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Sample records for adenocarcinoma potential relevance

  1. Anti-viral state segregates two molecular phenotypes of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: potential relevance for adenoviral gene therapy

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    Chiorini Jay A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC remains a leading cause of cancer mortality for which novel gene therapy approaches relying on tumor-tropic adenoviruses are being tested. Methods We obtained the global transcriptional profiling of primary PDAC using RNA from eight xenografted primary PDAC, three primary PDAC bulk tissues, three chronic pancreatitis and three normal pancreatic tissues. The Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133A was used. The results of the expression profiles were validated applying immunohistochemical and western blot analysis on a set of 34 primary PDAC and 10 established PDAC cell lines. Permissivity to viral vectors used for gene therapy, Adenovirus 5 and Adeno-Associated Viruses 5 and 6, was assessed on PDAC cell lines. Results The analysis of the expression profiles allowed the identification of two clearly distinguishable phenotypes according to the expression of interferon-stimulated genes. The two phenotypes could be readily recognized by immunohistochemical detection of the Myxovirus-resistance A protein, whose expression reflects the activation of interferon dependent pathways. The two molecular phenotypes discovered in primary carcinomas were also observed among established pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, suggesting that these phenotypes are an intrinsic characteristic of cancer cells independent of their interaction with the host's microenvironment. The two pancreatic cancer phenotypes are characterized by different permissivity to viral vectors used for gene therapy, as cell lines expressing interferon stimulated genes resisted to Adenovirus 5 mediated lysis in vitro. Similar results were observed when cells were transduced with Adeno-Associated Viruses 5 and 6. Conclusion Our study identified two molecular phenotypes of pancreatic cancer, characterized by a differential expression of interferon-stimulated genes and easily recognized by the expression of the Myxovirus-resistance A protein. We

  2. Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Occurring 5 Years after Resection of a Primary Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Relevant Differential Diagnosis

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    R. F. Falkenstern-Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is a lethal disease. Surgical extirpation only offers the slim chance for long-term survival in localized disease. We report on a 73 year old female patient who initially underwent successful resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in May 2005. She was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine. In October 2010 the patient noticed increasing dyspnea with haemoptysis. She was soon referred to our center. After the diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with widespread metastasis, she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. For a period of next three years, she was treated with different chemotherapy regimens due to repeated episodes of tumor progression. To the best of our knowledge after reviewing the literature, this case represents an unusually clinical course with metachronous pulmonary adenocarcinoma arising after treatment of a primary pancreatic cancer after a long latency period.

  3. Cryptosporidium parvum, a potential cause of colic adenocarcinoma

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    Pinon Anthony

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. Particularly, it remains a clinically significant opportunistic infection among immunocompromised patients, causing potentially life-threatening diarrhoea in HIV-infected persons. However, the understanding about different aspects of this infection such as invasion, transmission and pathogenesis is problematic. Additionally, it has been difficult to find suitable animal models for propagation of this parasite. Efforts are needed to develop reproducible animal models allowing both the routine passage of different species and approaching unclear aspects of Cryptosporidium infection, especially in the pathophysiology field. Results We developed a model using adult severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium muris while treated or not with Dexamethasone (Dex in order to investigate divergences in prepatent period, oocyst shedding or clinical and histopathological manifestations. C. muris-infected mice showed high levels of oocysts excretion, whatever the chemical immunosuppression status. Pre-patent periods were 11 days and 9.7 days in average in Dex treated and untreated mice, respectively. Parasite infection was restricted to the stomach, and had a clear preferential colonization for fundic area in both groups. Among C. parvum-infected mice, Dex-treated SCID mice became chronic shedders with a prepatent period of 6.2 days in average. C. parvum-inoculated mice treated with Dex developed glandular cystic polyps with areas of intraepithelial neoplasia, and also with the presence of intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Conclusion For the first time C. parvum is associated with the formation of polyps and adenocarcinoma lesions in the gut of Dex-treated SCID mice. Additionally, we have developed a model to compare chronic muris and parvum

  4. MET overexpression, gene amplification and relevant clinicopathological features in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Wenbin; Ying, Jianming

    2017-02-07

    This study was conducted to investigate the expression of MET in Chinese gastric adenocarcinoma cohort, the correlation between MET overexpression and clinical pathological features, HER2 expression and MET gene amplification. A total of 816 gastric adenocarcinoma patients were included and MET and HER2 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were performed. IHC and dual-color silver in situ hybridization analysis were performed in the tissue microarrays, constructed from the 240 patients who were randomly selected. MET overexpression (IHC 3+) was observed in 6.0% (49/816) of the cohort. MET overexpression rate was higher in patients with poor prognostic factors, such as clinical stages III/IV (p =0.012) and pathologic stages T3/T4 (p =0.027). The HER2 overexpression (IHC 3+) rate was 8.8% (72/816) and MET overexpression rate was higher in HER2 positive patients (9.7%, 7/72). A high concordance rate (94.6%) between MET overexpression and gene amplification was demonstrated. Therefore, MET overexpression could serve as a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  5. Focal Endometrial Adenocarcinoma in Atypical Polypoid Adenomyoma of Low Malignant Potential

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    Coskun Salman

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a perimenopausal woman with atypical polypoid adenomyoma of low malignant potential with focal adenocarcinoma on endometrial biopsy who subsequently underwent hysterectomy in which no residual malignant lesion was found.

  6. Prognostic relevance of molecular subtypes and master regulators in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janky, Rekin’s; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Allemeersch, Joke; Van den broeck, Anke; Govaere, Olivier; Swinnen, Johannes V.; Roskams, Tania; Aerts, Stein; Topal, Baki

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is poorly characterized at genetic and non-genetic levels. The current study evaluates in a large cohort of patients the prognostic relevance of molecular subtypes and key transcription factors in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We performed gene expression analysis of whole-tumor tissue obtained from 118 surgically resected PDAC and 13 histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples. Cox regression models were used to study the effect on survival of molecular subtypes and 16 clinicopathological prognostic factors. In order to better understand the biology of PDAC we used iRegulon to identify transcription factors (TFs) as master regulators of PDAC and its subtypes. We confirmed the PDAssign gene signature as classifier of PDAC in molecular subtypes with prognostic relevance. We found molecular subtypes, but not clinicopathological factors, as independent predictors of survival. Regulatory network analysis predicted that HNF1A/B are among thousand TFs the top enriched master regulators of the genes expressed in the normal pancreatic tissue compared to the PDAC regulatory network. On immunohistochemistry staining of PDAC samples, we observed low expression of HNF1B in well differentiated towards no expression in poorly differentiated PDAC samples. We predicted IRF/STAT, AP-1, and ETS-family members as key transcription factors in gene signatures downstream of mutated KRAS. PDAC can be classified in molecular subtypes that independently predict survival. HNF1A/B seem to be good candidates as master regulators of pancreatic differentiation, which at the protein level loses its expression in malignant ductal cells of the pancreas, suggesting its putative role as tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under the number NCT01116791 (May 3, 2010). The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2540-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  7. Clinically relevant characterization of lung adenocarcinoma subtypes based on cellular pathways: an international validation study.

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    Christopher M Bryant

    Full Text Available Lung adenocarcinoma (AD represents a predominant type of lung cancer demonstrating significant morphologic and molecular heterogeneity. We sought to understand this heterogeneity by utilizing gene expression analyses of 432 AD samples and examining associations between 27 known cancer-related pathways and the AD subtype, clinical characteristics and patient survival. Unsupervised clustering of AD and gene expression enrichment analysis reveals that cell proliferation is the most important pathway separating tumors into subgroups. Further, AD with increased cell proliferation demonstrate significantly poorer outcome and an increased solid AD subtype component. Additionally, we find that tumors with any solid component have decreased survival as compared to tumors without a solid component. These results lead to the potential to use a relatively simple pathological examination of a tumor in order to determine its aggressiveness and the patient's prognosis. Additional results suggest the ability to use a similar approach to determine a patient's sensitivity to targeted treatment. We then demonstrated the consistency of these findings using two independent AD cohorts from Asia (N = 87 and Europe (N = 89 using the identical analytic procedures.

  8. Cytokinetic effects of razoxane and relevance to radiopotentiation in a human adenocarcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof.

    1982-01-01

    Razoxane (+-1,2-bis (3,5-dioxopiperazin-1-yl)propane) or ICRF 159 has been shown to enhance the X-radiation sensitivity of a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29R) in culture if the cells were incubated with the drug for more than ten hours prior irradiation. Razoxane was shown not to interfere with repair of sublethal of potentially lethal damage of radiation. The radiosensitizing effect is therefore attributed to a reduced ability to accumulate such damage. As the effect was shown greater in exponential phase, which consists of greater proportion of dividing cells than plateau phase cells, it is believed that the drug (0.1 - 100 μg/ml) potentiates the effect of X-radiation in HT29R cells by pertubation in the cell cycle kinetics. Razoxane at low and high concentrations (5 and 100 μg/ml) was shown to delay the cell progression on cells entering mitosis. Chromosomes of drug-treated cells seemed to be unable to condense at the premitosis stage and cells with chromosomes resembling those in prophase were allowed to proceed through mitosis but progressed very slowly so that accumulation of mitotic cells were seen. Cells were than allowed to complete mitosis but frequently failed to undergo cytokinesis and subsequently produced many giant multinucleate cells. It is likely that the cells in mitosis and multinucleate cells are more radiosensitive. However, the mitotic delay was found to be reversible following progressive drug inactivation in the cells. Cells appeared to return to normal cell progression rate and division while the radiopotentiating effect was disappearing. The mechanism of drug action in inhibiting chromosome condensation was shown to involve the drug interference with histone H 1 phosphorylation. The inhibition of H 1 phosphorylation might reduce the cross-linking of the histone on DNA strands and thus preventing them from participating in supercoiling of the chromosome. (author)

  9. Latexin exhibits tumor-suppressor potential in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    XUE, ZHANXIONG; ZHOU, YUHUI; WANG, CHENG; ZHENG, JIHANG; ZHANG, PU; ZHOU, LINGLING; WU, LIANG; SHAN, YUNFENG; YE, MENGSI; HE, YUN; CAI, ZHENZHAI

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that latexin (Lxn) expression is involved in stem cell regulation and that it plays significant roles in tumor cell migration and invasion. The clinicopathological significance of Lxn expression and its possible correlation with CD133 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is currently unknown. In the present study, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine Lxn and CD133 expression in 43 PDAC patient samples and in 32 corresponding adjacent non-cancerous samples. The results were analyzed and compared with patient age, gender, tumor site and size, histological grade, clinical stage and overall mean survival time. Lxn expression was clearly decreased in the PDAC tissues compared with that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, while CD133 expression was increased. Low Lxn expression in the PDAC tissues was significantly correlated with tumor size (P=0.002), histological grade (P=0.000), metastasis (P=0.007) and clinical stage (P=0.018), but not with age (P=0.451), gender (P=0.395) or tumor site (P=0.697). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that low Lxn expression was significantly correlated with reduced overall survival time (P=0.000). Furthermore, Lxn expression was found to be inversely correlated with CD133 expression (r=−0.485, P=0.001). Furthermore, CD133-positive MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic tumor cells were sorted by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), and those that overexpressed Lxn exhibited a significantly higher rate of apoptosis and lower proliferative activity. Our findings suggest that Lxn may function as a tumor suppressor that targets CD133-positive pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:26530530

  10. FDG PET and CT in locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the distal oesophagus. Clinical relevance of a discordant PET finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, A.; Wieder, H.; Schwaiger, M.; Weber, W.A.; Stollfuss, J.; Ott, K.; Fink, U.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: the incidence of adenocarcinomas of the distal oesophagus (ADE) has dramatically increased in Western countries. The clinical importance of a FDG PET finding discordant with CT was determined in patients with locally advanced ADE. In addition, tumour standardized uptake values (SUV) were correlated with patient survival. Patients, methods: 40 consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent an attenuation corrected FDG PET scan (neck, chest, abdomen) and contrast enhanced helical CT of the chest and abdomen. PET and CT scans were reviewed independently and concomitantly with respect to metastases in predefined lymph node sites and organs. Any discordance between PET and CT was assessed for clinical relevance. Clinical relevance was defined as a change in the overall therapeutic concept (curative vs. palliative). Follow-up imaging and histological evaluation served as the gold standard. Mean tumour SUVs were determined by 1.5 cm regions of interest placed over the tumour's maximum. Results: when read independently from the CT scan FDG PET indicated a clinically relevant change in tumour stage in 9/40 patients (23%) and a non-relevant change in 11/40 patients (28%). PET was correct in 5/9 patients (56%) with clinically relevant discordances. In 4/9 patients PET was incorrect (3 false positive due to suspicion of MI-lymph nodes or lung metastases, 1 false negative in disseminated liver metastases). With concomitant reading, PET indicated a clinically relevant change in tumour stage in 6/40 patients (15%) and a non-relevant change in 5/40 patients (13%). PET was correct in 5/6 patients (83%) with clinically relevant discordances. The patient with disseminated liver disease remained the single false negative. Overall, the benefit from PET was based on its higher diagnostic accuracy at organ sites. Tumour SUV did not correlate with patient survival. Conclusion: about half of discordances between FDG PET and CT are clinically relevant

  11. Estimate of the global burden of cervical adenocarcinoma and potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, Jeanne M; Galindo, Claudia; Jenkins, David; Taylor, Sylvia M

    2013-01-01

    Data on the current burden of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and histology-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution are relevant to predict the future impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines. We estimate the proportion of ADC in invasive cervical cancer, the global number of cases of cervical ADC in 2015, the effect of cervical screening on ADC, the number of ADC cases attributable to high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -45, -31 and -33, and the potential impact of HPV vaccination using a variety of data sources including: GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) Volume IX, cervical screening data from the World Health Organization/Institut Català d'Oncologia Information Centre on HPV and cervical cancer, and published literature. ADC represents 9.4% of all ICC although its contribution varies greatly by country and region. The global crude incidence rate of cervical ADC in 2015 is estimated at 1.6 cases per 100,000 women, and the projected worldwide incidence of ADC in 2015 is 56,805 new cases. Current detection rates for HPV DNA in cervical ADC tend to range around 80–85%; the lower HPV detection rates in cervical ADC versus squamous cell carcinoma may be due to technical artefacts or to misdiagnosis of endometrial carcinoma as cervical ADC. Published data indicate that the five most common HPV types found in cervical ADC are HPV-16 (41.6%), -18 (38.7%), -45 (7.0%), -31 (2.2%) and -33 (2.1%), together comprising 92% of all HPV positive cases. Future projections using 2015 data, assuming 100% vaccine coverage and a true HPV causal relation of 100%, suggest that vaccines providing protection against HPV-16/18 may theoretically prevent 79% of new HPV-related ADC cases (44,702 cases annually) and vaccines additionally providing cross-protection against HPV-31/33/45 may prevent 89% of new HPV-related ADC cases (50,769 cases annually). It is predicted that the currently available HPV vaccines will be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cervical

  12. Comparative proteomic approach identifies PKM2 and cofilin-1 as potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets for pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

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    Xing-chen Peng

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (Non-SCLC account for almost 80% of lung cancers, of which 40% were adenocarcinomas. For a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the development and progression of lung cancer, particularly lung adenocarcinoma, we have used proteomics technology to search for candidate prognostic and therapeutic targets in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The protein profile changes between human pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue and paired surrounding normal tissue were analyzed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE based approach. Differentially expressed protein-spots were identified with ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS instruments. As a result, thirty two differentially expressed proteins (over 2-fold, p<0.05 were identified in pulmonary adenocarcinoma compared to normal tissues. Among them, two proteins (PKM2 and cofilin-1, significantly up-regulated in adenocarcinoma, were selected for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemical examination indicated that enhanced expression of PKM2 and cofilin-1 were correlated with the severity of epithelial dysplasia, as well as a relatively poor prognosis. Knockdown of PKM2 expression by RNA interference led to a significant suppression of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in pulmonary adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cells in vitro, and tumor growth inhibition in vivo xenograft model (P<0.05. In addition, the shRNA expressing plasmid targeting cofilin-1 significantly inhibited tumor metastases and prolonged survival in LL/2 metastatic model. While additional works are needed to elucidate the biological significance and molecular mechanisms of these altered proteins identified in this study, PKM2 and cofilin-1 may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets for pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  13. Human Genetic Relevance and Potent Antitumor Activity of Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibition in Canine Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines.

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    Francisco Clemente-Vicario

    Full Text Available It has been an open question how similar human and canine lung cancers are. This has major implications in availability of human treatments for dogs and in establishing translational models to test new therapies in pet dogs. The prognosis for canine advanced lung cancer is poor and new treatments are needed. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 is an ATPase-dependent molecular chaperone ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells. HSP90 is essential for posttranslational conformational maturation and stability of client proteins including protein kinases and transcription factors, many of which are important for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells. We investigated the activity of STA-1474, a HSP90 inhibitor, in two canine lung cancer cell lines, BACA and CLAC.Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of both cell lines revealed genetic relevance to human non-small cell lung cancer. STA-1474 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ICs50 after 72 h treatment with STA-1474 were 0.08 and 0.11 μM for BACA and CLAC, respectively. When grown as spheroids, the IC50 of STA-1474 for BACA cells was approximately two-fold higher than when grown as a monolayer (0.348 μM vs. 0.168 μM, whereas CLAC spheroids were relatively drug resistant. Treatment of tumor-stromal fibroblasts with STA-1474 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in their relative cell viability with a low IC50 of 0.28 μM.Here we first established that lung adenocarcinoma in people and dogs are genetically and biochemically similar. STA1474 demonstrated biological activity in both canine lung cancer cell lines and tumor-stromal fibroblasts. As significant decreases in relative cell viability can be achieved with nanomolar concentrations of STA-1474, investigation into the clinical efficacy of this drug in canine lung cancer patients is warranted.

  14. Potential Therapeutic Benefit of Combining Gefitinib and Tamoxifen for Treating Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma

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    Chien-Ming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations are known as oncogene driver mutations and with EGFR mutations exhibit good response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib. Some studies have shown that activation of estrogen and estrogen receptor α or β (ERα/β promote adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the relationship between the two receptors and the potential therapeutic benefit with Gefitinib and Tamoxifen. Methods. We assessed the association between EGFR mutations as well as ERα/β expression/location and overall survival in a cohort of 55 patients with LAC from a single hospital. PC9 (EGFR exon 19 deletion mutant; Gefitinib-vulnerable cells and A549 (EGFR wild type; Gefitinib-resistant cells cancer cells were used to evaluate the in vitro therapeutic benefits of combining Gefitinib and Tamoxifen. Results. We found that the cytosolic but not the nuclear expression of ERβ was associated with better OS in LAC tumors but not associated with EGFR mutation. The in vitro study showed that combined Gefitinib and Tamoxifen resulted in increased apoptosis and cytosolic expression of ERβ. In addition, combining both medications resulted in reduced cell growth and increased the cytotoxic effect of Gefitinib. Conclusion. Tamoxifen enhanced advanced LAC cytotoxic effect induced by Gefitinib by arresting ERβ in cytosol.

  15. Metabolites of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (NP in serum have the potential to delineate pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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    Shaiju K Vareed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (PDAC, the fourth highest cause of cancer related deaths in the United States, has the most aggressive presentation resulting in a very short median survival time for the affected patients. Early detection of PDAC is confounded by lack of specific markers that has motivated the use of high throughput molecular approaches to delineate potential biomarkers. To pursue identification of a distinct marker, this study profiled the secretory proteome in 16 PDAC, 2 carcinoma in situ (CIS and 7 benign patients using label-free mass spectrometry coupled to 1D-SDS-PAGE and Strong Cation-Exchange Chromatography (SCX. A total of 431 proteins were detected of which 56 were found to be significantly elevated in PDAC. Included in this differential set were Parkinson disease autosomal recessive, early onset 7 (PARK 7 and Alpha Synuclein (aSyn, both of which are known to be pathognomonic to Parkinson's disease as well as metabolic enzymes like Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (NP which has been exploited as therapeutic target in cancers. Tissue Microarray analysis confirmed higher expression of aSyn and NP in ductal epithelia of pancreatic tumors compared to benign ducts. Furthermore, extent of both aSyn and NP staining positively correlated with tumor stage and perineural invasion while their intensity of staining correlated with the existence of metastatic lesions in the PDAC tissues. From the biomarker perspective, NP protein levels were higher in PDAC sera and furthermore serum levels of its downstream metabolites guanosine and adenosine were able to distinguish PDAC from benign in an unsupervised hierarchical classification model. Overall, this study for the first time describes elevated levels of aSyn in PDAC as well as highlights the potential of evaluating NP protein expression and levels of its downstream metabolites to develop a multiplex panel for non-invasive detection of PDAC.

  16. Novel therapeutic strategies for treating esophageal adenocarcinoma: the potential of dendritic cell immunotherapy and combinatorial regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milano, Francesca; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2008-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is an extremely aggressive disease with an overall 5 years survival rate of less than 20%. Current treatments, such as surgery, or chemo- and radiotherapy have only little effect on survival. Attempts to combine these treatment modalities were only limited successful

  17. The potentials of ICT application to increased relevance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of ICT application to increased relevance and sustainability of University Library Services in Nigeria. ... in Kenneth Dike library, University of Ibadan and University of Lagos Libraries and library search of recent literature on ICT application and marketing of ICT based services in Nigerian University libraries.

  18. Evaluation of potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of potential changes in hydrologically relevant statistics of rainfall in Southern Africa under conditions of climate change # ... As convergence in climate-change scenarios becomes apparent, there is now an arguable basis for developing appropriate response strategies for incorporation into adaptation policy.

  19. Adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) expression and metastatic potential in prostatic adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinjens, W N; Ten Kate, J; Kirch, J A; Tanke, H J; Van der Linden, E P; Van den Ingh, H F; Van Steenbrugge, G J; Meera Khan, P; Bosman, F T

    1990-03-01

    The expression of the adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the normal and hyperplastic human prostate, in 30 prostatic adenocarcinomas, and in seven human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines grown as xenografts in athymic nude mice. In the normal and hyperplastic prostate, ADCP was localized exclusively in the apical membrane and the apical cytoplasm of the glandular epithelial cells. In prostatic adenocarcinomas, four distinct ADCP expression patterns were observed: diffuse cytoplasmic, membranous, both cytoplasmic and membranous, and no ADCP expression. The expression patterns were compared with the presence of metastases. We found an inverse correlation between membranous ADCP immunoreactivity and metastatic propensity. Exclusively membranous ADCP immunoreactivity occurred only in non-metastatic tumours. In contrast, the metastatic tumours showed no or diffuse cytoplasmic ADCP immunoreactivity. This suggests that immunohistochemical detection of ADCP might predict the biological behaviour of prostatic cancer. However, the occurrence of membranous ADCP immunoreactivity in the xenograft of a cell line (PC-EW), derived from a prostatic carcinoma metastasis, indicates that not only the tendency to metastasize modulates ADCP expression.

  20. The prognostic relevance of parapyloric lymph node metastasis in Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Man-Qiang; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of patients with Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) with parapyloric lymph node (No. 5 and 6 lymph nodes, PLN) metastasis and to determine the need for PLN dissection for patients with type II/III AEG. A total of 1008 patients with type II/III AEG who underwent a transabdominal total gastrectomy were enrolled. The long-term surgical outcome of PLN-positive patients and the therapeutic value of PLN dissection were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the incidence of PLN metastasis between type II and III cancers (5.7% vs. 8.5%, P > 0.05). PLN metastasis was a significant prognostic factor for type II/III cancers (HR 1.63; P = 0.001). Among type II/III cancers, the 5-year survival of patients with PLN-positive cancers was much lower than that of patients with PLN-negative cancers (21.3% vs. 60.8%, P  0.05). In the analysis of the therapeutic value of lymph node dissection in each station for type II and III cancers after radical resection, lymph nodes with the lowest therapeutic value index after No. 12a were No. 5 and 6 lymph nodes. Patients with type II/III AEG with PLN metastasis have a poor prognosis, similar to patients with stage IV disease. PLN dissection offers marginal therapeutic value for patients with type II/III AEG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of Fas ligand by human gastric adenocarcinomas: a potential mechanism of immune escape in stomach cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, M W

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Despite being immunogenic, gastric cancers overcome antitumour immune responses by mechanisms that have yet to be fully elucidated. Fas ligand (FasL) is a molecule that induces Fas receptor mediated apoptosis of activated immunocytes, thereby mediating normal immune downregulatory roles including immune response termination, tolerance acquisition, and immune privilege. Colon cancer cell lines have previously been shown to express FasL and kill lymphoid cells by Fas mediated apoptosis in vitro. Many diverse tumours have since been found to express FasL suggesting that a "Fas counterattack" against antitumour immune effector cells may contribute to tumour immune escape. AIM: To ascertain if human gastric tumours express FasL in vivo, as a potential mediator of immune escape in stomach cancer. SPECIMENS: Thirty paraffin wax embedded human gastric adenocarcinomas. METHODS: FasL protein was detected in gastric tumours using immunohistochemistry; FasL mRNA was detected in the tumours using in situ hybridisation. Cell death was detected in situ in tumour infiltrating lymphocytes using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). RESULTS: Prevalent expression of FasL was detected in all 30 resected gastric adenocarcinomas examined. In the tumours, FasL protein and mRNA were co-localised to neoplastic gastric epithelial cells, confirming expression by the tumour cells. FasL expression was independent of tumour stage, suggesting that it may be expressed throughout gastric cancer progression. TUNEL staining disclosed a high level of cell death among lymphocytes infiltrating FasL positive areas of tumour. CONCLUSIONS: Human gastric adenocarcinomas express the immune downregulatory molecule, FasL. The results suggest that FasL is a prevalent mediator of immune privilege in stomach cancer.

  2. [Mycobacterium avium tumoral infection mimicking a lung adenocarcinoma: A potential diagnostic pitfall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiogbe, A A; Liistro, G; Hoton, D; Pieters, T

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of atypical mycobacterial infection in Europe is estimated at one case per 100,000 persons/year. Despite the low incidence of Mycobacterium avium infection, it can result in a nodular lesion simulating lung cancer. We report a case of atypical mycobacteriosis, mimicking lung cancer, which led to a lobectomy. It was a right pulmonary upper lobe nodule found in a 63-year-old COPD patient, partially nephrectomized for renal carcinoma, and weekly treated by methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis. FDG uptake was weakly positive on PET-CT (SUV=2.2) in the upper fissure. Bronchoscopy yielded no lesions and no bacteriological findings. Percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy revealed lung adenocarcinoma stage T1 (a) N0M0. An upper lobectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed epithelioid granuloma surrounded by giant cells suggestive of tuberculomas. The bronchial washing fluid culture was positive for Mycobacterium avium after 7 weeks. In pseudo-neoplastic forms of atypical mycobacteriosis, the presence of alveolar, inflammatory cytonuclear abnormalities can mimic an adenocarcinoma. Making the difference between the cytonuclears defects related to inflammation or neoplasia remains a daily challenge in histopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Urachal Adenocarcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    degree of suspicion for these rare tumors. Introduction. Primary urachal adenocarcinoma is a rare and devastating disease believed to arise from malignant transformation of columnar or glandular metaplastic epithelium (1). Clinically the distinction of urachal carcinoma from other bladder adenocarcinomas may be difficult ...

  4. Telomerase inhibition by siRNA causes senescence and apoptosis in Barrett's adenocarcinoma cells: mechanism and therapeutic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batchu Ramesh B

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cancer cells, telomerase induction helps maintain telomere length and thereby bypasses senescence and provides enhanced replicative potential. Chemical inhibitors of telomerase have been shown to reactivate telomere shortening and cause replicative senescence and apoptotic cell death of tumor cells while having little or no effect on normal diploid cells. Results We designed siRNAs against two different regions of telomerase gene and evaluated their effect on telomere length, proliferative potential, and gene expression in Barrett's adenocarcinoma SEG-1 cells. The mixture of siRNAs in nanomolar concentrations caused a loss of telomerase activity that appeared as early as day 1 and was essentially complete at day 3. Inhibition of telomerase activity was associated with marked reduction in median telomere length and complete loss of detectable telomeres in more than 50% of the treated cells. Telomere loss caused senescence in 40% and apoptosis in 86% of the treated cells. These responses appeared to be associated with activation of DNA sensor HR23B and subsequent activation of p53 homolog p73 and p63 and E2F1. Changes in these gene regulators were probably the source of observed up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, p16 and GADD45. Elevated transcript levels of FasL, Fas and caspase 8 that activate death receptors and CARD 9 that interacts with Bcl10 and NFKB to enhance mitochondrial translocation and activation of caspase 9 were also observed. Conclusion These studies show that telomerase siRNAs can cause effective suppression of telomerase and telomere shortening leading to both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mechanisms that include up-regulation of several genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Telomerase siRNAs may therefore be strong candidates for highly selective therapy for chemoprevention and treatment of Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

  5. Potential effects of updated pap test screening guidelines and adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroilhet, Lisa; Van Hanegem, Lennie; Bernstein, Marilyn; Feldman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    To review cases of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) at our institution to examine how updated guidelines affect the timing of diagnosis. We identified patients with AIS diagnosed between 1998 and 2010 using the International Classification of Diseases, 9 Revision, Clinical Modification, code 233.1. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology review. We abstracted demographic data, dysplasia history, and modalities utilized for diagnosis and treatment. We identified 242 patients who met selection criteria. Two hundred eight (86%) had Pap test abnormalities at presentation. One hundred thirty-seven out of 208 (66%) patients with abnormal Pap test results had a squamous, rather than glandular, abnormality. The mean time from abnormal Pap test to diagnosis of AIS was 29 months in patients older than 30 years and was 21 months in patients 30 years or younger. In patients younger than 21 years, 16 out of 17 had abnormal screening Pap test results showing squamous lesions. Their subsequent treatment for squamous dysplasia ultimately led to the diagnosis of AIS. : Updated screening guidelines may prevent the expeditious diagnosis of AIS in females younger than 21 years and those aged 21-29 years, many of whom had normal Pap test results within 3 years of diagnosis. II.

  6. Incremental value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in therapeutic decision-making of potentially curable esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, Nilendu C; Pramesh, C S; Karimundackal, George; Jiwnani, Sabita; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Kulkarni, Mukta; Laskar, Sarbani G; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the incremental value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) in aiding treatment decisions in a specific cohort of patients with lower esophageal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma who were considered for potentially curative treatment on the basis of conventional imaging. The study included patients referred for a staging F-FDG PET/CT who were considered for potentially curative treatment (neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery or definitive chemoradiotherapy) by a multidisciplinary tumor board. The proportion of patients with M1b disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 6th ed.) detected on F-FDG PET/CT was calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of F-FDG PET/CT for M1b disease were calculated. PET/CT findings were verified with histopathological analysis; when it was not possible to obtain pathological confirmation, correlative imaging or follow-up imaging studies were used for validation. A total of 156 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were analyzed. F-FDG PET/CT detected M1b disease in 25 patients (16%), changing the intent of treatment from potentially curative to palliative. In five patients, PET/CT failed to detect distant metastases. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of F-FDG PET/CT for detecting M1b disease were 83.3, 98.4, 92.5, 96.1, and 95.3%, respectively. Additional surgical procedures (hemicolectomy and polypectomy) were performed in three patients because of the detection of a second primary cancer in the colon in two patients and a colonic dysplastic polyp in one patient. In patients who are considered to be potentially curable after conventional imaging, F-FDG PET/CT can detect unsuspected sites of distant metastases (M1b) in a significant number of cases and thus contribute to the clinical decision-making process. PET/CT should be an

  7. Antioxidant potential of buffalo and cow milk Cheddar cheeses to tackle human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huma, Nuzhat; Rafiq, Saima; Sameen, Aysha; Pasha, Imran; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2018-02-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the anti-oxidant potential of water-soluble peptides (WSPs) extract derived from buffalo and cow milk Cheddar cheeses at different stages of ripening. The antioxidant potential of WSPs extract was assessed through 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6sulfonic acid (ABTS)-radical scavenging activity. In addition, impact of WSPs extract on cell viability and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 (tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced) cell lines was also evaluated. The ABTS-radical scavenging activity increased progressively with ripening period and dose-dependently in both cheeses. However, peptide extract from buffalo milk Cheddar cheese demonstrated relatively higher activity due to higher contents of water-soluble nitrogen. Intracellular ROS production in Caco-2 cells decreased significantly (pCaco-2 cell line. On the basis of current in vitro study, the Cheddar cheese WSPs extract can protect intestinal epithelium against oxidative stress due to their antioxidant activity.

  8. Antioxidant potential of buffalo and cow milk Cheddar cheeses to tackle human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Huma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of present study was to assess the anti-oxidant potential of water-soluble peptides (WSPs extract derived from buffalo and cow milk Cheddar cheeses at different stages of ripening. Methods The antioxidant potential of WSPs extract was assessed through 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6sulfonic acid (ABTS-radical scavenging activity. In addition, impact of WSPs extract on cell viability and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 (tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced cell lines was also evaluated. Results The ABTS-radical scavenging activity increased progressively with ripening period and dose-dependently in both cheeses. However, peptide extract from buffalo milk Cheddar cheese demonstrated relatively higher activity due to higher contents of water-soluble nitrogen. Intracellular ROS production in Caco-2 cells decreased significantly (p<0.05 till 150th day of cheese ripening and remained constant thereafter. Additionally, dose-dependent response of WSPs extract on antioxidant activity was noticed in the Caco-2 cell line. Conclusion On the basis of current in vitro study, the Cheddar cheese WSPs extract can protect intestinal epithelium against oxidative stress due to their antioxidant activity.

  9. Sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-10-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement.

  10. Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma of Scalp

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-01-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement.

  11. Soluble Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (sHER2 as a Potential Risk Assessment, Screening, and Diagnostic Biomarker of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre T. Baron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Here, we evaluated the potential clinical utility of soluble human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (sHER2 for the risk assessment, screening, and diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC using an unmatched case-control study design. Serum sHER2 concentrations were measured by immunoassay in 244 primary NSCLC cases and 218 healthy controls. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, logistic regression models, and receiver operating characteristic plots were used to assess whether sHER2 is associated with lung cancer. Median serum sHER2 concentrations are higher in patients with adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma regardless of gender, and sHER2 is a weak, independent biomarker of adenocarcinoma, but not of squamous cell carcinoma, adjusted for age and gender. The age-adjusted relative risk (odds of adenocarcinoma is 3.95 (95% CI: 1.22, 12.81 and 7.93 (95% CI: 2.26, 27.82 greater for women and men with high sHER2 concentrations (≥6.60 ng/mL vs. low sHER2 concentrations (≤1.85 ng/mL, respectively. When adjusted for each other, sHER2, age, and gender discern healthy controls from patients with primary adenocarcinomas of the lung with 85.9% accuracy. We conclude that even though serum sHER2 is not a strong, stand-alone discriminatory biomarker of adenocarcinoma, sHER2 may be a useful, independent covariate in multivariate risk assessment, screening, and diagnostic models of lung cancer.

  12. Relevance of the proximity potential to light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, S.L.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hurizenga, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Because optical-model potentials are relatively well determined by light-ion elastic scattering, we have compared such potentials with the proximity potential, which was developed for heavy-ion reactions. After the real, nuclear potentials determined by p, d, 3 He, and α scattering at 30--35 MeV/amu are transformed into the universal proximity form they are rather similar to each other and are in rough agreement with a theoretical proximity potential

  13. Dance and museology: complexities and potential relevance in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the term museuming dance refers to the collection and preservation of dance as heritage in the museum; that is, safeguarding dance as a museum object. Fascinated by the ... To tackle this issue, I problematize the term 'museum', taking into cognizance its relevance, functions, advantages, and disadvantages.

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Andrographolide Isolated from the Leaves of Andrographis paniculata Nees for Treating Lung Adenocarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tang Tung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide is one of the major diterpene lactones found in Andrographis paniculata Nees and exhibits remarkable inhibitory effects on various cancers. In this study, the antipulmonary cancer effects of andrographolide were studied in a lung tumor mouse model induced by human vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (hVEGF-A165. These results demonstrated that andrographolide significantly reduced the expression of hVEGF-A165 compared with a mock group in the Clara cells of the lungs. In addition, andrographolide also decreased tumor formation by reducing VEGF, EGFR, Cyclin A, and Cyclin B expression on the transcriptional and translational levels. These results indicated that andrographolide treatment on the overexpression of VEGF can arrest the cell cycle, which induced pulmonary tumors in transgenic mice. In conclusion, the antiangiogenesis and chemotherapeutic potential of andrographolide may provide a cure for pulmonary tumors in the future.

  15. Establishment and characterization of a new human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line with high metastatic potential to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, Tatyana; Simon, Ronald; Otto, Benjamin; Dierlamm, Judith; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Effenberger, Katharina E; Bockhorn, Maximilian; Izbicki, Jakob R; Yekebas, Emre F; Güngör, Cenap; Thieltges, Sabrina; Möller-Krull, Maren; Murga Penas, Eva Maria; Wicklein, Daniel; Streichert, Thomas; Schumacher, Udo; Kalinin, Viacheslav

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is still associated with devastating prognosis. Real progress in treatment options has still not been achieved. Therefore new models are urgently needed to investigate this deadly disease. As a part of this process we have established and characterized a new human pancreatic cancer cell line. The newly established pancreatic cancer cell line PaCa 5061 was characterized for its morphology, growth rate, chromosomal analysis and mutational analysis of the K-ras, EGFR and p53 genes. Gene-amplification and RNA expression profiles were obtained using an Affymetrix microarray, and overexpression was validated by IHC analysis. Tumorigenicity and spontaneous metastasis formation of PaCa 5061 cells were analyzed in pfp -/- /rag2 -/- mice. Sensitivity towards chemotherapy was analysed by MTT assay. PaCa 5061 cells grew as an adhering monolayer with a doubling time ranging from 30 to 48 hours. M-FISH analyses showed a hypertriploid complex karyotype with multiple numerical and unbalanced structural aberrations. Numerous genes were overexpressed, some of which have previously been implicated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (GATA6, IGFBP3, IGFBP6), while others were detected for the first time (MEMO1, RIOK3). Specifically highly overexpressed genes (fold change > 10) were identified as EGFR, MUC4, CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6. Subcutaneous transplantation of PaCa 5061 into pfp -/- /rag2 -/- mice resulted in formation of primary tumors and spontaneous lung metastasis. The established PaCa 5061 cell line and its injection into pfp -/- /rag2 -/- mice can be used as a new model for studying various aspects of the biology of human pancreatic cancer and potential treatment approaches for the disease

  16. Composite biomarkers defined by multiparametric immunofluorescence analysis identify ALK-positive adenocarcinoma as a potential target for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Hélène; De Guillebon, Eléonore; Biard, Lucie; Mandavit, Marion; Gibault, Laure; Fabre, Elisabeth; Antoine, Martine; Hofman, Paul; Beau-Faller, Michèle; Blons, Hélène; Danel, Claire; Barthes, Françoise Le Pimpec; Gey, Alain; Granier, Clémence; Wislez, Marie; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Oudard, Stéphane; Bruneval, Patrick; Badoual, Cécile; Cadranel, Jacques; Tartour, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors have been successfully developed for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) displaying chromosomal rearrangements of the ALK gene, but unfortunately resistance invariably occurs. Blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1/2 inhibitory pathway constitutes a breakthrough for the treatment of NSCLC. Some predictive biomarkers of clinical response to this therapy are starting to emerge, such as PD-L1 expression by tumor/stromal cells and infiltration by CD8 + T cells expressing PD-1. To more effectively integrate all of these potential biomarkers of clinical response to immunotherapy, we have developed a multiparametric immunofluorescence technique with automated immune cell counting to comprehensively analyze the tumor microenvironment of ALK -positive adenocarcinoma (ADC). When analyzed as either a continuous or a dichotomous variable, the mean number of tumor cells expressing PD-L1 ( p = 0.012) and the percentage of tumor cells expressing PD-L1 were higher in ALK -positive ADC than in EGFR-mutated ADC or WT (non- EGFR -mutated and non- KRAS -mutated) NSCLC. A very strong correlation between PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and intratumoral infiltration by CD8 + T cells was observed, suggesting that an adaptive mechanism may partly regulate this expression. A higher frequency of tumors combining positive PD-L1 expression and infiltration by intratumoral CD8 + T cells or PD-1 + CD8 + T cells was also observed in ALK -positive lung cancer patients compared with EGFR -mutated ( p = 0.03) or WT patients ( p = 0.012). These results strongly suggest that a subgroup of ALK -positive lung cancer patients may constitute good candidates for anti-PD-1/-PD-L1 therapies.

  17. Thermogenic potential and physiological relevance of human epicardial adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechi, K; Richard, D

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is a unique fat depot around the heart that shares a close anatomic proximity and vascular supply with the myocardium and coronary arteries. Its accumulation around the heart, measured using various imaging modalities, has been associated with the onset and progression of coronary artery disease in humans. Epicardial adipose tissue is also the only fat depot around the heart that is known to express uncoupling protein 1 at both mRNA and protein levels in the detectable range. Recent advances have further indicated that human epicardial fat exhibits beige fat-like features. Here we provide an overview of the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of human epicardial fat, and further discuss whether its thermogenic properties can serve as a target for the therapeutic management of coronary heart disease in humans. PMID:27152172

  18. Contemporary cosmetic surgery: the potential risks and relevance for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2011-07-01

    To examine and critique the risks of cosmetic surgery and consider implications for practice. Cosmetic surgery is a growing industry with a significant global phenomenon. Feminists have been critical of aesthetic surgery practice, offering a range of representations in regard to 'identity', 'normality', 'cultural and social pressures', 'agency' and 'self-enhancement'. Discourses around minimising risk information acknowledge deficits in not supplying patients with full risk information. The results are usually devastating and lead to serious health complications that incisively diminish well-being for patients and increase health costs. Critical review. This paper represents a critical review of risks associated with cosmetic surgery. A Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (Medline) and British Nursing Index (BNI) search with relevant key words were undertaken and selected exemplary articles and research describing and/or evaluating cosmetic surgery risk. Only papers in the English language from 1982-2009 were reviewed. The papers examined were mainly empirical studies; some opinion papers, policy documents, textbooks and websites were examined too. The literature revealed that several factors influence consumer risks including regulation vagaries, medicalisation processes, fear of ageing discrimination, wanting to avoid ethnic prejudice and media pressure. Government strategies in the United Kingdom (UK) have attempted to improve clinical standards; however, little attempt has been made globally to raise institutional and professional awareness of the huge impact of cultural and social pressures on consumers. Avoiding shattering complications by improving the provision of risk information for patients is a worthwhile goal. Therefore, health professionals need to consider consumer rights and autonomy more carefully, facilitate rigorous screening and develop knowledge in regard to

  19. Synthetic extreme environments: overlooked sources of potential biotechnologically relevant microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2017-05-01

    Synthetic extreme environments like carwash effluent tanks and drains are potential sources of biotechnologically important microorganisms and molecules which have, however, remained unexplored. Using culture- and molecular-based methods, a total of 17 bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Shewanella, Proteus, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter and Citrobacter, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Pantoea were identified. Hydrocarbon utilization and enzyme production screening assays showed that Aeromonas sp. CAC11, Paenibacillus sp. CAC12 and Paenibacillus sp. CAC13 and Citrobacter sp. PCW7 were able to degrade benzanthracene, naphthalene and diesel oil, Paenibacillus sp. CAC12 and Paenibacillus sp. CAC13 could produce cellulase enzyme, while Proteus sp. BPS2, Pseudomonas sp. SAS8 and Proteus sp. CAL3 could produce lipase. GC-MS analysis of bacterial secondary metabolites resulted in identification of 107 different compounds produced by Proteus sp. BPS2, Paenibacillus sp. CAC12, Pseudomonas sp. SAS8, Proteus sp. CAL3 and Paenibacillus sp. CAC13. Most of the compounds identified by both GC-MS and LC-MS have previously been determined to have antibacterial, antifungal and/or anticancer properties. Further, microbial metabolites which have previously been known to be produced only by plants or microorganisms found in natural extreme environments were also identified in this study. This research has revealed the immense bioresource potential of microorganisms inhabiting synthetic extreme environments. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Dynamic hyperinflation and pulmonary inflammation: a potentially relevant relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Agusti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, end-expiratory lung volume increases under conditions of greater minute ventilation (e.g. exercise. This abnormal response is termed dynamic hyperinflation (DH and has now been recognised as a key determinant of symptomatology and exercise intolerance in COPD. Reduced elastic recoil, loss of alveolar attachments and increased airway resistance are the mechanical factors traditionally invoked to explain the occurrence of DH in COPD. An abnormal inflammatory response to, most frequently, tobacco smoking is a key pathophysiological component of COPD, but its potential relationship with DH has not been directly investigated and is poorly understood. The present article discusses, first, the mechanisms by which DH can enhance inflammation in COPD (including cellular stretching, tissue damage and danger signals, hyperventilation and hypoxia. It then reviews how the abnormal inflammatory response that characterises the disease can augment DH (oedema and increased airway resistance, increased mucus production and alveolar destruction. Finally, it speculates that if these relationships eventually prove to be real, then the use of long-acting bronchodilators may help reduce the inflammatory load of these patients and, conversely, the use of anti-inflammatory therapy can contribute to the reduction of DH.

  1. Self-relevant beauty evaluation: Evidence from an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanchang; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Yuan; Fan, Cuiying; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the electrophysiological correlates of beauty evaluation when participants performed the self-reference task. About 13 (7 men, 6 women) undergraduates participated in the experiment using event-related potentials. Results showed that the response to self-relevant information was faster compared to other-relevant information and no significant differences for self-relevant relative to mother-relevant information were observed. Both physical and interior beauty words for self-relevant information showed an enhanced late positive component as compared to other-relevant information. Physical beauty for self-relevant information yielded a larger late positive component in contrast to mother-relevant information but not for interior beauty. This study indicates that beauty is specific to the person who judges it though an individual and one's mother may hold similar views of interior beauty.

  2. Polymorphisms in Genes of Relevance for Oestrogen and Oxytocin Pathways and Risk of Barrett's Oesophagus and Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Pooled Analysis from the BEACON Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Katarina; Ek, Weronica E; Levine, David; Chow, Wong-Ho; Bernstein, Leslie; Casson, Alan G; Risch, Harvey A; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Bird, Nigel C; Reid, Brian J; Corley, Douglas A; Hardie, Laura J; Wu, Anna H; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Pharoah, Paul; Caldas, Carlos; Romero, Yvonne; Vaughan, Thomas L; MacGregor, Stuart; Whiteman, David; Westberg, Lars; Nyren, Olof; Lagergren, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The strong male predominance in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) and Barrett's oesophagus (BO) continues to puzzle. Hormonal influence, e.g. oestrogen or oxytocin, might contribute. This genetic-epidemiological study pooled 14 studies from three continents, Australia, Europe, and North America. Polymorphisms in 3 key genes coding for the oestrogen pathway (receptor alpha (ESR1), receptor beta (ESR2), and aromatase (CYP19A1)), and 3 key genes of the oxytocin pathway (the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), oxytocin protein (OXT), and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase glycoprotein (CD38)), were analysed using a gene-based approach, versatile gene-based test association study (VEGAS). Among 1508 OAC patients, 2383 BO patients, and 2170 controls, genetic variants within ESR1 were associated with BO in males (p = 0.0058) and an increased risk of OAC and BO combined in males (p = 0.0023). Genetic variants within OXTR were associated with an increased risk of BO in both sexes combined (p = 0.0035) and in males (p = 0.0012). We followed up these suggestive findings in a further smaller data set, but found no replication. There were no significant associations between the other 4 genes studied and risk of OAC, BO, separately on in combination, in males and females combined or in males only. Genetic variants in the oestrogen receptor alpha and the oxytocin receptor may be associated with an increased risk of BO or OAC, but replication in other large samples are needed.

  3. Polymorphisms in Genes of Relevance for Oestrogen and Oxytocin Pathways and Risk of Barrett's Oesophagus and Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Pooled Analysis from the BEACON Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lagergren

    Full Text Available The strong male predominance in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC and Barrett's oesophagus (BO continues to puzzle. Hormonal influence, e.g. oestrogen or oxytocin, might contribute.This genetic-epidemiological study pooled 14 studies from three continents, Australia, Europe, and North America. Polymorphisms in 3 key genes coding for the oestrogen pathway (receptor alpha (ESR1, receptor beta (ESR2, and aromatase (CYP19A1, and 3 key genes of the oxytocin pathway (the oxytocin receptor (OXTR, oxytocin protein (OXT, and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase glycoprotein (CD38, were analysed using a gene-based approach, versatile gene-based test association study (VEGAS.Among 1508 OAC patients, 2383 BO patients, and 2170 controls, genetic variants within ESR1 were associated with BO in males (p = 0.0058 and an increased risk of OAC and BO combined in males (p = 0.0023. Genetic variants within OXTR were associated with an increased risk of BO in both sexes combined (p = 0.0035 and in males (p = 0.0012. We followed up these suggestive findings in a further smaller data set, but found no replication. There were no significant associations between the other 4 genes studied and risk of OAC, BO, separately on in combination, in males and females combined or in males only.Genetic variants in the oestrogen receptor alpha and the oxytocin receptor may be associated with an increased risk of BO or OAC, but replication in other large samples are needed.

  4. CA 19-9 and CA 125 as potential predictors of disease recurrence in resectable lung adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Isaksson

    Full Text Available Among patients who underwent primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, recurrent disease is frequent and cannot be accurately predicted solely from TNM stage and histopathological features. The aim of this study was to examine the association of tumor markers in pre-operative serum with recurrent disease.Blood samples were collected prior to lung cancer surgery from 107 patients with stage I-III lung adenocarcinoma surgically treated at Lund University hospital, Lund, Sweden, between 2005 and 2011. The serum tumor markers Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, Neuron-specific enolase (NSE, Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125, Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 and Carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9 were analyzed retrospectively and clinical follow-up data were collected from patient charts. Forty (37% patients were diagnosed with recurrent disease.Sixty-eight (64% patients had at least one elevated tumor marker prior to surgery. In analysis of disease-free survival (DFS, CA 125 and/or CA 19-9 were significantly associated with recurrent disease adjusted to stage and adjuvant treatment (hazard ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.7, p = 0.006.High pre-operative serum CA 19-9 and/or CA 125 might indicate an increased incidence of recurrent disease in resectable lung adenocarcinomas.

  5. CA 19-9 and CA 125 as potential predictors of disease recurrence in resectable lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Sofi; Jönsson, Per; Monsef, Nastaran; Brunnström, Hans; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Jönsson, Mats; Staaf, Johan; Planck, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Among patients who underwent primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), recurrent disease is frequent and cannot be accurately predicted solely from TNM stage and histopathological features. The aim of this study was to examine the association of tumor markers in pre-operative serum with recurrent disease. Blood samples were collected prior to lung cancer surgery from 107 patients with stage I-III lung adenocarcinoma surgically treated at Lund University hospital, Lund, Sweden, between 2005 and 2011. The serum tumor markers Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) were analyzed retrospectively and clinical follow-up data were collected from patient charts. Forty (37%) patients were diagnosed with recurrent disease. Sixty-eight (64%) patients had at least one elevated tumor marker prior to surgery. In analysis of disease-free survival (DFS), CA 125 and/or CA 19-9 were significantly associated with recurrent disease adjusted to stage and adjuvant treatment (hazard ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.7, p = 0.006). High pre-operative serum CA 19-9 and/or CA 125 might indicate an increased incidence of recurrent disease in resectable lung adenocarcinomas.

  6. Identification of distinct phenotypes of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Teo, Minyuen

    2013-03-01

    A significant number of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma present as locally advanced disease. Optimal treatment remains controversial. We sought to analyze the clinical course of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPC) in order to identify potential distinct clinical phenotypes.

  7. Discovery of potential protein biomarkers of lung adenocarcinoma in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by SWATH MS data-independent acquisition and targeted data extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortea, I; Rodríguez-Ariza, A; Chicano-Gálvez, E; Arenas Vacas, M S; Jurado Gámez, B

    2016-04-14

    Lung cancer currently ranks as the neoplasia with the highest global mortality rate. Although some improvements have been introduced in recent years, new advances in diagnosis are required in order to increase survival rates. New mildly invasive endoscopy-based diagnostic techniques include the collection of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), which is discarded after using a portion of the fluid for standard pathological procedures. BALF proteomic analysis can contribute to clinical practice with more sensitive biomarkers, and can complement cytohistological studies by aiding in the diagnosis, prognosis, and subtyping of lung cancer, as well as the monitoring of treatment response. The range of quantitative proteomics methodologies used for biomarker discovery is currently being broadened with the introduction of data-independent acquisition (DIA) analysis-related approaches that address the massive quantitation of the components of a proteome. Here we report for the first time a DIA-based quantitative proteomics study using BALF as the source for the discovery of potential lung cancer biomarkers. The results have been encouraging in terms of the number of identified and quantified proteins. A panel of candidate protein biomarkers for adenocarcinoma in BALF is reported; this points to the activation of the complement network as being strongly over-represented and suggests this pathway as a potential target for lung cancer research. In addition, the results reported for haptoglobin, complement C4-A, and glutathione S-transferase pi are consistent with previous studies, which indicates that these proteins deserve further consideration as potential lung cancer biomarkers in BALF. Our study demonstrates that the analysis of BALF proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), combining a simple sample pre-treatment and SWATH DIA MS, is a useful method for the discovery of potential lung cancer biomarkers. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF

  8. Malignant mesothelioma: ultrastructural distinction from adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M J; Hickey, W F; Corson, J M

    1982-06-01

    Mesotheliomas and metastatic adenocarcinomas involving the pleura are frequently difficult to distinguish by light-microscopic and histochemical methods. In a double-blind study, we have compared ultrastructural features of 10 mesotheliomas of epithelial type and 10 adenocarcinomas from the lung, breast, and upper GI tract, i.e., sites known to give rise to metastases which mimic mesothelioma. Mesotheliomas were observed to have a significantly greater microvillus length/diameter ratio (LDR) than adenocarcinomas (p less than 0.01) and more abundant intermediate filaments (p less than 0.001). Mesotheliomas had more complex microvilli than adenocarcinomas, whereas adenocarcinomas had rootlets (2/10 cases) and lamellar inclusion bodies (2/10 cases), both of which were absent in the mesotheliomas. This study provides quantitative and qualitative ultrastructural features of potential utility in the differential diagnosis of pleural mesotheliomas and adenocarcinomas.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of novel hormone receptors PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 as potential biomarkers of breast adenocarcinoma staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Huston, Laurel J; Harold, Dawn M; Charaba, Cameron J; Ippolito, Danielle L; Hoffer, Zachary S; Brown, Tommy A; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2011-12-01

    The expression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) in breast cancer has generated interest in this recently discovered protein because of its role in tumorigenesis. However, correlations between patient age, PGRMC1 gene expression, breast cancer morphology, and breast cancer stage have not been adequately studied. Furthermore, very little is known about possible roles for other PGRMC isoforms in breast cancer, like PGRMC2. Thus, we examined the expression of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA by relative quantitative PCR (RelqPCR) and determined whether transcript levels correlate with age, breast cancer staging, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) status, and other morphometric features routinely used during the pathological examination of breast ductal adenocarcinomas. Twenty-eight frozen or paraffin embedded breast cancer samples (ductal carcinoma in situ and stages I thru IV invasive ductal adenocarcinoma) and 10 control benign breast tissue samples were randomly selected and interrogated by RelqPCR to determine PGRMC1, 2, and ERα mRNA transcript levels. To control for slight variations in sample preparation, receptor transcript was normalized to the housekeeping gene phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). Descriptive statistics and ANOVA of multiparametric datasets were used to correlate transcript levels with pathological staging parameters. PGRMC1 mRNA levels decreased significantly with patient age (Pearson's correlation -0.369; P=0.035), whereas PGRMC2 levels did not. Although the mean relative expression of PGRMC1 significantly decreased in stage II breast cancer compared with controls (P=0.050), it was no longer significant when age was considered a covariance (P=0.371). On the other hand, PGRMC2 mRNA transcript was significantly decreased in stage II breast cancer when compared to stage III cancer (P=0.028) in a manner independent of age (corrected model Bonferroni pair wise comparison, P=0.036). Furthermore, PGRMC2 levels positively correlated with ER

  10. Prognostic potential of initial CT changes for progression-free survival in gefitinib-treated patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung: a preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chang, Wei-Chou; Ko, Kai-Hsiung; Hsu, Yi-Chih [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tung, Ho-Jui [Asia University, Department of Healthcare Administration, Taichung (China); Huang, Tsai-Wang; Chang, Hung [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Ho, Ching-Liang [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Division of hematology-oncology, Department of internal Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to determine whether initial tumour responses measured during short-term follow-up computed tomography (CT) examinations after baseline examinations would correlate with clinical outcomes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. A total of 86 gefitinib-treated patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent baseline and short-term follow-up CT examinations. The new response criteria (NRC) by Lee et al. were used for the response evaluations. A Cox proportional hazards multiple regression model and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to evaluate correlations between the initial tumour changes and progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS). Better separation and smaller p values were observed for both PFS and OS when good and poor disease responses (as defined by NRC) were compared after excluding tumours with characteristic morphologies. Early tumour changes correlated with PFS in a size-dependent manner. Moreover, a stronger association was observed between size changes and PFS when characteristic morphology was also considered. Initial changes in tumour size during short-term post-treatment CT examinations could act as a potential prognostic imaging surrogate for PFS in gefitinib-treated patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung. (orig.)

  11. A Rare Multifocal Pattern of Type 2 Autoimmune Pancreatitis with Negative IgG4: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall That May Mimic Multifocal Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Hota

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP is an increasingly recognized form of acute pancreatitis characterized by obstructive jaundice with a rapid and dramatic treatment response to steroid therapy. Recently, AIP has been divided into two distinct phenotypes: lymphoplasmocytic sclerosing pancreatitis AIP (type 1 and idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis AIP (type 2; each of which have their own distinct demographics, diagnostic criteria, and histopathological features. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a multifocal pattern of type 2 AIP characterized with both CT and MR imaging. This rare imaging pattern of AIP may mimic the appearance of more worrisome malignant etiologies such as multifocal pancreatic adenocarcinoma or lymphoma, with overlapping imaging characteristics potentially complicating or delaying diagnosis. Therefore, recognition of this atypical pattern of AIP and avoidance of this potential diagnostic pitfall is crucial.

  12. MicroRNA expression profiles associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ampullary adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Werner, Jens; Willenbrock, Hanni

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs have potential as diagnostic cancer biomarkers. The aim of this study was (1) to define microRNA expression patterns in formalin-fixed parafin-embedded tissue from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, ampullary adenocarcinoma, normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis without using micro......-dissection and (2) to discover new diagnostic microRNAs and combinations of microRNAs in cancer tissue. The expression of 664 microRNAs in tissue from 170 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and 107 ampullary adenocarcinomas were analyzed using a commercial microRNA assay. Results were compared with chronic pancreatitis......, normal pancreas and duodenal adenocarcinoma. In all, 43 microRNAs had higher and 41 microRNAs reduced expression in pancreatic cancer compared with normal pancreas. In all, 32 microRNAs were differently expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared with chronic pancreatitis (17 higher; 15 reduced...

  13. The ERK MAP kinase-PEA3/ETV4-MMP-1 axis is operative in oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, Richard

    2010-12-09

    Abstract Background Many members of the ETS-domain transcription factor family are important drivers of tumourigenesis. In this context, their activation by Ras-ERK pathway signaling is particularly relevant to the tumourigenic properties of many ETS-domain transcription factors. The PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors have been implicated in tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Results Here, we have studied the expression of the PEA3 subfamily members PEA3\\/ETV4 and ER81\\/ETV1 in oesophageal adenocarcinomas and determined their role in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell function. PEA3 plays an important role in controlling both the proliferation and invasive properties of OE33 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells. A key target gene is MMP-1. The ERK MAP kinase pathway activates PEA3 subfamily members and also plays a role in these PEA3 controlled events, establishing the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis as important in OE33 cells. PEA3 subfamily members are upregulated in human adenocarcinomas and expression correlates with MMP-1 expression and late stage metastatic disease. Enhanced ERK signaling is also more prevalent in late stage oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Conclusions This study shows that the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis is upregulated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells and is a potentially important driver of the metastatic progression of oesophageal adenocarcinomas.

