in Host Tissues Key to Discriminating Between Biotoxic Injury and Active Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    Life can be defined as a self-sustaining chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution; a self-bounded, self-replicating, and self-perpetuating entity [1]. This definition should hold for terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial life-forms. Although, it is reasonable to expect that a Mars life-form would be more adaptable to Mars-like conditions than to Earth-like environments, it remains possible that negative ecological or host interactions might occur if Mars microbiota were to be inadvertently released into the terrestrial environment. A biogenic infectious agent can be defined as a self-sustaining chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution and derives its sustenance from a living cell or from the by-products of cell death. Disease can be de-fined as the detrimental alteration of one or more ordered metabolic processes in a living host caused by the continued irritation of a primary causal factor or factors; disease is a dynamic process [2]. In contrast, an injury is due to an instantaneous event; injury is not a dynamic process [2]. A causal agent of disease is defined as a pathogen, and can be either abiotic or biotic in nature. Diseases incited by biotic pathogens are the exceptions, not the norms, in terrestrial host-microbe interactions. Disease induction in a plant host can be conceptually characterized using the Disease Triangle (Fig. 1) in which disease occurs only when all host, pathogen, and environ-mental factors that contribute to the development of disease are within conducive ranges for a necessary minimum period of time. For example, plant infection and disease caused by the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia recondita, occur only if virulent spores adhere to genetically susceptible host tissues for at least 4-6 hours under favorable conditions of temperature and moisture [3]. As long as one or more conditions required for disease initiation are not available, disease symptoms will not develop.

  7. Exercise may offset nicotine-induced injury in lung tissue: a preliminary histological study based on a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, S; Mathew, T C; Dean, E

    2012-05-01

    Nicotine appears to be the primary pharmacologic agent that causes smoking-related pulmonary diseases. An understanding of the effect of nicotine on lungs is essential to develop interventions that can be used to counter smoking-related diseases. Further, it is shown that physical exercise may partially reverse smoking-induced pathological changes in experimental animals. Hence, this study focuses on the pathological changes in rat lung following nicotine administration and the role of exercise in reversing the nicotine-induced lung injury. This is a randomized controlled trial with 3 groups of rats. Control (CG), nicotine-exposed (NG), and nicotine-exposed and exercise group (NEG). Control group received no intervention. Both NG and NEG were given 1.5 mg/kg nicotine base, daily, subcutaneously, but NEG were also subjected to an intensive daily swimming protocol. The rats were sacrificed and the lung tissue was processed for light and transmission electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies. Compared with the control group, the nicotine group showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum, cellular hyperplasia and interstitial fibrosis, and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration with increased intraluminal macrophages. There was only modest morphological change between the nicotine administered and nicotine and exercise groups. Expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase showed a mild increase in the NEG, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed mild and moderate increase in the expression in the NG and NEG, respectively. This study shows that nicotine induces substantial pathological changes in the lung and prolonged exercise may have some beneficial effects in partially reversing the nicotine-induced lung injury by inducing the expression of antioxidants. PMID:22452750

  8. Molecular Imaging Using Fluorescence and Bioluminescence to Reveal Tissue Response to Laser-Mediated Thermal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A.; Jansen, E. Duco; Contag, Christopher H.

    For decades biological investigation has focused on a reductionist approach, which has greatly advanced our understanding of the biological process, but has also served to move the analysis further and further away from the living body. This was necessary as we sought to identify the cells, genes, mutations and/or etiological agents that were associated with a given process. The information generated through these approaches can now be used to advance more integrative strategies in which specific cellular and molecular events can be studied in context of the functional circulation and intact organ systems of living animals, and humans. Essential tools for integrative analyses of biology include imaging modalities that enable visualization of structure and function in the living body. The relatively recent development of molecular probes as exogenous contrast agents and reporter genes that encode proteins with unique properties that can be distinguished from tissues and cells has ushered in a new set of approaches that are being called molecular imaging.

  9. The usefulness of MRI and arthroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with split-depression fractures of the lateral tibial condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkinen, M; Madanat, R; Mäkinen, T J; Mustonen, A; Koskinen, S K; Lindahl, J

    2014-12-01

    The role of arthroscopy in the treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with proximal tibial fractures remains debatable. Our hypothesis was that MRI over-diagnoses clinically relevant associated soft-tissue injuries. This prospective study involved 50 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for a split-depression fracture of the lateral tibial condyle (AO/OTA type B3.1). The mean age of patients was 50 years (23 to 86) and 27 (54%) were female. All patients had MRI and arthroscopy. Arthroscopy identified 12 tears of the lateral meniscus, including eight bucket-handle tears that were sutured and four that were resected, as well as six tears of the medial meniscus, of which five were resected. Lateral meniscal injuries were diagnosed on MRI in four of 12 patients, yielding an overall sensitivity of 33% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11 to 65). Specificity was 76% (95% CI 59 to 88), with nine tears diagnosed among 38 menisci that did not contain a tear. MRI identified medial meniscal injuries in four of six patients, yielding an overall sensitivity of 67% (95% CI 24 to 94). Specificity was 66% (95% CI 50 to 79), with 15 tears diagnosed in 44 menisci that did not contain tears. MRI appears to offer only a marginal benefit as the specificity and sensitivity for diagnosing meniscal injuries are poor in patients with a fracture. There were fewer arthroscopically-confirmed associated lesions than reported previously in MRI studies. PMID:25452365

  10. An athymic rat model of cutaneous radiation injury designed to study human tissue-based wound therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Lucas H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To describe a pilot study for a novel preclinical model used to test human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Methods A protocol was designed to irradiate the skin of athymic rats while sparing the body and internal organs by utilizing a non-occlusive skin clamp along with an x-ray image guided stereotactic irradiator. Each rat was irradiated both on the right and the left flank with a circular field at a 20 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD. Single fractions of 30.4 Gy, 41.5 Gy, 52.6 Gy, 65.5 Gy, and 76.5 Gy were applied in a dose-finding trial. Eight additional wounds were created using the 41.5 Gy dose level. Each wound was photographed and the percentage of the irradiated area ulcerated at given time points was analyzed using ImageJ software. Results No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred in any animals, and all irradiated skin areas in the multi-dose trial underwent ulceration. Greater than 60% of skin within each irradiated zone underwent ulceration within ten days, with peak ulceration ranging from 62.1% to 79.8%. Peak ulceration showed a weak correlation with radiation dose (r = 0.664. Mean ulceration rate over the study period is more closely correlated to dose (r = 0.753. With the highest dose excluded due to contraction-related distortions, correlation between dose and average ulceration showed a stronger relationship (r = 0.895. Eight additional wounds created using 41.5 Gy all reached peak ulceration above 50%, with all healing significantly but incompletely by the 65-day endpoint. Conclusions We developed a functional preclinical model which is currently used to evaluate human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Similar models may be widely applicable and useful the development of novel therapies which may improve radiotherapy management over a broad clinical spectrum.

  11. Aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor promotes urine prostasin through glomerular barrier injury and not tissue abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Kurt, B.; Schwarzensteiner, I.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Low salt intake or infusion with the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone increases the abundance of proteolytically activated gamma ENaC in rat kidney. Prostasin is a serine proteinase GPI-anchored to the apical membrane of renal principal cells. It was hypothesized that the aldoster......Objective: Low salt intake or infusion with the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone increases the abundance of proteolytically activated gamma ENaC in rat kidney. Prostasin is a serine proteinase GPI-anchored to the apical membrane of renal principal cells. It was hypothesized...... that the aldosterone- mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway maintains prostasin abundance in human kidney. Design and method: Urine and plasma prostasin was measured by ELISA in urine and plasma from a cohort of type-2 diabetes patients (n = 112) with treatment resistant hypertension before and after intervention......-i/ANGII receptor blocker compared to patients given no medication; in kidney membranes from adrenalectomized rats compared to control and in kidney and colon membranes from aldosterone synthase-/- mice compared to wild type littermates. Conclusions: Kidney tissue prostasin is not regulated by aldosterone whereas...

  12. Role of Joshi's external stabilization system with percutaneous screw fixation in high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish Kumar Gupta; Rahul Sapra; Rakesh Kumar; Som Prakash Gupta; Devwart Kaushik; Sahil Gaba; Mahesh Chand Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of high-energy tibial condylar fractures which are associated with severe sott tissue injuries remains contentious and challenging.In this study, we assessed the results of Joshi's external stabilization system (JESS) by using the principle of ligamentotaxis and percutaneous screw fixation for managing high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries.Methods: Between June 2008 and June 2010, 25 consecutive patients who were 17-71 years (mean, 39.7), underwent the JESS fixation for high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries.Out of 25 patients, 2 were lost during follow-up and in 1 case early removal of frame was done, leaving 22 cases for final follow-up.Among them, 11 had poor skin condition with abrasions and blisters and 2 were open injuries (Gustilo-Anderson grade Ⅰ & Ⅱ).The injury mechanisms were motor vehicle accidents (n =19), fall from a height (n =2) and assault (n =1).The fractures were classified according to Schatzker classification system.Results: There were 7 type-Ⅴ, 14 type-Ⅵ and 1 type-Ⅳ Schatzker's tibial plateau fractures.The average interval between the injury and surgery was 6.8 days (range 2-13).The average hospital stay was 13 days (range, 7-22).The average interval between the surgery and full weight bearing was 13.6 weeks (range 11-20).The average range of knee flexion was 121° (range 105°-135°).The normal extension of the knee was observed in 20 patients, and an extensor lag of 5°-8° was noted in 2 patients.The complications included superficial pin tract infections (n =4) with no knee stiffness.Conclusion: JESS with lag screw fixation combines the benefit of traction, external fixation, and limited internal fixation, at the same time as allowing the ease of access to the soft tissue for wound checks, pin care, dressing changes, measurement of compartment pressure, and the monitoring of the neurovascular status.In a nutshell, JESS

  13. Thermal injuries induce gene expression of endogenous c-fos, c-myc and bFGF in burned tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小兵; 顾小曼; 孙同柱; 杨银辉; 孙晓庆; 盛志勇

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression sequence and distribution characteristics of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc and endogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF ) genes in burned tissues, and to explore the possible effects of changes in the se genes' functions on wound healing. Methods Partial-thickness burns of 30% TBSA were established on backs of Wistar rats. Insitu hybridization and histological methods were used to detect expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF genes in normal and burned tissue at 3 h, 6 h, 1 d, 3 d , 7 d and 14 d postburn. Results Although expression of c-fos and c-myc genes and bFGF gene could be found in normal skin, the expression of all three were markedly induced by burn wounds and the expression models in sequence and distribution were quite different. Expre ssion of c-fos gene increased and peaked at 6 h. Signals were mainly localiz ed in both nuclei of dermal fibroblasts and monocytes. The expression of bFGF gene increased at 6 h and peaked at 1 d postburn, and was distributed in the cyt oplasm of fibroblasts. C-myc gene peaked 3 d postburn and was also distributed in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. Conclusions These results indicated that thermal injury could induce the expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF at gene level, showing phasic control and regional distributi on. The phasic expression of these genes suggests that there is an interaction between protooncogenes and bFGF, which may play an important role in wound heali ng. The different expressions of c-fos and c-myc play an inducing role in reg ulating bFGF, and in turn affect wound healing.

  14. Live birth in a woman with recurrent implantation failure and adenomyosis following transfer of refrozen-warmed embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Somayyeh; Faramarzi, Azita; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to report a healthy live birth using re-vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryos derived from supernumerary warmed embryos after frozen embryo transfer (ET) in a patient with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The case was a 39-year-old female with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome and adenomyosis, along with RIF. After ovarian hyperstimulation, 33 cumulus-oocyte complexes were retrieved and fertilized with conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Because of the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 16 grade B and C embryos were vitrified. After 3 and 6 months, 3 and 4 B–C warmed embryos were transferred to the uterus, respectively. However, implantation did not take place. Ten months later, four embryos were warmed, two grade B 8-cell embryos were transferred, and two embryos were re-vitrified. One year later, the two re-vitrified cleavage-stage embryos were warmed, which resulted in a successful live birth. This finding showed that following first warming, it is feasible to refreeze supernumerary warmed embryos for subsequent ET in patients with a history of RIF. PMID:27689042

  15. Live birth in a woman with recurrent implantation failure and adenomyosis following transfer of refrozen-warmed embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Somayyeh; Faramarzi, Azita; Agha-Rahimi, Azam; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to report a healthy live birth using re-vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryos derived from supernumerary warmed embryos after frozen embryo transfer (ET) in a patient with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The case was a 39-year-old female with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome and adenomyosis, along with RIF. After ovarian hyperstimulation, 33 cumulus-oocyte complexes were retrieved and fertilized with conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Because of the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 16 grade B and C embryos were vitrified. After 3 and 6 months, 3 and 4 B-C warmed embryos were transferred to the uterus, respectively. However, implantation did not take place. Ten months later, four embryos were warmed, two grade B 8-cell embryos were transferred, and two embryos were re-vitrified. One year later, the two re-vitrified cleavage-stage embryos were warmed, which resulted in a successful live birth. This finding showed that following first warming, it is feasible to refreeze supernumerary warmed embryos for subsequent ET in patients with a history of RIF. PMID:27689042

  16. Successful treatment of a guitarist with a finger joint injury using instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry Loghmani, M; Bayliss, Amy J; Clayton, Greg; Gundeck, Evelina

    2015-12-01

    Finger injuries are common and can greatly affect a musician's quality of life. A 55-year-old man, who had injured the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger 6 months prior to any intervention, was treated with a manual therapy approach incorporating instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM). Initial examination findings included self-reported pain and functional limitations and physical impairments that significantly impeded his ability to play the acoustic guitar. He was treated once a week for 6 weeks with IASTM, joint mobilization, therapeutic exercise, and ice massage. Additionally, a home exercise program and self-care instructions were provided. The patient gained positive outcomes with improvements in pain (Numerical Pain Rating Scale while playing the guitar: initial 5/10, discharge 1/10) and function (Disability Arm Shoulder Hand Sports-Performing Arts Optional Module: initial 75; discharge 6·25), each reaching a minimum clinically important difference. Importantly, he was able to play the guitar with minimal to no pain as desired. Physical measures also improved, including an immediate gain in finger range of motion with IASTM alone. Manual therapy approaches integrating IASTM may provide an effective conservative treatment strategy for patients with finger/hand conditions in the performing arts and other patient populations. PMID:26952165

  17. Serum amylase and tissue polypeptide antigen as biochemical indicators of salivary gland injury during iodine-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study evaluated the possibility of using serum α-amylase and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) as biochemical markers of radiation injury in the salivary gland of patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with iodine-131. The results demonstrated that the two molecules increased 1 day after 131I administration and returned to near control values on the 3rd day. The increase was greater and longer lasting in those patients treated with the higher 131I administered activity. However, when the patients were divided into groups based on recovery time, which determined patients with different radionuclide elimination rates, the increase in the two molecules was greater and more lasting in those subjects with a longer period of hospitalization. A comparison with the values obtained from patients with tumours of the head and neck treated with external radiotherapy demonstrated that after the 1st day of treatment the salivary gland received an absorbed dose which, based on α-amylase levels, ranged between 0.24 and 1.89 Gy and, based on TPA levels, between 0.28 and 2.29 Gy. (orig.)

  18. Melatonin exerts a more potent effect than S-adenosyl-l-methionine against iron metabolism disturbances, oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by obstructive jaundice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Túnez, Isaac; Herencia, Carmen; Ranchal, Isidora; González, Raúl; Ramírez, Luz M; Arjona, Alvaro; Barcos, Montserrat; Espejo, Isabel; Cruz, Adolfo; Montilla, Pedro; Padillo, Francisco J; Muntané, Jordi

    2008-07-30

    Melatonin and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) prevent oxidative stress and tissue dysfunction in obstructive jaundice (OJ). Lipid peroxidation is exacerbated in the presence of trace amounts of iron (Fe). The study investigated the regulation by melatonin and SAMe the induction of oxidative stress, iron metabolism disturbances and tissue injury in an experimental model of OJ. Different parameters of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, tissue injury and Fe metabolism were determined in liver and blood. OJ induced Fe accumulation in liver, and increased transferrin (Tf) saturation and loosely bound Fe content in blood. Melatonin, and SAMe at lesser extent, enhanced protein Tf content in liver and blood, that reduced loosely bound Fe content in blood. Melatonin and SAMe did not affect ferritin (FT) and Tf mRNA expression, but reduced Tf receptor (TfR) mRNA expression in liver. In conclusion, the effect of melatonin and SAMe on Fe metabolism may be included in the beneficial properties of these agents on lipid peroxidation and tissue injury induced by OJ.

  19. Injury and regeneration of intramuscular connective tissue subjected to various regimes of distraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li; XU Song-jie; SUN Xiao-tang

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect on intramuscular connective tissue and passive range of joint motion by the stress produced in limb lengthening. Methods:An animal model of limb lengthening was established in the tibia of rabbits. Distraction was initiated at a rate of 1 mm/d and 2 mm/d in two steps respectively,and both proceeded until 10%and 20% of the tibia length was achieved. Muscle samples were harvested at the time when distraction ended and at the 4th week of consolidation after the distraction. Scanning electron microscope was applied to observe the morphological changes of the perimysium. The goniometer,which we made for this study,was used to measure the passive range of joint motion.Results:The collagen fibers were partitioned in bundles, crimped and interconnected closely and orderly.In the regime of 1 mm/d distraction with 10% lengthening,no apparent changes of the collagen fiber and passive range of joint motion was demonstrated. When tibia was increased to 20%,the crimped fibers showed a tendency of being straightened while the passive range of joint motion was reduced. The findings remained the same at the 4th week of consolidation. In the regime of 2 mm/d distraction with 10% lengthening,the crimped structure of the collagen fibers in the perimysium disappeared and the fibers were almost straightened. Additionally,the interconnection of the collagen fibers became loosened and interstice was presented among the fibers. At the 4th week of consolidation,the restoration to the original crimped structure was not completed. When the lengthening ratio was increased to 20%,the collagen fibers were straightened completely. This condition remained unchanged throughout all 4 weeks. The passive range of joint motion was reduced dramatically in the regime of 2 mm/d distraction.Conclusion:The ultrastructure of perimysium and the passive range of joint motion in the regime of 1 mm/d lengthening shows the condition closest to the normal ones. The regime of 2 mm

  20. Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in skeletal muscle tissue of pediatric patients with severe burn injury: prevention by propranolol treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Oláh, Gábor; Finnerty, Celeste; Sbrana, Elena; Elijah, Itoro; Gerö, Domokos; Herndon, David; Szabó, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been shown to promote cellular energetic collapse and cellular necrosis in various forms of critical illness. Most of the evidence implicating the PARP pathway in disease processes is derived from preclinical studies. With respect to PARP and burns, studies in rodent and large animal models of burn injury have demonstrated the activation of PARP in various tissues and the beneficial effect of its pharmacological inhibiti...

  1. Localized BIA identifies structural and pathophysiological changes in soft tissue after post-traumatic injuries in soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Nescolarde Selva, Lexa Digna; Yanguas Leyes, Javier; Lukaski, Henry; Rodas Font, Gil; Rosell Ferrer, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Localized bioimpedance (BIA) was measured with a single frequency phase-sensitive analyzer at 50 kHz in three post-traumatic types of injuries on four professional soccer players: (1) myositis ossificans, (2) intramuscular seroma and (3) trochanteric (hip) bursitis. Normal reference value (no injury) was obtained from the contra lateral not injured limb at a mirror-like location of the injury. The relative variations resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) at the time of inj...

  2. Effect of Short Periods of Normobaric Hyperoxia on Local Brain Tissue Oxygenation and Cerebrospinal Fluid Oxidative Stress Markers in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Puccio, Ava M.; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Bayir, Hülya; Zullo, Thomas G.; Fischer, Michael; Darby, Joseph; Alexander, Sheila; Dixon, C. Edward; Okonkwo, David O.; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests local brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) values of ≤15 mm Hg following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) represent brain tissue hypoxia. Accordingly, many neurotrauma units attempt to maintain PbtO2 ≥20 mm Hg to avoid hypoxia. This study tested the impact of a short (2 h) trial of normobaric hyperoxia on measures of oxidative stress. We hypothesized this treatment would positively affect cerebral oxygenation but negatively affect the cellular environment via oxid...

  3. Brain tissue oxygen-based therapy and outcome after severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangunoori, Raj; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Stiefel, Michael; Park, Soojin; Andrew Kofke, W; Levine, Joshua M; Yang, Wei; Le Roux, Peter D

    2012-08-01

    Observational clinical studies demonstrate that brain hypoxia is associated with poor outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, available medical literature was reviewed to examine whether brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2)-based therapy is associated with improved patient outcome after severe TBI. Clinical studies published between 1993 and 2010 that compared PbtO2-based therapy combined with intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure (ICP/CPP)-based therapy to ICP/CPP-based therapy alone were identified from electronic databases, Index Medicus, bibliographies of pertinent articles, and expert consultation. For analysis, each selected paper had to have adequate data to determine odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of outcome described by the Glasgow outcome score (GOS). Seven studies that compared ICP/CPP and PbtO2- to ICP/CPP-based therapy were identified. There were no randomized studies and no comparison studies in children. Four studies, published in 2003, 2009, and 2010 that included 491 evaluable patients were used in the final analysis. Among patients who received PbtO2-based therapy, 121(38.8%) had unfavorable and 191 (61.2%) had a favorable outcome. Among the patients who received ICP/CPP-based therapy 104 (58.1%) had unfavorable and 75 (41.9%) had a favorable outcome. Overall PbtO2-based therapy was associated with favorable outcome (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4-3.1). Summary results suggest that combined ICP/CPP- and PbtO2-based therapy is associated with better outcome after severe TBI than ICP/CPP-based therapy alone. Cross-organizational practice variances cannot be controlled for in this type of review and so we cannot answer whether PbtO2-based therapy improves outcome. However, the potentially large incremental value of PbtO2-based therapy provides justification for a randomized clinical trial.

  4. Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and degree of brain tissue injury of interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the correlation between the change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain tissue injury from interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Forty-eight patients with epilepsy and 30 healthy persons were included in the study from which the serum S100β protein levels were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA method. SPECT rCBF imaging was performed in all patients. The visual and semi-quantitative analyses were used to analyze the epileptic foci. SPSS 11.0 was applied for variance and linear correlation analyses. Results: Serum S-100β in patients with interictal epileptic activity was significantly higher than that in control group ((0.572±0.163) μg/L vs (0.218±0.134) μg/L, t =9.96, P<0.01). According to epilepsy control criteria, 20 cases achieved complete control (CC), 18 cases achieved partial control (PR). However, 10 cases got no improvement,whose serum S-100β protein ((0.809±0.056) μg/L) and the percentage change of rCBF ((0.337±0.060) %) were significantly higher than those of CC ((0.443±0.083) μg/L, (0.035±0.038) %) and those of PC ((0.585±0.108) μg/L, (0.187±0.075)%), F=56. 740, 92. 316, P<0.01. There were high correlation between serum S-100β and the percentage change of rCBF in epilepsy patients (r =0.887, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum S-100β protein assay combined with rCBF on SPECT imaging can make semi-quantitative diagnosis of epilepsy and help evaluate the brain damage from interictal epileptic activity. (authors)

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress tissue factor overexpression in rat balloon injury model with paclitaxel infusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bean Park

    Full Text Available The role and underlying mechanisms of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ agonist, on myocardial infarction are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of this PPAR-γ agonist on the expression of tissue factor (TF, a primary molecule for thrombosis, and elucidated its underlying mechanisms. The PPAR-γ agonist inhibited TF expression in response to TNF-α in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human monocytic leukemia cell line, and human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cells. The overexpression of TF was mediated by increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which was blocked by the PPAR-γ agonist. The effective MAPK differed depending on each cell type. Luciferase and ChIP assays showed that transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1, was a pivotal target of the PPAR-γ agonist to lower TF transcription. Intriguingly, two main drugs for drug-eluting stent, paclitaxel or rapamycin, significantly exaggerated thrombin-induced TF expression, which was also effectively blocked by the PPAR-γ agonist in all cell types. This PPAR-γ agonist did not impair TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI in three cell types. In rat balloon injury model (Sprague-Dawley rats, n = 10/group with continuous paclitaxel infusion, the PPAR-γ agonist attenuated TF expression by 70±5% (n = 4; P<0.0001 in injured vasculature. Taken together, rosiglitazone reduced TF expression in three critical cell types involved in vascular thrombus formation via MAPK and AP-1 inhibitions. Also, this PPAR-γ agonist reversed the paclitaxel-induced aggravation of TF expression, which suggests a possibility that the benefits might outweigh its risks in a group of patients with paclitaxel-eluting stent implanted.

  6. The quantitative analysis of S100 in the brain tissue and serum following diffuse brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qi; Huang Ping; Xing Bo; Tuo Ya; Zhang Yongpan; Tian Weiping; Wang Zhenyuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamics of the level of S100 in cerebrum, brainstem, and serum following the diffuse brain injury in rats and provide the experimental evidences for estimating injury time. Methods ELISA was used to determine whether S100 protein is changed after diffuse brain injury in rats. Forty rats were sacrificed at 0.5 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 3 d and 7 d after diffuse brain injury and normal rats as control. Results The level of S100 in cerebrum, brainstem, and serum increased, followed by a decrease, and then further increased. The level of S100 could be detected to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 4 hours after DBI. The level decreased gradually to the normal at 1d and till 3 d formed the second peak. The level returned to the normal at 7d following injury again. In the postmortem injury groups, there were no significant changes compared to the control group. Conclusion The present study showed that the time-dependent expression of S100 is obvious following diffuse brain injury in rats and suggested that S100 will be a suitable marker for diffuse brain injury age determination.

  7. CHANGES OF NITRIC OXIDE LEVEL IN BRAIN TISSUES AFTER EXPERIMENTAL FOCAL INJURY%实验性颅脑损伤后脑组织NO的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 袁先厚; 袁忠惠

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of nitric oxide (NO) level and its relationship with brain edema in acutebrain injury.Methods After acute brain injury model was produced by free dropping of rats,brain tissues were obtained andits water concentration,Ca2 + and NO were measured.Results After brain injury,the water content,NO level and Ca2 + wereall increased.The peak levels of Ca2+ and NO emerged 4 hours and 8 hours after the injury respectively,and the increasing ofCa2 + tended to last for a longer time.Tests showed that No concentration was positively correlated with the water content inbrain tissues.Conclusion NO is involved in the occurrence of brain edema after acute brain injury.%目的探讨脑损伤后急性期局部一氧化氮(NO)含量变化及其与脑水肿的关系。方法采用自由落体法制造大鼠脑损伤后,于相应时间点取出脑组织测定其含水量、NO及Ca2+浓度。结果在损伤后急性期脑组织含水量、NO及Ca2+含量均升高,其中Ca2+浓度和NO含量分别于损伤后4h、8h达高峰,且Ca2+升高趋势持续时间长。经检验,NO含量与脑组织含水量呈正相关。结论 NO在脑损伤急性期参与了脑水肿的发生过程。

  8. Comparison of an Additional Transdermal Fentanyl Patch Compared to Intravenous NSAID and Opioid Analgesics within 24 Hours of an Uterine Artery Embolization for Myoma and Adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Suk Yun; Kang, Byung Chul; Rho, Kyung Min [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an additional transdermal fentanyl patch compared to intravenous analgesics in pain control during the 24-hour period following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for myoma and adenomyosis. Between September 2009 and August 2010, 42 patients underwent UAE for myoma or adenomyosis. Of these, 21 received an intravenous opioid (pethidine) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (group A), and 21 received an additional transdermal fentanyl patch (group B). Pain perception levels were established verbally on a 0-10 scale during the 24-hour period following UAE. Differences in pain trends, mean dose of intravenous pethidine, and adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Pain perception was most severe at 6 hours after UAE and the mean pain level of group B at that time was 6.3 {+-} 0.7, which was significantly lower than that of group A, 8.2 {+-} 0.7 (p<0.05). The mean dose of intravenous pethidine was 114.3 {+-} 59.5 mg in group A and 90.5 {+-} 49.0 mg in group B, while the incidence of nausea was 67% in group A and 77% in group B. In both cases, the differences were not significantly different (p>0.05), and no evidence of respiratory distress was demonstrated. The addition of a transdermal fentanyl patch to intravenous analgesics is effective in reducing post-embolization pain during the 24-hour period after UAE.

  9. The diagnostic value of low-field MRI on soft tissue Injury%低场磁共振对软组织损伤的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建荣; 毛小明; 赵峰; 王国松; 顾利勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic value and clinical significance of Low-field MRI on tissue injury. Methods:36 patients with soft tissue injury in different parts receive MRI. The examination time was 2 h~5 d after injuring,MR regular examinations included T1WI, T2WI, FS-T2 WI (Fat-suppression, FS) , and observed the MR hehaviors of soft tissue injury. Results: Within 36 cases, there were 8 cases of musculus quadriceps injury , including 2 cases of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 4 cases of Ⅰ degree injury; 6 cases of triceps muscle of calf injury, including 1 case of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 3 cases of Ⅰ degree injury; 5 cases of popliteus muscle injury, including 1 case of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 2 cases of Ⅰ degree injury; 7 cases of knee ti(bi)al collateral ligament injury, including 1 case of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 4 cases of Ⅰ degree injury; 4 cases of posterior cruciate ligament injury, including 1 case of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 1 case of Ⅰ degree injury ; 6 cases of anterior cruciate ligament injury, including 2 cases of Ⅲ degree injury, 2 cases of Ⅱ degree injury and 2 cases of Ⅰ degree injury. The behavior of MR was divided into Ⅰ ~ Ⅲ degrees, Ⅰ degree was tension injury and there were 16 cases, Ⅱ degree was partial-thickness tear and there were 12 cases, Ⅲ degree was full-thickness tear and there were 8 cases. Conclusion:MR has a higher application value on the diagnosis of muscle and tendon ligaments injury.%目的:评价低场磁共振对组织损伤的诊断价值和临床意义.方法:36例不同部位软组织损伤患者接受MR(为外伤后2h~5天)检查,包括TWI、TWI、FS-TWI(脂肪抑制序列),观察软组织损伤的MR表现.结果:36例中股四头肌Ⅲ度损伤2例,Ⅱ度损伤2例,Ⅰ度4例;小腿三头肌Ⅲ度损伤1例,Ⅱ度2例,Ⅰ度3例;胭肌Ⅲ度损伤1

  10. Systemic biomarkers of neutrophilic inflammation, tissue injury and repair in COPD patients with differing levels of disease severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A Cockayne

    inflammatory pathways, neutrophil activation and epithelial tissue injury/repair processes as key pathways associated with COPD.

  11. Non-lobar atelectasis generates inflammation and structural alveolar injury in the surrounding healthy tissue during mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Retamal, Jaime; Bergamini, Bruno; Carvalho, Alysson R; Bozza, Fernando A.; Borzone, Gisella; Batista Borges, João; Larsson, Anders; Hedenstierna, Göran; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction When alveoli collapse the traction forces exerted on their walls by adjacent expanded units may increase and concentrate. These forces may promote its re-expansion at the expense of potentially injurious stresses at the interface between the collapsed and the expanded units. We developed an experimental model to test the hypothesis that a local non-lobar atelectasis can act as a stress concentrator, contributing to inflammation and structural alveolar injury in the surrounding he...

  12. Effect of mild hypothermia on partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue and brain temperature in patients with severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赛; 只达石; 林欣; 尚彦国; 牛玉德

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue (PbtO2) and brain temperature (BT) in patients in acute phase of severe head injury, and to study the effect of mild hypothermia on PbtO2 and BT.   Methods: The PbtO2 and the BT of 18 patients with severe head injury were monitored, and the patients were treated with mild hypothermia within 20 hours after injury. The rectal temperature (RT) of the patients was kept on 31.5-34.9℃ for 1-7 days (57.7 hours±28.4 hours averagely), simultaneously, the indexes of PbtO2 and BT were monitored for 1-5 days (with an average of 54.8 hours±27.0 hours). According to Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), the prognosis of the patients was evaluated at 6 months after injury.   Results: Within 24 hours after severe head injury, the PbtO2 was significantly lower (9.6 mm Hg±6.8 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) than the normal value (16-40 mm Hg). After treatment of mild hypothermia, the mean PbtO2 increased to 28.7 mm Hg±8.8 mm Hg during the first 24 hours, and the PbtO2 was still maintained within the range of normal value at 3 days after injury. The BT was higher than the RT in the patients in acute phase of severe head injury, and the difference between the BT and the RT significantly increased after treatment of mild hypothermia. Hyperventilation (the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2)≈25 mm Hg) decreased the high intracranial pressure (ICP) and significantly decreased the PbtO2.   Conclusions: This study demonstrates that PptO2 and BT monitoring is a safe, reliable and sensitive diagnostic method to follow cerebral oxygenation. It might become an important tool in our treatment regime for patients in the acute phase of severe head injury requiring hypothermia and hyperventilation.

  13. Dermal Fenestration With Negative Pressure Wound Therapy: A Technique for Managing Soft Tissue Injuries Associated With High-Energy Complex Foot Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Henrietta; Le Cocq, Heather; Mountain, Alistair J; Sargeant, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Military casualties can sustain complex foot fractures from blast incidents. This frequently involves the calcaneum and is commonly associated with mid-foot fracture dislocations. The foot is at risk of both compartment syndrome and the development of fracture blisters after such injuries. The amount of energy transfer and the environment in which the injury was sustained also predispose patients to potential skin necrosis and deep infection. Decompression of the compartments is a part of accepted practice in civilian trauma to reduce the risk of complications associated with significant soft tissue swelling. The traditional methods of foot fasciotomy, however, are not without significant complications. We report a simple technique of dermal fenestration combined with the use of negative pressure wound therapy, which aims to preserve the skin integrity of the foot without resorting to formal fasciotomy. PMID:26443232

  14. 探析针药并用治疗肩部经筋病%Study on Treatment of Acupuncture Combined with Herbs for Shoulder Soft Tissue Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昶; 熊会海; 王瑞红; 王军; 刘赵丽; 廖奕歆; 赵吉平

    2013-01-01

    肩部经筋病常引起肩臂疼痛及活动障碍.本病反复发作,单一治疗难以根治.文章分析了经筋的生理病理,指出治疗肩部经筋病,先以火针点刺、毫针排刺以止痛,次则依据不同证候,分别给予活血化瘀、祛风散寒除湿、补益肝肾中药内服,为针药并用治疗肩部经筋病提供理论依据.%Shoulder pain and movement disorders are common clinical symptoms of shoulder soft tissue injuries. The shoulder soft tissue injuries are usually caused,and hard to be cured. The article analyses the disease physiological of shoulder soft tissue, and suggests that fire needle combined with filiform needle can eliminate pain. Then according to different types, treatment should be to resolve blood stasis,to relieve wind,to disperse cold and eliminate wet,and to strengthen liver and invigorate the kidney. The article provides theory base for this treatment.

  15. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in heart tissue and nitric oxide in serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys: association with heart injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Marcelo Espinola Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The factors contributing to chronic Chagas' heart disease remain unknown. High nitric oxide (NO levels have been shown to be associated with cardiomyopathy severity in patients. Further, NO produced via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2 is proposed to play a role in Trypanosoma cruzi control. However, the participation of iNOS/NOS2 and NO in T. cruzi control and heart injury has been questioned. Here, using chronically infected rhesus monkeys and iNOS/NOS2-deficient (Nos2(-/- mice we explored the participation of iNOS/NOS2-derived NO in heart injury in T. cruzi infection. METHODOLOGY: Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 and Nos2(-/- mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Parasite DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction, T. cruzi antigens and iNOS/NOS2(+ cells were immunohistochemically detected in heart sections and NO levels in serum were determined by Griess reagent. Heart injury was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG, echocardiogram (ECHO, creatine kinase heart isoenzyme (CK-MB activity levels in serum and connexin 43 (Cx43 expression in the cardiac tissue. RESULTS: Chronically infected monkeys presented conduction abnormalities, cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, which resembled the spectrum of human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC. Importantly, chronic myocarditis was associated with parasite persistence. Moreover, Cx43 loss and increased CK-MB activity levels were primarily correlated with iNOS/NOS2(+ cells infiltrating the cardiac tissue and NO levels in serum. Studies in Nos2(-/- mice reinforced that the iNOS/NOS2-NO pathway plays a pivotal role in T. cruzi-elicited cardiomyocyte injury and in conduction abnormalities that were associated with Cx43 loss in the cardiac tissue. CONCLUSION: T. cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys reproduce features of CCC. Moreover, our data support that in T. cruzi infection persistent parasite-triggered iNOS/NOS2 in the cardiac tissue and NO overproduction might contribute

  17. One Hundred and Eighty-nine Cases of Acute Articular Soft Tissue Injury Treated by Blood-letting Puncture with Plum-blossom Needle and Cupping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Erqing; Li Haiying; Zhao Zhankao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Acute articular soft tissue injury, a frequently encountered disease, is often clinically treated with analgesics, Chinese drugs for relaxing muscles and tendons to promote blood circulation, physiotherapy and acupuncture. These therapies can achieve certain curative effects, however, there is a longer course of treatment and some cases even have sequela particularly in such weight-carrying joints as the ankle joint and the knee joint. The therapeutic method of blood letting puncture with plum-blossom needle and cupping is adopted to treat this disease with satisfactory therapeutic effect. The results are reported as follows.

  18. 干细胞参与运动损伤的组织修复%Stem cells involved in the tissue repair of sports injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 梁静群; 刘涛; 王王; 张翔

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential of multi-directional differentiation, and applied to many field. Stem cells therapy will be a revolutionary progress for tissue injury repairing.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the situation and new progress of soft tissue injury with stem cells therapy at home and abroad.METHODS: The articles related to stem cells involved in the treatment of soft tissue injury in CNKI database and Elsevier database from January 2000 to September 2010 were retrieved by computer with the key words of "stem cells, treatment, soft tissues injury" in Chinese and in English. The content of articles related to stem cells therapy, and recently published or published in authoritative magazines in the same field were selected, and 36 documents of them were involved for summarization.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : The competitive state of athletes was seriously affected by tendon, skeletal injury in sports, and it is difficult to radical cure, often recurrent attacks. The research of stem cells technology has a great significance in the treatment of injury of athletes. At present, MSCs as a basis of cells therapy is becoming a hot spot and most forward in the field of regenerative medicine research. Therefore, MSCs as the most important source of adult stem cells has a vital application prospect.%背景:既往多项研究已证实间充质干细胞具备多向分化潜力,并应用到多个领域,同样干细胞疗法对解决组织损伤修复将是一种革命性进步.目的:对国内外应用干细胞治疗软组织损伤的现状及新进展作一综述.方法:应用计算机检索CNKI和Elsevier数据库中2000-01/2010-09关于干细胞参与软组织损伤治疗的文章,在标题和摘要中以"干细胞,治疗,损伤"或"stem cells,treatment,Soft tissues injure"为检索词进行检索.选择文章内容与干细胞治疗有关者,同一领域文献则选择近期发表或发表在权威杂志文章.

  19. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Carl; Song, Hongbin; Lu, Bo; Qiao, Fei; Burns, Tara A.; Holers, V. Michael; Tsokos, George C.; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicate a pivotal role for complement in mediating both local and remote injury following ischemia and reperfusion of the intestine. Here, we report on the use of a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury to investigate the strategy of targeting complement inhibition to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry. We show that the novel CR2-Crry fusio...

  20. The quantitative analysis of S100 in the brain tissue and serum following diffusebrain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 黄平; 邢博; 托娅; 张勇攀; 田卫平; 王振原

    2007-01-01

    Wound examination is one of the most i mpor-tant aspects inthe forensic practice,and forensic pa-thologists are often required to esti mate woundsage.The diffuse brain injury(DBI)exists in theforensic practices widely.At present,various kindsof biological substances such as c-fos,β-App,FN,and appolipoprotein Eare knownto be closely relat-ed to braininjury,but no effective methods can beused to differentiate the antemortem diffuse braininjuries from the post mortem injuries and exactlyesti mate the ti me of ...

  1. Clinical Predictors of Long-term Success in Ultrasound-guided High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation Treatment for Adenomyosis: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yuexiang; Li, Qiuyang; Tang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The long-term outcomes of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation treatment for adenomyosis and the relevant factors affecting the durability of symptom relief were assessed in this study.A total of 230 women with adenomyosis who were treated with USgHIFU ablation between January 2007 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) was performed immediately after the treatment to evaluate the ablation effect, and the nonperfused volume (NPV) ratio was then calculated. Regular follow-up was conducted and the visual analog scale (VAS) score was used to assess the changes in dysmenorrhea. The effect of treatment was evaluated after an average follow-up length of 3 months and the factors affecting clinical success and symptom relapse were identified.Of the 230 treated patients, 208 (90.4%) were followed up regularly, with a median follow-up length of 40 months (range, 18-94 months). Mean value of the NPV ratio calculated immediately after the treatment was 57.4 ± 24.4%. Varying degrees of symptomatic relief of dysmenorrhea based on the VAS scores were observed in 173 (83.2%) patients and 71.0% of the patients were asymptomatic during follow-up. Women with higher NPV ratio (OR = 0.964, 95% CI = 0.947-0.982, P = 0.000) and older age (OR = 0.342, 95% CI = 0.143-0.819, P = 0.016) were more likely to achieve clinical success. Dysmenorrhea recurred in 45 (26%) out of 173 cases; the median recurrence time was 12 months after treatment. The lower BMI (OR = 1.221, 95% CI = 1.079-1.381, P = 0.001) and the higher acoustic power (OR = 0.992, 95% CI = 0.986-0.998, P = 0.007) were associated with less risk of relapse. Twelve of the 14 patients who were retreated by USgHIFU ablation after experiencing dysmenorrhea recurrence achieved clinical success.USgHIFU ablation is an effective uterus-conserving treatment for symptomatic adenomyosis with an acceptable

  2. Deep tissue injury in development of pressure ulcers: a decrease of inflammasome activation and changes in human skin morphology in response to aging and mechanical load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Stojadinovic

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms leading to pressure ulcer development are scarce in spite of high mortality of patients. Development of pressure ulcers that is initially observed as deep tissue injury is multifactorial. We postulate that biomechanical forces and inflammasome activation, together with ischemia and aging, may play a role in pressure ulcer development. To test this we used a newly-developed bio-mechanical model in which ischemic young and aged human skin was subjected to a constant physiological compressive stress (load of 300 kPa (determined by pressure plate analyses of a person in a reclining position for 0.5-4 hours. Collagen orientation was assessed using polarized light, whereas inflammasome proteins were quantified by immunoblotting. Loaded skin showed marked changes in morphology and NLRP3 inflammasome protein expression. Sub-epidermal separations and altered orientation of collagen fibers were observed in aged skin at earlier time points. Aged skin showed significant decreases in the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins. Loading did not alter NLRP3 inflammasome proteins expression in aged skin, whereas it significantly increased their levels in young skin. We conclude that aging contributes to rapid morphological changes and decrease in inflammasome proteins in response to tissue damage, suggesting that a decline in the innate inflammatory response in elderly skin could contribute to pressure ulcer pathogenesis. Observed morphological changes suggest that tissue damage upon loading may not be entirely preventable. Furthermore, newly developed model described here may be very useful in understanding the mechanisms of deep tissue injury that may lead towards development of pressure ulcers.

  3. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carl; Song, Hongbin; Lu, Bo; Qiao, Fei; Burns, Tara A; Holers, V Michael; Tsokos, George C; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies indicate a pivotal role for complement in mediating both local and remote injury following ischemia and reperfusion of the intestine. Here, we report on the use of a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury to investigate the strategy of targeting complement inhibition to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry. We show that the novel CR2-Crry fusion protein targets sites of local and remote (lung) complement activation following intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury and that CR2-Crry requires a 10-fold lower dose than its systemic counterpart, Crry-Ig, to provide equivalent protection from both local and remote injury. CR2-Crry has a significantly shorter serum half-life than Crry-Ig and, unlike Crry-Ig, had no significant effect on serum complement activity at minimum effective therapeutic doses. Furthermore, the minimum effective dose of Crry-Ig significantly enhanced susceptibility to infection in a mouse model of acute septic peritonitis, whereas the effect of CR2-Crry on susceptibility to infection was indistinguishable from that of PBS control. Thus, compared with systemic inhibition, CR2-mediated targeting of a complement inhibitor of activation improved bioavailability, significantly enhanced efficacy, and maintained host resistance to infection. PMID:16127466

  4. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carl; Song, Hongbin; Lu, Bo; Qiao, Fei; Burns, Tara A; Holers, V Michael; Tsokos, George C; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies indicate a pivotal role for complement in mediating both local and remote injury following ischemia and reperfusion of the intestine. Here, we report on the use of a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury to investigate the strategy of targeting complement inhibition to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry. We show that the novel CR2-Crry fusion protein targets sites of local and remote (lung) complement activation following intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury and that CR2-Crry requires a 10-fold lower dose than its systemic counterpart, Crry-Ig, to provide equivalent protection from both local and remote injury. CR2-Crry has a significantly shorter serum half-life than Crry-Ig and, unlike Crry-Ig, had no significant effect on serum complement activity at minimum effective therapeutic doses. Furthermore, the minimum effective dose of Crry-Ig significantly enhanced susceptibility to infection in a mouse model of acute septic peritonitis, whereas the effect of CR2-Crry on susceptibility to infection was indistinguishable from that of PBS control. Thus, compared with systemic inhibition, CR2-mediated targeting of a complement inhibitor of activation improved bioavailability, significantly enhanced efficacy, and maintained host resistance to infection.

  5. Soft tissue injury related to choice of entry point in antegrade femoral nailing : piriform fossa or greater trochanter tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, CMA; Verhofstad, MHJ; Bleys, RLAW; van der Werken, C

    2005-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing through the piriform fossa results in some cases in toss of abduction strength and persistent pain. Nail insertion at the tip of the greater trochanter may be favourable. The aim of this study was to assess (possible) iatrogenic injury to the abductor and external rotator musc

  6. Selected suitable seed cell, scaffold and growth factor could maximize the repair effect using tissue engineering method in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wen-Chen; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Qiu, Yu-Sheng

    2016-08-20

    Spinal cord injury usually leads to permanent disability, which could cause a huge financial problem to the patient. Up to now there is no effective method to treat this disease. The key of the treatment is to enable the damage zone axonal regeneration and luckily it could go through the damage zone; last a connection can be established with the target neurons. This study attempts to combine stem cell, material science and genetic modification technology together, by preparing two genes modified adipose-derived stem cells and inducing them into neuron direction; then by compositing them on the silk fibroin/chitosan scaffold and implanting them into the spinal cord injury model, seed cells can have features of neuron cells. At the same time, it could stably express the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3, both of which could produce synergistic effects, which have a positive effect on the recovery of spinal cord. The spinal cord scaffold bridges the broken end of the spinal cord and isolates with the surrounding environment, which could avoid a scar effect on the nerve regeneration and provide three-dimensional space for the seed cell growth, and at last we hope to provide a new treatment for spinal cord injury with the tissue engineering technique. PMID:27622154

  7. Tissue Kallikrein Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating the B2R-ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kunxiong; Hu, Bin; Sang, Hongfei; Xie, Yi; Xu, Lili; Cao, Qinqin; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Lingling; Liu, Xinfeng; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Renliang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) substantially increases the risk of ischemic stroke and reduces the tolerance to ischemic insults. Tissue kallikrein (TK) has been demonstrated to protect neurons from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in orthoglycemic model by activating the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). Considering the differential effects of B2R or bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) on cardioprotection and neuroprotection in I/R with or without diabetes, this study was designed to investigate the role of TK during cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Intravenous injection of TK inhibited apoptosis in neurons, alleviated edema and inflammatory reactions after focal cerebral I/R, significantly reduced the infarct volume, and improved functional recovery. These beneficial effects were accompanied by activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), and Bcl-2 signal proteins. Inhibition of the B2R or ERK1/2 pathway abated the effects of TK, whereas an antagonist of B1R enhanced the effects. These findings reveal that the neuroprotective effect of TK against cerebral I/R injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats mainly involves the enhancement of B2R and ERK1/2-CREB-Bcl-2 signaling pathway activity.

  8. Contents of myelin-basic protein and S-100 in serum and brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine infection-caused brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Li; Hongying Li; Zhihai Lu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The change of the content of myelin basic protein (MBP) in serum and brain tissue is the bio chemical diadynamic index of amyelination. S-100 is a specific and sensitive marker of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Whether or not the content of S-100 and MBP in blood and brain tissue can be used as the quan titative index for early diagnosing the intrauterine infection-caused brain injury still needs investigation. OBJECTIVE: To observe whether or not MBP and S-100 detection can be used as the biochemical indexes for early diagnosing the intrauterine infection-caused brain injury. DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING: Laboratory of Pediatric Neuro-rehabilitation, Medical College of Rehabilitation, Jiamusi University. MATERIALS: Sixty female and thirty male common Wistar rats, weighing from 180 to 240 g, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Jiamusi University. Reagent: Lipopolysaccharide(LPS, serological type 055: B5, SIGMA Company of USA); MBP enzyme linked immunosobent assay (ELISA) immunoreagent kit (Preclinicai Recombination DNA Laboratory, Chengdu Huaxi Medical Center, Sichuan Province); S-100 ELISA immunoreagent kit ( Department of Physiology, the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA) and bovine serum albumin(Haitaike Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.).METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Pediatric Neuro-Rehabilitation, Experimental Animal Center, Department of Pathology and Central Laboratory of Jiamusi University from July 2005 to March 2006. ① Preparation of models and grouping: The female and male rats were placed in one cage at 2: 1 at 17:00 o'clock. Vaginal smear was checked at 8:00 on the next morning. Sperm was found and 0 day of pregnancy was recorded. Pregnant rats were bred in another cage. The pregnant 47 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group (n =10) and experimental group (n =37). The experimental pregnant rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS

  9. TEST: A Z, A&Z, Atissue injuries associated with distal radius fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Yanai, Takaji; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background Soft tissue injuries associated with distal radius fractures have been reported by some authors. Arthroscopy can be used to evaluate the condition of the articular surface and intracarpal soft tissues and as an aid to treatment. There are three intracarpal soft tissues of particular importance: the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL), and the lunotriquetral interosseous ligament (LTIL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate in...

  10. Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in skeletal muscle tissue of pediatric patients with severe burn injury: prevention by propranolol treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Gábor; Finnerty, Celeste; Sbrana, Elena; Elijah, Itoro; Gerö, Domokos; Herndon, David; Szabó, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    Summary Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been shown to promote cellular energetic collapse and cellular necrosis in various forms of critical illness. Most of the evidence implicating the PARP pathway in disease processes is derived from preclinical studies. With respect to PARP and burns, studies in rodent and large animal models of burn injury have demonstrated the activation of PARP in various tissues and the beneficial effect of its pharmacological inhibition. The aim of the current study was to measure the activation of PARP in human skeletal muscle biopsies at various stages of severe pediatric burn injury and to identify the cell types where this activation may occur. Another aim of the study was to test the effect of propranolol (an effective treatment of patients with burns), on the activation of PARP in skeletal muscle biopsies. PARP activation was measured by Western blotting for its product, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The localization of PARP activation was determined by PAR immunohistochemistry. The results showed that PARP becomes activated in the skeletal muscle tissue after burns, with the peak of the activation occurring in the middle stage of the disease (13–18 days after burns). Even at the late stage of the disease (69–369 days post-burn) an elevated degree of PARP activation persisted in some of the patients. Immunohistochemical studies localized the staining of PAR primarily to vascular endothelial cells, and occasionally to resident mononuclear cells. There was a marked suppression of PARP activation in the skeletal muscle biopsies of patients who received propranolol treatment. We conclude that human burn injury is associated with the activation of PARP. We hypothesize that this response may contribute to the inflammatory responses and cell dysfunction in burns. Some of the clinical benefit of propranolol in burns may be related to its inhibitory effect on PARP activation. PMID:21368715

  11. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury. PMID:27194718

  12. Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in skeletal muscle tissue of pediatric patients with severe burn injury: prevention by propranolol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Gábor; Finnerty, Celeste C; Sbrana, Elena; Elijah, Itoro; Gerö, Domokos; Herndon, David N; Szabó, Csaba

    2011-07-01

    Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been shown to promote cellular energetic collapse and cellular necrosis in various forms of critical illness. Most of the evidence implicating the PARP pathway in disease processes is derived from preclinical studies. With respect to PARP and burns, studies in rodent and large animal models of burn injury have demonstrated the activation of PARP in various tissues and the beneficial effect of its pharmacological inhibition. The aims of the current study were to measure the activation of PARP in human skeletal muscle biopsies at various stages of severe pediatric burn injury and to identify the cell types where this activation may occur. Another aim of the study was to test the effect of propranolol (an effective treatment of patients with burns) on the activation of PARP in skeletal muscle biopsies. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation was measured by Western blotting for its product, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The localization of PARP activation was determined by PAR immunohistochemistry. The results showed that PARP becomes activated in the skeletal muscle tissue after burns, with the peak of the activation occurring in the middle stage of the disease (13-18 days after burns). Even at the late stage of the disease (69-369 days after burn), an elevated degree of PARP activation persisted in some of the patients. Immunohistochemical studies localized the staining of PAR primarily to vascular endothelial cells and occasionally to resident mononuclear cells. There was a marked suppression of PARP activation in the skeletal muscle biopsies of patients who received propranolol treatment. We conclude that human burn injury is associated with the activation of PARP. We hypothesize that this response may contribute to the inflammatory responses and cell dysfunction in burns. Some of the clinical benefit of propranolol in burns may be related to its inhibitory effect on PARP activation.

  13. Effect of needle insertion speed on tissue injury, stress, and backflow distribution for convection-enhanced delivery in the rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Casanova

    Full Text Available Flow back along a needle track (backflow can be a problem during direct infusion, e.g. convection-enhanced delivery (CED, of drugs into soft tissues such as brain. In this study, the effect of needle insertion speed on local tissue injury and backflow was evaluated in vivo in the rat brain. Needles were introduced at three insertion speeds (0.2, 2, and 10 mm/s followed by CED of Evans blue albumin (EBA tracer. Holes left in tissue slices were used to reconstruct penetration damage. These measurements were also input into a hyperelastic model to estimate radial stress at the needle-tissue interface (pre-stress before infusion. Fast insertion speeds were found to produce more tissue bleeding and disruption; average hole area at 10 mm/s was 1.87-fold the area at 0.2 mm/s. Hole measurements also differed at two fixation time points after needle retraction, 10 and 25 min, indicating that pre-stresses are influenced by time-dependent tissue swelling. Calculated pre-stresses were compressive (0 to 485 Pa and varied along the length of the needle with smaller average values within white matter (116 Pa than gray matter (301 Pa regions. Average pre-stress at 0.2 mm/s (351.7 Pa was calculated to be 1.46-fold the value at 10 mm/s. For CED backflow experiments (0.5, 1, and 2 µL/min, measured EBA backflow increased as much as 2.46-fold between 10 and 0.2 mm/s insertion speeds. Thus, insertion rate-dependent damage and changes in pre-stress were found to directly contribute to the extent of backflow, with slower insertion resulting in less damage and improved targeting.

  14. Biphasic positive airway pressure minimizes biological impact on lung tissue in mild acute lung injury independent of etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Saddy, Felipe; Moraes, Lillian; Santos, Cintia Lourenço; Oliveira, Gisele Pena; Cruz, Fernanda Ferreira; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Baez Garcia, Cristiane Souza Nascimento; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macêdo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIVENT) is a partial support mode that employs pressure-controlled, time-cycled ventilation set at two levels of continuous positive airway pressure with unrestricted spontaneous breathing. BIVENT can modulate inspiratory effort by modifying the frequency of controlled breaths. Nevertheless, the optimal amount of inspiratory effort to improve respiratory function while minimizing ventilator-associated lung injury during partial ventilatory assis...

  15. Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling promotes liver tissue repair after toxic injury through the enhancement of macrophage recruitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is thought that thromboxane A2 (TxA2) contributes to the progression of inflammation during acute hepatic injury; however, it is still unknown whether TxA2 is involved in liver repair. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of TxA2 receptor (TP) signaling in liver injury and repair in response to toxic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to induce liver injury in TP knockout (TP−/−) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the size of the necrotic area peaked at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and then declined. In TP−/− mice, the changes in ALT levels were similar to WT mice, but liver regeneration was impaired as evidenced by remained elevated levels of hepatic necrosis and by delayed hepatocyte proliferation, which was associated with the reduced expression of growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In TP−/− mice, the accumulation of hepatic CD11b+/F4/80+ macrophages in injured livers was attenuated, and the hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor, the C―C chemokine receptor (CCR2), was reduced compared to WT. Additionally, the application of the TP receptor agonist, U-46619, enhanced the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 in peritoneal macrophages, which was associated with increased levels of IL-6, TNFα and HGF. These results suggested that TP receptor signaling facilitates liver recovery following CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by affecting the expression of hepatotrophic growth factors, and through the recruitment of macrophages mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-CCR2 expression. -- Highlights: ► TP enhances liver regeneration by CCl4. ► TP accumulates macrophages. ► TP up-regulates MCP-1.

  16. Zebrafish tissue injury causes upregulation of interleukin-1 and caspase-dependent amplification of the inflammatory response

    OpenAIRE

    Ogryzko, Nikolay V.; Hoggett, Emily E.; Sara Solaymani-Kohal; Simon Tazzyman; Chico, Timothy J. A.; Renshaw, Stephen A.; Wilson, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interleukin-1 (IL-1), the ‘gatekeeper’ of inflammation, is the apical cytokine in a signalling cascade that drives the early response to injury or infection. Expression, processing and secretion of IL-1 are tightly controlled, and dysregulated IL-1 signalling has been implicated in a number of pathologies ranging from atherosclerosis to complications of infection. Our understanding of these processes comes from in vitro monocytic cell culture models as lines or primary isolates, in w...

  17. A Prospective Randomized Study of Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure-Guided Management in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Min Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PbtO2-guided therapy with traditional intracranial pressure- (ICP- guided treatment on the management of cerebral variables, therapeutic interventions, survival rates, and neurological outcomes of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. From 2009 to 2010, TBI patients with a Glasgow coma scale 20 mmHg, and 27 patients were treated with ICP-guided therapy (ICP 60 mmHg in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU; demographic characteristics were similar across groups. The survival rate in the PbtO2-guided group was also significantly increased at 3 and 6 months after injury. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the PbtO2 signal and Glasgow outcome scale-extended in patients from 1 to 6 months after injury. This finding demonstrates that therapy directed by PbtO2 monitoring is valuable for the treatment of patients with moderate and severe TBI and that increasing PaO2 to 150 mmHg may be efficacious for preventing cerebral hypoxic events after brain trauma.

  18. Zebrafish tissue injury causes upregulation of interleukin-1 and caspase-dependent amplification of the inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogryzko, Nikolay V; Hoggett, Emily E; Solaymani-Kohal, Sara; Tazzyman, Simon; Chico, Timothy J A; Renshaw, Stephen A; Wilson, Heather L

    2014-02-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1), the 'gatekeeper' of inflammation, is the apical cytokine in a signalling cascade that drives the early response to injury or infection. Expression, processing and secretion of IL-1 are tightly controlled, and dysregulated IL-1 signalling has been implicated in a number of pathologies ranging from atherosclerosis to complications of infection. Our understanding of these processes comes from in vitro monocytic cell culture models as lines or primary isolates, in which a range and spectra of IL-1 secretion mechanisms have been described. We therefore investigated whether zebrafish embryos provide a suitable in vivo model for studying IL-1-mediated inflammation. Structurally, zebrafish IL-1β shares a β-sheet-rich trefoil structure with its human counterpart. Functionally, leukocyte expression of IL-1β was detectable only following injury, which activated leukocytes throughout zebrafish embryos. Migration of macrophages and neutrophils was attenuated by inhibitors of either caspase-1 or P2X7, which similarly inhibited the activation of NF-κB at the site of injury. Zebrafish offer a new and versatile model to study the IL-1β pathway in inflammatory disease and should offer unique insights into IL-1 biology in vivo. PMID:24203886

  19. Zebrafish tissue injury causes upregulation of interleukin-1 and caspase-dependent amplification of the inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Ogryzko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1, the ‘gatekeeper’ of inflammation, is the apical cytokine in a signalling cascade that drives the early response to injury or infection. Expression, processing and secretion of IL-1 are tightly controlled, and dysregulated IL-1 signalling has been implicated in a number of pathologies ranging from atherosclerosis to complications of infection. Our understanding of these processes comes from in vitro monocytic cell culture models as lines or primary isolates, in which a range and spectra of IL-1 secretion mechanisms have been described. We therefore investigated whether zebrafish embryos provide a suitable in vivo model for studying IL-1-mediated inflammation. Structurally, zebrafish IL-1β shares a β-sheet-rich trefoil structure with its human counterpart. Functionally, leukocyte expression of IL-1β was detectable only following injury, which activated leukocytes throughout zebrafish embryos. Migration of macrophages and neutrophils was attenuated by inhibitors of either caspase-1 or P2X7, which similarly inhibited the activation of NF-κB at the site of injury. Zebrafish offer a new and versatile model to study the IL-1β pathway in inflammatory disease and should offer unique insights into IL-1 biology in vivo.

  20. Magnetic resonance tomography in the diagnosis of intraarticular tibial plateau fractures: value for fracture classification and spectrum of fracture-associated soft tissue injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray tomography in assessing the type of fracture, degree of comminution and amount of articular surface depression in acute tibial condylar fractures and to describe the associated soft tissue injuries diagnosed with MRI. Method: 27 patients with acute tibial plateau fractures were investigated usig linear X-ray tomography and MRI employing T1-weighted and proton density turbo spin echo, STIR, and T2-weighted gradient echo images. Fractures were classified according to the AO classification system. The degrees of depression and comminution were measured and soft tissue injuries were recorded. Results: Fractures were classified as type B1 in 7, as B2 in 6, and as B3 in 6 cases by MRI. More complex C-type fractures were diagnosed in 8 cases. MR and X-ray grading were consistent with the exception of two B3 fractures, which were graded as B1 by X-ray tomography. X-ray tomography under-estimated the degree of comminution. 63% of the patients had either meniscal tears or complete ruptures of their cruciate or collateral ligaments. Ten meniscal tears were diagnosed in 9 of 27 patients. Complete tears of the anterior cruciate ligament were seen in 4, and avulsions of the posterior cruciate ligament in 2 patients. Conclusion: MRI allows a detailed assessment of acute tibial plateau fractures and can replace conventional X-ray tomography. The high rate of fracture-associated soft tissue lesions makes MRI an especially valuable tool. (orig.)

  1. Protective effects of β-glucan against oxidative injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation in the skin tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Ali Murat; Akkaya, Vahide Baysal; Güleçol, Şeyma Celik; Ceyhan, Betül Mermi; Özgüner, Fehmi; Chen, WenChieh

    2012-09-01

    In recent times, there is widespread use of 2.45-GHz irradiation-emitting devices in industrial, medical, military and domestic application. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the oxidant and antioxidant status of skin and to examine the possible protective effects of β-glucans against the oxidative injury. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: control; sham exposed; EMR; and EMR + β-glucan. A 2.45-GHz EMR emitted device from the experimental exposure was applied to the EMR group and EMR + β-glucan group for 60 min daily, respectively, for 4 weeks. β-glucan was administered via gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day before each exposure to radiation in the treatment group. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in tissue homogenates of the skin. Exposure to 2.45-GHz EMR caused a significant increase in MDA levels and CAT activity, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px decreased in skin tissues. Systemic β-glucan significantly reversed the elevation of MDA levels and the reduction of SOD activities. β-glucan treatment also slightly enhanced the activity of CAT and prevented the depletion of GSH-Px activity caused by EMR, but not statistically significantly. The present study demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanisms in EMR-induced skin tissue damages and that β-glucan could ameliorate oxidative skin injury via its antioxidant properties.

  2. Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases in Thioacetamide-Induced Chronic Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo Young; Shin, Hye Won; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Lee, Min-Jae; Jang, Ja-June

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic fibrogenesis, a complex process that involves a marked accumulation of extracellular matrix components, activation of cells capable of producing matrix materials, cytokine release, and tissue remodeling, is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The MMP-TIMP balance can regulate liver fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs during thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrogen...

  3. Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Predicts Tissue Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Break-Down Products and Therapeutic Efficacy after Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutté, Angela M; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Johnson, David; Tortella, Frank C; Dave, Jitendra R; Shear, Deborah A; Schmid, Kara E

    2016-01-01

    Acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neurological dysfunction, changes in brain proteins, and increased serum biomarkers. However, the relationship between these brain proteins and serum biomarkers, and the ability of these serum biomarkers to indicate a neuroprotective/therapeutic response, remains elusive. Penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) was used to systematically analyze several key TBI biomarkers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its break-down products (BDPs)-ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), α-II spectrin, and α-II spectrin BDPs (SBDPs)-in brain tissues and serum during an extended acute-subacute time-frame. In addition, neurological improvement and serum GFAP theranostic value was evaluated after neuroprotective treatment. In brain tissues, total GFAP increased more than three-fold 2 to 7 d after PBBI. However, this change was primarily due to GFAP-BDPs which increased to 2.7-4.8 arbitrary units (AU). Alpha-II spectrin was nearly ablated 3 d after PBBI, but somewhat recovered after 7 d. In conjunction with α-II spectrin loss, SBDP-145/150 increased approximately three-fold 2 to 7 d after PBBI (vs. sham, p<0.05). UCH-L1 protein levels were slightly decreased 7 d after PBBI but otherwise were unaffected. Serum GFAP was elevated by 3.2- to 8.8-fold at 2 to 4 h (vs. sham; p<0.05) and the 4 h increase was strongly correlated to 3 d GFAP-BDP abundance (r=0.66; p<0.05). Serum GFAP showed such a strong injury effect that it also was evaluated after therapeutic intervention with cyclosporin A (CsA). Administration of 2.5 mg/kg CsA significantly reduced serum GFAP elevation by 22.4-fold 2 h after PBBI (vs. PBBI+vehicle; p<0.05) and improved neurological function 1 d post-injury. Serum biomarkers, particularly GFAP, may be correlative tools of brain protein changes and feasible theranostic markers of TBI progression and recovery. PMID:25789543

  4. Clinical dosimetry research on high-intensity focused ultrasound ablating adenomyosis%高强度聚焦超声消融子宫腺肌症的临床剂量学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 李铁军; 陈强; 彭松

    2013-01-01

    目的 根据MRI评价的高强度聚焦超声(HIFU)消融结果,探索HIFU消融子宫腺肌症的剂量学特征,建立以能效因子(EEF)为基础的剂量学模型,指导临床剂量的投放.方法 对45例临床诊断为子宫腺肌症的患者(45个腺肌病灶)行HIFU治疗,治疗前、后均行平扫和动态增强MRI检查,评价子宫和病灶情况,记录HIFU治疗时间、辐照时间及辐照能量.以EEF为因变量,相关影响因素为自变量进行多重线性回归分析,建立以EEF为基础的剂量学模型.结果 45例患者均顺利完成一次性超声消融治疗;多重线性回归分析提示腺肌病灶腹侧面到皮肤距离、病灶最大径、年龄及MRI上病灶强化程度与EEF存在线性相关关系.结论 以EEF作为消融子宫腺肌症的剂量学指标,病灶腹侧面到皮肤的距离、病灶最大径、年龄及MRI上病灶强化程度可作为预测消融剂量投放的因素.%Objective Based on the Results of High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation evaluated by MRI,to investigate dosimetry model of HIFU ablating adenomyosis and establish dosimetry model based on energy efficiency factor (EEF),in order to guide clinical treatment.Methods 45 patients (45 lesions) with symptomatic adenomyosis were treated by HIFU.The plane scan and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI were performed to evaluate the status of uterus and lesion before and after treatment in all patients.The treatment time,sonication time and sonication energy were recorded.Logistic regression analysis was carried out taking EEF as dependent variable and related factor as independent variable,in order to establish dosimetry model.Results All patients completed single HIFU ablation procedure safely.Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the distance between abdomen side of adenomyosis and skin,maximum diameter of adenomyosis,age and enhanced degree of adenomyosis on MRI were obviously related to EEF.Conclusion Based on EEF,the distance between

  5. Regulation of caveolin-1 expression, nitric oxide production and tissue injury by tumor necrosis factor-α following ozone inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) and inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide and peroxynitrite contribute to ozone-induced lung injury. The generation of these mediators is regulated, in part, by the transcription factor NF-κB. We previously demonstrated a critical role for NF-κB p50 in ozone-induced injury. In the present studies mechanisms regulating NF-κB activation in the lung after ozone inhalation were analyzed. Treatment of wild type (WT) mice with ozone (0.8 ppm, 3 h) resulted in a rapid increase in NF-κB binding activity in AM, which persisted for at least 12 h. This was not evident in mice lacking TNFα which are protected from ozone-induced injury; there was also no evidence of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite production in lungs from these animals. These data demonstrate that TNFα plays a role in NF-κB activation and toxicity. TNFα signaling involves PI-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB), and p44/42 MAP kinase (MAPK) which are important in NF-κB activation. Ozone Inhalation resulted in rapid and transient increases in p44/42 MAPK and PI3K/PKB in AM from WT mice, which was evident immediately after exposure. Caveolin-1, a transmembrane protein that negatively regulates PI3K/PKB and p44/42 MAPK signaling, was downregulated in AM from WT mice after ozone exposure. In contrast, ozone had no effect on caveolin-1, PI3K/PKB or p44/42 MAPK expression in AM from TNFα knockout mice. These data, together with our findings that TNFα suppressed caveolin-1 expression in cultured AM, suggest that TNFα and downstream signaling mediate activation of NF-κB and the regulation of inflammatory genes important in ozone toxicity, and that this process is linked to caveolin-1

  6. Evaluation of the susceptibility artifacts and tissue injury caused by implanted microchips in dogs on 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Miyoko; Ono, Shin; Kayanuma, Hideki; Honnami, Muneki; Muto, Makoto; Une, Yumi

    2010-05-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with a metallic implant raises concern over the potential complications, including susceptibility artifacts, implant migration, and heat injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate these complications in dogs with implanted microchips by evaluating MR images and the histopathological changes after 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI. Five dogs underwent microchip implantation in the cervicothoracic area. One month later, the area was imaged using 1.5T MRI in three dogs. The microchips were removed surgically together with the surrounding tissue in all dogs. There was significant signal loss and image distortion over a wide range around the area where the microchip was implanted. This change was consistent with susceptibility artifacts, which rendered the affected area including the spinal cord undiagnostic. The artifact was more extensive in T2*-weighted images (gradient-echo) and less extensive in proton density-weighted images (fast spin-echo with short echo time). Histopathologically, all microchips were well-encapsulated with granulation tissue, and there were no evidence of migration of microchips. Cell debris and a moderate number of degenerated cells with fibrin were seen in the inner layer of the granulation tissue in each dog that underwent MRI. These changes were very subtle and did not seem to be clinically significant. The results of this study suggest that, in 1.5T MRI, susceptibility artifacts produced by implanted microchips can be marked, although the dogs with implants appeared to be scanned safely.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Lung Tissue in a Rat Acute Lung Injury Model: Identification of PRDX1 as a Promoter of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains a high morbidity and mortality disease entity in critically ill patients, despite decades of numerous investigations into its pathogenesis. To obtain global protein expression changes in acute lung injury (ALI lung tissues, we employed a high-throughput proteomics method to identify key components which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. In the present study, we analyzed lung tissue proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced ALI rats and identified eighteen proteins whose expression levels changed more than twofold as compared to normal controls. In particular, we found that PRDX1 expression in culture medium was elevated by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of PRDX1 increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, whereas knockdown of PRDX1 led to downregulated expression of cytokines induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings provide a global alteration in the proteome of lung tissues in the ALI rat model and indicate that PRDX1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ARDS by promoting inflammation and represent a novel strategy for the development of new therapies against ALI.