  14. STMN-1 is a potential marker of lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and silencing its expression can reverse malignant phenotype of tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Javed; Wang, Zhou; Yu, Che; Li, Chen-Sheng; Shi, Yu-Long; Liu, Hong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Distal esophageal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is still poor. Stathmin (STMN-1) is a ubiquitously expressed microtubule destabilizing phosphoprotein. It promotes the disassembly of microtubules and prevents assembly. STMN-1 can cause uncontrolled cell proliferation when mutated and not functioning properly. Recently, found to be overexpressed in many types of human cancers. However, its clinical significance remains elusive in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. Here, we reported for the first time that STMN-1 is highly overexpressed in adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus and strongly associated with lymph node metastasis. STMN-1 expression in 63 cases of distal esophageal adenocarcinoma was analyzed by immunoblotting, while expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR and western blotting. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi was employed to knock-down STMN-1 expression in Human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. The relationship between STMN-1 expression and lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma was determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. STMN-1 was detected in 31 (49.21%) of the 63 cases. STMN-1 was highly overexpressed in specimens with lymph node metastasis pN (+), but its expression was almost undetected in pN (−) status. Multivarian regression analysis demonstrated that STMN-1 overexpression is an independent factor for lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. STMN-1 shRNA effectively reduced STMN-1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells (P < 0.05), which significantly suppressed proliferation (P < 0.05), increased migration (P < 0.05) and invasion ability (P < 0.05) and G1 phase arrest (P < 0.05) which lead to induction of apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. To verify the in vitro data, we conducted in vivo tumor xenograft studies. Esophageal

  15. The potential relevance of cognitive neuroscience for the development and use of technology-enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating

  16. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  17. A review of potential factors relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thora G.; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Wagner, Lis

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to identify characteristics that are considered to describe coping in patients with advanced cancer, as seen from a patient perspective. Based on the identified characteristics, the second aim was to identify potential factors that are relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer....

  18. Comparative proteome analysis of three mouse lung adenocarcinoma CMT cell lines with different metastatic potential by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kelan; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Stephen, J Fey; Larsen, Peter Mose; Zhang, Xumin; Roepstorff, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Metastasis is a lethal attribute of a cancer and presents a continuing therapeutic challenge. Metastasis is a highly complex process and more knowledge about the mechanisms behind metastasis is highly desirable. Isogenic CMT cell lines were selected from a spontaneous mouse lung adenocarcinoma and characterized in vivo to have different metastatic potential. In this study, the comprehensive protein expression profiles of three of these CMT cell lines at passage 5, 15 and 35 were analyzed by 2-DE separation followed by MS identification. As a result, 82 and 40 unique proteins were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated between cell lines with different metastatic potential at passages 5 and 15, respectively. These proteins were identified by MS and most of them have previously been reported to be related to cancer development and/or metastasis. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that several of the proteins were involved in proteasome, cell-cycle and cell-communication pathways. Among them, some keratins, 14-3-3 proteins and 26S proteasome proteins were identified and their aberrant expression may be directly or indirectly involved in cancer development and metastasis. In conclusion, our comprehensive 2-DE-based proteomics studies revealed some candidate proteins, protein families and signaling pathways, which might be important in cancer development and metastasis.

  19. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgo, Ksenija; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Stančić, Angela; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2012-03-01

    In this article, the bioactive potential of red raspberry leaves, a by-product of this widely spread plant, mostly valued for its antioxidant-rich fruits, was determined. The polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract were determined and examined for potential biological activity. Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect, and effect on total glutathione concentration were determined in human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW 480) cell lines. SW 480 cells are more susceptible to raspberry leaf extract in comparison with HEp2 cells. The antioxidative nature of raspberry leaf extract was detected in HEp2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, as opposed to SW 480 cells, where raspberry leaf extract induced reactive oxygen species formation. Raspberry leaf extract increased total glutathione level in HEp2 cells. This effect was reinforced after 24 hours of recovery, indicating that induction was caused by products formed during cellular metabolism of compounds present in the extract. Comparison of the results obtained on these two cell lines indicates that cellular response to raspberry extract will depend on the type of the cells that are exposed to it. The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects.

  20. Prevalence of Potential and Clinically Relevant Statin-Drug Interactions in Frail and Robust Older Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Michele; Hilmer, Sarah; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Reeve, Emily; Gnjidic, Danijela

    2015-10-01

    A significant proportion of older people are prescribed statins and are also exposed to polypharmacy, placing them at increased risk of statin-drug interactions. To describe the prevalence rates of potential and clinically relevant statin-drug interactions in older inpatients according to frailty status. A cross-sectional study of patients aged ≥65 years who were prescribed a statin and were admitted to a teaching hospital between 30 July and 10 October 2014 in Sydney, Australia, was conducted. Data on socio-demographics, comorbidities and medications were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Potential statin-drug interactions were defined if listed in the Australian Medicines Handbook and three international drug information sources: the British National Formulary, Drug Interaction Facts and Drug-Reax(®). Clinically relevant statin-drug interactions were defined as interactions with the highest severity rating in at least two of the three international drug information sources. Frailty was assessed using the Reported Edmonton Frail Scale. A total of 180 participants were recruited (median age 78 years, interquartile range 14), 35.0% frail and 65.0% robust. Potential statin-drug interactions were identified in 10% of participants, 12.7% of frail participants and 8.5% of robust participants. Clinically relevant statin-drug interactions were identified in 7.8% of participants, 9.5% of frail participants and 6.8% of robust participants. Depending on the drug information source used, the prevalence rates of potential and clinically relevant statin-drug interactions ranged between 14.4 and 35.6% and between 14.4 and 20.6%, respectively. In our study of frail and robust older inpatients taking statins, the overall prevalence of potential statin-drug interactions was low and varied significantly according to the drug information source used.

  1. Quantitative Tyrosine Phosphoproteomics of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-treated Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Reveals Potential Novel Biomarkers of Therapeutic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Maity, Tapan; Kashyap, Manoj K; Bansal, Mukesh; Venugopalan, Abhilash; Singh, Sahib; Awasthi, Shivangi; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Charles Jacob, Harrys Kishore; Belkina, Natalya; Pitts, Stephanie; Cultraro, Constance M; Gao, Shaojian; Kirkali, Guldal; Biswas, Romi; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Califano, Andrea; Pandey, Akhilesh; Guha, Udayan

    2017-05-01

    Mutations in the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain, such as the L858R missense mutation and deletions spanning the conserved sequence 747 LREA 750 , are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The gatekeeper site residue mutation, T790M accounts for around 60% of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs. The first generation EGFR TKIs, erlotinib and gefitinib, and the second generation inhibitor, afatinib are FDA approved for initial treatment of EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma. The predominant biomarker of EGFR TKI responsiveness is the presence of EGFR TKI-sensitizing mutations. However, 30-40% of patients with EGFR mutations exhibit primary resistance to these TKIs, underscoring the unmet need of identifying additional biomarkers of treatment response. Here, we sought to characterize the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation upon EGFR TKI treatment of mutant EGFR-driven human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines with varying sensitivity to EGFR TKIs, erlotinib and afatinib. We employed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative mass spectrometry to identify and quantify tyrosine phosphorylated peptides. The proportion of tyrosine phosphorylated sites that had reduced phosphorylation upon erlotinib or afatinib treatment correlated with the degree of TKI-sensitivity. Afatinib, an irreversible EGFR TKI, more effectively inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of a majority of the substrates. The phosphosites with phosphorylation SILAC ratios that correlated with the TKI-sensitivity of the cell lines include sites on kinases, such as EGFR-Y1197 and MAPK7-Y221, and adaptor proteins, such as SHC1-Y349/350, ERRFI1-Y394, GAB1-Y689, STAT5A-Y694, DLG3-Y705, and DAPP1-Y139, suggesting these are potential biomarkers of TKI sensitivity. DAPP1, is a novel target of mutant EGFR signaling and Y-139 is the major site of DAPP1 tyrosine phosphorylation. We also uncovered several off-target effects of these TKIs, such as MST1R-Y1238

  2. The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Maren; Bange, Hermann W.; Dippner, Joachim W.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Ward, Bess

    2013-01-01

    The ocean's nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification. Dinitrogen is the most abundant form of nitrogen in sea water but only accessible by nitrogen-fixing microbes. Denitrification and nitrification are both regulated by oxygen concentrations and potentially produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a climate-relevant atmospheric trace gas. The world's oceans, including the coastal areas and upwelli...

  3. Neferine Potentiates the Antitumor Effect of Cisplatin in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Via a Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Kalai Selvi; Paramasivan, Poornima; Weng, Ching Feng; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma

    2017-09-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of many types of solid tumors but its efficacy is often limited by the development of resistance and dose limiting toxicity. Neferine is an alkaloid isolated from seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera, it has recently been shown to have anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines. The present investigation is designed to study the chemosensitizing ability of neferine with cisplatin in A549 cells. Neferine potentiates the cisplatin induced apoptosis through the exploration of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, induced sub-G1 cell cycle arrest, ROS hypergeneration, significant loss of cellular antioxidant enzymes, as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM). Furthermore our results revealed that neferine combined with cisplatin down regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and up regulate the expression of Bax, Bad, Bak, release of cytochrome c, p53 levels, then activated cleavage forms of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. Moreover neferine and cisplatin combination significantly down regulated the protein levels of FAK and VEGF. In addition, we observed the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Thus this study provides molecular evidence for the ROS mediated apoptosis of the combinatorial regimen of cisplatin and neferine in lung cancer cells. Thus these results suggest that using neferine with cisplatin combinatorial regimen could be potentiating the effect of cisplatin and neferine reduces the cisplatin dose requirement in cancer chemotherapy. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2865-2876, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Curcuminoids and ω-3 fatty acids with anti-oxidants potentiate cytotoxicity of natural killer cells against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells and inhibit interferon γ production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan eFiala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis attributed in part to immune suppression and deactivation of natural killer (NK cells. Curcuminoids have a potential for improving the therapy of pancreatic cancer given promising results in cancer models and a clinical trial, but their oral absorption is limited. Our objective in this study is to show curcuminoid anti-oncogenic effects alone and together with human NK cells. We tested curcuminoids in an emulsion of ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants (Smartfish regarding their direct cytocidal effect and enhancement of the cytocidal activity of NK cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC cells (Mia Paca 2 and L3.6. Curcuminoids (at > 10 microM with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1 (26 nM induced high caspase-3 activity in PDAC cells. Importantly, curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with RvD1 significantly potentiated NK cell cytocidal function and protected them against degradation. In a co-culture of cancer cells with NK cells, interferon-γ ( IFN-γ production by NK cells was not altered by ω-3 fatty acids with anti-oxidants or by RvD1 but was inhibited by curcuminoids. The inhibition was not eliminated by ω-3 fatty acids or RvD1 but was relieved by removing curcuminoids after adding NK cells. In conclusion, curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with RvD1 have increased cytotoxic activity on PDAC cells alone and with NK cells. The effects of curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants on pancreatic cancer will be investigated in a mouse model with humanized immune system.

  5. Characterization of mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea exposure--Potential for human male breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Elmore, Susan A; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of breast cancer in men is extremely rare, reported to be less than 1% and there is currently no available animal model for male mammary tumors. We compared the characteristics of various immunohistochemical markers in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats including: estrogen receptor α (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), androgen receptor (AR), receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Female mammary adenocarcinomas were strongly positive in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA and ER (100%) with only 60% and 53% expressing PgR and GATA3, respectively. 100% of male adenocarcinomas also exhibited strongly positive expression in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA, with 25% expressing AR and only 8% showing positivity for ER. Male carcinomas did not express PgR or GATA3 and none of the tumors, male or female, were positive for HER2. Based on the observed ER and PgR positivity and HER2 negativity within these tumors, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in female rats appear to be hormonally dependent, similar to human luminal A type breast cancer. In contrast, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats showed no reactivity for ER, PgR, HER2 or GATA3, suggesting no hormonal dependency. Both male and female adenocarcinomas showed high proliferating activity by PCNA immunohistochemistry. Based on our literature review, human male breast cancers are mainly dependent on ER and/or PgR, therefore the biological pathogenesis of MNU-induced male mammary cancer in rats may differ from that of male breast cancer in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Xylem transcription profiles indicate potential metabolic responses for economically relevant characteristics of Eucalyptus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Eucalyptus is one of the most important sources of industrial cellulose. Three species of this botanical group are intensively used in breeding programs: E. globulus, E. grandis and E. urophylla. E. globulus is adapted to subtropical/temperate areas and is considered a source of high-quality cellulose; E. grandis grows rapidly and is adapted to tropical/subtropical climates; and E. urophylla, though less productive, is considered a source of genes related to robustness. Wood, or secondary xylem, results from cambium vascular differentiation and is mostly composed of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. In this study, the xylem transcriptomes of the three Eucalyptus species were investigated in order to provide insights on the particularities presented by each of these species. Results Data analysis showed that (1) most Eucalyptus genes are expressed in xylem; (2) most genes expressed in species-specific way constitutes genes with unknown functions and are interesting targets for future studies; (3) relevant differences were observed in the phenylpropanoid pathway: E. grandis xylem presents higher expression of genes involved in lignin formation whereas E. urophylla seems to deviates the pathway towards flavonoid formation; (4) stress-related genes are considerably more expressed in E. urophylla, suggesting that these genes may contribute to its robustness. Conclusions The comparison of these three transcriptomes indicates the molecular signatures underlying some of their distinct wood characteristics. This information may contribute to the understanding of xylogenesis, thus increasing the potential of genetic engineering approaches aiming at the improvement of Eucalyptus forest plantations productivity. PMID:23521840

  7. ZNF423 and ZNF521: EBF1 Antagonists of Potential Relevance in B-Lymphoid Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesuraca, Maria; Chiarella, Emanuela; Scicchitano, Stefania; Codispoti, Bruna; Giordano, Marco; Nappo, Giovanna; Bond, Heather M.; Morrone, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The development of the B-lymphoid cell lineage is tightly controlled by the concerted action of a network of transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. EBF1, a central component of this network, is essential for B-lymphoid specification and commitment as well as for the maintenance of the B-cell identity. Genetic alterations causing loss of function of these B-lymphopoiesis regulators have been implicated in the pathogenesis of B-lymphoid malignancies, with particular regard to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (B-ALLs), where their presence is frequently detected. The activity of the B-cell regulatory network may also be disrupted by the aberrant expression of inhibitory molecules. In particular, two multi-zinc finger transcription cofactors named ZNF423 and ZNF521 have been characterised as potent inhibitors of EBF1 and are emerging as potentially relevant contributors to the development of B-cell leukaemias. Here we will briefly review the current knowledge of these factors and discuss the importance of their functional cross talk with EBF1 in the development of B-cell malignancies. PMID:26788497

  8. Xylem transcription profiles indicate potential metabolic responses for economically relevant characteristics of Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Marcela Mendes; Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Gonçalves, Danieli Cristina; Lepikson Neto, Jorge; Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Deckmann, Ana Carolina; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2013-03-22

    Eucalyptus is one of the most important sources of industrial cellulose. Three species of this botanical group are intensively used in breeding programs: E. globulus, E. grandis and E. urophylla. E. globulus is adapted to subtropical/temperate areas and is considered a source of high-quality cellulose; E. grandis grows rapidly and is adapted to tropical/subtropical climates; and E. urophylla, though less productive, is considered a source of genes related to robustness. Wood, or secondary xylem, results from cambium vascular differentiation and is mostly composed of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. In this study, the xylem transcriptomes of the three Eucalyptus species were investigated in order to provide insights on the particularities presented by each of these species. Data analysis showed that (1) most Eucalyptus genes are expressed in xylem; (2) most genes expressed in species-specific way constitutes genes with unknown functions and are interesting targets for future studies; (3) relevant differences were observed in the phenylpropanoid pathway: E. grandis xylem presents higher expression of genes involved in lignin formation whereas E. urophylla seems to deviates the pathway towards flavonoid formation; (4) stress-related genes are considerably more expressed in E. urophylla, suggesting that these genes may contribute to its robustness. The comparison of these three transcriptomes indicates the molecular signatures underlying some of their distinct wood characteristics. This information may contribute to the understanding of xylogenesis, thus increasing the potential of genetic engineering approaches aiming at the improvement of Eucalyptus forest plantations productivity.

  9. The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Maren; Bange, Hermann W; Dippner, Joachim W; Middelburg, Jack J; Montoya, Joseph P; Ward, Bess

    2013-07-05

    The ocean's nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification. Dinitrogen is the most abundant form of nitrogen in sea water but only accessible by nitrogen-fixing microbes. Denitrification and nitrification are both regulated by oxygen concentrations and potentially produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a climate-relevant atmospheric trace gas. The world's oceans, including the coastal areas and upwelling areas, contribute about 30 per cent to the atmospheric N2O budget and are, therefore, a major source of this gas to the atmosphere. Human activities now add more nitrogen to the environment than is naturally fixed. More than half of the nitrogen reaches the coastal ocean via river input and atmospheric deposition, of which the latter affects even remote oceanic regions. A nitrogen budget for the coastal and open ocean, where inputs and outputs match rather well, is presented. Furthermore, predicted climate change will impact the expansion of the oceans' oxygen minimum zones, the productivity of surface waters and presumably other microbial processes, with unpredictable consequences for the cycling of nitrogen. Nitrogen cycling is closely intertwined with that of carbon, phosphorous and other biologically important elements via biological stoichiometric requirements. This linkage implies that human alterations of nitrogen cycling are likely to have major consequences for other biogeochemical processes and ecosystem functions and services.

  10. Polymorphism at the 3'-UTR of the thymidylate synthase gene: A potential predictor for outcomes in Caucasian patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative chemoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Zhongxing; Liu Hongji; Swisher, Stephen G.; Wang Luo; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Correa, Arlene M.; Roth, Jack A.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Wei Qingyi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that TS3'UTR polymorphisms predict outcomes in 146 Caucasian patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: DNA was extracted from hematoxylin-and-eosin stained histologic slides of normal esophageal or gastric mucosa sections from paraffin blocks of esophagectomy specimens. Genotypes of the TS3'UTR polymorphism were determined by polymerase chain reaction for a 6-bp insertion. The genotype groups (0bp/0bp, 6bp/0bp, and 6bp/6bp) were compared for clinical features and overall survival, recurrence-free-survival, locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis control. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to find independent predictors for the stated outcomes. Results: There was a trend of association between 6bp/6bp genotype and a decreased risk of local regional recurrence (hazards ratio = 0.211, 95% confidence interval = 0.041-1.095, p = 0.06) compared with other genotypes. There was a trend that patients with 6bp/6bp genotype had a higher 3-year probability of LRC compared with patients with the other two genotypes combined (p = 0.07); however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The null hypotheses were not rejected in this study, probably owing to small sample size or the single gene examined. Prospective studies with adequate statistical power analyzing a family of genes involved in the 5-fluorouracil metabolism are needed to assess genetic determinants of treatment-related outcomes in esophageal adenocarcinoma

  11. Adenocarcinoma of the prostrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, A.W.; Trachtenberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    This books contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Imaging Techniques in the Diagnosis and Pelvic Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Radiotherapy; The Case for External Beam Radiotherapy of Certain Adenocarcinomas of the Prostate; and Chemotherapy of Prostatic Cancer.

  12. Prevalence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    esophagus. It is not known whether the trend is similar locally. Objective: To describe the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of adenocarcinoma of .... which is in keeping with trends observed in other regions of the world. Most of the patients present late with severe degrees of dysphagia, with wasting seen in.

  13. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: evidence from event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie; Shui, Qing; Zhong, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends) while...

  14. Nuclear LEF1/TCF4 correlate with poor prognosis but not with nuclear β-catenin in cerebral metastasis of lung adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, A; Siam, L; Klemm, F; Rietkötter, E; Wegner, Chr; Kramer, F; Beissbarth, T; Binder, C; Stadelmann, Chr; Pukrop, T

    2013-04-01

    An essential function of the transcription factors LEF1/TCF4 in cerebral metastases of lung adenocarcinomas has been described in mouse models, suggesting a WNT/β-catenin effect as potential mechanism. Their role in humans is still unclear, thus we analyzed LEF1, TCF4, β-catenin, and early stage prognostic markers in 25 adenocarcinoma brain metastases using immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC revealed nuclear TCF4 in all adenocarcinoma samples, whereas only 36 % depicted nuclear LEF1 and nuclear β-catenin signals. Samples with nuclear LEF1 as well as high TCF4 (++++) expression were associated with a shorter survival (p = 0.01, HR = 6.68), while nuclear β-catenin had no significant impact on prognosis and did not significantly correlate with nuclear LEF1. High proliferation index Ki67 was associated with shorter survival in late-stage disease (p = 0.03, HR 3.27). Additionally, we generated a LEF1/TCF4 as well as an AXIN2 signature, the latter as representative of WNT/β-catenin activity, following a bioinformatics approach with a gene expression dataset of cerebral metastases in lung adenocarcinoma. To analyze the prognostic relevance in primary lung adenocarcinomas, we applied both signatures to a microarray dataset of 58 primary lung adenocarcinomas. Only the LEF1/TCF4 signature was able to separate clusters with impact on survival (p = 0.01, HR = 0.32). These clusters displayed diverging enrichment patterns of the cell cycle pathway. In conclusion, our data show that LEF1/TCF4, but not β-catenin, have prognostic relevance in primary and cerebrally metastasized human lung adenocarcinomas. In contrast to the previous in vivo findings, these results indicate that LEF1/TCF4 act independently of β-catenin in this setting.

  15. A Critical Investigation of the Relevance and Potential of IDPS as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    403; Du Plessis. 2010 Stell LR ...... not the only source of power for local government when it comes to issues that cut across the duties of ...... Public participation then becomes a technical exercise, where officials "tick off" the relevant sections of ...

  16. The Potential of Digital Technologies to Support Literacy Instruction Relevant to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy C.; Colwell, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Digital tools have the potential to transform instruction and promote literacies outlined in the Common Core State Standards. Empirical research is examined to illustrate this potential in grades 6-12 instruction.

  17. THE TOURISM POTENTIAL OF NORTHERN PORTUGAL AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR A REGIONAL BRANDING STRATEGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i) is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to

  18. Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of eccrine sweat gland malignancy with a propensity for metastases and recurrence. We report a 45-year-old female with aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. The cytological findings were representative of the histological features. The recognition of aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma as a distinct clinicopathological eccrine sweat gland neoplasm is important because of the potential for aggressive local growth and distant metastasis. FNAC plays an important role in the preoperative diagnosis and management of these lesions.

  19. FRY site-specific methylation differentiates pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from other adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Ota, Jun; Muangsub, Tachapol; Keelawat, Somboon; Trirattanachat, Surang; Kitkumthorn, Nakarin; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2016-06-01

    Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that occurs in the glandular cells throughout the body. There are several metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary origin. Currently, there is no highly effective method to differentiate pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from other adenocarcinomas. Here, we identified pancreas tissue by site-specific methylation at FRY and found that it can also detect PDAC. The establishment of Combined Bisulphite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) and quantitative real-time PCR techniques of FRY revealed FRY hypermethylation in 21 out of 24 normal pancreatic tissue samples, whereas all other normal tissue samples from thirteen other organs (80 samples) remained totally unmethylated. Similarly in application to PDAC, this marker effectively indicated 25 PDAC among 151 other common adenocarcinomas with values of 100%, 98.7%, 92.6%, and 100% in sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that this epigenetic site-specific marker has high potential for pancreatic tissue identification and can be applied in PDAC diagnosis. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Potential CERCLA reauthorization issues relevant to US DOE's Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.D.; Jaksch, J.A.; Dailey, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is currently scheduled to be reauthorized in 1994. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant stake in CERCLA reauthorization. CERCLA, along with its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), is the principal legal authority governing DOE's environmental restoration program. The manner in which CERCLA-related issues are identified, evaluated, and dispatched may have a substantial impact on DOE's ability to conduct its environmental restoration program. A number of issues that impact DOE's environmental restoration program could be addressed through CERCLA reauthorization. These issues include the need to (1) address how the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) should be integrated into DOE CERCLA actions, (2) facilitate the streamlining of the Superfund process at DOE sites, (3) address the conflicts between the requirements of CERCLA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) that are especially relevant to DOE, (4) examine the criteria for waiving applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) at DOE sites, and (5) delineate the appropriate use of institutional controls at DOE sites

  1. Potential use of carbon-11 labeled thymidine (TdR) for studying the effect of therapy on prostatic adenocarcinoma in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Kleinert, E.L.; Schma, B.; Herr, H.W.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Alterations in tumor growth, such as those which occur during therapeutic manipulation, may be followed by measuring variations in radiolabeled TdR uptake. In order to study such parameters in vivo using external imaging techniques, the authors have synthesized TdR labeled with cyclotron produced carbon-11, a short-lived (T1/2=20.4 min) positron-emitting radionuclide. The Copenhagen rat bearing the transplantable Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma can be used as a model for poorly differentiated carcinoma of the prostate in humans. The tissue distribution of C-14 TdR was studied in untreated tumor rats and in tumor rats receiving a combination of difluoromethyl ornithine and methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone, effective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis. The tissue distribution at 45 min post-injection (5 rats/group) was determined by calculating the relative concentration (RC) of radioactivity in blood and tissue samples (RC=dpm found per gm tissue/dpm injected per gm animal mass). The mean RC in untreated tumor was 2.55 +- 0.46, compared to 0.85 +- 0.12 in treated tumor. Tumor/blood, tumor/muscle and tumor/prostate ratios were 3.07, 7.08, and 6.89 in untreated tumor, and 1.23, 3.04, and 2,93 in treated tumor. The differences in RC for the untreated and treated tumors suggest that external imaging with C-11 TdR may be useful for monitoring the effects of therapy on tumors in vivo

  2. Task relevance and recognition of concealed information have different influences on electrodermal activity and event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Matthias; Berti, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed at differentiating between memory- and task-related processes and their correlates on the electrodermal and electrocortical level during information concealment. Variations of the Guilty Knowledge Test were implemented in two experiments while we measured skin conductance responses (SCRs) and event-related brain potentials. P300 amplitudes were specifically enhanced for items requiring a deviant behavioral response but they were not sensitive to concealed knowledge. In contrast, N200 amplitudes differed between memorized and irrelevant items in both experiments. SCR measures reflected a combined influence of task relevance and probe recognition, and they provided incremental validity above N200 amplitudes. These results suggest that the P300 mainly reflects task relevance in the given experimental setting whereas the N200 amplitude is sensitive to previously encoded information and potentially linked to response monitoring processes.

  3. An investigation into pharmaceutically relevant mutagenicity data and the influence on Ames predictive potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarren Patrick

    2011-11-01

    prevalence, and molecular weight. Conclusions Despite extensive work in the area of predicting this particular toxicity, work in designing and publishing more relevant test sets for compounds relevant to drug discovery is still necessary. This work also shows that great care must be taken in using QSAR models to replace experimental evidence. When considering all substructures, a random forest model, which can inherently cover distinct neighborhoods, built on Novartis data and previously reported external data provided a suitable model.

  4. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solej, Mario; D'Amico, Silvia; Brondino, Gabriele; Ferronato, Marco; Nano, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor with a poorly defined natural history and prognostic factors. It presents with nonspecific symptoms, and for this reason the diagnosis is often delayed. It is a serious problem for the surgeon because of the difficulty in obtaining an early diagnosis and standardizing basic tenets for an appropriate surgical approach. The aim of this work was to conduct a review of the literature analyzing the points most frequently debated about this pathology. A bibliographic search was carried out on the main search engines to find studies regarding duodenal adenocarcinoma, published in English, from January 1992 to January 2007. A total of 19 articles was selected. Results concerning symptoms, location of the tumor, diagnostic examinations, surgical treatment, histopathology of the tumor, survival and follow-up were obtained and discussed. All patients who are medically fit to undergo surgery should be given the option of aggressive resection regardless of tumor size, tumor invasion or appearance of positive lymph nodes. Hopefully, an early diagnosis will correlate with improved long-term survival.

  5. Overview of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF as a Potential Biomarker Relevant to Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nishihira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine “macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF” is generally recognized as a proinflammatory cytokine, and MIF is involved in broad range of acute and chronic inflammatory states. With regard to glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, MIF is produced by pancreatic β cells and acts as a positive regulator of insulin secretion. In contrast, it is evident that MIF expressed in adipose tissues causes insulin resistance. Concerning MIF gene analysis, we found four alleles: 5-, 6-, 7-and 8-CATT at position −794 of MIF gene in a Japanese population. Genotypes without the 5-CATT allele were more common in the obese subjects than in the lean or overweight groups. It is conceivable that promoter polymorphism in the MIF gene is profoundly linked with obesity relevant to lifestyle diseases, such as diabetes. Obesity has become a serious social issue due to the inappropriate nutritional balance, and the consumption of functional foods (including functional foods to reduce fat mass is expected to overcome this issue. In this context, MIF would be a reliable quantitative biomarker to evaluate the effects of functional foods on adiposity.

  6. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  7. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  8. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magbubah Essack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  9. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Mei; Yew, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments. PMID:24949079

  10. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  11. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  12. The Tourism Potential of Northern Portugal and Its Relevance for a Regional Branding Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo OLIVEIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to integrate a branding strategy at the regional level? ii is a regional branding strategy an engine by which to enable economic and social transformation in the region, thus responding to the contemporary challenges such as weak economic confidence and unemployment? To answer these questions, a content analysis on the policy documents: i Northern Portugal Strategic Guidelines 2014-2020 and ii National Strategic Plan for Tourism 2013-2015 has been performed. In addition, the article details the results of in-depth interviews conducted with two regional entities: i Tourism of Porto and the North of Portugal (TPNP, in charge of national tourism planning and promotion and ii North Regional Coordination and Development Commission (CCDRN, involved in regional planning and development. The findings reinforce the importance of tourism as a strategic domain to boost the economy and create momentum in Northern Portugal. Moreover, tourism is seen by the respondents as a key objective in a regional branding strategy.

  13. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results.

  14. Aggregation of the protein TRIOBP-1 and its potential relevance to schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Bradshaw

    Full Text Available We have previously proposed that specific proteins may form insoluble aggregates as a response to an illness-specific proteostatic dysbalance in a subset of brains from individuals with mental illness, as is the case for other chronic brain conditions. So far, established risk factors DISC1 and dysbindin were seen to specifically aggregate in a subset of such patients, as was a novel schizophrenia-related protein, CRMP1, identified through a condition-specific epitope discovery approach. In this process, antibodies are raised against the pooled insoluble protein fractions (aggregomes of post mortem brain samples from schizophrenia patients, followed by epitope identification and confirmation using additional techniques. Pursuing this epitope discovery paradigm further, we reveal TRIO binding protein (TRIOBP to be a major substrate of a monoclonal antibody with a high specificity to brain aggregomes from patients with chronic mental illness. TRIOBP is a gene previously associated with deafness which encodes for several distinct protein species, each involved in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. The 3' splice variant TRIOBP-1 is found to be the antibody substrate and has a high aggregation propensity when over-expressed in neuroblastoma cells, while the major 5' splice variant, TRIOBP-4, does not. Endogenous TRIOBP-1 can also spontaneously aggregate, doing so to a greater extent in cell cultures which are post-mitotic, consistent with aggregated TRIOBP-1 being able to accumulate in the differentiated neurons of the brain. Finally, upon expression in Neuroscreen-1 cells, aggregated TRIOBP-1 affects cell morphology, indicating that TRIOBP-1 aggregates may directly affect cell development, as opposed to simply being a by-product of other processes involved in major mental illness. While further experiments in clinical samples are required to clarify their relevance to chronic mental illness in the general population, TRIOBP-1 aggregates are thus

  15. Impairment of the reproductive potential of male fathead minnows by environmentally relevant exposures to 4-nonylphenolf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, H.L.; Bartell, S.E.; Bistodeau, T.B.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Zintek, Larry; Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (NP) has been detected in many human-impacted surface waters in North America. In this study, we examined the ability of NP to alter reproductive competence in male fathead minnows after a 28 day flow-through exposure in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations bracketing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity-based NP chronic exposure criterion of 6.1 ??g NP/L. Exposure to NP at and above the EPA chronic exposure criterion resulted in an induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) within 14 days. However, 7 days after the cessation of exposure, VTG concentrations had dropped more than 50% and few males expressed VTG above the detection threshold. All of the morphological endpoints, including gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, secondary sexual characters, and histopathology, were unaltered by all NP treatments. However, when NP-exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males for access to nest sites and females, most treatments altered the reproductive competence of exposed males. At lower NP concentrations, exposed males out-competed control males, possibly by being primed through the estrogenic NP exposure in a fashion similar to priming by pheromones released from female fathead minnows. At higher NP exposure concentrations, this priming effect was negated by the adverse effects of the exposure and control males out-competed treated males. Results of this study indicate the complexity of endocrine disrupting effects and the need for multiple analysis levels to assess the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of KOC, S100P, mesothelin and MUC1 in pancreatico-biliary adenocarcinomas: development and utility of a potential diagnostic immunohistochemistry panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pancreatico-biliary adenocarcinomas (PBA) have a poor prognosis. Diagnosis is usually achieved by imaging and/or endoscopy with confirmatory cytology. Cytological interpretation can be difficult especially in the setting of chronic pancreatitis/cholangitis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) biomarkers could act as an adjunct to cytology to improve the diagnosis. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis and selected KOC, S100P, mesothelin and MUC1 for further validation in PBA resection specimens. Methods Tissue microarrays containing tumour and normal cores in a ratio of 3:2, from 99 surgically resected PBA patients, were used for IHC. IHC was performed on an automated platform using antibodies against KOC, S100P, mesothelin and MUC1. Tissue cores were scored for staining intensity and proportion of tissue stained using a Histoscore method (range, 0–300). Sensitivity and specificity for individual biomarkers, as well as biomarker panels, were determined with different cut-offs for positivity and compared by summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results The expression of all four biomarkers was high in PBA versus normal ducts, with a mean Histoscore of 150 vs. 0.4 for KOC, 165 vs. 0.3 for S100P, 115 vs. 0.5 for mesothelin and 200 vs. 14 for MUC1 (p < .0001 for all comparisons). Five cut-offs were carefully chosen for sensitivity/specificity analysis. Four of these cut-offs, namely 5%, 10% or 20% positive cells and Histoscore 20 were identified using ROC curve analysis and the fifth cut-off was moderate-strong staining intensity. Using 20% positive cells as a cut-off achieved higher sensitivity/specificity values: KOC 84%/100%; S100P 83%/100%; mesothelin 88%/92%; and MUC1 89%/63%. Analysis of a panel of KOC, S100P and mesothelin achieved 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity if at least 2 biomarkers were positive for 10% cut-off; and 100% sensitivity and specificity for 20% cut-off. Conclusion A biomarker panel of KOC, S100P and mesothelin with at

  17. The potential relevance of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid to the etiopathogenesis of childhood neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesei, Alessandra; Crippa, Alessandro; Ceccarelli, Silvia Busti; Mauri, Maddalena; Molteni, Massimo; Agostoni, Carlo; Nobile, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Over the last 15 years, considerable interest has been given to the potential role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for understanding pathogenesis and treatment of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. This review aims to systematically investigate the scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis on the omega-3 PUFAs deficit as a risk factor shared by different pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Medline PubMed database was searched for studies examining blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) status in children with neuropsychiatric disorders. Forty-one published manuscripts were compatible with the search criteria. The majority of studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism found a significant decrease in DHA levels in patients versus healthy controls. For the other conditions examined-depression, juvenile bipolar disorder, intellectual disabilities, learning difficulties, and eating disorders (EDs)-the literature was too limited to draw any stable conclusions. However, except EDs, findings in these conditions were in line with results from ADHD and autism studies. Results about EPA levels were too inconsistent to conclude that EPA could be associated with any of the conditions examined. Finally, correlational data provided, on one hand, evidence for a negative association between DHA and symptomatology, whereas on the other hand, evidence for a positive association between EPA and emotional well-being. Although the present review underlines the potential involvement of omega-3 PUFAs in the predisposition to childhood neuropsychiatric disorders, more observational and intervention studies across different diagnoses are needed, which should integrate the collection of baseline PUFA levels with their potential genetic and environmental influencing factors.

  18. Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasote, Deepak M; Katyare, Surendra S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants.

  19. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends while subjects performed a three-stimulus oddball task. The results showed larger P2 amplitudes for one’s own name than for close-other’s name in the low self-esteem group, whereas this P2 effect were not observed in the high self-esteem group. In addition, one’s own name elicited equivalent N250 amplitudes and larger P3 amplitudes compared with close-other’s name in both high and low self-esteem groups. However, no interaction effects were observed between self-esteem and self-relevant processing in the N250 and P3 components. Thus, we found that the modulation effects of self-esteem on self-relevant processing occurred at the early P2 stage, but not at the later N250 and P3 stages. These findings reflect that individuals with low self-esteem demonstrate automatic attention towards their own names.

  20. New technology and illness self-management: Potential relevance for resource-poor populations in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technology have made it possible for many standard diagnostic and health monitoring procedures, traditionally carried out by qualified personnel within medical facilities, to be reliably undertaken by patients or carers in their own homes with a minimum of basic training. There has also been a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of both sources of information on health issues and the possibilities for sharing information and experiences over ICT-based social networks. It has been suggested that these developments have the potential to 'empower' patients, reducing their dependence on providers and possibly improving their quality of care by increasing the volume and timeliness of diagnostic data and encouraging active self-management of their condition, for example through lifestyle changes. Perhaps more significantly, it is also seen by many economies with ageing populations as a way to contain high and ever rising healthcare costs. It has also been suggested that a move to greater self-management supported by expert networks and smart phone technology could improve the treatment of many millions of patients with chronic diseases in low and middle income economies that are also confronting the potential cost implications of epidemiological and demographic transitions, combined with the higher expectations of a more educated and knowledgeable population. There is now limited evidence that some fairly basic e- and mHealth interventions, for example in the areas of MNCH, malaria and HIV/AIDS can have a positive impact, even in resource-poor contexts. The aim here is to explore the extent to which further investment in technology could play a role in the development of an effective and affordable health sector strategy for at least some developing economies. It is suggested that the effectiveness of the approach may be highly dependent on the specific health conditions addressed, the nature of existing health systems and the overall socio

  1. Lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and synergizes with doxorubicin: potential therapeutic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goard Carolyn A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian carcinoma is a rarely curable disease, for which new treatment options are required. As agents that block HMG-CoA reductase and the mevalonate pathway, the statin family of drugs are used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have been shown to trigger apoptosis in a tumor-specific manner. Recent clinical trials show that the addition of statins to traditional chemotherapeutic strategies can increase efficacy of targeting statin-sensitive tumors. Our goal was to assess statin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics, and then determine these mechanisms of action. Methods The effect of lovastatin on ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated alone and in combination with cisplatin and doxorubicin using several assays (MTT, TUNEL, fixed PI, PARP cleavage and synergy determined by evaluating the combination index. The mechanisms of action were evaluated using functional, molecular, and pharmacologic approaches. Results We demonstrate that lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells in a p53-independent manner and synergizes with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat recurrent cases of ovarian cancer. Lovastatin drives ovarian tumor cell death by two mechanisms: first, by blocking HMG-CoA reductase activity, and second, by sensitizing multi-drug resistant cells to doxorubicin by a novel mevalonate-independent mechanism. This inhibition of drug transport, likely through inhibition of P-glycoprotein, potentiates both DNA damage and tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions The results of this research provide pre-clinical data to warrant further evaluation of statins as potential anti-cancer agents to treat ovarian carcinoma. Many statins are inexpensive, off-patent generic drugs that are immediately available for use as anti-cancer agents. We provide evidence that lovastatin triggers apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells as a single agent by a

  2. Lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and synergizes with doxorubicin: potential therapeutic relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosyan, Anna; Clendening, James W; Goard, Carolyn A; Penn, Linda Z

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is a rarely curable disease, for which new treatment options are required. As agents that block HMG-CoA reductase and the mevalonate pathway, the statin family of drugs are used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have been shown to trigger apoptosis in a tumor-specific manner. Recent clinical trials show that the addition of statins to traditional chemotherapeutic strategies can increase efficacy of targeting statin-sensitive tumors. Our goal was to assess statin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics, and then determine these mechanisms of action. The effect of lovastatin on ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated alone and in combination with cisplatin and doxorubicin using several assays (MTT, TUNEL, fixed PI, PARP cleavage) and synergy determined by evaluating the combination index. The mechanisms of action were evaluated using functional, molecular, and pharmacologic approaches. We demonstrate that lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells in a p53-independent manner and synergizes with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat recurrent cases of ovarian cancer. Lovastatin drives ovarian tumor cell death by two mechanisms: first, by blocking HMG-CoA reductase activity, and second, by sensitizing multi-drug resistant cells to doxorubicin by a novel mevalonate-independent mechanism. This inhibition of drug transport, likely through inhibition of P-glycoprotein, potentiates both DNA damage and tumor cell apoptosis. The results of this research provide pre-clinical data to warrant further evaluation of statins as potential anti-cancer agents to treat ovarian carcinoma. Many statins are inexpensive, off-patent generic drugs that are immediately available for use as anti-cancer agents. We provide evidence that lovastatin triggers apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells as a single agent by a mevalonate-dependent mechanism. Moreover, we also show lovastatin synergizes

  3. Pharmaceutical consumption and residuals potentially relevant to nutrient cycling in Greater Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Sinar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycling nutrients form sanitary wastes back into agricultural ecosystems offers an option to alleviate soil depletion in regions where the use of mineral fertiliser is limited. Exemplary nutrient and water cycling approaches, including collection, treatment and use of human urine, are established at Valley View University (VVU in Greater Accra, Ghana.Concerns have been recently raised in regard to fate and impact of pharmaceutical residues in soils and interlinked environment. To evaluate in how far emerging knowledge can be transposed onto VVU, urban and rural environments in Greater Accra, spatial disease occurrence and drug consumption patterns were studied. Malaria has been found to represent the most severe health burden in Ghana, but there is also a high prevalence of infectious diseases. Drugs consumed in great quantities and in respect to their residual loads potentially problematic in the environment belong to therapeutic groups of: antibiotics, analgesics, drugs for diabetes, antimalarials, cardiovascular drugs and anthelmintics. Drug consumption revealed to be highest in urban and lowest in rural areas. At VVU the range of consumed drugs is comparable to urban areas except for the negligible use of diabetes and cardiovascular medication as well as contraceptives.

  4. HOXC13 promotes proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma via modulation of CCND1 and CCNE1

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yu; Luo, Jing; Sun, Qi; Xu, Ting; Sun, Siqing; Chen, Meili; Lin, Xin; Qian, Qiuping; Zhang, Yu; Cao, Lin; Zhang, Po; Lin, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we confirmed that HOXC13 might be a potential oncogene in lung adenocarcinoma through an analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. Further analysis revealed that the expression of HOXC13 was significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues; importantly, its expression correlated with poor clinical characteristics and worse prognosis. In vitro experiments showed that HOXC13 expression generally increased in lung adenocarcinoma cell l...

  5. Metastatic adenocarcinoma of the mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eui Hwan; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    Metastases to the jawbone are found predominantly in the mandible and are rare in relation to the overall spectrum of oral malignancy. Analysis of the literature shows that the most frequent primary sites are the breast, lung, kidney, thyroid, and prostate. Adenocarcinoma of the mandible, whether primary or metastatic, are usually difficult to diagnose clinically. We report a case illustrating the clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings of a metastatic lung adenocarcinoma of the anterior mandible in a 58-year-old male.

  6. Genomic Alteration During Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Tan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Recurrent gene mutation has been identified by the analysis of exonic DNA from lung adenocarcinoma, but its progression has not been extensively profiled. The investigation of the mutational landscape of tumors provides new insights into cancer genome evolution and further discovers the interplay of somatic mutation, adaptation of clones to their environment and natural selection. Cancer development involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Methods: Comparative whole exome sequencing of both primary and metastatic tumor tissues from four patients of stage IV lung adenocarcinoma patients with chest wall metastasis was performed. Both primary and metastatic tumors were diagnosed through biopsy followed by surgical resection. All tumor specimens were cut into several pieces to assess potential heterogenic clones within the tumor tissue. Adjacent normal lung tissue was also obtained to provide germline mutation background. Results: By modeling and analyzing progression of the cancer metastasis based on non-synonymous variants, we defined the extent of heterogeneity of cancer genomes and identified similar cancer evolution pattern in the four patients: metastasis was an early event occurring right after the primary cancer formation and evolution in the metastatic tumor was continuously and simultaneously in progression with that in the primary tumor. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genetic lesions, we further charted a pathway of oncogenic events along which genes may drive lung adenocarcinoma metastasis, such as TAS2R31 and UMODL1, involving in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway. Conclusion: The candidate genes identified in this study may become targets for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  7. Integrating genomic alterations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identifies new relevant pathways and potential therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, K; Enjuanes, A; Dlouhy, I; Jares, P; Martin-Garcia, D; Nadeu, F; Ordóñez, G R; Rovira, J; Clot, G; Royo, C; Navarro, A; Gonzalez-Farre, B; Vaghefi, A; Castellano, G; Rubio-Perez, C; Tamborero, D; Briones, J; Salar, A; Sancho, J M; Mercadal, S; Gonzalez-Barca, E; Escoda, L; Miyoshi, H; Ohshima, K; Miyawaki, K; Kato, K; Akashi, K; Mozos, A; Colomo, L; Alcoceba, M; Valera, A; Carrió, A; Costa, D; Lopez-Bigas, N; Schmitz, R; Staudt, L M; Salaverria, I; López-Guillermo, A; Campo, E

    2018-01-01

    Genome studies of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have revealed a large number of somatic mutations and structural alterations. However, the clinical significance of these alterations is still not well defined. In this study, we have integrated the analysis of targeted next-generation sequencing of 106 genes and genomic copy number alterations (CNA) in 150 DLBCL. The clinically significant findings were validated in an independent cohort of 111 patients. Germinal center B-cell and activated B-cell DLBCL had a differential profile of mutations, altered pathogenic pathways and CNA. Mutations in genes of the NOTCH pathway and tumor suppressor genes (TP53/CDKN2A), but not individual genes, conferred an unfavorable prognosis, confirmed in the independent validation cohort. A gene expression profiling analysis showed that tumors with NOTCH pathway mutations had a significant modulation of downstream target genes, emphasizing the relevance of this pathway in DLBCL. An in silico drug discovery analysis recognized 69 (46%) cases carrying at least one genomic alteration considered a potential target of drug response according to early clinical trials or preclinical assays in DLBCL or other lymphomas. In conclusion, this study identifies relevant pathways and mutated genes in DLBCL and recognizes potential targets for new intervention strategies. PMID:28804123

  8. Comparative proteome analysis of three mouse lung adenocarcinoma CMT cell lines with different metastatic potential by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Kelan; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Stephen, J Fey

    2008-01-01

    and characterized in vivo to have different metastatic potential. In this study, the comprehensive protein expression profiles of three of these CMT cell lines at passage 5, 15 and 35 were analyzed by 2-DE separation followed by MS identification. As a result, 82 and 40 unique proteins were found...

  9. Event-related potential N270 delayed and enhanced by the conjunction of relevant and irrelevant perceptual mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew A; Duke, Philip A; Fuggetta, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    Event-related potential studies using delayed match-to-sample tasks have demonstrated the presence of two components, N270 and N400, possibly reflecting the sequential processing of multiple sources of endogenous mismatch. To date, studies have only investigated mismatch between a single cue and target. In this study, we used distractor stimuli to investigate the effect of a secondary source of mismatch distinct from the task-relevant stimulus. Subjects performed two paradigms in which the cue and target could match or mismatch. In one paradigm, task-irrelevant distractors were added--producing a source of task-irrelevant perceptual mismatch. A mismatch-triggered negativity was elicited in both paradigms, but was delayed and enhanced in magnitude in the distractors present paradigm. It is suggested that the distractors may differentially affect mismatch responses through the generation of a task-irrelevant mismatch response. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of Intratumoral Voxel Heterogeneity as a Potential Response Biomarker: Assessment in a HER2+ Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Xenograft Following Trastuzumab and/or Cisplatin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Yip

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI voxel heterogeneity following trastuzumab and/or cisplatin in a HER2+ esophageal xenograft (OE19 as a potential response biomarker. OE19 xenografts treated with saline (controls, monotherapy, or combined cisplatin and trastuzumab underwent 9.4-T MRI. Tumor MRI parametric maps of T1 relaxation time (pre/post contrast, T2 relaxation time, T2* relaxation rate (R2*, and apparent diffusion coefficient obtained before (TIME0, after 24 hours (TIME1, and after 2 weeks of treatment (TIME2 were analyzed. Voxel histogram and fractal parameters (from the whole tumor, rim and center, and as a ratio of rim‐to‐center were derived. Tumors were stained for immunohistochemical markers of hypoxia (CA-IX, angiogenesis (CD34, and proliferation (Ki-67. Combination therapy reduced xenograft growth rate (relative change, ∆ +0.58 ± 0.43 versus controls, ∆ +4.1 ± 1.0; P = 0.008. More spatially homogeneous voxel distribution between the rim to center was noted after treatment for combination therapy versus controls, respectively, for contrast-enhanced T1 relaxation time (90th percentile: ratio 1.00 versus 0.88, P = 0.009, T2 relaxation time (mean: 1.00 versus 0.92, P = 0.006; median: 0.98 versus 0.91, P = 0.006; 75th percentile: 1.02 versus 0.94, P = 0.007, and R2* (10th percentile: 0.99 versus 1.26, P = 0.003. We found that combination and trastuzumab monotherapy reduced MRI spatial heterogeneity and growth rate compared to the control or cisplatin groups, the former providing adjunctive tumor response information.

  11. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B is a predictor of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma expressing wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Takumi; Ezaki, Junji; Okabe, Naoyuki; Takagi, Hironori; Ozaki, Yuki; Inoue, Takuya; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Muto, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Hoshino, Mika; Osugi, Jun; Shio, Yutaka; Waguri, Satoshi; Tamura, Hirosumi; Imai, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Emi; Yanagisawa, Yuka; Honma, Reiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients with tumors that harbor no targetable driver gene mutation, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations, have unfavorable prognosis, and thus, novel therapeutic targets are required. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B (FAM83B) is a biomarker for squamous cell lung cancer. FAM83B has also recently been shown to serve an important role in the EGFR signaling pathway. In the present study, the molecular and clinical impact of FAM83B in lung ADC was investigated. Matched tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were obtained from 216 patients who underwent complete lung resection for primary lung ADC and were examined for FAM83B expression using cDNA microarray analysis. The associations between FAM83B expression and clinicopathological parameters, including patient survival, were examined. FAM83B was highly expressed in tumors from males, smokers and in tumors with wild-type EGFR. Multivariate analyses further confirmed that wild-type EGFR tumors were significantly positively associated with FAM83B expression. In survival analysis, FAM83B expression was associated with poor outcomes in disease-free survival and overall survival, particularly when stratified against tumors with wild-type EGFR. Furthermore, FAM83B knockdown was performed to investigate its phenotypic effect on lung ADC cell lines. Gene silencing by FAM83B RNA interference induced growth suppression in the HLC-1 and H1975 lung ADC cell lines. FAM83B may be involved in lung ADC tumor proliferation and can be a predictor of poor survival. FAM83B is also a potential novel therapeutic target for ADC with wild-type EGFR. PMID:29434849

  12. A rare cutaneous tumor of the axilla: Apocrine adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaca Semsettin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweat gland neoplasms are rare with approximately 200 cases of eccrine sweat gland and less than 50 cases of apocrine gland carcinoma being reported in the worldwide literature. More than half of the reported cases with apocrine adenocarcinoma had lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis. We report a case of a 56-year-old man, presented with a left axillary slow-growing seven year old painless nodule. Histopathological examination revealed an invasive apocrine adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastases. The patient successfully treated with total excision and radiotherapy. Apocrine adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy with high metastatic potential that occurs mostly in the axilla. Physicians should be aware of this entity while differentiating cutaneous tumor located on the axillary region.

  13. US and MRI Findings of Penile Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ha Yeun [Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Metastatic tumors of the penis originating from the gastrointestinal tract are rare clinical conditions. We experienced a case of penile metastasis in a 59-year-old man who underwent an abdomino-peritoneal resection for a moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rectum 4 years earlier. We report penile ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings on this uncommon metastatic penile tumor from a rectal adenocarcinoma and briefly review radiologic findings and relevant literature

  14. IQGAP1 in rectal adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    with 5-fluorouracil may induce treatment resistance through upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. IQGAP1 is a scaffold protein that appears to be essential to MAPK signaling in cancers. We have therefore studied IQGAP1 protein expression in rectal adenocarcinomas before...

  15. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma: Cytological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious retroviral disease of sheep and goats, characterized by neoplastic growth of the ethmoidal mucosa in the nasal cavity is described in a West African Dwarf goat (WAD). A two-year old WAD goat, weighing approximately 20kg was observed in the Teaching and Research ...

  16. Ampullary adenocarcinoma – differentiation matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchler Markus W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The periampullary region gives rise to two main subtypes of adenocarcinoma that show either pancreatobiliary or intestinal differentiation. New data demonstrates that the histological subtype – more so than the anatomical location – is an important independent prognostic factor. This fuels the discussion about maintaining ampullary cancer as a separate entity.

  17. Environmental bacteriophages active on biofilms and planktonic forms of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae: Potential relevance in cholera epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Iftekhar Bin; Hoque, M Mozammel; Abdullah, Ahmed; Bari, S M Nayeemul; Ghosh, Amar N; Faruque, Shah M

    2017-01-01

    Phages isolated from environmental waters in Bangladesh were tested for their host specificity towards V. cholerae O1 and O139, and the ability to disperse V. cholerae biofilms formed in the laboratory. Representative phages were further characterized by electron microscopy and whole genome sequencing. Selected phages were then introduced in various combinations to biofilms of toxigenic V. cholerae added to samples of river water, and the dispersion of biofilms as well as the growth kinetics of V. cholerae and the phages were monitored. A phage cocktail composed of three different phages isolated from surface waters in Bangladesh and designated as JSF7, JSF4, and JSF3 could significantly influence the distribution and concentration of the active planktonic form and biofilm associated form of toxigenic V. cholerae in water. While JSF7 showed a biofilm degrading activity and dispersed cells from both V. cholerae O1 and O139 derived biofilms thus increasing the concentration of planktonic V. cholerae in water, JSF4 and JSF3 showed strong bactericidal activity against V. cholerae O1 and O139 respectively. A mixture of all three phages could effectively reduce both biofilm-associated and planktonic V. cholerae in river water microcosms. Besides potential applicability in phage-mediated control of cholera, our results have relevance in appreciating possible intricate role of diverse environmental phages in the epidemiology of the disease, since both biofilms and phages influence the prevalence and infectivity of V. cholerae in a variety of ways.

  18. Environmental bacteriophages active on biofilms and planktonic forms of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae: Potential relevance in cholera epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Bin Naser

    Full Text Available Phages isolated from environmental waters in Bangladesh were tested for their host specificity towards V. cholerae O1 and O139, and the ability to disperse V. cholerae biofilms formed in the laboratory. Representative phages were further characterized by electron microscopy and whole genome sequencing. Selected phages were then introduced in various combinations to biofilms of toxigenic V. cholerae added to samples of river water, and the dispersion of biofilms as well as the growth kinetics of V. cholerae and the phages were monitored.A phage cocktail composed of three different phages isolated from surface waters in Bangladesh and designated as JSF7, JSF4, and JSF3 could significantly influence the distribution and concentration of the active planktonic form and biofilm associated form of toxigenic V. cholerae in water. While JSF7 showed a biofilm degrading activity and dispersed cells from both V. cholerae O1 and O139 derived biofilms thus increasing the concentration of planktonic V. cholerae in water, JSF4 and JSF3 showed strong bactericidal activity against V. cholerae O1 and O139 respectively. A mixture of all three phages could effectively reduce both biofilm-associated and planktonic V. cholerae in river water microcosms.Besides potential applicability in phage-mediated control of cholera, our results have relevance in appreciating possible intricate role of diverse environmental phages in the epidemiology of the disease, since both biofilms and phages influence the prevalence and infectivity of V. cholerae in a variety of ways.

  19. Clinical relevancy and determinants of potential drug–drug interactions in chronic kidney disease patients: results from a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahsan Saleem,1,2 Imran Masood,1 Tahir Mehmood Khan3 1Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 2Pharmacy Services Department, Integrated Medical Center, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan; 3School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Sunway Campus, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD alters the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses of various renally excreted drugs and increases the risk of drug-related problems, such as drug–drug interactions.Objectives: To assess the pattern, determinants, and clinical relevancy of potential drug–drug interactions (pDDIs in CKD patients.Materials and methods: This study retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all CKD patients admitted in the nephrology unit of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan from January 2013 to December 2014. The Micromedex Drug-Reax® system was used to screen patient profiles for pDDIs, and IBM SPSS version 20 was used to carry out statistical analysis.Results: We evaluated 209 medical charts and found pDDIs in nearly 78.5% CKD patients. Overall, 541 pDDIs were observed, of which, nearly 60.8% patients had moderate, 41.1% had minor, 27.8% had major, and 13.4% had contraindicated interactions. Among those interactions, 49.4% had good evidence, 44.0% had fair, 6.3% had excellent evidence, and 35.5% interactions had delayed onset of action. The potential adverse outcomes of pDDIs included postural hypotension, QT prolongation, ceftriaxone–calcium precipitation, cardiac arrhythmias, and reduction in therapeutic effectiveness. The occurrence of pDDIs was found strongly associated with the age of <60 years, number of prescribed medicines ≥5, hypertension, and the lengthy hospitalization of patients.Conclusion: The occurrence of pDDIs was high in CKD patients. It was observed that CKD patients with an older age, higher number of prescribed medicines, lengthy hospitalization, and hypertension were at

  20. HOXC13 promotes proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma via modulation of CCND1 and CCNE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Luo, Jing; Sun, Qi; Xu, Ting; Sun, Siqing; Chen, Meili; Lin, Xin; Qian, Qiuping; Zhang, Yu; Cao, Lin; Zhang, Po; Lin, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we confirmed that HOXC13 might be a potential oncogene in lung adenocarcinoma through an analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. Further analysis revealed that the expression of HOXC13 was significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues; importantly, its expression correlated with poor clinical characteristics and worse prognosis. In vitro experiments showed that HOXC13 expression generally increased in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of HOXC13 inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, and induced G1-phase arrest via downregulation of CCND1 and CCNE1. Conversely, HOXC13 overexpression promoted lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, and decreased the percentage of cells in G1-phase via upregulation of CCND1 and CCNE1. We also found that miR-141 downregulated HOXC13, by directly targeting its 3'UTR, and inhibited proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest that HOXC13, which is directly targeted by miR-141, is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma, and promotes proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma by modulating the expression of CCND1 and CCNE1.