  8. Thromboxane A{sub 2} receptor signaling promotes liver tissue repair after toxic injury through the enhancement of macrophage recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamino, Tsutomu [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ito, Yoshiya [Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ohkubo, Hirotoki [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Hosono, Kanako; Suzuki, Tatsunori [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sato, Takehito [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ae, Takako; Shibuya, Akitaka [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sakagami, Hiroyuki [Departments of Anatomy, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Narumiya, Shuh [Department of Pharmacology, Kyoto University School of Medicine, Kyoto, 606-8315 (Japan); Koizumi, Wasaburo [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Majima, Masataka, E-mail: mmajima@med.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    It is thought that thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) contributes to the progression of inflammation during acute hepatic injury; however, it is still unknown whether TxA{sub 2} is involved in liver repair. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of TxA{sub 2} receptor (TP) signaling in liver injury and repair in response to toxic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was used to induce liver injury in TP knockout (TP{sup −/−}) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the size of the necrotic area peaked at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and then declined. In TP{sup −/−} mice, the changes in ALT levels were similar to WT mice, but liver regeneration was impaired as evidenced by remained elevated levels of hepatic necrosis and by delayed hepatocyte proliferation, which was associated with the reduced expression of growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In TP{sup −/−} mice, the accumulation of hepatic CD11b{sup +}/F4/80{sup +} macrophages in injured livers was attenuated, and the hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor, the C―C chemokine receptor (CCR2), was reduced compared to WT. Additionally, the application of the TP receptor agonist, U-46619, enhanced the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 in peritoneal macrophages, which was associated with increased levels of IL-6, TNFα and HGF. These results suggested that TP receptor signaling facilitates liver recovery following CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity by affecting the expression of hepatotrophic growth factors, and through the recruitment of macrophages mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-CCR2 expression. -- Highlights: ► TP enhances liver regeneration by CCl{sub 4}. ► TP accumulates macrophages. ► TP up-regulates MCP-1.

  9. Study on changes of partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen and brain temperature in acute phase of severe head injury during mild hypothermia therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱岩湘; 姚杰; 卢尚坤; 章更生; 周关仁

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2) and brain temperature in acute phase of severe head injury during mild hypothermia therapy and the clinical significance.Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with severe head injury were selected and divided into a mild hypothermia group (n=58), and a control group (n=58) according to odd and even numbers of hospitalization. While mild hypothermia therapy was performed PbtO2 and brain temperature were monitored for 1-7 days (mean=86 hours), simultaneously, the intracranial pressure, rectum temperature, cerebral perfusion pressure, PaO2 and PaCO2 were also monitored. The patients were followed up for 6 months and the prognosis was evaluated with GOS (Glasgow outcome scale).Results: The mean value of PbtO2 within 24 hour monitoring in the 116 patients was 13.7 mm Hg±4.94 mm Hg, lower than the normal value (16 mm Hg±40 mm Hg) The time of PbtO2 recovering to the normal value in the mild hypothermia group was shortened by 10±4.15 hours compared with the control group (P<0.05). The survival rate of the mild hypothermia group was 60.43%, higher than that of the control group (46.55%). After the recovery of the brain temperature, PbtO2 increased with the rise of the brain temperature. Conclusions: Mild hypothermia can improve the survival rate of severe head injury. The technique of monitoring PbtO2 and the brain temperature is safe and reliable, and has important clinical significance in judging disease condition and instructing clinical therapy.

  10. Cytosolic Double-Stranded DNA as a Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Induces the Inflammatory Response in Rat Pancreatic Stellate Cells: A Plausible Mechanism for Tissue Injury-Associated Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of unknown causes. There are many triggers causing pancreatitis, such as alcohol, common bile duct stone, virus and congenital or acquired stenosis of main pancreatic duct, which often involve tissue injuries. Pancreatitis often occurs in sterile condition, where the dead/dying pancreatic parenchymal cells and the necrotic tissues derived from self-digested-pancreas were observed. However, the causal relationship between tissue injury and pancreatitis and how tissue injury could induce the inflammation of the pancreas were not elucidated fully until now. This study demonstrates that cytosolic double-stranded DNA increases the expression of several inflammatory genes (cytokines, chemokines, type I interferon, and major histocompatibility complex in rat pancreatic stellate cells. Furthermore, these increase accompanied the multiple signal molecules genes, such as interferon regulatory factors, nuclear factor-kappa B, low-molecular-weight protein 2, and transporter associated with antigen processing 1. We suggest that this phenomenon is a plausible mechanism that might explain how cell damage of the pancreas or tissue injury triggers acute, chronic, and autoimmune pancreatitis; it is potentially relevant to host immune responses induced during alcohol consumption or other causes.

  11. Relative Tissue Factor Deficiency Attenuates Ventilator-Induced Coagulopathy but Does Not Protect against Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther K. Wolthuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventing tissue-factor-(TF- mediated systemic coagulopathy improves outcome in models of sepsis. Preventing TF-mediated pulmonary coagulopathy could attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. We investigated the effect of relative TF deficiency on pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation in a murine model of VILI. Heterozygous TF knockout (TF+/− mice and their wild-type (TF+/+ littermates were sedated (controls or sedated, tracheotomized, and mechanically ventilated with either low or high tidal volumes for 5 hours. Mechanical ventilation resulted in pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation, with more injury after mechanical ventilation with higher tidal volumes. Compared with TF+/+ mice, TF+/− mice demonstrated significantly lower pulmonary thrombin-antithrombin complex levels in both ventilation groups. There were, however, no differences in lung wet-to-dry ratio, BALF total protein levels, neutrophil influx, and lung histopathology scores between TF+/− and TF+/+ mice. Notably, pulmonary levels of cytokines were significantly higher in TF+/− as compared to TF+/+ mice. Systemic levels of cytokines were not altered by the relative absence of TF. TF deficiency is associated with decreased pulmonary coagulation independent of the ventilation strategy. However, relative TF deficiency does not reduce VILI and actually results in higher pulmonary levels of inflammatory mediators.

  12. On the consequences of non linear constitutive modelling of brain tissue for injury prediction with numerical head models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrapko, M.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van; Peters, G.W.M.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the influences of constitutive non linearities of brain tissue in numerical head model simulations by comparing the performance of a recently developed non linear constitutive model [10, 11] with a simplified version, based on neo-Hookean elastic behavio

  13. Changes of mature adipocytes after incision injury of subcutaneous adipose tissue%皮下脂肪组织创伤后脂肪细胞的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱雄; 林炜栋; 江万里; 刘伟伟; 原博; 陈向芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察脂肪组织创伤愈合的情况,探讨成熟脂肪细胞的变化.方法 以杜洛克母猪为实验动物,用滚轴取皮刀在其背部制作脂肪组织切割伤皮瓣,大体观察伤后1、2、4及12周的愈合情况.并于伤后3、7、14及21 d在皮瓣中央处取材,观察切缘及周围成熟脂肪细胞的形态学改变,用酶联免疫吸附法和免疫组织化学方法检测脂肪组织中瘦素和脂联素的表达情况.结果 脂肪组织切割伤组皮瓣中央与未创伤处皮肤无异,但皮瓣边缘早期有明显炎症反应,后期则呈典型的疤痕生长.组织学观察发现:脂肪组织创伤后,仍以纤维化愈合为主,但愈合过程中,炎症反应的局灶性及小脂肪细胞出现呈现一定的规律性;与未创伤组相比,脂肪组织创伤后其瘦素及脂联素的表达量均呈下降趋势,但两者的比值在愈合的过程中存在差异.结论 脂肪组织创伤后,脂肪细胞表面瘦素及脂联素的表达量下降.早期创缘附近出现大量的小脂肪细胞,可能与脂肪分解有关.%Objective To investigate the changes of mature adipocytes after incision injury in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Methods Wound model was induced by incised flaps on the back of female red Duroc pigs (FRDP) using roller dermatome. The megascopic morphological changes of flaps were observed at week 1,2,4 and 12. The samples in the center of flaps were harvested at day 3,7, 14 and 21; the morphological changes of incisal edge and associated mature adipocytes were observed; the expression of leptin and adiponectin of incised subcutaneous adipose tissue was detected by imrnunohistochemistry and ELISA methods. Results The center of flaps in incised adipose tissue showed no difference compared with the unwounded tissue, but the evident inflammation developed in its edges and resolved in scar formation eventually. Furthermore, histological outcomes of wound areas in adipose tissue revealed the collagen deposition and

  14. Long-term existence of cerebral hypoxic tissue in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yidong Wang; Jingrui Pan; Yu Qiu; Xiangpen Li; Mei Li; Ying Peng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxic tissue surrounding the ischemic core may represent the ischemic penumbra following cerebral infarction. However, some studies have shown that the duration of ischemic tissue is longer than previously believed.OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether cerebral hypoxic tissue could survive long-term and whether it is altered in rats following cerebral infarction; to establish an ischemia/reperfusion model in which hypoxic tissue exists for extended periods of time.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A completely randomized grouping and controlled experiment was performed at the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University and Medical Research Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between June and December 2008. MATERIALS: 4,9-diaza-3,3,10,10-tetramethyldodecan-2, 11-dione dioxime (BnAO) (HL91), used as the hypoxic marker for autoradiography, was supplied by the Beijing Syncor Star Medicinal, China, and the flesh eluent Na99TcmO4 to mark HL91 was supplied by Guangzhou Medical Isotope Center of the China Institute of Atomic Energy. 2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl) acetamide (EF5) and its antibody ELK3-51, used as a hypoxic marker for immunofluorescence, were supplied by the University of Pennsylvania, USA.METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1.5-hour ischemia/reperfusion group (1.5 h IR), 2-hour ischemia/reperfusion group (2 h IR), 3-hour ischemia/reperfusion group (3 h IR), and permanent ischemia (PI) group, with 21 rats in each group. The middle cerebral artery occlusion model was established using the intraluminal suture method, while reperfusion was performed by removing the suture at each observation time point. However, in the PI group, the suture was left in the artery.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area and average absorbance of fluorescence, representing hypoxic tissue, were measured by image-analysis.RESULTS: Autoradiography revealed positive hypoxia at days 1 and 14

  15. Tissue injury after lithium treatment in human and rat postnatal kidney involves glycogen synthase kinase 3β-positive epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that lithium causes accelerated and permanent injury to the postnatally developing kidney through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β immunoreactivity was associated with glomeruli, thick ascending limb...... of Henle's loop and collecting ducts in developing and adult human and rat kidney. In rats, the abundance of inactive, phosphorylated GSK-3β (pGSK-3β) protein decreased during postnatal development. After feeding dams with litters lithium (50 mmol Li/kg chow, postnatal (P) day 7-28), the offspring showed...... plasma lithium concentration of 1.0 mmol/L. Kidneys from lithium-treated rat pups exhibited dilated distal nephron segments with microcysts. Stereological analysis showed reduced cortex and outer medullary volumes. Lithium increased pGSK-3β and the proliferation marker PCNA protein abundances in cortex...

  16. Edaravone (MCI-186) scavenges reactive oxygen species and ameliorates tissue damage in the murine spinal cord injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Takeshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Kuroda, Satoshi; Seki, Toshitaka; Yano, Shunsuke; Shichinohe, Hideo; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2008-12-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on lesion volume and neurological dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice, and investigated its protective effects on superoxide generation. Female C57BL/6 mice were subjected to SCI using a pneumatic impact device and were treated with 3 mg/kg of edaravone or vehicle 30 minutes before the insult. Motor functions were quantitatively evaluated. Lesion volume was assessed by Dohrmann's two-cone method after one week. In situ detection of superoxide in the injured cord was carried out using the superoxide-sensitive dye dihydroethidium (DHE) staining technique. Pretreatment with edaravone significantly improved motor dysfunction and reduced the lesion volume to about 63% of the control (p scavenging reactive oxygen species, especially in the neurons, after SCI. PMID:19106491

  17. The Effects of Xiangqing Anodyne Spray on Treating Acute Soft-Tissue Injury Mainly Depend on Suppressing Activations of AKT and p38 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study we try to elucidate the mechanism of Xiangqing anodyne spray (XQAS effects on acute soft-tissue injury (STI. Methods. Acute STI model was established by hammer blow in the rat hind leg muscle. Within 8 hours, instantly after modeling and per 2-hour interval repeated topical applications with or without XQAS, CP or IH ethanol extracts spray (CPS and IHS were performed, respectively; muscle swelling rate and inflammation-related biochemical parameters, muscle histological observation, and mRNA and protein expression were then examined. Results. XQAS dose-dependently suppressed STI-caused muscle swelling, proinflammatory mediator productions, and oxidative stress as well as severe pathological changes in the injured muscle tissue. Moreover, CPS mainly by blocking p38 activation while IHS majorly by blocking AKT activation led to cytoplastic IκBα degradation with NF-κB p65 translocated into the nucleus. There are synergistic effects between CP and IH components in the XQAS on preventing from acute STI with suppressing IκBα degradation, NF-κB p65 translocation, and subsequent inflammation and oxidative stress-related abnormality. Conclusion. Marked effects of XQAS on treating acute STI are ascribed to strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions with a reasonable combination of CP active components, blocking p38-NF-κB pathway activated, and IH active components, blocking AKT-NF-κB pathway activated.

  18. 面部软组织损伤的整形美容修复分析%Analysis of Plastic Surgery for Repairing Facial Soft Tissue Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛兴红

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨整形美容修复面部软组织损伤的效果。方法:选取本院整形科门诊与住院部在2012年3月~2013年1月间收治的100例面部软组织创伤患者,进行整形美容修复,观察治疗后效果。结果:经过修复治疗后,伤口在Ⅰ期的愈合率为90%。结论:整形美容修复对面部创面进行修复,能够有效的达到较佳的修复效果。%Objective:To study the effect of cosmetic surgery to repair facial soft tissue injuries. Methods:Selecting 100 patients with facial soft tissue trauma in plastic outpatient and inpatient deparments from March,2012 to January,doing cosmetic surgery repair,and observing the therapeutic effect after treatment. Results:After repair therapy,the wound in Ⅰ healing rate was 90%. Conclusion:Cosmetic surgery on facial wounds repair can effectively achieve the best effect.

  19. 面部软组织损伤的整形美容修复分析%Analysis of Plastic Surgery for Repairing Facial Soft Tissue Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛兴红

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of cosmetic surgery to repair facial soft tissue injuries. Methods:Selecting 100 patients with facial soft tissue trauma in plastic outpatient and inpatient deparments from March,2012 to January,doing cosmetic surgery repair,and observing the therapeutic effect after treatment. Results:After repair therapy,the wound in Ⅰ healing rate was 90%. Conclusion:Cosmetic surgery on facial wounds repair can effectively achieve the best effect.%目的:探讨整形美容修复面部软组织损伤的效果。方法:选取本院整形科门诊与住院部在2012年3月~2013年1月间收治的100例面部软组织创伤患者,进行整形美容修复,观察治疗后效果。结果:经过修复治疗后,伤口在Ⅰ期的愈合率为90%。结论:整形美容修复对面部创面进行修复,能够有效的达到较佳的修复效果。

  20. Experimental Glaucoma Causes Optic Nerve Head Neural Rim Tissue Compression: A Potentially Important Mechanism of Axon Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Brad; Reynaud, Juan; Hardin, Christy; Wang, Lin; Sigal, Ian A.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that experimental glaucoma (EG) results in greater thinning of the optic nerve head (ONH) neural rim tissue than the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) tissue. Methods Longitudinal spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging of the ONH and peripapillary RNFL was performed every other week under manometric IOP control (10 mm Hg) in 51 nonhuman primates (NHP) during baseline and after induction of unilateral EG. The ONH parameter minimum rim area (MRA) was derived from 80 radial B-scans centered on the ONH; RNFL cross-sectional area (RNFLA) from a peripapillary circular B-scan with 12° diameter. Results In control eyes, MRA was 1.00 ± 0.19 mm2 at baseline and 1.00 ± 0.19 mm2 at the final session (P = 0.77), while RNFLA was 0.95 ± 0.09 and 0.95 ± 0.10 mm2, respectively (P = 0.96). In EG eyes, MRA decreased from 1.00 ± 0.19 mm2 at baseline to 0.63 ± 0.21 mm2 at the final session (P < 0.0001), while RNFLA decreased from 0.95 ± 0.09 to 0.74 ± 0.19 mm2, respectively (P < 0.0001). Thus, MRA decreased by 36.4 ± 20.6% in EG eyes, significantly more than the decrease in RNFLA (21.7 ± 19.4%, P < 0.0001). Other significant changes in EG eyes included increased Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) nonplanarity (P < 0.05), decreased BMO aspect ratio (P < 0.0001), and decreased MRA angle (P < 0.001). Bruch's membrane opening area did not change from baseline in either control or EG eyes (P = 0.27, P = 0.15, respectively). Conclusions Optic nerve head neural rim tissue thinning exceeded peripapillary RNFL thinning in NHP EG. These results support the hypothesis that axon bundles are compressed transversely within the ONH rim along with glaucomatous deformation of connective tissues. PMID:27564522

  1. Two-dimensional zymography differentiates gelatinase isoforms in stimulated microglial cells and in brain tissues of acute brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanyan; Meng, Fanjun; Chen, Zhenzhou; Tomlinson, Brittany N; Wesley, Jennifer M; Sun, Grace Y; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2015-01-01

    Excessive activation of gelatinases (MMP-2/-9) is a key cause of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. A single-dimension zymography has been widely used to determine gelatinase expression and activity, but this method is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity could be modified at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In this study, we investigated gelatinase isoforms under in vitro and in vivo conditions using two-dimensional (2D) gelatin zymography electrophoresis, a protocol allowing separation of proteins based on isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights. We observed organomercuric chemical 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate-induced activation of MMP-2 isoforms with variant pI values in the conditioned medium of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Studies with murine BV-2 microglial cells indicated a series of proform MMP-9 spots separated by variant pI values due to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The MMP-9 pI values were shifted after treatment with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting presence of phosphorylated isoforms due to the proinflammatory stimulation. Similar MMP-9 isoforms with variant pI values in the same molecular weight were also found in mouse brains after ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. In contrast, there was no detectable pI differentiation of MMP-9 in the brains of chronic Zucker obese rats. These results demonstrated effective use of 2D zymography to separate modified MMP isoforms with variant pI values and to detect posttranslational modifications under different pathological conditions.

  2. 子宫腺肌病的非手术治疗%The non-surgical treatment of adenomyosis of the uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周应芳

    2015-01-01

    The non-surgical treatment of adenomyosis of the uterus is to relieve dysmenorrhea,to reduce heavy menstrual flow,and to retain or enhance fertility.The main therapeutic methods include medical therapy,uterine artery embolization,and focal ablation therapy (ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave as well as high intensity focused ultrasound coagulation).For women who are not seeking pregnancy,the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is the first-line medical therapy for heavy menstrual bleeding,with combined hormonal contraceptives as second choice and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) serving as preoperative treatment as well as postoperative treatment.For the patients with infertility,prolonged GnRH-a protocol with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) may be the best choice.In this article,non-surgical treatment of adenomyosis of the uterus is discussed through literature review as well as author's clinical experience.%子宫腺肌病的非手术治疗主要是缓解痛经,减少月经量和保留或促进生育,主要疗法有药物治疗、介入治疗和病灶消融治疗(超声引导经皮微波或射频消融和高强度聚焦超声消融)等.子宫腺肌病合并月经过多无生育要求者推荐左炔诺孕酮宫内缓释系统作为首选疗法,复方口服避孕药作为二线治疗药物,促性腺激素释放激素激动剂(GnRH-a)作为术前预处理及术后巩固治疗.对子宫腺肌病合并不孕者最好经GnRH-a超长方案治疗后行体外受精及胚胎移植(IVF-ET).笔者结合自己的临床经验,就子宫腺肌病的非手术治疗进行文献复习并综述如下.

  3. Morinda citrifolia L.(noni) and memantine attenuate periventricular tissue injury of the fourth ventricle in hydrocephalic rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibel K(o)ktürk; Süreyya Ceylan; Volkan Etus; Nezih Yasa; Sava(s) Ceylan

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni, and memantine (a N-methy-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor) on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Kaolin was injected into the cistern magna of male adult New Zealand rabbits to establish a hydrocephalus animal model. Memantine (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; memantine-treated group) or noni (5 mL/kg, intragastrically; noni-treated group) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Microtubule-associated protein-2 and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed to detect neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle of rabbits. Microtubule-associated protein-2 staining density was significantly decreased in the hydrocephalic group, while the staining density was significantly increased in the memantine- and noni-treated groups, especially in the noni-treated group. Noni treatment decreased the number of caspase-3-positive cells in rabbits with hydrocephalus, while memantine had no effect. These findings suggest that noni exhibits more obvious inhibitory effects on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders than memantine in periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle.

  4. Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) and memantine attenuate periventricular tissue injury of the fourth ventricle in hydrocephalic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köktürk, Sibel; Ceylan, Süreyya; Etus, Volkan; Yasa, Nezih; Ceylan, Savaş

    2013-03-25

    This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni, and memantine (a N-methy-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor) on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Kaolin was injected into the cistern magna of male adult New Zealand rabbits to establish a hydrocephalus animal model. Memantine (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; memantine-treated group) or noni (5 mL/kg, intragastrically; noni-treated group) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Microtubule-associated protein-2 and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed to detect neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle of rabbits. Microtubule-associated protein-2 staining density was significantly decreased in the hydrocephalic group, while the staining density was significantly increased in the memantine- and noni-treated groups, especially in the noni-treated group. Noni treatment decreased the number of caspase-3-positive cells in rabbits with hydrocephalus, while memantine had no effect. These findings suggest that noni exhibits more obvious inhibitory effects on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders than memantine in periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle.

  5. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Factors Promote Tissue Repair in a Small-for-Size Ischemic Liver Model but Do Not Protect against Early Effects of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suomi M. G. Fouraschen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of liver mass and ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI are major contributors to postresectional liver failure and small-for-size syndrome. Mesenchymal stromal cell- (MSC- secreted factors are described to stimulate regeneration after partial hepatectomy. This study investigates if liver-derived MSC-secreted factors also promote liver regeneration after resection in the presence of IRI. C57BL/6 mice underwent IRI of 70% of their liver mass, alone or combined with 50% partial hepatectomy (PH. Mice were treated with MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM or unconditioned medium (UM and sacrificed after 6 or 24 hours (IRI group or after 48 hours (IRI + PH group. Blood and liver tissue were analyzed for tissue injury, hepatocyte proliferation, and gene expression. In the IRI alone model, serum ALT and AST levels, hepatic tissue damage, and inflammatory cytokine gene expression showed no significant differences between both treatment groups. In the IRI + PH model, significant reduction in hepatic tissue damage as well as a significant increase in hepatocyte proliferation was observed after MSC-CM treatment. Conclusion. Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived factors promote tissue regeneration of small-for-size livers exposed to ischemic conditions but do not protect against early ischemia and reperfusion injury itself. MSC-derived factors therefore represent a promising treatment strategy for small-for-size syndrome and postresectional liver failure.

  6. Urinary Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2 • Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 7 (IGFBP7 Predicts Adverse Outcome in Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens H Westhoff

    Full Text Available The G1 cell cycle inhibitors tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7 have been identified as promising biomarkers for the prediction of adverse outcomes including renal replacement therapy (RRT and mortality in critically ill adult patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI. However, the prognostic value of urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 in neonatal and pediatric AKI for adverse outcome has not been investigated yet.The product of the urinary concentration of TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 ([TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] was assessed by a commercially available immunoassay (NephroCheck™ in a prospective cohort study in 133 subjects aged 0-18 years including 46 patients with established AKI according to pRIFLE criteria, 27 patients without AKI (non-AKI group I and 60 apparently healthy neonates and children (non-AKI group II. AKI etiologies were: dehydration/hypovolemia (n = 7, hemodynamic instability (n = 7, perinatal asphyxia (n = 9, septic shock (n = 7, typical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS; n = 5, interstitial nephritis (n = 5, vasculitis (n = 4, nephrotoxic injury (n = 1 and renal vein thrombosis (n = 1.When AKI patients were classified into pRIFLE criteria, 6/46 (13% patients fulfilled the criteria for the category "Risk", 13/46 (28% for "Injury", 26/46 (57% for "Failure" and 1/46 (2% for "Loss". Patients in the "Failure" stage had a median 3.7-fold higher urinary [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] compared to non-AKI subjects (P<0.001. When analyzed for AKI etiology, highest [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] values were found in patients with septic shock (P<0.001 vs. non-AKI I+II. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses in the AKI group revealed good performance of [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] in predicting 30-day (area under the curve (AUC 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97 and 3-month mortality (AUC 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-0.99 and moderate performance in predicting RRT (AUC 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50-0.84.This study shows that urinary [TIMP

  7. COLD THERAPY FOR ACUTE SOFT TISSUE INJURIES IN RATS%冷疗处理对大鼠急性软组织损伤的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鹏; 沈若武; 季爱玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of different cold therapies on acute soft tissue injury in rats and explore their mechanisms. Methods Forty newly born Wistar rats were evenly randomized to blank group(BG), control group (CG), experiment group 1 (EG1) and experiment group 2 (EG2). A rat model of acute soft tissue injury was created by hitting the inner thigh of rats 1mm above the knees with a self-made hammer. The rats in BG were not injured. The rats in CG received no treatment after injury. Those in EG1 were treated with bio-icebag (4 ℃ ) intermittently on the injured site, and those in EG2 were given continuous bio-icebag (4 ℃ ) treatment. All rats were sacrificed 48 hours later. Gross changes of the injured sites were observed, and scored based on Injury Syndrome Index (ISI). Muscle tissue was taken, HE staining done, histology changes were observed. Histological grading was based on the structure changes of muscle fibers, which included fiber arrangement, fragmentation, and swelling, the intermuscular septum widening, inflammatory cell infiltration, red blood cell exudation, muscle fiber degeneration, and muscle fiber connection. The expressions of IL-1β and TGF-β1 were detected with immunohistochemistry staining. Results Compared with the CG, the ISI and histological grading were significantly reduced in both experiment groups, while the expression of IL-1β was significantly reduced, and the expression of TGF-β1 was increased (F=35.21-127.32 ;q=4.61-41.25;P<0. 05).Compared with EG1, EG2 showed significantly lower ISI and histological grading, lower expression of IL-1β, and higher expression of TGF-β1 (q=4.23,29. 73; P<0.05). Conclusion Cold therapy for acute phase of soft tissue injury in rats can get treatment effectiveness, which is likely to reach the goal through lowering IL-1β expression and raising TGF-β1 expression. Continuous cold therapy is better than intermittent.%目的 观察不同冷疗方式对急性软组织损伤大鼠的治

  8. Toll-like receptor 4 and high-mobility group box 1 are critical mediators of tissue injury and survival in a mouse model for heatstroke.

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    Mohammed Dehbi

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms that initiate the inflammatory response in heatstroke and their relation with tissue injury and lethality are not fully elucidated. We examined whether endogenous ligands released by damaged/stressed cells such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 signaling through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 may play a pathogenic role in heatstroke. Mutant TLR4-defective (C3H/HeJ and wild type (C3H/HeOuJ mice were subjected to heat stress in an environmental chamber pre-warmed at 43.5 °C until their core temperature reached 42.7°C, which was taken as the onset of heatstroke. The animals were then allowed to recover passively at ambient temperature. A sham-heated group served as a control. Mutant mice displayed more histological liver damage and higher mortality compared with wild type mice (73% vs. 27%, respectively, P<0.001. Compared to wild type mice, mutant mice exhibited earlier plasma release of markers of systemic inflammation such as HMGB1 (206 ± 105 vs. 63 ± 21 ng/ml; P = 0.0018 and 209 ± 100 vs. 46 ± 32 ng/ml; P<0.0001, IL-6 (144 ± 40 vs. 46 ± 20 pg/ml; P<0.001 and 184 ± 21 vs. 84 ± 54 pg/ml; P = 0.04, and IL-1β (27 ± 4 vs. 1.7 ± 2.3 pg/ml; P<0.0001 at 1 hour. Both strains of mice displayed early release of HMGB1 into the circulation upstream of IL-1β and IL-6 responses which remained elevated up to 24 h. Specific inhibition of HMGB1 activity with DNA-binding A Box (600 µg/mouse protected the mutant mice against the lethal effect of heat stress (60% A Box vs. 18% GST protein, P = 0.04. These findings suggest a protective role for the TLR4 in the host response to severe heat stress. They also suggest that HMGB1 is an early mediator of inflammation, tissue injury and lethality in heatstroke in the presence of defective TLR4 signaling.

  9. Effects of realgar on stress proteins, inflammatory mediators, and complement in brain tissue and serum of rats with inflammatory brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yishan Tang; Ningsheng Wang; Yinqing Zhang; Shaomei Ye; Weiping Ou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Chinese herbal compound realgar exerts detoxification effects as an adjuvant. It is suggested that realgar exerts detoxification via the following pathways: in the pathological state, realgar corrects the oxidative stress state by increasing stress levels, activating some endogenous protective factors and antagonizing the excessive release of inflammatory factors, as well as inhibiting complement activation.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in stress proteins, inflammatory mediators, and complement in the brain tissue and serum of rats with inflammatory brain injury, which have been treated with thc Chinese herbal compound Angong Niuhuang, and to compare the efficacy of Angong Niuhuang with that of realgar,to verify the mechanism of action of realgar.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, cytological experiment, performed in the Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in March 2006.MATERIALS: Thirty-six healthy, male, Sprague Dawley rats received 250 U/kg Bordetella pertussis via the common carotid artery within 15 seconds to induce inflammatory brain injury. Reagents and kits were as follows: Realgar and Angong Niuhuang powder (Foshan Second Pharmaceutical Factory, China), Bordetella pertussis diagnostic antigen (National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products,China), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) enzyme-labeled immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Stressgen, USA),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) ELISA kit (Biosource, USA), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) kit,Coomassie brilliant blue protein kit (Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Co.,Ltd., China), and complements C3 and C4 (Shanghai Kehua Dongling Diagnositic Products Co.,Ltd., China),METHODS: Thirty-six rats were randomly and evenly divided into the following six groups: normal control,model, high-, middle-, and low-dose realgar-treated, and Angong Niuhuang-treated groups. At one hour prior to establishing the model

  10. Inhibition of HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylases by FG-4497 reduces brain tissue injury and edema formation during ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Stefan; Li, Lexiao; Walkinshaw, Gail; Flippin, Lee A; Marti, Hugo H; Kunze, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke results in disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), edema formation and neuronal cell loss. Some neuroprotective factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) favor edema formation, while others such as erythropoietin (Epo) can mitigate it. Both factors are controlled by hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF) and the activity of prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHD). We hypothesize that activation of the adaptive hypoxic response by inhibition of PHD results in neuroprotection and prevention of vascular leakage. Mice, subjected to cerebral ischemia, were pre- or post-treated with the novel PHD inhibitor FG-4497. Inhibition of PHD activity resulted in HIF-1α stabilization, increased expression of VEGF and Epo, improved outcome from ischemic stroke and reduced edema formation by maintaining BBB integrity. Additional in vitro studies using brain endothelial cells and primary astrocytes confirmed that FG-4497 induces the HIF signaling pathway, leading to increased VEGF and Epo expression. In an in vitro ischemia model, using combined oxygen and glucose deprivation, FG-4497 promoted the survival of neurons. Furthermore, FG-4497 prevented the ischemia-induced rearrangement and gap formation of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens 1 and occludin, both in cultured endothelial cells and in infarcted brain tissue in vivo. These results indicate that FG-4497 has the potential to prevent cerebral ischemic damage by neuroprotection and prevention of vascular leakage. PMID:24409307

  11. Inhibition of HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylases by FG-4497 reduces brain tissue injury and edema formation during ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Reischl

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB, edema formation and neuronal cell loss. Some neuroprotective factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF favor edema formation, while others such as erythropoietin (Epo can mitigate it. Both factors are controlled by hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF and the activity of prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHD. We hypothesize that activation of the adaptive hypoxic response by inhibition of PHD results in neuroprotection and prevention of vascular leakage. Mice, subjected to cerebral ischemia, were pre- or post-treated with the novel PHD inhibitor FG-4497. Inhibition of PHD activity resulted in HIF-1α stabilization, increased expression of VEGF and Epo, improved outcome from ischemic stroke and reduced edema formation by maintaining BBB integrity. Additional in vitro studies using brain endothelial cells and primary astrocytes confirmed that FG-4497 induces the HIF signaling pathway, leading to increased VEGF and Epo expression. In an in vitro ischemia model, using combined oxygen and glucose deprivation, FG-4497 promoted the survival of neurons. Furthermore, FG-4497 prevented the ischemia-induced rearrangement and gap formation of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens 1 and occludin, both in cultured endothelial cells and in infarcted brain tissue in vivo. These results indicate that FG-4497 has the potential to prevent cerebral ischemic damage by neuroprotection and prevention of vascular leakage.

  12. Differential protein expression in spinal cord tissue of a rabbit model of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Gao; Jian Dong; Jianhang Jiao; Yonghui Liang; Xiaoyu Yang; Guifeng Liu; Xiaoxue Li; Benqing Zhu; Jian Liu; Maoguang Yang; Weiwei Xia

    2012-01-01

    New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into an ischemia group (occlusion of the abdominal aorta for 60 minutes), an ischemia-reperfusion group (occlusion of the abdominal aorta for 60 minutes followed by 48 hours of reperfusion) and a sham-surgery group. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis detected 49 differentially expressed proteins in spinal cord tissue from the ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion groups and 23 of them were identified by mass spectrometry. In the ischemia group, the expression of eight proteins was up regulated, and that of the remaining four proteins was down regulated. In the ischemia/reperfusion group, the expression of four proteins was up regulated, and that of two proteins was down regulated. In the sham-surgery group, only one protein was detected. In the ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion groups, four proteins overlapped between groups with the same differential expression, including three that were up regulated and one down regulated. These proteins were related to energy metabolism, cell defense, inflammatory mechanism and cell signaling.