  1. Gene expression profiling to identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with environmental heavy metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Attafi, Ibraheem M; Famulski, Konrad S; Bakheet, Saleh A; Hafez, Mohammed M; Alsaad, Abdulaziz M S; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman M

    2017-02-01

    Heavy metals are the most commonly encountered toxic substances that increase susceptibility to various diseases after prolonged exposure. We have previously shown that healthy volunteers living near a mining area had significant contamination with heavy metals associated with significant changes in the expression of some detoxifying genes, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and DNA repair genes. However, alterations of most of the molecular target genes associated with diseases are still unknown. Thus, the aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the gene expression profile and (b) identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with long-term human exposure to environmental heavy metals in mining area using microarray analysis. For this purpose, 40 healthy male volunteers who were residents of a heavy metal-polluted area (Mahd Al-Dhahab city, Saudi Arabia) and 20 healthy male volunteers who were residents of a non-heavy metal-polluted area were included in the study. Total RNA was isolated from whole blood using PAXgene Blood RNA tubes and then reversed transcribed and hybridized to the gene array using the Affymetrix U219 GeneChip. Microarray analysis showed about 2129 genes were identified and differentially altered, among which a shared set of 425 genes was differentially expressed in the heavy metal-exposed groups. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the most altered gene-regulated diseases in heavy metal-exposed groups included hematological and developmental disorders and mostly renal and urological diseases. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction closely matched the microarray data for some genes tested. Importantly, changes in gene-related diseases were attributed to alterations in the genes encoded for protein synthesis. Renal and urological diseases were the diseases that were most frequently associated with the heavy metal-exposed group. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to validate these

  2. Systematic review of peri-operative prognostic biomarkers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrushnko, W.; Gundara, J.S.; Reuver, P.R.; O'Grady, G.; Samra, J.S.; Mittal, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be associated with a poor prognosis. This systematic review aimed to summarize the literature regarding potential prognostic biomarkers to facilitate validation studies and clinical application. METHODS: A systematic review was

  3. Sebaceous Adenocarcinoma in a Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Terim Kapakin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the sebaceous gland adenocarcinoma was presented in the external auditory canal of a 10-year-old female tabby cat. There were three tumoural masses located macroscopically in the external auditory canal in the dimensions of 0.2 × 0.5, 0.3 × 0.5, and 0.1 × 0.1 cm, and they were of hard consistency. The cut sections of these tumoural masses were of multilobular appearance and ranged from white to yellow colour. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of oval or round shaped tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles that were divided by fibrous tissue into lobules. Atypism and mitosis were not significant. Irregular necrotic areas and mononuclear cell infiltrations composed of lymphocytes and histiocytes were also observed. In conclusion, our laboratory service confirms that the sebaceous gland adenocarcinoma is a rarely occurring tumour in cats with specific histopathological lesions.

  4. Vitiligo associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a disease that results in depigmented areas in the skin. It may develop at any age but the average age at onset is 20 years. Association of vitiligo and melanoma has been commonly reported, but malignancies other than melanoma have been rarely associated with vitiligo. We report a 73-year-old patient with new onset vitiligo who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma in the following years.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Nintedanib Plus Docetaxel in Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Maya; Bennouna, Jaafar; Bondarenko, Igor

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nintedanib is a triple angiokinase inhibitor approved with docetaxel for adenocarcinoma non-small cell lung cancer after first-line chemotherapy (FLT). In the phase III LUME-Lung 1 study, overall survival (OS) was significantly longer with nintedanib/docetaxel than with placebo....../docetaxel in all adenocarcinoma patients and those with time from start of FLT (TSFLT) Lung 1 study, specifically for adenocarcinoma patients, to explore the impact of clinically relevant characteristics on outcomes such as time...... to progression after FLT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Exploratory analyses were conducted of the overall and European LUME-Lung 1 adenocarcinoma population according to age, prior therapy, and tumor dynamics. Analyses also used TSFLT and time from end of FLT (TEFLT). RESULTS: Treatment with nintedanib...

  6. External validation suggests Integrin beta 3 as prognostic biomarker in serous ovarian adenocarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundfeldt Karin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of women with ovarian cancer are diagnosed in late stages, and the mortality rate is high. The use of biomarkers as prognostic factors may improve the treatment and clinical outcome of these patients. We performed an external validation of the potential biomarkers CLU, ITGB3, CAPG, and PRAME to determine if the expression levels are relevant to use as prognostic factors. Methods We analysed the gene expression of CLU, ITGB3, CAPG, and PRAME in 30 advanced staged serous adenocarcinomas with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR and the protein levels were analysed in 98 serous adenocarcinomas with western blot for semiquantitative analysis. Statistical differences in mRNA and protein expressions between tumours from survivors and tumours from deceased patients were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The gene and protein ITGB3 (Integrin beta 3 were significantly more expressed in tumours from survivors compared to tumours from deceased patients, which is in concordance with our previous results. However, no significant differences were detected for the other three genes or proteins CLU, CAPG, and PRAME. Conclusion The loss of ITGB3 expression in tumours from deceased patients and high expression in tumours from survivors could be used as a biomarker for patients with advanced serous tumours.

  7. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, Bergthor; Sandström, Per

    2014-01-01

    Since the first report on laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) appeared in the 1990s, the procedure has been performed increasingly frequently to treat both benign and malignant lesions of the pancreas. Many earlier publications have shown LDP to be a good alternative to open distal pancreatectomy for benign lesions, although this has never been studied in a prospective, randomized manner. The evidence for the use of LDP to treat adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is not as well established. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current evidence for LDP in cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We conducted a review of English language publications reporting LDP results between 1990 and 2013. All studies reporting results in patients with histologically proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included. Thirty-nine publications were found and included in the results for a total of 309 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (potential double publications were not eliminated). Most LDP procedures are performed in selected cases and generally involve smaller tumors than open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) procedures. Some of the papers report unselected cases and include procedures on larger tumors. The number of lymph nodes harvested using LDP is comparable to the number obtained with ODP, as is the frequency of R0 resections. Current data suggest that similar short term oncological results can be obtained using LDP as those obtained using ODP. PMID:25309072

  8. Sinonasal adenocarcinoma following styrene exposure in the reinforced plastics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Mette Schou; Stokholm, Zara Ann; Christensen, Mette Skovgaard; Schlünssen, Vivi; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Iversen, Inge Brosbøl; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2018-03-14

    Sinonasal adenocarcinoma is a rare disease expected to have rare causes and potential for strong risk factors as reflected by the strong association with occupational wood dust exposure. High level styrene exposure is a rare and suspected carcinogen, and this study examines the exposure-response relation between occupational styrene exposure, sinonasal adenocarcinoma and other subtypes. We followed 73 092 styrene-exposed workers from 1968 to 2011 and identified sinonasal cancers in the Danish Cancer Registry. We modelled cumulative styrene exposure and estimated incidence rates and age, sex and wood-industry adjusted ORs. During 1 585 772 person-years, we observed nine cases of adenocarcinoma, corresponding to a fivefold non-significantly increased OR for estimates of high versus low cumulative styrene exposure (OR 5.11, 95% CI 0.58 to 45.12). The increased risk was confined to exposure received during the recent 15 years. The other histological subtypes showed no increased risk. This study suggests increased risk of sinonasal adenocarcinoma following styrene exposure. The observations are, however, few, confounding from wood dust exposure cannot be ruled out, and additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Biomarkers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 7.7%. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage not amenable to potentially curative resection. A substantial portion of this review is dedicated to reviewing the current literature on carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9), which is currently the only guideline-recommended biomarker for PDAC. It provides valuable prognostic information, can predict resectability, and is useful in decision making about neoadjuvant therapy. We also discuss carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, serum biomarker panels, circulating tumor cells, and cell-free nucleic acids. Although many biomarkers have now been studied in relation to PDAC, significant work still needs to be done to validate their usefulness in the early detection of PDAC and management of patients with PDAC.

  10. A systematic review of the literature on self-management interventions and discussion of their potential relevance for people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aantjes, C.J.; Rameran, L; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study systematically reviews the literature on self-management interventions provided by health care teams, community partners, patients and families and discusses the potential relevance of these interventions for people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We searched

  11. Adenocarcinoma uretral em uma cadela Urethral adenocarcinoma in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumores primários de uretra são raros em animais e há poucos relatos em cães. A ocorrência é maior em cadelas idosas, não havendo predileção por raça. Disúria, estrangúria e hematúria são sinais clínicos associados a esses tumores. É relatado um caso de adenocarcinoma primário de uretra em um cadela Poodle de 12 anos de idade que apresentava aumento de volume no membro pélvico esquerdo. Na necropsia, foram encontradas metástases na articulação femorotibial esquerda, na glândula adrenal e no rim.Urethral primary tumors are rare in animals and there are only few reports in dogs. They are more frequent in old bitches and have no breed predilection. Clinical signs associated with urethral primary tumors include dysuria, strangury and hematuria. We report a case of primary urethral adenocarcinoma in a 12-year-old female Poodle that was presented with localized volume enlargement in the left pelvic limb. At necropsy metastasis were found at the left femorotibial joint, adrenal gland and kidney.

  12. Novel Therapeutics for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Maeve A; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The last decade has seen significant developments in the use of combination systemic therapy for advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), with median survival approaching 1 year for select patients treated with FOLFIRINOX in the metastatic setting. However, it is sobering that these developments have been achieved with the use of traditional cytotoxics rather than from successes in the more modern fields of molecularly targeted therapies or immunotherapy. This article highlights several promising therapeutic approaches to PDAC currently under clinical evaluation, including immune therapies, molecularly targeted therapies, strategies for stromal depletion, and targeted therapy for genetically selected patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  14. Prostatic Duct Adenocarcinoma with Endometrioid Features: Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    4, 2009. 257. 257-258. Case Report. Prostatic Duct Adenocarcinoma with Endometrioid. Features: Report of a Rare Case and Brief Review of the Literature ... 3. adenocarcinoma of the prostate: A distinctive tumor of probable prostatic duct origin. Cancer. 1976;. May;37(5):2255-62. Cohen RJ, Wheeler TM, Bonkhoff H, ...

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Shin, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyung Sik; Kim, Gwi Eon; Loh, Juhn Kyu; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    Survival data, prognostic factors, and patterns of failure were retrospectively analyzed for a total of 76 patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix treated between January 1981 and December 1987, which represents 4.1% of all primary cervical carcinomas treated, at Department of Radiation Oncology, Yensei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine. The mean age of the patients was 49years(range, 27-79years) and the peak incidence was in the group 50 to 59years of age. More half of the patients were postmenopausal (46/76=60.5%). Most patients(76%)had abnormal vaginal bleeding either alone or in combination with other symptoms. The proportion of stage Iib was 43.4%. There were 4 major histologic subtypes: pure adenocarcinoma(48/76=63.2%), adenosquamous carcinoma(20/76=26.3%), papillary (5/76=6.6%) and clear cell carcinoma(3/76=3.9%). Of the many clinicopathologic variables evaluated for prognosis, the most significant prognostic factors were stage of disease and the size of tumor. The overall 5-year survival rate was 68%, and the 5-year survival rates for stage Ib, II and III were 90%, 66% and 54%, respectively. Control of pelvic tumors was achieved in 938%, 90.2% and 50.0% of cases of stage Ib, II and III disease, respectively. In present study, treatment modalities (radiation therapy alone/combined operative and radiation therapy) did not affect the local control of tumor and the survival.

  16. Incidence rate and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions in a large outpatient population of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabovati, Ehsan; Vakili-Arki, Hasan; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine incidence rate, type, and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) in a large outpatient population of a developing country. A retrospective, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on outpatients' prescriptions in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, over 12 months. A list of 25 clinically relevant DDIs, which are likely to occur in the outpatient setting, was used as the reference. Most frequent clinically relevant pDDIs, most common drugs contributing to the pDDIs, and the pattern of pDDIs for each medical specialty were determined. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. In total, out of 8,169,142 prescriptions, 6,096 clinically relevant pDDIs were identified. The most common identified pDDIs were theophyllines-quinolones, warfarin-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines-azole antifungal agents, and anticoagulants-thyroid hormones. The most common drugs contributing to the identified pDDIs were ciprofloxacin, theophylline, warfarin, aminophylline, alprazolam, levothyroxine, and selegiline. While the incidence rate of clinically relevant pDDIs in prescriptions of general practitioners, internists, and cardiologists was the highest, the average pDDI incidence per 10,000 prescriptions of pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, and cardiologists was highest. Although a small proportion of the analyzed prescriptions contained drug pairs with potential for clinically relevant DDIs, a significant number of outpatients have been exposed to the adverse effects associated with these interactions. It is recommended that in addition to training physicians and pharmacists, other effective interventions such as computerized alerting systems and electronic prescribing systems be designed and implemented.

  17. Relevance of Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) on a worldwide scale to assess soil vulnerability to 137Cs contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebroek, L.; Hees, Van M.; Delvaux, B.; Spaargaren, O.; Thiry, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The extent of radiocaesium retention in soil is important to quantify the risk of further foodchain contamination. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP – Cremers et al., 1988, Nature 335, 247–249) is an intrinsic soil parameter which can be used to categorize soils or minerals in terms of

  18. Polycomb repressive complex 2 regulates MiR-200b in retinal endothelial cells: potential relevance in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Anthony Ruiz

    Full Text Available Glucose-induced augmented vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF production is a key event in diabetic retinopathy. We have previously demonstrated that downregulation of miR-200b increases VEGF, mediating structural and functional changes in the retina in diabetes. However, mechanisms regulating miR-200b in diabetes are not known. Histone methyltransferase complex, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2, has been shown to repress miRNAs in neoplastic process. We hypothesized that, in diabetes, PRC2 represses miR-200b through its histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation mark. We show that human retinal microvascular endothelial cells exposed to high levels of glucose regulate miR-200b repression through histone methylation and that inhibition of PRC2 increases miR-200b while reducing VEGF. Furthermore, retinal tissue from animal models of diabetes showed increased expression of major PRC2 components, demonstrating in vivo relevance. This research established a repressive relationship between PRC2 and miR-200b, providing evidence of a novel mechanism of miRNA regulation through histone methylation.

  19. Vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: A case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, M.H. Van; Reijnen, C.; Boll, D.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Piek, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are limited cases in literature of patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vulva with neuroendocrine differentiation have. With this new case, we aim to provide an overview of the existing literature and present a tool with relevant markers for the pathologist in the

  20. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had the highest anti-hyperglycemia relevant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with no effect on alpha-amylase. Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibited significantly the hypertension relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). All evaluated pepper (Capsicum) genus exhibited both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential. Major phenolic compounds in Matico (Piper angustifolium R.), Guascas (Galinsoga parviflora) and Huacatay were chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Therefore, specific medicinal plants, herbs and spices from Latin America have potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with Type 2 diabetes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hearing loss as an unusual consequence of metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CE Owers

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A sixty-one year old man was referred with a history of progressive dysphagia, vomiting and weight loss with some back pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies revealed a gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Despite the absence of metastatic disease on computed tomography, positron emission tomography demonstrated multiple vertebral and sternal deposits. He was reviewed in an ENT clinic with a sudden onset of hearing loss accompanied by dizziness, but no focal neurology. Magnetic resonance imaging identified bilateral 2cm lesions at the internal auditory meatus, consistent with a diagnosis of bilateral acoustic neuromas. The patient subsequently died of carcinomatosis and, because of the potential familial significance of bilateral acoustic neuromas, a limited post-mortem examination was carried out. Unexpectedly, this revealed bilateral adenocarcinoma metastases infiltrating the internal auditory meatus affecting the acoustic nerves. The authors believe this a very rare presentation of metastatic gastric disease.

  2. Microscopic optical model potential based on a Dirac Brueckner Hartree Fock approach and the relevant uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruirui; Ma, Zhongyu; Muether, Herbert; van Dalen, E. N. E.; Liu, Tinjin; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Zhi; Tian, Yuan

    2017-09-01

    A relativistic microscopic optical model potential, named CTOM, for nucleon-nucleus scattering is investigated in the framework of Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. The microscopic feature of CTOM is guaranteed through rigorously adopting the isospin dependent DBHF calculation within the subtracted T matrix scheme. In order to verify its prediction power, a global study n, p+ A scattering are carried out. The predicted scattering observables coincide with experimental data within a good accuracy over a broad range of targets and a large region of energies only with two free items, namely the free-range factor t in the applied improved local density approximation and minor adjustments of the scalar and vector potentials in the low-density region. In addition, to estimate the uncertainty of the theoretical results, the deterministic simple least square approach is preliminarily employed to derive the covariance of predicted angular distributions, which is also briefly contained in this paper.

  3. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children’s potential exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulve, Nicolle S.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Vance, Marina E.; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children’s potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 μg Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children’s potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs. PMID:25747543

  4. Selecting Tumor-Specific Molecular Targets in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Paving the Way for Image-Guided Pancreatic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, Susanna W L; Boogerd, Leonora S F; Swijnenburg, Rutger-Jan; Mieog, J Sven D; Tummers, Willemieke S F J; Prevoo, Hendrica A J M; Sier, Cornelis F M; Morreau, Hans; Bonsing, Bert A; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify suitable molecular targets for tumor-specific imaging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The expression of eight potential imaging targets was assessed by the target selection criteria (TASC)-score and immunohistochemical analysis in normal pancreatic tissue (n = 9), pancreatic (n = 137), and periampullary (n = 28) adenocarcinoma. Integrin α v β 6 , carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) showed a significantly higher (all p < 0.001) expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared to normal pancreatic tissue and were confirmed by the TASC score as promising imaging targets. Furthermore, these biomarkers were expressed in respectively 88 %, 71 %, 69 %, and 67 % of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. The results of this study show that integrin α v β 6 , CEA, EGFR, and uPAR are suitable targets for tumor-specific imaging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  5. Potentiality of Yeasts in the Direct Conversion of Starchy Materials to Ethanol and Its Relevance in the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L. V. A.; Reddy, O. V. S.; Basappa, S. C.

    In recent years, the use of renewable and abundantly available starchy and cellulosic materials for industrial production of ethanol is gaining importance, in view of the fact, that ethanol is one of the most prospective future motor fuels, that can be expected to replace fossil fuels, which are fast depleting in the world scenario. Although, the starch and the starchy substrates could be converted successfully to ethanol on industrial scales by the use of commercial amylolytic enzymes and yeast fermentation, the cost of production is rather very high. This is mainly due to the non-enzymatic and enzymatic conversion (gelatinization, liquefaction and saccharification) of starch to sugars, which costs around 20 % of the cost of production of ethanol from starch. In this context, the use of amylolytic yeasts, that can directly convert starch to ethanol by a single step, are potentially suited to reduce the cost of production of ethanol from starch. Research advances made in this direction have shown encouraging results, both in terms of identifying the potentially suited yeasts for the purpose and also their economic ethanol yields. This chapter focuses on the types of starch and starchy substrates and their digestion to fermentable sugars, optimization of fermentation conditions to ethanol from starch, factors that affect starch fermentation, potential amylolytic yeasts which can directly convert starch to ethanol, genetic improvement of these yeasts for better conversion efficiency and their future economic prospects in the new millennium.

  6. Potentially toxic contamination of sediments, water and two animal species in Lake Kalimanci, FYR Macedonia: Relevance to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovnik, Petra; Arrebola, Juan P.; Serafimovski, Todor; Dolenec, Tadej; Šmuc, Nastja Rogan; Dolenec, Matej; Mutch, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the research were: (1) to examine the concentrations of metals in Vimba melanops and Rana temporaria and (2) to evaluate the potential risks of the contaminated organisms to human health in Makedonska Kamenica region. Analyses identified high levels of Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in studied animals, which also exceeded their permissible levels in food. In sediment and soil samples, levels of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and As were perceived, while Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and As were increased in water samples. Results of transfer factor revealed that the examined animals had higher bioaccumulation rate from surrounding waters than from sediments or soils. The accomplished Health Risk Index disclosed that studied animals can have considerably high health risks for inhabitants. Conclusively, they could be considered as highly contaminated with metals and can consequently harm human health, especially children in their early development stages. -- Highlights: •The study merges the accumulation of PTE in animal species, sediments, soils and water. •Correlation between different media and their impact to living organisms'. •Considerably high health risks for inhabitants. -- In the Makedonska Kamenica region had been described several potential sources of exposure therefore exists the potential threat to human health

  7. Fasciola hepatica mucin-encoding gene: expression, variability and its potential relevance in host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, Martín; Santos, Guilherme B; Carmona, Carlos; Ferreira, Henrique B; Tort, José Francisco; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2015-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a zoonosis with significant impact both in human and animal health. Understanding the basic processes of parasite biology, especially those related to interactions with its host, will contribute to control F. hepatica infections and hence liver pathology. Mucins have been described as important mediators for parasite establishment within its host, due to their key roles in immune evasion. In F. hepatica, mucin expression is upregulated in the mammalian invasive newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) stage in comparison with the adult stage. Here, we performed sequencing of mucin cDNAs prepared from NEJ RNA, resulting in six different cDNAs clusters. The differences are due to the presence of a tandem repeated sequence of 66 bp encoded by different exons. Two groups of apomucins one with three and the other with four repeats, with 459 and 393 bp respectively, were identified. These cDNAs have open reading frames encoding Ser-Thr enriched proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide, characteristic of apomucin backbone. We cloned a 4470 bp gene comprising eight exons and seven introns that encodes all the cDNA variants identified in NEJs. By real time polymerase chain reaction and high-resolution melting approaches of individual flukes we infer that fhemuc-1 is a single-copy gene, with at least two different alleles. Our data suggest that both gene polymorphism and alternative splicing might account for apomucin variability in the fhemuc-1 gene that is upregulated in NEJ invasive stage. The relevance of this variation in host-parasite interplay is discussed.

  8. The Soil Microbiota Harbors a Diversity of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamases of Potential Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Amos, Greg; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Brandt, Kristian K; Poirel, Laurent; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Westh, Henrik; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The origin of carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) acquired by clinical bacteria is largely unknown. We investigated the frequency, host range, diversity, and functionality of MBLs in the soil microbiota. Twenty-five soil samples of different types and geographical origins were analyzed by antimicrobial selective culture, followed by phenotypic testing and expression of MBL-encoding genes in Escherichia coli, and whole-genome sequencing of MBL-producing strains was performed. Carbapenemase activity was detected in 29 bacterial isolates from 13 soil samples, leading to identification of seven new MBLs in presumptive Pedobacter roseus (PEDO-1), Pedobacter borealis (PEDO-2), Pedobacter kyungheensis (PEDO-3), Chryseobacterium piscium (CPS-1), Epilithonimonas tenax (ESP-1), Massilia oculi (MSI-1), and Sphingomonas sp. (SPG-1). Carbapenemase production was likely an intrinsic feature in Chryseobacterium and Epilithonimonas, as it occurred in reference strains of different species within these genera. The amino acid identity to MBLs described in clinical bacteria ranged between 40 and 69%. Remarkable features of the new MBLs included prophage integration of the encoding gene (PEDO-1), an unusual amino acid residue at a key position for MBL structure and catalysis (CPS-1), and overlap with a putative OXA β-lactamase (MSI-1). Heterologous expression of PEDO-1, CPS-1, and ESP-1in E. coli significantly increased the MICs of ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, cefoxitin, and meropenem. Our study shows that MBL producers are widespread in soil and include four genera that were previously not known to produce MBLs. The MBLs produced by these bacteria are distantly related to MBLs identified in clinical samples but constitute resistance determinants of clinical relevance if acquired by pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Relevance of Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) on a worldwide scale to assess soil vulnerability to 137Cs contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandebroek, Louis; Van Hees, May; Delvaux, Bruno; Spaargaren, Otto; Thiry, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The extent of radiocaesium retention in soil is important to quantify the risk of further foodchain contamination. The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP –, Nature 335, 247–249) is an intrinsic soil parameter which can be used to categorize soils or minerals in terms of their capacity to selectively adsorb radiocaesium. In this study, we measured RIP for a large soil collection (88 soil samples) representative of major FAO soil reference groups on a worldwide scale and tested the possibility to predict the RIP on the basis of other easily accessible or measurable soil data. We also compared RIP values with those obtained from separate chemical extraction experiments. The range of measured RIP values (1.8–13300 mmol kg −1 ) was shown to include nearly all possible cases of agricultural soil contamination. Only Podzols, Andosols and Ferralsols were clearly characterized by a very low RIP ( −1 ). On a worldwide scale, RIP was in fact slightly related to soil reference type or other simple major physicochemical parameters such as clay percentage or organic matter. Conversely our results indicated a link between the RIP and radiocaesium extractability across very different soils. We showed that, with the proposed scale of RIP values, a simple acid extraction method can provide an operational result highly predictive of potential RIP despite very contrasting soil properties. The RIP could be estimated from the empirical equation: RIP = (−31.701 ∗ log(AER) + 58.886) 2 where AER is the fraction of acid-extractable radiocaesium. - Highlights: ► The Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) is an intrinsic soil parameter. ► We measured RIP of 88 different soils representative of major FAO reference groups. ► The range of RIP (1.8–13 343 μmol g −1 ) extended over four orders of magnitude. ► Nearly all possible cases of agricultural soils contamination were represented. ► A simple acid extraction method could be used to predict potential RIP.

  10. Hepatic SRC-1 Activity Orchestrates Transcriptional Circuitries of Amino Acid Pathways with Potential Relevance for Human Metabolic Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannour-Louet, Mounia; York, Brian; Tang, Ke; Stashi, Erin; Bouguerra, Hichem; Zhou, Suoling; Yu, Hui; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Stevens, Robert D.; Xu, Jianming; Newgard, Christopher B.; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances in amino acid metabolism are increasingly recognized as being associated with, and serving as prognostic markers for chronic human diseases, such as cancer or type 2 diabetes. In the current study, a quantitative metabolomics profiling strategy revealed global impairment in amino acid metabolism in mice deleted for the transcriptional coactivator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1. Aberrations were hepatic in origin, because selective reexpression of SRC-1 in the liver of SRC-1 null mice largely restored amino acids concentrations to normal levels. Cistromic analysis of SRC-1 binding sites in hepatic tissues confirmed a prominent influence of this coregulator on transcriptional programs regulating amino acid metabolism. More specifically, SRC-1 markedly impacted tyrosine levels and was found to regulate the transcriptional activity of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of tyrosine catabolism. Consequently, SRC-1 null mice displayed low TAT expression and presented with hypertyrosinemia and corneal alterations, 2 clinical features observed in the human syndrome of TAT deficiency. A heterozygous missense variant of SRC-1 (p.P1272S) that is known to alter its coactivation potential, was found in patients harboring idiopathic tyrosinemia-like disorders and may therefore represent one risk factor for their clinical symptoms. Hence, we reinforce the concept that SRC-1 is a central factor in the fine orchestration of multiple pathways of intermediary metabolism, suggesting it as a potential therapeutic target that may be exploitable in human metabolic diseases and cancer. PMID:25148457

  11. A systems biology approach to identify intelligence quotient score-related genomic regions, and pathways relevant to potential therapeutic treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Kong, Lei; Qu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Although the intelligence quotient (IQ) is the most popular intelligence test in the world, little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the differences in human. To improve our understanding of cognitive processes and identify potential biomarkers, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of 158 IQ-related genes selected from the literature. A genomic distribution analysis demonstrated that IQ-related genes were enriched in seven regions of chromosome 7 and the X chromosome. In addition, these genes were enriched in target lists of seven transcription factors and sixteen microRNAs. Using a network-based approach, we further reconstructed an IQ-related pathway from known human pathway interaction data. Based on this reconstructed pathway, we incorporated enriched drugs and described the importance of dopamine and norepinephrine systems in IQ-related biological process. These findings not only reveal several testable genes and processes related to IQ scores, but also have potential therapeutic implications for IQ-related mental disorders. PMID:24566931

  12. Algenpantucel-L immunotherapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveler, Andrew L; Rossi, Gabriela R; Vahanian, Nicholas N; Link, Charles; Chiorean, E Gabriela

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the 4th leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the EU. A minority of patients presents with surgically resectable and potentially curable disease, but among these, 80% are destined to relapse and overall survival rates with adjuvant chemotherapy average 24 months. Immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic option and a potential paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer, and may be particularly effective when used early in the disease course to prevent metastatic spread. Algenpantucel-L (HyperAcute Pancreas, NewLink Genetics, Ames, IA, USA) is a whole-cell immunotherapy consisting of irradiated allogeneic pancreatic cancer cells genetically engineered to express the murine enzyme α-GT, which results in hyperacute rejection of the tumor cells with complement- and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Phase II clinical trial data has been encouraging, particularly for patients who demonstrated humoral immunologic responses. Here, we report preliminary results and biomarkers correlations with clinical activity of algenpantucel-L in pancreatic cancer.

  13. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS—THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J.; Jachowicz, N.

    2013-01-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  14. Rare coexistence of sarcoidosis and lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Girish Kachalia

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: While evidence is still lacking regarding association between sarcoidosis and lung adenocarcinoma, it is important for clinicians to exclude metastatic malignancy in patients exhibiting clinical and radiographic findings consistent with sarcoidosis.

  15. Is the concept of the non-Hermitian effective Hamiltonian relevant in the case of potential scattering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, Dmitry V.; Sokolov, Valentin V.; Sommers, Hans-Juergen

    2003-01-01

    We examine the notion and properties of the non-Hermitian effective Hamiltonian of an unstable system using as an example potential resonance scattering with a fixed angular momentum. We present a consistent self-adjoint formulation of the problem of scattering on a finite-range potential, which is based on the separation of the configuration space into two segments, internal and external. The scattering amplitude is expressed in terms of the resolvent of a non-Hermitian operator H. The explicit form of this operator depends on both the radius of separation and the boundary conditions at this place, which can be chosen in many different ways. We discuss this freedom and show explicitly that the physical scattering amplitude is, nevertheless, unique, although not all choices are equally adequate from the physical point of view. The energy-dependent operator H should not be confused with the non-Hermitian effective Hamiltonian H eff which is usually exploited to describe interference of overlapping resonances. We note that the simple Breit-Wigner approximation is as a rule valid for any individual resonance in the case of few-channel scattering on a flat billiardlike cavity, leaving no room for nontrivial H eff to appear. The physics is appreciably richer in the case of an open chain of L connected similar cavities whose spectrum has a band structure. For a fixed band of L overlapping resonances, the smooth energy dependence of H can be ignored so that the constant LxL submatrix H eff approximately describes the time evolution of the chain in the energy domain of the band and the complex eigenvalues of H eff define the energies and widths of the resonances. We apply the developed formalism to the problem of a chain of L δ barriers, whose solution is also found independently in a closed form. We construct H eff for the two commonly considered types of boundary conditions (Neumann and Dirichlet) for the internal motion. Although the final results are in perfect

  16. Intestinal adenocarcinoma in an augmented ileocystoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Filipe Alpoim; Rolim, Nidia; Rodrigues, Tiago; Canhoto, Artur

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 67-year-old patient with a history of augmentation ileocystoplasty 31 years ago following genitourinary tuberculosis. Radiological investigations performed due to asymptomatic microscopic haematuria revealed three contrast-enhancing polyps within the neobladder. The patient had enterocystoprostatectomy and histopathological examination of the neobladder revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma in all three polyps, together with a prostatic adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 (3+4). After ...

  17. Dioxins and related compounds in Vietnamese, Vietnamese food and the environment. Potential relevance of hot spots from recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepke, O. [ERGO Research, Hamburg (Germany); Quynh, Hoang Trong [Institute for Oncology, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Schecter, A. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas Regional Campus, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide mixture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was sprayed for reasons of defoliation in large amounts on about 10 % of southern Vietnam during the Vietnam war between 1962-1971. 2,4,5-T was contaminated with the highly toxic and persistent 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the low ppm-range (mg/kg). In samples collected between 1970 and 1973 Baughman et al., 1973 documented elevated levels of TCDD from Agent Orange in milk samples from southern Vietnamese woman as well as in fish and shrimp samples from sprayed areas in this region. Studies have documented the intake of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from Agent Orange in Vietnamese and in among US war veterans. This paper gives an overview on recent findings for PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs and in various environmental compartments, in humans and in food. Due to the fact that 2,3,7,8-TCDD is the major dioxin congener in 2,4,5-T, many investigators focused mainly on TCDD. We found from our own investigations, that TCDD in case of dioxin contamination is still the predominant dioxin congener, but in certain instances we also found other elevated congeners as well. In some cases mixed chemical contamination of food or humans was found - originating from Agent Orange and other sources. The paper will explain the potential origin of some of the other contaminations found.

  18. Survivin Expression in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Using Tissue Micro array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Hamed, A.

    2005-01-01

    The additional prognostic information closely related to tumor cell biology is essential for the identification of patients with poor prognosis. Survivin, an identified inhibitor of apoptosis, is unique for its expression in human malignancies but not in normal adult cells. This study examined the expression, and potential prognostic value of survivin in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) on tissue micro array (TMA) sections. Analysis of large numbers of tissue samples, improved tissue salvage, cost reduction, ease of interpretation, and significant time saving were realized by using the arrays. Material and Methods: Two-hundred and eighty cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma were arrayed. Immunohistochemical stains of TMA sections were performed for survivin, bcl-2, and p53. Cases were followed up for 5 years. Survivin was detected in 147 of 230 cases (63.9%). No expression of survivin was observed in normal tissues. There was no correlation between survivin immunoreactivity and age, sex, tumor site, tumor size, histopathologic subtype, tumor grade and clinical stage(ρ> 0.05). Prevalence of survivin expression was significantly higher in bcl-2 positive than in bcl-2 negative cases (88.1 % versus 42.1 %, (ρ<0.0001), but was not associated with p53 ((ρ=0.09). The 5-year disease free survival (DFS) for patients with survivin positive colorectal adenocarcinoma was significantly lower than that for patients with survivin negative tumors (46% versus 68.7%, (ρ<0.001). Survivin expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma provides an important prognostic parameter and targeted antagonists of survivin may be beneficial as apoptosis-based therapy for colon cancer

  19. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  20. Predictive biomarkers for the treatment of resectable esophageal and esophago-gastric junction adenocarcinoma: from hypothesis generation to clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Geny; Carbone, Carmine; Santoro, Raffaela; Tortora, Giampaolo; Melisi, Davide

    2018-03-16

    Introduction Esophageal and esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinomas remain a major health problem worldwide with a worryingly increasing incidence. Recent trials indicate survivals benefit for preoperative or perioperative chemoradiotherapy compared to surgery alone. Beside standard chemoradiotherapy regimens, new therapeutic approaches with targeted therapies have been proposed for the treatment of resectable disease. However, clinical outcomes remain extremely poor due to drug resistance phenomena. The failure of these approaches could be partially ascribed to their incorrect application in patients. Therefore, the identification of strong biomarkers for optimal patient management is urgently needed. Areas covered This review aims to summarize and critically discuss the most relevant findings regarding predictive biomarker development for neoadjuvant treatment of resectable esophageal and esophago-gastric junction adenocarcinoma patients. Expert commentary Optimizing the currently available therapeutic modalities through a more accurate selection of patients may avoid the use of ineffective and potentially toxic treatments. During the last decade, the advent of high-throughput "-omics" technologies has set the basis for a new biomarker discovery approach from "molecule by molecule" screening towards a large-scale systematic screening process with exponential increases in putative biomarkers, which often failed to provide adequate clinical validation.

  1. Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids and adenocarcinomas ex-goblet cell carcinoid are genetically distinct from primary colorectal-type adenocarcinoma of the appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesinghaus, Moritz; Konukiewitz, Björn; Foersch, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    The appendix gives rise to goblet cell carcinoids, which represent special carcinomas with distinct biological and histological features. Their genetic background and molecular relationship to colorectal adenocarcinoma is largely unknown. We therefore performed a next-generation sequencing analysis...... a morphomolecular entity, histologically and genetically distinct from appendiceal colorectal-type adenocarcinomas and its colorectal counterparts. Altered Wnt-signaling associated genes, apart from APC, may act as potential drivers of these neoplasms. The absence of KRAS/NRAS mutations might render some...... of these tumors eligible for anti-EGFR directed therapy regimens.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 12 January 2018; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.184....

  2. Biomarkers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swords DS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas S Swords, Matthew A Firpo, Courtney L Scaife, Sean J Mulvihill Department of Surgery, University of Utah Health Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 7.7%. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage not amenable to potentially curative resection. A substantial portion of this review is dedicated to reviewing the current literature on carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9, which is currently the only guideline-recommended biomarker for PDAC. It provides valuable prognostic information, can predict resectability, and is useful in decision making about neoadjuvant therapy. We also discuss carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CA 125, serum biomarker panels, circulating tumor cells, and cell-free nucleic acids. Although many biomarkers have now been studied in relation to PDAC, significant work still needs to be done to validate their usefulness in the early detection of PDAC and management of patients with PDAC. Keywords: pancreatic cancer, biomarkers, screening, CA 19-9, CEA

  3. Chemoradiation for adenocarcinoma of the anus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagikos, Michael; Crane, Christopher H.; Skibber, John; Janjan, Nora A.; Feig, Barry; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Hung, Arthur; Wolff, Robert A.; Delclos, Marc; Lin, Edward; Cleary, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and limitations of definitive chemoradiation for adenocarcinoma of the anal canal and to propose a treatment strategy that addresses the limitations of treatment. Methods and Materials: Between 1976 and 1998, 16 patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the anal canal were treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy with curative intent. Available histologic slides were reviewed for evidence of primary adenocarcinoma of anal duct origin. The treatment results for these patients were compared with those of a group of patients with epidermoid histologic features who were all treated with definitive chemoradiation (55 Gy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, n=92) between 1989 and 1998. The hospital records were reviewed for all patients. Patients with epidermoid carcinoma presented with more advanced primary tumors (42% vs. 19% Stage T3 or greater). All adenocarcinoma patients were treated with radiotherapy (median dose 55 Gy): 11 received concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy and 5 received radiotherapy alone. The initial surgical procedures included abdominoperineal resection, excisional biopsies (n=5), and local excision (n=1). Abdominoperineal resection was performed as salvage therapy after local recurrence in 5 patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate 5-year actuarial pelvic control, distant disease control, disease-free survival, and overall survival. The median follow-up was 45 months (range 5-196) for patients with adenocarcinoma and 44 months (range 9-115) for patients with epidermoid histologic features. Results: Both local and distant recurrence rates were significantly greater in the adenocarcinoma patients. Of 16 patients with adenocarcinoma, 7 (5-year actuarial rate 54%) had recurrence at the primary site compared with 16 (5-year actuarial rate 18%) of 92 patients with epidermoid histologic features (p=0.004). Distant disease developed in more patients with adenocarcinoma (5-year

  4. Adenocarcinoma pulmonar em um bovino Pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Marco Viott

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Um bovino Guzerá, fêmea, adulto, com histórico de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva direita de duração de duas semanas, morreu durante o transporte ao hospital veterinário. À necropsia, o lobo pulmonar cranial esquerdo estava moderadamente aumentado de tamanho e firme. O parênquima do lobo afetado era branco e continha múltiplas áreas de 0,3 a 1,5cm de diâmetro, amareladas e caseosas. Alterações semelhantes foram observadas nos linfonodos mediastínicos e brônquicos, no pericárdio parietal, no epicárdio e na adventícia da artéria pulmonar. Histologicamente, a massa tecidual do lobo pulmonar era constituída por células epiteliais neoplásicas de padrão acinar, com duas ou mais camadas celulares, algumas com projeções papilares intraluminais. A anisocariose era acentuada, e o índice mitótico, moderado (dois a três por campo de maior aumento. Envolvendo as neoformações, observava-se abundante tecido conjuntivo fibroso. Focos de necrose e mineralização eram multifocais moderados. Alterações histológicas semelhantes foram observadas nos linfonodos brônquicos, nos mediastínicos, nos pericárdios visceral e parietal e na adventícia da artéria pulmonar. Com exceção do fígado com congestão generalizada crônica, não foram observadas alterações macro e microscópicas em outros órgãos. Os achados histológicos foram compatíveis com adenocarcinoma pulmonar, com metástases regionais. O quadro de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva direita provavelmente foi decorrente do impedimento da drenagem linfática pelas metástases.An adult Guzera cow, dysplaying for two weeks signs of right-sided congestive heart failure died during the transport to the veterinary hospital. At necropsy, the left cranial lung lobe was moderately increased in volume and firm. The parenchyma of the affected lung lobe was white and contained multiple 0.3 to 1.5cm in diameter, yellow, dry, friable nodules. Similar changes were observed in

  5. Nuclear expression of claudin-3 in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhara, Yasunori; Morinishi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Toru; Sakai, Manabu; Sakai, Takayoshi; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji; Hirakawa, Eiichiro

    2018-01-01

    Claudins are members of a large family of transmembrane proteins, which are essential for the formation of tight junctions and have a significant effect on the biological behavior of tumor progression. Previous studies have demonstrated that several claudins show aberrant expression patterns in numerous types of cancer. The present study investigated the expression and localization of claudin-3 and claudin-7 in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines and tissues. The protein expression levels of claudin-3 and claudin-7 were determined using immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical staining. Claudin-3, but not claudin-7, exhibited nuclear localization in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 and SW620 cell lines. Surgically resected colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue specimens were obtained, and the associations between the expression of claudin-3 or claudin-7 and various clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. The membranous expression rates of claudin-3 and claudin-7 were 58.0 and 50.0%, while their nuclear expression rates were 22.0 and 2.0%, respectively. The membranous expression of claudin-3 and claudin-7 was not associated with any clinicopathological factors, whereas the nuclear expression of claudin-3 was associated with histological type and was significantly increased in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinomas compared with that in well- to moderately-differentiated colorectal adenocarcinomas (P<0.01). However, no associations were observed between the nuclear expression of claudin-7 and any clinicopathological parameter. In conclusion, the nuclear expression of claudin-3 in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma may be involved in the biological transformation of tumors. The results from the present study indicated that claudin-3 is an important protein associated with histological type and has potential as a prognostic marker. Although the mechanisms underlying the nuclear localization of claudin-3 in tumorigenesis have not yet been elucidated in

  6. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alén, Begoña O; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-02-02

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer.

  7. EGFR Mutation Status in Uighur Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SHAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, a transmembrane protein, is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. Gefitinib, an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, has shown a high response rate in the treatment of lung cancer in patients with EGFR mutation. However, significant differences in EGFR mutations exist among different ethnic groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of EGFR mutations in Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients by using a rapid and sensitive detection method and to analyze EGFR mutation differences compared with Han lung adenocarcinoma patients. Methods We examined lung adenocarcinoma tissues from 138 patients, including 68 Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients and 70 Han lung adenocarcinoma patients, for EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 by using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR method. The mutation differences between Uighur and Han lung adenocarcinoma were compared by using the chi-square test method. Results EGFR mutations were detected in 43 (31.2% of the 138 lung adenocarcinoma patients. EGFR mutations were detected in 11 (16.2% of the 68 Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients and in 32 (45.7% of the 70 Han lung adenocarcinoma patients. Significant differences were observed in the EGFR mutations between Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients and Han lung adenocarcinoma patients (P<0.001. Conclusion Our results indicate that the EGFR mutation in Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients (16.2% is significantly lower than that in Han lung adenocarcinoma patients (45.7%.

  8. A Critical Investigation of the Relevance and Potential of IDPS as a Local Governance Instrument for Pursuing Social Justice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Njuh Fuo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the situation in the past, when local government’s role was limited to service delivery, local government is now constitutionally mandated to play an expanded developmental role. As a “co-responsible” sphere of government, local government is obliged to contribute towards realising the transformative constitutional mandate aimed at social justice. South African scholars and jurists share the view that social justice is primarily concerned with the eradication of poverty and extreme inequalities in access to basic services, and aims to ensure that poor people command sufficient material resources to facilitate their equal participation in socio-political life. In order to enable municipalities to fulfil their broad constitutional mandate, the system of integrated development planning (IDPs came into effect in South Africa in 2000. Each municipality is obliged to design, adopt and implement an integrated development plan in order to achieve its expanded constitutional mandate. The IDP is considered to be the chief legally prescribed governance instrument for South African municipalities. The purpose of this article is to explore and critically investigate the relevance and potential of IDPs in contributing towards the achievement of social justice in South Africa. This article argues inter alia that the multitude of sectors that converge in an IDP makes it directly relevant and gives it enormous potential to contribute towards social justice because, depending on the context, municipalities could include and implement strategies that specifically respond to diverse areas of human need. In this regard, the legal and policy frameworks for IDPs provide a structured scheme that could be used by municipalities to prioritise and meet the basic needs of especially the poor. Despite its potential, it is argued that the ability of IDPs to respond to the basic needs of the poor is largely constrained by a series of implementation challenges

  9. Expression and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu NQ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naiqing Liu,1,2,* Jingyu Zhang,2,* Shuxiang Sun,2 Liguang Yang,2 Zhongjin Zhou,2 Qinli Sun,2 Jun Niu11Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of General Surgery, Yishui Central Hospital, Linyi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1 has been revealed in several cancers, including ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. However, the clinical significance of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma has not been explored.Patients and methods: In our experiments, we systematically evaluated FGF1 expression in 178 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma with immunohistochemistry, and subsequently analyzed the correlation between FGF1 expression and clinicopathologic features. Moreover, FGF1 expression in tumor tissue and corresponding adjacent tissue was detected and compared by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox-regression model were used with univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively, to evaluate the prognostic value of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma.Results: Higher FGF1 expression rate is 56.7% (101/178 in gastric adenocarcinoma. FGF1 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than adjacent tissue (P<0.0001. Expression of FGF1 is significantly associated with lymph node invasion (P<0.001, distant metastasis (P=0.013, and differentiation (P=0.015. Moreover, FGF1 overexpression was closely related to unfavorable overall survival rate (P=0.021, and can be identified to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P=0.004.Conclusion: FGF1 is an independent prognostic factor, indicating that FGF1 could be a potential molecular drug target in gastric adenocarcinoma.Keywords: fibroblast growth factor 1, gastric adenocarcinoma, prognosis, biomarker, lymph node, gene fusion

  10. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and Barrett's esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, P; Christensen, P B; Damkier, P

    1999-01-01

    . METHODS: Rates of esophageal and gastric cancers were collected from the Danish Cancer registry for the period 1970-1991. The registry was used to identify all cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the period 1987-1992. Medical records were retrieved and details concerning previous diagnosis of reflux...... often by endoscopy. A previous diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus was found in only 1.3% of the cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Denmark has increased eightfold over a 20-yr period, and this increase is not explained by changes in classification or diagnostic routines....... More than 98% of esophageal adenocarcinomas were found in patients who could not have entered endoscopic surveillance, as Barrett's esophagus had not been diagnosed before the cancer diagnosis. Endoscopic surveillance to detect dysplasia may be an option for the individual patient with Barrett...

  11. CERUMINOUS ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Yadav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceruminous adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignant tumour arising from apocrine ceruminous glands of the external auditory canal. Histologically, ceruminous adenocarcinomas are similar to adenocarcinomas elsewhere, except that the glandular luminal tumour cells show apical snouts or blebs indicating an apocrine origin. Central comedo necrosis and stromal invasion helps differentiate these tumours from benign ceruminous adenomas. It may be difficult to differentiate ceruminous adenocarcinomas from other adenocarcinomas occurring in the external auditory canal and from benign ceruminous adenoma if small samples are submitted for histopathological examination. We report on a case of ceruminous adenocarcinoma in a 70- year-old male who presented with an infiltrating growth involving his left external auditory canal along with longstanding painless ear discharge. Incisional biopsy was suggestive of adenocarcinoma; however, postoperative histopathological examination confirmed the tumour to be ceruminous adenocarcinoma.

  12. Multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Ricardo Hoelz de Oliveira; Penachim, Thiago Jose; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Caserta, Nelson Marcio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative investigation of tumor invasion depth and lymph node and metastatic involvement according to the TNM classification, in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with biopsy-confirmed gastric cancer underwent preoperative staging with 64-channel multidetector computed tomography. Two independent radiologists analyzed the images and classified the findings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and overall accuracy were calculated for each observer. The interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Results: The accuracy in the classification of categories T ranged from 74% to 96% for observer 1 and from 80% to 92% for observer 2. The overall accuracy was 70% for both observers. The weighted kappa index was 0.75, consistent with a significant interobserver agreement. The accuracy in the classification of lymph node involvement (category N) ranged from 55% to 79% for observer 1 and from 73% to 82% for observer 2. The evaluation of metastatic involvement showed an overall accuracy of 89.6% for both observers. Conclusion: 64-channel multidetector computed tomography demonstrated clinically relevant accuracy in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma as regards invasion depth (T category) and metastatic involvement (M category). (author)

  13. Multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hoelz de Oliveira Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative investigation of tumor invasion depth and lymph node and metastatic involvement according to the TNM classification, in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with biopsy-confirmed gastric cancer underwent preoperative staging with 64-channel multidetector computed tomography. Two independent radiologists analyzed the images and classified the findings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and overall accuracy were calculated for each observer. The interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Results: The accuracy in the classification of categories T ranged from 74% to 96% for observer 1 and from 80% to 92% for observer 2. The overall accuracy was 70% for both observers. The weighted kappa index was 0.75, consistent with a significant interobserver agreement. The accuracy in the classification of lymph node involvement (category N ranged from 55% to 79% for observer 1 and from 73% to 82% for observer 2. The evaluation of metastatic involvement showed an overall accuracy of 89.6% for both observers. Conclusion: 64-channel multidetector computed tomography demonstrated clinically relevant accuracy in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma as regards invasion depth (T category and metastatic involvement (M category.

  14. Multimodal non-surgical treatment of a feline tracheal adenocarcinoma

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    Carolina Azevedo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old, castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented with a 2–3 month history of weight loss, lethargy and coughing. Thoracic radiographs revealed a soft tissue opacity overlying the dorsal trachea from the first rib to second rib and the ventral aspect of the trachea extending from the second rib to approximately the fourth rib. CT confirmed a mass involving the dorsal, right lateral and ventral aspects of the trachea narrowing the lumen and extending from vertebra C7 through T4. Bronchoscopy revealed a partially circumferential irregular and multilobulated tracheal mass, which was biopsied. The histopathological diagnosis was tracheal adenocarcinoma. The cat was treated with a definitive course of external beam radiation therapy (RT; 3 Gy × 18, cytotoxic chemotherapy, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and palliative RT. The cat remained asymptomatic for 2 months and the mass remained stable radiographically for 11 months after RT. Relevance and novel information With multimodal treatment the cat had a survival time of 755 days. Initial treatment included definitive RT, carboplatin and piroxicam, followed by toceranib phosphate and palliative RT when the mass recurred. This case report describes the first documented use of non-surgical treatment and long-term outcome of tracheal adenocarcinoma in a cat. This case report is an indication that prolonged survival can be achieved with multimodal therapy.

  15. Multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Ricardo Hoelz de Oliveira; Penachim, Thiago Jose; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Caserta, Nelson Marcio Gomes, E-mail: rhobarros@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative investigation of tumor invasion depth and lymph node and metastatic involvement according to the TNM classification, in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with biopsy-confirmed gastric cancer underwent preoperative staging with 64-channel multidetector computed tomography. Two independent radiologists analyzed the images and classified the findings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and overall accuracy were calculated for each observer. The interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Results: The accuracy in the classification of categories T ranged from 74% to 96% for observer 1 and from 80% to 92% for observer 2. The overall accuracy was 70% for both observers. The weighted kappa index was 0.75, consistent with a significant interobserver agreement. The accuracy in the classification of lymph node involvement (category N) ranged from 55% to 79% for observer 1 and from 73% to 82% for observer 2. The evaluation of metastatic involvement showed an overall accuracy of 89.6% for both observers. Conclusion: 64-channel multidetector computed tomography demonstrated clinically relevant accuracy in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma as regards invasion depth (T category) and metastatic involvement (M category). (author)

  16. Generalized Lymphadenopathy: Unusual Presentation of Prostate Adenocarcinoma

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    Bulent Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized lymphadenopathy is a rare manifestation of metastatic prostate cancer. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with supraclavicular, mediastinal, hilar, and retroperitoneal and inguinal lymphadenopathy, which suggested the diagnosis of lymphoma. There were no urinary symptoms. A biopsy of the inguinal lymph node was compatible with adenocarcinoma, whose prostatic origin was shown by immunohistochemical staining with PSA. The origin of the primary tumor was confirmed by directed prostate biopsy. We emphasize that a suspicion of prostate cancer in men with adenocarcinoma of undetermined origin is important for an adequate diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  17. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safae Terrisse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle is a rare condition with only about 60 cases described in the literature. The unusual characteristics of this disease makes diagnosis difficult and treatment strategies differ as there are no specific guidelines available. This report presents a case of adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle with lung metastases in which surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments have been carried out. The MVAC dose dense regimen following local resection seems effective in this scenario and may be used in the treatment of this disease.

  18. Inhibitory effect of Nodal on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma of uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Tian, Tian; Hori, Yumiko; Wada, Naoki; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Morii, Eiichi

    2013-11-01

    Cancers consist of heterogeneous populations. Recently, it has been demonstrated that cells with tumorigenic potential are limited to a small population, called cancer-initiating cells (CICs). Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is one of the markers of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and ALDH1-high population of endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line was more tumorigenic, resistant to anti-cancer drugs, and invasive than ALDH1-low population. Here, the regulatory signaling for ALDH1 was examined. The inhibition of TGF-β signaling increased ALDH1-high population. Among TGF-β family members, Nodal expression and ALDH1 expression levels were mutually exclusive. Immunohistochemical analysis on clinical samples revealed Nodal-high tumor cells to be ALDH-low and vise versa, suggesting that Nodal may inhibit ALDH1 expression via stimulating TGF-β signaling in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma. In fact, the addition of Nodal to endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line reduced ALDH1-high population. Although ALDH1 mRNA level was not affected, the amount of ALDH1 protein appeared to be reduce by Nodal through ubiquitine-proteasome pathway. The regulation of TGF-β signaling might be a novel therapeutic target of CICs in endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Biomarkers in Urachal Cancer and Adenocarcinomas in the Bladder: A Comprehensive Review Supplemented by Own Data

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    Henning Reis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal cancer (UrC is a rare but aggressive cancer. Due to overlapping histomorphology, discrimination of urachal from primary bladder adenocarcinomas (PBAC and adenocarcinomas secondarily involving the bladder (particularly colorectal adenocarcinomas, CRC can be challenging. Therefore, we aimed to give an overview of helpful (immunohistochemical biomarkers and clinicopathological factors in addition to survival analyses and included institutional data from 12 urachal adenocarcinomas. A PubMed search yielded 319 suitable studies since 1930 in the English literature with 1984 cases of UrC including 1834 adenocarcinomas (92% and 150 nonadenocarcinomas (8%. UrC was more common in men (63%, showed a median age at diagnosis of 50.8 years and a median tumor size of 6.0 cm. No associations were noted for overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS and clinicopathological factors beside a favorable PFS in male patients (p=0.047. The immunohistochemical markers found to be potentially helpful in the differential diagnostic situation are AMACR and CK34βE12 (UrC versus CRC and PBAC, CK7, β-Catenin and CD15 (UrC and PBAC versus CRC, and CEA and GATA3 (UrC and CRC versus PBAC. Serum markers like CEA, CA19-9 and CA125 might additionally be useful in the follow-up and monitoring of UrC.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of bortezomib resistant adenocarcinoma cells.

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    Erika Suzuki

    Full Text Available Bortezomib (Velcade™ is a reversible proteasome inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM. Despite its demonstrated clinical success, some patients are deprived of treatment due to primary refractoriness or development of resistance during therapy. To investigate the role of the duration of proteasome inhibition in the anti-tumor response of bortezomib, we established clonal isolates of HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells adapted to continuous exposure of bortezomib. These cells were ~30-fold resistant to bortezomib. Two novel and distinct mutations in the β5 subunit, Cys63Phe, located distal to the binding site in a helix critical for drug binding, and Arg24Cys, found in the propeptide region were found in all resistant clones. The latter mutation is a natural variant found to be elevated in frequency in patients with MM. Proteasome activity and levels of both the constitutive and immunoproteasome were increased in resistant cells, which correlated to an increase in subunit gene expression. These changes correlated with a more rapid recovery of proteasome activity following brief exposure to bortezomib. Increased recovery rate was not due to increased proteasome turnover as similar findings were seen in cells co-treated with cycloheximide. When we exposed resistant cells to the irreversible proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib we noted a slower rate of recovery of proteasome activity as compared to bortezomib in both parental and resistant cells. Importantly, carfilzomib maintained its cytotoxic potential in the bortezomib resistant cell lines. Therefore, resistance to bortezomib, can be overcome with irreversible inhibitors, suggesting prolonged proteasome inhibition induces a more potent anti-tumor response.

  1. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  2. In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Angela; Sala, Filippo; Suter, Andy; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-01-15

    Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence and potential human-health relevance of volatile organic compounds in drinking water from domestic wells in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, B.L.; Toccalino, P.L.; Moran, M.J.; Zogorski, J.S.; Price, C.V.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic wells increase, it is important to examine water quality and contaminant occurrence. A national assessment in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey reported findings for 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on 2,401 domestic wells sampled during 1985-2002. OBJECTIVES: We examined the occurrence of individual and multiple VOCs and assessed the potential human-health relevance of VOC concentrations. We also identified hydrogeologic and anthropogenic variables that influence the probability of VOC occurrence. METHODS: The domestic well samples were collected at the wellhead before treatment of water and analyzed for 55 VOCs. Results were used to examine VOC occurrence and identify associations of multiple explanatory variables using logistic regression analyses. We used a screening-level assessment to compare VOC concentrations to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and health-based screening levels. RESULTS: We detected VOCs in 65% of the samples; about one-half of these samples contained VOC mixtures. Frequently detected VOCs included chloroform, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. VOC concentrations generally were organic synthesis compound). CONCLUSIONS: Drinking water supplied by domestic wells is vulnerable to low-level VOC contamination. About 1% of samples had concentrations of potential human-health concern. Identifying factors associated with VOC occurrence may aid in understanding the sources, transport, and fate of VOCs in groundwater.

  4. Preclinical models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwang, Chang-Il; Boj, Sylvia F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304074799; Clevers, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07164282X; Tuveson, David A

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most difficult human malignancies to treat. The 5-year survival rate of PDA patients is 7% and PDA is predicted to become the second leading cancer-related cause of death in the USA. Despite intensive efforts, the translation of findings in

  5. Urethral adenocarcinoma in a mental deficiency patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sevilla, Cristóbal; Llopis-Manzanera, Juan; Romero-Martín, José Antonio; García-Vidal, Olga

    2014-12-01

    To report the case of a urethral tumour in a patient with mental deficiency. Complete resection of the tumour was performed and the pathologic examination informed the presence of urethral adenocarcinoma. The patient is disease-free twelve months after surgery. Bibliographic review for diagnosis and treatment was performed.

  6. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  7. Primary urachal adenocarcinoma: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. Ziouziou

    only 0.5% of all bladder malignancies, and 20–40% of primary bladder adenocarcinomas [2–4]. Hematuria is the most common presenting symptom in about 90% of patients [5]. The MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) suggested 5 criteria for the diagnosis of urachal cancers. These criteria include a mid- line location of ...

  8. Prevalence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma | Ojuka | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There has been a marked increase of the prevalence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus across the globe, with the risk factors including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's esophagus. It is not known whether the trend is similar locally. Objective: To describe the prevalence and ...

  9. Could recombinant insulin compounds contribute to adenocarcinoma progression by stimulating local angiogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensing, K.L.; Houttuijn Bloemendaal, F.M.; Weijers, E.M.; Richel, D.J.; Büller, H.R.; Koolwijk, P.; van der Loos, C.M.; Twickler, T.B.; von der Thüsen, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Negative effects on the progression of adenocarcinomas by hyperinsulinaemia and the insulin analogue glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin) have recently been suggested. Most actions of this insulin analogue have hitherto been explained by direct stimulation of growth potential of neoplastic

  10. Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moongkarndi, Primchanien; Kosem, Nuttavut; Luanratana, Omboon; Jongsomboonkusol, Suna; Pongpan, Narongchai

    2004-06-01

    Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Extended pancreatectomy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: definition and consensus of the International Study Group for Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartwig, Werner; Vollmer, Charles M.; Fingerhut, Abe; Yeo, Charles J.; Neoptolemos, John P.; Adham, Mustapha; Andrén-Sandberg, Ake; Asbun, Horacio J.; Bassi, Claudio; Bockhorn, Max; Charnley, Richard; Conlon, Kevin C.; Dervenis, Christos; Fernandez-Cruz, Laureano; Friess, Helmut; Gouma, Dirk J.; Imrie, Clem W.; Lillemoe, Keith D.; Milićević, Miroslav N.; Montorsi, Marco; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Vashist, Yogesh K.; Izbicki, Jakob R.; Büchler, Markus W.

    2014-01-01

    Complete macroscopic tumor resection is one of the most relevant predictors of long-term survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Because locally advanced pancreatic tumors can involve adjacent organs, "extended" pancreatectomy that includes the resection of additional organs may be needed to

  12. X chromosome-linked CNVs in male infertility: discovery of overall duplication load and recurrent, patient-specific gains with potential clinical relevance.

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    Chiara Chianese

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving several thousand genes, only a minority of which have been studied in infertile men. In a previous study, we identified a number of Copy Number Variants (CNVs by high-resolution array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH analysis of the X chromosome, including 16 patient-specific X chromosome-linked gains. Of these, five gains (DUP1A, DUP5, DUP20, DUP26 and DUP40 were selected for further analysis to evaluate their clinical significance.The copy number state of the five selected loci was analyzed by quantitative-PCR on a total of 276 idiopathic infertile patients and 327 controls in a conventional case-control setting (199 subjects belonged to the previous a-CGH study. For one interesting locus (intersecting DUP1A additional 338 subjects were analyzed.All gains were confirmed as patient-specific and the difference in duplication load between patients and controls is significant (p = 1.65 × 10(-4. Two of the CNVs are private variants, whereas 3 are found recurrently in patients and none of the controls. These CNVs include, or are in close proximity to, genes with testis-specific expression. DUP1A, mapping to the PAR1, is found at the highest frequency (1.4% that was significantly different from controls (0% (p = 0.047 after Bonferroni correction. Two mechanisms are proposed by which DUP1A may cause spermatogenic failure: i by affecting the correct regulation of a gene with potential role in spermatogenesis; ii by disturbing recombination between PAR1 regions during meiosis. This study allowed the identification of novel spermatogenesis candidate genes linked to the 5 CNVs and the discovery of the first recurrent, X-linked gain with potential clinical relevance.

  13. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor

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    H. R. Tufts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation, together with related oxidative stress, is linked with the etiology of kwashiorkor, a form of severe acute malnutrition in children. A diet rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals may offer potential for the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor. We selected and assayed five leafy green vegetables, two wild fruits, and six medicinal plants from Kenya for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Consensus regarding medicinal plant use was established from ethnobotanical data. Methods. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay and Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro targeting the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Results. Mangifera indica (leaves used medicinally showed the greatest antioxidant activity (5940 ± 632 µM TE/µg and total phenolic content (337 ± 3 mg GAE/g but Amaranthus dubius (leafy vegetable showed the greatest inhibition of TNF-α (IC50 = 9 ± 1 μg/mL, followed by Ocimum americanum (medicinal plant (IC50 = 16 ± 1 μg/mL. Informant consensus was significantly correlated with anti-inflammatory effects among active medicinal plants (r2=0.7639, P=0.0228. Conclusions. Several plant species commonly consumed by Kenyan children possess activity profiles relevant to the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor and warrant further investigation.

  14. SNCA Is a Functionally Low-Expressed Gene in Lung Adenocarcinoma

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    Yuanliang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for the contribution of synuclein alpha (SNCA to the etiology of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, little is known about the detailed role of SNCA in human cancers, especially lung cancers. Here, we evaluated the effects of SNCA on the occurrence and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC. Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of data obtained from the Oncomine platform, the human protein atlas (HPA project and the cancer cell line encyclopedia (CCLE demonstrated that SNCA expression was significantly reduced in both ADC tissues and cancer cells. The results of relevant clinical studies indicated that down-regulation of SNCA was statistically correlated with shorter overall survival time and post-progression survival time. Through analysis of datasets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, significant low levels of SNCA were identified in cisplatin-resistant ADC cells. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated knockdown of protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7 elevated the expression of SNCA in the ADC cell lines H1299 and H2009. Our work demonstrates that low levels of SNCA are specifically found in ADC and that this gene may be a potential therapeutic target for this subset of lung cancers. Determination of the role of SNCA in ADC biology would give us some insightful information for further investigations.

  15. Prognostic significance of fascin expression in advanced colorectal cancer: an immunohistochemical study of colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yosuke; Skacel, Marek; Lavery, Ian C; Mukherjee, Abir L; Casey, Graham; Adams, Josephine C

    2006-01-01

    Fascin is an actin bundling protein with roles in the formation of cell protrusions and motility of mesenchymal and neuronal cells. Fascin is normally low or absent from epithelia, but is upregulated in several epithelial neoplasms where it may contribute to an invasive phenotype. Here, we report on the prevalence and potential clinical significance of fascin expression in relation to the progression of colorectal adenocarcinoma and to tumor cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 index. Conventional tissue sections of 107 colorectal adenomas and 35 adenocarcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for fascin and Ki67 expression. Fascin expression and Ki67 proliferation index were also investigated by use of a tissue microarray containing cores from a further 158 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 15 adenomas linked to a CCF, IRB-approved database with a mean of 38 months of clinical follow-up. Survival analysis was carried out by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Fascin was not expressed by the normal colonic epithelium. In conventional sections, 16% of adenomas and 26% of adenocarcinomas showed fascin expression in greater than 10% of the tumor cells. In the clinically-annotated tumors, fascin immunoreactivity was more common in tumors located in the proximal colon (p = 0.009), but was not associated with age, gender, or TNM stage. Patients with stage III/IV adenocarcinomas (n = 62) with strong fascin immunoreactivity had a worse prognosis than patients with low or absent fascin, (3-year overall survival of 11% versus 43% for fascin-negative patients; p = 0.023). In adenomas, fascin and Ki67 tended to be inversely correlated at the cellular level; this trend was less apparent in adenocarcinomas. Fascin is upregulated in a proportion of adenomas, where its expression is often focal. Strong and diffuse expression was seen in a subset of advanced colorectal adenocarcinomas that correlated with shorter survival in stage III and IV patients. Fascin may have

  16. Software-based risk stratification of pulmonary adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground glass nodules on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Ursula; Heidinger, Benedikt H; Anderson, Kevin R; Westmore, Michael S; VanderLaan, Paul A; Bankier, Alexander A

    2018-01-01

    To assess the performance of the "Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield" (CANARY) software in the differentiation and risk assessment of histological subtypes of lung adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground glass nodules on computed tomography (CT). 64 surgically resected and histologically proven adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground-glass nodules on CT were assessed using CANARY software, which classifies voxel-densities into three risk components (low, intermediate, and high risk). Differences in risk components between histological adenocarcinoma subtypes were analysed. To determine the optimal threshold reflecting the presence of an invasive focus, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were calculated. 28/64 (44%) were adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS); 26/64 (41%) were minimally invasive adenocarcinomas (MIA); and 10/64 (16%) were invasive ACs (IAC). The software showed significant differences in risk components between histological subtypes (Prisk components was associated with histological invasiveness (specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%). CANARY-based risk assessment of ACs manifesting as pure ground glass nodules on CT allows the differentiation of their histological subtypes. A threshold of 45% of low-risk components reflects invasiveness in these groups. • CANARY-based risk assessment allows the differentiation of their histological subtypes. • 45% or less of low-risk component reflects histological invasiveness. • CANARY has potential role in suspected adenocarcinomas manifesting as pure ground-glass nodules.

  17. Follistatin is a novel biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Follistatin (FST, a single chain glycoprotein, is originally isolated from follicular fluid of ovary. Previous studies have revealed that serum FST served as a biomarker for pregnancy and ovarian mucinous tumor. However, whether FST can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis in lung adenocarcinoma of humans remains unclear.The study population consisted of 80 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma and 80 healthy subjects. Serum FST levels in patients and healthy subjects were measured using ELISA. The results showed that the positive ratio of serum FST levels was 51.3% (41/80, which was comparable to the sensitivity of FST in 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma (60%, 24/40 using the 95th confidence interval for the healthy subject group as the cut-off value. FST expressions in lung adenocarcinoma were examined by immunohistochemical staining, we found that lung adenocarcinoma could produce FST and there was positive correlation between the level of FST expression and the differential degree of lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the results showed that primary cultured lung adenocarcinoma cells could secrete FST, while cells derived from non-tumor lung tissues almost did not produce FST. In addition, the results of CCK8 assay and flow cytometry showed that using anti-FST monoclonal antibody to neutralize endogenous FST significantly augmented activin A-induced lung adenocarcinoma cells apoptosis.These data indicate that lung adenocarcinoma cells can secret FST into serum, which may be beneficial to the survival of adenocarcinoma cells by neutralizing activin A action. Thus, FST can serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma and a useful biotherapy target for lung adenocarcinoma.

  18. Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Congdon, C.C.; Deringer, M.K.; Stewart, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder developed in 17 of 68 untreated and in 26 of 83 irradiated guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13. The carcinomas spread widely by direct extension and through lymphatic and blood vessels to lymph nodes, mesenteries, omenta, abdominal wall, liver, lungs, bones, and spleen. Whole-body exposure to gamma or x radiation increased both the number of tumors and metastases in male inbred guinea pigs but not in females. Significantly fewer (9 of 98) noninbred than inbred guinea pigs developed gallbladder carcinomas after irradiation. In 9 untreated noninbred guinea pigs gallbladder carcinomas were not found. Inasmuch as the effect of irradiation was not dose-dependent, an indirect systemic effect of irradiation was postulated. This is the first report on the occurrence of spontaneous gallbladder adenocarcinomas in guinea pigs

  19. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of Caecum Causing Intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of endometriosis is rare and is usually seen in ovarian endometriosis. The colon and rectum are the most common sites for extragonadal endometriosis, and although serosal involvement is commonly seen, mucosal involvement is rare. Malignant transformation of endometriosis is a rare but a well-known complication of endometriosis. We report an unusual presentation of endometrioid adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis, arising from endometriosis in the caecal wall and causing ileocaecal intussusception. The patient presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain with features suggestive of acute appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed an ileocaecal intussusception. Conversion to open surgery confirmed a caecal mass causing ileocaecal intussusception, and a radical right hemicolectomy was performed. Histology revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising in a focus of endometriosis in the muscularis propria and involving the mucosa, with one regional metastatic lymph node.

  20. Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma Presenting as a Rectal Polyp

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    Erin Fitzgerald

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal adenocarcinoma typically presents as an incidentally noted appendiceal mass, or with symptoms of right lower quadrant pain that can mimic appendicitis, but local involvement of adjacent organs is uncommon, particularly as the presenting sign. We report on a case of a primary appendiceal cancer initially diagnosed as a rectal polyp based on its appearance in the rectal lumen. The management of the patient was in keeping with standard practice for a rectal polyp, and the diagnosis of appendiceal adenocarcinoma was made intraoperatively. The operative strategy had to be adjusted due to this unexpected finding. Although there are published cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma inducing intussusception and thus mimicking a cecal polyp, there are no reports in the literature describing invasion of the appendix through the rectal wall and thus mimicking a rectal polyp. The patient is a 75-year-old female who presented with spontaneous hematochezia and, on colonoscopy, was noted to have a rectal polyp that appeared to be located within a diverticulum. When endoscopic mucosal resection was not successful, she was referred to colorectal surgery for a low anterior resection. Preoperative imaging was notable for an enlarged appendix adjacent to the rectum. Intraoperatively, the appendix was found to be densely adherent to the right lateral rectal wall. An en bloc resection of the distal sigmoid colon, proximal rectum and appendix was performed, with pathology demonstrating appendiceal adenocarcinoma that invaded through the rectal wall. The prognosis in this type of malignancy weighs heavily on whether or not perforation and spread throughout the peritoneal cavity have occurred. In this unusual presentation, an en bloc resection is required for a complete resection and to minimize the risk of peritoneal spread. Unusual appearing polyps do not always originate from the bowel wall. Abnormal radiographic findings adjacent to an area of

  1. Metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma to the mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Un; Kwon, Ki Jeong; Ahn, Hyoun Suk; Koh, Kwang Joon [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    Metastatic tumors to the jaw bones area uncommon. The most common metastatic tumors to the jaw bones are the breast, lung and kidney. In the jaw bones, the common location of the lesions is the mandible, and the posterior area of the mandible is more commonly affected. The radiographic appearance is quite variable. In this report, a very rare case of metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma to the mandible is presented. The patient had undergone a gastrectomy 3 years ago.

  2. Synchronous Occurrence of Colon and Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Goryń Tomasz; Meszka Monika; Pawlak Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The study presented two cases of synchronous occurrence of colon and appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Both patients required surgical intervention, due to acute peritonitis during the course of acute appendicitis. In case of one patient we performed abdominal CT confirming the presence of sigmoid cancer. The patient was subjected to appendectomy and Hartmann’s operation. The second patient underwent an appendectomy, and colonoscopy performed two months later revealed the presence of rectal adenoca...

  3. Rare Endoscopic Manifestation of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Chelimilla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer secondary to direct invasion from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is rare. Metastases to the stomach have been commonly reported with melanoma and with primary tumors of the breast, lung, ovary, liver, colon and testis. We report a patient who presented with epigastric pain and in whom subsequently upper endoscopy showed a malignant gastric ulcer secondary to direct invasion from pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the body. An 81-year-old female presented to our hospital with epigastric pain and subsequently underwent endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasound for evaluation of a pancreatic body mass. She had a large gastric ulcer in the fundus which was in direct continuity with the pancreatic mass. Pathology from biopsy of the ulcer revealed invasive well-to-moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma, and immunohistochemical stains were strongly positive for CA19-9, CK7, CK19 and carcinoembryonic antigen. These findings were consistent with a histopathological diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma of the pancreas. Patients with gastrointestinal metastases usually have advanced malignancy with poor prognosis. Endoscopic evaluation with adequate biopsies should be performed for symptomatic patients.

  4. Diffuse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Characteristic imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Jun [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr; Kim, Ji-Youn [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Hwan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Se Jin [Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon-Gyu [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate imaging findings of diffuse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: We included 14 patients (4 men and 10 women; mean age, 64.5 years) with diffuse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma on the basis of retrospective radiological review. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed 14 CT scans in consensus with respect to the following: tumor site, peripheral capsule-like structure, dilatation of intratumoral pancreatic duct, parenchymal atrophy, and ancillary findings. Eight magnetic resonance (MR) examinations with MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and seven endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were also reviewed, focusing on peripheral capsule-like structure and dilatation of intratumoral pancreatic duct. Results: CT revealed tumor localization to the body and tail in 11 (79%) patients and peripheral capsule-like structure in 13 (93%). The intratumoral pancreatic duct was not visible in 13 (93%). Pancreatic parenchymal atrophy was not present in all 14 patients. Tumor invasion of vessels was observed in all 14 patients and of neighbor organs in 8 (57%). On contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images, peripheral capsule-like structure showed higher signal intensity in five patients (71%). In all 11 patients with MRCP and/or ERCP, the intratumoral pancreatic duct was not dilated. Conclusion: Diffuse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has characteristic imaging findings, including peripheral capsule-like structure, local invasiveness, and absence of both dilatation of intratumoral pancreatic duct and parenchymal atrophy.

  5. Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis due to Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sicong Fan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease defined by both inflammatory and fibrotic changes of the biliary tract leading to diffuse stricture formation. This entity exists in both a primary and secondary form. Here we present a rare case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis due to direct metastasis from a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. A 55-year-old morbidly obese male presented electively with a 2-week history of low back pain and scleral icterus for 2 days. He also described severe epigastric pain that worsened postprandially and a 13 kg weight loss over the previous month. The patient denied any personal or familial history of malignancy or prior liver disease. Laboratory evaluation revealed mild elevation of transaminases with moderately elevated alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Imaging included ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showing multiple large gallstones and a large tissue density mass within the fundus of the gallbladder. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound was performed revealing celiac and portal lymphadenopathy with fine needle aspirations demonstrating adenocarcinoma. Over the next 15 days, bilirubin progressively increased. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was unremarkable. Liver biopsy, performed to exclude other etiologies of liver failure, demonstrated biliary cholestasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was then performed and an occlusion cholangiogram revealed diffuse multifocal stricturing of the intrahepatic bile ducts and moderate stenosis of the common bile duct without proximal ductal dilatation. Thus secondary sclerosing cholangitis due to gallbladder adenocarcinoma was diagnosed.

  6. Profiling and functional data on the developing olfactory/GnRH system reveal cellular and molecular pathways essential for this process and potentially relevant for the Kallmann syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eGaraffo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, immature neurons in the olfactory epithelium (OE extend axons through the nasal mesenchyme, to contact projection neurons in the olfactory bulb. Axon navigation is accompanied by migration of the GnRH+ neurons, which enter the anterior forebrain and home in the septo-hypothalamic area. This process can be interrupted at various points and lead to the onset of the Kallmann syndrome (KS, a disorder characterized by anosmia and central hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Several genes has been identified in human and mice that cause KS or a KS-like phenotype. In mice a set of transcription factors appears to be required for olfactory connectivity and GnRH neuron migration; thus we explored the transcriptional network underlying this developmental process by profiling the OE and the adjacent mesenchyme at three embryonic ages. We also profiled the OE from embryos null for Dlx5, a homeogene that causes a KS-like phenotype when deleted. We identified 20 interesting genes belonging to the following categories: 1 transmembrane adhesion/receptor, 2 axon-glia interaction, 3 scaffold/adapter for signalling, 4 synaptic proteins. We tested some of them in zebrafish embryos: the depletion of five (of six Dlx5 targets affected axonal extension and targeting, while three (of three affected GnRH neuron position and neurite organization. Thus, we confirmed the importance of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and identified new molecules needed for olfactory connection and GnRH neuron migration. Using available and newly generated data, we predicted/prioritized putative KS-disease genes, by building conserved co-expression networks with all known disease genes in human and mouse. The results show the overall validity of approaches based on high-throughput data and predictive bioinformatics to identify genes potentially relevant for the molecular pathogenesis of KS. A number of candidate will be discussed, that should be tested in

  7. Identifying Patient-Specific Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 Genetic Variation and Potential Autoreactive Targets Relevant to Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis.

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    Monika Tschochner

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection represents a major environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS, with evidence of selective expansion of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA1-specific CD4+ T cells that cross-recognize MS-associated myelin antigens in MS patients. HLA-DRB1*15-restricted antigen presentation also appears to determine susceptibility given its role as a dominant risk allele. In this study, we have utilised standard and next-generation sequencing techniques to investigate EBNA-1 sequence variation and its relationship to HLA-DR15 binding affinity, as well as examining potential cross-reactive immune targets within the central nervous system proteome.Sanger sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 73 Western Australian MS cases, without requirement for primary culture, with additional FLX 454 Roche sequencing in 23 samples to identify low-frequency variants. Patient-derived viral sequences were used to predict HLA-DRB1*1501 epitopes (NetMHCII, NetMHCIIpan and candidates were evaluated for cross recognition with human brain proteins.EBNA-1 sequence variation was limited, with no evidence of multiple viral strains and only low levels of variation identified by FLX technology (8.3% nucleotide positions at a 1% cut-off. In silico epitope mapping revealed two known HLA-DRB1*1501-restricted epitopes ('AEG': aa 481-496 and 'MVF': aa 562-577, and two putative epitopes between positions 502-543. We identified potential cross-reactive targets involving a number of major myelin antigens including experimentally confirmed HLA-DRB1*15-restricted epitopes as well as novel candidate antigens within myelin and paranodal assembly proteins that may be relevant to MS pathogenesis.This study demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining autologous EBNA-1 sequences directly from buffy coat samples, and confirms divergence of these sequences from standard laboratory strains. This approach has identified a number of

  8. A Novel Human Ghrelin Variant (In1-Ghrelin) and Ghrelin-O-Acyltransferase Are Overexpressed in Breast Cancer: Potential Pathophysiological Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Hergueta-Redondo, Marta; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J.; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Moreno-Bueno, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The human ghrelin gene, which encodes the ghrelin and obestatin peptides, contains 5 exons (Ex), with Ex1-Ex4 encoding a 117 amino-acid (aa) preproprotein that is known to be processed to yield a 28-aa (ghrelin) and/or a 23-aa (obestatin) mature peptides, which possess biological activities in multiple tissues. However, the ghrelin gene also encodes additional peptides through alternative splicing or post-translational modifications. Indeed, we previously identified a spliced mRNA ghrelin variant in mouse (In2-ghrelin-variant), which is regulated in a tissue-dependent manner by metabolic status and may thus be of biological relevance. Here, we have characterized a new human ghrelin variant that contains Ex0-1, intron (In) 1, and Ex2 and lacks Ex3-4. This human In1-ghrelin variant would encode a new prepropeptide that conserves the first 12aa of native-ghrelin (including the Ser3-potential octanoylation site) but has a different C-terminal tail. Expression of In1-variant was detected in 22 human tissues and its levels were positively correlated with those of ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT; p = 0.0001) but not with native-ghrelin expression, suggesting that In1-ghrelin could be a primary substrate for GOAT in human tissues. Interestingly, levels of In1-ghrelin variant expression in breast cancer samples were 8-times higher than those of normal mammary tissue, and showed a strong correlation in breast tumors with GOAT (p = 0.0001), ghrelin receptor-type 1b (GHSR1b; p = 0.049) and cyclin-D3 (a cell-cycle inducer/proliferation marker; p = 0.009), but not with native-ghrelin or GHSR1a expression. Interestingly, In1-ghrelin variant overexpression increased basal proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Taken together, our results provide evidence that In1-ghrelin is a novel element of the ghrelin family with a potential pathophysiological role in breast cancer. PMID:21829727

  9. Comparison of glycoprotein expression between ovarian and colon adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Arenas-Elliott, C P; Warhol, M J

    1999-01-01

    , carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratins 7 and 20 to detect tumor-associated glycoproteins and keratin proteins in ovarian and colonic carcinomas. RESULTS: CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratins 7 and 20 can distinguish between colonic and serous or endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the ovary in both...... primary and metastatic lesions. Mucinous ovarian adenocarcinomas differed in that they express carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratins 7 and 20 and weakly express CA125. The other glycoprotein antigens were equally expressed by ovarian and colonic adenocarcinomas and therefore were of no use...... in distinguishing between these 2 entities. CONCLUSION: A panel of monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratins 7 and 20 antigens, CA125, and carcinoembryonic antigen is useful in differentiating serous and endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the ovary from colonic adenocarcinomas. Mucinous ovarian adenocarcinomas cannot...

  10. EGFR and AKT1 overexpression are mutually exclusive and associated with a poor survival in resected gastric adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Iacopo; Lencioni, Monica; Vasile, Enrico; Fornaro, Lorenzo; Belluomini, Lorenzo; Pasquini, Giulia; Ginocchi, Laura; Caparello, Chiara; Musettini, Gianna; Vivaldi, Caterina; Caponi, Sara; Ricci, Sergio; Proietti, Agenese; Fontanini, Gabriella; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Nardini, Vincenzo; Santi, Stefano; Falcone, Alfredo

    2018-02-14

    The evaluation of molecular targets in gastric cancer has demonstrated the predictive role of HER2 amplification for trastuzumab treatment in metastatic gastric cancer. Besides HER2, other molecular targets are under evaluation in metastatic gastric tumors. However, very little is known about their role in resected tumors. We evaluated the expression of HER2, EGFR, MET, AKT1 and phospho-mTOR in resected stage II-III adenocarcinomas. Ninety-two patients with resected stomach (63%) or gastro-esophageal adenocarcinomas (27%) were evaluated. Antibodies anti-HER2, EGFR, MET, AKT1 and phospho-mTOR were used for immunostaining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded slides. Using FISH, HER2 amplification was evaluated in cases with an intermediate (+2) staining. EGFR overexpression (11%) was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (3-year OS: 47% vs 77%; Log-Rank p= 0.033). MET overexpression (36%) was associated with a trend for a worse survival (3-year OS: 65% vs 77%; Log-Rank p= 0.084). HER2 amplification/overexpression and mTOR hyper-phosphorylation were observed in 13% and 48% of tumors, respectively. AKT1 overexpression (8%) was not a prognostic factor by itself (p= 0.234). AKT1 and EGFR overexpression was mutually exclusive and patients with EGFR or AKT1 overexpression experienced a poor prognosis (3-year OS: 52% vs. 79%, Log-Rank p= 0.005). EGFR is confirmed a poor prognostic factor in resected gastric cancers. We firstly describe a mutually exclusive overexpression of EGFR and AKT1 with potential prognostic implications, suggesting the relevance of this pathway for the growth of gastric cancers.

  11. HER2 amplification, overexpression and score criteria in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingchuan; Bandla, Santhoshi; Godfrey, Tony E.; Tan, Dongfeng; Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Qiu, Xing; Hicks, David G.; Peters, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhongren

    2011-01-01

    The HER2 oncogene was recently reported to be amplified and overexpressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the relationship of HER2 amplification in esophageal adenocarcinoma with prognosis has not been well defined. The scoring systems for clinically evaluating HER2 in esophageal adenocarcinoma are not established. The aims of the study were to establish a HER2 scoring system and comprehensively investigate HER2 amplification and overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesion. Using a tissue microarray, containing 116 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, 34 cases of BE, 18 cases of low grade dysplasia and 15 cases of high grade dysplasia, HER2 amplification and overexpression were analyzed by HercepTest and CISH methods. The amplification frequency in an independent series of 116 esophageal adenocarcinoma samples was also analyzed using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. In our studies, we have found that HER2 amplification does not associate with poor prognosis in total 232 esophageal adenocarcinoma patients by CISH and high density microarrays. We further confirm the similar frequency of HER2 amplification by CISH (18.10%; 21/116) and SNP 6.0 microarrays (16.4%, 19/116) in esophageal adenocarcinoma. HER2 protein overexpression was observed in 12.1 % (14/116) of esophageal adenocarcinoma and 6.67% (1/15) of HGD. No HER2 amplification or overexpression was identified in BE or LGD. All HER2 protein overexpression cases showed HER2 gene amplification. Gene amplification was found to be more frequent by CISH than protein overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma (18.10% vs 12.9%). A modified two-step model for esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 testing is recommend for clinical esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 trial. PMID:21460800

  12. Genome wide single cell analysis of chemotherapy resistant metastatic cells in a case of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjortland, Geir Olav; Fodstad, Oystein; Smeland, Sigbjorn; Hovig, Eivind; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Beiske, Klaus; Ree, Anne H; Tveito, Siri; Hoifodt, Hanne; Bohler, Per J; Hole, Knut H; Myklebost, Ola

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic progression due to development or enrichment of therapy-resistant tumor cells is eventually lethal. Molecular characterization of such chemotherapy resistant tumor cell clones may identify markers responsible for malignant progression and potential targets for new treatment. Here, in a case of stage IV adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, we report the successful genome wide analysis using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of DNA from only fourteen tumor cells using a bead-based single cell selection method from a bone metastasis progressing during chemotherapy. In a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, the progression of bone metastasis was observed during a chemotherapy regimen of epirubicin, oxaliplatin and capecitabine, whereas lung-, liver and lymph node metastases as well as the primary tumor were regressing. A bone marrow aspirate sampled at the site of progressing metastasis in the right iliac bone was performed, and single cell molecular analysis using array-CGH of Epithelial Specific Antigen (ESA)-positive metastatic cells, and revealed two distinct regions of amplification, 12p12.1 and 17q12-q21.2 amplicons, containing the KRAS (12p) and ERBB2 (HER2/NEU) (17q) oncogenes. Further intrapatient tumor heterogeneity of these highlighted gene copy number changes was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in all available primary and metastatic tumor biopsies, and ErbB2 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. ERBB2 was heterogeneously amplified by FISH analysis in the primary tumor, as well as liver and bone metastasis, but homogenously amplified in biopsy specimens from a progressing bone metastasis after three initial cycles of chemotherapy, indicating a possible enrichment of erbB2 positive tumor cells in the progressing bone marrow metastasis during chemotherapy. A similar amplification profile was detected for wild-type KRAS, although more heterogeneously

  13. Small interference RNA targeting tissue factor inhibits human lung adenocarcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human coagulation trigger tissue factor (TF is overexpressed in several types of cancer and involved in tumor growth, vascularization, and metastasis. To explore the role of TF in biological processes of lung adenocarcinoma, we used RNA interference (RNAi technology to silence TF in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 with high-level expression of TF and evaluate its antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Methods The specific small interfering RNA (siRNA designed for targeting human TF was transfected into A549 cells. The expression of TF was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The metastatic potential of A549 cells was determined by wound healing, the mobility and Matrigel invasion assays. Expressions of PI3K/Akt, Erk1/2, VEGF and MMP-2/-9 in transfected cells were detected by Western blot. In vivo, the effect of TF-siRNA on the growth of A549 lung adenocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice was investigated. Results TF -siRNA significantly reduced the expression of TF in the mRNA and protein levels. The down-regulation of TF in A549 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as VEGF and MMP-2/-9 expressions were inhibited in TF-siRNA transfected cells. Moreover, intratumoral injection of siRNA targeting TF suppressed the tumor growth of A549 cells in vivo model of lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusions Down-regulation of TF using siRNA could provide a potential approach for gene therapy against lung adenocarcinoma, and the antitumor effects may be associated with inhibition of Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt pathways.

  14. Association of visceral adiposity with oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beddy, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, in particular Siewert types I and II. This study compared abdominal fat composition in patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma with that in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, and in controls. METHOD: In total, 194 patients (110 with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, 38 with gastric adenocarcinoma and 46 with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma) and 90 matched control subjects were recruited. The abdominal fat area was assessed using computed tomography (CT), and the total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma had significantly higher TFA and VFA values compared with controls (both P < 0.001), patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.006 respectively) and patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (both P < 0.001). For junctional tumours, the highest TFA and VFA values were seen in patients with Siewert type I tumours (respectively P = 0.041 and P = 0.033 versus type III; P = 0.332 and P = 0.152 versus type II). CONCLUSION: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, in particular oesophageal and Siewert type I junctional tumours, have greater CT-defined visceral adiposity than patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, or controls.

  15. Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Associated with Adjacent Sessile Serrated Lesion of the Appendix Vermiform: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kinoshita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the definition of sessile serrated lesion (SSL of colon is controversial and the risk of progression to malignancy is also under investigation at present, SSL is generally described as a polyp characterized by a serrated architecture. It is estimated to represent a feature of a new cancerization pathway, coined “serrated neoplasia pathway,” particularly in right-sided colon adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, in appendix, the role of this pathway remains uncertain, probably because very few cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma associated with SSL were reported, and furthermore, immunohistochemical examination was rarely carried out. We herein report an interesting case of invasive appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma exhibiting SSL, which was pathologically estimated as a potential precursor lesion, and performed representative immunohistochemistry for both the mucinous adenocarcinoma and SSL in the same specimen. To further elucidate the progression of the appendiceal carcinoma from SSL, both an adequate sectioning of the lesion and systematic immunohistochemical examination of a large number of appendiceal carcinoma cases containing adjacent SSL would be required.

  16. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with adjacent sessile serrated lesion of the appendix vermiform: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Osamu; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Sakakura, Chohei; Otsuji, Eigo

    2014-01-01

    Although the definition of sessile serrated lesion (SSL) of colon is controversial and the risk of progression to malignancy is also under investigation at present, SSL is generally described as a polyp characterized by a serrated architecture. It is estimated to represent a feature of a new cancerization pathway, coined "serrated neoplasia pathway," particularly in right-sided colon adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, in appendix, the role of this pathway remains uncertain, probably because very few cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma associated with SSL were reported, and furthermore, immunohistochemical examination was rarely carried out. We herein report an interesting case of invasive appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma exhibiting SSL, which was pathologically estimated as a potential precursor lesion, and performed representative immunohistochemistry for both the mucinous adenocarcinoma and SSL in the same specimen. To further elucidate the progression of the appendiceal carcinoma from SSL, both an adequate sectioning of the lesion and systematic immunohistochemical examination of a large number of appendiceal carcinoma cases containing adjacent SSL would be required.

  17. Biomarker Based Therapy in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: An Emerging Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Benjamin A; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2017-12-21

    Over the last decade many of the major solid organ cancers have seen improvements in survival due to development of novel therapeutics and corresponding biomarkers that predict treatment efficacy or resistance. In contrast, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) favorable outcomes remain challenging, in part related to the lack of validated biomarkers for patient and treatment selection and thus optimal clinical decision-making. Nonetheless, increasingly therapeutic development for PDAC is accompanied by bioassays to evaluate response and study mechanism of actions with a corresponding increase in the number of trials in mid to late-stage with integrated biomarkers. Additionally, blood based biomarkers that provide a measure of disease activity and allow for minimally invasive tumor analyses are emerging, including circulating tumor DNA, exosomes and circulating tumor cells. In this article, we will review potential biomarkers for currently approved therapies as well as emerging biomarkers for therapeutics under development. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. A retrospective study of 44 canine apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Elemir; Wilcock, Brian P; Yager, Julie A

    2003-01-01

    Apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas (AACs) are relatively uncommon skin tumors in dogs. Little prognostic or behavioral information has been published for these tumors. In this retrospective study, 44 AACs from diagnostic archives were reexamined and clinical postexcisional follow-ups for 25 of the 44 cases were obtained by a survey. There were 28 out of 44 (65.9%) AACs that invaded the capsule, stroma, or both, 5 of 44 (11.4%) invaded blood vessels and stroma, and 1 out of 25 (4%) had distant metastases. The presence or absence of stromal and vascular invasion was predicted by clinical examination with more than 80% accuracy. Postexcisional median survival of dogs with AACs was 30 mo at the time of survey. Determination of a correlation between histological features and malignant behavior of AACs was compromised by the low number of cases with clinical AAC-related problems; however, it appears that intravascular invasion is an important indicator of potential systemic metastases.

  19. Expression of Osteogenic Molecules in the Caudate Nucleus and Gray Matter and Their Potential Relevance for Basal Ganglia Calcification in Hypoparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millo, Tabin; Mishra, Shruti; Das, Madhuchhanda; Kapoor, Mansi; Tomar, Neeraj; Saha, Soma; Roy, Tara Shankar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is an interesting example of ectopic calcification in patients with hypoparathyroidism. Its pathogenesis and reasons for predilection of calcification at basal ganglia are not clear. Objective: To assess the expression of osteogenesis-related molecules in the caudate nucleus and surface gray matter (an area spared from calcification) and discuss potential relevance of the results in context of BGC in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. Methods: Caudate nucleus and gray matter were obtained from 14 autopsies performed in accidental deaths. The mRNA expression of bone transcription factors (RUNX2/osterix), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2 and 4, osteonectin, osteopontin, osteocalcin, vitamin D receptor, calcium sensing-receptor, Na phosphate transporters (PiTs) 1 and 2, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NMDAR2B), carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II), PTH1 receptor (PTH1R), PTH2R, and PTHrP were assessed by RT-PCR. Western blot, spot densitometry, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess protein expression of molecules showing differences in mRNA expression between caudate and gray tissues. Results: The mean mRNA expression of PiT1 (11.0 ± 10.39 vs 32.9 ± 20.98, P = .003) and PTH2R (1.6 ± 1.47 vs 13.7 ± 6.11, P = .001) were significantly lower in the caudate nucleus than the gray matter. The expression of osteonectin, osteopontin, and CA-II were significantly higher in the caudate nucleus than the gray matter (P = .01, .001, and .04, respectively). The mRNA expression of other molecules was comparable in the 2 tissues. The protein expression of both CA-II and osteonectin was 24% higher and PiT1 17% lower in caudate than the gray matter. The differences in the PTH2R and osteopontin protein expression were not appreciable. Conclusions: The presence of several osteogenic molecules in caudate nucleus indicates that BGC would probably be the outcome of an active process. The differences in expression of these molecules in

  20. Compromising σ-1 receptors at the endoplasmic reticulum render cytotoxicity to physiologically relevant concentrations of dopamine in a nuclear factor-κB/Bcl-2-dependent mechanism: potential relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2012-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone σ-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is cytoprotective against ER stress-induced apoptosis. The level of Sig-1Rs in the brain was reported to be lower in early parkinsonian patients. Because dopamine (DA) toxicity is well known to be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease, we tested in this study whether a relationship might exist between Sig-1Rs and DA-induced cytotoxicity in a cellular model by using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. DA in physiological concentrations (e.g., lower than 10 μM) does not cause apoptosis. However, the same concentrations of DA cause apoptosis in Sig-1R knockdown CHO cells. In search of a mechanistic explanation, we found that unfolded protein response is not involved. Rather, the level of protective protein Bcl-2 is critically involved in this DA/Sig-1R knockdown-induced apoptosis. Specifically, the DA/Sig-1R knockdown causes a synergistic proteasomal conversion of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p105 to the active form of p50, which is known to down-regulate the transcription of Bcl-2. It is noteworthy that the DA/Sig-1R knockdown-induced apoptosis is blocked by the overexpression of Bcl-2. Our results therefore indicate that DA is involved in the activation of NF-κB and suggest that endogenous Sig-1Rs are tonically inhibiting the proteasomal conversion/activation of NF-κB caused by physiologically relevant concentrations of DA that would otherwise cause apoptosis. Thus, Sig-1Rs and associated ligands may represent new therapeutic targets for the treatment of parkinsonism.

  1. Laparoscopic Diagnosis of Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix Mimicking Serous Papillary Adenocarcinoma of the Peritoneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi; Terai, Yoshito; Konishi, Hiromi; Tanaka, Yoshimichi; Tanaka, Tomohito; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the vermiform appendix is a rare disease with few clinical symptoms. Accordingly, preoperative diagnosis of appendiceal cancer is challenging because of the lack of specific symptoms. We herein report a case of appendicular adenocarcinoma found unexpectedly during laparoscopic surgery in a 69-year-old Japanese female patient diagnosed with serous papillary adenocarcinoma, in order to determine whether optimal cytoreduction could successfully be achieved at the time of primary surgery. We performed diagnostic laparoscopic surgery in order to make a correct diagnosis based on the histological tissue. The vermiform appendix was found to contain a tumor measuring 1.5 cm wide and 4.5 cm long. Laparoscopic appendectomy, partial omentectomy, and partial resection of the lesion in the peritoneum were performed. The histological diagnosis was mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vermiform appendix, and the stage was T4NxM1. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with mFOLFOX 6 (5FU, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin). She achieved stable disease and was alive with disease eleven months after surgery. We therefore recommend that gynecologists should not rule out the possibility of appendiceal cancer, even in cases with preoperative findings similar to those of serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the peritoneum with peritoneal disseminated tumors. PMID:24383020

  2. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelson, Jonathan A.; Murphy, James D.; Minn, Ann Yuriko; Chung, Melody [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Fisher, George A.; Ford, James M.; Kunz, Pamela [Department of Medical Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Norton, Jeffrey A.; Visser, Brendan C.; Poultsides, George A. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To report the outcomes and toxicities in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with IMRT between 2003 and 2008. Of these 47 patients, 29 were treated adjuvantly and 18 definitively. All received concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. The treatment plans were optimized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescription dose. The median delivered dose for the adjuvant and definitive patients was 50.4 and 54.0 Gy, respectively. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 63.9 years. For adjuvant patients, the 1- and 2-year overall survival rate was 79% and 40%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was 58% and 17%, respectively. The local-regional control rate at 1 and 2 years was 92% and 80%, respectively. For definitive patients, the 1-year overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and local-regional control rate was 24%, 16%, and 64%, respectively. Four patients developed Grade 3 or greater acute toxicity (9%) and four developed Grade 3 late toxicity (9%). Conclusions: Survival for patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. A small percentage of adjuvant patients have durable disease control, and with improved therapies, this proportion will increase. Systemic therapy offers the greatest opportunity. The present results have demonstrated that IMRT is well tolerated. Compared with those who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in previously reported prospective clinical trials, patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with IMRT in our series had improved acute toxicity.

  3. Adenocarcinoma in a Koff Urinary Ileal Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Sherman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of an ileal conduit as a means of treatment for bladder cancer or dysfunction is widely used and understood. However, long term surveillance of that conduit has not been strongly established and set forth as a means of screening. We present a 76yo female with a history of neurogenic bladder secondary to paraplegia who underwent the formation of a “Koff” pouch as a conduit. Nineteen years later she presents with hematuria and was found to have adenocarcinoma originating in her conduit.

  4. Intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Mitsunori; Yasui, Kenzo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Miyaishi, Seiichi; Morita, Kozo

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six patients were given intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas between April 1980 and March 1986. Twenty-six of those with well-advanced cancer underwent palliative intraoperative radiotherapy of their main primary lesions (1,500 to 3,000 rads). Fourteen of the 19 patients in this group who had intractable back pain before surgery achieved relief within one week after treatment. Of the remaining 10 patients who underwent pancreatectomy and received adjuvant intraoperative radiotherapy (2,000 to 3,000 rads), two remain clinically free of disease five years and six months and four years and six months after palliative distal pancreatectomy. (author)

  5. Renal paraneoplastic vasculitis complicating lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besma Ben Dhaou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal paraneoplastic vasculitis (RNPV is rare. It can be revealed by glomerulonephritis, microaneurysms or renal failure. RPNV may precede the onset of the primary tumor, and treatment and prognosis depend on the etiology (primary tumor. A 54-year-old man who had a primary lung adenocarcinoma was admitted for nephrotic syndrome. The investigations revealed RNPV. The patient was treated with corticosteroids at high dose and cyclophosphamide with improvement of the renal condition; however, the patient died from worsening of his pulmonary neoplasia.

  6. Abnormal gene expression and gene fusion in lung adenocarcinoma with high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z-H; Zheng, R; Gao, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhang, H

    2014-02-01

    To explore the universal law of the abnormal gene expression and the structural variation of genes related to lung adenocarcinoma, the gene expression profile of GSE37765 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed with t-test and NOISeq tool, and the core DEGs were screened out by combining with another RNA-seq data containing totally 77 pairs of samples in 77 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, the functional annotation of the core DEGs was performed by using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery following selection of oncogene and tumor suppressor by combining with tumor suppressor genes and Cancer Genes database, and motif-finding of core DEGs was performed with motif-finding algorithm Seqpos. We also used Tophat-fusion tool to further explore the fusion genes. In total, 850 downregulated DEGs and 206 upregulated DEGs were screened out in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Next, we selected 543 core DEGs, including 401 downregulated and 142 upregulated genes, and vasculature development (P=1.89E-06) was significantly enriched among downregulated core genes, as well as mitosis (P=6.26E-04) enriched among upregulated core genes. On the basis of the cellular localization analysis of core genes, wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1) and receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) identified mainly located in extracellular region and extracellular space. We also screened one oncogene, v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2 (MYBL2). Moreover, transcription factor GATA2 was mined by motif-finding analysis. Finally, four fusion genes belonged to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family. WISP1, RAMP1, MYBL2 and GATA2 could be potential targets of treatment for lung adenocarcinoma and the fusion of HLA family genes might have important roles in lung adenocarcinoma.

  7. Cigarette Filter Ventilation and its Relationship to Increasing Rates of Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Ae; Benowitz, Neal L; Berman, Micah; Brasky, Theodore M; Cummings, K Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Marian, Catalin; O'Connor, Richard; Rees, Vaughan W; Woroszylo, Casper; Shields, Peter G

    2017-12-01

    The 2014 Surgeon General's Report on smoking and health concluded that changing cigarette designs have caused an increase in lung adenocarcinomas, implicating cigarette filter ventilation that lowers smoking machine tar yields. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the authority to regulate cigarette design if doing so would improve public health. To support a potential regulatory action, two weight-of-evidence reviews were applied for causally relating filter ventilation to lung adenocarcinoma. Published scientific literature (3284 citations) and internal tobacco company documents contributed to causation analysis evidence blocks and the identification of research gaps. Filter ventilation was adopted in the mid-1960s and was initially equated with making a cigarette safer. Since then, lung adenocarcinoma rates paradoxically increased relative to other lung cancer subtypes. Filter ventilation 1) alters tobacco combustion, increasing smoke toxicants; 2) allows for elasticity of use so that smokers inhale more smoke to maintain their nicotine intake; and 3) causes a false perception of lower health risk from "lighter" smoke. Seemingly not supportive of a causal relationship is that human exposure biomarker studies indicate no reduction in exposure, but these do not measure exposure in the lung or utilize known biomarkers of harm. Altered puffing and inhalation may make smoke available to lung cells prone to adenocarcinomas. The analysis strongly suggests that filter ventilation has contributed to the rise in lung adenocarcinomas among smokers. Thus, the FDA should consider regulating its use, up to and including a ban. Herein, we propose a research agenda to support such an effort. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. High association of Cryptosporidium spp. infection with colon adenocarcinoma in Lebanese patients.

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    Marwan Osman

    Full Text Available The association between Cryptosporidium and human colon cancer has been reported in different populations. However, this association has not been well studied. In order to add new strong arguments for a probable link between cryptosporidiosis and colon human cancer, the aim of this study was to determine prevalence and to identify species of Cryptosporidium among Lebanese patients.Overall, 218 digestive biopsies were collected in Tripoli, Lebanon, from three groups of patients: (i patients with recently diagnosed colon intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment (n = 72; (ii patients with recently diagnosed stomach intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment (n = 21; and (iii patients without digestive intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma but with persistent digestive symptoms (n = 125. DNA extraction was performed from paraffin-embedded tissue. The presence of the parasite in tissues was confirmed by PCR, microscopic observation and immunofluorescence analysis. We identified a high rate (21% of Cryptosporidium presence in biopsies from Lebanese patients with recently diagnosed colonic neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment. This prevalence was significantly higher compared to 7% of Cryptosporidium prevalence among patients without colon neoplasia but with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms (OR: 4, CI: 1.65-9.6, P = 0.001. When the comparison was done against normal biopsies, the risk of infection increased 11-fold in the group of patients with colon adenocarcinoma (OR: 11.315, CI: 1.44-89.02, P = 0.003.This is the first study performed in Lebanon reporting the prevalence of Cryptosporidium among patients with digestive cancer. These results show that Cryptosporidium is strongly associated with human colon cancer being maybe a potential etiological agent of this disease.

  9. Texture analysis for survival prediction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayasree; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Escalon, Joanna G.; Allen, Peter J.; Lowery, Maeve A.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. The five-year survival rate for all stages is approximately 6%, and approximately 2% when presenting with distant disease.1 Only 10-20% of all patients present with resectable disease, but recurrence rates are high with only 5 to 15% remaining free of disease at 5 years. At this time, we are unable to distinguish between resectable PDAC patients with occult metastatic disease from those with potentially curable disease. Early classification of these tumor types may eventually lead to changes in initial management including the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation, or in the choice of postoperative adjuvant treatments. Texture analysis is an emerging methodology in oncologic imaging for quantitatively assessing tumor heterogeneity that could potentially aid in the stratification of these patients. The present study derives several texture-based features from CT images of PDAC patients, acquired prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and analyzes their performance, individually as well as in combination, as prognostic markers. A fuzzy minimum redundancy maximum relevance method with leave-one-image-out technique is included to select discriminating features from the set of extracted features. With a naive Bayes classifier, the proposed method predicts the 5-year overall survival of PDAC patients prior to neoadjuvant therapy and achieves the best results in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0:858 and accuracy of 83:0% with four-fold cross-validation techniques.

  10. Metformin inhibits 17?-estradiol-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via ?Klotho-related ERK1/2 signaling and AMPK? signaling in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhao; Qi, Shasha; Zhao, Xingbo; Li, Mingjiang; Ding, Sentai; Lu, Jiaju; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The potential role of metformin in treating endometrial cancer remains to be explored. The current study investigated the role of metformin in 17?-estradiol-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. We found that 17?-estradiol promoted proliferation and migration, attenuated apoptosis in both estrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER negative endometrial adenocarcinoma cells (Ishikawa and KLE cells, respectively). Metformin abolished 17?-estradiol-induc...

  11. The SMAD4 protein and prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tascilar, M.; Skinner, H. G.; Rosty, C.; Sohn, T.; Wilentz, R. E.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Adsay, V.; Abrams, R. A.; Cameron, J. L.; Kern, S. E.; Yeo, C. J.; Hruban, R. H.; Goggins, M.

    2001-01-01

    SMAD4 (also called Dpc4) is a tumor suppressor in the TGF-beta signaling pathway that is genetically inactivated in approximately 55% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas. We investigated whether prognosis after surgical resection for invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma is influenced by SMAD4 status.

  12. Synchronous uterine adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma – a case study

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    Kamila Dudzik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous gynecological cancers are rarely described. Those cases account for approximately up to 6% of female genital tract malignancies. The presence of synchronous endometrial adenocarcinoma and gynecological tract neoplasia is rare – the most commonly described is synchronous adenocarcinoma and endometrial ovarian cancer (accounting for 15-20% of ovarian neoplasia and 5% of endometrial cancers. Concomitant uterine carcinosarcoma and ovarian cancer, or endometrial adenocarcinoma are extremely rare. Up till now, only 3 cases of synchronous adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma were described. In the present study a case of 60-year-old woman diagnosed with synchronous endometrial adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma uteri is described. As the preoperative evaluation revealed endometrial adenocarcinoma G2 with intermediate-risk of lymph node metastasis and synchronous leiomyosarcoma G3, total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and systemic lymphadenectomy was performed showing no lymphatic involvement. In the postoperative evaluation the patient was qualified to adenocarcinoma low recurrence-risk group (adenocarcinoma G1 with no LVSI, FIGO IA – no further radiotherapy was required. However, as synchronous leiomyosarcoma G3 was diagnosed, we decided to refer the patient for adjuvant chemotherapy. Contemporary recommendation on the diagnosis and treatment of uterine carcinomas, especially uterine leiomyosarcomas, is also described in this paper. The presented case showed that diagnosis and treatment of women with uterine tumors should be individualized as in the same case an extremely rare cancer type can be present which, consequently, changes the treatment regimen and prognosis.

  13. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix: A case report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is a rare disease as compared with cancer of the colon. It is common in patients in the middle age. Mucinous adenocarcinoma is one of the histological types seen. The usual presentation of patients is acute appendicitis or peri –appendicular abscess. Diagnosis is often made after ...

  14. Laparoscopic treatment of mucinous urachal adenocarcinoma with mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberndoerfer, Marine; Bucher, Pascal; Caviezel, Alessandro; Platon, Alexandra; Ott, Vincent; Egger, Jean-François; Morel, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    We present a case of an asymptomatic 76-year-old woman treated laparoscopically for an urachal mucocele owing to a nonmetastatic urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma. Since laparoscopic en bloc resection of the urachus and partial cystectomy, the patient has been healthy and disease-free for 12 months. Modern surgical treatment of urachal adenocarcinoma is discussed in the light of this case.

  15. Comparison of glycoprotein expression between ovarian and colon adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaupt, H A; Arenas-Elliott, C P; Warhol, M J

    1999-10-01

    Tumor-associated antigens may be expressed as surface glycoproteins. These molecules undergo qualitative and quantitative modifications during cell differentiation and malignant transformation. During malignant transformation, incomplete glycosylation is common, and certain glycosylation pathways are preferred. These antigens might help distinguish between ovarian and colonic adenocarcinomas in the primary and metastatic lesions. Different cytokeratins have been proposed as relatively organ-specific antigens. We used monoclonal antibodies against T1, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, B72.3, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratins 7 and 20 to detect tumor-associated glycoproteins and keratin proteins in ovarian and colonic carcinomas. CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratins 7 and 20 can distinguish between colonic and serous or endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the ovary in both primary and metastatic lesions. Mucinous ovarian adenocarcinomas differed in that they express carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratins 7 and 20 and weakly express CA125. The other glycoprotein antigens were equally expressed by ovarian and colonic adenocarcinomas and therefore were of no use in distinguishing between these 2 entities. A panel of monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratins 7 and 20 antigens, CA125, and carcinoembryonic antigen is useful in differentiating serous and endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the ovary from colonic adenocarcinomas. Mucinous ovarian adenocarcinomas cannot be distinguished from colonic adenocarcinomas using immunohistochemistry.

  16. Serrated pathway adenocarcinomas: molecular and immunohistochemical insights into their recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gurzu

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC developed through serrated pathway seem to present particular behavior compared with the non-serrated ones, but recognition of them is difficult to do. The aim of our paper was to establish some criteria to facilitate their identification.In 170 consecutive CRCs, we performed immunohistochemical staining with Cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and Cytokeratin 20 (CK20 and also with p53 and MLH-1. At the same time, we analyzed BRAF and K-ras mutations and the microsatellite status of CRC.26.47% of cases expressed CK7, and 16.47% were CK20-negative. Diffuse positivity for CK7 was associated in the proximal colon with CK20 negativity or weak positivity, BRAF mutations, lack of K-ras mutations, and p53 and MLH-1 negativity. All these cases were microsatellite-unstable and were diagnosed in stage II. Those cases from the distal colon and rectum that expressed CK7 were K-ras-mutated and had low p53 index and MLH-1 positivity, independent of the CK20 expression.CK7, associated with MLH-1 and p53 expression, and also with the microsatellite status, BRAF and K-ras pattern, might be used to identify the CRC potentially going through serrated pathway. The serrated pathway adenocarcinomas of the proximal colon that do not display the morphological features of this pattern are more frequent CK7+/p53-/MLH-1-/BRAF-mutated/K-ras-wt/MSI cases, but those located in the distal colorectal segments seem to be CK7+/CK20+/p53-/MLH-1+/BRAF wt/K-ras-mutated/MSS cases.

  17. Multigene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    K-ras codon 12 point mutations mRb and p53 gene deletions were examined in tissues from 120 normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were Formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago. The results showed that 12 of 60 (20%) lung adenocarcinomas had mRb deletions. All lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found bearing deleted mRb had p53 deletions (15 of 15; 100%). A significantly higher mutation frequency for K-ras codon 12 point mutations was also found in the lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 24 once-weekly neutron irradiation (10 of 10; 100%) compared with those exposed to 24 or 60 once-weekly γ-ray doses (5 of 10; 50%). The data suggested that p53 and K-ras gene alterations were two contributory factors responsible for the increased incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in B6CF 1 male mice exposed to protracted neutron radiation

  18. Mandibular metastasis of rectum adenocarcinoma: case report

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    Mehmet Ali Çetin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mandibular metastases are quite rare and they constitute less than about %1 of the mandibular malignancies. In mandibular metastatic cases, patients’ complaints generally include bony swelling with pain, tooth pain and tooth loss. Mandibular metastatic lesions mimic periodontal diseases; therefore careful examination is necessary. In differential diagnosis, osteosarcoma, which is a primary bone tumor, primary intraosseous squamous carcinoma, ameloblastoma, and temporomandibular joint diseases should be taken into consideration. Treatment modalities are surgery and chemoradiotherapy. Because of the poor prognosis, the goal of the treatment is only palliative. Case Report: A 51-year-old woman, operated due to rectal adenocarcinoma 3 years previously, was referred to our clinic with a complaint of swelling on the jaw. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and maxillofacial computed tomography revealed a mass that extended to condyle and lead to bone destruction on the right ramus of the mandible. An incisional biopsy was performed. The histopathology was consistent with colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasis. The patient was referred to a medical oncologist. Conclusion: Differential diagnosis of mandibular lesions should be made carefully, and metastatic tumors should be kept in mind. In patients with history of lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal carcinoma or similar tumors, oral findings such as tooth pain and tooth loss should be taken into consideration, as these may be the signs of head and neck metastases. Biopsy must be performed after radiological examination.

  19. External beam radiotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.; Kerr, G.R.; Arnott, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    A series of 243 patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum treated with radiotherapy is presented. Radiotherapy was combined with 5-fluorouracil, or given alone. Seventy-four patients were treated with radical external beam radiotherapy for recurrent or inoperable rectal adenocarcinoma. One hundred and forty-five patients with advanced pelvic tumours or metastases were treated with palliative pelvic radiotherapy. Twenty-four patients with small-volume residual pelvic tumour or who were felt to be at high risk of pelvic recurrence following radical resection received postoperative radiotherapy. Complete tumour regression was seen in 38% of radically treated patients, and 24% of palliatively treated patients. Partial regression was observed in 56% of radically treated patients, and 58% of palliatively treated patients. Long-term local tumour control was more commonly observed for small tumours (< 5 cm diameter). Fifty-eight % of patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy remained free of local recurrence. Survival was significantly better with small tumours. The addition of 5FU did not appear to improve survival or tumour control. (author)

  20. [Markers of stromal invasion during background and precancerous changes of the glandular epithelium and in adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, N V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Zavalishina, L É; Mal'kov, P G

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify stromal invasion when the glandular epithelium of the cervix uteri is involved. It is necessary to draw a clear distinction between its glandular structures and adenocarcinoma in situ, involving the preexisting crypts and invasive glands. An attempt was made to assess the possibilities of using as markers of invasion the following stromal proteins and adhesion molecules: CD44, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, tenascin, and laminin. Fifty-three cases of benign glandular changes, 66 cases of dysplasias and adenocarcinomas in situ, and 47 cases of invasive adenocarcinoma were examined. An immunohistochemical study was performed according to the standard protocol using the antibodies to CD44, laminin, tenascin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin and a semiquantitative assessment of results was made. CD44 was found to be redistributed from the cells to the tumor stroma. CD44 was not detected in the stroma surrounding the intact glands, so were benign epithelial changes. In the tumor environment, there was, on the contrary, a reaction with CD44 in 74.5% of invasive adenocarcinomas cases (p 0.05). CD44 and tenascin are of great diagnostic value in examining invasive and microinvasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are of no diagnostic value in the study groups of pathological processes. Laminin is a potential marker of stromal invasion; however, its expression calls for further investigation.

  1. Genomic abnormalities in invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma correlate with pattern of invasion: biologic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Anjelica; Amemiya, Yutaka; Seth, Arun; Cesari, Matthew; Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    The pattern-based classification system for HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinoma, which classifies tumors based on the destructiveness of stromal invasion, is predictive of the risk of nodal metastases and adverse outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated clinically important molecular alterations in endocervical adenocarcinoma, including KRAS and PIK3CA mutations; however, correlation between the molecular landscape and pathological variables including pattern of invasion has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, 20 endocervical adenocarcinomas were classified using the pattern-based classification system and were subjected to targeted sequencing using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) that surveys hotspot regions of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were correlated with clinical and pathologic variables including pattern of invasion. Five (25%), six (30%), and nine (45%) cases were classified as patterns A, B, and C respectively. Lymph node metastases, advanced stage at presentation and mortality from disease were exclusively seen in destructively invasive tumors (patterns B or C). Prevalent mutations in the cohort involved PIK3CA (30%), KRAS (30%), MET (15%), and RB1 (10%). Most (94%) relevant genomic alterations were present in destructively invasive tumors with PIK3CA, KRAS, and RB1 mutations seen exclusively in pattern B or C subgroups. KRAS mutations correlated with advanced stage at presentation (FIGO stage II or higher). Our findings indicate that the pattern of stromal invasion correlates with genomic abnormalities detected by next-generation sequencing, suggesting that tumors without destructive growth (pattern A) are biologically distinct from those with destructive invasion (patterns B and C), and that pattern B endocervical adenocarcinoma is more closely related to its pattern C counterpart. The pattern-based classification may be used as a triage

  2. Expression of p53 protein in Barrett’s adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia and antrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Most studies of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas have shown a very high rate of p53 gene mutation and/or protein overexpression, but the influence of the tumor site upon the frequency of p53 protein expression has not been evaluated (gastroesophageal junction, Barret's esophagus, and antrum. The aim of our study was to analyze the correlation between the selected clinico-pthological parameters, and p53 protein overexpression in regards to the particular tumor location. Methods. The material comprised 66 surgical specimens; 10 were Barrett’s carcinomas, 25 adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia (type II adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction - EGJ, and 31 adenocarcinomas of the antrum. Immunostaining for p53 protein was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, using the alkaline phosphatase - antialkaline phosphatase (APAAP method. The cases were considered positive for p53 if at least 5% of the tumor cells expressed this protein by immunostaining. Results. There was no significant difference observed between the studied groups in regards to age, sex, Lauren’s classification and tumor differentiation. There was, however, a significant difference observed in the depth of tumor invasion between Barrrett’s adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the cardia compared with the adenocarcinoma of the antrum. Namely, at the time of surgery, both Barrett’s adenocarcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the cardia, were significantly more advanced comparing with the adenocarcinomas of the antrum. Overexpression of p53 was found in 40% (4/10 of Barrett’s adenocarcinomas, 72% (18/25 of adenocarcinoma of the cardia and 65% (20/31 of adenocarcinoma of the antrum. No significant differences in p53 expression in relation to sex, type (Lauren of tumor, depth of invasion, lymph node involvement, or tumor differentiation were observed in any of the analyzed groups of tumors. Patients with more advanced Barrett

  3. Molecular profiling identifies prognostic markers of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Shao, Jinchen; Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Ruiying; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiaohui; Tu, Shichun; Han, Baohui; Yu, Keke

    2017-09-26

    We previously showed that different pathologic subtypes were associated with different prognostic values in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (AC). We hypothesize that differential gene expression profiles of different subtypes may be valuable factors for prognosis in stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. We performed microarray gene expression profiling on tumor tissues micro-dissected from patients with acinar and solid predominant subtypes of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. These patients had undergone a lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection at the Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China in 2012. No patient had preoperative treatment. We performed the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) analysis to look for gene expression signatures associated with tumor subtypes. The histologic subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2015 WHO lung Adenocarcinoma classification. We found that patients with the solid predominant subtype are enriched for genes involved in RNA polymerase activity as well as inactivation of the p53 pathway. Further, we identified a list of genes that may serve as prognostic markers for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Validation in the TCGA database shows that these genes are correlated with survival, suggesting that they are novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, we have uncovered novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma using gene expression profiling in combination with histopathology subtyping.