  13. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

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    Denise Silva Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  14. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris. PMID:26814713

  15. High Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines, but Not Markers of Tissue Injury, in Unaffected Intestinal Areas from Patients with IBD

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    Alberto J. León

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal alterations in IBD are triggered and maintained by an overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, increased immune activation has been found in the adjacent intestinal areas without displaying any apparent histological alterations, however, the regulatory environment is not well established. Biopsy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD, from both affected and unaffected areas, and also from a group of colonic biopsies from healthy controls, were included in our study. Cytokines and markers of mucosal damage were analyzed by real-time PCR, and some of the results confirmed by western-blot and ELISA. Levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-6, IL-15, IL-18, and IL-23 were increased (above healthy controls in both affected and unaffected areas from IBD. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-27 were higher in affected areas compared to unaffected ones in UC but not CD. In general, a correlation was observed between mRNA levels of these cytokines and both iNOS and Granzyme B. SOCS-2 and SOCS-3 were also increased in the affected areas. In conclusion, the unaffected areas from IBD show increased levels of a restricted set of cytokines that may exert immune activating roles in these areas without being able to trigger tissue damage.

  16. 关节镜诊治关节内桡骨远端粉碎性骨折的软组织损伤%Arthroscopic assessment of soft tissue injuries in comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To diagnose and evaluate soft tissue injuries in intra-articular fractures of the distal radius using arthroscopy. Methods Twenty young patients with displaced intra-articular fractures of distal radius were recruited in this prospective study. Three AO C2 and 17 C3 fractures were included. After arthroscopic examination fractures of distal radius were treated by external fixation with limited internal fixation or open plate fixation.Results Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury was found in 18 patients (90%) . Most were isolated Palmer type 1D injuries (67 %). Scapho-lunate ligament injury was found in two patients: one partial tear (grade Ⅱ) and one complete tear (grade Ⅲ). Follow-ups ranged from 6 to 18 months. At the last follow-up, wrist function was excellent in one patient (6%), good in eight(44%) and fair in 11 (50%). Conclusion TFCC injuries are common in intra-articular fractures of the distal radius while injuries to scapho-luuate ligament are uncommon.

  17. Neuroendocrine and cardiac metabolic dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in adipose tissue and pancreas following chronic spinal cord injury in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Nash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CVD (cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury. Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI. Using immuno-histochemical, -precipitation, and -blotting analysis, we show decreased POMC (proopiomelanocortin and increased NPY (neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic ARC (arcuate nucleus and PVN (paraventricular nucleus, 1-month post-SCI. Long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb, JAK2 (Janus kinase/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/p38 and RhoA/ROCK (Rho-associated kinase signaling is significantly increased in the heart tissue post-SCI, and we observe the formation and activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome in VAT (visceral adipose tissue and pancreas post-SCI. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine signaling peptide alterations, associated with central inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI, and provide evidence for the peripheral activation of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiac, VAT and pancreatic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI. Further understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to SCI-related inflammatory processes and metabolic dysfunction associated with CVD pathology may help to direct therapeutic and rehabilitation countermeasures.

  18. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries.

  19. Association of Free Radicals and the Tissue Renin-Angiotensin System: Prospective Effects of Rhodiola, a Genus of Chinese Herb, on Hypoxia-Induced Pancreatic Injury

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    Ip SP

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The renin-angiotensin system has long been recognized as crucial factor in the regulation of the systemic blood pressure and renal electrolyte homeostasis. Numerous studies have demonstrated the presence of a local renin-angiotensin system in a variety of organs. A recent study of the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system showed that chronic hypoxia significantly increased the mRNA expression for angiotensinogen II receptor subtypes AT1b and AT2. The activation of the renin-angiotensin system may play an important role in cellular pathophysiological processes. Angiotensin II enhances the formation of reactive oxygen species via the activation of xanthine oxidase or NAD(PH oxidase. The reactive oxygen species can cause oxidative damage in the pancreas and other tissues either directly or indirectly via the formation of other radicals such as reactive nitrogen species. Rhodiola therapy may protect hypoxia-induced pancreatic injury in two ways. It prevents hypoxia-induced biological changes by increasing intracellular oxygen diffusion and efficiency of oxygen utilization. Alternatively, it reduces hypoxia-induced oxidative damage by its antioxidant activities. Additional experimental data are required to fully elucidate the mode of action of this herbal drug.

  20. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstead, William M [U PENNSYLVANIA; Kiessling, J W [U PENNSYLVANIA; Chen, Xiao - Han [U PENNSYLVANIA; Smith, Douglas H [U PENNSYLVANA; Higazi, Abd Ar [U PENNSYLVANIA; Cines, Douglas B [U PENNSYLVANIA; Bdeir, Khalil [U PENNSYLVANIA; Zaitsev, Sergei [U PENNSYLVANIA; Muzykantov, Vladimir R [U PENNSYLVANIA

    2008-01-01

    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  1. Implementation of a Shoulder Soft Tissue Injury Triage Service in a UK NHS Teaching Hospital Improves Time to Surgery for Acute Rotator Cuff Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Marcus; Davies-Jones, Gareth; Tambe, Amol; Clark, David I

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder problems account for 2.4% of GP consultations in the United Kingdom and of those 70% are related to the rotator cuff. Many rotator cuff tears are of a degenerate nature but they can occur as a result of trauma in 8% of cases. Evidence suggests that patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears gain a better outcome in terms of pain and function if the tear is repaired early after injury. A specialist shoulder soft tissue injury clinic was set up in a large UK NHS teaching hospital with the primary purpose in the first year to halve the length of time patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears had to wait to consult a specialist and double the number of patients undergoing surgical repair within three months. The secondary purpose was to ensure that the new clinic was utilised to capacity by the end of the first year. The clinic was later expanded to manage patients with acute glenohumeral joint (GHJ) or acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocations and identify those patients requiring surgical stabilisation. The new service involved referral of all patients presenting to the Accident & Emergency department with recent shoulder trauma and either an inability to raise the arm over shoulder height with a normal set of radiographs, or a confirmed GHJ or ACJ dislocation; to a specialist clinic run by an experienced upper limb physiotherapist. Patients were reassessed and referred for further imaging if required. Those patients found to have traumatic rotator cuff tears or structural instability lesions were listed for expedited surgery. The clinic ran alongside a consultant-led fracture clinic giving fast access to surgical decision-making. The service was reviewed after 3, 6, and 12 months and findings compared to a sample of 30 consecutive patients having undergone rotator cuff repair surgery via the previous pathway. 144 patients were referred to the clinic in the first year: 62 with rotator cuff symptoms, 38 with GHJ instability, 13 with ACJ instability, and 33

  2. 螺旋CT显示膝关节软组织损伤技术探讨%Spiral CT showed the knee joint of soft tissue injury technology discussed in this paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦妍滨; 于明

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究分析螺旋C T技术对于膝关节软组织损伤的诊断效果。方法:选取我院近年收治的36例膝关节软组织损伤患者作为研究对象,所有患者在入院后均通过了CT检查,收集所有患者的CT检查资料,以及CT检查结果,分析应螺旋CT对膝关节软组织损伤检查的操作方法以及诊断效果。结果:应用螺旋CT技术能清晰地显示患者膝关节各类骨折、关节腔、部分韧带以及软组织损伤,对膝关节软组织损伤具有较高的临床诊断价值。结论:螺旋CT联合多种重建技术对膝关节软组织损伤患者具有较高的临床诊断价值,值得在临床上广泛地推广应用。%Objective To study the analysis of the spiral CT technology to the diagnosis effect of knee joint of soft tissue injury. Methods Selection of 36 patients with knee joint soft tissue injury were admitted in our hospital in recent years as the research object, all of the patients in the hospital after all through the CT examination, all patients with CT examination information collection, and CT examination results, the analysis should be spiral CT examination to knee joint of soft tissue injury operation method and the effect of diagnosis.Results Spiral CT can clearly show that patients with knee joint fracture, articular cavity, part of the ligaments and soft tissue injury, the clinical diagnostic value of knee joint of soft tissue injury with high.Conclusion Spiral CT in combination with a variety of technical reconstruction in patients with knee joint soft tissue injury has high clinical diagnostic value, is worth popularizing widely in clinic application.

  3. Value of Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography in Distinguishing Hysteromyoma from Adenomyosis%子宫肌瘤与子宫腺肌病超声造影鉴别诊断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国政; 苑敏; 吴子芳; 刘增强; 刘丽艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) in distinguishing hysteromyoma(HM)from adenomyosis(AM). Methods A total of 103 cases with hysteromyoma and 76 cases with adenomyosis were retrospectively studied with CEUS. Results The enhancement patterns of hysteromyoma on CEUS were peripheral pseudocapsule type in 89 cases (86. 4% ),synchronous type in 14 cases( 13.6% ), and no case had centripetal type enhancement. The enhancement patterns of adenomyosis on CEUS were synchronous type in 47 eases ( 82. 5% ), centripetal type in 10 cases ( 17. 5% ) and no case with peripheral pseudoeapsule enhancement. The most of hysteromyoma are peripheral pseudocapsule type enhancement( Z = - 10.502, P <0.01 ). While in adenomyosis,synchromous and centripetal enhancement ( respectively Z = - 8. 562, P < 0. 01 and Z = - 4. 377, P < 0. 01 ) were the common type.Conclusion The enhancement pattern of hysteromyoma on CEUS was significantly different from adenomyosis. As a new non-invasive method, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has important clinical value on the differential diagnosis of hysteromyoma and adenomyosis.%目的 探讨子宫肌瘤与子宫腺肌病超声造影(contrast-enhanced ultrasonography,CEUS)鉴别诊断的价值.方法 收集有病理诊断的103例子宫肌瘤及76例子宫腺肌病患者的超声造影检查资料,进行回顾性分析.结果 子宫肌瘤超声造影表现:环状增强型者89例(占86.4%),同步增强型者14例(占13.6%),向心填充型者0例(占0%).子宫腺肌病超声造影表现:环状增强型者0例(占0%),同步增强型者47例(占82.5%),向心填充型者10例(占17.5%).子宫肌瘤患者多为"环状增强型"(Z=-10.502,P<0.01).子宫腺肌病患者多为"同步增强型"(Z=-8.562,P<0.01)和"向心填充型"(Z=-4.377,P<0.01).结论 子宫肌瘤与子宫腺肌病超声造影增强模式明显不同,超声造影是其有效影像学鉴别手段,其作为一种新的无创性检查方法,具有重要的临床价值.

  4. Urinary Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) • Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 7 (IGFBP7) Predicts Adverse Outcome in Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Jens H.; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Waldherr, Sina; Pöschl, Johannes; Teufel, Ulrike; Westhoff, Timm H.; Fichtner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background The G1 cell cycle inhibitors tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) have been identified as promising biomarkers for the prediction of adverse outcomes including renal replacement therapy (RRT) and mortality in critically ill adult patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the prognostic value of urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 in neonatal and pediatric AKI for adverse outcome has not been investigated yet. Methods The product of the urinary concentration of TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 ([TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7]) was assessed by a commercially available immunoassay (NephroCheck™) in a prospective cohort study in 133 subjects aged 0–18 years including 46 patients with established AKI according to pRIFLE criteria, 27 patients without AKI (non-AKI group I) and 60 apparently healthy neonates and children (non-AKI group II). AKI etiologies were: dehydration/hypovolemia (n = 7), hemodynamic instability (n = 7), perinatal asphyxia (n = 9), septic shock (n = 7), typical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS; n = 5), interstitial nephritis (n = 5), vasculitis (n = 4), nephrotoxic injury (n = 1) and renal vein thrombosis (n = 1). Results When AKI patients were classified into pRIFLE criteria, 6/46 (13%) patients fulfilled the criteria for the category “Risk”, 13/46 (28%) for “Injury”, 26/46 (57%) for “Failure” and 1/46 (2%) for “Loss”. Patients in the “Failure” stage had a median 3.7-fold higher urinary [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] compared to non-AKI subjects (P<0.001). When analyzed for AKI etiology, highest [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] values were found in patients with septic shock (P<0.001 vs. non-AKI I+II). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses in the AKI group revealed good performance of [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] in predicting 30-day (area under the curve (AUC) 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61–0.97) and 3-month mortality (AUC 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67–0.99) and moderate performance in predicting RRT

  5. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FootNotes Newsletter Current Issue Archive Subscribe Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Peroneal Tendon Injuries A A A | Print | Share Javascript is required ... cases, subluxation occurs following trauma, such as an ankle sprain. Damage or injury to the tissues that stabilize the tendons (retinaculum) ...

  6. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  7. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  8. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  9. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Lihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Cui, Jingkun [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanling School District Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Fujun, E-mail: fujun_han@aliyun.com [Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  10. Biomechanics of whiplash injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-bin; King H YANG; WANG Zheng-guo

    2009-01-01

    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics,facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3)The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury,potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains within

  11. Assessment of C-phycocyanin effect on astrocytes-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative brain injury using 2D and 3D astrocyte tissue model

    OpenAIRE

    Seul Ki Min; Jun Sang Park; Lidan Luo; Yeo Seon Kwon; Hoo Cheol Lee; Hyun Jung Shim; Il-Doo Kim; Ja-Kyeong Lee; Hwa Sung Shin

    2015-01-01

    Drugs are currently being developed to attenuate oxidative stress as a treatment for brain injuries. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is an antioxidant protein of green microalgae known to exert neuroprotective effects against oxidative brain injury. Astrocytes, which compose many portions of the brain, exert various functions to overcome oxidative stress; however, little is known about how C-Pc mediates the antioxidative effects of astrocytes. In this study, we revealed that C-Pc intranasal administrati...

  12. Clinical Experience on the Treatment of Soft Tissue Injury by Releasable Acupuncture%软组织损伤松解针法的临床应用体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文迅; 黄怡然

    2012-01-01

      软组织损伤在人们日常工作、生活及体育锻炼中十分常见,也是临床的常见病症。本文介绍了软组织损伤的诊疗现状,分析了软组织损伤未受到医务人员及患者本身重视而造成误诊误治的原因。笔者在中医经络学说的指导下,通过长期医疗实践,将《黄帝内经》中古典针法组合、筋经疗法与现代解剖学结合,总结出一套以损伤肌肉松解刺法、起止点损伤刺法、经络松解法为核心的针法和相关理论,疗效显著。%  Soft tissue injury, a common clinical disease, is very popular in people's daily life, work and physical exercise. According to the current clinical situation of soft tissue injury, this article aims to analyze the reason of the misdiagnosis and mistreatment caused by the less attention of medical staffs and patients. Under the guidance of the merdian-collateral theory, and going through a long-term clinical practice, the author has summarized a serious of releasable acupuncture and the related theory based on the combination of the classic acupuncture in Huangdi’s Internal Classic, and that of sinew meridian therapy and the modern anatomy. By taking injuried muscle releasable acupuncture, starting and ending point injury acupuncture and meridian releasable acupuncture as the core, the serious of acupuncture has been achieved a significant efficacy.

  13. Defensive effects of fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalane against the 2,4-nonadienal-induced cell injury in human skin keratinocytes HaCaT and wrinkle formation in 3D-human skin tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Aoshima, Hisae; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2010-02-01

    We dissolved fullerene-C60 in squalane (LipoFullerene; LF-SQ, C60-eq.: 500 ppm) and examined its defensive effects against 2,4-nonadienal (NDA)-induced cell injury in HaCaT keratinocytes and wrinkle formation in three dimensional (3D)-human skin tissue model. NDA is an analog of 4-hydroxynonenal, one of major causes for human body odor indicative of aging and a lipophilic cell injury factor. Cell viability (% of the control) decreased to 31.6% on treatment with NDA (40 microM), but it increased to 66.0-97.5% when LF-SQ of 1-4% (C60-eq.: 5-20 ppm) was administered for 5 hr before NDA addition. The defensive effect by LF-SQ was superior to that of "squalane" alone at the same doses. NDA-induced DNA-fragmentation in HaCaT cells was suppressed by LF-SQ administered for 5 hr before NDA treatment, and LF-SQ protected HaCaT cells against apoptosis-like cell death. LF-SQ did not appreciably defend against hydrogen peroxide, though LF-SQ effectively defended against tert-butylhydroperoxide, a type of the intermediate hydrophilicity-lipophilicity degree out of other reactive oxygen species. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that NDA caused wrinkles and abnormal scales on keratinocytes of 3D-human skin tissue model, and structural homogeneity of the interstratum was broken, any of which were, however, markedly suppressed with LF-SQ. Squalane alone exhibited defensive effect against the skin tissue injury to some extent, but which was inferior to LF-SQ. LF-SQ might effectively capture and scavenge lipid radicals generated inside the cell membrane, because squalane acts as a lipophilic carrier of C60. C60 dissolved in squalane can be expected to serve as a cosmeceutical ingredient for anti-wrinkle formation.

  14. 改良腹腔镜子宫腺肌病巨大子宫切除术14例报道%Modified Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Large Uterus in Woman with Adenomyosis:a Report of 14 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱慧玲; 李玉萍; 沙爱国

    2014-01-01

    Objective-To-investigate-surgical-skills-and-safety-of-laparoscopic-hysterectomy-procedure-for-enlarged-uterus-in-woman-with-adenomyosis-.-Methods-Fourteen-cases-of-adenomyosis-with-uterus-larger-than-twelve-week-pregnancy-accepted-laparoscopic-hysterectomy-form-December-2012-to-December-2013-in-our-hospital-.-Some-operating-techniques-,-including-the-management-of-uterine-vessels-and-separation-of-cardinal-ligament-and-uterosacral-ligament-,-were-modified-.-Results-The-operation-was-performed-successfully-under-laparoscopy-in-all-the-cases-.No-conversion-to-open-surgery-was-required-.No-operating-complication-happened.The-operating-time-was-(160.7-±66.1)-min,-and-the-intraoperative-blood-loss-was-(184.3-±50.5)-ml.-Conclusion-Modified-laparoscopic-techniques-should-be-considered-as-an-acceptable-alternative-in-hysterectomy-for-the-management-of-large-uterus-in-woman-with-adenomyosis-.%目的:探讨腹腔镜子宫切除术治疗大于12孕周子宫腺肌病的手术技巧和安全性。方法2012年12月~2013年12月,对14例12~18孕周的子宫腺肌病行腹腔镜子宫切除术,对子宫血管的处理和子宫离断方式等步骤进行改良。结果14例均在腹腔镜下完成子宫切除术,无中转开腹,无并发症发生。手术时间(160.7±66.1) min,术中出血量(184.3±50.5)ml。结论改良手术步骤后行腹腔镜子宫腺肌病巨大子宫切除术是安全的。

  15. Injuries in racket sports among Slovenian players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondric, Miran; Matković, Branka R; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Hadzić, Vedran; Dervisević, Edvin

    2011-06-01

    On the sample of 83 top Slovenian athletes we have studied the frequency of injuries among table tennis, tennis and badminton players, types of injuries and severity of injuries--the latter based on data of players absences from training and/or competition processes. The most liable parts to injuries are shoulder girdle (17.27%), spine (16.55%) and ankle (15.83%), while foot (10.07%) and wrist (12.23%) are slightly less liable to injuries. The most frequent injuries in racket sports pertain to muscle tissues. According to this data, the majority of injuries occur halfway through a training session or a competition event, mostly during a competition season. The injuries primarily pertain to muscle tissues; these are followed by joint and tendon injuries. There are no differences between male and female players. Compared to other racket sports players, table tennis players suffer from fewer injuries.

  16. The effects of exogenous l-carnitine on lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in an experimental warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model*

    OpenAIRE

    Canbaz, Hakan; Akca, Tamer; Tataroglu, Canten; Caglikulekci, Mehmet; Dirlik, Musa; Ayaz, Lokman; Ustunsoy, Ali Bora; Tasdelen, Bahar; Aydin, Suha

    2007-01-01

    Background:l-Carnitine is the essential endogenous factor for the transport of long-chain fatty acids from the cytoplasm to within the mitochondrion where the β-oxidation process takes place. l-Carnitine is a superoxide scavenger and an antioxidant that possesses an anti-ischemic action and a stabilizing effect on cell membranes. It may be of help in liver ischemia reperfusion injury. Results regarding the effects of l-carnitine on liver ischemia and reperfusion injury are few and conflicting.

  17. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  18. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  19. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  20. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  1. 左炔诺孕酮宫内缓释系统治疗子宫腺肌病疗效观察%Curative effect and observation of adenomyosis treated with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽晔; 崔友红; 张梅; 费华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effection of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG IUS) in the treatment of adenomyosis.Methods Before LNG-IUS insertion and after 3, 6, 12, 18 months, 74 cases were asked to complete a visual analog scale ( VAS) form regarding pelvic pain, pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) form regarding menstrual blood volume and volume of uterus.Results After the 18-month visit, VAS score,PBAC score and volume of uterus were 0.74, 42.7, 206.5cm3, respectively.There were decreased significantly before LNG-IUS insertion(P<0.05).Conclusion Levonorgestrel intrauterine device is a preferable effective method in the treatment of adenomyosis.%目的 观察子宫腺肌病患者放置左炔诺孕酮宫内缓释系统(LNG-IUS;商品名:曼月乐)后的临床效果.方法 观察74例子宫腺肌病患者放置LNG-IUS前,放置后3、6、12、18个月痛经评分(VAS)、PBAC法月经量评分、子宫体积的变化.结果 痛经评分、经量评分和子宫体积大小在放置后18个月分别为0.74、42.7和206.5 cm3,与放置前相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 曼月乐是治疗子宫腺肌病的一种较为有效且安全的方法.

  2. 体外循环炎症细胞激活及组织损伤研究进展%Activation and Tissue Injury Research Progress CPB Inflammatory Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田承南; 徐建军

    2015-01-01

    随着外科手术技术的提高,体外循环技术不断改进并日益完善,而且体外循环术后患者并发症发生率和死亡率有所下降,严重者会造成多系统器官功能障碍。随着体外循环研究的深入,体外循环炎症细胞激活机制逐渐被揭示,术后组织损伤也能够被预测。%With the improvement of surgical techniques,cardiopulmonary bypass and increasingly sophisticated technology continues to improve,and postoperative cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality has declined,but the severity of changes in cardiopulmonary bypass and systemic inflammatory response syndrome is more widespread,severe cases can cause multi-system organ dysfunction. With the in-depth study of cardiopulmonary bypass,extracorporeal circulation of inflammatory cel activation mechanism is gradual y revealed,after tissue injury can be predicted,and with the many strategies was used in clinical treatment,and prevention of systemic inflammatory response during cardiopulmonary bypass tissue injury has made significant progress.

  3. Soft-tissue injuries from sports activities and traffic accidents--treatment with low-level laser therapy: a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study on 132 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Zlatko; Trobonjaca, Tatjana

    2000-06-01

    The aim of current multicenter clinical study was to assess the efficacy of low energy-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of soft tissue injuries compared to the placebo and classical phyiotherapeutic procedures. This clinical study was conducted in two centers located in Locarno, Switzerland and Opatija, Croatia. Two types of irradiation techniques were used: (1) direct, skin contact technique for treatment of trigger points where IR diode laser 830 nm continuous wave was applied; and (2) scanning technique for irradiation of larger surface area with use of Helium Neon laser 632.8 nm combined with IR diode laser 904 nm pulsed wave. Results were evaluated according to clinical parameters like: hematoma, swelling, heat, pan and loss of function. The findings were statistically analyzed via chi- square test. Results have demonstrated that the recovery process was accelerated in 85 percent of patients treated with LLLT compared to the control group of patients. The results and advantages obtained proved once again the efficacy of LLLT as a new and successful way to treat soft tissue injuries.

  4. Expression of aquaporin 1 and 4 in lung tissue of rats with contusion injury%水通道蛋白1和4在大鼠挫伤肺组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙相华; 洪文娟; 洪志鹏; 周菊; 祝艳翠

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨水通道蛋白(AQP)1和4在老年大鼠挫伤后肺组织中的表达。方法通过自由落体模型制作老年鼠肺挫伤模型,分别于伤后1,3和6 h处死,取右侧肺上叶组织测水含量,RT-PCR法测量AQP1和4的mRNA表达,Western印迹法检测蛋白AQP1和4的表达水平。结果伤后老年大鼠的肺组织水含量比明显增加,与假手术组相比,AQP1和4的mRNA和蛋白表达在术后逐渐升高,术后6 h有显著差异(P<0.05), AQP-1的蛋白表达量亦明显升高( P<0.05)。结论 AQP1和4在挫伤后的肺组织中表达升高,靶向调节二者的表达可能对于肺挫伤后肺水肿的治疗具有重要意义。%Objective To investigate the expression of aquaporin ( AQP) 1 and 4 in lung tissues of aged rats with contusion injury . Methods The aged rat pulmonary contusion model was made by free falling body method .The rats were killed after injury for 1, 3 and 6 h. Their right upper lobe of lung tissues were took out to measure the water content .The expression of mRNA of AQP 1 and 4 were measured by PT-PCR.And the expression level of protein of AQP 1 and 4 were measured by Western blot .Results After injury, the water content in aged rats’ pulmonary tissues increased significantly .Compared with the control group , the expression of mRNA and protein of AQP 1 and 4 increased gradually after operation.And after 6 h, the differences showed statistical significance (P<0.05), as well the expression level of protein of AQP1.Conclusions The expression of AQP4 and 1 in contused lung tissue could increase significantly .Targeted adjustment might have important significance for the treatment of pulmonary edema after lung contusion .

  5. 半月板运动性损伤的组织工程修复:国际研究趋势与未来%Tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury: International research trends and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小宁

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The depth study of disciplines, such as tissue engineering, genetic engineering, biomechanics and materials science, provides a new approach for the treatment of meniscal injuries.OBJECTIVE: To multivariately analyze the literatures on the tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury through Scopus database and to summarize the application progress of tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury.METHODS: A retrieval was performed for the literature of the tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury, using the key words of "meniscus, sports injuries, tissue engineering, repair" between January 2002 and December 2011 in Scopus database. The retrieval results were analyzed, and the trends were described in words and graphics.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 245 literatures on the issue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury were retrieved in Scopus database, in which most of paper were published as original articles. Eight articles were identified as classic literatures. The overall number of literature had an upward trend from 2002 to 2011. United States and England published more literature than other countries, which play an important role in the field of tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury. Most of literatures were published from Rice University, University of Pennsylvania, and Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Biomaterials published most papers in this field (n=15, 6.12%). This paper provides a valuable reference for researchers to understand the overview and present situation of this field.%背景:骨组织工程学、基因工程、生物力学以及材料学等学科研究的深入,为半月板损伤的治疗提供了新途径.目的:利用Scopus数据库文献检索和深度分析功能,对于半月板运动损伤的组织工程修复的文献资料趋势进行多层次探讨分析,总结半月板运动损伤的组织工程修复的应用进展.

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy Involved in the Healing of Sports-Related Soft Tissue Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Kellie K.; Barro, Victor; Muller, Bart; Terada, Satosha; Fu, Freddie H.

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common cause of severe long-term pain and physical disability, and affect hundreds of millions of people around the world. One of the most popular methods used to biologically enhance healing in the fields of orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine includes the use of autologous blood products, namely, platelet rich plasma (PRP). PRP is an autologous concentration of human platelets to supra-physiologic levels. At baseline levels, platelets function as a ...

  7. Assessment of brain tissue injury after moderate hypothermia in neonates with hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy: a nested substudy of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Mary; Ramenghi, Luca A; Edwards, A. David; Brocklehurst, Peter; Halliday, Henry; Levene, Malcolm; Strohm, Brenda; Thoresen, Marianne; Whitelaw, Andrew; Azzopardi, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Moderate hypothermia in neonates with hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy might improve survival and neurological outcomes at up to 18 months of age, although complete neurological assessment at this age is difficult. To ascertain more precisely the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on neonatal cerebral injury, we assessed cerebral lesions on MRI scans of infants who participated in the Total Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy (TOBY) trial. Methods In the TOBY trial ...

  8. Systemic Responses to Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Barış; YEĞEN, Berrak Ç.

    2004-01-01

    The major causes of death in burn patients include multiple organ failure and infection. It is important for the clinician to understand the pathophysiology of burn injury and the effects it will have on the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The local and systemic inflammatory response to thermal injury is extremely complex, resulting in both local burn tissue damage and deleterious systemic effects on all other organ systems distant from the burn area itself. Thermal injury initiates systemic infl...

  9. Traumatic injuries: imaging of spinal injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Fuchsjaeger, M. [Department of Osteology, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2002-06-01

    Severe (high-energy) spinal injuries are common sequelae of acute traumas. The task of radiology is to establish the radiological diagnosis, classify it, judge stability and instability and lead further radiological evaluation in cases of non-agreement between the radiological diagnosis and the clinical (neurological) findings. While skeletal abnormalities are best diagnosed with spiral CT and to a lesser degree with plain-film radiographs, soft tissue lesions, such as cord injuries or ligament ruptures, are best outlined with emergency MRI. The classification of fractures depends on fracture (trauma)-biomechanics and location. All these efforts are necessary to get the best clinical outcome for the patient. (orig.)

  10. Laminin chain expression suggests that laminin-10 is a major isoform in the mouse hippocampus and is degraded by the tissue plasminogen activator/plasmin protease cascade during excitotoxic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indyk, J A; Chen, Z L; Tsirka, S E; Strickland, S

    2003-01-01

    Laminins are important components of the extracellular matrix, and participate in neuronal development, survival and regeneration. The tissue plasminogen activator/plasmin extracellular protease cascade and downstream laminin degradation are implicated in excitotoxin-induced neuronal degeneration. To determine which specific laminin chains are involved, we investigated the expression of laminins in the hippocampus, and the cell types expressing them. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the messenger RNAs for all laminin chains could be detected in the hippocampus. To determine the localization of laminin chain expression, immunostaining was used. This method showed that alpha5, beta1 and gamma1 are most highly expressed in the neuronal cell layers. Immunoblotting confirmed the hippocampal expression of the chains alpha5, beta1 and gamma1, and RNA in situ hybridization showed a neuronal expression pattern of alpha5, beta1 and gamma1. At early time points following intrahippocampal injection of kainate, alpha5, beta1 and gamma1 chain immunoreactivities were lost. In addition, tissue plasminogen activator-deficient mice, which are resistant to kainate-induced neuronal death, show no significant change in laminins alpha5, beta1 and gamma1 after intrahippocampal kainate injection. Taken together, these results suggest that laminin-10 (alpha5-beta1-gamma1) comprises a major neuronal laminin in the mouse hippocampus, and is degraded before neuronal death during excitotoxic injury by the tissue plasminogen activator/plasmin protease cascade. By identifying a neuronal laminin (laminin-10) that participates in neuronal degeneration after excitotoxic injury, this study clarifies the molecular definition of the extracellular matrix in the hippocampus and further defines a pathway for mechanisms of neuronal death.

  11. Visceral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W

    1992-06-01

    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  12. Application of tissue-engineered anterior cruciate ligament in repair of exercise injury%组织工程化前交叉韧带在运动损伤修复中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施海平

    2011-01-01

    背景:运动员前交叉韧带的损伤极难彻底恢复,降低运动寿命.目的:总结组织工程化前交叉韧带在运动损伤修复中的研究现状和最新进展.方法:采用计算机检索维普数据库和PubMed 数据库1994-01/2010-12 相关文章,纳入28 篇与运动性前交叉韧带损伤及组织工程韧带相关的文章,重点对组织工程前交叉韧带重建的研究进展、前交叉韧带种子细胞的来源、细胞因子在前交叉韧带重建中的应用及组织工程前交叉韧带附丽的基础研究4 个方面进行探讨.结果与结论:运动中前交叉韧带损伤后自体愈合能力极差,对于运动员伤后痊愈造成极大困难.组织工程前交叉韧带近些年来飞速发展,具有良好的应用和发展前景.但在实际应用过程中,组织工程化种子细胞的选择、支架材料的构建和组织工程前交叉韧带附丽的基础研究三者有机相互融合,并合理应用生长因子,才能在临床上起到最佳治疗效果,最终达到修复和重建前交叉韧带的目的.%BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament injury is extremely difficult for athletes to fully recover, and can shorten the exercisespan.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the recent research progress on the application of tissue-engineered anterior cruciate ligament inrepair of exercise injury.METHODS: An online search of VIP database and PubMed database was performed for relevant articles published betweenJanuary 1994 and December 2010. A total of 28 articles on sports-related anterior cruciate ligament injury and tissue-engineeredligament were retrieved. The discussion was mainly focused on the recent development of tissue-engineered anterior cruciateligament reconstruction, the sources of anterior cruciate ligament seed cells, the application of cytokine in reconstruction ofanterior cruciate ligament and the basic research on tissue-engineered anterior cruciate ligament.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Autohealing ability of sports

  13. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  14. 脑缺血肺损伤大鼠肺组织trkB的表达变化%Expression of trkB Gene in the Pulmonary Tissue of Rats with Lung Injury Induced by Cerebral Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珊; 荣荣; 但齐琴; 张云辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of tyrosine kinase B (trkB) in lung tissue of rats with lung injury induced by brain ischemia. Methods Twenty six adult SD rats were divided into sham group and brain ischemia lung injury (BILI) group. All rats were sacrificed at 3 days after the operation of modeling, lung tissues were then harvested to measure the protein and mRNA level of trkB by the methods of western blot and RT-PCR, the location of trkB positive cells was observed by immunochemistry study. Results trkB mRNA level in the lung tissue of rats with brain ischemia presented a significant increase, in corresponding to the upregulation of BDNF protein levels, when compared with sham one (P<0. 05). trkB was localized in endothelia cells and smooth muscle. Conclusion The upregulated expression of trkB expression may be associated with lung injury after brain ischemia.%目的 观察脑缺血肺损伤大鼠肺组织酪氨酸蛋白激酶B(trkB)的表达变化,并探讨其与肺损伤的关系.方法 成年SD大鼠分为假手术组和脑缺血肺损伤组,每组13只动物.术后3d处死大鼠,每组中5只取肺组织进行免疫组化染色、8只取肺组织进行RT-PCR和Western blot,检测trkB蛋白在肺组织的分布、trkB mRNA和蛋白的表达变化.结果 trkB分布于气管上皮和平滑肌.与假手术组相比,trkB mRNA和蛋白在损伤肺组织表达增加(P<0.05).结论 脑缺血肺损伤大鼠肺组织trkB表达水平明显上调,提示其与脑缺血肺损伤有关.

  15. Influence of Pus-Eliminating Cream on Wound Infection of Acute Open Soft Tissue Injury%拔脓膏对急性开放性软组织损伤创面感染的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘杏玲; 冯周莲; 杜雪清

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the influence of Pus-Eliminating Cream on wound infection of acute open soft tissue injury.Methods:Totally 118 patients with wound infection of acute open soft tissue injury hospitalized between January,2012 and June,2014 and treated in Traumatic Orthopedics Department of this hospital were randomly divided into control group and observation group,with 59 cases in each.Control group were externally applied with sterile gauze infiltrated by 3% boric acid while observation group were externally applied Pus-Eliminating Cream.Results:After 7 d and 14 d of treatment,the occurrence rates of wound infection in observation group were apparently lower than these in control group (P < 0.05).The effective rate was 94.9% in observation group and 79.7% in control group,with statistical significance (P < 0.05).The wound healing time in observation group was shorter than that in control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion:External application of Pus-Eliminating Cream can reduce the occurrence rate of wound infection inf acute open soft tissue injury and promote the healing of the wound.%目的:观察拔脓膏对急性开放性软组织损伤创面感染的影响.方法:选取2012年1月-2014年6月在本院创伤骨科住院治疗的开放性软组织损伤患者118例,随机分为对照组和观察组,每组59例.对照组给予浸润3%硼酸无菌纱块外敷,观察组采取拔脓膏外敷.结果:观察组治疗7d后、治疗14d后创面感染的发生率均明显低于对照组(P<0.05);观察组有效率94.9%,对照组有效率79.7%,观察组优于对照组(P<0.05);观察组患者创口愈合时间优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:拔脓膏外敷能够降低开放性软组织损伤创面感染的发生率,促进创口的愈合.

  16. 小针刀治疗慢性软组织损伤的初步体会%Preliminary experience of the small knife in the treatment of the chronic soft tissue injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沪; 陈卫英

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of the small knife in the treatment of the chronic soft tissue injuries. Methods: From Oct. 2003 to Dec. 2012, 1 436 cases of the neck, shoulder, low back and leg pain ( including cervical spondylosis, lumbar disc herniation, and frozen shoulder ), tennis elbow, chronic stenosing tenosynovitis and soft tissue injuries were treated with the small knife once a week, two or three times a course. The average treatment was 2.71 times per patient. The treatment effect was observed after ending the course of the treatment.Results: In 1 436 cases, 756 cases were cured, 417 had an effect, 212 were improved, 51 invalid and none of exacerbations.Conclusion: The small knife treatment of the various chronic soft tissue injuries has the advantages of a small trauma, quick effect and easy operation etc. which should be the preferred treatment method for the primary hospitals.%目的:探讨小针刀治疗慢性软组织损伤的临床疗效。方法:2003年10月至2012年12月收治颈肩腰腿痛(包括颈椎病、腰椎间盘突出症、肩周炎)、网球肘、狭窄性腱鞘炎等慢性软组织损伤患者1436例,采用小针刀进行治疗,每周1次,2~3次为1个疗程,患者平均治疗2.71次/例。疗程结束后观察疗效。结果:1436例中,治愈756例,显效417例,好转212例,无效51例,无一例病情加重。结论:小针刀治疗各类慢性软组织损伤具有创伤小、见效快、操作简便等优点,应为基层医院首选治疗方法。

  17. Clinical Treatment Experience of Tibia and Fibula Fracture Complicated With Soft Tissue Injury%胫腓骨骨折合并软组织损伤治疗临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚翔

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore treatment method and its effect of tibia and fibula fracture complicated with soft tissue injury.Methods Choose 40 patients of tibia and ifbula fracture complicated with soft tissue injury who are treated in clinic from February 2013 to February 2014 and separate them into two groups according to different treatment methods; 20 patients in study group are given non-reamed intramedullary nail surgery treatment and 20 patients in control group are given conventional treatment; and then observe and compare treatment effects between two groups.Results Compared to control group, patients’ fracture recovery time in study group is shorter (P<0.05) with less complications (P<0.05) and treatment excellence rate is much higher (P<0.05). There is a differential between two groups.Conclusion Non-reamed intramedullary nail surgery treatment is of efifcacy in treatment of tibia and ifbula fracture complicated with soft tissue injury; thus, such a treatment is quite worthwhile to be promoted clinically.%目的:探讨胫腓骨骨折合并软组织损伤的治疗方法及效果。方法收集2013年2月~2014年2月我院胫腓骨骨折合并软组织损伤40例,按照治疗方式不同将其分成两组。实验组共20例,治疗方式选择非扩髓髓内钉治疗;对照组共20例,治疗方式为常规治疗。观察两组疗效,并比较分析。结果两组相比,实验组骨折愈合时间较短(P<0.05),并发症少(P<0.05),优良率高(P<0.05),差异显著。结论非扩髓髓内钉治疗胫腓骨骨折合并软组织损伤效果好。

  18. Effect of detraining on bone and muscle tissue in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury after a period of electrically-stimulated cycling: a small cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Frotzler, A.; Coupaud, S.; Perret, C; Kakebeeke, T.H.; Hunt, K.J.; Eser, P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate adaptive changes in bone and muscle parameters in the paralysed limbs after de-training or reduced functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced cycling following high-volume FES-cycling in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Subjects: Five subjects with motor-sensory complete SCI (age 38.6 years, lesion duration 11.4 years) were included. Four subjects stopped FES-cycling completely after the training phase whereas one continued reduced FES-cycling (2-3 times/we...

  19. Fas and Fas Ligand Are Up-Regulated in Pulmonary Edema Fluid and Lung Tissue of Patients with Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Albertine, Kurt H; Soulier, Matthew F.; Wang, Zhengming; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Matthay, Michael A; Lorraine B. Ware

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis mediated by Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) interaction has been implicated in human disease processes, including pulmonary disorders. However, the role of the Fas/FasL system in acute lung injury (ALI) and in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is poorly defined. Accordingly, we investigated both the soluble and cellular expression of the Fas/FasL system in patients with ALI or ARDS. The major findings are summarized as follows. First, the soluble expression of the Fas/FasL system...

  20. SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION AND LIVER INJURY FOLLOWING HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK AND PERIPHERAL TISSUE TRAUMA INVOLVE FUNCTIONAL TLR9 SIGNALING ON BONE MARROW-DERIVED CELLS AND PARENCHYMAL CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Roop; Ruan, Xiangcai; Menzel, Christoph J.; Namkoong, Seung; Loughran, Patricia; Hackam, David J.; Billiar, Timothy R

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock due to trauma (HS/T) induces an inflammatory response that can contribute to end-organ injury. The pathways involved in the initiation and propagation of HS/T-induced inflammation are incompletely understood. Here, we hypothesized that the DNA sensor TLR9 would have a role in inflammatory signaling after HS/T. Using mice expressing a nonfunctional, mutant form of TLR9, we identified a role of TLR9 in driving the initial cytokine response and liver damage in a model of hemorr...

  1. Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Tissue Injury via Secretion of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Stimulated Protein/Gene 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have described therapeutic benefits in various disease models after administration of the adult stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow or other tissues referred to as mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. They all showed that one of the important effects of MSCs is to act against excessive inflammatory responses and repair the damaged tissues. The therapeutic benefits of MSCs were initially interpreted by their migration, engraftment, and differentiation into target tissues. However, remarkable anatomical structural repairs and functional improvements were increasingly observed with a small number of or even no MSCs in the injured tissues. This suggests that most beneficial effects are largely due to paracrine secretions or cell-to-cell contacts that have multiple effects involving modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Currently, the therapeutic benefits of MSCs are in part explained by the cells being activated by signals from injured tissues to express an anti-inflammatory protein, tumor-necrosis-factor-α-induced protein 6. This important mechanism of action has attracted increasing attention, and therefore we conducted this review to summarize the latest research.

  2. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  3. Assessment of C-phycocyanin effect on astrocytes-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative brain injury using 2D and 3D astrocyte tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seul Ki; Park, Jun Sang; Luo, Lidan; Kwon, Yeo Seon; Lee, Hoo Cheol; Shim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2015-01-01

    Drugs are currently being developed to attenuate oxidative stress as a treatment for brain injuries. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is an antioxidant protein of green microalgae known to exert neuroprotective effects against oxidative brain injury. Astrocytes, which compose many portions of the brain, exert various functions to overcome oxidative stress; however, little is known about how C-Pc mediates the antioxidative effects of astrocytes. In this study, we revealed that C-Pc intranasal administration to the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats ensures neuroprotection of ischemic brain by reducing infarct size and improving behavioral deficits. C-Pc also enhanced viability and proliferation but attenuated apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of oxidized astrocytes, without cytotoxicity to normal astrocytes and neurons. To elucidate how C-Pc leads astrocytes to enhance neuroprotection and repair of ischemia brain, we firstly developed 3D oxidized astrocyte model. C-Pc had astrocytes upregulate antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and neurotrophic factors BDNF and NGF, while alleviating inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-1β and glial scar. Additionally, C-Pc improved viability of 3D oxidized neurons. In summary, C-Pc was concluded to activate oxidized astrocytes to protect and repair the ischemic brain with the combinatorial effects of improved antioxidative, neurotrophic, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:26399322

  4. Efficacy Observation on Salt Packets of Chinese Medicine with Hot Compress treating Soft Tissue Injury%中药盐包热熨治疗软组织损伤的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艺敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical curative effect on salt packets of traditional Chinese medicine with hot compress treat-ing soft tissue injury. Methods: Heated salt packets of traditional Chinese medicine were placed in the injury site, and supplemented with appropriate massage. Results: 162 cases showed effect, 44 were valid, 20 were invalid, and the total efficiency was 91.15%. Conclusion: The salt packets of traditional Chinese medicine can play a role in accelerating decrease of swelling, pain and blood sta-sis, they are well received by the patients because of obvious efficacy.%  目的:观察中药盐包热熨治疗软组织损伤的临床疗效.方法:制作中药盐包加热置于损伤部位,并辅以适当的推拿手法.结果:显效162例,有效44例,无效20例,总有效率91.15%.结论:中药盐包能发挥加快消肿、止痛、散瘀等作用,疗效显著,深受病人好评.

  5. Application of gene-activated-matrix in the repair of orthopaedic tissue injury%基因活化材料在骨科组织损伤修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫韵飞; 王瑞; 赵建宁

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene-activated-matrix (GAM) is a new ki nd of transgenic matrix designed for tissue engineering. At presentGAM is used for repairing of nonunion, cartilaginous injury, ligament and tendon injury in orthopaedics.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the application of GAM in the repair of orthopaedic tissue injury, and to provide reference for furtherclinical application of GAM in orthopedicsMETHODS: “Gene-Activated-Matrix, GAM” in English and “gene-Activated-Matrix, GAM, tissue engineering, bone and cartilageinjury repair, ligament and tendon injury repair” in Chinese were utilized as search terms to retrieve 128 literatures from CNKIdatabase and PubMed database (1999-01/2010-09). The researches related to basic, prospective, and clinical study of bonetissue engineering and GAM were included, standard duplicate researches were excluded, 26 of them were involved for analysis.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: GAM is currently mainly used for the repair of fractures, cartilage, and tendon and ligament injury.With the development of molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, GAM can be used to repair articular cartilageinjury, the target cells by transgenic continued high secretion of growth factors to repair articular cartilage injury. Currently, themain problems of gene therapy are the safety of gene transfer, the controllability of gene expression, and appropriate gene vector.Meanwhile, GAM treatment also provides a new therapeutic approach for the healing of ligament and tendon injuries. Numerousstudies showed that GAM treatment has efficacy and feasibility in tissue injury repair, but still faces many problems to be solved.%背景:基因活化材料是新型的专为组织工程设计的转基因材料.目前基因活化材料技术在骨科主要用于骨折不愈合、软骨以及肌腱韧带损伤的修复.目的:分析目前基因活化材料在骨科组织损伤修复中的应用,为临床应用提供参考.方法:以"Gene-Activated-Matrix,GAM"英文检

  6. Dynamics of cerebral tissue injury and perfusion after temporary hypoxia-ischemia in the rat - Evidence for region-specific sensitivity and delayed damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, RM; Knollema, S; van der Worp, H. Bart; Ter Horst, GJ; De Wildt, DJ; van der Sprenkel, JWB; Tulleken, KAF; Nicolay, K

    1998-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Selective regional sensitivity and delayed damage in cerebral ischemia provide opportunities for directed and late therapy for stroke. Our aim was to characterize the spatial and temporal profile of ischemia-induced changes in cerebral perfusion and tissue status, with the use

  7. Exogenous ATP administration prevents ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury by modulation of hypoxanthine metabolic pathway in rat ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kumbasar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, xanthine oxidase (XO, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO and glutathione (GSH levels in the ovarian tissues of rats during the development of ischemia and postischemia-induced reperfusion were investigated, and the effect of ATP on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R damage was biochemically and histopathologically examined. The results of the biochemical analyses demonstrated that ATP significantly reduced the level of XO and MDA and increased the amount of GSH in both ischemia and I/R-applied ovarian tissue at the doses administered. Furthermore, ATP significantly suppressed the increase in MPO activity that occurred following the application of post ischemia reperfusion in the ovarian tissue. The biochemical results obtained in the present study coincide with the histological findings. The severity of the pathological findings, such as dilatation, congestion, haemorrhage, oedema and polymorphonuclear nuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, increased in parallel with the increase observed in the products of XO metabolism. In conclusion, exogenously applied ATP prevented I/R damage by reducing the formation of XO in ischemic ovarian tissue.

  8. Release of Tissue-specific Proteins into Coronary Perfusate as a Model for Biomarker Discovery in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart; Edwards, Alistair; Liddy, Kiersten;

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes is based on protein biomarkers, such as the cardiac troponins (cTnI/cTnT) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) that are released into the circulation. Biomarker discovery is focused on identifying very low abundance tissue-derived analytes from within albumin-rich pla...

  9. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Soft Tissue Injury by Ultrasonic Wave%超声波治疗运动性软组织损伤临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严芳; 庞艳丽; 张会霞; 杨小龙

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical curative effect of ultrasonic treatment of motor soft tissue injuries.Methods 56 patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,28 cases in each group.Treatment group by ultrasonic treatment,control group is made of super laser treatment.Observe two groups of curative effect.Results Treatment group total effectiveness 92.9%,control group total effectiveness 75%,treatment group curative effect is better than that of control group,both have significant difference ( <0.01).Conclusion Ultrasound in the treatment of various kinds of sports soft tissue injuries curative effect is distinct,is worthy of popularization and application.%目的:观察超声波治疗运动性软组织损伤临床疗效。方法将56例患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组28例。治疗组采用超声波治疗,对照组采用超激光治疗,观察两组疗效。结果治疗组总有效率92.9%,对照组总有效率75%,治疗组疗效优于对照组,两者比较有显著性差异(<0.01)。结论超声波在治疗各种运动型软组织损伤中疗效显著,值得推广应用。

  10. 红外/红光治疗仪缓解慢性软组织损伤症状的临床试验%Clinical trial of infrared/red light therapy instrument on relieving chronic soft tissue injury symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪天庆; 胡思源; 孙庆

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the efficacy and safety of MPET 800 infrared/ red light therapy instrument in relieving chronic soft tissue injury symptom. [Methods] Sixty-six patients were divided into two groups randomly and CQ-61 infrared light therapy instrument was used as control group. The curative effect was evaluated after the physical therapy for 14 days. [Results] Concerning the curative effect of synthetic and local soreness,the effective power of test group was better than that of control group. While regarding tenderness,the curative effect of local swelling and dysfunction,the effective power between two groups had no difference. [Conclusion] The tested instrument can relieve the chronic soft tissue injury symptoms such as local pain,tenderness,dysfunction and local swelling.%[目的]评价迈能MPET800红外/红光治疗仪,缓解慢性软组织损伤引起疼痛等症状的有效性及安全性.[方法]将66名患者随机分为两组,对照组使用CQ-61型红外线治疗器,理疗14d后评价临床疗效.[结果]试验组综合疗效及局部疼痛疗效有效率优于对照组,压痛、局部肿胀及功能障碍疗效有效率与对照组无差异.[结论]本仪器可缓解慢性软组织损伤引起的局部疼痛、压痛、功能障碍、局部肿胀症状.

  11. 负压封闭引流技术在软组织损伤修复中的临床应用%The clinical application of repairing soft tissue injury by vacuum sealing drainage technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟克宣; 杨耿华; 何伟平; 邓寿华; 廖志强; 何值芬; 张愿

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of vacuun sealing drainage( VSD)technique was applied to the soft tissue injury of ear-ly wound repair. Method 68 patients with injury of soft tissue avulsion,isolated and abandoned the linb skin cut into a nesh of full thick-ness skin graft or flap with subdernal vascular network skin defect of planting back cover,VSD technology was applied to pronote granula-tion tissue growth and skin wound repair. Results 68 cases healed in 15 ~ 28 d,postoperative wound healing rate was 82. 4%,in stage II healing rate was 100%;after 3~24 nonths follow-up,patients with skin elasticity,sensory recovery satisfaction. Conclusion This tech-nique is effective to pronote the growth of granulation tissue and skin,can reduce secondary skin grafting or flap to repair the wound,is a sinple,effective nethod.%目的:探讨负压封闭引流( VSD)技术应用于软组织损伤创面早期修复的疗效;方法:对68例四肢软组织损伤患者将撕脱、离体及弃用肢体皮肤修剪成网状全厚皮片或含真皮下血管网皮瓣回植覆盖皮肤缺损创面,采用负压封闭引流技术促进创面肉芽组织及皮片生长修复创面。结果:68例愈合时间15~28 d,术后创面Ⅰ期愈合率为82.4%,Ⅱ期愈合率为100%;经3~24个月随访,患者皮肤弹性、感觉恢复满意。结论:该技术有效促进创面肉芽组织及皮片生长,缩小Ⅱ期植皮或皮瓣转移修复创面,是一种操作简便、疗效确切的治疗方法。

  12. Tamoxifen and estradiol improved locomotor function and increased spared tissue in rats after spinal cord injury: their antioxidant effect and role of estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Laurivette; Colón, Jennifer M; Santiago, José M; Torrado, Aranza I; Meléndez, Margarita; Segarra, Annabell C; Rodríguez-Orengo, José F; Miranda, Jorge D

    2014-05-01

    17β-Estradiol is a multi-active steroid that imparts neuroprotection via diverse mechanisms of action. However, its role as a neuroprotective agent after spinal cord injury (SCI), or the involvement of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) in locomotor recovery, is still a subject of much debate. In this study, we evaluated the effects of estradiol and of Tamoxifen (an estrogen receptor mixed agonist/antagonist) on locomotor recovery following SCI. To control estradiol cyclical variability, ovariectomized female rats received empty or estradiol filled implants, prior to a moderate contusion to the spinal cord. Estradiol improved locomotor function at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post injury (DPI), when compared to control groups (measured with the BBB open field test). This effect was ER-α mediated, because functional recovery was blocked with an ER-α antagonist. We also observed that ER-α was up-regulated after SCI. Long-term treatment (28 DPI) with estradiol and Tamoxifen reduced the extent of the lesion cavity, an effect also mediated by ER-α. The antioxidant effects of estradiol were seen acutely at 2 DPI but not at 28 DPI, and this acute effect was not receptor mediated. Rats treated with Tamoxifen recovered some locomotor activity at 21 and 28 DPI, which could be related to the antioxidant protection seen at these time points. These results show that estradiol improves functional outcome, and these protective effects are mediated by the ER-α dependent and independent-mechanisms. Tamoxifen׳s effects during late stages of SCI support the use of this drug as a long-term alternative treatment for this condition.

  13. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians ... For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  14. 坏死组织对深二度烧伤创面进行性加深的影响%Effect of necrotic tissue on progressive injury in deep partial thickness burn wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆树良; 向军; 青春; 金曙雯; 廖镇江; 史济湘

    2002-01-01

    目的 为探讨深二度烧伤创面坏死组织持续存在对创面组织进行性损害的影响。方法 将7例施行削痂手术的深Ⅱ度烧伤患者创面分为手术前、手术后、和坏死组织存在的未手术创面,并分别获取创面组织标本,测定创面组织释放IL-8、EGF、bFGF、PDGF-AB水平以及观察组织形态学变化。结果 7例未手术创面组织在体外组织培养中释放IL-8水平较削痂手术后创面水平有明显升高(P<0.001);同时,未手术创面EGF、bFGF、PDGF-AB水平与其配对的削痂手术后创面比较均呈明显降低(P<0.05-<0.005)。局部组织形态学观察亦显示,坏死组织存在的未手术创面除有大量中性粒细胞浸润外,坏死范围较手术前扩大,残留的少量皮肤附件因炎症扩大而消失,而削痂后创面的炎性反应较未手术和手术前有明显减轻,无坏死范围的进一步扩大,甚至可见新生肉芽形成和部分表皮修复。结论 创面坏死组织持续存在不仅是创面愈合过程的抑制因素,而且还可能因炎症反应加强或持续存在而导致创面进一步加深,使创面愈合更为延迟。削痂手术作为一种去除坏死组织的主动手段,对促进创面愈合有积极意义。%Objective To evaluate the influence of necrotic tissue on progressive injury in deep partial thickness burn wounds.Methods Tissue specimens were cultured both for estimation of IL-8, EGF, bFGF, PDGF-AB and histopathological examination, from the pre-operation, post-operation, and non-operation wounds from seven patients with deep partial thickness burn.Results In seven specimens from the non-operation group, IL-8 release increased compared with those in the post-operation group (P<0.001), while the levels of EGF, bFGF, PDGF-AB release were lower than those in the post-operation group. Histopathological examination revealed that in the non-operation group, the degree of neutrophil

  15. Muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  16. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  17. 肌肉组织工程研究现状及对运动性肌肉损伤的作用%Research status and effect of muscle tissue engineering on exercise-induced muscle injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏举

    2011-01-01

    fesue engineering for be treatment of muscle injuries has a good prospect.However, in practice applications, muscle tissue-engineered seed cells selection, scaffold construction, extraceHular matrixcomposite materials research and organizational compatibility are the still the difficult problems of muscle tissue engineering.

  18. 64层螺旋CT评价膝关节创伤后的隐匿病变及软组织损伤%Evaluation of the occult lesions and soft tissue injury after knee injury by 64-slice spiral CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟俊; 杨法宝; 赵学航; 张丽; 李勤祥

    2012-01-01

    背景:膝关节创伤患者在行X射线检查后进一步选择64层螺旋CT检查时,根据伤情及重建需要选择何种后处理技术在临床上存在一定分歧.目的:探讨64层螺旋CT及后处理技术在膝关节创伤中的应用价值.方法:回顾性分析79例膝关节创伤患者的普通X射线片及64排螺旋CT影像学资料,采用多平面重组、容积显示和表面遮盖显示等后处理技术,结合原始骨窗及软组织窗图像,由2名以上有经验的放射科和骨科医生对图像进行双盲分析并与临床及图像重建结果对照.结果与结论:在79例膝关节创伤患者中,共计92处骨折.普通X射线片诊断68例82处骨折,1例假阳性,5例假阴性,检出率约为89%;经64层螺旋CT及三维重建后确诊79例共92处骨折,检出率100%.证实,和X射线检查相比,64层螺旋CT及多种图像重建是膝关节创伤的重要辅助检查手段,能进一步明确有无膝关节周围隐匿性骨折、微骨折及脱位及软组织损伤等.%BACKGROUND: The patients with knee trauma received the 64-slice spiral CT examination after the X-ray examination, and there still some differences on the choice of the post-processing technology in clinic according to the injury and reconstruction needs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate application value of 64-slice spiral CT and the post-processing technology in the knee injury. METHODS: The imaging data of the X-ray and 64-slice spiral CTofthe 79 patients with knee injury were retrospectively analyzed, the post-processing technology, such as the multiple planar reformation, volume rendering and shaded surface display were adopted and combined with the image of the original bone and soft tissue window, and the images were dealt by two or more experienced X-ray and orthopaedic surgeons with double-blind analysis and compared with the clinical and operation results . RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In all the 79 patients with knee injury, there were a total of 92 fractures

  19. Tissue Strain Reorganizes Collagen With a Switchlike Response That Regulates Neuronal Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation In Vitro: Implications for Ligamentous Injury and Mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sijia; Cao, Xuan; Stablow, Alec M; Shenoy, Vivek B; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2016-02-01

    Excessive loading of ligaments can activate the neural afferents that innervate the collagenous tissue, leading to a host of pathologies including pain. An integrated experimental and modeling approach was used to define the responses of neurons and the surrounding collagen fibers to the ligamentous matrix loading and to begin to understand how macroscopic deformation is translated to neuronal loading and signaling. A neuron-collagen construct (NCC) developed to mimic innervation of collagenous tissue underwent tension to strains simulating nonpainful (8%) or painful ligament loading (16%). Both neuronal phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is related to neuroplasticity (R2 ≥ 0.041; p ≤ 0.0171) and neuronal aspect ratio (AR) (R2 ≥ 0.250; p element based discrete fiber network (DFN) model predicted that at bulk strains above the transition point, heterogeneous fiber strains were both tensile and compressive and increased, with strains in some fibers along the loading direction exceeding the applied bulk strain. The transition point identified for changes in collagen fiber realignment was consistent with the measured strain threshold (11.7% with a 95% confidence interval of 10.2-13.4%) for elevating ERK phosphorylation after loading. As with collagen fiber realignment, the greatest degree of neuronal reorientation toward the loading direction was observed at the NCC distraction corresponding to painful loading. Because activation of neuronal ERK occurred only at strains that produced evident collagen fiber realignment, findings suggest that tissue strain-induced changes in the micromechanical environment, especially altered local collagen fiber kinematics, may be associated with mechanotransduction signaling in neurons. PMID:26549105

  20. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  1. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  2. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  3. Recovery by N-acetylcysteine from subchronic exposure to Imidacloprid-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis tissues injury in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Alya; Dhouib, Ines Bini; Lamine, Aicha Jrad; El Golli, Nargès; Gharbi, Najoua; El Fazâa, Saloua; Lasram, Mohamed Montassar

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid is the most important example of the neonicotinoid insecticides known to target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in insects, and potentially in mammals. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has been shown to possess curative effects in experimental and clinical investigations. The present study was designed to evaluate the recovery effect of NAC against Imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress and cholinergic transmission alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of male rats following subchronic exposure. About 40 mg/kg of Imidacloprid was administered daily by intragastric intubation and 28 days later, the rats were sacrificed and HPA axis tissues were removed for different analyses. Imidacloprid increased adrenal relative weight and cholesterol level indicating an adaptive stage of the general alarm reaction to stress. Moreover, Imidacloprid caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, the antioxidants catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase showed various alterations following administration and significant depleted thiols content was only recorded in hypothalamic tissue. Furthermore, the hypothalamic and pituitary acetylcholinesterase activity and calcium level were significantly increased highlighting the alteration of cholinergic activity. The present findings revealed that HPA axis is a sensitive target to Imidacloprid (IMI). Interestingly, the use of NAC for only 7 days post-exposure to IMI showed a partial therapeutic effect against Imidacloprid toxicity.

  4. Neuroproteome changes after ischemia/reperfusion injury and tissue plasminogen activator administration in rats: a quantitative iTRAQ proteomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir Merali

    Full Text Available The thrombolytic, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA is the only approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS. When administered after AIS, rt-PA has many adverse pleiotropic actions, which are currently poorly understood. The identification of proteins showing differential expression after rt-PA administration may provide insight into these pleiotropic actions. In this study we used a 2D-LC MS/MS iTRAQ proteomic analysis, western blotting, and pathway analysis to analyze changes in protein expression 24-hours after rt-PA administration in the cortical brain tissue of 36 rats that underwent a sham or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery. After rt-PA administration we reported alterations in the expressions of 18 proteins, many of which were involved in excitatory neurotransmitter function or cytoskeletal structure. The expression changes of GAD2 and EAAT1 were validated with western blot. The interactions between the identified proteins were analyzed with the IPA pathway analysis tool and three proteins: DPYSL2, RTN4, and the NF-kB complex, were found to have characteristics of being key proteins in the network. The differential protein expressions we observed may reflect pleiotropic actions of rt-PA after experimental stroke, and shine light on the mechanisms of rt-PA's adverse effects. This may have important implications in clinical settings where thrombolytic therapy is used to treat AIS.

  5. Traumatic injuries: imaging of peripheral musculoskeletal injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohndorf, K. [Department of Radiology, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany); Kilcoyne, R.F. [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The current dominant role of conventional radiography must be reassessed at increasingly shorter intervals in view of the continuing emergence of new imaging modalities that are available to diagnose peripheral musculoskeletal injuries. In comparison with conventional radiography, digital radiographic techniques offer advantages for optimization of image quality and dose, such as a wider dynamic range and post-processing of images. Currently, digital luminescence radiography (storage phosphor radiography) is the most commonly used digital method for obtaining radiographs, using the established positioning projections and routines of the film-screen technique. A new process, radiography with flat-panel amorphous silicon detectors, is still under development. Computed tomography is a valuable tool for diagnosing injuries of the peripheral musculoskeletal system, especially when three-dimensional data sets are acquired; these allow reformating images in all planes desired (2D technique) or in a volumetric format (3D technique). Established indications for CT in the peripheral skeleton are hip fractures, wrist injuries and calcaneal fractures; however, CT may be used as a supplement to radiography in every region of the body. Sonography is beginning to play an increasingly important role in trauma. Muscle and tendon injuries are the most common indications, but worthwhile information can be gained of the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints, supplementing conventional or digital radiography. Magnetic resonance imaging effectively visualizes traumatic changes of the skeleton and the peripheral soft tissues. It is the method of choice to detect occult fractures. It can be used to diagnose muscle and tendon injuries. Joint injuries, especially in the knee and the shoulder joint, are common indications for MRI in the posttraumatic setting. (orig.)

  6. 茶多酚对急性运动后大鼠骨骼肌组织损伤的保护作用%The protective effects of tea polyphenol on rats' skeletal muscle tissue injury caused by acute exercise/

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 李素云; 周春仙

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨茶多酚对急性运动后大鼠骨骼肌组织损伤的保护作用.方法:30只SD大鼠分为对照组(A)、运动组(B)和运动加茶多酚组(C),建立力竭运动模型,1周后测试骨骼肌组织钙离子(Ca2+)含量、钠泵(Na+-K+-ATP酶)和钙泵(Ca2+-ATP酶)活性,以及在电镜和光镜下观察腓肠肌的形态和超微结构的变化.结果:运动组与对照组相比,骨骼肌组织Ca2+含量显著升高(P<0.05),Ca2+-ATP酶和Na+-K+-ATP酶的显著下降(P<0.05),运动加茶多酚组与运动组相比,骨骼肌Ca2+含量显著减少(P<0.05),Ca2+-ATP酶活性有上升趋势,Na+-K+-ATP酶活性显著升高(P<0.05).光镜和电镜观察运动组有明显的形态学变化和超微结构的损伤,运动加茶多酚组的超微结构损伤有明显改善.结论:茶多酚可降低急性运动后骨骼肌组织中钙离子的含量,修复骨骼肌组织的损伤.%Objective: To approach the protection effects of tea polyphenol on rats' skeletal muscle tissue injury caused by acute exercise.Method:Thirty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, control group(A), exercise group (B) and exercise with tea polyphenol group(C). The rat model of acute exhausted exercise was established. One week later the content of Ca2+, the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase in skeletal muscles were measured, and the changes of morphology and altrastructure of gastrocnemius were observed under optical and electric microscopes.Result: Compared with A group, the content of Ca2 + increased(P< 0.05),activities of Ca2 +-ATPase and Na+-K+-ATPase dropped(P<0.05) in B group. Compared with B group, the content of Ca2+ decreased(P<0.05), actrivity of Ca2+-ATPase had rising tendency and activity of Na+-K+-ATPase rose(P<0.05) in C group. Evident morphological changes and ultrastructure injury were observed in B group, but in C group ultrastructure injury was lighter than those in B group.Conclusion: Tea polyphenol can reduce the content of Ca2+ in skeleton

  7. 红光照射对大鼠急性软组织损伤IGF-1表达的影响%Effects of red light therapy on IGF-1 expression in rats with acute soft tissue injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国; 杨雅丽; 郑宝森; 耿葆梁; 闫洪涛; 张雷; 刘兆强

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the effects of red light therapy ( RLT ) in acute closed soft tissue injury rat model,and to evaluate its effect on muscle regeneration and repair. Methods Sixty-six healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group, spontaneous closure group, RLT group. Rat models of gastrocnemius muscle injury were established by a single-impact blunt trauma which was delivered by home-made " free-drop-mass" device. The expression of insulin-like growth factor - 1 ( IGF - 1 ) was measured using immunohistochemistry on the 1,2,3,5,7 and 14 days after the injury. In addition, morphological changes of injured tissue were ohserved using light microscope. Results Compared with spontaneous closure group, analysis of hematoxylin-eosin ( HE ) stained using light microscope showed that the duration of acute inflammatory reaction was dramatically shortened in RLT group. Moreover, the rate of muscle regeneration and the quality of healing were significantly improved in RLT group. On the 1 , 2,3 , 5 and 7 days after injury , the expression of insulin-like IGF - 1 in RLT group was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. Conclusion RLT can promote muscle regeneration and repair through reducing the reaction of skeletal inflammation and elevating the expression of IGF - 1.%目的 观察红光照射在急性闭合性软组织损伤大鼠模型中的作用,评价其对肌肉再生和修复的影响.方法 将健康雄性 Wistar大白鼠66只随机分为正常对照组、自然愈合组和红光照射组.采用自制的"重物自由落体"打击装置,通过单次撞击,建立大鼠急性腓肠肌损伤模型.于造模后第1,2,3,5,7,14天,采用免疫组织化学方法,观察I型胰岛素样生长因子(IGF-1)的表达情况,并采用光镜观察组织形态学的改变.结果 与自然愈合组相比,苏木精-伊红(HE)染色光镜分析显示,红光照射组急性炎症反应的持续时间明显缩短,肌肉再

  8. Quantitative indicator of cortisone in human adrenal tissue as a criterion for determining the duration of the duration of fatal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkand T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms of myocardium necrosis, to develop the preventive and treatment measures its experimental studying in different models is necessary. The paper covers the dynamics of morphological changes in myocardium after cryoeffect in heart for 15 and 30 sec, ligation of left coronary artery and introduction of adrenalin toxic doses. It has been established that cryoeffect to heart led to the appearance of necrotic zone in myocardium with no ischemic inflammation phase, herewith the depth of cardiac muscle lesion depended directly on cryoeffect duration. The ligation of coronary artery contributed to the formation of ischemic necrosis of myocardium in the zone of ligated vessel basin with manifested discirculatory disorders. Focus lesion of myocardium resulted from the introduction of toxic doses of adrenalin was focused around arterial vessels, which later led to periarterial proliferation of fibroblasts and formation of granulation tissue.