  4. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Adenocarcinoma In Situ/Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Xie, Dong; Wampfler, Jason A; Cote, Michele L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Le Marchand, Loic; Schwartz, Ann G; Morgenstern, Hal; Christiani, David C; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA). Data from seven case-control studies participating in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) were pooled, resulting in 625 cases of AIS/MIA and 7,403 controls, of whom 170 cases and 3,035 controls were never smokers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status (ever/never), and pack-years of smoking. Study center was included in the models as a random-effects intercept term. Ever versus never exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was positively associated with AIS/MIA incidence in all subjects (ORadj = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93) and in never smokers (ORadj = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.12). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of ORadj across studies (P = 0.01), and the pooled estimates were largely influenced by one large study (40% of all cases and 30% of all controls). These findings provide weak evidence for an effect of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on AIS/MIA incidence. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using the newly recommended classification of subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Rectal adenocarcinoma and transanal endoscopic microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Elbrønd, H; Hesselfeldt, P

    2007-01-01

    of all tumors were classified as benign based on macroscopic appearance; on digital rectal examination, 35% were benign, rectal ultrasound classified 15% as benign, and the preoperative biopsy was benign in 36%. Forty-three cancers (29%) were classified as low risk cancers. High ages were an indication......PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to present short-term results of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) of rectal adenocarcinomas registered in a national database. METHODS: A Danish TEM group was established in 1995. The group organized a database for prospective and consecutive...... registration of all TEM procedures. The perioperative course of all rectal cancers treated with TEM and registered in this database is analysed. RESULTS: One hundred forty-two patients had TEM for rectal cancer. In 43%of the patients, the cancer diagnosis was not recognized before TEM. Eighty-five percent...

  6. Proteomic analysis of pleural effusion from lung adenocarcinoma patients by shotgun strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Shu-Hong; Zhu, Hui-Li

    2014-02-01

    To construct a protein catalogue of malignant pleural effusion from lung adenocarcinoma patients and to screen the potential candidates of biomarkers for diagnostic value in human lung adenocarcinoma. Five malignant pleural effusion samples of lung adenocarcinoma patients were collected from January 2009 to September. A composite sample was analyzed using shotgun strategy. Pleural effusion samples were separated by means of SDS-PAGE. Proteomic analysis was performed by 1D-LC-MS/MS, and then the proteins were identified using SEQUEST software and protein database search. Among 230 unique proteins, 123 proteins were identified with higher confidence levels (at least two unique peptide sequences matched). Most of these proteins have been reported in plasma. However, there are 7 proteins, including JUP protein, suprabasin, annexin A2, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (βig-h3), V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein 4 precursor, ifapsoriasin 2 and actin, cytoplasmic 1 have not been reported in serum. Seven proteins may represent potential candidates of biomarkers. Annexin A2 is of special interest since it may play a role in the regulation of intercellular adhesion and cell proliferation.

  7. Screening for Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Rationale, Recent Progress, Challenges and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Sarmed S.; Ragunath, Krish; Iyer, Prasad G.

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma continue to increase, strategies to counter this need to be explored. Screening for Barrett’s esophagus, which is the known precursor of a large majority of adenocarcinomas, has been debated without a firm consensus. Given evidence for and against perceived benefits of screening, the multitude of challenges in the implementation of such a strategy and in the downstream management of subjects with Barrett’s esophagus who could be diagnosed by screening, support for screening has been modest. Recent advances in form of development and initial accuracy of non-invasive tools for screening, risk assessment tools and biomarker panels to risk stratify subjects with BE, have spurred renewed interest in the early detection of Barrett’s esophagus and related neoplasia, particularly with the advent of effective endoscopic therapy. In this review, we explore in depth, the potential rationale for screening for Barrett’s esophagus, recent advances which have the potential of making screening feasible and also highlight some of the challenges which will have to be overcome to develop an effective approach to improve the outcomes of subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24887058

  8. Assessment of cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea Linn. against human colon adenocarcinoma and vero cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Portulacaceae) is commonly known as purslane in English. In traditional system it is used to cure diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, asthma, and piles, reduce small tumors and inflammations. Aim: To assess cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15) and normal (Vero) cell line. Materials and Methods: Characterization of chloroform extract of P. oleracea by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed. Cytotoxicity (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used for assessment of cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea. The concentrations of 1000–0.05 μg/ml were used in the experiment. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. Results: FTIR spectrum showed the peak at 1019.52 and 1396.21 center. The 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) of chloroform extract of P. oleracea and doxorubicin was 1132.02 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml against human colon adenocarcinoma and 767.60 μg/ml and 2392.71 μg/ml against Vero cell line, respectively. Conclusion: Chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant was less efficient or does not have cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. It was not safe to normal Vero cell line. But, there is a need to isolate, identify, and confirm the phytoconstituents present in extract by sophisticated analytical techniques. PMID:27833374

  9. MRI findings of a huge cyst adenocarcinoma of the palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cyst adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands is a very rare, slow growing, and low-grade malignant neoplasm. It is characterized by predominantly cystic growth with or without the intraluminal papillary component. However, it lacks of any additional specific histopathologic features that characterize other types of salivary carcinomas showing cystic growth. Therefore, definite diagnosis of the cyst adenocarcinoma is difficult and it is often misdiagnosed. It is conceptually the malignant counterpart of the benign cyst adenoma. We present a cyst adenocarcinoma on the palate of a 49-year-old man with special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. The implications of an incidental chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in a resection specimen for colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberts Justin C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL have a significant incidence, which are increasing with the aging population. Evidence has been presented in the literature to suggest that the synchronous presentation of colorectal cancer and B cell CLL may be more than simply coincidental for these two common malignancies. We report an unusual case of a presumed B cell CLL diagnosed on the basis of histological analysis of lymph nodes recovered from a resection specimen for rectal adenocarcinoma. We considered aetiological factors which may have linked the synchronous diagnosis of the two malignancies and the potential implications for the natural history of the two malignancies on one another. Case presentation A 70-year-old male underwent low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for a rectal adenocarcinoma. His co-morbid conditions were chronic obstructive airways disease and ischaemic heart disease. General examination revealed no lymphadenopathy. Full blood count, urea and electrolytes and liver function tests were all within normal limits. As well as confirming a pT3 N1 adenocarcinoma, histological analysis showed lymph nodes with an infiltrate of small lymphoid cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed these cells to be in keeping with B cell CLL. Conclusion Whilst unable to identify any common aetiological factors in the two malignancies in our patient, immunosuppression and genetic abnormalities have been identified as possible bases for an observed epidemiological association between colorectal cancer and haematological malignancies. Examples such as our case of synchronous diagnosis of two malignancies in a patient are likely to increase with the aging population. The potential affects of one malignancy on the natural history of the other warrants further study. In our case, we considered that slow progression of the B cell CLL may increase the risk of recurrent rectal adenocarcinoma.

  11. International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G; Geisinger, Kim R; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G; Powell, Charles A; Riely, Gregory J; Van Schil, Paul E; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H M; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W; Hirsch, Fred R; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2011-02-01

    % disease-specific survival, respectively. AIS and MIA are usually nonmucinous but rarely may be mucinous. Invasive adenocarcinomas are classified by predominant pattern after using comprehensive histologic subtyping with lepidic (formerly most mixed subtype tumors with nonmucinous BAC), acinar, papillary, and solid patterns; micropapillary is added as a new histologic subtype. Variants include invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (formerly mucinous BAC), colloid, fetal, and enteric adenocarcinoma. This classification provides guidance for small biopsies and cytology specimens, as approximately 70% of lung cancers are diagnosed in such samples. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), in patients with advanced-stage disease, are to be classified into more specific types such as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, whenever possible for several reasons: (1) adenocarcinoma or NSCLC not otherwise specified should be tested for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations as the presence of these mutations is predictive of responsiveness to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, (2) adenocarcinoma histology is a strong predictor for improved outcome with pemetrexed therapy compared with squamous cell carcinoma, and (3) potential life-threatening hemorrhage may occur in patients with squamous cell carcinoma who receive bevacizumab. If the tumor cannot be classified based on light microscopy alone, special studies such as immunohistochemistry and/or mucin stains should be applied to classify the tumor further. Use of the term NSCLC not otherwise specified should be minimized. This new classification strategy is based on a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma that incorporates clinical, molecular, radiologic, and surgical issues, but it is primarily based on histology. This classification is intended to support clinical practice, and research investigation and clinical trials. As EGFR mutation is a validated predictive marker for response and progression

  12. Adenocarcinoma primario del apéndice vermiforme Primary adenocarcinoma of vermiformis appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenén Rodríguez Fernández

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El adenocarcinoma primario del apéndice vermiforme es una enfermedad infrecuente, de diagnóstico preoperatorio excepcional y con diversos criterios de tratamiento quirúrgico. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia de esta enfermedad e identificar los elementos diagnósticos y las opciones de tratamiento adecuadas según resultados de seguimiento posoperatorio. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo de 10 pacientes con diagnóstico histopatológico de adenocarcinoma primario del apéndice vermiforme, operados en el Hospital Provincial Docente «Saturnino Lora» de Santiago de Cuba, en un período de 19 años (1990-2008. Los pacientes fueron atendidos en la consulta de seguimiento posoperatorio de cáncer colorrectal y a todos se les prescribió monoquimioterapia adyuvante con 5-fluoruracilo. RESULTADOS. La serie representó el 0,12 % de los pacientes apendicectomizados y el 3 % de los consultados en este período. Predominaron los pacientes del sexo masculino con edades por encima de la quinta década de la vida y manifestaciones clínicas similares a la apendicitis aguda. Al 70 % de éstos se le practicó hemicolectomía derecha por adenocarcinoma primario invasivo y al resto, apendicectomía. La evolución a los 5 años fue satisfactoria en 8 enfermos; 2 fallecieron por recurrencia tumoral, 2 años después de la operación inicial. CONCLUSIONES. Todos los apéndices extirpados se deben examinar histopatológicamente para detectar esta entidad infrecuente, que el cirujano no siempre puede diagnosticar antes de la operación ni durante ella, pues confunde con la apendicitis aguda. La hemicolectomía derecha está justificada en el tipo invasivo y la apendicectomía, en el no invasivo, siempre que los pacientes reciban tratamiento adyuvante y asistan a la consulta de seguimiento posoperatorio.INTRODUCTION. The primary adenocarcinoma of vermiformis appendix is a uncommon disease with an

  13. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  14. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  15. Immunohistochemistry for cell polarity protein lethal giant larvae 2 differentiates pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovsky, Mikhail; Dresser, Karen; Woda, Bruce; Mino-Kenudson, Mari

    2010-06-01

    Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor to ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas that shows gastric differentiation. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 has the highest potential to progress to adenocarcinoma, and its distinction from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias is important for clinical management. However, morphologic grading of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia suffers from significant interobserver variability. A product of cell polarity gene lethal giant larvae 2 is a marker of gastric foveolar epithelium expressed in a basolateral fashion, which is lost or mislocalized in gastric epithelial dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. In this study, we investigated a role of lethal giant larvae 2 expression in differentiating low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, that is, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1 and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-2, from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The immunohistochemical patterns of lethal giant larvae 2 expression were examined in normal pancreatic ducts, 48 pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of all histologic grades, and 91 adenocarcinomas on a tissue microarray or conventional sections. The expression pattern was recorded as basolateral, cytoplasmic, negative, or combinations of any of them. Whereas normal duct epithelia did not exhibit lethal giant larvae immunoreactivity, all but one lesion of low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia showed basolateral lethal giant larvae staining. Conversely, all lesions of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and adenocarcinoma showed loss of lethal giant larvae 2 staining and/or its cytoplasmic localization. Interestingly, a basolateral expression was focally seen in 4 adenocarcinomas with a foamy gland pattern and was always admixed with negatively stained areas. In conclusion, our results show that low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias express lethal giant larvae 2

  16. Cell death in cancer therapy of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagryazhskaya, Anna; Gyuraszova, Katarina; Zhivotovsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the main cause of all cancer-related deaths in the world, with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) being the most common subtype of this fatal disease. Lung ADC is often diagnosed at advanced stages involving disseminated metastatic tumors. This is particularly important for the successful development of new cancer therapy approaches. The high resistance of lung ADC to conventional radio- and chemotherapies represents a major challenge to treatment effectiveness. Here we discuss recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of ADC's broad resistance to treatment and its possible therapeutic implications. A number of driving oncogenic alterations were identified in a subset of lung ADCs, making them suitable for targeted therapies directed towards specific cancer-associated molecular changes. In addition, we discuss the molecular aberrations common in lung ADC that are currently being exploited or are potentially important for targeted cancer therapy, as well as limitations of this type of therapy. Furthermore, we highlight possible treatment modalities that hold promise for overcoming resistance to targeted therapies as well as alternative treatment options such as immunotherapies that are potentially promising for improving the clinical outcome of lung ADC patients.

  17. Potential relevance of pre-operative quality of life questionnaires to identify candidates for surgical treatment of genital prolapse: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvin Christian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate prolapse-related symptoms, quality of life and sexuality of patients with validated questionnaires before and after surgery for genital prolapse and assess relevance of such an evaluation to select women for surgery. Methods From November 2009 to April 2010, 16 patients operated on for genital prolapse of grade greater than or equal to 2 (POP-Q classification were evaluated prospectively by three questionnaires of quality of life Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7 and Pelvic Organ Prolaps/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12. Data were collected the day before surgery and 6 weeks postoperatively. Results Eleven patients had laparoscopic surgery and five vaginal surgery. There was a significant decrease in pelvic heaviness, vaginal discomfort and urinary symptoms after surgery. The score of symptoms of prolapse, the PFDI-20 score was 98.5 preoperatively and 31.8 postoperatively (p Conclusions This study suggests that surgery improves quality of life of patients with genital prolapse. Quality of life questionnaires could help select good candidates for surgery. Further studies are required to determine threshold to standardize indications of surgery.

  18. Potential of select intermediate-volatility organic compounds and consumer products for secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation under relevant urban conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Li, Lijie; Chen, Chia-li; Kacarab, Mary; Peng, Weihan; Price, Derek; Xu, Jin; Cocker, David R.

    2018-04-01

    Emissions of certain low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) are considered exempt to volatile organic compounds (VOC) regulations due to their low evaporation rates. However, these compounds may still play a role in ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone formation. The LVP-VOCs selected for this work are categorized as intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) according to their vapor pressures and molecular formulas. In this study, the evaporation rates of 14 select IVOCs are investigated with half of them losing more than 95% of their mass in less than one month. Further, SOA and ozone formation are presented from 11 select IVOCs and 5 IVOC-containing generic consumer products under atmospherically relevant conditions using varying radical sources (NOx and/or H2O2) and a surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixture. Benzyl alcohol (0.41), n-heptadecane (0.38), and diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (0.16) are determined to have SOA yields greater than 0.1 in the presence of NOx and a surrogate urban hydrocarbon mixture. IVOCs also influence ozone formation from the surrogate urban mixture by impacting radical levels and NOx availability. The addition of lab created generic consumer products has a weak influence on ozone formation from the surrogate mixture but strongly affects SOA formation. The overall SOA and ozone formation of the generic consumer products could not be explained solely by the results of the pure IVOC experiments.

  19. Progesterone receptor levels independently predict survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Anette Lynge

    1995-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) contents were determined by biochemical (dextran charcoal-coated (DCC) assay) and immunohistochemical (ICA) methods in biopsies from 145 primary endometrial adenocarcinomas and those with eligible receptor measurements were analyzed with respect...

  20. A comparison of multimodal therapy and surgery for esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, T N

    1996-08-15

    Uncontrolled studies suggest that a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy improves the survival of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. We conducted a prospective, randomized trial comparing surgery alone with combined chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery.

  1. Metastases from lung adenocarcinoma within a leiomyoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Rush

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: We report one of the first cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma metastatic to a uterine leiomyoma. A personal history of cancer should always be considered in patients presenting with symptomatic leiomyoma.

  2. Induction of apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induction of apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells by tannic acid and resveratrol. Ahu Soyocak, Didem Turgut Cosan, Ayse Basaran, Hasan Veysi Gunes, Irfan Degirmenci, Fezan Sahin Mutlu ...

  3. BITC Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas to TRAIL-induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Wicker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a greater than 95% mortality rate and short survival after diagnosis. Chemotherapeutic resistance hinders successful treatment. This resistance is often associated with mutations in codon 12 of the K-Ras gene (K-Ras 12, which is present in over 90% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Codon 12 mutations maintain Ras in a constitutively active state leading to continuous cellular proliferation. Our study determined if TRAIL resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinomas with K-Ras 12 mutations could be overcome by first sensitizing the cells with Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC. BITC is a component of cruciferous vegetables and a cell cycle inhibitor. BxPC3, MiaPaCa2 and Panc-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines were examined for TRAIL resistance. Our studies show BITC induced TRAIL sensitization by dual activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  4. Paraneoplastic Acrokeratosis (Bazex Syndrome associated with lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-09-01

    This case reports an unusual association of Bazex syndrome with lung adenocarcinoma and highlights the importance of recognizing it for an early diagnosis and a better prognosis of the underlying disease.

  5. Vaginal laparoscopically assisted radical trachelectomy in cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoponi, Sara; Diestro, Maria Dolores; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Serrano, María; Santiago, Javier De

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition that has shown an increase in incidence, especially in the 20- to 34-year-old group. Adenocarcinoma represents about 5-10% of all tumours in this area, and, among these, the clear cell type accounts for 4-9%. This type of tumour affects mainly postmenopausal women but also occurs in young women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). The prognosis for adenocarcinoma of the cervix is poor overall and worse for the clear cell variety. This article discusses a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix, unrelated to intrauterine exposure to DES, in a woman of childbearing age who wished to preserve her fertility and was therefore treated by radical vaginal trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.

  6. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with osseous metastases in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee-Parritz, D.E.; Lamb, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy was used to diagnose osseous metastasis of prostatic adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old dog with neck pain and ataxia and a large, sensitive prostate gland. Although radiography revealed a normal spine, prostatic fluid cytologic and ultrasonographic findings were compatible with prostatitis or neoplasia. Scintigraphic hot spots were seen in the axial skeleton, ribs, pelvis, humerus, and femur and corresponded to sites of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma

  7. Multiple urinary bladder masses from metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Choo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that manifested with multiple exophytic intravesical masses, mimicking a multifocal primary bladder tumor. Biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated palliatively with external beam radiotherapy to prevent possible symptoms from local tumor progression. This case illustrates that when a patient with known prostate cancer presents with multifocal bladder tumors, the possibility of metastatic prostate cancer should be considered.

  8. Clinicopathological Significance of Micropapillary Pattern in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Jung-Soo; Kim, Joo Heon

    2017-07-06

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics of the micropapillary (MP) subtype and its correlation with survival in lung adenocarcinoma. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, including the incidence, sex, smoking history, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, distant metastasis, genetic alteration, and prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma with the MP pattern through a meta-analysis. From 48 eligible studies, 19,502 lung adenocarcinomas were included. The incidence rate of the MP pattern was 0.101 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.075-0.136]. There was no significant difference between stage I and III tumors. Lung adenocarcinoma with the MP pattern showed higher rates of lymphatic invasion (0.526, 95% CI 0.403-0.645). MP pattern was found in 0.150 (95% CI 0.008-0.790) of lung adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis. In lung adenocarcinoma with the MP pattern, the estimated rates of ALK, EGFR, and KRAS mutations were 0.102 (95% CI 0.027-0.322), 0.620 (95% CI 0.444-0.769), and 0.118 (95% CI 0.027-0.393), respectively. The MP pattern of lung adenocarcinoma was significantly correlated with worse overall and disease-free survival rates (hazard ratio 1.704, 95% CI 1.216-2.387, and 2.082, 95% CI 1.541-2.813, respectively). Taken together, identification of the MP pattern in lung adenocarcinoma is useful for prediction of clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients.

  9. Microglia in the mouse retina alter the structure and function of retinal pigmented epithelial cells: a potential cellular interaction relevant to AMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Ma

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a leading cause of legal blindness in the elderly in the industrialized word. While the immune system in the retina is likely to be important in AMD pathogenesis, the cell biology underlying the disease is incompletely understood. Clinical and basic science studies have implicated alterations in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer as a locus of early change. Also, retinal microglia, the resident immune cells of the retina, have been observed to translocate from their normal position in the inner retina to accumulate in the subretinal space close to the RPE layer in AMD eyes and in animal models of AMD.In this study, we examined the effects of retinal microglia on RPE cells using 1 an in vitro model where activated retinal microglia are co-cultured with primary RPE cells, and 2 an in vivo mouse model where retinal microglia are transplanted into the subretinal space. We found that retinal microglia induced in RPE cells 1 changes in RPE structure and distribution, 2 increased expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory, chemotactic, and pro-angiogenic molecules, and 3 increased extent of in vivo choroidal neovascularization in the subretinal space.These findings share similarities with important pathological features found in AMD and suggest the relevance of microglia-RPE interactions in AMD pathogenesis. We speculate that the migration of retinal microglia into the subretinal space in early stages of the disease induces significant changes in RPE cells that perpetuate further microglial accumulation, increase inflammation in the outer retina, and fosters an environment conducive for the formation of neovascular changes responsible for much of vision loss in advanced AMD.

  10. Expression of 5-HT2A receptors in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons projecting to nucleus accumbens. Potential relevance for atypical antipsychotic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocci, Giuseppe; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Adell, Albert; Cortés, Roser; Artigas, Francesc

    2014-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in higher brain functions altered in schizophrenia. Classical antipsychotic drugs modulate information processing in cortico-limbic circuits via dopamine D2 receptor blockade in nucleus accumbens (NAc) whereas atypical antipsychotic drugs preferentially target cortical serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The brain networks involved in the therapeutic action of atypical drugs are not fully understood. Previous work indicated that medial PFC (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to ventral tegmental area express 5-HT2A receptors suggesting that atypical antipsychotic drugs modulate dopaminergic activity distally, via 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2A-R) blockade in PFC. Since the mPFC also projects heavily to NAc, we examined whether NAc-projecting pyramidal neurons also express 5-HT2A-R. Using a combination of retrograde tracing experiments and in situ hybridization we report that a substantial proportion of mPFC-NAc pyramidal neurons in rat brain express 5-HT2A-R mRNA in a layer- and area-specific manner (up to 68% in layer V of contralateral cingulate). The functional relevance of 5-HT2A-R to modulate mPFC-NAc projections was examined in dual-probe microdialysis experiments. The application of the preferential 5-HT2A-R agonist DOI into mPFC enhanced glutamate release locally (+66 ± 18%) and in NAc (+74 ± 12%) indicating that cortical 5-HT2A-R activation augments glutamatergic transmission in NAc. Since NAc integrates glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs, blockade of 5-HT2A-R by atypical drugs may reduce cortical excitatory inputs onto GABAergic neurons of NAc, adding to dopamine D2 receptor blockade. Together with previous observations, the present results suggest that atypical antipsychotic drugs may control the activity of the mesolimbic pathway at cell body and terminal level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salt-stimulation of caesium accumulation in the euryhaline green microalga Chlorella salina: potential relevance to the development of a biological Cs-removal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S.V.; Codd, G.A.; Gadd, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of Cs + by Chlorella salina was 28-fold greater in cells incubated in the presence than in the absence of 0.5 M-NaCl. An approximate 70% removal of external Cs + resulted after 15 h incubation of cells with 50 μ;M-CsCl and 0.5 M-NaCl. LiCl also had a stimulatory effect on Cs + uptake, although mannitol did not. Cs + influx increased with increasing external NaCl concentration and was maximal between 25-500 mM-NaCl at approximately 4 nmol Cs + h−1 (10 6 cells) −1 . Little effect on Cs + uptake resulted from the presence of Mg 2+ or Ca 2+ or from varying the external pH, and Cs + was relatively non-toxic towards C. salina. At increasing cell densities (from 4 × 10 5 to 1 × 10 7 cells ml +1 ), decreasing amounts of Cs + were accumulated per cell although the rate of Cs + removal from the external medium was still greatest at the higher cell densities examined. Freely suspended C. salina and cell-loaded alginate microbeads accumulated similar levels of Cs + , however, 46% of total Cs + uptake was attributable to the calcium-alginate matrix in the latter case. When Cs + -loaded cells were subjected to hypoosmotic shock, loss of cellular Cs + occurred allowing easy Cs + recovery. This loss exceeded 90% of cellular Cs + when cells were washed with solutions containing ≤ 50 mM-NaCl between consecutive Cs + uptake periods; these cells subsequently lost their ability to accumulate large amounts of Cs + . Maximal Cs + uptake (approximately 85.1% removal after three 15 h incubations) occurred when cells were washed with a solution containing 500 mM-NaCl and 200 mM-KCl between incubations. The relevance of these results to the possible use of C. salina in a salt-dependent biological Cs-removal process is discussed. (author)

  12. Poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with rapid progression in a young man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Koji; Ishiyama, Tomoharu; Takeshita, Akiko; Matsumoto, Hidekazu; Jingu, Akira; Kikuchi, Jiro; Yamaya, Hideyuki; Ohe, Rintaro; Ishizawa, Tetsuya

    2018-04-16

    Pancreatic cancer in young adults is very rare. We report a case of young-onset poorly differentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with rapid progression and poor prognosis in a 31-year-old Japanese man with no obvious family history of malignancy. Preoperative examinations revealed a mass lesion in the body of the pancreas, accompanied by a slightly dilated main pancreatic duct distal to the mass lesion. Pancreatic cancer with acute pancreatitis was suspected because of an elevation of serum pancreatic enzyme and tumor marker, along with imaging findings. Distal pancreatectomy with resection of the common hepatic artery and splenectomy along with lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopically, the tumor was mainly composed of poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma. The postoperative course was uneventful, but the patient had multiple liver metastases 2 months postoperatively, in spite of adjuvant chemotherapy, and died 8 months postoperatively. This case may represent a rare instance of young-onset poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma with rapid progression and may indicate potential risk factors of pancreatic cancer in young adults.

  13. Anti-tumor effects of gene therapy with GALV membrane fusion glycoprotein in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Yang, Jian-ru; Fu, Xin-ping; Jiang, Yue-quan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the efficacy of gene therapy of lung adenocarcinoma using specifically controlled type I herpes simplex virus recombinant vector expressing Gibbon ape leukemia virus membrane fusion glycoprotein gene (GALV.fus). Recombinant HSV-I plasmid carrying target transgene was constructed, and recombinant viral vector was generated in Vero cells using Lipofectamine transfection. Viral vector was introduced into lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells or human fetal fibroblast HFL-I GNHu 5 cells, or inoculated into human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice. The anti-tumor and cytotoxic effects of GALV-FMG, the transgene, were examined in these cell and animal models. Expression of GALV-FMG in xenographs achieved 100 % tumorigenicity. Recombinant HSV-I viral vector also exhibited significant tumor cell killing effect in vitro. Relative survival rates of tumor cells treated with GALV-FMG or control vectors were, respectively, 20 and 70 %. GALV.fus has a potent anti-tumor effect against lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. This anti-tumor potential provides foundation for further studies with this vector.

  14. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma mutation profile in smokers with smoking-related interstitial fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primiani A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Primiani,1 Dora Dias-Santagata,1 A John Iafrate,1 Richard L Kradin1,2 1Pathology Service, 2Pulmonary Medicine/Critical Care Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Cigarette smoking is an established cause of lung cancer. However, pulmonary fibrosis is also an independent risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF has recently been reported. We hypothesized that adenocarcinomas in lungs with SRIF might show distinct molecular changes and examined the molecular phenotype of 168 resected lung adenocarcinomas in lungs with and without SRIF. The diagnosis of SRIF was determined by histological examination, based on the presence of alveolar septal thickening, due to pauci-inflamed, hyalinized, “ropy” collagen, in areas of lung greater than 1 cm away from the tumor. Tumors were concomitantly examined genotypically for mutations in genes frequently altered in cancer, including EGFR and KRAS, by SNaPshot and by fluorescence in situ hybridization for possible ALK rearrangements. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ROS1 rearrangement (n=36 and/or MET amplification (n=31 were performed when no mutation was identified by either SNaPshot or ALK analysis. Sixty-five cases (38.7% showed SRIF, which was distributed in all lobes of the lungs examined. No differences were observed in sex, average age, or smoking history in patients with and without SRIF. There was no difference in either the percent or types of adenocarcinoma genetic mutations in patients with SRIF versus those without. This data suggests that SRIF does not represent an independent risk factor for the development of the major known and targeted mutations seen in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, additional research is required to investigate the potential significance of SRIF in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Keywords: lung, cancer, smoking, SRIF

  15. A clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation: case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chengsheng Zhang,1,2 Wei Zhang,1,2 Dianbin Mu,1 Xuetao Shi,1 Lei Zhao1,2 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: An 80-year-old male was referred to our department for a gallbladder mass. He denied any history of alcohol consumption or cholecystitis and smoking. Hepatitis B surface antigen test and antihepatitis C antibody test were found to be negative. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were elevated (CA19-9 was 59.92 U/mL and carcinoembryonic antigen was 12.64 ng/mL, whereas alpha-fetoprotein was below the normal limit (2.46 ng/mL. Computed tomography scan revealed a solid mass with measurements of 4.6×5.6×7.1 cm, which nearly filled the whole gallbladder space. Radical cholecystectomy, including segments IV B and V of the liver and lymphadenectomy, was performed. The neoplasm in gallbladder was completely resected, and the patient obtained a negative margin. Histological and immunohistochemical profile suggested a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation. After reviewing the literature, we reported that this case is the first identified case of cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with extensive hepatoid differentiation. However, clinical features of clear cell adenocarcinoma with hepatoid differentiation remain unclear due to the extremely rare incidence. There was no indication of adjuvant chemotherapy and no literature has been reported on the application of chemotherapy. This case showed a promising clinical outcome after curative resection, which indicated that surgical treatment could be potentially considered for suitable patients. Keywords: gallbladder, clear cell adenocarcinoma, hepatoid differentiation 

  16. Some aspects of lung adenocarcinoma in radiological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajkiewicz, L.; Drop, A.; Rosinska-Bogusiewicz, K.; Zdunek, M.

    2004-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is becoming an increasingly common histological type of lung neoplasms diagnosed nowadays. Some manifestations of this tumor are poorly known due to wide polymorphism of imaging lesions.The paper presents and discusses the examples of rare forms of lung adenocarcinoma in radiography and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). A similarly wide spectrum of imaging lesions is found in alveolar cell carcinomas which are now included among the histological subtypes of adenocarcinoma. It is assumed that HRCT images of localized alveolar cell carcinoma forms are highly suggestive diagnostically. Recently, much attention has been focused on comparative HRCT and histopathological studies of peripheral adenocarcinoma nodules < 2 cm. It has been demonstrated that small nodules of adenocarcinoma characterized by 'ground-glass' HRCT images and slow growth are in situ lesions with good prognosis. Moreover, serial CT examinations showed that in cases of nodule progression, evolution from pure 'ground-glass' forms through mixed changes to full consolidation can be observed. This is associated with transformation of the lesion into its invasive histological form and rapid growth. The paper discusses also the causes of diagnostic errors in early forms of lung neoplasms, particularly of adenocarcinomas. Good prospects of early diagnosis and improvement of treatment results are associated with CT screening of lung neoplasms. (author)

  17. Intramucosal adenocarcinoma of the ileum originated 40 years after ileosigmoidostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameshima Shinichi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBAs are rare carcinomas. They are asymptomatic and usually neither endoscopy nor contrast studies are performed for screening Case presentation A 72-year-old Japanese male had a positive fecal occult blood test at a regular check-up in 2006. He suffered appendicitis and received an ileosigmoidostomy in 1966. A colonoscopy revealed an irregular mucosal lesion with an unclear margin at the ileum side of the anastomosis. A mucosal biopsy specimen showed adenocarcinoma histopathologically. Excision of the anastomosis was performed for this patient. The resected specimen showed a flat mucosal lesion with a slight depression at the ileum adjacent to the anastomosis. Histological examination revealed a well differentiated intramucosal adenocarcinoma (adenocarcinoma in situ. Immunohistological staining demonstrated the overexpression of p53 protein in the adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma of the ileum at such an early stage is a very rare event. In this case, there is a possibility that the ileosigmoidostomy resulted in a back flow of colonic stool to the ileum that caused the carcinogenesis of the small intestine.

  18. Early-stage mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizawa T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Nizawa1, Toshiyuki Oshitari1, Ryuta Kimoto1, Fusae Kajita1, Jiro Yotsukura1, Kaoru Asanagi1, Takayuki Baba1, Yoko Takahashi2, Takashi Oide2, Takako Kiyokawa2, Takashi Kishimoto2, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We present the findings of an early-stage primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma in the lower eyelid of a Japanese patient. The patient was a 73-year-old man who had had a nodule on the left lower eyelid for two years. He was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of a swollen chalazion. The clinical and histopathological records were reviewed and the mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography excluded systemic metastases. After the histopathological findings, a complete surgical excision of the margins of the adenocarcinoma was performed, with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. After the final histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with a primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the left eyelid. Six months after the surgery, no recurrence has been observed. Because the appearance of mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid is quite variable, the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. A complete surgical excision is recommended.Keywords: complete surgical excision, eyelid, initial stage, mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma

  19. The human relevance of the renal tumor-inducing potential of d-limonene in male rats: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, W G; Lehman-McKeeman, L D

    1991-02-01

    initiated cells. The scientific data base demonstrates that the tumorigenic activity of d-limonene in male rats is not relevant to humans. The three major lines of evidence supporting the human safety of d-limonene are (1) the male rat specificity of the nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity; (2) the pivotal role that alpha 2u-globulin plays in the toxicity, as evidenced by the complete lack of toxicity in other species despite the presence of structurally similar proteins; and (3) the lack of genotoxicity of both d-limonene and d-limonene-1,2-oxide, supporting the concept of a nongenotoxic mechanism, namely, sustained renal cell proliferation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  20. Evaluation of the new IASLC/ATS/ERS proposed classification of adenocarcinoma based on lepidic pattern in patients with pathological stage IA pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagiri, Tomoyuki; Sawabata, Noriyoshi; Morii, Eiichi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Shintani, Yasushi; Funaki, Soichiro; Okumura, Meinoshin

    2014-11-01

    The International association for the study of cancer (IASLC)/American thoracic society (ATS)/European respiratory society (ERS) has established a new subclassification of lung adenocarcinoma, especially for the lepidic pattern component, formerly called bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma (BAC). According to the new classification, BAC has been classified into the following 4 main subtypes: adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), invasive adenocarcinoma (IA), and variants of invasive adenocarcinoma (VIA). An observational study was conducted to validate this classification in patients with pathological stage IA pulmonary adenocarcinoma. 147 patients treated for pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma by complete resection at Osaka University Medical Hospital from January 1993 to December 2002 were assessed. The tumor specimens of the cohort were classified into the 4 subgroups. In addition, these groups were compared for various prognostic factors. Adenocarcinoma in situ was observed in 30 patients, MIA in 8, IA in 104, and VIA in 5 patients, with 5-year survival rates of 100, 100, 85.5, and 60.0 %, respectively. The relationship between the histological classification and K-ras mutation was significant (p classification for pulmonary adenocarcinoma in patients with pathological stage IA pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The difference between AIS and IA may depend on the proliferation of the carcinoma. In addition, the difference between VIA and the other adenocarcinoma types may depend on genetic factors, especially K-ras mutations.

  1. IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljan Perak Renata

    2012-11-01

    = 0.031. Patients with IMP3 overexpression more often had distant metastases than patients with negative IMP3, 55.5% versus 33.3% (P = 0.033. Non solid subtypes with IMP3 overexpression developed distant metastasis more common than non solid subtypes with negative IMP3, 72% versus 35% (P = 0.028. Conclusions Expression of IMP3 correlates with solid subtype and with distant metastases regardless of histological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1966211581795258 Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Das Lungenkarzinom kommt meistens als nicht resektabler Tumor vor und die Diagnose kann nur in kleinen Biopsaten oder zytologisch gestellt werden. In der Gruppe der nicht kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinome kann der nicht anders spezifizierte Adenokarzinom Phänotyp mit Hilfe der Antikörper TTF-1 und Napsin A diagnostiziert werden. Die Expression des onkoföetalen Proteins IMP3 ist bei humanen Karzinomen mit agressivem Verhalten und metastatischem Potential verbunden. In dieser Studie korreliert die Expression von IMP3 mit TTF-1, Napsin A, histologischem Typ und klinischem Staging des Lungenkarzinoms. Wir waren daran interessiert, ob Fernmetastasen mit IMP3 Überexpression assoziiert sind, unabhängig von der histologischen Subtyp von Adenokarzinom. Methode In der retrospektiven Studie wurden die von 2006 bis 2009 im Klinischem Krankenhaus Split, Kroatien diagnostizerte Adenokarzinome der Lunge von 105 Patienten analysiert. Die klinischen Daten stammten aus der Abteilung für Pulmologie und im Falle des Todes vom Todesregister. Die Paraffinblöcke der primären Lungenbiopsate dieser Patienten wurden im Institut für Pathologie mit der indirekter Enzym - Immunohistochemie mittels Kombination der Antikörper gegen IMP3, Napsin A und TTF1 untersucht. 15 Fälle aus der Analyse aufgrund unzureichender Material ausgeschlossen. Es wurde eine statistische Untersuchung durchgeführt und Werte weniger als 0.05 P wurden als

  2. IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    with IMP3 overexpression more often had distant metastases than patients with negative IMP3, 55.5% versus 33.3% (P = 0.033). Non solid subtypes with IMP3 overexpression developed distant metastasis more common than non solid subtypes with negative IMP3, 72% versus 35% (P = 0.028). Conclusions Expression of IMP3 correlates with solid subtype and with distant metastases regardless of histological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1966211581795258 Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Das Lungenkarzinom kommt meistens als nicht resektabler Tumor vor und die Diagnose kann nur in kleinen Biopsaten oder zytologisch gestellt werden. In der Gruppe der nicht kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinome kann der nicht anders spezifizierte Adenokarzinom Phänotyp mit Hilfe der Antikörper TTF-1 und Napsin A diagnostiziert werden. Die Expression des onkoföetalen Proteins IMP3 ist bei humanen Karzinomen mit agressivem Verhalten und metastatischem Potential verbunden. In dieser Studie korreliert die Expression von IMP3 mit TTF-1, Napsin A, histologischem Typ und klinischem Staging des Lungenkarzinoms. Wir waren daran interessiert, ob Fernmetastasen mit IMP3 Überexpression assoziiert sind, unabhängig von der histologischen Subtyp von Adenokarzinom. Methode In der retrospektiven Studie wurden die von 2006 bis 2009 im Klinischem Krankenhaus Split, Kroatien diagnostizerte Adenokarzinome der Lunge von 105 Patienten analysiert. Die klinischen Daten stammten aus der Abteilung für Pulmologie und im Falle des Todes vom Todesregister. Die Paraffinblöcke der primären Lungenbiopsate dieser Patienten wurden im Institut für Pathologie mit der indirekter Enzym - Immunohistochemie mittels Kombination der Antikörper gegen IMP3, Napsin A und TTF1 untersucht. 15 Fälle aus der Analyse aufgrund unzureichender Material ausgeschlossen. Es wurde eine statistische Untersuchung durchgeführt und Werte weniger als 0.05 P wurden als stat

  3. Hypothyroidism in a dog after surgery and radiation therapy for a functional thyroid adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.W.; Price, G.S.; Spodnick, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was diagnosed in a dog which had undergone unilateral thyroid lobectomy and external beam irradiation (48 Gy in 3 Gy fractions) for a functional cystic thyroid adenocarcinoma. Hypothyroidism became biochemically apparent within 4 months of completion of radiation therapy, and clinically apparent within 7 months. Clinical signs resolved after thyroid hormone supplementation. The potential for alterations in thyroid function should be considered in any animal undergoing radiation therapy in which the thyroid gland is included in the radiation field. This potential may be greater if surgery and radiation are combined

  4. Improved Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Jaundiced and Non-Jaundiced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Patients through the Combination of Routine Clinical Markers Associated to Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Ferri

    Full Text Available There is still no reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9 is a tumor marker only recommended for pancreatic adenocarcinoma follow-up. One of the clinical problems lies in distinguishing between this cancer and other benign pancreatic diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. In this study we will assess the value of panels of serum molecules related to pancreatic cancer physiopathology to determine whether alone or in combination could help to discriminate between these two pathologies.CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, C-reactive protein, albumin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 were measured using routine clinical analyzers in a cohort of 47 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 20 chronic pancreatitis and 15 healthy controls.The combination of CA 19-9, IGF-1 and albumin resulted in a combined area under the curve (AUC of 0.959 with 93.6% sensitivity and 95% specificity, much higher than CA 19-9 alone. An algorithm was defined to classify the patients as chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer with the above specificity and sensitivity. In an independent validation group of 20 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 13 chronic pancreatitis patients, the combination of the four molecules classified correctly all pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 12 out of 13 chronic pancreatitis patients.Although this panel of markers should be validated in larger cohorts, the high sensitivity and specificity values and the convenience to measure these parameters in clinical laboratories shows great promise for improving pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosis.

  5. HPLC-SPE-NMR characterization of major metabolites in Salvia fruticosa Mill. extract with antifungal potential: relevance of carnosic acid, carnosol, and hispidulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchou, Vassiliki; Kanetis, Loukas; Charalambous, Zenovia; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Gekas, Vassilis; Goulas, Vlasios

    2015-01-21

    Plant pathogenic fungi are considered of significant economic importance for adversely affecting both quantitatively and qualitatively fresh and processed produce. Extracts of Salvia fruticosa were initially screened for their antifungal activity, and the ethyl acetate fraction, being the most active, was further analyzed using HPLC-SPE-NMR hyphenation. The methoxylated flavones hispidulin, salvigenin, and cirsimaritin and the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol, and 12-methoxycarnosic acid were identified as the major components of the extract. In addition, the concentration levels of all identified components were determined using q-NMR. The antifungal activity of the crude extract and selected phytochemicals was estimated against the fungal species Aspergillus tubingensis, Botrytis cinerea, and Penicillium digitatum. The estimated MIC and MFC values of the ethyl acetate extract of S. fruticosa, as well as three of its major constituents, carnosic acid, carnosol, and hispidulin, support their antifungal activity, especially against B. cinerea and P. digitatum, suggesting their potential use in food and agricultural systems.

  6. Robotic assisted laparoscopic partial cystectomy and urachal resection for urachal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Philippe E; Correa, Jose J

    2009-01-01

    Standard treatment for urachal adenocarcinomas is open partial cystectomy and urachal resection; however, minimally invasive surgical approaches including laparoscopic and recently described robotic assisted laparoscopic partial cystectomy and urachal resection is feasible with potential less morbidity. A case of robotic assisted partial cystectomy and urachal resection for urachal adenocarcinoma is presented. Few articles in the literature have being published describing this technique and to the best of our knowledge, this is the largest and potentially most complex case approached in such a manner. A 55 years old African American male presented with hematuria and mucosuria, cystoscopy demonstrated a tumor involving the dome of the bladder. Transurethral biopsy confirmed a urachal adenocarcinoma. Further studies revealed a negative metastatic evaluation. Preoperative abdominal/pelvic CT imaging revealed an enhancing mass extending from the inferior level of the umbilicus to the dome of the bladder. A total of 6 laparoscopic ports were used. The robotic assisted laparoscopic dissection was started at the level of the umbilicus, dissecting lateral to the right and left medial umbilical ligaments up until the dome of the bladder. A simultaneous cystoscopy with transillumination to define the bladder boundaries of this mass, with robotic assisted laparoscopic opening of the bladder, with the entire mass (including bladder component) excised and sent for frozen pathology for margin evaluation. After specimen extraction, the bladder was closed in two layers. Total surgery time was 300 minutes and intra-operative blood loss was 150cc. Final pathology reported a pT2N0Mx adenocarcinoma with negative margins and negative pelvic lymph nodes. Patient was started on clear liquids on postoperative day 2 and on regular diet on postoperative day 3. He was discharged on postoperative day 4. A cystogram perfomed on postoperative day 7 revealed a good bladder capacity (350 cc) and

  7. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ŁaŸniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young; Penny, Robert; Gardner, Johanna; Kemkes, Ariane; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Curley, Erin; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Engel, Jay; Bartlett, John; Albert, Monique; Park, Do-Youn; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Landreneau, Rodney; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; Cho, Eunjung; Ladanyi, Marc; Tang, Laura; McCall, Shannon J.; Park, Young S.; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Ajani, Jaffer; Camargo, M. Constanza; Alonso, Shelley; Ayala, Brenda; Jensen, Mark A.; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Walton, Jessica; Wan, Yunhu; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Sheth, Margi; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Davidsen, Tanja; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Burton, Robert; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  8. Effect of gyromagnetic fields on human prostatic adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hongen Lei,1 Yongde Xu,1 Ruili Guan,1 Meng Li,2 Yu Hui,3 Zhezhu Gao,1 Bicheng Yang,1 Zhongcheng Xin1 1Andrology Center, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, 2Department of Urology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 3Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the biological effect of gyromagnetic fields (GMFs on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human prostatic adenocarcinoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms.Methods: PC-3 cells were grouped into normal control (NC and GMF treatment groups. Cell proliferation was analyzed with kit-8 and Ki67 immunofluorescence staining, while cell apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry double staining of Annexin V-PE/7-AAD. The Akt and p38 MAPK/Caspase signaling pathways were analyzed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, and cell polarization was analyzed with PARD3.Results: Cell proliferation and activity of the Akt pathway were significantly decreased by the GMF, while cell apoptosis, activity of p38 MAPK, and PARD3-positive cell number were significantly increased in the GMF group compared to the NC group.Conclusion: GMFs inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis, and regulate tumor cell polarity conditions, potentially through down-regulating Akt, activating the p38 MAPK/Caspase pathway, and promoting PARD3 expression in PC-3 cells. Keywords: apoptosis, gyromagnetic fields, PC-3 cells, prostate cancer

  9. The HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib Radiosensitizes Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Casal, Roberto; Bhattacharya, Chitralekha [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Medicine, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Epperly, Michael W. [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Basse, Per H. [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Immunology, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Wang, Hong [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Wang, Xinhui [Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Proia, David A. [Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp., 45 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Greenberger, Joel S. [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Socinski, Mark A.; Levina, Vera, E-mail: levinav@upmc.edu [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Medicine, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors.

  10. Ad-IRF-1 Induces Apoptosis in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Watson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1 is a putative tumor suppressor, but the expression and function of IRF-1 in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA remain unknown. We hypothesized that IRF-1 expression was reduced or lost in EA and that restoration of IRF-1 would result in the apoptosis of EA cells in vitro and the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Three EA cell lines were used to examine IRF-1 expression, IFN-γ responsiveness, and the effects of IRF-1 overexpression using a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad-IRF-1. All three EA cell lines produced IRF-1 protein following IFN-γ stimulation, although IFN-γ did not induce cell death. In contrast, Ad-IRF-1 infection resulted in high levels of IRF-1 protein and triggered apoptosis in all three EA cell lines. Potential mechanisms for the differential response to IFN-γ versus Ad-IRF-1-such as modulation of c-Met or extracellular regulated kinase signaling, or altered expression of IRF-2, Fas, or survivin-were investigated, but none of these mechanisms can account for this observation. In vivo administration of IRF-1 in a murine model of EA modestly inhibited tumor growth, but did not lead to tumor regression. Strategies aimed at increasing or restoring IRF-1 expression may have therapeutic benefits in EA.

  11. A Rare Case of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Extremity, Masquerading as an Ulcerative Lesion that Clinically Favored Benignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Vazales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A rare case report of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma (ADPCa is presented complete with a literature review encompassing lesions that pose potential diagnostic challenges. Similarities between basal cell carcinoma (BCC, marjolin’s ulceration/squamous cell carcinoma (MSCC and ADPCa are discussed. This article discusses potential treatment options for ADPCa and the need for early biopsy when faced with any challenging lesion. An algorithmic approach to ADPCa treatment based on the most current research is recommended.

  12. Two Sides of the Same Coin: ERP and Wavelet Analyses of Visual Potentials Evoked and Induced by Task-Relevant Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Lubbe, Rob H. J.; Szumska, Izabela; Fajkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    New analysis techniques of the electroencephalogram (EEG) such as wavelet analysis open the possibility to address questions that may largely improve our understanding of the EEG and clarify its relation with related potentials (ER Ps). Three issues were addressed. 1) To what extent can early ERERP components be described as transient evoked oscillations in specific frequency bands? 2) Total EEG power (TP) after a stimulus consists of pre-stimulus baseline power (BP), evoked power (EP), and induced power (IP), but what are their respective contributions? 3) The Phase Reset model proposes that BP predicts EP, while the evoked model holds that BP is unrelated to EP; which model is the most valid one? EEG results on NoGo trials for 123 individuals that took part in an experiment with emotional facial expressions were examined by computing ERPs and by performing wavelet analyses on the raw EEG and on ER Ps. After performing several multiple regression analyses, we obtained the following answers. First, the P1, N1, and P2 components can by and large be described as transient oscillations in the α and θ bands. Secondly, it appears possible to estimate the separate contributions of EP, BP, and IP to TP, and importantly, the contribution of IP is mostly larger than that of EP. Finally, no strong support was obtained for either the Phase Reset or the Evoked model. Recent models are discussed that may better explain the relation between raw EEG and ERPs. PMID:28154612

  13. Determining the Conduction Band-Edge Potential of Solar-Cell-Relevant Nb2O5Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffeditz, William L; Pellin, Michael J; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2017-09-19

    Often key to boosting photovoltages in photoelectrochemical and related solar-energy-conversion devices is the preferential slowing of rates of charge recombination-especially recombination at semiconductor/solution, semiconductor/polymer, or semiconductor/perovskite interfaces. In devices featuring TiO 2 as the semiconducting component, a common approach to slowing recombination is to install an ultrathin metal oxide barrier layer or trap-passivating layer atop the semiconductor, with the needed layer often being formed via atomic layer deposition (ALD). A particularly promising barrier layer material is Nb 2 O 5 . Its conduction-band-edge potential E CB is low enough that charge injection from an adsorbed molecular, polymeric, or solid-state light absorber and into the semiconductor can still occur, but high enough that charge recombination is inhibited. While a few measurements of E CB have been reported for conventionally synthesized, bulk Nb 2 O 5 , none have been described for ALD-fabricated versions. Here, we specifically determine the conduction-band-edge energy of ALD-fabricated Nb 2 O 5 relative to that of TiO 2 . We find that, while the value for ALD-Nb 2 O 5 is indeed higher than that for TiO 2 , the difference is less than anticipated based on measurements of conventionally synthesized Nb 2 O 5 and is dependent on the thermal history of the material. The implications of the findings for optimization of competing interfacial rate processes, and therefore photovoltages, are briefly discussed.

  14. Genome-Wide Characterization of bHLH Genes in Grape and Analysis of their Potential Relevance to Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Su, Ling; Gao, Huanhuan; Jiang, Xilong; Wu, Xinying; Li, Yi; Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Yongmei; Ren, Fengshan

    2018-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in many abiotic stress responses as well as flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), flavonols including anthocyanins and condensed tannins are most abundant in the skins of the berries. Flavonols are important phytochemicals for viticulture and enology, but grape bHLH genes have rarely been examined. We identified 94 grape bHLH genes in a genome-wide analysis and performed Nr and GO function analyses for these genes. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genes into 15 clades, with some remaining orphans. 41 duplicate gene pairs were found in the grape bHLH gene family, and all of these duplicate gene pairs underwent purifying selection. Nine triplicate gene groups were found in the grape bHLH gene family and all of these triplicate gene groups underwent purifying selection. Twenty-two grape bHLH genes could be induced by PEG treatment and 17 grape bHLH genes could be induced by cold stress treatment including a homologous form of MYC2, VvbHLH007. Based on the GO or Nr function annotations, we found three other genes that are potentially related to anthocyanin or flavonol biosynthesis: VvbHLH003, VvbHLH007, and VvbHLH010. We also performed a cis-acting regulatory element analysis on some genes involved in flavonoid or anthocyanin biosynthesis and our results showed that most of these gene promoters contained G-box or E-box elements that could be recognized by bHLH family members. PMID:29449854

  15. Genome-Wide Characterization of bHLH Genes in Grape and Analysis of their Potential Relevance to Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factors are involved in many abiotic stress responses as well as flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L., flavonols including anthocyanins and condensed tannins are most abundant in the skins of the berries. Flavonols are important phytochemicals for viticulture and enology, but grape bHLH genes have rarely been examined. We identified 94 grape bHLH genes in a genome-wide analysis and performed Nr and GO function analyses for these genes. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genes into 15 clades, with some remaining orphans. 41 duplicate gene pairs were found in the grape bHLH gene family, and all of these duplicate gene pairs underwent purifying selection. Nine triplicate gene groups were found in the grape bHLH gene family and all of these triplicate gene groups underwent purifying selection. Twenty-two grape bHLH genes could be induced by PEG treatment and 17 grape bHLH genes could be induced by cold stress treatment including a homologous form of MYC2, VvbHLH007. Based on the GO or Nr function annotations, we found three other genes that are potentially related to anthocyanin or flavonol biosynthesis: VvbHLH003, VvbHLH007, and VvbHLH010. We also performed a cis-acting regulatory element analysis on some genes involved in flavonoid or anthocyanin biosynthesis and our results showed that most of these gene promoters contained G-box or E-box elements that could be recognized by bHLH family members.

  16. Genome-Wide Characterization of bHLH Genes in Grape and Analysis of their Potential Relevance to Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Su, Ling; Gao, Huanhuan; Jiang, Xilong; Wu, Xinying; Li, Yi; Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Yongmei; Ren, Fengshan

    2018-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in many abiotic stress responses as well as flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis. In grapes ( Vitis vinifera L.), flavonols including anthocyanins and condensed tannins are most abundant in the skins of the berries. Flavonols are important phytochemicals for viticulture and enology, but grape bHLH genes have rarely been examined. We identified 94 grape bHLH genes in a genome-wide analysis and performed Nr and GO function analyses for these genes. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genes into 15 clades, with some remaining orphans. 41 duplicate gene pairs were found in the grape bHLH gene family, and all of these duplicate gene pairs underwent purifying selection. Nine triplicate gene groups were found in the grape bHLH gene family and all of these triplicate gene groups underwent purifying selection. Twenty-two grape bHLH genes could be induced by PEG treatment and 17 grape bHLH genes could be induced by cold stress treatment including a homologous form of MYC2, VvbHLH007. Based on the GO or Nr function annotations, we found three other genes that are potentially related to anthocyanin or flavonol biosynthesis: VvbHLH003, VvbHLH007, and VvbHLH010. We also performed a cis-acting regulatory element analysis on some genes involved in flavonoid or anthocyanin biosynthesis and our results showed that most of these gene promoters contained G-box or E-box elements that could be recognized by bHLH family members.

  17. Adenocarcinoma de estómago y embarazo Gastric adenocarcinoma and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Builes

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 25 años, primigestante del segundo trimestre, que planteó serias dificultades diagnósticas durante sus dos hospitalizaciones y finalmente murió en el Servicio de Obstetricia y Ginecología del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico fue: carcinomatosis difusa con compromiso del sistema nervioso central, secundarla a un adenocarcinoma del estómago.

    We report on a 25 year-old pregnant woman who was twice hospitalized at the Obstetrical Service of San Vicente de Paul University Hospital, In Medellin, Colombia. She posed serious diagnostic difficulties during her two admissions and died, undiagnosed, during the last one. Postmortem study revealed diffuse carcinomatosis with central nervous system Involvement, originating in a gastric adenocarcinoma.

  18. Clinicopathologic Factors of Cervical Adenocarcinoma Stages IB to IIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Yasushi; Yahata, Tamaki; Kobayashi, Aya; Tanizaki, Yuko; Shiro, Michihisa; Ota, Nami; Yagi, Shigetaka; Minami, Sawako; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathologic factors of stages IB to IIB cervical adenocarcinoma. Several clinicopathologic factors were compared between 35 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy due to cervical adenocarcinoma stages IB to IIB and 77 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In patients with adenocarcinoma, univariate analysis demonstrated that International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor size, and lymphovascular space invasion were significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS), whereas FIGO stage, lymphovascular space invasion, and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). However, multivariate analysis revealed that FIGO stage was the only significant factor for PFS in patients with adenocarcinoma. In patients with SCC, univariate analysis demonstrated that FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with PFS, whereas FIGO stage, lymphovascular space invasion, and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis was the only significant factor for PFS and OS in patients with SCC. In 26 patients who were positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), including both adenocarcinoma and SCC patients, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HPV18 was significantly associated with poorer PFS compared with non-HPV18. There was a significant difference in distribution of HPV genotype between adenocarcinoma and SCC. Careful treatment may be necessary for the patients with lymphovascular space invasion in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma. The presence of HPV18 may have an influence on the prognosis of early-stage cervical carcinoma.