  9. The relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons (42MeV/sub d→Be/) for early and late normal tissue injury in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early and late radiation damage has been investigated in a number of normal tissues in the pig after irradiation with single doses of neutrons produced by 42MeV deuterons on beryllium. The results have been compared with data obtained after irradiation with single doses of 250kV X rays. In the skin a low RBE value of approximately 1.2 was obtained for the early (3-9 week) epithelial reaction. For the subsequent dermal vascular response, higher RBE values in the range of 1.35-1.6 were obtained; the RBE decreasing with an increase in the neutron dose. For late skin damage, assessed by the relative reduction in the linear dimensions of an irradiated field, a RBE value of approximately 1.5 was obtained. In the kidney the RBE value, for a neutron dose level (550 cGy) at which renal function was just preserved, was 2.0. A lower value of 1.7 was found for doses resulting in a loss of renal function. The results of 133Xenon clearance studies showed two waves of impaired ventilation function in the irradiated lung. In the acute reaction (3-9 months), at a dose level consistent with just preserving normal ventilation function, the RBE value was <1.2. For late lung damage (15-24 months) the RBE value was higher, 1.4. For the rectum, methods are presently only available for assessing acute damage. A RBE of 2.0 was found for neutron doses in the range 350-575 cGy. The RBE values for early endpoints in the skin, lung and gut of the pig are comparable with those published previously for other species, including man. The values for late effects in pig skin and lung were higher than for early damage in those tissues

  10. Ultrasound imaging of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)

  11. PPARγexpression in rat lung tissue after ventilator-induced lung injury%机械通气致大鼠肺损伤时肺组织PPARγ表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芹; 王凯国; 罗红敏; 李浩; 王宝胜; 王培民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of PPARγ expression in ventilator-induced lung injury rats and explore the role of PPARγ in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. Methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups ( n=21 each ):group N received large tidal volume with mechanical ventilation ( Vt=12 mL/kg);group C received lower tidal volume with mechanical ventilation ( Vt=6 mL/kg);group R received room air without mechanical ventilation. Rats in every group were randomly divided into 3 subgroups respectively by 1,4 and 8 h. The samples of lung were collected at 1,4 and 8 h after ventilation. Lung pathological examina-tion, total protein and white blood cells in bronchoalveolar fluid and wet-to-dry weight were detected. The exoressions of PPARγmRNA were detected by RTPCR;PPARγ protein in lung tissues was detected by western bolt. Result After 4 and 8 h ventilation in group N,total pro-tein and WBC in bronchoalvelor fluid,W/D were markedly higher than those of group C and R (P 0. 05). Conclusion PPARγmRNA and protein expressions in the rats lung tissue of ventilator-induced lung injury were decreased and as-sociated with inflammation and damage of lung tissue.%目的:观察PPARγ在通气相关性肺损伤大鼠肺组织中的表达,探讨PPARγ在通气相关性肺损伤中的作用。方法清洁雄性SD大鼠,随机分为大潮气量( Tidal volume,VT)组,Vt=12 mL;小潮气量组,Vt=6 mL;自主呼吸组。每组又分为3个亚组:即通气1h、4h、8h组。于各时间段末放血处死动物,收集肺组织和肺灌洗液标本,测定肺灌洗液中蛋白总量、白细胞计数;测定肺组织湿/干重比( W/D);逆转录聚合酶链反应检测PPARγmRNA的表达;western blot检测PPARγ蛋白的变化。结果大潮气量组机械通气4 h、8 h后,与小潮气量组及自主呼吸组相比,肺灌洗液中白细胞计数、蛋白总量明显增加(P 0.05)。结论通气相关性肺损伤大鼠肺组织

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  15. 腹腔镜下电器械对卵巢组织热损伤的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Electro-surgical Unit’s Influence on the Heat Injury of Ovarian Tissue under Laparoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林碧娟; 林松波; 黄春玲; 颜青

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the electro-surgical unit’s clinical influence on the heat injury of ovarian tissue under laparoscope,for reference.Method:150 ovarian tumor patients were involved in the study,and grouped according to the random principle.They were divided into three groups:group of monopolar electrocoagulation (50 cases),group of bipolar electrocoagulation (50 cases),group of electrocoagulation ultrasonic scalpel (50 cases).The surgical procedures of three groups were compared.Result:Compared the length of surgery under Laparoscopy,length of activities,length of gas passing,length of hospital stays and the usage rate of painkiller of three groups,the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Though the study of the depth and width of the zone of thermal necrosis’s heat injury of ovarian tissue,we concluded that electrocoagulation ultrasonic scalpel imposed the minimum damages,bipolar electrocoagulation the second,and monopolar electrocoagulation the maximum,the differences were statistically significant (P0.05)。从卵巢组织热损伤坏死带深度和宽度来看,超声刀组损伤最小,其次为双极电凝组,损伤最大的为单极电凝组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:不同电器械对卵巢组织所产生的热损伤不同,超声刀带来的热损伤最小,其次是双极电凝,单极电凝带来的热损伤最大,临床上治疗时需根据实际情况考虑,尽量选用热损伤范围小的PK刀。最好选用缝合止血,从而减少卵巢组织的损伤,保护患者术后卵巢排卵的生育功能。

  16. Tissue engineering technology and biomaterials for repair of sports articular cartilage injury%组织工程技术及生物材料修复运动性关节软骨损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金玉; 薛媛; 杨洪武

    2011-01-01

    目的:总结组织工程技术及生物材料在防治运动性关节软骨损伤中的应用特点.方法:以"关节软骨,组织工程技术,生物材料"为中文关键词,以"tissue enginneering, articular cartilage, scaffold material"为英文关键词,采用计算机检索Pubmed数据库(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed)及维普数据库(http://www.cqvip.com/)1993-01/2010-10的相关文章,排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章.以23篇文献为主,重点对修复运动性关节软骨损伤种子细胞、支架材料、细胞因子及其性能进行讨论.结果:计算机初检得到104篇文献,根据纳入排除标准,对组织工程软骨的种子细胞、生物支架材料以及用于组织工程中的细胞因子进行总结与分析.种子细胞是制约组织工程软骨进一步临床应用的首要因素,目前常采用的种子细胞有软骨细胞、骨髓基质干细胞和胚胎干细胞等;生物支架材料包括天然材料和人工合成可降解聚合物等;用于软骨组织工程的生长因子主要包括转化生长因子、骨形成蛋白、成纤维细胞生长因子、胰岛素样生长因子等.结论:迄今为止,无论是工程软骨的种子细胞、支架材料、培养环境等还没有任何一种材料被认为最理想,寻求一种具有良好性能的组织工程化关节软骨是未来研究的重点.但目前很多研究仍处于实验阶段,还有一些问题有待于解决,特别是组织工程细胞支架材料植入体内后,材料的降解与细胞功能发挥是否同步,会不会产生遗传物质改变、基因表达或基因突变等问题,将其应用于临床更需要相关学者专家不断的实践和探索.%OBJECTIVE: To summarize the application characteristics of tissue engineering technology and biomaterials in preventing sports articular cartilage injury.METHODS: A computer-based online search of Pubmed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed) and VIP database (http://www.cqvip.com/) from

  17. 高能量损伤致足跟软组织缺损的修复%Repair of high energy injury-induced soft tissue wound of the heel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝旭; 厉孟; 葛宝丰; 高杰; 李志琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the methods and effects of different flaps for repair of high energy injury-induced soft tissue wound of the heel.Methods From January 2002 to June 2012,the patients including 12 males and 9 females aged 18-57 years (mean,32 years) underwent heel soft tissue defect reconstruction.Causes of injury were traffic injury in 11 case and mechanical injury in 10 cases.Dimension of soft tissue defect ranged from 5 cm × 3 cm to 8 cm × 6 cm.Soft-tissue defect was repaired with sural neurovascular flaps at the posterolateral heel in 9 cases (Group A),with posterior tibial artery flaps at the posterolateral heel in 5 cases (Group B),and with medial plantar flaps at the loading area of heel in 7 cases (Group C).Sensory recovery and two point discrimination motion of the ankle joint were observed and compared among groups 12 month after operation.Heel pain was observed during weight bearing and joint activity was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS).Results All the flaps survived,except for one with epidermal necrosis over the distal part,which healed after partial changing medication.Duration of follow-up was 12-24 months.There were no differences in the appearance,texture and contour between the flaps and recipient sites.Flaps showed no ulcer in the weight-bearing area and recovered their protective sense.Patients could walk normally after surgery.At postoperative 1 year,sensory recovery rate of the flaps in Groups A,B and C was 0,20% and 100% respectively (P <0.01).Appearance of the heel in all groups recovered to almost normal.Cases that could start nil weight-bearing exercise without pain accounted for 8 (89%) in Group A,4 (80%) in Group B,and 6 (86%) in Group C (P > 0.05).While heel pain existed in weight-bearing exercise.Difference in VAS was significant among the three groups (P < 0.05),but ankle range of motion was not (P >0.05).Conclusion Medial plantar flaps are suitable for tissue defect of 5-8 cm in length but

  18. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  19. Automatic classification of scar tissue in late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI for the assessment of left-atrial wall injury after radiofrequency ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Daniel; Morris, Alan; Burgon, Nathan; McGann, Christopher; MacLeod, Robert; Cates, Joshua

    2012-03-01

    Radiofrequency ablation is a promising procedure for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) that relies on accurate lesion delivery in the left atrial (LA) wall for success. Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI (LGE MRI) at three months post-ablation has proven effective for noninvasive assessment of the location and extent of scar formation, which are important factors for predicting patient outcome and planning of redo ablation procedures. We have developed an algorithm for automatic classification in LGE MRI of scar tissue in the LA wall and have evaluated accuracy and consistency compared to manual scar classifications by expert observers. Our approach clusters voxels based on normalized intensity and was chosen through a systematic comparison of the performance of multivariate clustering on many combinations of image texture. Algorithm performance was determined by overlap with ground truth, using multiple overlap measures, and the accuracy of the estimation of the total amount of scar in the LA. Ground truth was determined using the STAPLE algorithm, which produces a probabilistic estimate of the true scar classification from multiple expert manual segmentations. Evaluation of the ground truth data set was based on both inter- and intra-observer agreement, with variation among expert classifiers indicating the difficulty of scar classification for a given a dataset. Our proposed automatic scar classification algorithm performs well for both scar localization and estimation of scar volume: for ground truth datasets considered easy, variability from the ground truth was low; for those considered difficult, variability from ground truth was on par with the variability across experts.

  20. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  1. 加减葫芦巴丸治疗子宫内膜异位症(腺肌病)痛经40例疗效观察%Effect observation on treatment of dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis(adenomyosis)with Modified Fenugreek Bolus in 40 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁峰; 王铁枫; 史梅莹; 王东红

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察加减葫芦巴丸对子宫内膜异位症(腺肌病)痛经的临床疗效及血清CA125的影响.方法:运用加减葫芦巴丸治疗寒凝血瘀型子宫内膜异位症(腺肌病)痛经患者40例,观察治疗3个月前后在症状、体征变化、生活质量及CA125等指标的改变.结果:40例患者总有效率95%,治疗前后CA125有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:加减葫芦巴丸可有效缓解内异症(腺肌病)患者痛经症状,降低血清CA125水平,是治疗该病安全有效的药物.%Objective: Clinical effect observation on the treatment of dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis (adenomyosis)with Modified Fenugreek Bolus and its effect of serum CA125.Methods: Used the Modified Fenugreek Bolus to treat patients of dysmenorrhea with cold coagulation and blood stasis due to endometriosis (adenomyosis).After 3 months treatment compared with before treatment, observed the changes of target of symptoms, signs, Life Quality Scale and serum CA125.Results: The total effective of 40 cases was 95%, there was a significant difference in the serum CA125 between before and after treatment.Conclusion: The Modified Fenugreek Bolus can relieve the dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis (adenomyosis), reduction of serum CA125 levels, is a safe and effective drug to treat this disease.

  2. 金黄凝胶对大鼠急性软组织损伤的治疗作用研究%Therapeutic effects of Jinghuang Gel on acute soft tissue injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玥; 唐朝辉; 曹亮; 丁岗; 王振中; 萧伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapeutic effects of Jinghuang Gel on acute soft tissue injury in rats.Methods Except 10 rats were selected as control group, the other rats were randomly divided into model group, Diclofenac Sodium Gel (0.010 g) group, Qingpeng Ointment (0.300 g) group, and Jinghuang Gel (0.033, 0.069, and 0.138 g) groups. Acute soft tissue injury models in rats were caused by crushing method. After 24 h, rats were smeared with different medicines on left hind limb injured site. The degree of swelling in injured site was observed, and swelling degree was calculated. Pain threshold was determined. Damage index was recorded. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2, and NO in serum were determined. And pathological changes were detected in injured site before and after the administration.Results Compared with the model group, swelling degrees of Jinghuang Gel (0.033, 0.069, and 0.138 g) groups were significantly decreased, and pain thresholds were obviously increased (P < 0.05, 0.01) after administration for 3 and 5 d; The damage index of those groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, 0.01) after administration for 5 d. Compared with the model group, levels of PGE2 of Jinghuang Gel (0.033, 0.069, and 0.138 g) groups were significantly decreased (P < 0.05, 0.01), and levels of IL-6 in Jinghuang Gel 0.138 and 0.069 g groups were also significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The injury degree of rats administered was improved, and muscle injury scores were significantly decreased (P < 0.05, 0.01) except Jinghuang Gel 0.033 g group.Conclusion Jinghuang Gel has therapeutic effect on acute soft tissue injury.%目的:探讨金黄凝胶对大鼠急性软组织损伤的治疗作用。方法随机选取10只大鼠作为对照组,将其余大鼠随机分为模型组、双氯芬酸钠凝胶(0.010 g)组、青鹏软膏(0.300 g)组、金黄散膏(0.069 g)组以及金黄凝胶0.033、0.069、0.138 g组。采用砝码砸伤法造成大鼠急

  3. Iatrogenic Lens Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Kamış

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During intraocular surgery, undesired damages of various etiology may occur in adjacent tissues. One of these tissues is the crystalline lens, which may be traumatized both in anterior segment and posterior segment surgeries, and when damaged, it usually causes marked decrease in visual acuity. The leading causes of iatrogenic lens injuries are intravitreal injection, laser iridotomy, phakic intraocular lens implantation, anterior chamber paracentesis, and vitreoretinal surgery. When crystalline lens damage occurs, its negative effect on visual function may be eliminated by performing cataract surgery intraoperatively or in elective conditions. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 27-30

  4. 组织工程化韧带在前交叉韧带运动损伤修复中的作用%Tissue engineered ligament in repair of sports-induced anterior cruciate ligament injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许荣梅

    2011-01-01

    背景:交叉韧带是膝关节内的核心性稳定结构,具有制导膝关节生理活动并限制非生理性活动的功能,其中前交叉韧带的作用更为重要,其损伤的治疗已成为目前运动医学研究的热点.目的:探讨前交叉韧带生理功能、损伤机制,综述其修复过程中组织工程化材料的研究成果.方法:应用计算机检索1990-01/2011-02 PubMed数据库及维普数据库有关前交叉韧带组织工程研究进展、肌腱支架材料生物力学分析、生物材料在肌腱组织工程中应用及组织工程技术在修复肌腱缺损临床应用方面的相关文献,英文检索词"anterior cruciate ligament,biological materials,damage,treatment",中文检索词"前交叉韧带,生物材料,损伤,治疗",检索文献量总计102篇.结果与结论:前交叉韧带损伤后组织工程化康复措施得到了较快发展,从材料的选择来看,单一移植材料难免会存在诸多不足,不利于韧带的康复,复合材料可以结合不同材料的特性对韧带组织工程化材料进行配置,可以弥补单一材料的生物相容性、降解速度、生物力学性能、材料的韧性等不足,另外,对组织工程化材料进行功能结构加工也是尤为重要,这样可以更大程度的为细胞提供吸附、成长和分化的良好环境.同时,基因技术的进步以及各种新型材料的研制,必将在更大程度上满足前交叉韧带康复的需要.%BACKGROUND: Cruciate ligaments are the core of the knee joint, which can guide physical activity and limit non-physiological functions of the joint. The anterior cruciate ligament is especially important, and anterior cruciate ligament injury has become the hotspot in sports medicine.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the achievements on the physiological functions, injury mechanism and tissue-engineered materials used in the repair of anterior cruciate ligament.MEHTODS: A computer-based search was conducted in PubMed and VIP databases for

  5. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial such as hipoxia, hypotensi, hyponatremia, hypertermia, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The cause of intracranial such as extradural, subdural, intraserebral, intraventrikular, dan subarachnoid hemorrhage. Beside that secondary injury can also be caused by edema and infection. Post-traumatic cerebral injured is characterized by direct tissue damage, impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow (cerebral blood flow / CBF, and disruption of metabolism. Manifestations of secondary brain injured include increased intracranial pressure, ischemic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbi, as well as disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The first priority is to stabilize the patient's cervical spine injury, relieve and maintain airway, ensure adequate ventilation (breathing, and making venous access for fluid resuscitation pathways (circulation and assessing the level of awareness and disability. This steps is crucial in patients with head injured to prevent hypoxia and hypotension, which is the main cause of secondary brain injury.

  6. Whiplash Injuries: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash injuries remain a significant public health problem throughout the developed industrialized world, with significant socioeconomic consequences. Studies looking at the natural history of whiplash injuries have suffered from problems of selection bias, retrospective reviewing and unclear outcomes. Etiology continues to be controversial, largely because of the misconception that all soft tissue injuries heal within six weeks. Recent studies have implicated the cervical facet joint as a cause of whiplash injury pain. A recent treatment study that successfully eliminated whiplash-associated facet joint pain demonstrated abnormal psychological profiles secondary to pain which normalized with successful pain elimination. The impact of compensation on recovery remains controversial, while the concept that mild traumatic brain injury occurs in the absence of loss of consciousness has been largely refuted. The Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders recently published a report in which the scientific literature was exhaustively reviewed and has made recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of whiplash and its associated disorders. The Quebec Task Force highlighted the paucity of good scientific evidence; however, they still provided consensus treatment guidelines, which have not been validated. There continues to be a need for further research.

  7. Plant ozone injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

  8. Application of sustained compression cold therapy in early stage patients of soft tissue injury%持续加压冷疗在软组织损伤早期患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁妮; 林少虹; 杨克勤; 韦平欧; 陆彩玲; 何汉萍; 李春容; 黄式环

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the safety of the application of sustained compression cold therapy in soft tissue injury. Methods:Selected 101 patients of closed injury of limbs patients applied with sustained compression cold therapy admitted by our hospital from January 2013 to May 2015 as research objects, monitored patients’1,2,4,24,48 h axillary temperature,body surface temperature of injured limbs and healthy limbs,pulse,blood pressure,blood oxygen saturation of endings before and after the cold therapy,recorded adverse events in cold therapy. Results:Body surface temperature of injured limbs after the cold therapy was lower than the temperature before the therapy,and there was no difference in all time period after the cold therapy(P > 0. 05);the pulse after the cold therapy was lower than the temperature before(P 0. 05);blood pressure after the cold thera-py was lower than the one before,and the blood pressure in all time period after the cold therapy were the same(P > 0. 05). There wasnˊt statistical differ-ence in axillary temperature,body surface temperature of healthy limbs,blood oxygen saturation of endings comparison(P > 0. 05);no adverse reaction oc-curred. Conclusion:Applying sustained compression cold therapy in early stage of soft tissue injury has safety.%目的:探讨持续加压冷疗在软组织损伤早期应用的安全性。方法:选择2013年1月~2015年5月期间我院收治的101例四肢闭合性损伤应用持续加压冷疗的患者为研究对象,监测冷疗前及冷疗后1,2,4,24,48 h 腋窝温度、患肢体表温度、健肢体表温度、脉搏、血压、末梢血氧饱和度,记录冷疗过程中的不良事件。结果:患肢体表温度冷疗后较冷疗前低,冷疗后各个时间段差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);脉搏在冷疗后比冷疗前低(P <0.05),冷疗后4,24,48 h 比冷疗后1 h 低(P <0.05),冷疗后24,48 h 变化差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);

  9. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM. Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study.

  10. Effect of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury on the leptin levels in serum and adipose tissue%肠缺血再灌注损伤对血清及脂肪组织Leptin水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林季; 颜光涛; 王录焕; 郝秀华; 张凯; 薛辉

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that adipose tissue is not only the reservation of fat, but also a multi-potential endocrine organ secreting many functional cytokines. Leptin is a protein specifically secreted by adipose tissue, and primarily reduces food-intake and promotes energy expenditure.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury on leptin levels in serum and adipose tissue, and find out the role of leptin playing in acute inflammatory responses.DESIGN: A completely random self-and mutual-control experiment.SETTING and MATERIALS: The experiment was collected and completed in Research Laboratory of Biochemistry, General Hospital of Chinese PLA.Three male New Zealand white rabbits and fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for experimental use.INTERVENTIONS: New Zealand white rabbits were immunized to obtain anti-leptin, leptin antigen was iodinated by chloramines-T method, thus we established a concise radioimmunoassay for murine leptin. An intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury model of rats was established, and rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham-operation group(sham), 60-minute ischemia and 30-minute reperfusion group(I60-R30), I60-R90, I60-R150,I60-R240 and I60-R360; each group contained nine rats.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The changes of leptin concentrations in serum and adipose tissue before and after ischemia-reperfusion injury were checked by the radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: Compared with self-control(before injury), serum leptin level of I60-R30 decreased significantly(t=2.3891, P<0.05), that of I60-R150 expressed a trend to increase and that of I60-R360 increased significantly ( t = - 2. 3437, P<0.05 ). Compared with sham after injury [ (9.88±1.87)μg/L], serum leptin level of I60-R240 expressed a trend to increase, that of I60-R360[ (19.43±2.84) μg/L] increased significantly( t = - 2. 8085, P <0.05) . Compared with sham after injury [ ( 11.12±1.27 ) ng], adipose leptin levels of I60-R30[ (4

  11. Sleep in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaelen, James; Greiffenstein, Patrick; deBoisblanc, Bennett P

    2015-07-01

    More than one-half million patients are hospitalized annually for traumatic brain injury (TBI). One-quarter demonstrate sleep-disordered breathing, up to 50% experience insomnia, and half have hypersomnia. Sleep disturbances after TBI may result from injury to sleep-regulating brain tissue, nonspecific neurohormonal responses to systemic injury, ICU environmental interference, and medication side effects. A diagnosis of sleep disturbances requires a high index of suspicion and appropriate testing. Treatment starts with a focus on making the ICU environment conducive to normal sleep. Treating sleep-disordered breathing likely has outcome benefits in TBI. The use of sleep promoting sedative-hypnotics and anxiolytics should be judicious. PMID:26118920

  12. Heparan sulfate/collagen nerve tissue-engineered scaffolds repair peripheral nerve injury%硫酸肝素/胶原蛋白神经组织工程支架修复周围神经损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘晓; 南吴力

    2016-01-01

    背景:神经组织工程支架材料必须具有轴向排列结构,才有利于再生轴突的定向生长,保证损伤神经获得有效修复和再生。目的:观察硫酸肝素/胶原蛋白神经组织工程支架修复周围神经损伤的效果。方法:制作硫酸肝素/胶原蛋白神经组织工程支架,观察支架内部结构,检测支架孔隙率;将许旺细胞接种于硫酸肝素/胶原蛋白神经组织工程支架上,观察细胞黏附性。切除32只大鼠左侧坐骨神经,随机分2组,每组16只,实验组于神经缺损处植入接种许旺细胞的硫酸肝素/胶原蛋白神经组织工程支架,对照组植入自体坐骨神经,植入后16周,进行有髓神经纤维直径、髓鞘厚度、有髓神经纤维密度及神经组织百分比及电生理检测。结果与结论:①神经组织工程支架由沿着轴向平行排列的微管组成,微管直径为180µm,支架孔隙率为91%;许旺细胞与硫酸肝素/胶原蛋白神经组织工程支架具有良好的生物相容性;②植入后16周,两组髓鞘厚度、有髓神经纤维密度、运动神经传导速度及潜伏期、感觉神经传导速度及潜伏期比较差异无显著性意义,实验组有髓神经纤维直径、神经组织百分比、运动神经与感觉神经波幅显著低于对照组(P <0.05);③结果表明:硫酸肝素/胶原蛋白神经组织工程支架可有效修复周围神经损伤,但效果弱于自体神经修复。%BACKGROUND: Nerve tissue-engineered scaffolds must have axial y aligned structures, that can promote oriented growth of new axons, to guarantee the effective repair and regeneration of damaged nerves. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of heparin sulfate/col agen nerve tissue-engineered scaffolds on peripheral nerve injury repair. METHODS: Heparin sulfate/col agen nerve tissue-engineered scaffolds were prepared, and its internal structure and porosity was observed and measured. Then rat

  13. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ballesteros, M. F., Sleet, D. A. (2008). CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional injuries among 0-19 ... American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Management of pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 121 , 849–854. [top] How many people are ... may slightly increase childhood risk of neurological impairment, NIH study suggests All ...

  14. Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and protection against free radical injury to brain tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanji Xu; Chunji Han; Songji Xu; Xing Yu; Guozhe Jiang; Chunhua Nan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Acanthopanax senticosus,a plant of the Araliaceae family,is used in traditional Chinese medicine.It can be used to replenish Qi,strengthen the spleen,tonify the kidney,and relieve mental strain.OBJECTIVE:To observe effects ofAcanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and abnormal biochemical changes in the brain tissue.DESIGN:A completely randomized grouping,controlled animal experiment.SETTING:Department of Preventive Medicine,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Yanbian University.MATERIALS:A total of 50 Kunming mice,aged 1-1.5 months,equal numbers of males and females,were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center,Yanbian University Medical College.The study was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals.Acanthopanax was provided by Yanbian Chengda Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.Acanthopanax senticosus(0.5 kg)was soaked in water for 1 hour and transferred to 1.5 kg distilled water for extraction.It was boiled for 1 hour and extracted after 1 hour of boiling.The procedure was repeated 3 times.The extract was condensed to 500 mL and then adjusted to 500 and 1 000 g/L with water.Piracetam tablets were produced by Shandong Luoxin Pharmaceutical Corporation, China.Malonaldehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD),and acetylcholinesterase(ACHE)kits were purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Co.,Ltd.,China. METHODS:This study was performed at the Department of Preventive Medicine,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Yanbian University from January to June 2007.All mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 mice in each:control group,model group,low-,and high-dose Acanthopanax senticosus-treated groups, and piracetam-treated group.All groups were administered 0.1 mL/10 g.In the control and model groups, mice were intragastrically administered saline each morning for 5 days prior to experimentation.Five days later,they were intraperitoneally perfused with saline and aluminum trichloride

  15. Effect of pre-ischemia on hypoxia-inducible factor expression in the brain tissue of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) can lead to the adaptative reaction of body for hypoxia and ischemia. HIF-1 plays an important role in the response of ischemia-hypoxia. At present, there has been no overall report on the significance for the expression of HIF-1 following experimental cerebral ischemia.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of HIF-1 after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by immunohistochemical method.DESIGN: Completely randomly grouped controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Second Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University.MATERIALS: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley healthy male rats, with body mass of 250 - 330 g, were used in this study. Thirty-six rats were randomized into 3 groups: pre-ischemia group, sham-operation group and control group, with 12 rats in each.METHODS: This study was carried out in the clinical laboratory, People's Hospital of Ningjin County of Shandong Province from March 2006 to January 2007. Rats in the pre-ischemia group were created into pre-ischemia models by two embolisms twice. Three days after ischemic preconditioning, middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 2 hours with the same method. After being perfused for 22 hours, the rats were euthanized. In the sham-operation group, rats were not given the treatment of pre-ischemia. In the first operation, only common carotid artery (CCA) and its crotch were exposed in the first operation, and MCA was not blocked by inserting embolism. At postoperative 3 days, rats were euthanized after being subjected to MCAO for 2 hours and reperfusion 22 hours by the same procedure as that in the pre-ischemia group. As for each rat in the control group, only CCA and its crotch were exposed, and no any other treatment was carried out on them.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain tissue of each rat was performed immunohistochemical staining at reperfusion 22 hours after pre-ischemia, HIF-1 expression and brain infarct volume were detected.RESULTS: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were

  16. 音乐治疗在高强度聚焦超声消融子宫腺肌症中的应用%Application of music therapy in ablation of uterine adenomyosis with high intensity focused ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莺; 高悦; 王燕; 金志春; 陈锦云

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of music therapy on uterine adenomyosis patients accepting high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Methods:A total of 90 adenomyosis patients accepting HIFU ablation were randomly divided into the music therapy group and the control group. Music therapy group continued to listen to music from 1 hour before the ablation to the the end of the ablation. The control group was according to the conventional methods for HIFU ablation. Two groups were compared by patients’ preoperative anxiety levels, intra-operative blood pressure and heart rate, post-operative pain and analgesic doses. Results:The preoperative anxiety degree, the intra-operative blood pressure and heart rate, the post-operative pain scores and analgesic doses in the music therapy group were significantly better than those in the control group. Conclusion:Music therapy in HIFU ablation can improve stress state of patients. It can stabilize intra-operative physiological indexes of patients, reduce their anxiety degree, reduce post-operative pain and analgesic drug doses as well, and it’s good for the smooth progress of HIFU ablation.%目的:研究音乐治疗在高强度聚焦超声消融子宫腺肌症中的应用效果。方法:将90例高强度聚焦超声(HIFU)消融治疗的子宫腺肌症患者随机分成实验治疗组和对照组进行研究分析。实验治疗组在常规消融治疗前1h至结束时持续听音乐;对照组则按常规方式进行超声消融治疗。观察二组患者治疗前的焦虑程度,治疗中的血压、心率,治疗后的疼痛及镇痛药物使用剂量情况。结果:实验治疗组治疗前的焦虑程度、治疗中的血压、心率、治疗后的疼痛评分、镇痛药物使用剂量均明显优于对照组。结论:应用音乐治疗可明显改善子宫腺肌症患者HIFU治疗过程中的应激状态,稳定治疗中生理指标,减轻焦虑状态及治疗后疼痛和镇痛药物使用剂

  17. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Repetitive Stress Injuries Print ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  18. 中草药配合中医推拿对龙狮队员软组织损伤后的功能恢复%The effect of massage with Traditional Chinese Medicine on soft tissue rehabilitation after injury for the dragon-lion dance team members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林昭绒; 刘永峰; 欧光强; 章要在

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Dragon and Lion Dance team of Foshan University, through closed soft tissue injury investigation, we found the site of injury which had a close relationship with special technical features. In the Dragon and Lion Dance team functional recovery from soft tissue injury, this article mainly uses Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment such as massage therapy combined with TCM. Such therapy helps team members recover from injury as soon as possible, and maintain normal levels of physical health, as well as achieve the aim of motor skills recovery.%通过对佛山科学技术学院龙狮队员闭合性软组织损伤的调查,发现损伤的部位程度与专项技术特点有密切关系。在龙狮队员软组织损伤患者进行功能恢复中,主要采用中药疗法配合中医推拿等方法进行治疗。使龙狮队员肢体患处功能得到尽快的恢复,既可维持肢体健康的正常水平,又能达到恢复运动技能的目的。

  19. Nanomedicine for Treating Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent use...

  20. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  1. Rowing Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously publish...

  2. A phase I study evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of an antibody-based tissue factor antagonist in subjects with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Peter E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue factor (TF-dependent extrinsic pathway has been suggested to be a central mechanism by which the coagulation cascade is locally activated in the lungs of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS and thus represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. This study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ALT-836, an anti-TF antibody, in patients with ALI/ARDS. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation Phase I clinical trial in adult patients who had suspected or proven infection, were receiving mechanical ventilation and had ALI/ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mm. Eighteen patients (6 per cohort were randomized in a 5:1 ratio to receive ALT-836 or placebo, and were treated within 48 hours after meeting screening criteria. Cohorts of patients were administered a single intravenously dose of 0.06, 0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg ALT-836 or placebo. Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity measurements. Safety was assessed by adverse events, vital signs, ECGs, laboratory, coagulation and pulmonary function parameters. Results Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a dose dependent exposure to ALT-836 across the infusion range of 0.06 to 0.1 mg/kg. No anti-ALT-836 antibody response was observed in the study population during the trial. No major bleeding episodes were reported in the ALT-836 treated patients. The most frequent adverse events were anemia, observed in both placebo and ALT-836 treated patients, and ALT-836 dose dependent, self-resolved hematuria, which suggested 0.08 mg/kg as an acceptable dose level of ALT-836 in this patient population. Conclusions Overall, this study showed that ALT-836 could be safely administered to patients with sepsis-induced ALI/ARDS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01438853

  3. Acute finger injuries: part II. Fractures, dislocations, and thumb injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggit, Jeffrey C; Meko, Christian J

    2006-03-01

    Family physicians can treat most finger fractures and dislocations, but when necessary, prompt referral to an orthopedic or hand surgeon is important to maximize future function. Examination includes radiography (oblique, anteroposterior, and true lateral views) and physical examination to detect fractures. Dislocation reduction is accomplished with careful traction. If successful, further treatment focuses on the concomitant soft tissue injury. Referral is needed for irreducible dislocations. Distal phalanx fractures are treated conservatively, and middle phalanx fractures can be treated if reduction is stable. Physicians usually can reduce metacarpal bone fractures, even if there is a large degree of angulation. An orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat finger injuries that are unstable or that have rotation. Collateral ligament injuries of the thumb should be examine with radiography before physical examination. Stable joint injuries can be treated with splinting or casting, although an orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat unstable joints.

  4. Cellular proliferation and regeneration following tissue damage. Progress report. [Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, C.V.

    1976-10-01

    Results are reported from a study of wound healing in tissues of the eye, particularly lens, cornea, and surrounding tissues. The reactions of these tissues to mechanical injuries, as well as injuries induced by chemotoxic agents were studied. It is postulated that a better understanding of the basic reactions of the eye to injurious agents may be of importance in the evaluation of potential environmental hazards.

  5. Aplicação de dispositivo intra-uterino liberador de levonorgestrel, previamente a ciclos de fertilização in vitro, nas portadoras de adenomiose Application of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device prior to in vitro fertilization cycles in women with adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Donadio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar os efeitos do dispositivo intra-uterino (DIU de levonorgestrel em portadoras de adenomiose, com falhas de implantação em ciclos de fertilização in vitro (FIV. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas 80 mulheres inférteis, com até 38 anos, com diagnóstico de adenomiose pela ultra-sonografia e ressonância magnética pélvica. Todas apresentavam tentativas anteriores de FIV sem sucesso. No grupo Diu, de 40 mulheres, foi colocado DIU liberador de 20 µg de levonorgestrel/dia por seis meses, previamente a um novo ciclo de FIV. No grupo Fiv, de 40 mulheres, estas foram submetidas diretamente a novo ciclo, sem o prévio tratamento. No Grupo Diu, avaliaram-se o volume uterino, a espessura e os focos de hipersinal da zona juncional, pré e pós-tratamento, assim como as taxas de gravidez em novo ciclo de FIV comparadas com as obtidas no grupo Fiv. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas adotando-se o nível de significância de 5% (pPURPOSE: to verify the effects of intrauterine levonorgestrel device (IUD in women with adenomyosis, with implantation failure in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. METHODS: eighty infertile women with ages up to 38 years, who had adenomyosis diagnosed by ultrasonography and MRI were selected. All the women presented antecedents of one or more tormer IVF attempts without success due to implantation failure. The women were subdivided into IUD Group, composed of 40 women with an IUD that released 20 µg of levonorgestrel/day during six months, preceding a new IVF cycle, and IVF Group, also composed of 40 women, who were directly submitted to a new IVF cycle without previous adenomyosis treatment. In the IUD Group the uterine volume, thickness and hypersignal foci of the junctional zone were assessed before and after treatment, as well as the pregnancy rates in the new IVF cycle, compared to the data obtained with the IVF Group. Statistical analyses were performed adopting the significance level of

  6. Surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzawi, Sulaiman; Sukeik, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mazin; Haddad, Fares S

    2016-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury is among the most common soft tissue injuries of the knee joint and reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is the gold standard treatment for young active symptomatic patients. This review summarizes the surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  7. The effect of prolonged gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced down-regulation on pregnancy outcomes in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles for the patients with adenomyosis%促性腺激素释放激素激动剂超长降调节改善子宫腺肌病冻融胚胎移植妊娠结局的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价促性腺激素释放激素激动剂(GnRH-a)超长垂体降调节对改善子宫腺肌病(AM)冻融胚胎移植(FET)周期妊娠结局的价值. 方法 将AM患者分为GnRH-a+人工周期组和单纯人工周期组,非AM患者行人工周期作为对照组.比较三组患者各项指标包括胚胎种植率、临床妊娠率、流产率、异位妊娠率差异. 结果 GnRH-a+人工周期子宫内膜准备方案明显提高AM患者FET周期胚胎种植率和临床妊娠率,而未增加流产率和异位妊娠率. 结论 GnRH-a超长降调节明显改善AM患者FET妊娠结局.%Objective:To evaluate the effect of prolonged gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a)-induced down-regulation on the outcomes of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles in the patients with adenomyosis.Methods:Patients with adenomyosis were divided into GnRH-a plus artificial cycle group (116 cycles) and simple artificial cycle group (106 cycles). Patients without adenomyosis who underwent artificial cycle before FET were grouped as controls (433 cycles). The pregnancy outcomes, including implantation rate, pregnancy rate, abortion rate and ectopic pregnancy rate of three groups were measured and compared.Results: GnRH-a down-regulation plus artificial cycle for endometrial preparation before FET significantly improved the implantation rate and pregnancy rate in adenomyosis patients, with no increase in the abortion rate or ectopic pregnancy rate.Conclusion: Prolonged GnRH-a therapy for down-regulation significantly improve the outcomes of FET cycles in adenomyosis patients.

  8. Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overuse tendon injury is one of the most common injuries in sports.The etiology as well as the pathophysilogical mechanisms leading to tendinopathy are of crucial medical importance.At the moment intrinsic and extrinsic factors are assumed as mechanisms of overuse tendon injury. Except for the acute, extrinsic trauma, the chronic overuse tendon injury is a multifactorial process. There are many other factors, such as local hypoxia, less of nutrition, impaired metabolism and local inflammatory that may also contribute to the development of tissue damage.The exact interaction of these factors cannot be explained entirely at the moment.Further studies will be necessary in order to get more information. (orig.)

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  10. Advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-cheng LI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage is a kind of terminally differentiated tissue devoid of vessel or nerve, and it is difficult to repair by itself after damage. Many studies for the treatment of cartilage injuries were performed in recent years aiming at repair of the structure and restoration of its function for injured joint. This article reviews the traditional methods of treatment for cartilage injuries, such as joint lavage with the aid of arthroscope, abrasion chondroplasty, laser abrasion and chondroplasty, and drilling of the subchondral bone-marrow space. The research advances in treatment of articular cartilage injuries with tissue engineering were summarized.

  11. Bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Cameron R. M.; Goriainov, Vitali; Gibbs, David; Kanczler, Janos; Tare, Rahul S; Richard O. C. Oreffo

    2015-01-01

    Medical advances have led to a welcome increase in life expectancy. However, accompanying longevity introduces new challenges: increases in age-related diseases and associated reductions in quality of life. The loss of skeletal tissue that can accompany trauma, injury, disease or advancing years can result in significant morbidity and significant socio-economic cost and emphasise the need for new, more reliable skeletal regeneration strategies. To address the unmet need for bone augmentation,...

  12. Wrestling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    The sport of wrestling has a history dating back to ancient times as one of the original Olympic sports. It particularly appeals to adolescents as equally matched opponents engage in competition. There can be no argument that participation in sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity, those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. This article will discuss wrestling injuries and recommend prevention strategies to keep athletes safe. PMID:18521035

  13. The bone scan in traumatic and sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several types of injuries which are not diagnosable by routine radiographic methods but can be detected easily by nuclear medicine techniques. This chapter describes four primary categories of injury where nuclear medicine techniques may be of use: stress fracture and periosteal injury; covert fractures; joint abnormalities and injuries to connective tissues, especially where they attach to bone; and acute skeletal muscle injury and rhabdomyolysis. One of the most important features of the use of nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of sports and traumatic injury is the ability, in most cases, to be able to differentiate among these various categories. Other uses of nuclear medicine techniques are discussed in this chapter

  14. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  15. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  16. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  17. Chinese Massage Therapy for Ankle Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming-xia; LI Nian-qun; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the therapeutic methods and effects in the treatment of acute and chronic injuries of the ankle joint by Chinese massage therapy in combination with external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises. Methods: Totally, 36 cases of the patients with acute soft tissue injury, chronic soft tissue injury and post-fracture sequelae of the ankle joint were treated by Chinese massage therapy, external application or external wash of Chinese herbal drugs, and exercises of dorsal flexion and extension of the ankle joint, to observe the restoration of the ankle functions.Results: In 36 cases of the patients, the results showed remarkable effect in 18 cases, effect in 16 cases, failure in 2 cases and the effective rate in 94.4%. Conclusion: The combined use of Chinese massage therapy, external application of Chinese herbal drugs and functional exercises can produce precise effect in the treatment of soft tissue injury of the ankle joint.

  18. Finger avulsion injuries: A report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejjal N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury that occurs to a finger wearing a ring though rare can have grave consequences. It is a preventable injury which has a peculiar mode of trauma that is usually occupational. Injury ranges from simple contusion to degloving of soft tissues to traumatic amputation. We hereby report our experience of four cases of finger avulsion injuries due to a ring and discuss their variable clinical presentation and individualized management.

  19. Macrophages in Tissue Repair, Regeneration, and Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas A; Vannella, Kevin M

    2016-03-15

    Inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages are key regulators of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis. After tissue injury, monocytes and macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes to play critical roles during the initiation, maintenance, and resolution phases of tissue repair. Disturbances in macrophage function can lead to aberrant repair, such that uncontrolled production of inflammatory mediators and growth factors, deficient generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages, or failed communication between macrophages and epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem or tissue progenitor cells all contribute to a state of persistent injury, and this could lead to the development of pathological fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that instruct macrophages to adopt pro-inflammatory, pro-wound-healing, pro-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-resolving, and tissue-regenerating phenotypes after injury, and we highlight how some of these mechanisms and macrophage activation states could be exploited therapeutically.

  20. 子宫腺肌病子宫平滑肌细胞中钾离子通道mRNA的表达及雌、孕激素对其的影响%Response of potassium channels to estrogen and progesterone in the uterine smooth muscle cells of adenomyosis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史精华; 金力; 冷金花; 郎景和

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of potassium channels and the influence of estrogen and progesterone on the cultured uterine smooth muscle cells (USMC) of adenomyosis in vitro.Methods There were 22 cases of adenomyosis hysterectomy in the adenomyosis group and 12 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Ⅲ removal of the uterus in the control group.USMC were separated and cultured in vitro, incubated with different concentrations of estrogen and progesterone.We used reverse transcription-PCR to dectect the expression of large-conductance calcium-and voltage-sensitive potassium channel α subunit (BKCa α) and voltage-gated potassium channel 4.3 (Kv4.3).Results The mRNA expression of BKCa α and Kv4.3 in the adenomyosis group (4.43 ±2.05 and 4.52± 1.97) were significantly higher than those in the control group (0.83±0.25 and 0.86±0.19, P<0.05).In the control group, Kv4.3 mRNA decreased after treated with 0.1 nmol/L (0.17±0.10) and 1.0 nmol/L (0.13±0.08) estrogen than before (0.55±0.29, P<0.05).In the adenomyosis group, BKCa α mRNA decreased significantly after treated with 10.0 nmol/L estrogen (0.56±0.27 versus 1.01±0.35, P<0.05).0.1 μmol/L progesterone elevated both BKCa α mRNA (0.44±0.24 versus 0.16±0.09) and Kv4.3 mRNA (1.29±0.51 versus 0.55±0.29) in the control group (all P<0.05);however, there were no significant difference in adenomyosis group of different concentration of progestrone (P>0.05).Conelusuion There is an abnormal expression of potassium channels in the adenomyosis USMC, which is regulated by high concentration of estrogen and might be resistant to progesterone.%目的 探索体外培养子宫腺肌病(AM)子宫平滑肌细胞钾离子通道的表达情况及雌、孕激素对其的调节作用.方法 选择2009年9月至2010年3月在北京协和医院行手术治疗的AM患者22例(AM组),以同期宫颈上皮内瘤变Ⅲ级切除子宫者12例作为对照组,应用逆转录PCR技术检测体外培养

  1. Influence of indomethacin on free radical reactions in brain tissues ofrabbits with brain injury%消炎痛对兔脑外伤后脑组织氧自由基反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭占国; 柴宗举; 冯祖荫

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨消炎痛对急性实验性脑外伤后兔脑组织氧自由基反应的影响。方法:30只家兔随机分为A组(正常对照组)、B组(生理盐水治疗组)及C组(消炎痛治疗组),每组10只动物。其中A组不致脑外伤,作为正常对照。B、C2组采用自由落体打击法建立兔闭合性脑外伤模型。C组于外伤后.10min开始,经耳缘静脉缓慢注入消炎痛针剂。B组于外伤后相同时间同样方法注入等量的生理盐水,作为生理盐水治疗对照。B、C2组于外伤后4h将动物处死,完整取出大脑半球以干湿重比较法测定大脑含水量;取挫伤灶周边脑组织制成匀浆,生化测定脑组织中过氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和脂质过氧化物(LPO)含量。结果:B组动物致脑外伤后4h,脑组织含水量及LPO含量分别为(79.918±1.449)%和(143.5±24.9)nmol/g,较对照组显著为高(P0.05);SOD活性为(2.25±0.21)Nu/mg,较B组明显升高(P 0.05). The mean value of SOD activity was (2.25 + 0.21 ) Nu/mg, higher than that in group B ( P < 0.05). Conclusion:IM treatment at the early stage of brain injury could attenuate oxygen free radical reaction in injured brain tissues, protect bloodbrain barrier, prevent traumatic cerebral edema being formed and developing fmther.

  2. 软组织损伤评估处理对跟骨骨折术后感染的意义%Classified Treatments of Soft-tissue Injury in Preventing Postoperative Infection in Patients with Calca-neal Fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐生根; 肖坚; 吴维剑

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical significance of soft tissue assessment and classification treat⁃ment for the prevention of postoperative infection in the patients with calcaneal fractures. Methods We re⁃cruited 91 patients who underwent open reduction and reconstruction plate internal fixation operation for closed calcaneal fractures (103 feet). All patients were randomly divided into a control group and an evaluation group. In the control group, there were 36 men (40 feet) and 7 women (8 feet). They aged from 18 to 72 years (average 38.5 years). By Sanders classification, 11 feet were of type Ⅱ, 21 feet of type Ⅲ and 8 feet of type IV. All con⁃trol patients with preoperative soft tissue injury underwent the conventional preparation processing, and preopera⁃tive assessment of soft tissue and classification treatment was not carried out. In the evaluation group, there were 39 men (44 feet) and 9 women (11 feet). They aged from 19 to 71 years(average 39.6 years). By Sanders classifi⁃cation,12 feet were of type Ⅱ, 23 feet of type Ⅲ, and 9 feet of type IV. They underwent soft tissue assessment using criteria for preoperative assessment and also underwent classification treatment. Results The control group of 43 patients were followed up for 13~17 months (average 14.5 months). There were 5 cases of postopera⁃tive wound infection, and the infection rate was 16.3%. In the evaluation group, 48 cases were followed up for 14-22 months (average 16.1 months), and only 2 cases had wound infection after surgery, and the infection rate was 4.17%. The infection rates in the two groups were different significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion It is im⁃portant to conduct preoperative skin and soft tissue assessments and classification treatment, as an intervention strategy for calcaneal fractures. It can significantly reduce the rate of wound infection after fracture of calcaneus.%目的:探讨皮肤软组织损伤评估及分级处理对预防跟骨骨折术后切

  3. Electrocautery causes more ischemic peritoneal tissue damage than ultrasonic dissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R.P. Ten; Wilbers, J.; Goor, H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing peritoneal tissue injury during abdominal surgery has the benefit of reducing postoperative inflammatory response, pain, and adhesion formation. Ultrasonic dissection seems to reduce tissue damage. This study aimed to compare electrocautery and ultrasonic dissection in terms o

  4. Renal endothelial injury and microvascular dysfunction in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sudhanshu Kumar; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is comprised of heterogeneous cell populations that function together to perform a number of tightly controlled, complex and interdependent processes. Renal endothelial cells contribute to vascular tone, regulation of blood flow to local tissue beds, modulation of coagulation and inflammation, and vascular permeability. Both ischemia and sepsis have profound effects on the renal endothelium, resulting in microvascular dysregulation resulting in continued ischemia and further injury. In recent years, the concept of the vascular endothelium as an organ that is both the source of and target for inflammatory injury has become widely appreciated. Here we revisit the renal endothelium in the light of ever evolving molecular advances. PMID:25795503

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  6. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  7. Effects of neonatal peripheral tissue injury on pain-related behaviors in adult rats%生后发育期外周组织损伤对大鼠成年后痛行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌萌; 唐家广; 刘瑛辉; 解葵; 郝建华; 陈军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of peripheral tissue injury in the developmental stage of newborn rats on pain-related behaviors in adult rats.Methods SD rats 1,4,7,14,21 and 28 days after birth were selected in the present study (4 litters at each time point and 10 rats per litter).Each litter of rats was randomly divided into injury group (receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl bee venom) and control group (receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl normal saline),with 20 in each group,and then raised for 2 months to adulthood.The baseline pain threshold was observed by measuring spontaneous paw flinching reflex,paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) and paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT),then 50μl 0.4% bee venom was subcutaneously injected to each rat,and the changes in pain reaction and pain threshold were determined.Results The baseline thermal pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom or normal saline at different time points after birth was similar,but baseline mechanical pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom at 1,4,7 and 14 days after birth was decreased significantly compared with the adult rats receiving normal saline at corresponding time points(P<0.01).The persistent spontaneous pain response of adult rats in injury group was increased compared with that in control group (P<0.01).No obvious difference in heat hyperalgesia was found between the two groups (P>0.05).Mechanical hyperalgesia was not induced in rats injected with bee venom but induced in adult rats injected with normal saline 4-21 days after birth.Injection of bee venom 21 and 28 days after birth could obviously enhance the bee venom-induced hyperalgesia in adult rats compared with control group (P<0.01).Conclusions Bee venom stimuli at different time points after birth could affect the baseline PWMT and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in adult rats but not the baseline PWTL and thermal pain hypersensitivity.The 21st day maybe a key time point of

  8. Injuries to dancers: prevalence, treatment, and perceptions of causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, A

    1989-03-18

    A survey of injuries to dancers was commissioned by the National Organisation of Dance and Mime. Questionnaires asking about chronic and recent injuries were sent to 188 dancers and completed by 141 dancers from seven professional ballet and modern dance companies in the United Kingdom (75% response rate). It was found that of the 141 dancers, 67 (47%) had experienced a chronic injury and 59 (42%) an injury in the previous six months that had affected their dancing. A high proportion of injuries to the soft tissues had not responded to treatment. With correct treatment such injuries should usually heal completely. Dancers are aware of the high rate of injuries and also of procedures that might help to prevent injury--for example, dancing on floors that are sprung and in warmer studios; teachers' and choreographers' awareness of a dancer's limitations and the need for rest and adequate treatment when an injury occurs. PMID:2496824

  9. Skeletal muscle cell apoptosis following motornerve injury versus sensory nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhao; Ruisheng Xu; Shenyang Jiang; Guangming Lü; Zhiqiang Yan; Junming Sun; Ling Wang; Ye Xue; Donglin Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy inevitably occurs in denervated skeletal muscle, and cell apoptosis plays an important role in skeletal muscle atrophy and degeneration. The present study established rat models of simple nerve injury by transecting the ventral or dorsal spinal nerve root and observed rat skeletal muscle cell apoptosis following simple motor nerve injury versus simple sensory nerve injury. Following skeletal muscle denervation for 10 weeks, cell apoptosis was detected in skeletal muscle, which was accompanied by obvious changes in rat behavior and electrophysiological responses. In addition, changes in cross-sectional area and average gray-scale of motor endplates of the gastrocnemius muscle were analyzed following sciatic nerve injury and motor nerve injury.Cell nuclei in denervated skeletal muscle tissue were more densely arranged than in normal skeletal muscle tissue. Cell nuclei were most dense in the sciatic nerve injury group, followed by the motor nerve injury group and the sensory nerve injury group. Fas/Fast expression and the number of apoptotic cells increased in denervated skeletal muscle, and apoptosis-related changes were observed. These findings suggested that motor and sensory nerves provided trophic actions following skeletal muscle and motor nerve injury, resulting in a greater influence on skeletal muscle atrophy than sensory nerve injury. Therefore, reconstruction of motor nerves should be preferentially considered for treating denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

  10. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  11. Patterns of Pediatric Maxillofacial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Salwan Yousif Hanna; Ismael, Waleed Khaleel; Al-Assaf, Dhuha

    2016-05-01

    Facial trauma in children and adolescents is reported to range from 1% to 30%. Because of many anatomical, physiological, and psychological characteristics of the pediatric population, maxillofacial injuries in children should be treated with special consideration that is attributable to certain features inherent in facial growth patterns of children. This study evaluated maxillofacial injuries in 726 children in terms of incidence, patterns of injury, causes, and treatment modalities and compared these parameters among 3 pediatric age groups. Intergroup differences were analyzed using Z test for 2 populations' proportion. The results showed that the incidence of pediatric maxillofacial injuries and fractures is higher than that reported elsewhere with male predominance. Soft tissue injuries are more frequently encountered in younger individuals, whereas the incidence of skeletal injuries increases with age. This study also revealed that certain etiologies, namely road traffic accidents, violence, bicycle, missiles, and industrial injures, increase with age; on the other hand, falls and puncture wounds are more common in younger children. PMID:27100637

  12. Treatment of osteochondral injuries with platelet gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Danieli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Treatments for injured articular cartilage have not advanced to the point that efficient regeneration is possible. However, there has been an increase in the use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of several orthopedic disorders, including chondral injuries. Our hypothesis is that the treatment of chondral injuries with platelet gel results in higher-quality repair tissue after 180 days compared with chondral injuries not treated with gel. METHODS: A controlled experimental laboratory study was performed on 30 male rabbits to evaluate osteochondral injury repair after treatment with or without platelet gel. Osteochondral injuries were surgically induced in both knees of each rabbit at the medial femoral condyle. The left knee injury was filled with the platelet gel, and the right knee was not treated. Microscopic analysis of both knee samples was performed after 180 days using a histological grading scale. RESULTS: The only histological evaluation criterion that was not significantly different between treatments was metachromasia. The group that was treated with platelet gel exhibited superior results in all other criteria (cell morphology, surface regularity, chondral thickness and repair tissue integration and in the total score. CONCLUSION: The repair tissue was histologically superior after 180 days in the study group treated with platelet gel compared with the group of untreated injuries.

  13. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, May; Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite ongoing advances in stroke imaging and treatment, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke continue to debilitate patients with devastating outcomes at both the personal and societal levels. While the ultimate goal of therapy in ischemic stroke is geared towards restoration of blood flow, even when mitigation of initial tissue hypoxia is successful, exacerbation of tissue injury may occur in the form of cell death, or alternatively, hemorrhagic transformation of reperfused tissue. Animal model...

  14. Localized bioimpedance to assess muscle injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries to lower limb muscles are common among football players. Localized bioimpedance analysis (BIA) utilizes electrical measurements to assess soft tissue hydration and cell membrane integrity non-invasively. This study reports the effects of the severity of muscle injury and recovery on BIA variables. We made serial tetra-polar, phase-sensitive 50 kHz localized BIA measurements of quadriceps, hamstring and calf muscles of three male football players before and after injury and during recovery until return-to-play, to determine changes in BIA variables (resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA)) in different degrees of muscle injury. Compared to non-injury values, R, Xc and PA decreased with increasing muscle injury severity: grade III (23.1%, 45.1% and 27.6%), grade II (20.6%, 31.6% and 13.3%) and grade I (11.9%, 23.5% and 12.1%). These findings indicate that decreases in R reflect localized fluid accumulation, and reductions in Xc and PA highlight disruption of cellular membrane integrity and injury. Localized BIA measurements of muscle groups enable the practical detection of soft tissue injury and its severity. (paper)

  15. Fibronectin in tissue regeneration : timely disassembly of the scaffold is necessary to complete the build

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, Josephine M. J.; Zhao, Chao; Baron, Wia

    2013-01-01

    Tissue injury initiates extracellular matrix molecule expression, including fibronectin production by local cells and fibronectin leakage from plasma. To benefit tissue regeneration, fibronectin promotes opsonization of tissue debris, migration, proliferation, and contraction of cells involved in th

  16. Ballistic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, M L

    1986-12-01

    Wound profiles made under controlled conditions in the wound ballistics laboratory at the Letterman Army Institute of Research showed the location along their tissue path at which projectiles cause tissue disruption and the type of disruption (crush from direct contact with the projectile or stretch from temporary cavitation). Comparison of wound profiles showed the fallacy in attempting to judge wound severity using velocity alone, and laid to rest the common belief that in treating a wound caused by a high-velocity missile, one needs to excise tissue far in excess of that which appears damaged. All penetrating projectile wounds, whether civilian or military, therefore should be treated the same regardless of projectile velocity. Diagnosis of the approximate amount and location of tissue disruption is made by physical examination and appropriate radiographic studies. These wounds are contaminated, and coverage with a penicillin-type antibiotic should be provided. PMID:3777618

  17. Plant injury induced by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.C.; Pack, M.R.; Treshow, M.; Downs, R.J.; Transtrum, L.G.

    1961-06-01

    Phytotoxicity of ozone to 34 plant species was studied in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses. Plants were subjected at various stages of growth to 0.13-0.72 ppm ozone for 2-hour periods. Injury symptoms developed on 28 species. Some of the most sensitive species were small grains, alfalfa, spinach, and tobacco. There was a general tendency for sensitivity to increase with maturity of tissue. Palisade cells were most readily injured by ozone. On plants with adaxial palisade parenchyma, chlorotic spots and bleached necrotic areas developed on the upper leaf surface. Injury was equally apparent from either leaf surface of plants with undifferentiated mesophyll. Necrotic spots extending completely through the leaf developed on plants with either mesophyll structure when injury was severe. Ozone caused conspicuous tumors to develop on broccoli leaves. Symptoms similar to those produced by ozone fumigations have been observed on a wide range of plant species growing near several large metropolitan centers. 18 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  18. 急性肺损伤大鼠肺组织中颗粒溶素的表达%Increased Expression of Granulysin in Lung Tissue of Rats with Acute Lung Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖菁菁; 王金平; 王娟; 王力

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of granulysin (GNLY) in lung of rats with acute lung injury ( ALI) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide ( UPS). Methods Thirty-six healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal control group and a IPS group,with 18 rats in each group. LPS (4 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally in the LPS group to induce ALI. The same amount of normal saline was given in the control group. The rats were randomly assigned to three subgroups ( re = 6) to be sacrificed respectively at 6, 18, and 30 hours after intraperitoneal injection. Wet/dry lung weight ralio (W/D) and pathological changes of the lung were observed. The expression of GNLY in lung tissue was assayed by immunohistochemistry. Results In the LPS group,the W/D ratio was higher than that of the control group at each time point ( P < 0.05) and there were a large number of inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in interstitial spaces which suggested ALI. Compared with the control group, the expression of GNLY in the LPS group was significantly increased at all time points (P < 0.05). Conclusion GNLY may participate in ALI inflammatory process, which might play a role in preventing infection induced ALI.%目的 在内毒素(LPS)诱导的急性肺损伤(ALI)大鼠模型中,观察颗粒溶素在不同时期的表达,探讨其在革兰阴性菌感染所致的ALI的细胞免疫中的地位和作用.方法 采用36只健康Wistar大鼠,随机分为对照组(NS组)和实验组(LPS组),每组18只.LPS组腹腔注射LPS 4 mg/kg制造ALI模型,NS组注射等量生理盐水.注药后6、18及30 h取材,行肺组织湿/干重比(W/D)分析,观察肺组织病理改变,以及免疫组织化学法检测肺组织颗粒溶素的表达.结果 ALI大鼠肺组织W/D比值显著高于NS组(P<0.05);病理显示LPS组肺组织受损,出血、渗出明显,达到ALI诊断标准;LPS组各时点肺组织颗粒溶素表达较NS组有不同程度增加.结论 颗粒溶素可能参与ALI的

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  20. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Factors Promote Tissue Repair in a Small-for-Size Ischemic Liver Model but Do Not Protect against Early Effects of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.G. Fouraschen (Suomi M. G.); J.H. Wolf (Joshua H.); L.J.W. van der Laan (Luc); P.E. de Ruiter (Petra E.); W. Hancock; J.P. Van Kooten (Job P.); M.M.A. Verstegen (Monique); K.M. Olthoff (Kim); J. de Jonge (Jeroen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLoss of liver mass and ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) are major contributors to postresectional liver failure and small-for-size syndrome. Mesenchymal stromal cell-(MSC-) secreted factors are described to stimulate regeneration after partial hepatectomy. This study investigates if liv

  1. 基于文献挖掘的高氧损伤肺组织相关基因的生物信息学分析%Literature and bioinformatic analysis of dysregulated genes in lung tissues of hyperoxic lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宇戈; 张山丹; 韩浩; 陈星; 殷海平; 郑学辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the pathogenesis mechanism of hyperoxic lung injury and the effective means for its clinical treatment,the difference of the gene expressions between lung tissues of hyperoxic lung injury and normal lung was compared.Methods The differentially expressed genes between lung tissues of hyperoxic lung injury and normal lung were obtained from PubMed.The dysregulated genes in lung tissues of hyperoxic lung injury were analyzed by a series of bioinformatics methods,including pathways,gene ontology and functional annotation clustering analysis.Results 467 lines of differentially expressed genes were found and genes more than 2-fold regulated were 189.We sought the mapping of genes in the KEGG databases through functional annotation tools,and we discovered there were 5 lines of pathways with difference having outstangding statistical significance through metabolic pathways enrichment degree analysis.It reflected the pathways were closely related to hyperoxic lung injury (the 2-fold upregulated genes were 14,the 2-fold down-regulated genes were 6).GO analysis revealed that these genes were involved in hematopietic cell lineage,axon guidance,adherens junction,T cell receptor signaling pathway and focal adhesion.Conclusions Therefore,it is believed that the above-mentioned 20 lines of gnes are the major ones for the hyperoxic lung injury and the research on them will provide effective means for revealing the molecular mechanism of hyperoxic lung injury and identifying the targeted therapy.%目的 比较小鼠高氧肺损伤肺组织与正常肺组织的差异表达基因,从分子水平揭示高氧肺损伤的发病机制.方法 利用PubMed数据库获取小鼠高氧肺损伤肺组织与正常肺组织的差异表达基因,并进行生物学通路、基因本体和功能注释聚类等生物信息分析.结果 两组间差异表达基因共467条,以2倍标准筛选出189条差异表达基因,再用功能注释工具将超过2倍差异表达的基因

  2. Morphological aspects of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injury to haemopoietic and lymphatic tissues produced by ionizing irradiation in various species of mammals including man is one of the major features of the biological effects of radiation (Bond et al. 1965,' Cottier, 1961). At the moment of injury and for a short time thereafter relatively little morphological evidence of cell damage in bone marrow other than cessation of cell division and DNA synthesis is seen. Within a few hours, however, depending on the level of exposure, major destruction of red bone marrow tissue can occur. In this chapter the histologic changes in bone marrow are summarized for correlation with the functional aspects of the change in the target tissue, particularly its cell renewal features and where possible the remarkable flux or migration of cells through bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. This latter topic of cellular traffic represents the outcome of extensive physiological studies on haemopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by mammalian radiobiologists. The initial injury, the structural changes and the physiological consequences are the first half of the radiation injury sequence. Regeneration also has morphological features of major importance to the understanding of radiation haematology. It is common to discuss radiation effects on biological materials from the point of view of external or internal sources of exposure. In addition exposure rate, whole body or partial body, type and quality of the ionizing source are features that must be taken into account. While these features are extremely important, the simplest approach to understanding histologic effects on the bone marrow is to assume acute penetrating whole-body exposure in the lethal range. With this background the differences related to variations in the conditions of exposure can usually be understood. The individual human or animal organism receiving the exposure must also be considered in the final outcome of the experience because age, sex, nutritional status and presence

  3. Acute toxicity and tissue injury studies of ivermectin for Songpu mir-ror carp (Cyprinus specularis songpu)%伊维菌素对松浦镜鲤的急性毒性与组织损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰; 王荻; 卢彤岩

    2015-01-01

    分别以1.30 mg/kg、1.69 mg/kg、2.19 mg/kg、2.86 mg/kg、3.71 mg/kg、4.83 mg/kg、6.27 mg/kg、8.16 mg/kg剂量的伊维菌素(ivermectin)对松浦镜鲤(Cyprinus specularis songpu)进行口灌,并设置空白对照和溶剂对照,给药后连续观察96 h,记录各组鱼的行为和死亡情况。用 SPPS 软件计算得出松浦镜鲤口灌伊维菌素的96 h LD50为4.04 mg/kg,95%可信区间为3.42~4.80 mg/kg。对给药组和对照组鱼进行血细胞分析,发现随着给药剂量的增加,红细胞数无明显变化,血红蛋白浓度呈上升趋势,而白细胞数呈下降趋势。通过组织切片观察,发现伊维菌素给药剂量为4.83 mg/kg 时松浦镜鲤体内组织开始出现明显的病理变化。大剂量口灌伊维菌素后,松浦镜鲤肠绒毛出现坏死、脱落现象,肝细胞萎缩、肝血窦变大,肾小管上皮细胞变性、坏死,心肌纤维萎缩、变性。本研究通过探讨伊维菌素对松浦镜鲤的毒性效应,旨在为松浦镜鲤养殖过程中科学合理的使用伊维菌素提供基础数据和科学依据。%In order to evaluate the toxic effects of ivermectin for Songpu mirror carp, the acute toxicity and tissue injury of ivermectin for Songpu mirror carp was studied. Ivermectin was given by oral administration to Songpu mirror carp at the dosage of 1.30 mg/kg, 1.69 mg/kg, 2.19 mg/kg, 2.86 mg/kg, 3.71 mg/kg, 4.83 mg/kg, 6.27 mg/kg, 8.16 mg/kg re-spectively. Blank control and solvent control were sited also. After given ivermectin, the fish were investigated in 96 h;the dead fish were sacrificed at once. Through calculating by SPSS, the 96h LD50 and 95% confidence of LD50 of iver-mectin for Songpu mirror carp were 4.04 mg/kg and 3.42~4.80 mg/kg, respectively. The results show that with the in-crease of the dose, the number of red blood cells had no obvious change, the hemoglobin concentration had rised and the white blood cell count had decreased, according to analysis blood cell of the administration

  4. Low intensity laser treatment of nerve injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Luo, Qing-Ming

    2007-05-01

    The neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injuries has long been an important field in neuroscience. Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation is a novel and useful tool for the treatment of many injuries and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the role of LIL irradiation in the treatment of peripheral and central nerve injuries. Some animal experiments and clinical investigations have shown beneficial effects of LIL irradiation on neural tissues, but its therapeutic value and efficacy are controversial. Reviewing the data of experimental and clinical studies by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation in specific parameters can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral and central nerves and LIL therapy is a safe and valuable treatment for superficial peripheral nerve injuries and spinal cord injury. The biological effects of LIL treatment depend largely on laser wavelength, power and dose per site and effective irradiation doses are location-specific.

  5. Spinal injury - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  6. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal ...

  10. Nanomedicine for treating spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-09-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds.

  11. Tendon Transfers for Combined Peripheral Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarewich, Christopher A; Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2016-08-01

    Combined peripheral nerve injuries present a unique set of challenges to the hand surgeon when considering tendon transfers. They are often associated with severe soft tissue trauma, including lacerations to remaining innervated muscles and tendons, significant scar formation, and substantial sensory loss. In the case of combined nerve injuries, there are typically fewer options for tendon transfers due to fewer tendons of shared function that are expendable as well as associated injuries to tendon or muscle bellies. As such, careful preoperative planning must be performed to make the most of remaining muscle tendon units. PMID:27387081

  12. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  13. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  14. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  16. Preliminary Research on the Application of Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification in the Myometrium Lesions%声触诊组织量化技术在子宫肌层病变中的应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿京; 唐军; 祁文娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a preliminary research on the value of applying virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in the assessment of myometrium lesions. Methods VTQ technology was used to examine myometriura lesions of 78 cases of uterine fibroids, 16 cases of uterine adenomyosis and 83 cases of normal uterus wall. Measurement values were recorded and statistical analysis was performed. Results VTQ means of uterine fibroids and denomyosis are respectively 3.58 ?0.76 and 3.53 ?1.08, which are significantly greater than that of normal uterus wall of 2.84 ?0.89 (P<0.05).Conclusion The VTQ showed that the hardness of myometrium lesions of uterine fibroids and adenomyosis had increased significantly compared with those of normal uterus wall, indicating that there is value of applying VTQ in uterine muscle wall lesions.%目的 初步探讨声触诊组织量化技术(VTQ)在子宫肌层病变中的应用价值.方法 应用VTQ技术检测78例子宫肌瘤患者及16例子宫腺肌症患者的宫壁病变区以及83例正常子宫宫壁,并对记录测量数值进行统计分析.结果 子宫肌瘤VTQ均值3.58±0.76、子宫腺肌症VTQ均值3.53±1.08,均明显大于正常子宫宫壁VTQ均值2.84±0.89(P<0.05).结论 正常宫壁与病变宫壁之间弹性比较有统计学差异,说明弹性超声应用在子宫肌壁病变有一定价值.

  17. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  18. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Factors Promote Tissue Repair in a Small-for-Size Ischemic Liver Model but Do Not Protect against Early Effects of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fouraschen, Suomi M. G.; Wolf, Joshua H.; van der Laan, Luc J W; de Ruiter, Petra E.; Hancock, Wayne W.; van Kooten, Job P.; Verstegen, Monique M. A.; Olthoff, Kim M.; Jeroen de Jonge

    2015-01-01

    Loss of liver mass and ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) are major contributors to postresectional liver failure and small-for-size syndrome. Mesenchymal stromal cell- (MSC-) secreted factors are described to stimulate regeneration after partial hepatectomy. This study investigates if liver-derived MSC-secreted factors also promote liver regeneration after resection in the presence of IRI. C57BL/6 mice underwent IRI of 70% of their liver mass, alone or combined with 50% partial hepatectom...