  19. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for adenocarcinoma: safe and reasonable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlewait, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of technological advances during the past two decades, surgeons now use minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approaches to pancreatic resection more frequently, yet the role of these approaches for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma resections remains uncertain, given the aggressive nature of this malignancy. Although there are no controlled trials comparing MIS technique to open surgical technique, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is performed with increasing frequency. Data from retrospective studies suggest that perioperative complication profiles between open and laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy are similar, with perhaps lower blood loss and fewer wound infections in the MIS group. Concerning oncologic outcomes, there appear to be no differences in the rate of achieving negative margins or in the number of lymph nodes (LNs) resected when compared to open surgery. There are limited recurrence and survival data on laparoscopic compared to open distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but in the few studies that assess long term outcomes, recurrence rates and survival outcomes appear similar. Recent studies show that though laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy entails a greater operative cost, the associated shorter length of hospital stay leads to decreased overall cost compared to open procedures. Multiple new technologies are emerging to improve resection of pancreatic cancer. Robotic pancreatectomy is feasible, but there are limited data on robotic resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and outcomes appear similar to laparoscopic approaches. Additionally fluorescence-guided surgery represents a new technology on the horizon that could improve oncologic outcomes after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, though published data thus far are limited to animal models. Overall, MIS distal pancreatectomy appears to be a safe and reasonable approach to treating selected patients with pancreatic ductal

  20. Increased Expression of the GLUT-1 Gene is Associated With Worse Overall Survival in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Yadley, Ashley H.; Abbott, Andrea M.; Pimiento, Jose M.; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Malafa, Mokenge P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is currently no reliable method to predict the risk of relapse after curative resection of early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Increased glucose metabolism observed on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) by malignant cells, the Warburg effect, is a well-known characteristic of the malignant phenotype. We investigated the role of glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) gene expression, a glucose cell plasma membrane transporter, in early-stage pancreatic cancer. Methods Associations between GLUT-1 gene expression with PET maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and histologic grade were investigated in early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine predictors of prognosis. Cox proportional hazards model was used for survival analysis. Results Sixty-three patients had GLUT-1 gene analysis performed, and 50 patients had both GLUT-1 analysis and PET scan. Patients with high GLUT-1 gene expression had a decreased overall survival by univariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model (HR=2.82, p=0.001) and remained significant on multivariate analysis (HR=2.54, p=0.03). There was no correlation of GLUT-1 gene expression with histologic grade or PET SUVmax. Conclusion Increased GLUT-1 gene expression was associated with a decreased overall survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This supports increased GLUT-1 gene expression as a potential prognostic marker in resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26692443

  1. R331W Missense Mutation of Oncogene YAP1 Is a Germline Risk Allele for Lung Adenocarcinoma With Medical Actionability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Yu, Sung-Liang; Ho, Bing-Ching; Su, Kang-Yi; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Chang, Chi-Sheng; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Shi-Yi; Hsu, Pin-Yen; Ho, Hao; Chang, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Yi; Yang, Hwai-I; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tseng, Jeng-Sen; Hsia, Jiun-Yi; Chuang, Cheng-Yen; Yuan, Shinsheng; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Wu, Guan-I; Hsiung, Chao A; Chen, Yuh-Min; Wang, Chih-Liang; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Jeremy J W; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chang, Gee-Chen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Li, Ker-Chau

    2015-07-10

    Adenocarcinoma is the most dominant type of lung cancer in never-smoker patients. The risk alleles from genome-wide association studies have small odds ratios and unclear biologic roles. Here we have taken an approach featuring suitable medical actionability to identify alleles with low population frequency but high disease-causing potential. Whole-genome sequencing was performed for a family with an unusually high density of lung adenocarcinoma with available DNA from the affected mother, four affected daughters, and one nonaffected son. Candidate risk alleles were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy. Validation was conducted in an external cohort of 1,135 participants without cancer and 1,312 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Family follow-ups were performed by genotyping the relatives of the original proband and the relatives of the identified risk-allele carriers. Low-dose computed tomography scans of the chest were evaluated for lung abnormalities. YAP1 R331W missense mutation from the original family was identified and validated in the external controls and the cohort with lung adenocarcinoma. The YAP1 mutant-allele carrier frequency was 1.1% in patients with lung adenocarcinoma compared with 0.18% in controls (P = .0095), yielding an odds ratio (adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status) of 5.9. Among the relatives, YAP1-mutant carriers have overwhelmingly higher frequencies of developing lung adenocarcinoma or ground-glass opacity lung lesions than those who do not carry the mutation (10:0 v 1:7; P < .001). YAP1 mutation was shown to increase the colony formation ability and invasion potential of lung cancer cells. These results implicated YAP1 R331W as an allele predisposed for lung adenocarcinoma with high familial penetrance. Low-dose computed tomography scans may be recommended to this subpopulation, which is at high risk for lung cancer, for personalized prevention and health management. © 2015 by

  2. High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization in sporadic and celiac disease-related small bowel adenocarcinomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diosdado, B.; Buffart, T.E.; Watkins, R.; Carvalho, B.; Ylstra, B.; Tijssen, M.; Bolijn, A.S.; Lewis, F.; Maude, K.; Verbeke, C.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Grabsch, H.; Mulder, C.J.; Quirke, P.; Howdle, P.; Meijer, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The molecular pathogenesis of small intestinal adenocarcinomas is not well understood. Understanding the molecular characteristics of small bowel adenocarcinoma may lead to more effective patient treatment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Forty-eight small bowel adenocarcinomas (33 non-celiac disease

  3. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for papillary adenocarcinoma of the stomach: is it really safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Do Youn; Kim, Young Keum; Jeon, Hye Kyung; Lee, Bong Eun; Song, Geun Am

    2017-11-01

    Papillary adenocarcinoma of the stomach has been treated according to the same endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) indication criteria as other differentiated-type adenocarcinomas. We aimed to compare lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) with papillary adenocarcinoma (EGC-P) with that in patients with EGC with nonpapillary adenocarcinoma (EGC-NP) and to consider the potential limitation of current ESD indication criteria in the treatment of EGC-P. In total, 1583 patients who underwent gastrectomy for EGC from 2005 to 2014 were included. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 56 patients with EGC-P were compared with those of 1527 patients with EGC-NP. The safety of ESD was evaluated, by application of current ESD indication criteria to EGC-P. The frequency of submucosal invasion was significantly higher in EGC-P than in both EGC-NP with differentiated-type histologic appearance and EGC-NP with undifferentiated-type histologic appearance (71.4% vs 50.8% and 37.6%, respectively). In addition, the frequency of LNM in EGC-P was 17.9%, higher than that in both EGC-NP with differentiated-type histologic appearance and EGC-NP with undifferentiated-type histologic appearance (9.7% and 11.1%, respectively). When the current ESD indication criteria were applied to the 56 patients with EGC-P, 17 patients met the current indications. Of these patients, two (11.8%) had LNM and three (17.6%) had lymphovascular invasion (LVI). When LNM and LVI were combined, one of seven patients (16.7%) meeting the absolute ESD indications and three of ten patients (30.0%) meeting the expanded ESD indications would not be cured after ESD. The use of ESD should be more carefully applied in patients with EGC-P meeting the ESD indication criteria, especially the expanded indication criteria, after pretreatment workup compared with other differentiated-type adenocarcinomas, owing to the higher frequencies of submucosal invasion, LNM, and LVI in EGC-P.

  4. Nrf2 and Keap1 Abnormalities in 104 Lung Adenocarcinoma Cases and Association with Clinicopathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu XIAO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective There are significantly interindividual variations of the expression level of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and/or Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1 in our previous studies. It has been proven that Nrf2 or Keap1 is related to resistance of chemotherapeutic drugs and/or epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs. However, the expression of Nrf2 and Keap1 in lung adenocarcinoma patients with different “driver gene” is not clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the protein expression level of Nrf2 and Keap1 in lung adenocarcinoma and to elucidate the correlation between Nrf2 or Keap1 expression and the status of EGFR gene mutation and to determine the effects of Nrf2 and Keap1 on the patients. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of Nrf2 and Keap1 in tumor specimens was performed in a total of 104 lung adenocarcinoma patients with the status of EGFR gene mutations or EGFR wide-type. Results The Nrf2 positive rate was 71.2% and Keap1 high expression rate was 34.6% in 104 patients. The Nrf2 positive rate significantly correlated with gender, stage and status of EGFR gene mutation (P0.05. The high expression of Keap1 was not significantly correlated with gender, age, smoking, differentiation, subtype of lung adenocarcinoma and status of EGFR gene mutation (P>0.05. The progression -free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS of the patients treated by EGFR-TKIs were significantly correlated with the expression level of Nrf2, but not with Keap1. The PFS and OS of the patients with Nrf2 high expression were significantly shorter than the patients with low/negative expression (P<0.05. Furthermore, Nrf2 high expression was the independent predictive factor for EGFR-TKIs induced PFS and OS (P<0.05. Conclusion The Nrf2 positive rate significantly correlated with the status of EGFR gene mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. The Nrf2 high expression significantly

  5. [Nrf2 and Keap1 Abnormalities in 104 Lung Adenocarcinoma Cases and Association with Clinicopathologic Features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Zhu, Xiang; Gu, Yangchun; Chen, Sen; Liang, Li; Cao, Baoshan

    2018-03-20

    There are significantly interindividual variations of the expression level of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and/or Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in our previous studies. It has been proven that Nrf2 or Keap1 is related to resistance of chemotherapeutic drugs and/or epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, the expression of Nrf2 and Keap1 in lung adenocarcinoma patients with different "driver gene" is not clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the protein expression level of Nrf2 and Keap1 in lung adenocarcinoma and to elucidate the correlation between Nrf2 or Keap1 expression and the status of EGFR gene mutation and to determine the effects of Nrf2 and Keap1 on the patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of Nrf2 and Keap1 in tumor specimens was performed in a total of 104 lung adenocarcinoma patients with the status of EGFR gene mutations or EGFR wide-type. The Nrf2 positive rate was 71.2% and Keap1 high expression rate was 34.6% in 104 patients. The Nrf2 positive rate significantly correlated with gender, stage and status of EGFR gene mutation (P0.05). The high expression of Keap1 was not significantly correlated with gender, age, smoking, differentiation, subtype of lung adenocarcinoma and status of EGFR gene mutation (P>0.05). The progression -free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the patients treated by EGFR-TKIs were significantly correlated with the expression level of Nrf2, but not with Keap1. The PFS and OS of the patients with Nrf2 high expression were significantly shorter than the patients with low/negative expression (P<0.05). Furthermore, Nrf2 high expression was the independent predictive factor for EGFR-TKIs induced PFS and OS (P<0.05). The Nrf2 positive rate significantly correlated with the status of EGFR gene mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. The Nrf2 high expression significantly correlated with PFS and OS of EGFR-TKIs. Therefore, Nrf2 may be a biomarker

  6. miR-24-3p/FGFR3 Signaling as a Novel Axis Is Involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Regulates Lung Adenocarcinoma Progression

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    Pengyu Jing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 contributed to cell growth in lung cancer. However, the correlation between FGFR3 and tumor progression, coupled with the underlying mechanisms, are not fully understood. The clinical significance of FGFR3 was determined in two cohorts of clinical samples (n=22, n=78. A panel of biochemical assays and functional experiments was utilized to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and effects of FGFR3 and miR-24-3p on lung adenocarcinoma progression. Upregulated FGFR3 expression indicated an adverse prognosis for lung adenocarcinoma individuals and promoted metastatic potential of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Owing to the direct regulation towards FGFR3, miR-24-3p could interfere with the potential of proliferation, migration, and invasion in lung adenocarcinoma, following variations of EMT-related protein expression. As a significant marker of EMT, E-cadherin was negatively correlated with FGFR3, of which ectopic overexpression could neutralize the antitumour effects of miR-24-3p and reverse its regulatory effects on EMT markers. Taken together, these findings define a novel insight into the miR-24-3p/FGFR3 signaling axis in regulating lung adenocarcinoma progression and suggest that targeting the miR-24-3p/FGFR3 axis could be an effective and efficient way to prevent tumor progression.

  7. SMAD4 Loss triggers the phenotypic changes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Weng, Ching-Chieh; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Kuo, Tzu-Lei; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Hung, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Kuang-Hung

    2014-01-01

    SMAD4 is a gastrointestinal malignancy-specific tumor suppressor gene found mutated in one third of colorectal cancer specimens and half of pancreatic tumors. SMAD4 inactivation by allelic deletion or intragenic mutation mainly occurs in the late stage of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Various studies have proposed potential SMAD4-mediated anti-tumor effects in human malignancy; however, the relevance of SMAD4 in the PDAC molecular phenotype has not yet been fully characterized. The AsPC-1, CFPAC-1 and PANC-1 human PDAC cell lines were used. The restoration or knockdown of SMAD4 expression in PDAC cells were confirmed by western blotting, luciferase reporter and immunofluorescence assays. In vitro cell proliferation, xenograft, wound healing, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry analysis were conducted using PDAC cells in which SMAD4 was either overexpressed or knocked down. Here, we report that re-expression of SMAD4 in SMAD4-null PDAC cells does not affect tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo, but significantly enhances cells migration in vitro. SMAD4 restoration transcriptionally activates the TGF-β1/Nestin pathway and induces expression of several transcriptional factors. In contrast, SMAD4 loss in PDAC leads to increased expression of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and CD133. Furthermore, SMAD4 loss causes alterations to multiple kinase pathways (particularly the phosphorylated ERK/p38/Akt pathways), and increases chemoresistance in vitro. Finally, PDAC cells with intact SMAD4 are more sensitive to TGF-β1 inhibitor treatment to reduced cell migration; PDAC cells lacking SMAD4 showed decreased cell motility in response to EGFR inhibitor treatment. This study revealed the molecular basis for SMAD4-dependent differences in PDAC with the aim of identifying the subset of patients likely to respond to

  8. Visceral Thromboses in Pancreas Adenocarcinoma: Systematic Review.

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    Hicks, Angel Mier; DeRosa, Antonio; Raj, Micheal; Do, Richard; Yu, Kenneth H; Lowery, Maeve A; Varghese, Anna; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2017-12-12

    Within gastrointestinal malignancies, primary hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently associated with visceral thromboses (VT). Thrombus formation in the portal (PVT), mesenteric (MVT), or splenic vein (SVT) system leads to portal hypertension and intestinal ischemia. VT in PDAC may convey a risk of increased distal thrombosis and poses therapeutic uncertainty regarding the role of anticoagulation. An increasing number of reports describe VT associated with PDAC. It is possible that early diagnosis of these events may help reduce morbidity and speculatively improve oncologic outcomes. To perform a systematic review to study PVT, MVT, and SVT associated with PDAC, and to provide a comprehensive review. Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Data Extraction and Assessment: Two blinded independent observers extracted and assessed the studies for diagnosis of PVT, MVT, and SVT in PDAC. Studies were restricted to English-language literature published between 2007 and 2016. Eleven articles were identified. Five case reports and 7 retrospective studies were found, with a total of 127 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 64 years. PVT was found in 35% (n = 46), SVT in 52% (n = 65), and MVT in 13% (n = 15). Mean follow-up time was 26 months. Only 3 of the selected articles studied the impact of anticoagulation in VT. All patients with nonvisceral thrombosis (eg, deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli) were therapeutically treated; in contrast, patients with VT only rarely received treatment. VT in PDAC is a frequent finding at diagnosis or during disease progression. Evidence to guide treatment choices is limited, and current management is based on inferred experience from nononcologic settings. Anticoagulation appears to be safe in VT, with most of the large studies recommending a careful assessment for patients at a high risk of bleeding. Copyright © 2017

  9. Prognostic role of clusterin in resected adenocarcinomas of the lung.

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    Panico, Francesca; Casali, Christian; Rossi, Giulio; Rizzi, Federica; Morandi, Uliano; Bettuzzi, Saverio; Davalli, Pierpaola; Corbetta, Lorenzo; Storelli, Erica Susanna; Corti, Arnaldo; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Astancolle, Serenella; Luppi, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    Clusterin expression may change in various human malignancies, including lung cancer. Patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including adenocarcinoma, have a poor prognosis, with a relapse rate of 30-50% within 5 years. Nuclear factor kB (Nf-kB) is an intracellular protein involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including the lung. We investigate the role of clusterin and Nf-kB expression in predicting the prognosis of patients with early-stage surgically resected adenocarcinoma of the lung. The level of clusterin gradually decreased from well-differentiated to poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. Clusterin expression was significantly higher in patients with low-grade adenocarcinoma, in early-stage disease and in women. Clusterin expression was inversely related to relapse and survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Finally, we observed an inverse correlation between Nf-kB and clusterin. Clusterin expression represents an independent prognostic factor in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma and was proven to be a useful biomarker for fewer relapses and longer survival in patients in the early stage of disease. The inverse correlation between Nf-kB and clusterin expression confirm the previously reported role of clusterin as potent down regulator of Nf-kB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognostic factors in adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Andrew T; Tang, Chad; Bell, Diana; Yener, Murat; Izquierdo, Luis; Frank, Steven J; El-Naggar, Adel K; Hanna, Ehab Y; Weber, Randal S; Kupferman, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to characterize prognostic factors and outcomes in adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands. Patients were identified and retrospectively reviewed for clinical and pathologic tumor characteristics. Low and high grade adenocarcinoma histologies were separated and analyzed. Treatment regimens and patient-related outcomes were recorded and measured. A total of 51 adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands were reviewed. The most common locations of disease were the superficial lobe of the parotid gland, followed by the deep lobe. Five-year overall and disease free survival rates were 43% and 37%. Univariate analysis identified the following as negative prognostic factors: symptoms of a fixed mass or rapid growth, advanced tumor or nodal stage, and perineural or lymphovascular invasion. Facial nerve paralysis was not found to be a significant prognostic variable. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent negative prognostic importance of the following characteristics: presentation with a fixed mass or rapid growth, diagnosis of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, and positive surgical margins. Our results identify several important prognostic factors associated with overall survival in adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands. These prognostic variables encompass symptoms on presentation, clinical and pathologic tumor stage characteristics, and treatment-related factors; all of which are important in patient counseling and may provide impetus for determining treatment escalation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinicopathologic features of incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

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    Vuruskan Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to review all features of incidentally discovered prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. Methods The medical charts of 300 male patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 62 (range 51-75 years. Results Prostate adenocarcinoma was present in 60 (20% of 300 specimens. All were acinar adenocarcinoma. Of these, 40 (66.7% were located in peripheral zone, 20 (33.3% had pT2a tumor, 12 (20% had pT2b tumor, 22(36.7% had pT2c and, 6 (10% had pT3a tumor. Gleason score was 6 or less in 48 (80% patients. Surgical margins were negative in 54 (90% patients, and tumor volume was less than 0.5 cc in 23 (38.3% patients. Of the 60 incidentally detected cases of prostate adenocarcinoma 40 (66.7% were considered clinically significant. Conclusion Incidentally detected prostate adenocarcinoma is frequently observed in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens. The majority are clinically significant.

  12. Lung adenocarcinoma mimicking pulmonary fibrosis-a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehić, Bakir; Duranović Rayan, Lina; Bilalović, Nurija; Dohranović Tafro, Danina; Pilav, Ilijaz

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is usually presented with cough, dyspnea, pain and weight loss, which is overlapping with symptoms of other lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis shows characteristic reticular and nodular pattern, while lung cancers are mostly presented with infiltrative mass, thick-walled cavitations or a solitary nodule with spiculated borders. If the diagnosis is established based on clinical symptoms and CT findings, it would be a misapprehension. We report a case of lung adenocarcinoma whose symptoms as well as clinical images overlapped strongly with pulmonary fibrosis. The patient’s non-productive cough, progressive dyspnea, restrictive pattern of pulmonary function test and CT scans (showing reticular interstitial opacities) were all indicative of pulmonary fibrosis. The patient underwent a treatment consisting of corticosteroids and antibiotics, to no avail. Histopathology of the lung showed that the patient suffered from mucinous adenocarcinoma. Albeit the immunohistochemical staining was not consistent with lung adenocarcinoma, tumor’s morphological characteristics were consistent, and were used to make the definitive diagnosis. Given the fact that radiography cannot always make a clear-cut difference between pulmonary fibrosis and lung adenocarcinomas, and that clinical symptoms often overlap, histological examination should be considered as gold standard for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma

  13. Lung adenocarcinoma mimicking pulmonary fibrosis-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehić, Bakir; Duranović Rayan, Lina; Bilalović, Nurija; Dohranović Tafro, Danina; Pilav, Ilijaz

    2016-09-13

    Lung cancer is usually presented with cough, dyspnea, pain and weight loss, which is overlapping with symptoms of other lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis shows characteristic reticular and nodular pattern, while lung cancers are mostly presented with infiltrative mass, thick-walled cavitations or a solitary nodule with spiculated borders. If the diagnosis is established based on clinical symptoms and CT findings, it would be a misapprehension. We report a case of lung adenocarcinoma whose symptoms as well as clinical images overlapped strongly with pulmonary fibrosis. The patient's non-productive cough, progressive dyspnea, restrictive pattern of pulmonary function test and CT scans (showing reticular interstitial opacities) were all indicative of pulmonary fibrosis. The patient underwent a treatment consisting of corticosteroids and antibiotics, to no avail. Histopathology of the lung showed that the patient suffered from mucinous adenocarcinoma. Albeit the immunohistochemical staining was not consistent with lung adenocarcinoma, tumor's morphological characteristics were consistent, and were used to make the definitive diagnosis. Given the fact that radiography cannot always make a clear-cut difference between pulmonary fibrosis and lung adenocarcinomas, and that clinical symptoms often overlap, histological examination should be considered as gold standard for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma.

  14. Curcumin Modulates Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell-Derived Exosomal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Carlos J. Diaz; Lynch, James C.; Leaf, Patrick; Gonda, Amber; Ferguson Bennit, Heather R.; Griffiths, Duncan; Wall, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rates of all cancer types. One potential explanation for the aggressiveness of this disease is that cancer cells have been found to communicate with one another using membrane-bound vesicles known as exosomes. These exosomes carry pro-survival molecules and increase the proliferation, survival, and metastatic potential of recipient cells, suggesting that tumor-derived exosomes are powerful drivers of tumor progression. Thus, to successfully address and eradicate pancreatic cancer, it is imperative to develop therapeutic strategies that neutralize cancer cells and exosomes simultaneously. Curcumin, a turmeric root derivative, has been shown to have potent anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Recent studies have suggested that exosomal curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory properties on recipient cells. However, curcumin’s effects on exosomal pro-tumor function have yet to be determined. We hypothesize that curcumin will alter the pro-survival role of exosomes from pancreatic cancer cells toward a pro-death role, resulting in reduced cell viability of recipient pancreatic cancer cells. The main objective of this study was to determine the functional alterations of exosomes released by pancreatic cancer cells exposed to curcumin compared to exosomes from untreated pancreatic cancer cells. We demonstrate, using an in vitro cell culture model involving pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2, that curcumin is incorporated into exosomes isolated from curcumin-treated pancreatic cancer cells as observed by spectral studies and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, curcumin is delivered to recipient pancreatic cancer cells via exosomes, promoting cytotoxicity as demonstrated by Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy as well as AlamarBlue and Trypan blue exclusion assays. Collectively, these data suggest that the efficacy of curcumin may be enhanced in pancreatic cancer cells through

  15. Differential N-glycan patterns identified in lung adenocarcinoma by N-glycan profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Deng, Zaian; Huang, Chuncui; Zhu, Tong; Lou, Jiatao; Wang, Lin; Li, Yan

    2018-02-10

    N-glycan profiling is a powerful approach for analyzing the functional relationship between N-glycosylation and cancer. Current methods rely on either serum or fresh tissue samples; however, N-glycan patterns may differ between serum and tissue, as the proteins of serum originate from a variety of tissues. Furthermore, fresh tissue samples are difficult to ship and store. Here, we used a profiling method based on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections from lung adenocarcinoma patients. We found that our method was highly reproducible. We identified 58 N-glycan compositions from lung adenocarcinoma FFPE samples, 51 of which were further used for MS n -based structure prediction. We show that high mannose type N-glycans are upregulated, while sialylated N-glycans are downregulated in our FFPE lung adenocarcinoma samples, compared to the control samples. Our receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis shows that high mannose type and sialylated N-glycans are useful discriminators to distinguish between lung adenocarcinoma and control tissue. Together, our results indicate that expression levels of specific N-glycans correlate well with lung adenocarcinoma, and strongly suggest that our FFPE-based method will be useful for N-glycan profiling of cancer tissues. Glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational protein modifications, and is associated with several physiopathological processes, including carcinogenesis. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections to identify changes in N-glycan patterns and identified the differentially expressed N-glycans of lung adenocarcinoma. Our study shows that the FFPE-based N-glycan profiling method is useful for clinical diagnosis as well as identification of potential biomarkers, and our data expand current knowledge of differential N-glycan patterns of lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel pancreatic cancer cell lines derived from genetically engineered mouse models of spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma: applications in diagnosis and therapy.

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    María P Torres

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC remains one of the most lethal human malignancies with poor prognosis. Despite all advances in preclinical research, there have not been significant translation of novel therapies into the clinics. The development of genetically engineered mouse (GEM models that produce spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. Although these PDAC mouse models are ideal for studying potential therapies and specific genetic mutations, there is a need for developing syngeneic cell lines from these models. In this study, we describe the successful establishment and characterization of three cell lines derived from two (PDAC mouse models. The cell line UN-KC-6141 was derived from a pancreatic tumor of a Kras(G12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC mouse at 50 weeks of age, whereas UN-KPC-960 and UN-KPC-961 cell lines were derived from pancreatic tumors of Kras(G12D;Trp53(R172H;Pdx1-Cre (KPC mice at 17 weeks of age. The cancer mutations of these parent mice carried over to the daughter cell lines (i.e. Kras(G12D mutation was observed in all three cell lines while Trp53 mutation was observed only in KPC cell lines. The cell lines showed typical cobblestone epithelial morphology in culture, and unlike the previously established mouse PDAC cell line Panc02, expressed the ductal marker CK19. Furthermore, these cell lines expressed the epithelial-mesenchymal markers E-cadherin and N-cadherin, and also, Muc1 and Muc4 mucins. In addition, these cell lines were resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug Gemcitabine. Their implantation in vivo produced subcutaneous as well as tumors in the pancreas (orthotopic. The genetic mutations in these cell lines mimic the genetic compendium of human PDAC, which make them valuable models with a high potential of translational relevance for examining diagnostic markers and therapeutic drugs.

  17. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma in type 2 progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

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    Green Richard M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BSEP disease results from mutations in ABCB11, which encodes the bile salt export pump (BSEP. BSEP disease is associated with an increased risk of hepatobiliary cancer. Case Presentation A 36 year old woman with BSEP disease developed pancreatic adenocarcinoma at age 36. She had been treated with a biliary diversion at age 18. A 1.7 × 1.3 cm mass was detected in the pancreas on abdominal CT scan. A 2 cm mass lesion was found at the neck and proximal body of the pancreas. Pathology demonstrated a grade 2-3 adenocarcinoma with invasion into the peripancreatic fat. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in patients with BSEP disease.

  18. [Extensive tumor of the skull base: sphenoid sinus adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, Souha; Sellami, Moncef

    2017-01-01

    We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma of the sphenoid sinus manifesting as extended skull base tumor. The patient included in the study was a 42-year old woman presenting with unilateral right symptomatology consisting of nasal obstruction, diplopia and hemifacial neuralgias. Clinical examination showed paralysis of the cranial nerve pairs V and VI. Brain scanner showed voluminous heterogeneous sphenoid and clival mass reaching the right cavernous sinus, with a peripheral tissue component at the level of the sphenoid sinus. Biopsy was performed under general anesthesia, through endonasal sphenoidotomy approach. Histological examination showed non-intestinal adenocarcinoma. The patient died due to impaired general condition occurred during examinations. Skull base adenocarcinomas mainly occur in the ethmoid bone. Sphenoid origin is exceptional. Radiological appearance is not specific and suggests malignancy. Diagnosis should be suspected in patients with aggressive tumor, even when it occurs in the midline skull base.

  19. Common activation of canonical Wnt signaling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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    Marina Pasca di Magliano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is an extremely aggressive malignancy, which carries a dismal prognosis. Activating mutations of the Kras gene are common to the vast majority of human PDA. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic signaling pathway such as Hedgehog and Notch are inappropriately upregulated in this disease. The role of another embryonic signaling pathway, namely the canonical Wnt cascade, is still controversial. Here, we use gene array analysis as a platform to demonstrate general activation of the canonical arm of the Wnt pathway in human PDA. Furthermore, we provide evidence for Wnt activation in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. Our results also indicate that Wnt signaling might be activated downstream of Hedgehog signaling, which is an early event in PDA evolution. Wnt inhibition blocked proliferation and induced apoptosis of cultured adenocarcinoma cells, thereby providing evidence to support the development of novel therapeutical strategies for Wnt inhibition in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  20. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix: Case report and literature review

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    A. Dierickx

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a very rare tumor deriving from remnants of the mesonephric duct. Differential diagnosis from other cervical carcinomas is difficult and little is known regarding its biological behavior, prognosis, and the optimal management strategy. We present a case of a mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix with a comprehensive review of the existing literature. In this case a 66-year-old woman presented with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. She was diagnosed with a FIGO stage IIB mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix and treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and a Wertheim hysterectomy. The recovery from surgery was uneventful and the patient remains with no evidence of disease with 2 years of follow-up.

  1. An unusual metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma: Biceps brachii muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Sariaydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle metastasis of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is a rare occurrence, and the most effective treatment modality is currently unknown. In this case presentation, we report a patient with NSCLC who underwent palliative radiotherapy for biceps muscle metastasis of NSLCS. Our case was a 49-year-old woman who had lung adenocarcinoma with biceps muscle metastasis. She had been followed up for 2 years due to Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma from whom a biopsy was taken from a painful mass in right arm that was found to be compatible with metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. She had palliative radiotherapy for her painful mass and systemic chemotherapy was planned. After palliative radiotherapy, the pain originating from the metastatic mass in right biceps muscle alleviated. Palliative radiotherapy can be a valuable treatment option for cases with skeletal muscle metastasis.

  2. Adenocarcinoma de apêndice: relato de dois casos

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    Alexandre Cruz Henriques

    Full Text Available The authors report two cases of patients with appendix adenocarcinoma, manifested as a syndrome of abdominal tumor of unknown origin. It was not possible to perform etiological diagnosis in the preoperative period for any of them. Literature data show that large locoregional tumor is a manifestation of appendix adenocarcinoma, although acute appendicites is the most frequent clinical manifestation. Preoperative diagnosis is rare and usually performed during laparotomy or through histopathological examination of the specimen. In large tumors, total mass resection including hemicolectomy should be carried out whenever possible. Whenever diagnosis of appendix adenocarcinoma is performed by the histopathological examination of the acute appendicites specimen, re-intervention is indicated for a right hemicolectomy.

  3. Medroxyprogesterone in Treating Patients With Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer

  4. Metastases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A systematic review of literature and a new functional concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannistrà, Marco; Ruggiero, Michele; Zullo, Alessandra; Serafini, Simone; Grande, Raffaele; Nardo, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer, especially Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, is still associated with a high mortality and morbidity for affected patients notwithstanding considerable progresses in diagnosis and both surgical pharmacological therapy. Despite metastases from colorectal, gastric and neuroendocrine primary tumor and their treatment are widely reported, the literature has been rarely investigated the impact of localization and numbers of pancreatic metastases. This study performed a systematic analysis of the most recent scientific literature on the natural history of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma focusing attention on the role that the "M" parameter has on a possible prognostic stratification of these patients. PubMed and Science Direct databases were searched for relevant articles on these issue. Initial database searches yielded 7231 studies from PubMed and 29101 from Science Direct. We evaluated 1031 eligible full text articles. An updated insight into the world of Pancreatic Tumors might help physicians in better evaluating mechanisms of metastases, patients selection and survival and in programming appropriate interventions to modify the worst outcomes of advanced disease. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in esophageal squamous cell and adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gockel, Ines; Galle, Peter R; Junginger, Theodor; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C; Heinrich, Christian; Wehler, T; Frerichs, K; Drescher, Daniel; Langsdorff, Christian von; Domeyer, Mario; Biesterfeld, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Prognosis of esophageal cancer is poor despite curative surgery. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been proposed to distinctly contribute to tumor growth, dissemination and local immune escape in a limited number of malignancies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of CXCR4 in tumor spread of esophageal cancer with a differentiated view of the two predominant histologic types – squamous cell and adenocarcinoma. Esophageal cancer tissue samples were obtained from 102 consecutive patients undergoing esophageal resection for cancer with curative intent. The LSAB+ System was used to detect the protein CXCR4. Tumor samples were classified into two groups based on the homogeneous staining intensity. A cut-off between CXCR4w (= weak expression) and CXCR4s (= strong expression) was set at 1.5 (grouped 0 – 1.5 versus 2.0 – 3). Long-term survival rates were calculated using life tables and the Kaplan-Meier method. Using the Cox's proportional hazards analysis, a model of survival prediction was established. The overall expression rate for CXCR4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was 94.1%. Subdividing these samples, CXCR4w was found in 54.9% and CXCR4s in 45.1%. In adenocarcinoma, an overall expression rate of 89.1% was detected with a weak intensitiy in 71.7% compared to strong staining in 29.3% (p = 0.066 squamous cell versus adenocarcinoma). The Cox's proportional hazards analysis identified the pM-category with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.860 (95% CI: 1.014–3.414) (p = 0.045), the histologic tumor type (HR: 0.334; 95% CI: 0.180–0.618) (p = 0.0001) and the operative approach (transthoracic > transhiatal esophageal resection) (HR: 0.546; 95% CI: 0.324–0.920) (p = 0.023) as independent factors with a possible influence on the long-term prognosis in patients with esophageal carcinoma, whereas CXCR4 expression was statistically not significant (>0.05). Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in esophageal cancer is of major relevance in both

  6. Esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett esophagus in a neurologically impaired teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Chun, Peter; Shin, Dong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) accompanied by Barrett esophagus (BE) is rare in patients younger than 20 years old. EAC in the upper esophagus is also rare. We report a rare case of EAC with BE that developed in the upper esophagus after chronic, untreated gastroesophageal reflux disease in a neurologically impaired teenager. A 19-year-old neurologically impaired man underwent endoscopy for evaluation of dysphagia and vomiting, and was diagnosed with EAC with BE. He underwent transthoracic esophagectomy, extensive lymph node dissection, and cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but the prognosis was poor. Pathology indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with BE. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Radiologic diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, N. Cem; Semelka, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents imaging modalities in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) have the highest accuracy in detection of pancreatic cancer. MRI and EUS have similar accuracy in determining the local extent of pancreatic cancer. Angiography, computed tomography (CT) angiography and EUS are similarly accurate in evaluating peripancreatic vascular involvement. MRI is the superior method for detecting liver metastases and peritoneal implants of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are used to assess the biliary tract of patients with pancreatic cancer. Positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in distinguishing pancreatic cancer from focal pancreatic inflammation

  8. Radiologic diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, N. Cem E-mail: ncbalci@hotmail.com; Semelka, Richard C

    2001-05-01

    This article presents imaging modalities in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) have the highest accuracy in detection of pancreatic cancer. MRI and EUS have similar accuracy in determining the local extent of pancreatic cancer. Angiography, computed tomography (CT) angiography and EUS are similarly accurate in evaluating peripancreatic vascular involvement. MRI is the superior method for detecting liver metastases and peritoneal implants of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are used to assess the biliary tract of patients with pancreatic cancer. Positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in distinguishing pancreatic cancer from focal pancreatic inflammation.

  9. Neurinoma del plexo braquial simulando metastasis de adenocarcinoma de mama

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    Gregorio Rodríguez Boto; Angela Moreno-Gutiérrez; Raquel Gutiérrez-González; Ángel Villar-Martín; Luis A. Arraez-Aybar; Javier Serrano Hernando

    2011-01-01

    Los neurinomas del plexo braquial son tumores infrecuentes que pueden confundirse con otras lesiones de índole tumoral. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años, tratada previamente de un adenocarcinoma de mama derecha en el pasado, que en el estudio de extensión realizado 5 años después se detectó una lesión localizada en el plexo braquial derecho. La paciente se encontraba asintomática. El diagnóstico radiológico de presunción fue metástasis de adenocarcinoma mamario. Se realizó un abord...

  10. Human chorionic gonadotropin and CA 15-3 producing adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueckaya, G.; Oezet, A.; Arpaci, A.; Koemuercue, S.

    1998-01-01

    50 years old man suffering from primary lung adenocarcinoma presented with high levels of both beta subunit human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the absence of elevated carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA), alfa fetoprotein (AFP) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). Although βHCG or CA 15-3 high levels were reported in adenocarcinoma of lung, this is the first report of a patient with high levels of both markers. (orig.) [de

  11. Secondary neoplasms of the larynx from a colonic adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dadkhah, Naser; Hahn, Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Secondary neoplasms of the larynx are rare and account for 0.09-0,4% of all laryngeal tumours. Cutaneous melanomas are the preponderant primaries metastasizing to the larynx, fol-lowed by renal cell carcinomas, breast and lung carcinomas. Colonic adenocarcinoma metastases to the larynx are extrem......Secondary neoplasms of the larynx are rare and account for 0.09-0,4% of all laryngeal tumours. Cutaneous melanomas are the preponderant primaries metastasizing to the larynx, fol-lowed by renal cell carcinomas, breast and lung carcinomas. Colonic adenocarcinoma metastases to the larynx...

  12. Aggressive surgical management of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Maganty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is a rare and aggressive malignancy arising from the epididymal epithelium. We present a case of a 66-year-old male who presented with left testis mass. Histopathological analysis of orchiectomy specimen was consistent with adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. Subsequent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection revealed metastatic disease not detected on preoperative PET-CT. Prior reports have suggested poor response rates to both systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Aggressive surgical management of the retroperitoneum should be considered even in clinically node-negative patients given the paucity of other effective treatment regimens.

  13. Metastatic ampullary adenocarcinoma presenting as a hydrocele: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Whitney O; Bentley, Rex C; Hurwitz, Herbert I; Howard, Leigh A; Polascik, Thomas J; Anderson, Mark R; Blazer, Dan G

    2014-05-27

    Metastases from ampullary malignancies are common, but spread to the testicle and paratesticular tissue is exceedingly rare with only 2 reported cases in the literature. We report a case of a 70 year-old male with a history of ampullary adenocarcinoma status post pancreaticoduodenectomy who presented with a symptomatic right-sided hydrocele. Subsequent pathology revealed metastatic ampullary adenocarcinoma. Metastasis to the testicle and paratesticular tissue from ampullary malignancies is rare, but must be considered in the evaluation of scrotal masses in patients with a history of ampullary malignancy.

  14. An ultrastructural comparison of mesotheliomas and adenocarcinomas of the ovary and endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M J; Hunter, N J; Corson, J M

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of 16 malignant mesotheliomas were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with nine ovarian adenocarcinomas and 11 endometrial adenocarcinomas. The mesotheliomas could be distinguished ultrastructurally by their significantly greater content of tonofilaments (p less than 0.001) and their lack of structures found in both ovarian and endometrial adenocarcinomas, specifically abundant mucin, numerous cilia, and dense core granules of the neurosecretory type.

  15. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  16. DEK protein overexpression predicts poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Bi, Fangfang; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan; Jin, Aihua; Li, Jinzi; Lin, Zhenhua

    2017-02-01

    DEK, a transcription factor, is involved in mRNA splicing, transcriptional control, cell division and differentiation. Recent studies suggest that DEK overexpression can promote tumorigenesis in a wide range of cancer cell types. However, little is known concerning the status of DEK in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Based on the microarray data from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), the expression levels of DEK mRNA in PDAC tissues were significantly higher than levels in the adjacent non-tumor tissues. To explore the clinical features of DEK overexpression in PDAC, 87 PDAC and 52 normal pancreas tissues were selected for immunoenzyme staining of the DEK protein. Localization of the DEK protein was detected in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells using immunofluorescence (IF) staining. The correlations between DEK overexpression and the clinical features of PDAC were evaluated using the Chi-squared (χ2) and Fisher's exact tests. The survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between prognostic factors and patient survival was also analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard models. The expression levels of DEK mRNA in PDAC tissues were significantly higher than that in the adjacent non‑tumor tissues. The DEK protein showed a primarily nuclear staining pattern in PDAC. The positive rate of the DEK protein was 52.9% (46/87) in PDAC, which was significantly higher than that in the adjacent normal pancreatic tissues (7.7%, 4/52). DEK overexpression in PDAC was correlated with tumor size, histological grade, tumor‑node‑metastasis (TNM) stage and overall survival (OS) rates. In addition, multivariate analysis demonstrated that DEK overexpression was an independent prognostic factor along with histological grade and TNM stage in patients with PDAC. In conclusion, DEK overexpression is associated with PDAC progression and may be a potential biomarker for poor prognostic evaluation in PDAC.

  17. Neurinoma del plexo braquial simulando metastasis de adenocarcinoma de mama Schwannoma of the brachial plexus resembling a breast adenocarcinoma metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Rodríguez Boto; Angela Moreno-Gutiérrez; Raquel Gutiérrez-González; Ángel Villar-Martín; Luis A. Arraez-Aybar; Javier Serrano Hernando

    2011-01-01

    Los neurinomas del plexo braquial son tumores infrecuentes que pueden confundirse con otras lesiones de índole tumoral. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años, tratada previamente de un adenocarcinoma de mama derecha en el pasado, que en el estudio de extensión realizado 5 años después se detectó una lesión localizada en el plexo braquial derecho. La paciente se encontraba asintomática. El diagnóstico radiológico de presunción fue metástasis de adenocarcinoma mamario. Se realizó un abord...

  18. Prognostic Evaluation of Vimentin Expression in Correlation with Ki67 and CD44 in Surgically Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Myoteri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Radical surgical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy is the most effective treatment for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. However, relatively few studies investigate the prognostic significance of biological markers in PDAC. This study aims to look into the expressions of vimentin, Ki67, and CD44 in PDAC surgical specimens and their potential prognostic implications in survival. Method. The study was designed as retrospective, and vimentin, Ki67, and CD44 expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 53 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases. Overall survival was assessed by the Kaplan–Meier method. Results. Patients’ median age was 68 years. The median survival was 18 months. The tumors were T3-4 in 40/53 (75.5%, and metastases in lymph nodes were found in 42 out of 53 (79.2% cases. On multivariate analysis, the size of primary tumor (p<0.001, the surgical resection margin status (p=0.042, and vimentin expression (p=0.011 were independently correlated with overall survival. Conclusions. Long-term survival after resection of PDAC is still about 15%. Vimentin expression is a potential independent adverse prognostic molecular marker and should be included in histopathological reports. Also, CD44 expression correlates with high Ki67, vimentin positivity, and N stage and may represent a potential target of novel therapeutic modalities in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients.

  19. Reprogramming energy metabolism and inducing angiogenesis: co-expression of monocarboxylate transporters with VEGF family members in cervical adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Céline; Garcia, Eduardo A.; Morais-Santos, Filipa; Moreira, Marise A. R.; Almeida, Fábio M.; Jubé, Luiz F.; Queiroz, Geraldo S.; Paula, Élbio C.; Andreoli, Maria A.; Villa, Luisa L.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of cellular energetic metabolism was recently pointed out as a hallmark of cancer cells. This deregulation involves a metabolic reprogramming that leads to a high production of lactate. Lactate efflux, besides contributing for the glycolytic flux, also acts in the extracellular matrix, contributing for cancer malignancy, by, among other effects, induction of angiogenesis. However, studies on the interplay between cancer metabolism and angiogenesis are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the metabolic and vascular molecular profiles of cervical adenocarcinomas, their co-expression, and their relation to the clinical and pathological behavior. The immunohistochemical expression of metabolism-related proteins (MCT1, MCT4, CD147, GLUT1 and CAIX) as well as VEGF family members (VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3) was assessed in a series of 232 cervical adenocarcinomas. The co-expression among proteins was assessed and the expression profiles were associated with patients’ clinicopathological parameters. Among the metabolism-related proteins, MCT4 and CAIX were the most frequently expressed in cervical adenocarcinomas while CD147 was the less frequently expressed protein. Overall, VEGF family members showed a strong and extended expression with VEGF-C and VEGFR-2 as the most frequently expressed and VEGFR-1 as the less expressed member. Co-expression of MCT isoforms with VEGF family members was demonstrated. Finally, MCT4 was associated with parametrial invasion and HPV18 infection, CD147 and GLUT1 with distant metastasis, CAIX with tumor size and HPV18 infection, and VEGFR-1 with local and lymphnode metastasis. The results herein presented provide additional evidence for a crosstalk between deregulating cellular energetics and inducing angiogenesis. Also, the metabolic remodeling and angiogenic switch are relevant to cancer progression and aggressiveness in adenocarcinomas

  20. Role of Rac1 Pathway in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem-like Cell Phenotypes in Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Changhwan; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Chang, Kevin K; Park, Do Joong; Ryeom, Sandra W; Yoon, Sam S

    2017-08-01

    Rac1, a Rho GTPase family member, is dysregulated in a variety of tumor types including gastric adenocarcinoma, but little is known about its role in cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Therefore, Rac1 activity and inhibition were examined in gastric adenocarcinoma cells and mouse xenograft models for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CSC phenotypes. Rac1 activity was significantly higher in spheroid-forming or CD44 + gastric adenocarcinoma CSCs compared with unselected cells. Rac1 inhibition using Rac1 shRNA or a Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) decreased expression of the self-renewal transcription factor, Sox-2, decreased spheroid formation by 78%-81%, and prevented tumor initiation in immunodeficient mice. Gastric adenocarcinoma CSCs had increased expression of the EMT transcription factor Slug, 4.4- to 8.3-fold greater migration, and 4.2- to 12.6-fold greater invasion than unselected cells, and these increases could be blocked completely with Rac1 inhibition. Gastric adenocarcinoma spheroid cells were resistant to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin chemotherapy, and this chemotherapy resistance could be reversed with Rac1 shRNA or NSC23766. The PI3K/Akt pathway may be upstream of Rac1, and JNK may be downstream of Rac1. In the MKN-45 xenograft model, cisplatin inhibited tumor growth by 50%, Rac1 inhibition by 35%, and the combination by 77%. Higher Rac1 activity, in clinical specimens from gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent potentially curative surgery, correlated with significantly worse survival ( P = 0.017). In conclusion, Rac1 promotes the EMT program in gastric adenocarcinoma and the acquisition of a CSC state. Rac1 inhibition in gastric adenocarcinoma cells blocks EMT and CSC phenotypes, and thus may prevent metastasis and augment chemotherapy. Implications: In gastric adenocarcinoma, therapeutic targeting of the Rac1 pathway may prevent or reverse EMT and CSC phenotypes that drive tumor progression, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. Mol

  1. Role of CT perfusion imaging in patients with variously differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zong-Qiong; Cheng, Xiao-Fang; Ge, Yu-Xi; Chen, Lin; Yue, Jian-Guo; Jin, Lin-Fang; Xie, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Han-Di; Xuan, Ying-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of variously differentiated gastric cancers on computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging, including specific perfusion parameter values, and potential clinical applications in the prognosis assessment of gastric cancer. Fifty patients with gastric cancer confirmed by gastroscope pathology were studied prospectively using CT perfusion imaging examinations on a 64-slice spiral CT scanner. The acquired volume data were used for calculations, mapping, and analysis by using an abdominal tumor perfusion protocol (deconvolution method) in the CT perfusion software package to measure 4 parameters: blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and the permeability surface (PS) area product. The different differentiated Gastric cancers with CT perfusion values were divided into 3 groups: well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma, and compared statistically with one another by statistical software. The mean perfusion values of 10 patients with well-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma were as follows: BF, 75.28 ± 6.81 mL/100 g/min; BV, 9.01 ± 0.94 mL/100 g; MTT, 9.89 ± 1.65 s; and PS, 10.05 ± 0.71 mL/100 g/min. The mean perfusion values of 24 patients with moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma were as follows: BF, 110.01 ± 31.90 mL/100 g/min; BV, 18.18 ± 5.62 mL/100 g; MTT, 9.81 ± 3.69 s; and PS, 40.08 ± 15.82 mL/100 g/min. The mean perfusion values of 16 patients with poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma were as follows: BF, 138.59 ± 38.09 mL/100 g/min; BV, 21.08 ± 4.11 mL/100 g; MTT, 9.47 ± 1.80 s; and PS, 57.50 ± 13.28 mL/100 g/min. Comparing the 3 groups, differences between the well-differentiated group and the moderate differentiation group were all statistically significant for BF, BV, and PS (p 0.05). Stomach CT perfusion imaging is a functional imaging technology from the perspective of hemodynamics with potential clinical applications

  2. Different histological status of gastritis in superficial adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masayoshi; Kushima, Ryoji; Oda, Ichiro; Mojtahed, Kaveh; Nonaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Matsubara, Akiko; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sekine, Shigeki; Saito, Yutaka; Shimoda, Tadakazu

    2014-01-01

    Although many gastric cancers arise in chronic gastritis, the association between adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction and the status of background gastritis remains unclear. We aim to investigate the histological status of gastritis in the background fundic gland mucosa of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. The present study included 121 consecutive patients with superficial adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction obtained by surgical and/or endoscopic resection. We re-evaluated the histogenesis of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction, including the background fundic gland mucosa using the Updated Sydney System. The prevalence of histologic atrophic gastric mucosa with gastritis (positive gastritis), non-atrophic gastric mucosa without gastritis (negative gastritis) and Barrett's adenocarcinoma was examined. Histologic-positive gastritis was found in 67 (55%) of all patients, in 24 (38%) of 63 Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients and in 43 (74%) of 58 non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients (P gastritis patients `and younger age in non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma without gastritis patients were shown. There were no differences in clinicopathological features related to the gastritis status in Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients. Reflux esophagitis was observed in most (81%) of all patients, and 32 (74%) of the non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma with gastritis patients. In the 67 positive gastritis patients, the mean Updated Sydney System scores of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were 1.45 and 1.10, respectively, and these scores were higher in the non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients than in the Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients. This study suggests that about half of the patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction harbor histological gastritis. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction is considered to be a heterogeneous entity, including Barrett's esophagus-related, positive gastritis-related, and

  3. Adenocarcinoma in a retrorectal cytstic hamartoma: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenocarcinoma in a retrorectal cytstic hamartoma: A case report and literature review. A Rogers, E Simpson, A Atherstone. Abstract. Retrorectal cystic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions derived from the vestigial portion of the embryonic hindgut. These lesions present in a vague manner and so mimic the presentation ...

  4. Conjunctival mucinous adenocarcinoma in an ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Kathryn L.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Bartholin, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    . Gross examination revealed a botryoid mass attached to the inferior palpebral conjunctiva and extending onto the palpebral aspect of the nictitating membrane. Euthanasia was selected, and the histological diagnosis of the second mass was a mixed mucinous adenocarcinoma; however, no acid-fast bacteria...

  5. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectal Carcinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshidhar Vootla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma. We present a case of a 46-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, uterine fibroids and hypercholesterolemia presenting with a 2-week history of intermittent abdominal pain, mainly in the right upper quadrant. She had no family history of cancers. Physical examination was significant for pallor. Laboratory findings showed microcytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 6.6 g/dl. CT abdomen showed circumferential wall thickening in the ascending colon near the hepatic flexure and pulmonary nodules. Colonoscopy showed hepatic flexure mass and rectal nodule which were biopsied. Pathology showed a moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon (hepatic flexure mass and a low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm (carcinoid of rectum. The patient underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and chemotherapy. In patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, carcinoids could be missed due to their submucosal location, multicentricity and indolent growth pattern. Studies suggest a closer surveillance of the GI tract for noncarcinoid synchronous malignancy when a carcinoid tumor is detected and vice versa.

  6. A case report of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddula Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized gingival enlargement is often associated with specific systemic medication, abscess formation, trauma or reactive lesions. Scant literature is available reporting enlargement of gingiva due the metastasis of adenocarcinoma from lung. The case report presents a unique case of an adenocarcinoma in the lung metastasizing to the buccal and lingual interdental papillae of teeth numbering 34 and 35. A 72-year-old female was referred to the Mayo Clinic with a recent diagnosis of metastatic stage IV adenocarcinoma of the left lung presented with an abnormal mass located on the left posterior buccal keratinized tissue adjacent to teeth numbering 34-35. Biopsy of the lesion was performed for CK7, CK20, TTF-1 and p63. The tumor cells were positive for CK7 and TTF-1, and weakly positive for p63 suggesting a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The periodontist may be in the unique position to be the first oral health care provider to evaluate any biopsy suspicious intra-oral lesions.

  7. The distinctive nature of adenocarcinoma of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roviello G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Giandomenico RovielloDepartment of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: In recent years, many personalized treatments have been developed for NSCLC (non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Among these, gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors for patients with EGFR gene mutations, while crizotinib and ceritinib are two new tyrosine kinase inhibitors directed against the echinoderm microtubule-like protein 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocation. The possibility of these new molecules being used to treat patients without adenocarcinoma histology is notably small. For example, EGFR mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene rearrangement are rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (generally <1%. Additionally, the benefit of targeted treatment approaches in patients with small-cell lung cancer histology is limited. All of these findings highlight the distinctive nature of adenocarcinoma of the lung among all lung cancer subtypes. Unfortunately, to date, less than 15% of patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung are ideal candidates for these targeted therapies.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, EGFR, ALK

  8. Pre-clinical Models of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwang, Chang-Il; Boj, Sylvia F; Clevers, Hans; Tuveson, David A

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most difficult human malignancies to treat. Five-year survival rate of PDA patients is 7%, and PDA is predicted to become the second leading cancer-related cause of death in the United States of America. Despite intensive efforts, the translation

  9. Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid in a patient with right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare entity in the study of thyroid disease. The occurrence of ectopic thyroid tissue as amass in the submandibular region is even rarer. To report a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid within a right submandibularmass in a 67 year-old man.Additionally this is to alert doctors on the possibility of the ...

  10. Rate of EGFR mutation in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Shuaib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Contemporary literature on lung adenocarcinoma has demonstrated a genetic difference of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway conferring to ethnicity, such as higher frequency of activated EGFR mutations in East Asian population. This information is missing in some developing countries, and we intend to address this gap in the literature. Methods: We examined the rate of EGFR mutations among Pakistani patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Fine-needle aspiration samples were gathered from 73 patients. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on extracted DNA for mutational analysis of EGFR exons 19 and 21. Results: EGFR mutations were discovered in 18 of 73 (24.6% patients. We did not find any significant difference in EGFR mutation rate with regard to patient's age, sex, smoking history, clinical stage of lung cancer, subtypes of adenocarcinoma, and tumor differentiation. Conclusion: Our investigation shows that the EGFR mutation rate in our patient population with adenocarcinoma of the lung was higher than in African-American, Arabian, and white Caucasian patients, and was lower than the East Asian population.

  11. Renal adenocarcinoma-associated erythrocytosis in a cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal adenocarcinoma-associated erythrocytosis in a cat: Clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical results. ... An abdominal mass was detected upon physical examination. Clinicopathological work-up revealed marked erythrocytosis (HCT value 64.8%), renal azotemia and decreased urine specific gravity ...

  12. Cutaneous adenocarcinoma in a desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu-Seida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the clinical and histopathological findings of a rare case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma in a 40-year-old desert tortoise. Surgical excision of the neoplasm improved the general health condition and locomotion of the tortoise although recurrence of the neoplasm had been recorded 1 year post-surgery.

  13. Chylous ascites due to signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-04

    Sep 4, 2011 ... He was underwent to medium chain triglycerides based diet, total parenteric diet and treatment with somatostatin ... esophageal, lung, colorectal, prostate or gastric cancer.[4,5]. Signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma is a .... pattern and performs subsequent analysis that disclosed high triglycerides levels.

  14. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I. [Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Messina (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  15. New cancer suppressor gene for colorectal adenocarcinoma: filamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zi-Qiang; Shi, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ran; Li, Zhong; Wang, Gui-Ying

    2015-02-21

    To determine the expression and significance of filamin A (FLNa) in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue. The expression of FLNa in 46 colorectal cancer tissues and normal tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, and its relationship with clinical parameters and prognosis was analyzed. The positive expression of FLNa in cancer tissues was lower than that in normal mucosa, and the difference was statistically significant. The expression of FLNa correlated with liver metastasis, lymph node metastasis and rectal invasion depth, regardless of sex, age, tumor location, tumor size, gross shape and histological type of colorectal carcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that FLNa was an independent risk factor for postoperative survival of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Moreover, survival analysis showed that the expression level of FLNa was closely related with survival of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. The results of RT-PCR and Western blotting were consistent with those of immunohistochemistry. FLNa showed low expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma, high correlation with the incidence and development of colorectal cancer, and was considered an indicator of prognosis.

  16. A rare presentation of prostate adenocarcinoma metastatic to the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata S Prathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors of the orofacial region are uncommon and may occur in the oral soft tissues and jaw bones. The occurrence of prostate as the primary site for jaw metastasis is extremely rare. Mandible and palate are the common prostate metastatic sites. Here, we present a rare case of prostate adenocarcinoma metastatic to maxilla.

  17. Urinary bladder adenocarcinoma arising in a spina bifida patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Mireille; Mandel, Edmund; Kirschenbaum, Alexander M; Unger, Pamela D

    2007-12-01

    Urinary bladder adenocarcinomas are rare malignancies accounting for approximately 2.5% of all urothelial neoplasms. Intestinal metaplasia of the urothelium indicates the presence of intestinal-type goblet cells and was generally observed to coexist with or to precede the diagnosis of bladder adenocarcinomas. Controversy continues of whether intestinal metaplasia is an acquired precancerous lesion, secondary to different insults to the urothelium, or a concomitant lesion in glandular carcinogenesis. Patients with neurogenic bladders are particularly at risk for developing bladder cancer, mostly squamous cell carcinoma and rarely adenocarcinoma. In these patients, chronic irritation of the urothelium as well as long-term indwelling urinary catheters were the most significant risk factors. Spina bifida is a congenital developmental abnormality that may result in neurogenic bladder. There is only one previously reported case of urothelial carcinoma with associated squamous metaplasia of the bladder occurring in a spina bifida patient. We report the first case of bladder adenocarcinoma associated with intestinal metaplasia occurring in a spina bifida occulta patient. The patient had a complicated clinical course and suffered recurrent urinary tract infections, renal calculi, and urinary incontinence and was managed with intermittent as well as indwelling catheterization.

  18. [Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate: description of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, G; Mastroberardino, E; Del Vino, A; Artese, L

    2000-04-01

    We report an occasional biopsy of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate with review of the literature and discussion about all criteria used to classify this clinical-pathological entity. Histochemical (Alcian Blue and P.A.S.) and immunohistochemical (P.A.P. and P.S.A.) stainings were performed.

  19. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  20. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  1. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Arising from Barrett's Epithelium in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Tu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus (BE in Eastern countries is rising to match the prevalence in the West. However, a corresponding trend of BE-associated adenocarcinoma has yet to be observed in Asia. Historically, adenocarcinoma complicating BE has been considered a rare event in Taiwan. In the present report, we collected three Taiwanese cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma arising from BE. The first case was a 37-year-old man with an advanced cancer that developed on pre-existing BE after a 3-year interval without endoscopic surveillance. The second case was a 63-year-old man who presented with odynophagia and was found to have an ulcerative tumor centered on the characteristic Barrett's mucosa. The final case was a 44-year-old man who presented with gradual-onset dysphagia and weight loss, without typical reflux symptom. Our report emphasizes the need for an updated epidemiologic study to determine the incidence of BE-associated adenocarcinoma in Taiwan.

  2. Management of Adenocarcinoma In Situ of Cervix in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abidi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma in situ is one of the premalignant lesions of the cervix and its incidence is believed to be increasing while the pathogenesis of the disease is not clearly understood. Management of Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS unlike carcinoma in situ (CIS has not been clearly described in the current literature. Here we describe conservative management and serial colposcopy of two pregnant women with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix. Both of the cases were diagnosed initially with abnormal Pap smears and were confirmed by colposcopic directed biopsy. None of the patients agreed with any invasive procedure during pregnancy and both of them were followed with serial colposcopy. None of the lesions showed any evidence of progression. All cases underwent cold knife cone biopsies in their postpartum period. Hysterectomy as the final treatment has been done in both cases with no evidence of progression of the disease during pregnancy. We concluded that adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix during pregnancy could be managed conservatively with definite treatment postponed till after delivery.

  3. Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix: A review | Agu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenocarcinoma of the vermiform appendix is rare constituting less than 0.5 % of all gastrointestinal tumours. It is most commonly seen after the fifth decade of life with a slight male preponderance. It stains positive for cytokeratin 20 which is utilized in immunohistochemical diagnosis. The commonest clinical presentation is ...

  4. Adenocarcinoma arising from chronic perianal crohn's disease: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant transformation of perineal fistula in Crohn's disease has rarely been reported. We report a case of Crohn's disease with recurrent perineal fistulas. A 36-year-old male, diagnosed with Crohn's disease at the age of 24, developed adenocarcinoma in an anorectal fistula that had existed for years. He was treated with ...