  19. Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Juliann G

    2016-08-01

    Recent understanding of the cellular and molecular signaling activations in adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has provided new insights into their potential clinical applications, particularly for tissue repair and regeneration. This review focuses on these advances, specifically in the context of self-renewal for tissue repair and recovery after radiation injury. Thus far, MSCs have been characterized extensively and shown to be useful in mitigation and therapy for acute radiation syndrome and cognitive dysfunction. Use of MSCs for treating radiation injury alone or in combination with additional trauma is foreseeable. PMID:27356065

  20. Effect evaluation of emergency use of external fixation combined with VSD for open fractures of extremities with & nbsp;serious soft tissue injury%急诊使用外固定架联合VSD处理严重软组织损伤的四肢开放性骨折效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃海森; 梁国挺; 林浩; 李晓锋; 刘兴涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of external fixation combined with vacuum sealing drainage(vacuum sealing drainage,VSD) in emergency treatment of open fractures of extremities with severe soft tissue injury. Methods Totally 38 cases open limb fractures with serious soft tissue injury were treated with external fixator supplemented with limited internal fixation and combined with VSD in emergency. 11 cases with large area skin avulsion were treated by skin grafting. Totally 24 cases of soft tissue defect cannot be repaired in one-stage. Skin defects were filled by granulation tissue after the application of VSD and repaired by flaps and free skin graft. Totally 7 cases of Soft tissue serious pollution and high swelling, after two times debridement and application of VSD,were repaired by suture or autologous split-thickness skin graft. Results 11 cases of skin grafting were almost healed. 20 cases of soft tissue defect were not infected.7 cases of Soft tissue serious pollution and high swelling regress without the occurrence of osteofascial compartment syndrome.Laps and skin graft after the secondary operation all survived. During follow-up ranging from 6-24 months, all cases were healed without the occurrence of osteomyelitis and nonunion. External fixation and internal fixation were removed. Conclusion Using external fixation combined with VSD is an effective and efficient method for treating open fracture of extremities with Serious soft tissue injury.%  目的探讨急诊使用外固定架联合负压封闭引流术(vacuum sealing drainage,VSD)治疗合并严重软组织损伤的四肢开放性骨折的临床效果。方法对38例有严重软组织损伤的四肢开放性骨折患者急诊采用外固定架辅以有限内固定固定骨折,并早期联合VSD。其中11例面积较大皮肤软组织撕脱创面I期打薄皮肤回植,20例软组织缺损创面无法I期修复,经VSD后创面缺损由新生肉芽组织填充,行皮瓣或

  1. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

  2. Distal radioulnar joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

    2012-09-01

    Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140

  3. Injuries in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS & DIMITRIOS PHILLIPOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety players of 8 teams in 2 male team basketball senior divisions were observed prospectively for 1 season to study the injury incidence in relation to exposure in games and practices. Forty-six injuries were recorded. Injury incidence was evaluated at 2.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours, with a significantly higher incidence in game injuries (14.3 injuries per 1000 game-hours compared with practice injuries(0.6 injuries per 1000 practice-hours.Practice injury incidence was higher in the lower performance level group, and game injury incidence was higher in the high-level group. The upper extremity was involved in 37% of the injuries, and the lower extremity in 54%.The knee was the most commonly injured joint, followed by the finger, ankle, and shoulder. Knee injuries were the most severe injuries, and they were more frequent in high-level players. There was an increase in the severity of injury with respect to performance level. The injury mechanism revealed a high number of offensive injuries, one-third of them occurring during a counterattack. The injury pattern showed certain variations with respect to player position and performance level.

  4. Infection of Atlantic salmon with Moritella viscosus compared to a mechanical tissue injury model in rainbow trout show similar expression patterns of cytokine genes and may be related to triggering of the same signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    was sampled from infected fish at 4, 7 and 14 days post infection. Samples were obtained from site of lesions and from locations without clinical signs of disease and lesions. To compare the inflammatory reactions from infected fish relative to sterile, mechanical tissue damage, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus......Physical damage of tissue and multiple kinds of infections are found to cause inflammatory reactions in mammals. Regardless of the difference between non-pathogenic induced tissue damage and a bacterial infection, many of the same pathways and genes are triggered. To determine if the same...... phenomenon occurs in salmonid fishes, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were infected with the bacteria Moritella viscosus, the causative agent of winter ulcer. The clinical signs showing visible, punctual lesions in the skin make this pathogen unique in order to study local inflammation. Muscle tissue...

  5. 重编程相关因子在牙髓和牙周组织损伤修复中的表达和作用%The expression and modulatory role of reprogramming markers on the in vivo regeneration of dental pulp and periodontal ligament tissue after injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路; 韦曦; 凌均棨; 彭正军; 吴莉萍

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of reprogramming markers including Oct-4, Sox2 and c-Myc in rat dental pulp and periodontal ligament tissues undergoing tissue regeneration after injury. METHODS: Lewis rat model with dental pulp and periodontal ligament injury was created. HE staining was applied to investigate the structure of newly formed dentin-pulp complex and periodontium. The distribution of Oct-4, Sox2 and c-Myc was determined by immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: HE staining showed that newly formed dentin-pulp complex and periodontium was constructed 4 weeks after injury. Immunofluorescent staining revealed Oct-4, Sox2 and c-Myc signal was activated in the newly formed dental pulp and periodontal ligament tissue after injury compared with the normal ones. Oct-4 and Sox2 showed similar expression pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Oct-4, Sox2 and c-Myc signaling may play an important modulatory role in the dental tissue regeneration after injury. Oct-4 and Sox2 may have operative interaction whereas c -Myc may play independent role during this process.%目的:探讨重编程相关因子Oct-4、Sox2和c-Myc在大鼠牙髓组织和牙周韧带组织损伤修复过程中的表达及作用.方法:建立大鼠牙髓牙周联合损伤动物模型,HE染色观察4周后牙髓牙本质复合体及牙周附着装置修复情况,免疫组织荧光染色检测重编程相关因子Oct-4、Sox2和c-Myc在牙髓和牙周联合损伤修复动物体内模型的表达和分布.结果:HE染色显示,大鼠牙髓牙周联合损伤4周后,新生的牙髓牙本质复合体及牙周附着装置形成;免疫荧光显示,在体内牙髓牙周组织损伤修复的过程中,Oct-4、Sox2和c-Myc在牙髓及牙周损伤修复的新生组织均明显激活,Oct-4和Sox2呈现相似的表达趋势.结论:Oct-4、Sox2和c-Myc均参与体内牙髓牙本质复合体和牙周附着装置的损伤修复,Oct-4和Sox2呈现相似的表达趋势,提示Sox2和Oct-4可

  6. Synaptic Mechanisms of Blast Induced Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ePrzekwas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast wave-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the most common injuries to military personnel. Brain tissue compression/tension due to blast-induced cranial deformations and shear waves due to head rotation may generate diffuse micro-damage to neuro-axonal structures and trigger a cascade of neurobiological events culminating in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders. Although diffuse axonal injury is regarded as a signature wound of mild TBI (mTBI, blast loads may also cause synaptic injury wherein neuronal synapses are stretched and sheared. This synaptic injury may result in temporary disconnect of the neural circuitry and transient loss in neuronal communication. We hypothesize that mTBI symptoms such as loss of consciousness or dizziness, which start immediately after the insult could be attributed to synaptic injury. Although empirical evidence is beginning to emerge; the detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic injury are still elusive. Coordinated in vitro - in vivo experiments and mathematical modeling studies can shed light into the synaptic injury mechanisms and their role in the potentiation of mTBI symptoms.

  7. The puerperium alters spinal cord plasticity following peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Silvia; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue and nerve damage can result in chronic pain. Yet, chronic pain after cesarean delivery is remarkably rare in women and hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury in rats resolves rapidly if the injury occurs in the puerperium. Little is known regarding the mechanisms of this protection except for a reliance on central nervous system oxytocin signaling. Here we show that density of inhibitory noradrenergic fibers in the spinal cord is greater when nerve injury is performed in rats du...

  8. Brain Temperature: Physiology and Pathophysiology after Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ségolène Mrozek; Fanny Vardon; Thomas Geeraerts

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of brain temperature is largely dependent on the metabolic activity of brain tissue and remains complex. In intensive care clinical practice, the continuous monitoring of core temperature in patients with brain injury is currently highly recommended. After major brain injury, brain temperature is often higher than and can vary independently of systemic temperature. It has been shown that in cases of brain injury, the brain is extremely sensitive and vulnerable to small variatio...

  9. Injury and repair of astrocyte after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrocyte is the most glial cell in the central nervous system. In the present experiment, radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS) triggers a large network of cellular changes including neuron, glial cell and endothelial cell in morphology and metabolism and function. Astrocyte changes rapidly after ionizing radiation. There is a relationship between astrocyte and the pathologic process and function recover of damaged brain tissue following CNS injury. This suggests that astrocyte plays an important role in cure of clinical radiation injury

  10. 大鼠失血性休克再灌注后肺组织炎性介质改变及病理过程%Inflammatory media change and pathological process of pulmonary tissue damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury of hemorrhagic shock in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永利; 韩文强; 尹文; 王兆文; 黄克斌

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the activity change of myeloperoxidase,malondialdehyde,Interle ukin-8(IL-8), Endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the ischemia/reperfusion injury of hemorrhagic shock in Rats,to explore its pathological mechanism of acute lung injury.MethodsTwenty four Rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham operation group (n=8),shock group(n=8),reperfusion injury group(n=8). The animal model of three groups was established by the Wiggers' improvement method .In the sham operation group after the operation, in the shock group after 1 hours of hemorrhagic, in the reperfusion injury group (shocked 1 hours and injected the isotonic saline water) after observation 3 hours ,the blood were taked to determine the concentration of blood serum IL-8,ET-1, and arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2).Then the three groups of Rats were executed separately,the myeloperoxidase(MPO), Malondialdehyde (MDA) activity and water content in the animal lungs tissue were examined as well.ResultsThe blood IL-8,ET-1,MPO,MDA activity and water content in the animal lungs tissue in the shock group were significantly higher than those in the sham operation group, however,reperfusion injury group were significantly higher than those in the shock group, The content of PaO2、PaCO2 in the shock group were significantly lower than those in the sham operation group, while the content of PaO2 in reperfusion injury group were significantly lower than those in the shock group, the content of PaCO2 in reperfusion injury group were significantly higher than those in the shock group.ConclusionThe ischemia/reperfusion injury is PMN activate and infiltration, by IL-8 and ET-1 producing and releasing in large quantities, oxygen radical destroy structure of cell membrane and cause cell irreversible function injury by overoxidation reaction of membrane lipid, and meanwhile permeability of capillary increased, which cause the lung function injury and water

  11. Short-term Efficacy and Quality of Life Evaluation for Adenomyosis after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment%高强度聚焦超声治疗子宫腺肌病的近期疗效及生活质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢白玉; 胡奎; 鄢利梅; 何敏; 黄国华; 黎克全; 何佳

    2013-01-01

      目的:评价高强度聚焦超声(HIFU)治疗子宫腺肌病的近期疗效及对生活质量的影响。方法:采用HIFU治疗35例子宫腺肌病患者,通过增强磁共振成像(MRI)评价消融的情况,采用彩色多普勒超声监测病灶变化情况;使用标准子宫肌瘤症状及健康相关生活质量(UFS-QOL)量表评价患者临床症状及生活质量改善情况,并随访分析患者不良反应发生及转归。结果:治疗后第2天增强MRI显示子宫腺肌病病灶消融率为(68.9±18.9)%。治疗后所有不良反应均未超过国际介入放射治疗协会(SIR)标准不良反应分级B级。HIFU治疗前病灶体积中位数为36.9 cm3(P25,P75为20.5,44.8 cm3),治疗后1个月病灶体积中位数为19.1 cm3(P25,P75为12.1,31.1 cm3),两者差异有统计学意义(Z=2.801,P=0.005)。HIFU治疗前UFS评分中位数为22.5分(P25,P75为17.5,32.5分),治疗后1个月UFS评分中位数为15.0分(P25,P75为7.5,25.0分),差异有统计学意义(Z=3.695,P=0.000)。治疗前QOL评分为(77.9±10.5)分,治疗后1个月QOL评分为(81.4±13.3)分,差异无统计学意义(t=1.230,P=0.223)。术后痛经症状明显改善(Zc=7.280,P=0.000)。结论:HIFU治疗能有效消融子宫腺肌病病灶,相关临床症状可迅速缓解,病灶明显缩小,但生活质量改善可能需要更长时间。%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the ultrasound ablation with real-time ultrasonic monitoring in adenomyosis treatment and the effect on life quality. Methods:35 patients with adenomyosis were treated with the high intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU). The effecacy of ablation was evaluate by the enhanced MRI. The lesions were monitored by the color Doppler ultrasound. Clinical symptoms,life quality,the side effects after treatment,as well as prognosis,were recorded by the standard UFS-QOL measuring scale. Results:The ablation

  12. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI), is a leading cause of child maltreatment deaths in the United States. Meeting the ... Awareness Additional Prevention Resources Childhood Injuries Concussion in Children and Teens Injuries from Violence Injuries from Motor Vehicle Crashes Teen Driver Safety ...

  13. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goonasekera C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  14. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Goonasekera C; Esufali S

    2005-01-01

    We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  15. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  16. Stem cell-based therapies for spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandoe, R.D.S.; Hurtado, A.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Grotenhuis, A.; Oudega, M.

    2009-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of nervous tissue and consequently loss of motor and sensory function. There is no treatment available that restores the injury-induced loss of function to a degree that an independent life can be guaranteed. Transplantation of stem cells or progenitors may s

  17. Injuries in professional footballers.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of injuries in footballers is described. Nearly half of footballer's injuries involve the knee, with vertical tearing of the meniscus being common; surgical intervention may be required. Approximately one third of injuries involve the ankle, and will often require immobilisation. Other injuries include muscle damage, spondylosis of L4 or L5, concussion, and dislocations. The importance of prompt and correct treatment of injuries is emphasised.

  18. Injuries in orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, F.

    1986-01-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lo...

  19. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-01-01

    A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. ...

  20. 急性肾损伤患儿肾脏促红细胞生成素及其受体的表达%Expressions of Erythropoietin and Erythropoietin Receptor on Renal Tissue in Children with Acute Kidney Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志辉; 吴天慧; 寻劢; 段翠蓉; 张翼; 银燕; 丁云峰; 张丽琼

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨急性肾损伤(AKI)患儿肾脏局部促红细胞生成素(EPO)、EPO受体的表达与肾脏病理损害的关系.方法 2005年1月-2009年12月在本院住院并行肾活检的38例AKI患儿(男29例,女9例).年龄中位数为4.04岁(2个月~11岁9个月),病程中位数为6.89 d(1~30 d).将AKI 1期及AKI 2期患儿归为轻症病例组,AKI 3期患儿归为重症病例组,对照组为同期住院并经肾活检诊断为薄基膜肾病的患儿.采用免疫组织化学方法检测所有患儿肾组织EPO及EPO受体的表达,应用肾脏病理计量评分法对肾小管问质损害进行半定量分析,分析肾小管问质损害程度与肾组织EPO及EPO受体表达之间的关系.结果 1.AKI患儿38例中轻症病例组8例均痊愈,重症病例组28例痊愈,2例预后差.肾脏病理以肾小管间质损害为主.轻症病例组、重症病例组肾小管间质病理损害计分为(10.56±3.40)分、(15.56±4.70)分,组间比较差异有统计学意义(t=-2.832,P<0.01).2.对照组、轻症病例组、重症病例组EPO的阳性表达面积分别为(6.52±2.12)%、(3.02±0.79)%、(1.62±0.18)%,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);3组EPO受体的阳性表达面积分别为(40.46±8.42)%、(64.78±16.38)%、(62.36±15.67)%,组间比较差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.01).3.肾小管间质的病理损害与EPO在肾小管间质的阳性表达面积呈负相关(r=-0.872,P<0.01),而与EPO受体在肾小管间质的阳性表达面积呈正相关(r=0.772,P<0.01).结论 AKI患儿肾脏局部EPO的分泌受抑制,而EPO受体表达增高,提示应用外源性EPO可能有助于肾脏修复.%Objective To detect the relationship between expressions of erythropoietin (EPO) and EPO receptor on renal tissue and kidney histopathologic lesion in children with acute kidney injury ( AKI ).Methods Thirty - eight children with AKI who had renal biopsies done were involved in the study.The patient population comprised 29 boys and 9 girls.The mean

  1. Pharmacogenetics of neural injury recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Fuhrhop, Kristin M; Cramer, Steven C

    2013-10-01

    Relatively few pharmacological agents are part of routine care for neural injury, although several are used or under consideration in acute stroke, chronic stroke, traumatic brain injury and secondary stroke prevention. Tissue plasminogen activator is approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, and genetic variants may impact the efficacy and safety of this drug. In the chronic phase of stroke, several drugs such as L-dopa, fluoxetine and donepezil are under investigation for enhancing rehabilitation therapy, with varying levels of evidence. One potential reason for the mixed efficacy displayed by these drugs may be the influence of genetic factors that were not considered in prior studies. An understanding of the genetics impacting the efficacy of dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic drugs may allow clinicians to target these potential therapies to those patients most likely to benefit. In the setting of stroke prevention, which is directly linked to neural injury recovery, the most highly studied pharmacogenomic interactions pertain to clopidogrel and warfarin. Incorporating pharmacogenomics into neural injury recovery has the potential to maximize the benefit of several current and potential pharmacological therapies and to refine the choice of pharmacological agent that may be used to enhance benefits from rehabilitation therapy.

  2. MRI of perinatal brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary; Allsop, Joanna [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Perinatal Imaging, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Martinez Biarge, Miriam [La Paz University Hospital, Dept of Neonatology, Madrid (Spain); Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Neonatal Medicine, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Cowan, Frances [Imperial College, Dept of Paediatrics, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    MRI is invaluable in assessing the neonatal brain following suspected perinatal injury. Good quality imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults or older children. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and should be available to aid interpretation of the imaging findings. Perinatal lesions, the pattern of which can predict neurodevelopmental outcome, are at their most obvious on conventional imaging between 1 and 2 weeks from birth. Very early imaging during the first week may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates but brain abnormalities may still be subtle using conventional sequences. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is very useful for the early identification of ischaemic tissue in the neonatal brain but may underestimate the final extent of injury, particularly basal ganglia and thalamic lesions. MR imaging is an excellent predictor of outcome following perinatal brain injury and can therefore be used as a biomarker in interventional trials designed to reduce injury and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  3. Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White-Schenk D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Désirée White-Schenk,1,4 Riyi Shi,1–3 James F Leary1–4 1Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, 2Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Lynn School of Veterinary Medicine, 4Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach. Keywords: spinal cord injury, acrolein, drug delivery, methylprednisolone, secondary injury

  4. Tissue Tregs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro, Marisella; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2016-05-20

    The immune system is responsible for defending an organism against the myriad of microbial invaders it constantly confronts. It has become increasingly clear that the immune system has a second major function: the maintenance of organismal homeostasis. Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important contributors to both of these critical activities, defense being the primary purview of Tregs circulating through lymphoid organs, and homeostasis ensured mainly by their counterparts residing in parenchymal tissues. This review focuses on so-called tissue Tregs. We first survey existing information on the phenotype, function, sustaining factors, and human equivalents of the three best-characterized tissue-Treg populations-those operating in visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the colonic lamina propria. We then attempt to distill general principles from this body of work-as concerns the provenance, local adaptation, molecular sustenance, and targets of action of tissue Tregs, in particular. PMID:27168246

  5. Systemic administration of an antagonist of the ATP-sensitive receptor P2X7 improves recovery after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Weiguo; Cotrina, Maria L.; Han, Xiaoning; Yu, Hongmei; Bekar, Lane; Blum, Livnat; Takano, Takahiro; Tian, Guo-Feng; Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is characterized by an immediate, irreversible loss of tissue at the lesion site, as well as a secondary expansion of tissue damage over time. Although secondary injury should, in principle, be preventable, no effective treatment options currently exist for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Excessive release of ATP by the traumatized tissue, followed by activation of high-affinity P2X7 receptors, has previously been implicated in secondary injury, but ...

  6. Biomimetic strategies for engineering composite tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy; Robinson, Jennifer; Lu, Helen

    2016-08-01

    The formation of multiple tissue types and their integration into composite tissue units presents a frontier challenge in regenerative engineering. Tissue-tissue synchrony is crucial in providing structural support for internal organs and enabling daily activities. This review highlights the state-of-the-art in composite tissue scaffold design, and explores how biomimicry can be strategically applied to avoid over-engineering the scaffold. Given the complexity of biological tissues, determining the most relevant parameters for recapitulating native structure-function relationships through strategic biomimicry will reduce the burden for clinical translation. It is anticipated that these exciting efforts in composite tissue engineering will enable integrative and functional repair of common soft tissue injuries and lay the foundation for total joint or limb regeneration. PMID:27010653

  7. Early Complementopathy after Multiple Injuries in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burk, Anne-Maud; Martin, Myriam; Flierl, Michael A; Rittirsch, Daniel; Helm, Matthias; Lampl, Lorenz; Bruckner, Uwe; Stahl, Gregory L.; Blom, Anna M.; Perl, Mario; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After severe tissue injury, innate immunity mounts a robust systemic inflammatory response. However, little is known about the immediate impact of multiple trauma on early complement function in humans. In the present study we hypothesized that multiple trauma results in immediate activation, consumption and dysfunction of the complement cascade and that the resulting severe “complementopathy” may be associated with morbidity and mortality.

  8. Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same framework are chlorine, hydrogen chloride, ethylene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and mercury), particulates, and pesticides. Other subjects discussed include: interactions between pollutants and between pollutants and pathogens, mimicking symptoms, meteorology and air pollution injury, and basic diagnostic procedures of suspected air pollution injury to vegetation. 76 references, 128 figures, 28 tables.

  9. APOPTOSIS AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To confirm the role played by apoptosis in spinal cord injury. Methods 36 rats models of spinal cord injury were made by Allen method. Histological examinations using HE staining and in situ end-labeling were used to observe apoptosis in spinal cord tissues from 1h to 21d after injury. Results HE staining sections showed hemorrhage and necrosis, neuronal degeneration and gliai cell proliferation. In situ end-labeling sections showed the appearance of apoptosis in both gray and white matter as well as in both central and surrounding region. The number of apoptotic cells increased from 12h after injury, increased to the peak at 4d and declined to normal at 21d. Conclu sion The results suggest that apoptosis, especially glial apoptosis, plays a role in the pathogenesis of spinal cord in jury.

  10. Meniscal injury: I. Basic science and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greis, Patrick E; Bardana, Davide D; Holmstrom, Michael C; Burks, Robert T

    2002-01-01

    The patient with meniscal injury may present with pain, swelling, or mechanical symptoms and often requires surgical intervention for symptom resolution. Treatment of such injuries relies on understanding the gross and microanatomic features of the meniscus that are important in maintaining meniscal function. The ability of the meniscus to participate in load bearing, shock absorption, joint lubrication, and joint stability depends on the maintenance of its structural integrity. The diagnosis of meniscal injury often can be made by clinical evaluation utilizing the history, physical examination, and plain radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in confirming the diagnosis when clinical findings are inconclusive. Treatment depends on tear pattern, vascularity, and an assessment of tissue quality. Surgical decision making for the treatment of meniscal injury is based on patient factors and understanding of the meniscal structure, function, and pathology. PMID:12041938

  11. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  12. Effect of matrine hydrochloride on liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-bo; XU Feng; MA Wen-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective Searching the function that the Injection of the matrine hydrochloride prevents and cures acute chemical liver injury of mice、 immunity liver injury of mice and chronic liver injury of rats. Methods Acute hepatic injury models of mice induced by Chemical poison carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thioacetamide(TAA), D-galactosamine(D-GalN), immunity hepatic injury model of mice induced by BCG and fat polysaccharide (LPS), chronic liver injury model of rats induced by CCI, were introduced in the experiment. The serum ALT and AST were measured in acute hepatic injury experiments. Serum ALT, AST, AKP, ALB, TP, BiL-T, ereatinine, triglyceride, sialie acid, larninin, hyaluronic acid, type Ⅲ proeollagen and type Ⅳ collagen, hepatic hydroxyproline (HyP) of rats in chronic liver injury animals were determined after Injection of the matrine hydrochloride. Results The Injection of the matrine hydrochloride reduced serum ALT and AST level of acute chemical liver injury of mice induced by CCl4, TAA and D-GaIN. The index of the liver and the spleen of immunity liver injury of mice induced by BCG and LPS were decreased after the injection of matrine hydrochloride treatment. Compared with the model group, the injection may obviously inhibited serum ALT, AST, TP, AKP, TRI, BiL-T, creatinine, triglyceride, sialic acid, laminin , hyaluronic acid , type Ⅲ procollagen and type Ⅳ collagen activity of chronic liver injury of rats induced by CCl4, elevated ALB、A/G, reduced the liver HyP, decreased the index of the liver and the spleen. The liver visual observation, the pathology inspection and the HAI grading result showed the injection may reduce the inflammatory activity in liver tissue, restrain the liver cell damage, reduce the pseudolobuli formation. Conclusions The Injection of matrine hydrochloride had the protective function to acute chemical hepatic injury of mice induced by CCl4、TAA、D-GalN、immunity hepatic injury of mice induced by the BCG and LPS and

  13. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph ...

  14. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  15. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  16. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  17. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  18. Injury of the peripheral cranial nerves during carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodotou, B; Mahaley, M S

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of local nerve injury among 192 consecutive carotid endarterectomies in 162 patients between 1977-1983 was determined from review of the medical records. Two facial nerve, 5 hypoglossal nerve, and 2 vagus nerve injuries were discovered for a total incidence of 4.7%. Only the 2 facial nerve injuries failed to improve over 2 years. Followup ranged from 1 to 60 months in this group of patients. Careful attention to details of tissue dissection at surgery should lower the incidence of nerve injury during carotid endarterectomy. PMID:4049454

  19. Medial patellofemoral ligament: Research progress in anatomy and injury imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is considered as the most important soft tissue restraint providing medial stability of the patellofemoral joint. During patellar dislocation, the MPFL is subjected to severe stretching forces, resulting in injuries of the ligament in the most patients. With the development of medical imaging technology, a variety of non-invasive diagnostic imaging methods have been becoming important means in diagnosis of MPFL injury. In this paper, MPFL anatomy, the applications of medical imaging technology in diagnosis of MPFL injury and the distributions of MPFL injury site were reviewed. (authors)

  20. Mortality due to injuries in Maputo City, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamo, Hanifa; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Zacarias, Eugénio;

    2006-01-01

    Records of all registered deaths due to injuries maintained by the Legal Medicine Department in Maputo City for the period 1 January to 31 December 2000 were reviewed. Among the 1135 registered deaths, road traffic injuries accounted for the most common underlying cause of death (43.7%), followed...... by firearm discharge (8.7%) and burns (7.8%). For all deaths, skull fracture (21.9%), organ system injury (17.2%) and brain tissue injury (9.3%) were the most important intermediate causes of death and among the immediate causes of death acute anaemia (21.9%) was the most common followed by asphyxia (14...

  1. Comparative study of psychologtcal health conditions between elderly and young adult patients with facial soft tissue injury and analysis of the mode for the diagnosis and treatment%中青年与老年面部创伤患者心理状态比较及诊疗模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 亓发芝; 顾建英; 曹小曼

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of psychological health conditions between eldedy and young adult patients with facial soft tissue injury.Methods The SDS,SAS and UCLA loneliness scale were applied to 88 patients with facial soft tissue injury.Results The score of anxiety and depression index in young adult patients were significantly higher than that in elderly adult patients[(50.96±6.21)vs(40.45±5.29),P<0.01;(0.58±0.06)vs(0.44±0.04),P<0.01].However,the loneliness score was notably lower than that in elderly adult patients[(60.62±5.43)vs(38.22±6.64)](P<0.01).Conclusion The facial injury patients of different ages suffered from different psychological symptoms and they should be treated differently.%目的 比较中青年与老年面部创伤患者心理状态.方法 采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、UCLA孤独量表等心理学量表对88例面部创伤患者的心理健康状况进行测量.结果 中青年患者焦虑评分[(50.96±6.21)分]、抑郁指数[(0.58±0.06)]明显高于老年患者[(40.45±5.29)分,(0.44±0.04)](P<0.01),老年患者的孤独评分[(60.62±5.43)分]明显高于中青年患者[(38.22±6.64)分](P<0.01).结论 不同年龄层次的面部创伤患者心理障碍情况有很大不同,在临床处理上应区别对待.

  2. Cellular Mechanisms of Tissue Fibrosis. 6. Purinergic signaling and response in fibroblasts and tissue fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, David; Insel, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue fibrosis occurs as a result of the dysregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. Tissue fibroblasts, resident cells responsible for the synthesis and turnover of ECM, are regulated via numerous hormonal and mechanical signals. The release of intracellular nucleotides and their resultant autocrine/paracrine signaling have been shown to play key roles in the homeostatic maintenance of tissue remodeling and in fibrotic response post-injury. Extracellular nucleotides signal throug...

  3. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100 games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training. El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes

  4. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  5. Optical measurement of blood flow changes in spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P; Kyriacou, P A [Biomedical Engineering Research Group, City University London, Northampton Square, London (United Kingdom); George, K J [Neuroscience Centre, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End, London (United Kingdom); Langford, R M, E-mail: justin.phillips.1@city.ac.u [Pain and Anaesthesia Research Centre, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about cell death in spinal cord tissue following compression injury, despite compression being a key component of spinal injuries. Currently models are used to mimic compression injury in animals and the effects of the compression evaluated by observing the extent and duration of recovery of normal motor function in the days and weeks following the injury. A fibreoptic photoplethysmography system was used to investigate whether pulsation of the small arteries in the spinal cord occurred before, during and after compressive loads were applied to the tissue. It was found that the signal amplitudes were reduced and this reduction persisted for at least five minutes after the compression ceased. It is hoped that results from this preliminary study may improve knowledge of the mechanism of spinal cord injury.

  6. Treatment of meniscal injury: a current concept review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yang-lin; WANG Yu-bin

    2010-01-01

    Meniscal injury is one of the most common injuries to the knee. The menisci are important for normal knee function. And loss of a meniscus increases the risk of subsequent development of degenerative changes in the knee. Now there are different techniques available for meniscal injury. These techniques include expectant treatment, meniscectomy, meniscal repair, meniscal replacement, and meniscal tissue engineering. Expectant treatment is the appropriate treatment for minor tears of the menisci. Meniscectomy being favored at the beginning is now obsolete. Meniscus repair has become a standard procedure. Meniscal replacement and tissue engineering are used to deal with considerable meniscal injuries. The purpose of this paper is to provide current knowledge regarding the anatomy and function of the menisci, incidence,aetiology, symptoms, signs, investigations and treatments of meniscal injury.

  7. Research progression of lung injury after burn-blast combined injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan HU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of military conflict, terrorist attacks, industrial and traffic accidents, the incidence of burn-blast combined injury would be escalating. The burn-blast combined injury was a major clinical problem accompanied by multiple complications and high mortality. The lungs were the most severely injured organ in burn-blast combined injury. Dysfunction of ventilation and gas exchange produced by lung damage could affect oxygen supply to organs and systemic tissues, and is one of the pathophysiological changes resulting in shock and other complications. Previous research has indicated that most of alveolar walls were ruptured, capillaries ruptured, and pulmonary capillary endothelial cells were damaged in the lungs after burn-blast combined injury, and they were followed by pulmonary edema and hemorrhage followed by disorders in ventilation and gas exchange, ending in ischemia and hypoxia of systemic organs. So the treatment of lung injury is the major measure for the treatment of burn-blast combined injury. The pathogenesis and treatment of lung injury in burn-blast combined injury are briefly summarized in this article.

  8. The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma / Hemorrhage and Traumatic Brain Injury: Current State and Emerging Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    R, Namas; A, Ghuma; L, Hermus; R, Zamora; DO Okonkwo; TR, Billiar; Y, Vodovotz

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherently detrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair, and rege...

  9. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  10. Neutrophil Elastase Contributes to Acute Lung Injury Induced by Bilateral Nephrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Tomoko; DOI, Kent; Okamoto, Koji; Imamura, Mitsuru; Dohi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Fujita, Toshiro; Noiri, Eisei

    2010-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious problem in critically ill patients of intensive care units. It has been reported previously that AKI can induce acute lung injury (ALI), as well as cause injuries to other remote organs, including the lungs. Patients with AKI complicated by ALI show remarkably high mortality. ALI is characterized by neutrophil infiltration into the lung. Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a key enzyme for tissue injury caused by activated neutrophils, such as occurs in ALI. The...

  11. Astrocytic Ephrin-B1 Regulates Synapse Remodeling Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolakopoulou, Angeliki M.; Koeppen, Jordan; Garcia, Michael; Leish, Joshua; Obenaus, Andre; Iryna M Ethell

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in tissue alterations distant from the site of the initial injury, which can trigger pathological changes within hippocampal circuits and are thought to contribute to long-term cognitive and neuropsychological impairments. However, our understanding of secondary injury mechanisms is limited. Astrocytes play an important role in brain repair after injury and astrocyte-mediated mechanisms that are implicated in synapse development are likely important in ...

  12. Effect of Seawater Soaking on Explosive Cornea Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suihua Chen; Zhenping Huang; Lili Wang; Yuwen Lu; Yi Wang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes in corneal tissue after explosive corneal injury and the effect of seawater soaking on the healing of cornea after explosive injury with the help ofoptical microscope. Methods: Make 10 similar explosive injury models of rabbit′s eyeball using 10 adult greyrabbits. For each rabbit, both eyes are artificially injured through explosion; its right eye is the comparison eye and after the injury the left eye is soaked in seawater for 30 minutes.Conduct slit lamp examinations, fluorescein dyeing, and ultrasonic cornea thickness metering on the corneas at intervals, that is, before the injury, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15days after the injury respectively. Examine the corneas under the optical microscope andmake comparisons.Results: The corneal thickness of the experiment eye becomes apparently thicker than thatof the comparison eye after the injury. The corneal clouding of the former apparentlyaggravates compared with the latter. The healing of corneal epithelium in the injured eye isslower compared with that in the comparison eye. Comparative examination under the opticalmicroscope shows: after the injury, the corneal tissue of the experiment eye changesdistinctly, its healing is delayed and the vascularization degree becomes high in cornealstroma.Conclusion: Scars and vascularization of various degrees will appear in corneal stroma afterexplosive injuries. Seawater soaking will have bad effects on the healing of the corneainjured in explosions.

  13. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  14. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  15. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? What is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? ...

  17. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children are admitted to the hospital for these reasons or if they were unconscious even briefly or had a seizure. Children are also admitted to the hospital if child abuse is suspected. Severe head injury If the injury ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily ...

  19. Empty Toe Phenomenon: A Rare Presentation of Closed Degloving Injury of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Adam L; Fallat, Lawrence M

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic degloving injuries of the lower extremity are commonly diagnosed by soft tissue deficits and separation of soft tissue planes. The management of open degloving injuries is well documented with established treatment protocols. Because closed degloving injuries of the lower extremity are so rare, the protocol management is not well established. Unlike open degloving injuries, evidence of soft tissue injury and detachment of the tissue planes can be subtle. Owing to the rarity of these injuries, little has been described regarding the long-term outcomes. In the present report, 2 closed degloving cases are presented. The first case presented is of a 27-year-old railroad worker who sustained a severe closed degloving injury of his foot with digital soft tissue envelope transposition. The second case involved a 60-year-old automobile manufacturer, whose foot was crushed by a hydraulic fork lift, creating a degloving injury of the third, fourth, and fifth toes. The follow-up duration from the date of injury for patient 1 was 26 months and for patients 2 was 16 months. The purpose of presenting these cases is to report these rare injuries with the treatment, complications, and outcomes. PMID:26277242

  20. [Regeneration and fibrosis of corneal tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simirskiĭ, V N

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the features of the regeneration of corneal tissue and its disorders leading to the development of fibrosis are considered. The data on the presence of stem (clonogenic) cell pool in the corneal tissues (epithelium, endothelium, stroma) are given; these cells can serve as a source for regeneration of the tissues at injury or various diseases. The main steps of regeneration of corneal tissues and their disorders that lead to outstripping proliferation of myofibroblasts and secretion of extracellular matrix in the wound area and eventually cause the formation of connective tissue scar and corneal opacity are considered. Particular attention is given to the successes of translational medicine in the treatment of corneal tissue fibrosis. The methods of cell therapy aimed at the restoration of stem cell pool of corneal tissues are the most promising. Gene therapy provides more opportunities; one of its main objectives is the suppression of the myofibroblast proliferation responsible for the development of fibrosis.