  5. Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma versus gastric lymphoma : spiral CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Shin, Kue Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Kim, Hong Weon; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Cho, Hyun Deuk

    1999-01-01

    To distinguish the spiral CT findings of Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma from those of gastric lymphoma with diffuse gastric wall thickening. We retrospectively reviewed the spiral CT scans of 30 patients with Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma and nine with gastric lymphoma with diffuse gastric wall thickening. In all patients the respective condition was pathologically confirmed by gastrectomy. CT scanning was performed after peroral administration of 500-700ml of water. A total of 120-140 ml bolus of nonionic contrast material was administered intravenously at a flow rate of 3 ml/sec and two-phase images were obtained at 35-45 sec(early phase) and 180 sec(delayed phase) after the start of bolus injection. Spiral CT was performed with 10mm collimation, 10mm/sec table feed and 10mm reconstruction. We evaluated the degree and homogeneity of enhancement of thickened entire gastric wall, and the enhancement pattern of gastric inner layer, as seen on early-phase CT scans. On early and delayed views, the thickness of gastric wall and the presence of perigastric fat infiltration were determined. The enhancement patterns of gastric inner layer were classified as either continuous or discontinuous thick enhancement, thin enhancement, or nonenhancement. The thickness of gastric wall was 1.2-3.5cm(mean 2.2cm) in cases of adenocarcinoma and 1.2-7.6cm(mean 4cm) in lymphoma. Perigastric fat infiltration was seen in 24 patients with adenocarcinoma(80%) and four with lymphoma(44%). In those with adenocarcinoma, the degree of enhancement of entire gastric wall was hyperdense in fifteen patients(50%) and isointense in eleven (37%). Seven patients with lymphoma(78%)showed hypodensity. In those with adenocarcinoma, continuous thick enhancement of gastric inner layer was seen in 18 patients(60%) and discontinuous thick enhancement in nine(30%). In lymphoma cases, no thick enhancement was observed. Thin enhancement of gastric inner layer was demonstrated in three patients with

  6. Simultaneous multifocal polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J R; Pogrel, M A; Regezi, J A

    1995-07-01

    The polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a recently described variant of salivary gland adenocarcinoma with a comparatively good prognosis. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma occurs most frequently in the palate with a peak incidence between 30 and 70 years of age. The female/male ratio is approximately 2:1, and the tumors exhibit slow growth with a low recurrence rate. The simultaneous occurrence of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma has not been previously reported. This article reviews the existing literature and describes the first two reports of simultaneous intraoral polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

  7. Activation of Focal Adhesion Kinase and Src Mediates Acquired Sorafenib Resistance in A549 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingyu; Guo, Xiaofang; Choksi, Riya

    2017-12-01

    Despite encouraging clinical results with sorafenib monotherapy in patients with KRAS- mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the overall survival benefit of this drug is limited by the inevitable development of acquired resistance. The exact mechanism underlying acquired sorafenib resistance in KRAS -mutant NSCLC is unclear. In this study, the mechanism of acquired sorafenib resistance was explored using a biologically relevant xenograft model, which was established by using the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line and an in vivo-derived, sorafenib-resistant A549 subline (A549/SRFres). Results from the initial study demonstrated that sorafenib treatment significantly decreased E-cadherin ( P A549/SRFres tumors, whereas expression levels of phospho-protein kinase B (AKT), phospho-focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and phospho-Src were elevated in sorafenib-treated A549 and A549/SRFres tumors. We next examined whether concomitant dasatinib treatment could overcome acquired sorafenib resistance by blocking the FAK/Src escape route that mediates resistance. Despite the observed in vitro synergy between sorafenib and dasatinib, the in vivo antitumor effect of half-dose sorafenib-dasatinib combination therapy was inferior to that of the full-dose sorafenib treatment. Although the sorafenib-dasatinib combination effectively inhibited Src and AKT phosphorylation, it did not block the Y576/577-FAK phosphorylation, nor did it decrease vimentin protein expression; unexpectedly, it increased Y397-FAK phosphorylation and MMP9 protein expression in tumors. These results suggest that acquired sorafenib resistance in KRAS -mutant A549 xenografts involves the compensatory activation of FAK and Src, and Src inhibition alone is insufficient to diminish sorafenib-promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and invasive potentials in tumors. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. An Emerging Entity: Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Associated with a Known BRCA Mutation: Clinical Descriptors, Treatment Implications, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Maeve A.; Kelsen, David P.; Stadler, Zsofia K.; Yu, Kenneth H.; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Ludwig, Emmy; D'Adamo, David R.; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Robson, Mark E.; Allen, Peter J.; Kurtz, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations are associated with an elevated risk for pancreas adenocarcinoma (PAC). Other BRCA-associated cancers have been shown to have greater sensitivity to platinum and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors with better clinical outcomes than in sporadic cases; however, outcomes in BRCA-associated PAC have not been reported. Methods. Patients with a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and a diagnosis of PAC were identified from the Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, Familial Pancreas Cancer Registry, and Clinical Genetics Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Results. Fifteen patients, five male, with a BRCA1 (n = 4) or BRCA2 (n = 11) mutation and PAC and one patient with a BRCA1 mutation and acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas were identified. Seven female patients (70%) had a prior history of breast cancer. Four patients received a PARP inhibitor alone or in combination with chemotherapy; three demonstrated an initial radiographic partial response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors whereas one patient had stable disease for 6 months. Six patients received platinum-based chemotherapy first line for metastatic disease; five of those patients had a radiographic partial response. Conclusion. BRCA mutation–associated PAC represents an underidentified, but clinically important, subgroup of patients. This is of particular relevance given the ongoing development of therapeutic agents targeting DNA repair, which may potentially offer a significant benefit to a genetically selected population. We anticipate that further study and understanding of the clinical and biologic features of BRCA-mutant PAC will aid in the identification of tissue biomarkers indicating defective tumor DNA repair pathways in sporadic PAC. PMID:21934105

  9. [Down-expression of FOXA2 in gastric adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengliang; Sun, Jiangli; Bai, Zhenghai; Li, Haijun; He, Shicai; Chen, Rui; Che, Xiangming

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the expression of FOXA2 in human gastric adenocarcinoma and its correlation with cell migration and invasion. Fifty-six pairs of gastric adenocarcinoma and matched tumor-adjacent tissues were freshly collected. The expressions of FOXA2 and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) in the gastric specimens were detected using immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was performed to test FOXA2 and E-cadherin expressions in different gastric cancer cell lines. FOXA2 was over-expressed in MKN-45 cells. TranswellTM assays were performed to observe gastric cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis. The expressions of FOXA2 and E-cadherin in gastric adenocarcinoma were significantly lower than those in matched tumor-adjacent noncancerous tissues. FOXA2 was positively correlated with E-cadherin expression in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. Clinical analysis suggested that FOXA2 expression was prominently associated with tumor differentiation, infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage, respectively. The lowest expressions of FOXA2 and E-cadherin were found in highly invasive gastric cancer MKN-45 cell line; the highest expressions of FOXA2 and E-cadherin were observed in low metastatic gastric cancer N-87 cell line. Over-expression of FOXA2 significantly increased the expression of E-cadherin protein and obviously inhibited cell migration and invasion in MKN-45 cells. Expression of FOXA2 is reduced in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and its low-expression is correlated with malignant clinical pathological features. Over-expression of FOXA2 in MKN-45 cells up-regulates E-cadherin expression and inhibits gastric cancer cell migration and invasion.

  10. Adenocarcinoma of the paraurethral glands: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Modena, Alessandra; Maines, Francesca; Segala, Diego; Luchini, Claudio; Marcolini, Lisa; Cavicchioli, Francesca; Cavalleri, Stefano; Bria, Emilio; Brunelli, Matteo; Martignoni, Guido; Artibani, Walter; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2014-10-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the paraurethral glands represents a very rare neoplasm of the urinary tract. Due to the rarity of this disease, there is no standard therapeutic approach. We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the paraurethral glands in a 56-year-old woman, presenting with abnormal serous vaginal discharges. The radiologic examination revealed a 5-cm mass around the urethra, which underwent surgical resection. After surgical resection, the histology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, probably arising from the paraurethral glands. One month later, a pelvic recurrent mass was radiologically diagnosed; consequently, an anterior pelvic exenteration with lymph node dissection was performed. Histological examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, with glandular and micropapillary architecture, with multiple lymph node metastases. The absence of modifications such as urethritis cystic glandularis on the urethral mucosa, as well as the lack of a lesion in situ, associated with the immunohistochemical expression of PAX8 and negativity for GATA3 and S100p, suggested that the adenocarcinoma originated from the paraurethral glands rather than from the urethral mucosa. Post-surgery CT scans revealed no evidence of metastatic disease. The patient received 6 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. One year after the pelvic exenteration, because of inguinal lymph node progression, an inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed. Four months later, a TC-PET revealed a multidistrectual lymph node and a lung micronodule disease progression. Invasive micropapillary carcinomas have been characterized as a rare distinctive variant of carcinomas in several anatomic sites and are distinguished by a marked tendency to lymphovascular invasion, justifying the association with high-stage disease and poor prognosis. In the present case, both the poor prognosis connected with micropapillary structure and the lymph node involvement

  11. Opium; an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Pawlita, Michael; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-01-01

    Opium use has been associated with higher risk of cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung; however, no previous study has examined its association with gastric cancer. There is also little information on the associations between hookah (water pipe) smoking or the chewing of tobacco products and the risk of gastric cancer. In a case-control study in Golestan Province of Iran, we enrolled 309 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma (118 noncardia, 161 cardia, and 30 mixed-location adenocarcinomas) and 613 matched controls. Detailed information on long-term use of opium, tobacco products, and other covariates were collected using structured and validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression models. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 3.1 (1.9 – 5.1), and this increased risk was apparent for both anatomic subsites (cardia and noncardia). There was a dose-response effect, and individuals with the highest cumulative opium use had the strongest association (OR: 4.5; 95%CI: 2.3-8.5). We did not find a statistically significant association between the use of any of the tobacco products and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, overall or by anatomic subsite. We showed, for the first time, an association between opium use and gastric adenocarcinoma. Given that opium use is a traditional practice in many parts of the world, these results are of public health significance. PMID:23319416

  12. Opium: an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Pawlita, Michael; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-07-15

    Opium use has been associated with higher risk of cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung; however, no previous study has examined its association with gastric cancer. There is also little information on the associations between hookah (water pipe) smoking or the chewing of tobacco products and the risk of gastric cancer. In a case-control study in Golestan Province of Iran, we enrolled 309 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma (118 noncardia, 161 cardia and 30 mixed-location adenocarcinomas) and 613 matched controls. Detailed information on long-term use of opium, tobacco products and other covariates were collected using structured and validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression models. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 3.1 (1.9-5.1), and this increased risk was apparent for both anatomic subsites (cardia and noncardia). There was a dose-response effect, and individuals with the highest cumulative opium use had the strongest association (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.3-8.5). We did not find a statistically significant association between the use of any of the tobacco products and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, overall or by anatomic subsite. We showed, for the first time, an association between opium use and gastric adenocarcinoma. Given that opium use is a traditional practice in many parts of the world, these results are of public health significance. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  13. Germline Mutations in DNA Repair Genes in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Erin M; Gable, Dustin L; Stanley, Susan E; Khalil, Sara E; Antonescu, Valentin; Florea, Liliana; Armanios, Mary

    2017-11-01

    Although lung cancer is generally thought to be environmentally provoked, anecdotal familial clustering has been reported, suggesting that there may be genetic susceptibility factors. We systematically tested whether germline mutations in eight candidate genes may be risk factors for lung adenocarcinoma. We studied lung adenocarcinoma cases for which germline sequence data had been generated as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project but had not been previously analyzed. We selected eight genes, ATM serine/threonine kinase gene (ATM), BRCA2, DNA repair associated gene (BRCA2), checkpoint kinase 2 gene (CHEK2), EGFR, parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase gene (PARK2), telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT), tumor protein p53 gene (TP53), and Yes associated protein 1 gene (YAP1), on the basis of prior anecdotal association with lung cancer or genome-wide association studies. Among 555 lung adenocarcinoma cases, we detected 14 pathogenic mutations in five genes; they occurred at a frequency of 2.5% and represented an OR of 66 (95% confidence interval: 33-125, p mutations fell most commonly in ATM (50%), followed by TP53, BRCA2, EGFR, and PARK2. Most (86%) of these variants had been reported in other familial cancer syndromes. Another 12 cases (2%) carried ultrarare variants that were predicted to be deleterious by three protein prediction programs; these most frequently involved ATM and BRCA2. A subset of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, at least 2.5% to 4.5%, carry germline variants that have been linked to cancer risk in Mendelian syndromes. The genes fall most frequently in DNA repair pathways. Our data indicate that patients with lung adenocarcinoma, similar to other solid tumors, include a subset of patients with inherited susceptibility. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of molecular differentiation in FFPE colon adenocarcinoma tissues using PCA analysis of MALDI IMS spectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Panderi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MALDI IMS datasets comprise huge amounts of spectra and their interpretation requires the use of multivariate statistical methods. MALDI IMS spectral data have been processed using sequential principal component analysis and 2-D peak distribution tests so as to investigate the molecular differentiation of tumor regions in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies of colorectal adenocarcinoma. In some of the cases fresh frozen tissue section samples were also analyzed for comparison. Multivariate analysis of spectral data revealed a specific pattern of mass ion peaks in different tumor regions that were distinguishable from the adjacent normal regions within a given specimen. Moreover, similar mass ion peaks could be detected in both FFPE and fresh-frozen tissue section samples. These significant mass ion peaks have been used to generate ion images and visualize the difference between tumor and normal regions. These specific and statistically significant ion peaks may serve as potential biomarkers for colorectal adenocarcinoma.

  15. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (pcervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Frequencies and prognostic role of KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients with localized pancreatic and ampullary adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai Aagaard; Roslind, Anne; Christensen, Ib J

    2012-01-01

    The frequencies and prognostic role of KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients operated on for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and ampullary adenocarcinomas (A-ACs) are scantily studied.......The frequencies and prognostic role of KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients operated on for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and ampullary adenocarcinomas (A-ACs) are scantily studied....

  17. TCR Repertoire Intratumor Heterogeneity in Localized Lung Adenocarcinomas: An Association with Predicted Neoantigen Heterogeneity and Postsurgical Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Alexandre; Gittelman, Rachel; Gao, Jianjun; Zhang, Jiexin; Yusko, Erik C; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Emerson, Ryan; Zhang, Jianhua; Tipton, Christopher; Li, Jun; Quek, Kelly; Gopalakrishnan, Vancheswaran; Chen, Runzhe; Vence, Luis M; Cascone, Tina; Vignali, Marissa; Fujimoto, Junya; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Parra, Edwin R; Little, Latasha D; Gumbs, Curtis; Forget, Marie-Andrée; Federico, Lorenzo; Haymaker, Cara; Behrens, Carmen; Benzeno, Sharon; Bernatchez, Chantale; Sepesi, Boris; Gibbons, Don L; Wargo, Jennifer A; William, William N; Swisher, Stephen; Heymach, John V; Robins, Harlan; Lee, J Jack; Sharma, Padmanee; Allison, James P; Futreal, P Andrew; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Zhang, Jianjun

    2017-10-01

    Genomic intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may be associated with postsurgical relapse of localized lung adenocarcinomas. Recently, mutations, through generation of neoantigens, were shown to alter tumor immunogenicity through T-cell responses. Here, we performed sequencing of the T-cell receptor (TCR) in 45 tumor regions from 11 localized lung adenocarcinomas and observed substantial intratumor differences in T-cell density and clonality with the majority of T-cell clones restricted to individual tumor regions. TCR ITH positively correlated with predicted neoantigen ITH, suggesting that spatial differences in the T-cell repertoire may be driven by distinct neoantigens in different tumor regions. Finally, a higher degree of TCR ITH was associated with an increased risk of postsurgical relapse and shorter disease-free survival, suggesting a potential clinical significance of T-cell repertoire heterogeneity. Significance: The present study provides insights into the ITH of the T-cell repertoire in localized lung adenocarcinomas and its potential biological and clinical impact. The results suggest that T-cell repertoire ITH may be tightly associated to genomic ITH and disease relapse. Cancer Discov; 7(10); 1088-97. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1047 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...

  19. Emerging immunotherapeutics in adenocarcinomas: A focus on CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanifar, Mahboubeh; Zhou, Ru; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2016-01-01

    More than 80% of all cancers arise from epithelial cells referred to as carcinomas. Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of carcinomas arising from the specialized epithelial cells that line the ducts of our major organs. Despite many advances in cancer therapies, metastatic and treatment-refractory cancers remain the 2 nd leading cause of death. Immunotherapy has offered potential opportunities with specific targeting of tumor cells and inducing remission in many cancer patients. Numerous therapies using antibodies as antagonists or checkpoint inhibitors/immune modulators, peptide or cell vaccines, cytokines, and adoptive T cell therapies have been developed. The most innovative immunotherapy approach so far has been the use of engineered T cell, also referred to as chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells). CAR-T cells are genetically modified naïve T cells that express a chimeric molecule which comprises of the antigen-recognition domains (scFv) of an anti-tumor antibody and one, two, or three intracellular signaling domains of the T cell receptor (TCR). When these engineered T cells recognize and bind to the tumor antigen target via the scFv fragment, a signal is sent to the intracellular TCR domains of the CAR, leading to activation of the T cells to become cytolytic against the tumor cells. CAR-T cell therapy has shown tremendous success for certain hematopoietic malignancies, but this success has not been extrapolated to adenocarcinomas. This is due to multiple factors associated with adenocarcinoma that are different from hematopoietic tumors. Although many advances have been made in targeting multiple cancers by CAR-T cells, clinical trials have shown adverse effects and toxicity related to this treatment. New strategies are yet to be devised to manage side effects associated with CAR-T cell therapies. In this review, we report some of the promising immunotherapeutic strategies being developed for treatment of most common adenocarcinomas with

  20. Down-regulation of BRCA1 in chronic pancreatitis and sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Carmela; Ramadani, Marco; Meyer, Stephan; Leder, Gerd; Krüger, Martin; Welte, Karl; Gansauge, Frank; Beger, Hans G

    2004-06-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are considered to be breast cancer susceptibility genes that may also contribute to pancreatic cancer development because family studies revealed mutation carriers to have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. However, as demonstrated for breast and ovarian cancer, inactivation of BRCA in sporadic diseases is based on alteration in gene expression or functional alteration. To study a potential correlation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to chronic pancreatitis and development of sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, we have analyzed the expression of these genes by quantitative PCR and performed immunohistochemical analyses in normal pancreatic tissues, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer specimens. BRCA1 expression was down-regulated in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, in particular on the RNA level. Furthermore, our data indicate suppressed BRCA1 expression in pancreatic cancer on both the RNA and protein levels. Quantitative analysis of BRCA1 protein expression demonstrated regular staining in 50% of tumor specimens tested and reduced staining in 50% of tumor specimens tested. Correlation with the clinical outcome revealed a significantly better 1-year overall survival for patients with BRCA1-regular as compared with BRCA1-reduced or BRCA1-absent tumors. In contrast, no substantial differences in BRCA2 expression were found in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer samples. Our data demonstrate alteration of BRCA1 expression in chronic pancreatitis and sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We, for the first time, provide evidence for a role of BRCA1 in pancreatic carcinogenesis of noninherited tumors and for clinical outcome.

  1. Prognostic value of DNA analysis of prostate adenocarcinoma: correlation to clinico pathologic predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantis, A.; Gonidi, M.; Athanassiades, P.; Tsolos, Ch.; Liossi, A.; Aggelonidou, E.; Athanassiadou, A.M.; Petrakakou, E.; Athanassiadou, P. [University Hospital Alexandroupolis, Athens (Greece). Pathology Laboratory, Cytology Department Medical School

    2005-06-15

    The ability to accurately predict tumor behavior and patient survival is a problem in managing patients with prostate cancer. DNA ploidy provides important information for the evaluation of the prognosis of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA ploidy in imprints from prostate adenocarcinomas in a group of 70 patients in relation to Gleason score, tumor differentiation, stage and PSA serum levels. The DNA content was studied in Feulgen-stained imprint smears through the image analysis technique using a SAMBA 2005 Image analyzer. According to our measurements, a strong correlation was observed between DNA ploidy status and tumor differentiation (p<0.001). A statistically significant difference was found between DNA aneuploidy and increased pretreatment PSA serum levels (>4 ng/ml) (p<0.001), as well as between ploidy pattern and stage of the disease (p<0.001). Our results conclude that DNA ploidy status appears to be an additional marker in the field of prognosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma and could provide useful information on the potential behavior of prostate cancer.

  2. Lipocalin2 promotes invasion, tumorigenicity and gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Leung

    Full Text Available Lipocalin 2 (LCN2 is a small secreted protein and its elevated expression has been observed in pancreatic as well as other cancer types. LCN2 has been reported to promote resistance to drug-induced apoptosis, enhance invasion through its physical association with matrix metalloproteinase-9, and promote in vivo tumor growth. LCN2 was found to be commonly expressed in patient PDAC samples and its pattern of immunohistochemical staining intensified with increasing severity in high-grade precursor lesions. Downregulation of LCN2 in two pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines (BxPC3 and HPAF-II with high LCN2 expression significantly reduced attachment, invasion, and tumour growth in vivo, but not proliferation or motility. Downregulation of LCN2 in two pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines (BxPC3 and HPAF-II with high expression significantly reduced attachment, invasion, and tumour growth in vivo. In contrast, LCN2 overexpression in PANC1, with low endogenous expression, significantly increased invasion, attachment, and enhanced tumor growth. Suppression of LCN2 in BxPC3 and HPAF-II cells increased their sensitivity to gemcitabine in vitro, and in vivo when BxPC3 was tested. Furthermore, LCN2 promotes expression of VEGF and HIF1A which contribute to enhanced vascularity. These overall results demonstrate that LCN2 plays an important role in the malignant progression of pancreatic ductal carcinoma and is a potential therapeutic target for this disease.

  3. Cell division cycle 20 overexpression predicts poor prognosis for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Sun, Qi; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xin; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Wang, Anpeng; Jiang, Feng; Xu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The cell division cycle 20, a key component of spindle assembly checkpoint, is an essential activator of the anaphase-promoting complex. Aberrant expression of cell division cycle 20 has been detected in various human cancers. However, its clinical significance has never been deeply investigated in non-small-cell lung cancer. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas database and using some certain online databases, we validated overexpression of cell division cycle 20 in both messenger RNA and protein levels, explored its clinical significance, and evaluated the prognostic role of cell division cycle 20 in non-small-cell lung cancer. Cell division cycle 20 expression was significantly correlated with sex (p = 0.003), histological classification (p overexpression of cell division cycle 20 was significantly associated with bigger primary tumor size (p = 0.0023), higher MKI67 level (r = 0.7618, p Overexpression of cell division cycle 20 is associated with poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and its overexpression can also be used to identify high-risk groups. In conclusion, cell division cycle 20 might serve as a potential biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  4. Radioimmunoimaging of nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts after injecting 131I-McAbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liang

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Lc86a-C5, Lc86a-H8) directed against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line LTEP-a-2 and normal BALB/c IgG were labelled with iodine-131 by chloramine T. The 131 I-McAbs and 131 I-IgG were respectively injected into the peritoneal cavities of nude mice bearing transplanted human lung adenocarcinoma cell line LTEP-a-2. After 72 h, the tumor tissue in nude mice injected with 131 I-McAbs was distinguishable from normal tissues as a very clear image obtained during gamma scintigraphy. No difference was found between tumor and normal tissues in the nude mice injected with 131 I-IgG. The tumor: blood ration was 3.1:1 in nude injected with 131 I McAb(H8) and 0.9:1 in nude mice injected with 131 I-IgG respectively. This indicates that the tumor tissue image was the result of specific binding of the 131 I-McAbs, which have high specificity and affinity both in vitro and in vivo, to tumor cells, and these monoclonal antibodies may serve as potential agents in tumor diagnosis and treatment

  5. Keeping climate research relevant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Lave, L.B.; Morgan, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent post-mortems of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) confirmed what Congress and other key parties to the acid rain debate already knew: that the 10-year, half-billion-dollar interagency program to guide US policy on acid rain control proved largely irrelevant to the effort to forge the new Clean Air Act last fall. Although NAPAP won praise for its scientific accomplishments, the program failed in its primary mission - to provide policy-relevant information in a timely manner. Now, government attempts to deal with the more difficult and far-reaching environmental issues associated with global warming appear to be headed down the same ill-fated path. Global climate change has become the most important environmental issue on the world agenda. The potentially enormous human and ecological implications of global warming - rising sea levels, altered precipitation patterns, and damage to natural ecosystems - have generated concern. But the equally large uncertainties about the timing and magnitude of possible effects, coupled with questions about the costs and impacts of possible abatement measures, have thus far kept policymakers from agreeing on what to do

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity screening of wild plant extracts from Saudi Arabia on human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Abul Farah, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Abou-Tarboush, F M

    2014-05-23

    This study investigated the in vitro anticancer activities of a total of 14 wild angiosperms collected in Saudi Arabia. The cytotoxic activity of each extract was assessed against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using the MTT assay. Among the plants screened, the potential cytotoxic activity exhibited by the extract of Lavandula dentata (Lamiaceae) was identified, and we analyzed its anticancer potential by testing antiproliferative and apoptotic activity. Our results clearly show that ethanolic extract of L. dentata exhibits promising cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 39 μg/mL. Analysis of cell morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis (using an Annexin V assay) also confirmed the apoptotic effect of L. dentata extract, and thus, our data call for further investigations to determine the active chemical constituent(s) and their mechanisms of inducing apoptosis.

  7. Proliferation index of different Gleason pattern 4 histomorphologies and associated pattern 3 adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liying; Hwang, Michael; Adeniran, Adebowale J; Humphrey, Peter A

    2017-12-01

    Gleason grade is one of the most powerful prognostic indicators for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A higher proliferation index of prostatic adenocarcinoma has been demonstrated in numerous studies to be significantly associated with more aggressive behavior. To date, the proliferation index of the different Gleason pattern 4 histomorphologies, including cribriform, fused glands, and poorly formed glands, has not been determined. The aim of this investigation was to quantitate and compare the proliferation index, as assessed by Ki67 labeling index, of different Gleason pattern 4 histomorphologies. We also analyzed the Ki67 labeling index of Gleason pattern 3 adenocarcinoma associated with and without cribriform adenocarcinoma. Among Gleason pattern 4 morphologies, cribriform adenocarcinoma exhibited a higher mean proliferation index at 5.3% compared to fused gland adenocarcinoma at 3.9% (P = .03) and poorly formed glands at 3.6% (P pattern 3 associated with cribriform adenocarcinoma was higher at 4.1% compared to pure Gleason pattern 3 at 2.2% (P pattern 3 associated with non-cribriform pattern 4 adenocarcinoma at 2.9% (P = .02). This higher proliferation index of Gleason pattern 3 adenocarcinoma associated with cribriform pattern 4 adenocarcinoma indicates that not all Gleason pattern 3 cells are identical and that cribriform adenocarcinoma may influence or be related to associated Gleason pattern 3. Gleason pattern 4 adenocarcinoma of the prostate with cribriform growth has a higher proliferation index than other grade 4 histomorphologies, consistent with the more clinically aggressive nature of cribriform adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Examination of the Fractalkine and Fractalkine Receptor Expression in Fallopian Adenocarcinoma Reveals Differences When Compared to Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Gurler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fallopian adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising in the epithelium of the fallopian tube. Fallopian tube epithelium has been proposed as a tissue origin for high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. Given the commonalities in dissemination and treatment of these malignancies, we contemplated the possibility of similar patterns of gene expression underlying their progression. To reveal potential similarities or differences in the gene expression of fallopian adenocarcinoma and high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, we tested expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1 and its ligand, fractalkine (CX3CL1, in the specimens of normal and pathologic fallopian tube using immunohistochemistry. Our data show that CX3CR1 is expressed in the normal, cancer adjacent normal, inflammatory, and malignant fallopian epithelium. CX3CL1 was expressed only by the normal and cancer adjacent normal fallopian tube epithelium; its expression was largely lost in the inflammatory and malignant fallopian epithelium. In opposite, both CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 are expressed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. These findings are consistent with an idea that fallopian adenocarcinoma and high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, although currently thought to arise from the same organ, may not share similar molecular characteristics.

  9. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and mantle cell lymphoma of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vijayalakshmi; Trainer, Thomas D

    2003-02-01

    Synchronous occurrence of malignant lymphoma and carcinoma, both located in the intestinal tract, is unusual. We report a unique case of an adenocarcinoma of the cecum and a simultaneous mantle cell lymphoma of the colon, terminal ileum, and regional lymph nodes in an 85-year-old man. Grossly, the adenocarcinoma was identified as a cecal mass. Lymphomatous involvement of the gastrointestinal tract was evident only on microscopic examination. The terminal ileum and colon showed microscopic disseminated multiple mucosal nodules, with involvement of the regional lymph nodes. There was no involvement of distant organs, suggesting that the mantle cell lymphoma was early in its evolution without formation of polyps or a mass lesion. To our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case with this association and the second case that showed early involvement of the gastrointestinal tract with mantle cell lymphoma without polyp formation.

  10. MR cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sai, Jinkan; Ariyama, Jo; Suyama, Masafumi [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1998-01-01

    We examined the usefulness on the screening of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). We obtained the accuracy of the normal pancreatic duct from 30 patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) before cholelithotomy, showing the normal pancreatic ductal images. The accuracy of the main pancreatic duct: Santorini duct and pancreatic branches was almost 100%, 93% and 83%, respectively, and the detectable minimum diameter of the duct was 0.60{+-}0.14 mm. MRCPs for 1000 outpatients from July 1995 to July 1997 who showed abnormalities of hepatopancreas were carried out and 41 patients were diagnosed of pancreatic carcinoma. Of these, small pancreatic adenocarcinoma (stage t{sub 1}, nodular type) was discovered in 5 cases ({<=}10 mm; 1, 11 to 20 mm; 4). These results suggest that MRCP is useful to discover the pancreatic carcinoma in an early stage and give important clues for the improvement of prognosis. (K.H.)

  11. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  12. Imaging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with emphasis on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L. E-mail: simon.smith@ipsh-tr.anglox.nhs.uk; Rajan, P.S

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer-related death. The incidence is increasing and the overall survival has altered little in recent years. Moreover, patients usually present late with inoperable disease and curative resection by standard pancreatico-duodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) is associated with significant morbidity. It should only be attempted in that small group of patients lacking radiological evidence of advanced disease. Despite the recent advances in body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT) is the mainstay of staging in most centres and the recent development of multidetector CT machines (MDCT) has raised hope of an improvement in preoperative staging. This review focuses on the CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with particular emphasis on examination technique and on those criteria that determine resectability.

  13. Imaging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with emphasis on multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.; Rajan, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer-related death. The incidence is increasing and the overall survival has altered little in recent years. Moreover, patients usually present late with inoperable disease and curative resection by standard pancreatico-duodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) is associated with significant morbidity. It should only be attempted in that small group of patients lacking radiological evidence of advanced disease. Despite the recent advances in body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT) is the mainstay of staging in most centres and the recent development of multidetector CT machines (MDCT) has raised hope of an improvement in preoperative staging. This review focuses on the CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with particular emphasis on examination technique and on those criteria that determine resectability

  14. Canine ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinoma with neoplastic hypercalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasutomo; Uechi, Masami; Kanakubo, Kayo; Sano, Tadashi; Oyamada, Toshifumi

    2006-09-01

    A female golden retriever was referred to assess a history of a palpable abdominal mass. A serum chemistry analysis revealed elevated concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP). Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ovoid mass within the right ovary. This mass was removed surgically by performing an ovariohysterectomy. The right ovarian mass was diagnosed as a serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Following surgery, the dog recovered, and the serum calcium and PTH-rP concentrations decreased. Therefore, concentrations of PTH-rP and calcium might be associated with serous papillary adenocarcinomas. Serial evaluation of the serum PTH-rP and calcium was useful for evaluating the prognosis.

  15. Is tissue CA125 expression in epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma heterogenic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, Morten H; Høgdall, Claus K; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if heterogeneity of tissue cancer antigen 125 (CA125) expression is present in epithelial serous adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, to investigate whether there is a correlation between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade. A total of 10 patients...... diagnosed with serous ovarian adenocarcinomas were included. Preoperative blood samples were collected to determine serum CA125 levels. Tumor tissue from primary surgery was collected and processed for immunohistochemical analyses. CA125 was expressed in varying degrees in tumor tissues from all patients....... Mean tissue CA125 expression for each patient ranged from 36% to 98%. Intrapatient variations in tissue expression ranged from 10% to 90% point. No significant correlations between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade were found. We found that the tissue expression...

  16. Complete invagination of vermiform appendix with adenocarcinoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae Sang Hoon; Kim, Duck Hwan [Kang Dong Sacred Heart Hospital, Collge of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    Appendiceal intussusception is a very rare pathological condition, an incidence, as revealed by appendectomy specimens, of only 0.01 percent. There are various types among which complete invagination of the appendix is very rare. We encountered a case of intussusception of the appendix with complete invagination induced by appendiceal adenocarcinoma. A preoperative diagnosis of appendiceal adenocarcinoma and intussusception was not possible, but a final pathological report confirmed these conditions and retrospective analysis of a barium enema showed a finger-like filling defect of the cecum, a relatively specific finding in such cases. We describe a case involving a 39-year old man who one month earlier had noted the onset of pain in the right lower abdomen. (author)

  17. Primary Adenocarcinoma of the Vermiform Appendix. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Revuelta Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the vermiform appendix is the least common carcinoma of this organ; its exact frequency is unknown. Primary malignant tumors of the appendix are rare; they are generally found in 1 to 2% of all appendices examined. Most appendiceal malignancies arise from a primary tumor in the adjacent organs, and in some cases, may be metastases from distant tumors. The case of a 43-year-old patient with a history of emergency surgery who was presumptively diagnosed with acute appendicitis is presented. The presence of an adenocarcinoma at the base of the appendix was reported by the pathology department. Because of the rarity of the condition, the publication of this case is considered scientifically important.

  18. A multicenter, phase II study of bortezomib (PS-341) in patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Power, Derek G; Kindler, Hedy L; Holen, Kyle D; Kemeny, Margaret M; Ilson, David H; Tang, Laura; Capanu, Marinela; Wright, John J; Kelsen, David P

    2011-12-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NFkB) is implicated in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and survival, and its inhibition by proteosome inhibition is associated with preclinical gastric cancer anti-tumor activity. We examined the single agent efficacy of bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, in gastric adenocarcinoma. We performed a phase II trial of bortezomib in patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) was administered on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 21 days. The primary endpoint was objective response rate(RR); the null hypothesis was RR <1% versus the alternative ≥15%. One response in the first stage(15 patients) was required before proceeding with an additional 18 patients. If at least 2 or more responses out of 33 were observed, further study with bortezomib was warranted. Correlative studies evaluated pre-treatment tumor expression of NFkB, IkB, p53, p21, and cyclin D1. We enrolled 16 patients (15 evaluable for response) from four institutions. No patients demonstrated an objective response(95% CI, 0-22%); one patient achieved stable disease. Fourteen out of 16 patients experienced ≥ grade 2 toxicity. The most common toxicity was fatigue in six patients (n = 4 grade 2, n = 2 grade 3). Seven patients experienced neuropathy (n = 5 grade 1, and 1 each grade 2 and 3). Seven (60%) had high cytoplasmic staining for NFkB. Single agent bortezomib is inactive in metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and should not be pursued. Future study of proteasome inhibition in gastric adenocarcinoma should be considered in combination with targeted inhibition of other non-overlapping oncogenic pathways as a potential rational approach.

  19. Cell kinetic parameters of a solid mammary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porschen, R.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Several cell kinetic parameters of the mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 were evaluated by means of tumor volume measurements and of 125 I-UdR. The in-situ measured activity loss rate is disturbed by a slow elimination of labelled necrotic cells and by reutilization of 125 I-UdR. The restrictions of the I-UdR method are mentioned and the measured activity loss rates are compared with calculated volume loss rates. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Atypical presentation of colon adenocarcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumwine Lynnette K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the most common histopathological type of colorectal cancer. In Western Europe and the United States, it is the third most common type and accounts for 98% of cancers of the large intestine. In Uganda, as elsewhere in Africa, the majority of patients are elderly (at least 60 years old. However, more recently, it has been observed that younger patients (less than 40 years of age are presenting with the disease. There is also an increase in its incidence and most patients present late, possibly because of the lack of a comprehensive national screening and preventive health-care program. We describe the clinicopathological features of colorectal carcinoma in the case of a young man in Kampala, Uganda. Case presentation A 27-year-old man from Kampala, Uganda, presented with gross abdominal distension, progressive loss of weight, and fever. He was initially screened for tuberculosis, hepatitis, and lymphoma, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection. After a battery of tests, a diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma was finally established with hematoxylin and eosin staining of a cell block made from the sediment of a liter of cytospun ascitic fluid, which showed atypical glands floating in abundant extracellular mucin, suggestive of adenocarcinoma. Ancillary tests with alcian blue/periodic acid Schiff and mucicarmine staining revealed that it was a mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed strong positivity with CDX2, confirming that the origin of the tumor was the colon. Conclusions Colorectal carcinoma has been noted to occur with increasing frequency in young adults in Africa. Most patients have mucinous adenocarcinoma, present late, and have rapid disease progression and poor outcome. Therefore, colorectal malignancy should no longer be excluded from consideration only on the basis of a patient's age. A high index of suspicion is important in the

  1. Pulmonar collision tumor: Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    M. Blanco; E. García-Fontán; J. Ríos; J.E. Rivo; R. Fernández-Martín; M.A. Cañizares

    2012-01-01

    Summary: We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen. Resumo: Descreve...

  2. [Chicken pox recurrence revealing a renal adenocarcinoma in an adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieulent, N; Grezard, P; Wolf, F; Barrut, D; Perrot, H

    2000-09-01

    A new episode of chicken pox in adults who had a well documented infection previously is usually observed in immunocompromised individuals. The principal immunodeficiency factors are hematology diseases, acquired immunodeficiency disease and old age. We report here the case of a young woman who after a contaminating contact presented a recurrence of typical chicken pox. Morphological investigations evidenced a right kidney tumor which pathology revealed to be a renal adenocarcinoma. We discuss this pathological association and review cases reported in the literature.

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the Small Bowel – A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza Jakub; Meszka Monika; Rykała Cezary; Pawlak Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a rare case of a patient with adenocarcinoma of the small intestine who reported to the hospital due to non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms. Following diagnostic examinations, the patient underwent a surgery. The post-operative period proceeded with no complications. The case presented below confirms the usefulness of imaging examinations (abdominal CT) when pathologies within the small intestine are suspected. An accurate interpretation of the result was an indication f...

  4. Bioinformatics analysis of RNA-seq data revealed critical genes in colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, W-D; Liu, Y-J; Sun, X-B; Shan, J; Yi, L; Zhang, T-T

    2017-07-01

    RNA-seq data of colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) were analyzed with bioinformatics tools to discover critical genes in the disease. Relevant small molecule drugs, transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) were also investigated. RNA-seq data of COAD were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential analysis was performed with package edgeR. False positive discovery (FDR) 1 were set as the cut-offs to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene coexpression network was constructed with package Ebcoexpress. GO enrichment analysis was performed for the DEGs in the gene coexpression network with DAVID. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was also performed for the genes with KOBASS 2.0. Modules were identified with MCODE of Cytoscape. Relevant small molecules drugs were predicted by Connectivity map. Relevant miRNAs and TFs were searched by WebGestalt. A total of 457 DEGs, including 255 up-regulated and 202 down-regulated genes, were identified from 437 COAD and 39 control samples. A gene coexpression network was constructed containing 40 DEGs and 101 edges. The genes were mainly associated with collagen fibril organization, extracellular matrix organization and translation. Two modules were identified from the gene coexpression network, which were implicated in muscle contraction and extracellular matrix organization, respectively. Several critical genes were disclosed, such as MYH11, COL5A2 and ribosomal proteins. Nine relevant small molecule drugs were identified, such as scriptaid and STOCK1N-35874. Accordingly, a total of 17 TFs and 10 miRNAs related to COAD were acquired, such as ETS2, NFAT, AP4, miR-124A, MiR-9, miR-96 and let-7. Several critical genes and relevant drugs, TFs and miRNAs were revealed in COAD. These findings could advance the understanding of the disease and benefit therapy development.

  5. Ultrasonographic features of intestinal adenocarcinoma in five cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, B.J.; Walter, P.A.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered

  6. Tissue detection of natural killer cells in colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsouris Efstratios S

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural killer (NK cells represent a first line of defence against a developing cancer; however, their exact role in colorectal cancer remains undetermined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of CD16 and CD57 [immunohistochemical markers of natural NK cells] in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods Presence of NK cells was investigated in 82 colorectal adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed, using 2 monoclonal antibodies (anti-Fc Gamma Receptor II, CD16 and an equivalent to Leu-7, specific for CD-57. The number of immunopositive cells (% was evaluated by image analysis. The cases were characterized according to: patient gender and age, tumor location, size, grade, bowel wall invasion, lymph node metastases and Dukes' stage. Results NK cells were detected in 79/82 cases at the primary tumor site, 27/33 metastatic lymph nodes and 3/4 hepatic metastases; they were detected in levels similar to those reported in the literature, but their presence was not correlated to the clinical or pathological characteristics of the series, except for a negative association with the patients' age (p = 0.031. Conclusions Our data do not support an association of NK cell tissue presence with clinical or pathological variables of colorectal adenocarcinoma, except for a negative association with the patients' age; this might possibly be attributed to decreased adhesion molecule expression in older ages.

  7. A rare case of thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Michael E

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, with only two previous cases in the literature. We report a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastasising to the thyroid. We review the incidence, diagnosis, and management of this rare occurrence. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man with a synchronous 6-month history of thyroid swelling, presented with epigastric pain and signs of obstructive jaundice. He was investigated by abdominal computerised tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm was made. His thyroid neoplasm was investigated at another tertiary centre and thought to be a papillary neoplasm. He underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy and recovered well post-operatively. Eight weeks later he had a total thyroidectomy. Histology confirmed that the thyroid mass was both morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to the pancreatic neoplasm. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient with suspected neoplastic history presents with a thyroid nodule. We outline the crucial role that immunohistochemistry plays in detecting and classifying primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. The detection of a solitary thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma may indicate a poor prognosis, and it is debatable whether resection of the primary should be undertaken when it presents with a solitary metastasis.

  8. Calcifying mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ki Yeal; Han, Seong Tai; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1983-01-01

    There is a great variety of abdominal calcifications of varying etiology. Among them, calcification in gastric carcinoma is rare. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report of calcifying mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach in Korea. In the present communication, we report toe cases of this rare tumor. The first cases was 27 years old female who had anorexia and palpable mass in the epigastrium. By palpation, a firm non-tender large mass was felt in the epigastrium. A plain abdominal film showed numerous punctuate calcifications in the left upper quadrant. Film from an upper G-I series demonstrated findings of advanced gastric carcinoma with multiple punctuate calcifications involving the antrum and body. Gastroscopic biopsy proved the lesion to be mucinous adenocarcinoma (signet ring cell type). The second case was 38 years old female who complicated of nausea, vomiting and weight loss. On physical examination, she appeared normal. Routine laboratory tests were within normal limits. A plain abdominal film reveal stippled calcifications in the left upper quadrant medial to the splenic shadow. The film from an upper G-I series showed a mass in the fundus and upper body of stomach with multiple stippled calcifications along the lesser curvature. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed and the pathologic finding was calcifying mucinous adenocarcinoma (signet ring cell type)

  9. Treatment of squamous cell and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathbone B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Barrie Rathbone,1 Janusz Jankowski,2 Michael Rathbone31University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, 2Sir James Black Professor Queen Mary University of London, 3St George's University of London, London, United KingdomAbstract: Esophageal cancer is the sixth commonest cause of cancer death worldwide. It predominantly occurs in two histological types, ie, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, each with its own distinct geographical distribution and natural history. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising, as is that of its precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, which consists of metaplastic change in the squamous mucosa of the esophagus in response to damage by gastroesophageal reflux disease. The principal risk factors for esophageal cancer are cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, reflux disease, and obesity. In tumors without local invasion or distant metastases, surgery remains the treatment option of choice, although there are considerable differences of opinion regarding the roles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A wide variety of endoscopic treatments are available for dysplastic lesions and palliation. Despite the availability of increasingly complex imaging modalities and expensive and possibly ineffective attempts at screening, the evidence base is conflicted and the prognosis remains poor. However, from a recent large systematic review, three clear recommendations can be made, ie, use of endoscopic resection for high grade dysplasia, use of radiofrequency ablation for residual premalignant lesions, and, finally, prevention of risk factors for cancer, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity.Keywords: cancer, Barrett's, esophagus, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma

  10. Combined adenocarcinoma-carcinoid tumor of transverse colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosanta Kumar Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented with painless hematochezia associated with episodic cramps in upper abdomen, watery diarrhea, and a slowly growing mass in upper abdomen. Examination revealed a firm 6 x 5 cm, intra-abdominal, epigastric mass. Colonoscopy up to 90 cm showed a stenosing, ulcero-proliferative lesion in the transverse colon. No synchronous lesion was detected. Biopsy revealed mucin secreting adenocarcinoma. Exploration showed the growth involving the transverse colon proximal to the splenic flexure with a part of ileum, approximately three feet proximal to ileo-caecal junction, adherent to it. No significant mesenteric lymph node enlargement was evident. The patient underwent resection of the growth along with the segment of adherent ileum. Continuity was re-established by a colo-colic and ileo-ileal anastomosis respectively. Patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Post-operative histopathology demonstrated a composite histological pattern with an admixture of carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma, invasion of ileal serosa and adenocarcinomatous deposits in mesocolic lymph nodes, the tumor staging being (T4, N0, M0/Stage II for carcinoid and (T4, N1, M0/Stage III for adenocarcinoma. Patient was followed-up for a year and was doing well without any evidence of recurrence.

  11. Perfusion CT can predict tumoral grading of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Onofrio, M., E-mail: mirko.donofrio@univr.it [Department of Radiology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Gallotti, A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Mantovani, W. [Department of Medicine and Public Health, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Crosara, S. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Manfrin, E. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Falconi, M. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Ventriglia, A.; Zamboni, G.A.; Manfredi, R.; Pozzi Mucelli, R. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital G.B. Rossi Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 University of Verona, Verona (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To describe perfusion CT features of locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and to evaluate correlation with tumor grading. Methods: Thirty-two patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included in this study. Lesions were evaluated by P-CT and biopsy after patient's informed consent. P-CT parameters have been assessed on a large single and on 6 small intratumoral ROIs. Values obtained have been compared and related to the tumor grading using Mann–Whitney U test. Sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy in predicting tumor grading have been calculated for cut-off values chosen by using ROC curves. Results: Out of 32 lesions, 12 were classified as low grade and 20 as high grade. A statistically significant difference between high and low grade neoplasms were demonstrated for PEI and BV parameters. PEI and BV cut-off values were respectively 17.8 HU and 14.8 ml/100 g. PEI identified high grade neoplasms with a 65% sensitivity, 92% specificity, 93% PPV, 61% NPV and 75% accuracy. BV identified high grade neoplasms with a 80% sensitivity, 75% specificity, 84% PPV, 69% NPV, 78% accuracy. Considering both PEI and BV, P-CT identified high grade lesions with a 60% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV, 60% NPV and 75% accuracy. Conclusions: PEI and BV perfusion CT parameters proved their efficiency in identifying high grade pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  12. Implications of inaccurate clinical nodal staging in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Johnson, Kirsten M; Boucher, Kenneth M; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2017-07-01

    Many patients with stage I-II pancreatic adenocarcinoma do not undergo resection. We hypothesized that (1) clinical staging underestimates nodal involvement, causing stage IIB to have a greater percent of resected patients and (2) this stage-shift causes discrepancies in observed survival. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) research database was used to evaluate cause-specific survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from 2004-2012. Survival was compared using the log-rank test. Single-center data on 105 patients who underwent resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma without neoadjuvant treatment were used to compare clinical and pathologic nodal staging. In SEER data, medium-term survival in stage IIB was superior to IB and IIA, with median cause-specific survival of 14, 9, and 11 months, respectively (P < .001). Seventy-two percent of stage IIB patients underwent resection vs 28% in IB and 36% in IIA (P < .001). In our institutional data, 12.4% of patients had clinical evidence of nodal involvement vs 69.5% by pathologic staging (P < .001). Among clinical stage IA-IIA patients, 71.6% had nodal involvement by pathologic staging. Both SEER and institutional data support substantial underestimation of nodal involvement by clinical staging. This finding has implications in decisions regarding neoadjuvant therapy and analysis of outcomes in the absence of pathologic staging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vulvar Villoglandular Adenocarcinoma of Colonic Type: A Rare Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarali Esmaeili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonic type villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the lower genital tract is an extremely rare condition. Its origin is not clearly understood; however, the cloacal remnants are the more accepted source for this carcinoma.We report the case of a 67-year-old female patient who presented with a 1.2 cm polypoidal nodule at the right side of the fourchette. Morphologic studies revealed a colonic type mucinous adenocarcinoma that arose from within a villous adenoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed positive cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, carcinoembryonic antigen, P53, and progesterone receptor, but negative for estrogen receptor and caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2. Extensive work-up failed to reveal other primary cancers in this patient. Ultimately, she underwent a radical vulvectomy. No recurrence was seen in eight months follow up of this patient after surgery. Careful, thorough histological evaluation and clinical clues enable correct diagnosis of the rare colonic type vulvar villoglandular adenocarcinoma. Due to rarity of this tumor, its management is questionable. Therefore, additional investigation is necessary for its management.

  14. A Rare Association of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia with Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old male presented with dyspnea on exertion for at least two months. He also complained of progressive dysphagia and weight loss of 35 pounds over the last eight months. Initial blood tests showed hemoglobin of 6.1 g/dl, reticulocytes count of 19.7%, total bilirubin of 3.2 mg/dl, lactate dehydrogenase of 600 U/L, and haptoglobin of less than 8 mg/dl, and direct Coombs test was positive for warm immunoglobulin G. The impression was autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA. The evaluation of dysphagia with esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a single irregular 4 cm malignant appearing ulcerated mass at the incisura angularis of the stomach. The mass was confirmed as adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Diagnostic laparoscopy was positive for malignant cells and he was diagnosed with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Other extensive workup to determine the etiology of AIHA was negative (described in detail below. Surgery was deferred primarily due to metastasis of cancer. Initially, hemoglobin was stabilized by intravenous methylprednisolone, high dose immunoglobulins, and packed red blood cell transfusions. After a few weeks, hemoglobin started trending down again. The patient was weaned off steroids and paradoxically IgG-mediated autohemolysis was controlled with the initiation of palliative chemotherapy. Our case highlights a rare occurrence of AIHA in association with gastric adenocarcinoma.

  15. Imaging features of ovarian metastases from colonic adenocarcinoma in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, W.M.; Jenkins, J.J. III; Helton, K.; Rao, B.N.; Winer-Muram, H.T.; Pratt, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the imaging features of ovarian metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon in adolescent females. We reviewed retrospectively abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic and pelvic ultrasound examinations, histologic slices, and clinical charts of six adolescent females with ovarian metastases secondary to adenocarcinoma of the colon. One patient had ovarian metastasis at presentation and was presumed to have a primary ovarian tumor. The ovarian metastases were either solid (n = 3), complex with both solid and cystic components (n = 2), or multilocular cysts (n = 1). The ovarian lesions were large, ranging from 6 cm to 18 cm in diameter. Colorectal carcinoma in adolescent females is frequently associated with ovarian metastases. One imaging characteristic differs in adult and adolescent ovarian metastases, although they do have features in common: in adolescents, a smaller proportion of colorectal ovarian metastases are multicystic (17%) compared with the adult series (45%). These lesions are frequently large and may be complex, multicystic, or solid. Although it is a rare disease, the differential dignosis of adnexal masses in adolescent females should include ovarian metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon. (orig.)

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the appendix presenting as bilateral ureteric obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tawil Sherif

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenocarcinoma of the vermiform appendix is a rare neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation mimics acute appendicitis, but right iliac fossa mass and intestinal obstruction have also been reported. These presentations reflect various stages of a locally expanding tumour causing luminal obstruction of appendix. The investigation and subsequent management with a review of the literature is presented. Case presentation We report a case of appendicular adenocarcinoma found unexpectedly in a 43 year old male who presented with urinary symptoms. Cystoscopy and uretero-renoscopy showed normal bladder but external compression of the ureters and therefore bilateral stents were inserted. CT scan showed a caecal mass. After colonoscopy, that showed external compression, and diagnostic laparoscopy the patient underwent right hemicolectomy. Histopathology revealed well differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring morphology with multiple lymph node involvement. The patient was referred for chemotherapy where he received infusional 5 fluorouracil but died 7 months after surgery. Conclusion Patients with atypical manifestations related to right lower abdominal quadrant should be thoroughly investigated with an open mind. Every attempt should be made to make a precise diagnosis through all the available means to direct the treatment along correct lines.

  17. Adenocarcinoma gástrico tipo difuso de Lauren: disseminação linf��tica exuberante em paciente jovem Diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma (Lauren classification: exacerbating lymphatic dissemination in young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nery

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O câncer gástrico continua sendo relevante causa oncológica de morte em todo o mundo, com a grande maioria dos casos ocidentais sendo diagnosticados em fase tumoral avançada. O adenocarcinoma representa a quase totalidade dos casos, com pior prognóstico no tipo difuso de Lauren, o qual acomete mais freqüentemente pacientes jovens. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de adenocarcinoma difuso em jovem de 20 anos, no qual a disseminação ocorreu de forma agressiva, disseminada e peculiar. RELATO DO CASO: Agricultor de 20 anos, admitido com plenitude gástrica, dor abdominal e vômitos pós-prandiais, com adenomegalia generalizada de consistência endurecida e indolor, mais evidente, pelo tamanho, na região epigástrica, sub-mandibular e cutânea. Endoscopia digestiva alta demonstrou lesão antral úlcero-infiltrativa com extensas áreas de necrose obstruindo completamente o piloro. Tomografia abdominal mostrou tumoração mal delimitada, estendendo-se ao hipocôndrio direito, epigástrio e comprometendo a segunda porção do duodeno. Estudo anatomopatológico mostrou tratar-se de adenocarcinoma pouco diferenciado com padrão em células de anel de sinete. Foi submetido à gastrojejunostomia paliativa. CONCLUSÃO: O adenocarcinoma gástrico pode apresentar-se com comprometimento linfonodal exuberante e sistêmico de grande porte principalmente em baixa idade produzindo adenomegalias volumosas possibilitando somente tratamento paliativo quando diagnosticado.BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer continues to be a significant and relevant oncologic cause of death in the world, with a great majority of western cases being diagnosed in an advanced tumoral phase. Adenocarcinomas represent the totality of cases having a worst prognosis in Laurens' diffuse type, which is more frequent in young patients. CASE REPORT: 20 year-old farmer, admitted with gastric plenitude, abdominal pain, postprandial vomits, with generalized adenomegaly of painless and hardened

  18. Association of loss of epithelial syndecan-1 with stage and local metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinomas: An immunohistochemical study of clinically annotated tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yosuke; Skacel, Marek; Adams, Josephine C

    2008-01-01

    Syndecan-1 is a transmembrane proteoglycan with important roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and as a growth factor co-receptor. Syndecan-1 is highly expressed by normal epithelial cells and loss of expression has been associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the transformed phenotype. Loss of epithelial syndecan-1 has been reported in human colorectal adenocarcinomas, but whether this has prognostic significance remains undecided. Here we have examined syndecan-1 expression and its potential prognostic value with reference to a clinically annotated tissue microarray for human colon adenocarcinomas. Syndecan-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry of a tissue microarray containing cores from 158 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 15 adenomas linked to a Cleveland Clinic, IRB-approved database with a mean clinical follow-up of 38 months. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the relationship between syndecan-1 expression and patient survival. Potential correlations between syndecan-1 expression and the candidate prognostic biomarker fascin were examined. Syndecan-1 is expressed at the basolateral borders of normal colonic epithelial cells. On adenocarcinoma cells, syndecan-1 was present around cell membranes and in cytoplasm. In 87% of adenocarcinomas, syndecan-1 was decreased or absent; only 13% of patients had stained for syndecan-1 on more than 75% of tumor cells. Decreased syndecan-1 correlated with a higher TNM stage and lymph node metastasis and was more common in males (p = 0.042), but was not associated with age, tumor location or Ki67 index. Reduced tumor syndecan-1 staining also correlated with upregulation of stromal fascin (p = 0.016). Stromal syndecan-1 was observed in 16.6% of tumors. There was no difference in survival between patients with low or high levels of either tumor or stromal syndecan-1. Syndecan-1 immunoreactivity was decreased in the majority of human colon adenocarcinomas in correlation with

  19. MiRNA-145 increases therapeutic sensibility to gemcitabine treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Ge, Xin; Wen, Yiyang; Shi, Zhu-Mei; Chen, Qiu-Dan; Wang, Min; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Lu, Yuan

    2016-10-25

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although recent advances provide various treatment options, pancreatic adenocarcinoma has poor prognosis due to its late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. Gemcitabine is the effective first-line drug in pancreatic adenocarcinoma treatment. However, gemcitabine chemoresistance of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells has been a major obstacle for limiting its treatment effect. Our study found that p70S6K1 plays an important role in gemcitabine chemoresistence. MiR-145 is a tumor suppressor which directly targets p70S6K1 for inhibiting its expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, providing new therapeutic scheme. Our findings revealed a new mechanism underlying gemcitabine chemoresistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

  20. Predictors of Progression to High-Grade Dysplasia or Adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Matthew J.; Falk, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Article Synopsis The prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing dramatically. Barrett’s esophagus remains the most well established risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. There are multiple clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic factors that increase the risk of neoplastic progression to high-grade dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus. This article will review both risk and protective factors for neoplastic progression in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:26021196

  1. Survival after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy or surgery alone in resectable adenocarcinoma at the gastro-esophageal junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen Christian; Muhic, A; Jensen, Lene Bæksgaard

    2012-01-01

    Longterm survival after curative resection for adenocarcinoma at the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) range between 18% and 50%. In the pivotal Intergroup-0116 Phase III trial by Macdonald et all, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy improved both disease-free and overall survival in curatively resected pa...... patients with mainly gastric adenocarcinoma. We compared survival data for curatively resected patients with adeno-carcinoma solely at the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ), treated with surgery alone or surgery and adjuvant chemoradio-therapy....

  2. Extra ocular sebaceous adenocarcinoma in HIV-positive patient - case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Carla Kellen da Silva; Gomes, Nathália Matos; Jalkh, Alex Panizza; Franco, Emily dos Santos; Martins, Thalita Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Sebaceous adenocarcinoma is a rare adnexal tumor that can affect the skin and is divided into ocular, a more common form and extra ocular, of a rarer occurrence. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who developed an extra ocular, bulky and fast-growing sebaceous adenocarcinoma on the face. The literature has suggested that transplanted patients and HIV-positive patients have an excess risk for developing adnexal tumors, including sebaceous adenocarcinoma. PMID:24346870

  3. Combined modality therapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: review and updates on a controversial issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ludimila; Kelsen, David P; Yu, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Due to its extremely high mortality rates, strong efforts continue to be made to develop new therapies in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The use of combined modality chemoradiotherapy for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains an approach with both promise and controversy. This article reviews the conflicting data with regards to role of combined modality therapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and provides an update on current studies in the field.

  4. β-Catenin/POU5F1/SOX2 transcription factor complex mediates IGF-I receptor signaling and predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuan; Xie, Dan; Yu, Shi-Cang; Yang, Xiao-Jun; He, Li-Ru; Yang, Jing; Ping, Yi-Fang; Wang, Bin; Yang, Lang; Xu, Sen-Lin; Cui, Wei; Wang, Qing-Liang; Fu, Wen-Juan; Liu, Qing; Qian, Cheng; Cui, You-Hong; Rich, Jeremy N; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Zhang, Xia; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2013-05-15

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSLC) are crucial in tumor initiation and progression; however, the underlying mechanism for the self-renewal of cancer cells remains undefined. In the study, immunohistochemical analysis of specimens freshly excised from patients with lung adenocarcinoma showed that high expression of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in lung adenocarcinoma cells was positively correlated with the expressions of cancer stem cell markers CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1). IGF-IR activation enhanced POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1) expression on human lung adenocarcinoma stem-like cells (LACSLC) through PI3K/AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin cascade. POU5F1 could form a novel complex with β-catenin and SOX2 to bind Nanog promoter for transcription to maintain self-renewal of LACSLCs, which was dependent on the functional IGF-IR. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of IGF-IR abrogated LACSLC capabilities for self-renewal and tumorigenicity in vitro. In an in vivo xenograft tumor model, knockdown of either IGF-IR or POU5F1 impeded tumorigenic potentials of LACSLCs. By analyzing pathologic specimens excised from 200 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, we found that colocalization of highly expressed IGF-IR with β-catenin and POU5F1 predicted poor prognosis. Taken together, we show that IGF-IR-mediated POU5F1 expression to form a complex with β-catenin and SOX2 is crucial for the self-renewal and oncogenic potentials of LACSLCs, and the integrative clinical detection of the expressions of IGF-IR, β-catenin, and POU5F1 is indicatory for predicting prognosis in the patients of lung adenocarcinoma. ©2013 AACR.

  5. A case with primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the prostate and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare histological variant of prostate malignancies. It is commonly originated from the stomach, colon, pancreas, and less commonly in the bladder. Prognosis of the classical type is worse than the adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma is diagnosed by eliminating the adenocarcinomas of other organs such as gastrointestinal tract organs. In this case report, we present a case with primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of the prostate who received docetaxel chemotherapy because of short prostate specific antigen doubling time.

  6. Aggressive Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma of the Hand Presenting as a Felon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R. Bryant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma is a rare eccrine sweat gland malignancy that is frequently misdiagnosed at initial presentation. Histologically, this tumor is similar in appearance to many adenocarcinomas and as such may be diagnosed as a metastatic lesion. We present the case of a patient with digital papillary adenocarcinoma, which was initially diagnosed as a felon. No consensus has been published regarding the treatment of this disease. A review of the diagnosis, pathology, treatment, and adjunctive treatments of aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma are also included.

  7. Gastric adenocarcinoma arising from fundic gland polyps in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrean, Sean; Hering, Justin; Saied, Abdul; Jani, Jigna; Espat, N Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a rare hereditary syndrome characterized by multiple colorectal polyps and early development of colorectal cancer. Although FAP uniformly involves the large bowel, it may also produce lesions in the stomach and upper intestinal tract. Fundic gland polyps are the most common gastric lesion in FAP. In the general population, these polyps are considered benign and have no malignant potential. However, in FAP patients, fundic gland polyps have been occasionally recognized as precursor lesions from which invasive cancer may develop. Herein, we present a case of gastric adenocarcinoma arising from fundic gland polyps in an FAP patient. We also review reported cases of gastric cancer in FAP and FAP variant patients in an effort to better understand the pathology, clinical course, and optimal screening and treatment strategies for this disease manifestation.

  8. Parotid Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma in a Big-eared Opossum (Didelphis aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Delgado, J; Coimbra, A A C; Dos Santos-Cirqueira, C; Sanches, T C; Guerra, J M; de Oliveira, A S; Di Loretto, C; Zwarg, T; Ressio, R; Rivas, L; Sansone, M; Nagamori, F O; Kanamura, C; Gonçalves, P S; Fernandes, N C C A; Groch, K R; Catão-Dias, J L

    2018-02-01

    The opossum (family Didelphidae) is a marsupial endemic to the Americas. Apart from the South American short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), there is considerable lack of knowledge about the health and diseases of most opossum species. Among these, the big-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) is found in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Natural and experimental studies have shown this species to be susceptible to infectious agents with zoonotic potential and the animals may play a role in transmission of such agents. However, neoplasia appears to be uncommon in this species. We describe the gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of a parotid salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma in a free-living big-eared opossum. This case represents the first report of salivary gland neoplasia in opossums. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tabletted guar gum microspheres of piroxicam for targeted adjuvant therapy for colonic adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Anima; Pathak, Kamla

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been found to be cogent as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in mitigating colorectal cancer. Thus, this present investigation was aimed to formulate an oral, targeted tablet of piroxicam microspheres for sustained and targeted adjuvant therapy for colonic adenocarcinomas. Crosslinked guar gum microspheres of piroxicam were directly compressed into matrix tablet and coated with Eudragit S100. The optimized tablet that displayed 0% release in simulated gastric fluid, 15% in simulated intestinal fluid and 97.1% in simulated colonic fluid underwent roentgenographic study in rabbits to check its safe transit to the colon. x-ray images revealed intactness of the tablet until it reached the colon where the tablet matrix eroded. The designed, conceptual formulation emerged as potential carrier for targeted adjuvant therapy of piroxicam.

  10. Rectovaginal fistula following colectomy with an end-to-end anastomosis stapler for a colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A; Scotti, S; Hidalgo, A; Viateau, V; Fayolle, P; Moissonnier, P

    2006-12-01

    An 11-year-old, female neutered Labrador retriever was presented with a micro-invasive differentiated papillar adenocarcinoma at the colorectal junction. A colorectal end-to-end anastomosis stapler device was used to perform resection and anastomosis using a transanal technique. A rectovaginal fistula was diagnosed two days later. An exploratory laparotomy was conducted and the fistula was identified and closed. Early dehiscence of the colon was also suspected and another colorectal anastomosis was performed using a manual technique. Comparison to a conventional manual technique of intestinal surgery showed that the use of an automatic staple device was quicker and easier. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a rectovaginal fistula occurring after end-to-end anastomosis stapler colorectal resection-anastomosis in the dog. To minimise the risk of this potential complication associated with the limited surgical visibility, adequate tissue retraction and inspection of the anastomosis site are essential.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma and Opportunities for Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Erik S; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Brody, Jonathan R; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K

    2016-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) have a poor prognosis despite new treatments; approximately 7% survive for 5 years. Although there have been advances in systemic, primarily cytotoxic, therapies, it has been a challenge to treat patients with PDA using targeted therapies. Sequence analyses have provided a wealth of information about the genetic features of PDA and have identified potential therapeutic targets. Preclinical and early-phase clinical studies have found specific pathways could be rationally targeted; it might also be possible to take advantage of the genetic diversity of PDAs to develop therapeutic agents. The genetic diversity and instability of PDA cells have long been thought of as obstacles to treatment, but are now considered exploitable features. We review the latest findings in pancreatic cancer genetics and the promise of targeted approaches in PDA therapy. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  13. MicroRNA-330-5p as a Putative Modulator of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Sensitivity in Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bibby, Becky A S

    2015-01-01

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and the 5-year survival rate for patients diagnosed with the disease is approximately 17%. The standard of care for locally advanced disease is neoadjuvant chemotherapy or, more commonly, combined neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (neo-CRT) prior to surgery. Unfortunately, ~60-70% of patients will fail to respond to neo-CRT. Therefore, the identification of biomarkers indicative of patient response to treatment has significant clinical implications in the stratification of patient treatment. Furthermore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning tumour response and resistance to neo-CRT will contribute towards the identification of novel therapeutic targets for enhancing OAC sensitivity to CRT. MicroRNAs (miRNA\\/miR) function to regulate gene and protein expression and play a causal role in cancer development and progression. MiRNAs have also been identified as modulators of key cellular pathways associated with resistance to CRT. Here, to identify miRNAs associated with resistance to CRT, pre-treatment diagnostic biopsy specimens from patients with OAC were analysed using miRNA-profiling arrays. In pre-treatment biopsies miR-330-5p was the most downregulated miRNA in patients who subsequently failed to respond to neo-CRT. The role of miR-330 as a potential modulator of tumour response and sensitivity to CRT in OAC was further investigated in vitro. Through vector-based overexpression the E2F1\\/p-AKT survival pathway, as previously described, was confirmed as a target of miR-330 regulation. However, miR-330-mediated alterations to the E2F1\\/p-AKT pathway were insufficient to significantly alter cellular sensitivity to chemotherapy (cisplatin and 5-flurouracil). In contrast, silencing of miR-330-5p enhanced, albeit subtly, cellular resistance to clinically relevant doses of radiation. This study highlights the need for further investigation into the potential of

  14. The Significance of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Jun; Hyun, Kwanyong; Park, Jae Kil; Moon, Seok Whan

    2015-01-01

    Background A raised carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) may be associated with significant pathology during the postoperative follow-up of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 305 patients who underwent surgical resections for primary lung adenocarcinoma at a single institution between April 2006 and February 2013. Results Preoperative CEA levels were significantly associated with age, smoking history, pathologic stage including pT (pathologic tumor stge), pN (pathologic nodal stage) and overall pathological stage, tumor size and differentiation, pathologically positive total lymph node, N1 and N2 lymph node, N2 nodal station (0/1/2=1.83/2.94/7.21 ng/mL, p=0.019), and 5-year disease-free survival (0.591 in group with normal preoperative CEA levels vs. 0.40 in group with high preoperative CEA levels, p=0.001). Preoperative CEA levels were significantly higher than postoperative CEA levels (p2.57 ng/mL was found to be the appropriate cutoff value for the prediction of cancer recurrence with sensitivity and specificity of 71.4% and 72.3%, respectively. Twenty percent of patients who had recurrence of disease had a CEA level elevated above this cutoff value prior to radiographic evidence of recurrence. Postoperative CEA, pathologic stage, differentiation, vascular invasion, and neoadjuvant therapy were identified as independent predictors of 5-year disease-free survival in a multivariate analysis. Conclusion The follow-up CEA level can be a useful tool for detecting early recurrence undetected by postoperative imaging studies. The perioperative follow-up CEA levels may be helpful for providing personalized evaluation of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26509127

  15. Tratamento cirúrgico para adenocarcinoma colorretal gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Razuk Filho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O câncer colorretal acomete cerca de um milhão de pessoas a cada ano no mundo. Corresponde ao quarto tumor mais incidente nos homens e ao terceiro nas mulheres. A patogênese habitual de câncer colorretal é um pólipo adenomatoso que aumenta lentamente em tamanho, seguido pela displasia e, finalmente, o cancro. As diretrizes atuais descrevem diversas modalidades de tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de reto; Objetivos: O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar o caso de um paciente diagnosticado com adenocarcinoma de reto; Metodologia: O presente estudo foi embasado na análise do prontuário, das imagens obtidas por meio de exames subsidiários e do exame anatomopatológico; Relato do Caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 77 anos. Apresenta queixa de sangramento anal assintomático há 20 anos e presença de lesão vegetante, de aproximadamente cinco centímetros, prolapsada pelo anus. O exame anatomopatológico comprovou o diagnostico de Adenocarcinoma de Reto. Foi realizada a Amputação Abdominoperineal do Reto. No segundo dia de pós-operatório, foi a óbito por parada cardiorrespiratória; Conclusões: O caso relatado descreve o tratamento cirúrgico dado à um paciente com o diagnostico de Adenocarcinoma esofágico que faleceu dois dias após a cirurgia;

  16. Radiation therapy alone for adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Arai, Tatsuo; Morita, Shinroku; Oka, Kuniyuki

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy alone for adenocarcinoma of the cervix is currently evaluated by the accumulation of long-term results because of the low incidence of this disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight patients with adenocarcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation therapy alone between 1961 and 1988 were studied. The radiation therapy consisted of a combination of intracavitary and external pelvis irradiation. Intracavitary treatment was performed with low dose rate and/or high dose rate sources. Results: The 5-year survival rates for Stages I, II, III, and IV were 85.7%, 66.7%, 32.3%, and 9.1%, respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 85.7%, 60.0%, 27.6%, and 9.1%, respectively. The local control rate with high dose rate treatment was 45.5%, significantly lower than 85.7% and 72.7% with low and mixed dose rate treatments, respectively. Five-year survival and local control rates by tumor volume were 68.6% and 80.0% for small tumors, 63.6% and 66.0% for medium tumors, and 14.4% and 18.2% for large tumors, respectively. The survival rate and local control rate for large tumors were significantly lower than those for small and medium tumors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that stage and tumor volume were independent variables for survival and local control, respectively. Isoeffective dose expressed by time dose fractionation (TDF) was not associated with local control. Radiation complications developed in 10 patients (17.2%), most of which were of moderate degree. Conclusion: Radiation therapy alone for adenocarcinoma of the cervix was regarded to be an effective treatment, comparable to combination therapy of surgery and radiation therapy

  17. A rare case of ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present case report, bilateral ovarian tumour (papillary adenocarcinoma in a 4.5-year-old Saint Bernard bitch and its surgical management is described. Ovariohysterectomy was done and the surgically removed ovarian masses were prepared for histopathological studies. The tumour was associated with pyometra. Macroscopic and histopathological examination confirmed ovarian tumour. Grossly, the tumour consisted of pedunculated processes. The endometrium showed multifocal squamous metaplasia. The findings are discussed as possible consequences of the functioning ovarian tumour and pyometra.

  18. A Case of Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devorah Marks Stowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 2-year-old open Suffolk ewe presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex for evaluation of a left nasal mass. An ultrasound-guided aspirate and core biopsies were performed. An epithelial neoplasia with mild mixed inflammation (neutrophils and plasma cells was diagnosed on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. IHC and RT-PCR identified the presence of enzootic nasal tumor virus and confirmed the final diagnosis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma.

  19. Gastric candidiasis with gastric adenocarcinoma intestinal type: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Selvi Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis of the gastrointestinal tract most commonly involves the esophagus and rarely involves the stomach and small bowel. The association of gastric carcinoma with candidiasis is even rare and only a very few case reports are available. We present here a 40-year-old female who presented with complaints of gastric outlet obstruction who on endoscopy showed a malignant ulcer involving the lesser curvature. The histopathological examination of biopsy from the ulcer showed adenocarcinoma intestinal type along with yeast and pseudohyphae forms of candida species.

  20. Tumor to tumor metastasis: Adenocarcinoma of lung metastatic to meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Talukdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-to-tumor metastasis (T2Tmets is an established entity but often overlooked and underdiagnosed. Merely 84 such cases are reported in literature till date. The authors here describe a 65-year-old man presenting with first episode of focal seizure and incidentally turned out to be a case of adenocarcinoma of lung metastatic to a meningioma. The diagnosis of T2Tmets was based solely on histopathological criteria. Recent advent of brain imaging revolutionized its diagnosis and it has moved from the realm of thologists to that of radiologists. In our case, diagnosis was also established by immunohistochemistry.

  1. Therapeutic Endoscopic Ultrasonography: Intratumoral Injection for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive disease that has poor outcomes despite maximal traditional therapies. Thus, treatment of this cancer demands innovative strategies to be used in addition to standing therapies in order to provide new avenues of care. Here, we describe the technique of using endoscopic ultrasound in order to directly inject both novel and conventional therapies into pancreatic tumors. We detail the rationale behind this strategy and the many benefits it provides. We then describe our technique in detail, including our experience injecting the AdV-tk adenoviral vector to create an in situ vaccine effect.

  2. Pulmonar collision tumor: metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M; García-Fontán, E; Ríos, J; Rivo, J E; Fernández-Martín, R; Cañizares, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen. Copyright © 2010 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. [Vaginal metastasis revealing an adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, D; Delotte, J; Bongain, A; François, E; Bereder, J-M; Bernard, J-L

    2014-09-01

    Secondary localization to vagina had a severe prognosis, suggesting a disseminated metatastic disease. We report the case of prevalent vaginal metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. A 65 years old patient has consulted for vaginal mass. After delayed diagnosis, she presented with disseminated metastatic disease with peritoneal carcinomatosis. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the following treatment consisted of complete cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and vaginal adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence occurred after one year. Vaginal metastasis of colon cancer are rare. The dark prognosis might justify a systematic gynecological examination of women presenting colorectal neoplasy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma: a technical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Dorman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a 60-year old woman with recurrent cervical adenocarcinoma who presented with metastasis to both lungs and to her right adrenal gland. A thoracotomy was performed for resection of her pulmonary metastasis and then the right adrenal gland was excised through a trans-diaphragmatic approach. The adrenal gland resection was more complex due to involvement of the tumor with the inferior vena cava (IVC which was repaired with a PTFE patch graft. This case demonstrates both an interesting approach to surgical resection of multiple metastases as well as a safe, although more challenging, alternative to partially resect and repair the IVC.

  5. Medical image of the week: evolution of low grade adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground glass lesions above 5 mm in greatest diameter found on chest computed tomography (CT require initial followed up in 3 months according to the Fleischner Society Guidelines, to exclude a transient inflammatory focus (1. If persistent, surveillance for at least 24 months to confirm stability is recommended. Any change in size or density should warrant further action, ideally surgical consultation, given the suboptimal yield of percutaneous biopsy and risk of inappropriate staging if the whole lesion is not examined. This may result in the inability to recognize the transition from in-situ adenocarcinoma into minimally invasive or invasive lesions, which in turn results in inaccurate staging and prognosis.

  6. A retrospective study of 44 canine apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Simko, Elemir; Wilcock, Brian P.; Yager, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    Apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas (AACs) are relatively uncommon skin tumors in dogs. Little prognostic or behavioral information has been published for these tumors. In this retrospective study, 44 AACs from diagnostic archives were reexamined and clinical postexcisional follow-ups for 25 of the 44 cases were obtained by a survey. There were 28 out of 44 (65.9%) AACs that invaded the capsule, stroma, or both, 5 of 44 (11.4%) invaded blood vessels and stroma, and 1 out of 25 (4%) had dista...

  7. ANO1 (TMEM16A) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauter, Daniel Rafael Peter; Novak, Ivana; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the worst survival rates of all cancers. ANO1 (TMEM16A) is a recently identified Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (CaCC) that is upregulated in several tumors. Although ANO1 was subject to extensive studies in the recent years, its pathophysiological f...... intracellular calcium concentration. Functional studies on PDAC behavior showed that surprisingly inhibition of ANO1 did not influence cellular proliferation. On the other hand, we found ANO1 channel to be pivotal in PDAC cell migration as assessed in wound healing experiments....

  8. Villaret syndrome and lung adenocarcinoma: an unusual association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Canciani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Villaret syndrome is defined by the affection of the glossopharyngeal (IX, vagal (X, accessory (XI and hypoglossal (XII cranial nerves associated with ipsilateral Horner syndrome. It is caused by the compression of these nerves and the neighboring sympathetic plexus fibers at the base of the skull, particularly in the retroparotid space. Even though the invasion of the central nervous system in patients with advanced lung cancer is a frequent and well known occurrence, this particular symptomatic association is extremely rare. We are reporting the case of a newly diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma patient who is simultaneously developing this syndrome.

  9. Mutational analysis of EGFR and related signaling pathway genes in lung adenocarcinomas identifies a novel somatic kinase domain mutation in FGFR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer L Marks

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fifty percent of lung adenocarcinomas harbor somatic mutations in six genes that encode proteins in the EGFR signaling pathway, i.e., EGFR, HER2/ERBB2, HER4/ERBB4, PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS. We performed mutational profiling of a large cohort of lung adenocarcinomas to uncover other potential somatic mutations in genes of this signaling pathway that could contribute to lung tumorigenesis.We analyzed genomic DNA from a total of 261 resected, clinically annotated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC specimens. The coding sequences of 39 genes were screened for somatic mutations via high-throughput dideoxynucleotide sequencing of PCR-amplified gene products. Mutations were considered to be somatic only if they were found in an independent tumor-derived PCR product but not in matched normal tissue. Sequencing of 9MB of tumor sequence identified 239 putative genetic variants. We further examined 22 variants found in RAS family genes and 135 variants localized to exons encoding the kinase domain of respective proteins. We identified a total of 37 non-synonymous somatic mutations; 36 were found collectively in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA. One somatic mutation was a previously unreported mutation in the kinase domain (exon 16 of FGFR4 (Glu681Lys, identified in 1 of 158 tumors. The FGFR4 mutation is analogous to a reported tumor-specific somatic mutation in ERBB2 and is located in the same exon as a previously reported kinase domain mutation in FGFR4 (Pro712Thr in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line.This study is one of the first comprehensive mutational analyses of major genes in a specific signaling pathway in a sizeable cohort of lung adenocarcinomas. Our results suggest the majority of gain-of-function mutations within kinase genes in the EGFR signaling pathway have already been identified. Our findings also implicate FGFR4 in the pathogenesis of a subset of lung adenocarcinomas.

  10. Serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis: Unusual ultrasonography and pathological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mermershtain Wilmosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis in a 22-year-old man. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is highly resistant to radiotherapy and any known chemotherapeutic regimen. We recommend radical orchiectomy At last follow up, the patient was well, without any evidence of recurrence, ten years after surgery.

  11. Adenocarcinoma of the Colon in a 10-year-old child | Siboe | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonic adenocarcinoma is rare in children, more so in the first decade of life. Owing to the non-specificity and vagueness of symptoms, most patients in this age group present with advanced malignacy. The authors report a case of adenocarcinoma of the colon in a 10-year-old female child presenting with a history of ...

  12. Brain metastasis as initial presentation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bispo, Irving Gabriel Araujo; Nascimento, Diego Teixeira; Ferreira, Karina Oliveira; Fakhouri, Ricardo; Godinho, Atilano Salvador; Ferrao, Thiago de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 33-year-old patient with history of seizures alone without any previous symptom, being diagnosed with brain metastases from primary papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Emphasis is given to the diagnostic investigation for brain metastasis and prognostic evaluation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung, and a brief literature review on such diseases is performed. (author)

  13. A rare case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in a renal transplant recipient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, D M

    2009-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: We report the first described case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the setting of a female renal cadaveric transplant recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of this clinical case was performed. CONCLUSION: This rare cancer represents only about 1% of all cervical adenocarcinoma.

  14. Esophageal adenocarcinoma five years after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gabriel Wright

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We present a case of an esophageal adenocarcinoma five years after a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. There is need to better determine the relationship between sleeve gastrectomy and gastroesophageal reflux disease in order to prevent its related complications, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  15. A rare case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in a renal transplant recipient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, D M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We report the first described case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the setting of a female renal cadaveric transplant recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of this clinical case was performed. CONCLUSION: This rare cancer represents only about 1% of all cervical adenocarcinoma.

  16. Androgen receptor-positive ductal adenocarcinoma of the nasolacrimal duct: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Ah Park

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: We concluded that this is the first case of AR-positive ductal adenocarcinoma arising from nasolacrimal duct. It is possible that some of the previously documented oncocytic carcinomas of the lacrimal drainage system may include ductal adenocarcinomas with oncocytic features.

  17. Invasive adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp and synchronous transverse colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang-Wei; Hsiao, Koung-Hong; Yue, Chung-Tai; Wang, Chia-Chi

    2013-08-28

    An admixture of hyperplastic and adenomatous components within the same polyp is unusual. Adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp (MHAP) occurs even more rarely. We report the first case of a 59-year-old male who presented with invasive adenocarcinoma originating from a MHAP at a sigmoid colon and synchronous transverse colon cancer.

  18. Invasive adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp and synchronous transverse colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chuang-Wei; Hsiao, Koung-Hong; Yue, Chung-Tai; Wang, Chia-Chi

    2013-01-01

    An admixture of hyperplastic and adenomatous components within the same polyp is unusual. Adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp (MHAP) occurs even more rarely. We report the first case of a 59-year-old male who presented with invasive adenocarcinoma originating from a MHAP at a sigmoid colon and synchronous transverse colon cancer.

  19. Increasing incidence of invasive and in situ cervical adenocarcinoma in the Netherlands during 2004-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, J. (Judith); A.G. Siebers (Albertus); J. Bulten (Johannes); L.F. Massuger (Leon); de Kok, I.M. (Inge Mcm)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the developed world, the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma has decreased, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and invasive adenocarcinoma increased, predominantly in young females. The goal of this study was to evaluate the most recent incidence rates of

  20. Brain metastasis as initial presentation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bispo, Irving Gabriel Araujo; Nascimento, Diego Teixeira; Ferreira, Karina Oliveira; Fakhouri, Ricardo; Godinho, Atilano Salvador; Ferrao, Thiago de Oliveira, E-mail: irvingbispo@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (HU-UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario

    2013-09-15

    The authors describe the case of a 33-year-old patient with history of seizures alone without any previous symptom, being diagnosed with brain metastases from primary papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Emphasis is given to the diagnostic investigation for brain metastasis and prognostic evaluation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung, and a brief literature review on such diseases is performed. (author)

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux in relation to adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: a pooled analysis from the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Cook

    Full Text Available Previous studies have evidenced an association between gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA. It is unknown to what extent these associations vary by population, age, sex, body mass index, and cigarette smoking, or whether duration and frequency of symptoms interact in predicting risk. The Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON allowed an in-depth assessment of these issues.Detailed information on heartburn and regurgitation symptoms and covariates were available from five BEACON case-control studies of EA and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA. We conducted single-study multivariable logistic regressions followed by random-effects meta-analysis. Stratified analyses, meta-regressions, and sensitivity analyses were also conducted.Five studies provided 1,128 EA cases, 1,229 EGJA cases, and 4,057 controls for analysis. All summary estimates indicated positive, significant associations between heartburn/regurgitation symptoms and EA. Increasing heartburn duration was associated with increasing EA risk; odds ratios were 2.80, 3.85, and 6.24 for symptom durations of <10 years, 10 to <20 years, and ≥20 years. Associations with EGJA were slighter weaker, but still statistically significant for those with the highest exposure. Both frequency and duration of heartburn/regurgitation symptoms were independently associated with higher risk. We observed similar strengths of associations when stratified by age, sex, cigarette smoking, and body mass index.This analysis indicates that the association between heartburn/regurgitation symptoms and EA is strong, increases with increased duration and/or frequency, and is consistent across major risk factors. Weaker associations for EGJA suggest that this cancer site has a dissimilar pathogenesis or represents a mixed population of patients.

  2. Neurinoma del plexo braquial simulando metastasis de adenocarcinoma de mama Schwannoma of the brachial plexus resembling a breast adenocarcinoma metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Rodríguez Boto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Los neurinomas del plexo braquial son tumores infrecuentes que pueden confundirse con otras lesiones de índole tumoral. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años, tratada previamente de un adenocarcinoma de mama derecha en el pasado, que en el estudio de extensión realizado 5 años después se detectó una lesión localizada en el plexo braquial derecho. La paciente se encontraba asintomática. El diagnóstico radiológico de presunción fue metástasis de adenocarcinoma mamario. Se realizó un abordaje axilar derecho descubriendo una lesión bien delimitada en el plexo braquial. Con ayuda de la monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria, se observó que la lesión dependía de la rama cubital y se pudo realizar una resección completa preservando la función de dicho nervio. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó que se trataba de un neurinoma, descartando así la existencia de metástasis. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria. Seis años después de la intervención no existe recidiva tumoral. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso publicado en la literatura de un neurinoma del plexo braquial dependiente de la rama cubital. La monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria resulta fundamental para abordar este tipo de lesiones con baja morbilidad.Schwa nomas originating from the brachial plexus, although rare, may be mistaken for another type of tumour. A 40 year-old woman, who had been treated years earlier for a breast adenocarcinoma, showed in the 5-year follow-up magnetic resonance examination a localized lesion in the right brachial plexus. The presumptive radiological diagnosis was a metastasis from the primary adenocarcinoma. Following surgical access via the right axilla, a well-circumscribed mass in the brachial plexus was detected. Under intraoperative electrophysiological guidance, the lesion was observed to depend on the ulnar nerve and its complete resection was possible without compromising nerve

  3. Activity of growth factors in the IL-6 group in the differentiation of human lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, C; Freshney, R I

    2000-02-01

    The role of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) group of cytokines in differentiation of two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines has been examined using induction of alkaline phosphatase and expression of surfactant protein A. Oncostatin M was the most active and potent for alkaline phosphatase in A549 cells, with IL-6 having similar activity but less potency. Neither cytokine induced alkaline phosphatase in NCI-H441 cells, although induction was obtained with lung fibroblast-conditioned medium. Surfactant protein A was induced in NCI-H441 cells by conditioned medium and dexamethasone and, to a much lesser extent, by oncostatin M or IL-6. Induction of alkaline phosphatase and surfactant protein A were both dexamethasone-dependent, though some induction of surfactant protein A was obtained with interferon-alpha in the absence of dexamethasone. The activity present in lung fibroblast-conditioned medium suggests paracrine control, but this appears not to be due to oncostatin M or IL-6 as disabling antibodies to either cytokine were not inhibitory, and, although alkaline phosphatase was induced in A549 by both cytokines, it was only induced by conditioned medium in NCI-H441 cells. Furthermore, surfactant protein A was induced in H441 by conditioned medium to a much greater extent than by oncostatin M or IL-6. These data demonstrate that cytokines of the IL-6 group have potential as differentiation inducers in lung adenocarcinoma cells and that there is an equivalent paracrine factor(s) in lung fibroblast conditioned medium. As the production of this factor by fibroblasts is not enhanced by glucocorticoid, although the response of the target cell is, it would appear to be distinct from the fibrocyte pneumocyte factor previously described by Post et al 1984.

  4. MicroRNA-449a enhances radiosensitivity in CL1-0 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Liu

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Radiotherapy is often applied for treating lung cancer, but it often fails because of the relative non-susceptibility of lung cancer cells to radiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been reported to modulate the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells and have the potential to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify a miRNA that can adjust radiosensitivity in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (CL1-0 and CL1-5 with different metastatic ability and radiosensitivity were used. In order to understand the regulatory mechanisms of differential radiosensitivity in these isogenic tumor cells, both CL1-0 and CL1-5 were treated with 10 Gy radiation, and were harvested respectively at 0, 1, 4, and 24 h after radiation exposure. The changes in expression of miRNA upon irradiation were examined using Illumina Human microRNA BeadChips. Twenty-six miRNAs were identified as having differential expression post-irradiation in CL1-0 or CL1-5 cells. Among these miRNAs, miR-449a, which was down-regulated in CL1-0 cells at 24 h after irradiation, was chosen for further investigation. Overexpression of miR-449a in CL1-0 cells effectively increased irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, altered the cell cycle distribution and eventually led to sensitization of CL1-0 to irradiation.

  5. MicroRNA signature characterizes primary tumors that metastasize in an esophageal adenocarcinoma rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Zaidi

    Full Text Available To establish a miRNA signature for metastasis in an animal model of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC.The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC has dramatically increased and esophageal cancer is now the sixth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Mortality rates remain high among patients with advanced stage disease and esophagectomy is associated with high complication rates. Hence, early identification of potentially metastatic disease would better guide treatment strategies.The modified Levrat's surgery was performed to induce EAC in Sprague-Dawley rats. Primary EAC and distant metastatic sites were confirmed via histology and immunofluorescence. miRNA profiling was performed on primary tumors with or without metastasis. A unique subset of miRNAs expressed in primary tumors and metastases was identified with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA along with upstream and downstream targets. miRNA-linked gene expression analysis was performed on a secondary cohort of metastasis positive (n=5 and metastasis negative (n=28 primary tumors.The epithelial origin of distant metastasis was established by IF using villin (VIL1 and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC antibodies. miRNome analysis identified four down-regulated miRNAs in metastasis positive primary tumors compared to metastasis negative tumors: miR-92a-3p (p=0.0001, miR-141-3p (p=0.0022, miR-451-1a (p=0.0181 and miR133a-3p (p=0.0304. Six target genes identified in the top scoring networks by IPA were validated as significantly, differentially expressed in metastasis positive primary tumors: Ago2, Akt1, Kras, Bcl2L11, CDKN1B and Zeb2.In vivo metastasis was confirmed in the modified Levrat's model. Analysis of the primary tumor identified a distinctive miRNA signature for primary tumors that metastasized.

  6. Accumulation of D- vs. L-isomers of alanine and leucine in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Schmall, B.; Bigler, R.E.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Kleinert, E.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that tumor tissue may accumulate some D-amino acids preferentially over the L-isomers. In order to investigate the potential use of carbon-11 labeled amino acid isomers for in vivo tumor studies with positron emission tomography in patients, the tissue distributions of alanine and leucine, substrates for the A-type and L-type amino acid transport systems, respectively, were studied in Copenhagen rates bearing the Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma. The authors have previously reported differences in the accumulation of A-type vs. L-type amino acids in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma and normal tissues. All compounds were labeled with C-14 in the carboxyl position with specific activities of 30.0-56.6 mCi/mmol. Higher levels of C-14 activity (Relative Concentration (RC)=dpm found per gm tissue + dpm inject per gm animal mass) were observed in tumor tissue using D-alanine (0.71) compared to L- (0.21) or DL-alanine (0.27) at 45 min post-injection. While tumor/prostate and tumor/liver ratios were above 2 for all three substrates, tumor/blood and tumor/muscle were above one for only the D-isomer. Comparisons made with D-, L-, and DL-leucine also demonstrated a higher level of RC in tumor tissue with the D-isomer (0.84) vs. the L-(0.66) and DL-leucine (0.63). In this case, however, tumor/blood, tumor/prostate, and tumor/muscle ratios were above one for all three substrates, while tumor/liver ratios were below one. These results support the observation of a preferential accumulation of D-amino acids in tumor tissue over the natural L-isomers. Observed differences in the accumulation of the isomers in normal tissues are discussed

  7. Expression and clinical significance of FAK and Src proteins in human endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Sfiniadakis, Ioannis; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Theocharis, Stamatios E

    2011-06-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a protein tyrosine kinase, localised in the focal adhesions, which, upon activation interacts with Src, another tyrosine kinase, regulating several cellular signalling pathways. Both enzymes have been implicated in malignant transformation and disease progression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of FAK and Src expression in cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma. The total (t) and the activated, phosphorylated (p) forms of FAK and Src proteins were assessed immunohistochemically in tumour specimens obtained from 43 endometrial adenocarcinoma patients and were statistically analyzed in relation to various clinicopathological parameters and tumour proliferative capacity, reflected by Ki-67 labelling index. t-FAK positivity was significantly correlated with FIGO disease stage (p = 0.031), and t-FAK overexpression with patients' age (p = 0.015). No statistically significant correlation was identified between t-FAK staining intensity, t-Src positivity, overexpression or staining intensity and any of the clinicopathological parameters tested. No significant correlation was found between neither the positivity nor the intensity of staining of either p-FAk or p-Src with any of the parameters under study. Nonetheless, important, but non-significant, trends were identified between t-FAK staining intensity, t-Src positivity and overexpression and patients' survival (log rank, p = 0.122, p = 0.090 and p = 0.057 respectively). Similarly, p-FAK and p-Src staining characteristics seemed to correlate, even though non-significantly, with patients' survival (log rank, p = 0.051 and p = 0.070 for p-FAK and p-Src expression, respectively; log rank, p = 0.134 and p = 0.110 for p-FAK and p-Src staining intensity, respectively). These results support an important potential role of FAK-Src signalling in endometrial malignant disease progress and render further research in this field a necessity.

  8. An ultrastructural comparison of mesotheliomas with adenocarcinomas of the lung and breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M J; Corson, J M

    1985-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of 15 mesotheliomas were compared with those of equal numbers of adenocarcinomas of the lung and of the breast in a double-blind study. Combined quantitative and qualitative features were evaluated to provide criteria for distinguishing among these three tumors, which may present as either primary or metastatic pleural tumors. mesotheliomas could be distinguished from adenocarcinomas of the lung by length of microvilli (mean ratios of length to diameter [LDR], 15.7 and 8.7, respectively; P less than 0.01) and content of tonofilaments. Length of microvilli was also useful in distinguishing mesotheliomas from breast adenocarcinomas (mean LDR, 15.7 and 6.9, respectively; P less than 0.001). Adenocarcinomas of the lung could be distinguished from adenocarcinomas of the breast by tonofilament content and the presence of intracytoplasmic lumina. Combined quantitative and qualitative criteria are essential for maximal ultrastructural discrimination among these tumors.

  9. Control-Relevant Upscaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakili Ghahani, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    An ‘upscaling/order-reduction’ solution transfers the relevant features of a geological model to a flow simulation model such that cost-efficient simulation, prediction and control of the fluid flow in an oil reservoir become feasible. In addition to the computational issues, in most reservoir

  10. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  11. Relevance and Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rita

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether the use of superordinate terms in 206 children's definitions is predictable by relevance theory. Children (ages 5-10) gave definitions for 16 basic-level words and 4 superordinate words from natural kind and artifact semantic domains. Superordinate terms were used more frequently when they supported more inferences. Findings…

  12. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  13. Primary Breast Adenocarcinoma in Ectopic Breast Tissue in the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason McMaster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Accessory breast tissue is a rare finding in the general population with an incidence of 1-2%. An even rarer occurrence is accessory breast tissue afflicted with breast carcinoma. We present a brief report discussing diagnosis and management of a patient who presented with primary breast adenocarcinoma in vulval supranumerary tissue. Brief Report. A 60-year-old Caucasian female presented with a lesion in her left vulva that she first identified during adolescence. The lesion began to grow and ulcerate prompting her to receive treatment. Biopsy was inconclusive, and metastatic workup was negative, so her lesion was treated as an isolated breast lump and removed via wide local excision. Conclusion. Primary breast adenocarcinoma of the vulva is exceedingly rare. A paucity of the literature on this topic unfortunately means that strong evidence does not exist detailing the best management of this patient cohort. However, given that histological data confirms these cancers are virtually the same as breast cancers, it logically follows that the best treatment practices for breast cancer may be applied to treat these patients presenting with primary vulva cancers of ectopic breast tissue.

  14. Perioperative Therapy of Oesophagogastric Adenocarcinoma: Mainstay and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Bose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative chemotherapy improves overall survival in patients with oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (OAC and locoregional disease. The mainstay of perioperative chemotherapy in these patients is a platinum/fluoropyrimidine combination. The phase III FLOT4 trial has shown that the FLOT triplet regimen (oxaliplatin, infusional 5-FU, and docetaxel improves the outcome of patients with OAC and locoregional disease as compared to the ECF triplet (epirubicin, cisplatin, and infusional 5-FU. Targeted therapies have currently no role in the perioperative setting for the treatment of patients with OAC. For patients with oligometastatic disease, upfront gastrectomy followed by chemotherapy did not show any survival benefit compared with chemotherapy alone and thus should be discouraged. Whether surgery should be offered to patients with metastatic OAC achieving a systemic control after upfront chemotherapy is under scrutiny in the phase III FLOT5/Renaissance trial. After neoadjuvant treatment, lymph node status but not pathologic tumor response is an independent factor in the prediction of overall survival. Growing evidence suggests that perioperative chemotherapy may be associated with an increased mortality risk in patients with microsatellite instable (MSI/mismatch repair-deficient (MMRD adenocarcinoma, thus validating poor responsiveness to chemotherapy in MSI patients with locoregional disease.

  15. Association of Omics Features with Histopathology Patterns in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Hsing; Berry, Gerald J; Rubin, Daniel L; Ré, Christopher; Altman, Russ B; Snyder, Michael

    2017-12-27

    Adenocarcinoma accounts for more than 40% of lung malignancy, and microscopic pathology evaluation is indispensable for its diagnosis. However, how histopathology findings relate to molecular abnormalities remains largely unknown. Here, we obtained H&E-stained whole-slide histopathology images, pathology reports, RNA sequencing, and proteomics data of 538 lung adenocarcinoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas and used these to identify molecular pathways associated with histopathology patterns. We report cell-cycle regulation and nucleotide binding pathways underpinning tumor cell dedifferentiation, and we predicted histology grade using transcriptomics and proteomics signatures (area under curve >0.80). We built an integrative histopathology-transcriptomics model to generate better prognostic predictions for stage I patients (p = 0.0182 ± 0.0021) compared with gene expression or histopathology studies alone, and the results were replicated in an independent cohort (p = 0.0220 ± 0.0070). These results motivate the integration of histopathology and omics data to investigate molecular mechanisms of pathology findings and enhance clinical prognostic prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma : usefulness of two and three phase spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Hyung Soo; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of each phases in two and three phase spiral CT in the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Two phase spiral CT images of 18 patients and three phase spiral CT images of 12 patients with pathologically-proven pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were retrospectively compared. Using a single spiral scan, images of early and delayed phases were obtained at 43 seconds and 2{approx}3minutes respectively initiating the after administration of 100-120cc of contrast material (2{approx}3cc/sec), Images of arterial, portal and delayed phases were also obtained at 25 and 60 seconds, and 3{approx}4minutes, respectively, by the use of a double spiral scan. CT scans were performed with 10mm collimation at 1:1 pitch table speed. Contrast between the tumor and adjacent pancreatic parenchyma were compared and graded and enhancement pattern of the tumor were analysed together. In 12 patients (66.7%), images of the early phase were superior to those of the delayed phase. images of the portal phase were superior to those of the arterial phase. Enhancement of tumor was seen in four patients;all tumors were less than 3cm in size. The early phase of two phase spiral CT is superior to the delayed phase and the portal phase of three phase spiral CT is superior to the arterial phase. Both arterial and portal phases are superior to the delayed phase.

  17. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland in a cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Grandi, Fabrizio; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2012-09-01

    A 6-year-old Girolando dairy cow was presented for evaluation of a large subcutaneous facial mass. Fine-needle aspirates of the mass contained many neoplastic cells with high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios arranged in sheets and loosely cohesive clusters with streaming erythrocytes and neutrophils in the background. Neoplastic cells were 13-25 μm in diameter and were round to cuboidal with variably distinct borders. Based on the signalment, anatomic location, and cytologic findings, differential diagnoses included salivary adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The cow was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. The primary neoplasm arose from the left parotid salivary gland and meastatic tumor was found in the regional lymph nodes and lung. Histologically, the tumor was composed of anastomosing and irregular solid islets surrounded by scant stroma. Cells were negative for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), PAS-diastase, and Alcian blue pH 2.5 stains, used to detect mucin. On immunohistochemical analysis, neoplastic luminal salivary gland cells expressed cytokeratin, but not S100, α-smooth muscle actin, or vimentin. Peripheral cells of neoplastic islets were immunoreactive for p63. The final diagnosis was nonsecretory adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis.

  19. Pulmonar collision tumor: Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blanco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen. Resumo: Descrevemos um caso único de tumor de colisão constituído por um adenocarcinoma de pulmão e uma metástase dum carcinoma adenóide cístico em um homem de 56 anos de idade. Ao doente foi diagnosticado um nódulo pulmonar 11 anos após o tratamento de um carcinoma adenóide cístico do seio maxilar direito. O carcinoma de pulmão de não pequenas células foi observado no momento da realização de uma biópsia transbrônquica. O outro componente do nódulo foi diagnosticado depois do exame histológico do material ressecado. Keywords: Bronchogenic carcinoma, Collision tumor, Adenoid cystic carcinoma, Palavras-chave: Carcinoma broncogénico, Tumor de colisão, Carcinoma adenóide cístico

  20. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma: case report of an infrequent tumor

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    Óscar Moreno-Loaíza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is an infrequent tumor both in our environment and in the world. There is no conclusive evidence on its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, treatment or prognosis. Clinical case. We report a 77 year-old female patient, of mixed racial origin, native of Cusco (Peru who consulted for abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, postprandial vomiting and bloating of three months course. At the time of examination she had second to third degree protein malnutrition with a BMI of 16.88 kg/m2, signs of moderate to severe chronic anemia and an 8 cm abdominal tumor in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. The multislice spiral abdominal CT and ultrasonography revealed the presence of a solid tumor in the second portion of the duodenum. The patient was submitted to a gastroenterostomy without tumor resection. Biopsy confirmed tubular adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, no other primary tumors were found in the stomach, pancreas, biliary tree and colon. The patient was stabilized and was treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and leucovorin. Literature review. The article includes a brief review on the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this condition. Discussion. Management is not straightforward. There is little literature on the subject leaving decisions up to the attending physician’s criteria. We believe that all cases of rare diseases should be studied in depth, give rise to a thorough review of literature and, above all, be brought to the attention of the medical community.

  1. Henoch Schönlein purpura associated with pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuka Takafumi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a common immunoglobulin A-mediated vasculitis syndrome in children. Henoch-Schönlein purpura can also affect adults and is probably related to malignancy. Case presentation We report the case of a 61-year-old Japanese man who presented for examination after an abnormal shadow was detected by chest radiography. He received a diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma, stage IV. Purpura on the legs, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hematuria and proteinuria developed at this time. Henoch-Schönlein purpura was diagnosed, base on the clinical symptoms and histological findings of biopsy specimens of the skin, which showed vasculitis with immunoglobulin A deposits. Our patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine after successful steroid therapy for the Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Conclusion Although hematological malignancies are well-known causes of vasculitides, cases of Henoch-Schönlein purpura associated with lung adenocarcinoma are rare. Our patient was treated with corticosteroid therapy, which cleared the purpura and cytotoxic chemotherapy for the non-small cell lung cancer. However, he died from heart failure due to cardiac tamponade.

  2. Human chorionic gonadotropin and CA 15-3 producing adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueckaya, G. [Guelhane Military Medical Academia, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Internal Diseases; Oezet, A.; Arpaci, A.; Koemuercue, S. [Guelhane Military Medical Academia, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Medical Oncology

    1998-12-31

    50 years old man suffering from primary lung adenocarcinoma presented with high levels of both beta subunit human chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}HCG) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the absence of elevated carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA), alfa fetoprotein (AFP) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). Although {beta}HCG or CA 15-3 high levels were reported in adenocarcinoma of lung, this is the first report of a patient with high levels of both markers. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Blut eines 50jaehrigen Mannes, der an einem primaeren Adenokarzinom der Lunge litt, wurden hohe Werte fuer die Spiegel der beiden Subunit-Formen von Human Chorionic Gonadotropin ({beta}HCG) und Krebsantigen 15-3 gefunden, waehrend die Spiegel von CEA, AFP und CA 19-9 normal waren. Obwohl hohe Anteile an {beta}HCG und an Ca 15-3 vorher bekannt waren, handelt es sich um den ersten Bericht mit hohen Blutspiegeln fuer beide Krebsmarker. (orig.)

  3. Metastatic Adenocarcinoma Presenting as Extensive Cavoatrial Tumor Thrombus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Bushra; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Krishnasamy, Sivakumar; Looi, Lai Meng; Hashim, Shahrul Amry; Raja Mokhtar, Raja Amin

    2015-01-01

    The presence of tumor thrombus in the right atrium is frequently the result of direct intraluminal extension of infra-diaphragmatic malignancy into the inferior vena cava (IVC) or supradiaphragmatic carcinoma into the superior vena cava (SVC). Right atrial tumor thrombus with extension into both SVC and IVC has not been reported in the literature. We present a patient who presented with symptoms of right atrial and SVC obstruction. Imaging revealed presence of a thrombus in the right atrium, extending to the SVC and IVC, with the additional findings of a left adrenal mass and multiple liver lesions. The histopathological examination of the right atrial mass revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma cells. The patient was given a presumptive diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma, most likely adrenal in origin, with multiple hepatic lesions suspicious for metastasis. The clinical outcome of the patient was not favorable; the patient succumbed before the adrenal mass could be confirmed to be the primary tumor. This case highlights that in patients manifesting with extensive cavoatrial thrombus as, the existence of primary carcinoma should be considered especially in the adrenal cortex or in the lung. PMID:26060549

  4. Parathyroid Adenoma, Gastric Adenocarcinoma, and Intraabdominal Schwannoma in One Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Elbüken

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal schwannomas, which occur quite rarely, are usually benign tumors. They are often discovered coincidentally when abdominal scans are performed for other reasons. We also coincidentally detected an intraabdominal schwannoma in addition to primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma and a gastric adenoma which caused partial pyloric obstruction in a 69-year-old female patient who was admitted to our emergency room with vomiting while we were further investigating hypercalcemia that was found during laboratory workup. It is rare to diagnose multiple tumors concurrently in a single patient which are components of certain neuroendocrine syndromes themselves. It is more interesting to see a rare tumor such as intraabdominal schwannoma coexisting with a parathyroid adenoma that can be a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. In the literature, there are few case reports of the coexistence of intraabdominal schwannomas with adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present an unusual case of intraabdominal schwannoma coexisting with parathyroid adenoma and gastic adenocarcinoma, all diagnosed in a single patient. To our best knowledge, this is the first case report of such a rare coexistence which makes it rather interesting.

  5. Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Miao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA of the uterine cervix is defined as an extremely well differentiated variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with well-formed glands that resemble benign glands but show distinct nuclear anaplasia or evidence of stromal invasion. Thus, MDA is difficult to differentiate from other cervical hyperplastic lesions. Monoclonality is a major characteristic of most tumors, whereas normal tissue and reactive hyperplasia are polyclonal. Methods The clinicopathological features and clonality of MDA were investigated using laser microdissection and a clonality assay based on the polymorphism of androgen receptor (AR and X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism in female somatic tissues. Results The results demonstrated that the glands were positive for CEA, Ki-67, and p53 and negative for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV DNA. The index of proliferation for Ki-67 was more than 50%. However, the stromal cells were positive for ER, PR, vimentin, and SM-actin. The clonal assay showed that MDA was monoclonal. Thus, our findings indicate that MDA is a true neoplasm but is not associated with high-risk HPV. Conclusions Diagnosis of MDA depends mainly on its clinical manifestations, the pathological feature that MDA glands are located deeper than the lower level of normal endocervical glands, and immunostaining.

  6. Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Parotid in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Khosla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA is a rare salivary gland neoplasm with an indolent course. It occurs primarily in the minor salivary glands but can rarely occur in the major salivary glands. It usually occurs in the fifth to seventh decades of life with female preponderance.   Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with recurrent painless swelling in the right preauricular region and with a history of surgical intervention at the same site in the past. His histopathology report was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma. The swelling recurred after one year of excision and a superficial parotidectomy was performed. The detailed histopathological examination was suggestive of Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. In view of close margins, the patient was given adjuvant radiotherapy. Thirty-three months post-surgery, he is alive and disease-free. We describe a rare case of PLGA of the parotid gland in a teenager with its clinical characteristics, histopathological features, and treatment.   Conclusion: The occurrence of PLGA in the parotid gland is rare with only a few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of PLGA is challenging due to morphological diversity.

  7. Angiogenesis as a prognostic indicator in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipa, F; Lucandri, G; Limiti, M R; Bartolucci, P; Cavallini, M; Di Carlo, V; D'Amato, A; Ribotta, G; Stipa, S

    2002-01-01

    Angiogenesis has gained wide acceptance as a reliable prognostic factor in several solid tumors. However, to date, experience in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is limited. Specimens from 45 patients radically operated on at our departments from 1988 to 1997 were stained immunohistochemically with the antibodies anti-mutant p53, anti-bcl2, anti Ki67 and anti-CD31. All the slides were reviewed by the same pathologist without knowledge of the patients' outcome. Mutant p53, Ki67 index and vessel count were significantly related to tumoral behaviour and patients' outcome. Among patients with nodal involvement (Stage III), cumulative survival between hypovascular and hypervascular subgroups differed significantly (p = 0.03). Angiogenesis was independent from TNM in assessing the patients'prognosis at COX analysis (p = 0.02). In patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, angiogenesis is a reliable indicator of tumor extension, lymph node status and survival. Its evaluation as a common procedure may contribute to a further improvement in the management of these patients and to a proper selection of those who could benefit from different follow-up protocols or adjuvant treatment.

  8. Gastric adenocarcinoma in a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, H R; Allavena, R; Melville, L M; Doneley, R J T

    2014-10-01

    A 5-year-old captive male diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota) was presented with a 1-month history of regurgitation and anorexia and discrete coelomic distention. Physical examination revealed a firm, immobile mass at approximately two-thirds of the snout-vent length from the front of the head. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate biopsy of the mass in the region of the stomach showed necrosis with bacterial infiltration and possibly neoplastic changes. A gastroscopy was conducted, but showed grossly normal gastric mucosa, confirmed by biopsy. On exploratory coeliotomy, it was confirmed the mass involved most of the stomach wall and occluded the gastric lumen. The mass was completely excised and based on histopathology, a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was made. The snake was found dead 12 h postoperatively, but no specific cause of death was found on postmortem examination. Most cases of adenocarcinoma in snakes go undiagnosed. This case report illustrates that the architecture of gastric masses may lead to false-negative gastric biopsy results in snakes with neoplasia. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist

  10. Retention index of thallium-201 single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) as an indicator of metastasis in adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, H.; Itoh, K.; Abe, S.; Ogura, S.; Isobe, H.; Sukou, N.; Furudate, M.; Kawakami, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the relationship between the retention of thallium-201 (201Tl) on a delayed scan and the metastatic potential of adenocarcinomas of the lung. We studied 43 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung and divided them into two groups according to the presence or absence of lymph node metastasis. 201Tl single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) was conducted twice: 15 min (early scan) and 120 min (delayed scan) after intravenous injection of 3 mCi of 201Tl chloride. We calculated the retention index in order to evaluate the degree of 201Tl retention in the primary tumour. The retention indices were significantly higher in the group that was positive for lymph node metastasis than in the negative group. In adenocarcinomas with high metastatic potential, 201Tl SPECT demonstrated slow washout or increased retention on the delayed scan. The retention index of 201Tl SPECT is a useful indicator of metastatic potential, thereby facilitating the prediction of prognosis, and provides insight into the relationship between 201Tl uptake and malignancy. This is the first report demonstrating a significant relationship between the retention of 201Tl SPECT and lymph node metastasis. Images Figure 1 PMID:8054281

  11. Clinical value of miR-452-5p expression in lung adenocarcinoma: A retrospective quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction study and verification based on The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiao-Ning; Luo, Jie; Tang, Rui-Xue; Wang, Han-Lin; Zhou, Hong; Qin, Hui; Gan, Ting-Qing; Chen, Gang

    2017-05-01

    The role and mechanism of miR-452-5p in lung adenocarcinoma remain unclear. In this study, we performed a systematic study to investigate the clinical value of miR-452-5p expression in lung adenocarcinoma. The expression of miR-452-5p in 101 lung adenocarcinoma patients was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases were joined to verify the expression level of miR-452-5p in lung adenocarcinoma. Via several online prediction databases and bioinformatics software, pathway and network analyses of miR-452-5p target genes were performed to explore its prospective molecular mechanism. The expression of miR-452-5p in lung adenocarcinoma in house was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues (p < 0.001). Additionally, the expression level of miR-452-5p was negatively correlated with several clinicopathological parameters including the tumor size (p = 0.014), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.032), and tumor-node-metastasis stage (p = 0.036). Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas also confirmed the low expression of miR-452 in lung adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001). Furthermore, reduced expression of miR-452-5p in lung adenocarcinoma (standard mean deviations = -0.393, 95% confidence interval: -0.774 to -0.011, p = 0.044) was validated by a meta-analysis. Five hub genes targeted by miR-452-5p, including SMAD family member 4, SMAD family member 2, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein epsilon, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta, were significantly enriched in the cell-cycle pathway. In conclusion, low expression of miR-452-5p tends to play an essential role in lung adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatics analysis might be beneficial to reveal the potential mechanism of miR-452-5p in lung adenocarcinoma.

  12. Korrek, volledig, relevant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus

    2007-01-01

    In explanatory dictionaries, both general language dictionaries and dictionaries dealing with languages for special purposes, the lexicographic definition is an important item to present the meaning of a given lemma. Due to a strong linguistic bias, resulting from an approach prevalent in the early...... phases of the development of theoretical lexicography, a distinction is often made between encyclopaedic information and semantic information in dictionary definitions, and dictionaries had often been criticized when their definitions were dominated by an encyclopaedic approach. This used to be seen...... as detrimental to the status of a dictionary as a container of linguistic knowledge. This paper shows that, from a lexicographic perspective, such a distinction is not relevant. What is important is that definitions should contain information that is relevant to and needed by the target users of that specific...

  13. Relevance and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R

    1995-02-01

    The study examined whether the use of superordinate terms in children's definitions was predicted by relevance theory. Two hundred and six children aged five to ten years gave definitions for 16 basic-level words and four superordinate words from natural kind and artefact semantic domains. Superordinate terms were used more frequently when they supported more inferences. This was evidenced by their more frequent use in natural kind than in artefact domains, and more frequent use when the superordinate was itself defined by a semantically complex expression. When used, superordinates also usually occurred at the beginning of the definitional expression. It is argued that these findings reflect the speaker's intention to achieve optimal relevance, that is, to achieve maximum contextual effects with the least processing effort.

  14. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  15. Early adulthood body mass index, cumulative smoking, and esophageal adenocarcinoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Anna; Coate, Linda; Zhai, Rihong; Xu, Wei; Chen, Zheng-Fei; Chen, Zhuo; Patel, Devalben; Tse, Brandon; Brown, M Catherine; Heist, Rebecca S; Dodbiba, Lorin; Teichman, Jennifer; Kulke, Matthew; Su, Li; Eng, Lawson; Knox, Jennifer; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail E; Christiani, David C; Liu, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    Smoking and obesity are esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) risk factors. However, the same risk factors may also affect biological aggressiveness and cancer outcomes. Our study evaluated the combined effects of early-adulthood obesity and cumulative smoking on the EAC survival. In two EAC cohorts, Toronto (TO; N=235) and Boston (BO; N=329), associations between early adulthood body mass index (EA-BMI), BMI at 1year prior to diagnosis (BMI-1), and smoking with overall survival (OS) were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for relevant covariates. Both cohorts were predominantly Caucasian (89%), male (88%), ever-smokers (73%) with locally advanced/metastatic EAC (78%), and good ECOG performance status (90%); median packyears was 34; median EA-BMI, 24; median BMI-1, 25. No relationships with survival were found with BMI-1. For smoking and EA-BMI, TO, BO, and combined TO-BO analyses showed similar associations: smoking conferred worse OS in the combined TO-BO cohort, with adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of 1.22 (95%CI: 1.15-1.43;p30, aHR=2.78, 95%CI: 1.94-3.99). Risk of death was also increased in remotely underweight patients with EA-BMIsmoking history are independently associated with increased mortality risk in two North American cohorts of EAC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Second pancreatectomy for recurrent pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the remnant pancreas: A pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanming; Song, Ailing; Wu, Lupeng; Si, Xiaoying; Li, Yumin

    The aim of this study was to examine the outcomes of second pancreatectomy for the treatment of recurrent pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the remnant pancreas. Search of the PubMed database was undertaken to identify relevant English language studies. Pooled individually data were examined for clinical outcomes after second pancreatectomy for recurrent PDAC. A total of 19 articles involving 55 patients were eligible for inclusion. The median disease-free interval after initial resection was 33 (range 7-143) months. Of the 55 patients reported, 52 (94.5%) patients underwent completion total pancreatectomy in the second operation for recurrences, including 15 patients who developed recurrences more than 5 years after the initial operation. There was no perioperative death. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rate after the second pancreatectomy was 82.2%, 49.2% and 40.6% respectively. Second pancreatectomy for recurrent PDAC can be performed safely with long-term survival in selected patients. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Therapeutic Targets Revealed by Tumor-Stroma Cross-Talk Analyses in Patient-Derived Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Nicolle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical models based on patient-derived xenografts have remarkable specificity in distinguishing transformed human tumor cells from non-transformed murine stromal cells computationally. We obtained 29 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC xenografts from either resectable or non-resectable patients (surgery and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate, respectively. Extensive multiomic profiling revealed two subtypes with distinct clinical outcomes. These subtypes uncovered specific alterations in DNA methylation and transcription as well as in signaling pathways involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. The analysis of these pathways indicates therapeutic opportunities for targeting both compartments and their interactions. In particular, we show that inhibiting NPC1L1 with Ezetimibe, a clinically available drug, might be an efficient approach for treating pancreatic cancers. These findings uncover the complex and diverse interplay between PDAC tumors and the stroma and demonstrate the pivotal role of xenografts for drug discovery and relevance to PDAC.

  18. MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells exhibit augmented responses to human insulin on a collagen IV surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Listov-Saabye, Nicolai; Jensen, Marianne Blirup; Kiehr, Benedicte

    2009-01-01

    Human mammary cell lines are extensively used for preclinical safety assessment of insulin analogs. However, it is essentially unknown how mitogenic responses can be optimized in mammary cell-based systems. We developed an insulin mitogenicity assay in MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells...... was significantly more mitogenic than native insulin, validating the ability of the assay to identify hypermitogenic human insulin analogs. With MCF-7 cells on a collagen IV surface, the ranking of mitogens was maintained, but fold mitogenic responses and dynamic range and steepness of dose-response curves were...... increased. Also, PI3K pathway activation by insulin was enhanced on a collagen IV surface. This study provided the first determination and ranking of the mitogenic potencies of standard reference compounds in an optimized MCF-7 assay. The optimized MCF-7 assay described here is of relevance for in vitro...

  19. Adenocarcinoma primario del apéndice cecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Galano Urgellés

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal y prospectivo de 5 pacientes operados de cáncer del apéndice cecal, atendidos en una consulta de seguimiento habilitada para pacientes intervenidos de cáncer colorrectal. El análisis destacó que la edad más frecuente se halló por encima de la 5ta. década de la vida, y que hubo predominio del sexo masculino. Se practicó una reintervención durante el seguimiento; como terapéutica se utilizó el 5-fluoracilo; hubo un predominio absoluto del adenocarcinoma como variedad histológica; el diagnóstico de la entidad siempre se confirmó por Anatomía Patológica. La muestra representa el 1,2 % del total de casos de nuestra consulta y el 0,4 % de los pacientes apendicectomizados en nuestro Centro durante el período de estudio. Se recomienda insistir en el pesquisaje masivo de aquellos grupos de riesgo por parte del nivel primario de atención, para detectar precozmente la entidad y, por ende, mejorar los resultados quirúrgicos y de seguimiento posoperatorio, así como aplicar terapéutica de Sieracki en esta entidadA lengthwise and prospective study of 5 patients operated from appendix ceci cancer, who were attended in the follow-up consultation room for patients operated from colo-rectal cancer was perfor